Sample records for toxoid conjugate vaccine

  1. Quantification of free polysaccharide in meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lei, Q P; Shannon, A G; Heller, R K; Lamb, D H

    2000-01-01

    A precipitation method using deoxycholate/HCI has been applied successfully to separate unconjugated free polysaccharide from carrier protein-bound material in meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccines. The method effectively separated free and bound polysaccharide in conjugate vaccines prepared from Neisseria meningitidis serotypes A, C, W135 and Y. Free polysaccharide remained in the supernatant after deoxycholate treatment while protein-bound polysaccharide was fully precipitated. Testing by both colorimetric assay and high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) has confirmed the selective loss of protein-bound polysaccharide in samples of conjugate vaccine or conjugate vaccine mixed with known amounts of free polysaccharide. This rapid separation method requires minimum sample handling and is specific, reproducible, and allows assessment of free polysaccharide levels in vaccines at final container concentration. PMID:11214246

  2. Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Hedari, Carine P; Khinkarly, Rima W; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses) have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines – MenACWY-DT (Menactra®) and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo®) – using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix®) was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of MenACWY-TT in infants from the age of 6 weeks. PMID:24729718

  3. Meningococcal vaccine A,C,W135,Y: conjugated to tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    A meningococcal vaccine conjugated to protein CRM 197 (Menveo) is the standard vaccine for immunisation against invasive meningococcal infections caused by serogroups A, C, W135 andY, beginning at age 2 years. Nimenrix, another vaccine against meningococcal groups A, C,W135 and Y, conjugated to tetanus toxoid, was authorised for use in the European Union, starting at age 1 year. The two tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines have not been compared in head-to-head trials. Four immunogenicity studies compared the tetravalent conjugate vaccine Nimenrix with an unconjugated tetravalent meningococcal vaccine in children and adults aged 2 to 55 years. The results showed that Nimenrix was more immunogenic than the unconjugated vaccine. Two immunogenicity studies showed that Nimenrix was at least as immunogenic as monovalent (group C) meningococcal conjugate vaccines in children aged from 1 to 2 years and from 2 to 10 years. In one study, prior vaccination with an unconjugated tetravalent meningococcal vaccine had little impact on the immunogenicity of a booster dose of the conjugate vaccine Nimenrix. Concomitant administration with other vaccines does not affect the immunogenicity of Nimenrix. Nimenrix causes more frequent local and systemic adverse reactions than the unconjugated tetravalent meningococcal vaccine and monovalent group C meningococcal conjugate vaccines. In children over 2 years of age, Nimenrix has no advantages over Menveo for vaccination against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W135 andY. In contrast, between the ages of 1 and 2 years, Nimenrix is the only vaccine with established immunogenicity. In addition, it has an acceptable harm-benefit balance. PMID:24600724

  4. Physicochemical and immunological examination of the thermal stability of tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei M Ho; Fatme Mawas; Barbara Bolgiano; Xavier Lemercinier; Dennis T Crane; Rachel Huskisson; Michael J Corbel

    2002-01-01

    The thermal stability of meningococcal C (MenC)– and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib)–tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccines was investigated using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques and immunogenicity assays in animal models. In this stability study, both the bulk concentrate and final fills were incubated at ?20, 4, 23, 37 or 55°C for 5 weeks or subjected to cycles of freeze-thawing. The structural

  5. Structural correlates of carrier protein recognition in tetanus toxoid-conjugated bacterial polysaccharide vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lockyer, Kay; Gao, Fang; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of structure-antibody recognition relationships in nine licenced polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccines was performed. The panel of conjugates used included vaccine components to protect against disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis groups A, C, W and Y and Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 18C. Conformation and structural analysis included size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering to determine size, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching to evaluate the protein folding and exposure of Trp residues. A capture ELISA measured the recognition of TT epitopes in the conjugates, using four rat monoclonal antibodies: 2 localised to the HC domain, and 2 of which were holotoxoid conformation-dependent. The conjugates had a wide range of average molecular masses ranging from 1.8 × 106 g/mol to larger than 20 × 106 g/mol. The panel of conjugates were found to be well folded, and did not have spectral features typical of aggregated TT. A partial correlation was found between molecular mass and epitope recognition. Recognition of the epitopes either on the HC domain or the whole toxoid was not necessarily hampered by the size of the molecule. Correlation was also found between the accessibility of Trp side chains and polysaccharide loading, suggesting also that a higher level of conjugated PS does not necessarily interfere with toxoid accessibility. There were different levels of carrier protein Trp side-chain and epitope accessibility that were localised to the HC domain; these were related to the saccharide type, despite the conjugates being independently manufactured. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular basis for carrier protein recognition in TT conjugate vaccines. PMID:25640334

  6. Structural correlates of carrier protein recognition in tetanus toxoid-conjugated bacterial polysaccharide vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Kay; Gao, Fang; Derrick, Jeremy P; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-03-10

    An analysis of structure-antibody recognition relationships in nine licenced polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccines was performed. The panel of conjugates used included vaccine components to protect against disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis groups A, C, W and Y and Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 18C. Conformation and structural analysis included size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering to determine size, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching to evaluate the protein folding and exposure of Trp residues. A capture ELISA measured the recognition of TT epitopes in the conjugates, using four rat monoclonal antibodies: 2 localised to the HC domain, and 2 of which were holotoxoid conformation-dependent. The conjugates had a wide range of average molecular masses ranging from 1.8×10(6)g/mol to larger than 20×10(6)g/mol. The panel of conjugates were found to be well folded, and did not have spectral features typical of aggregated TT. A partial correlation was found between molecular mass and epitope recognition. Recognition of the epitopes either on the HC domain or the whole toxoid was not necessarily hampered by the size of the molecule. Correlation was also found between the accessibility of Trp side chains and polysaccharide loading, suggesting also that a higher level of conjugated PS does not necessarily interfere with toxoid accessibility. There were different levels of carrier protein Trp side-chain and epitope accessibility that were localised to the HC domain; these were related to the saccharide type, despite the conjugates being independently manufactured. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular basis for carrier protein recognition in TT conjugate vaccines. PMID:25640334

  7. Physico-chemical and immunological examination of the thermal stability of tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mei M; Mawas, Fatme; Bolgiano, Barbara; Lemercinier, Xavier; Crane, Dennis T; Huskisson, Rachel; Corbel, Michael J

    2002-10-01

    The thermal stability of meningococcal C (MenC)- and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccines was investigated using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques and immunogenicity assays in animal models. In this stability study, both the bulk concentrate and final fills were incubated at -20, 4, 23, 37 or 55 degrees C for 5 weeks or subjected to cycles of freeze-thawing. The structural stability, hydrodynamic size and molecular integrity of the treated vaccines were monitored by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques, size exclusion chromatography (FPLC-SEC), and high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Only storage at 55 degrees C for 5 weeks caused some slight unfolding and modification in the tertiary structure of the carrier protein in the MenC-TT conjugate. Substantial loss of saccharide content from the MenC conjugates was observed at 37 and 55 degrees C. Unexpectedly, the experimental immunogenicity of MenC-TT vaccine adsorbed to Alhydrogel was significantly reduced only by repeated freeze-thawing, but not significantly decreased by thermal denaturation. Neither the molecular integrity nor the immunogenicity of the lyophilised Hib-TT vaccines was significantly affected by freeze-thawing or by storage at high temperature. In conclusion, the MenC- and Hib-TT conjugate vaccines were relatively stable when stored at higher temperatures, though when MenC-TT vaccine was adsorbed to Alhydrogel, it was more vulnerable to repeated freeze-thawing. When compared with CRM(197) conjugate vaccines studied previously using similar techniques, the tetanus toxoid conjugates were found to have higher relative thermal stability in that they retained immunogenicity following storage at elevated temperatures. PMID:12297396

  8. Antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in splenectomized children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, K

    1992-01-01

    20 children and adolescents 4-18 years old and splenectomized for various reasons (spherocytosis (n = 6), idiopathic thrombocytopenia (n = 8), other (n = 6)) were immunized once with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. Prior to vaccination 10/20 patients had anticapsular antibodies below what could be considered the minimum protective level in splenectomized (0.6 micrograms/ml), whereas all obtained high antibody levels after vaccination. In addition 1 infant with congenital asplenia was vaccinated at 2,4 and 6 months of age, and was shown to respond well after the second and third injection with serum antibody concentrations of 0.84 and 10.7 micrograms/ml respectively. Because asplenic individuals have an increased risk of invasive Hib infection, these data suggest that vaccination of such individuals against Hib may be justified. PMID:1465581

  9. Murine Immune Responses to Neisseria meningitidis Group C Capsular Polysaccharide and a Thymus-Dependent Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Leonard J.; García-Ojeda, Pablo A.; Michon, Francis; Jennings, Harold J.; Stein, Kathryn E.

    1998-01-01

    The polysaccharide (PS) capsules of many pathogenic bacteria are poor immunogens in infants and young children as a result of the delayed response to PS antigens during ontogeny. The development of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines for Haemophilus influenzae type b, which have proven to be efficacious in this age group, has led to active development by a number of investigators of conjugate vaccines for other diseases. We describe here the response of several mouse strains to the capsular PS of Neisseria meningitidis group C (MCPS) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MCPS-TT) and the same response in BALB/c mice as a model of the immune consequences of conjugate vaccine immunization. The use of a conjugate vaccine results in a shift in the isotype elicited in response to the MCPS, from immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG3 to primarily IgG1. A response to MCPS-TT is seen even among mouse strains which respond poorly to MCPS itself, emphasizing the importance of a strain survey when choosing a mouse model for a vaccine. The marked increase in IgG1 antibody titer was accompanied by a large increase in bactericidal activity of sera from these animals. Animals primed with the conjugate vaccine demonstrated a booster response after secondary immunization with either the MCPS or the conjugate. The ability to produce a boosted IgG1 anti-MCPS response to the MCPS can be transferred to adoptive recipients by B cells alone from mice primed with MCPS-TT but not mice primed with MCPS alone. These data indicate that in BALB/c mice a single immunization with MCPS-TT is sufficient to induce a shift to IgG1 and generate a memory B-cell population that does not require T cells for boosting. PMID:9784556

  10. A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine is immunogenic and induces immune memory when co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV and conjugate pneumococcal vaccines in infants.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Terry; Lambert, Stephen; Roberton, Don; Marshall, Helen; Richmond, Peter; Streeton, Catherine; Poolman, Jan; Boutriau, Dominique

    2007-12-12

    Immunogenicity and safety of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenCY-TT) candidate was evaluated when co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV(Pediarix)+PCV7(Prevnar) at 2-4-6 months of age. Anti-PRP concentrations >or= 1.0 microg/mL were observed in 92.9-98.7%, rSBA-MenC/Y titres >or= 1:8 in >98%, rSBA-MenC/Y titres >or= 1:128 in >95.8 and >89.9% subjects. PRP and MenC responses were similar to respective controls (ActHIB and Menjugate) including for antibody persistence. Response to co-administered vaccines was not impaired. Polysaccharide challenge (PRP, PSC, PSY at 11-14 months of age) evidenced immune memory was induced for Hib, MenC/Y conjugate components. The safety profile of Hib-MenCY-TT was similar to controls. Hib-MenCY-TT administered according to the current US Hib vaccine schedule has the potential to induce protective antibodies against Hib and meningococcal-CY disease in infants and toddlers. PMID:17996996

  11. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  12. The safety profile of Haemophilus influenzae type b–Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY)

    PubMed Central

    Rinderknecht, Stephen; Bryant, Kristina; Nolan, Terry; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Doniz, Carlos Aranza; Weber, Miguel Angel Rodriguez; Cohen, Christopher; Aris, Emmanuel; Mesaros, Narcisa; Miller, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    The safety profile of HibMenCY was compared with licensed Hib conjugate vaccines in a pooled analysis that included more than 8,500 subjects who were administered a four-dose series of HibMenCY or commercially available Hib vaccines at 2, 4, 6 and 12–15 mo of age in two primary vaccination and two fourth dose phase 3 studies. In all studies, HibMenCY or Hib vaccine was co-administered with age-appropriate, routinely recommended vaccines. In one primary and one fourth dose study (n = 4180), local and general symptoms were solicited using diary cards for 4 d after each dose. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) indicating new onset of chronic disease (NOCD), rash, and conditions prompting Emergency Room (ER) visits were reported from dose 1 until 6 mo after dose 4. The incidences of solicited local and general symptoms were similar following HibMenCY and commercially available Hib vaccines. For some solicited symptoms (pain at the injection site and irritability), rates were lower in the HibMenCY group compared with the Hib control group (p value < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the incidences of SAEs, NOCDs, rash, or AEs leading to ER visits, with the exceptions of anemia and viral gastroenteritis, which occurred significantly less frequently in those receiving HibMenCY than those receiving commercially available Hib vaccines. In this pooled safety analysis, the safety profile of HibMenCY was similar to the safety profile of licensed monovalent Hib vaccines, despite the addition of meningococcal antigens.   These studies are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00345579 (primary vaccination study), NCT00345683 (fourth dose vaccination study) and NCT00289783 (primary and fourth dose vaccination studies) PMID:22327493

  13. Meningococcal Polysaccharide A O-Acetylation Levels Do Not Impact the Immunogenicity of the Quadrivalent Meningococcal Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine: Results from a Randomized, Controlled Phase III Study of Healthy Adults Aged 18 to 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Sosa, Nestor; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Bianco, Véronique; Baine, Yaela; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we compared the immunogenicities of two lots of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) that differed in serogroup A polysaccharide (PS) O-acetylation levels and evaluated their immunogenicities and safety in comparison to a licensed ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (Men-PS). In this phase III, partially blinded, controlled study, 1,170 healthy subjects aged 18 to 25 years were randomized (1:1:1) to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT lot A (ACWY-A) (68% O-acetylation), MenACWY-TT lot B (ACWY-B) (92% O-acetylation), or Men-PS (82% O-acetylation). Immunogenicity was evaluated in terms of serum bactericidal activity using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit serum bactericidal activity [rSBA]). Solicited symptoms, unsolicited adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded. The immunogenicities, in terms of rSBA geometric mean titers, were comparable for both lots of MenACWY-TT. The vaccine response rates across the serogroups were 79.1 to 97.0% in the two ACWY groups and 73.7 to 94.1% in the Men-PS group. All subjects achieved rSBA titers of ?1:8 for all serogroups. All subjects in the two ACWY groups and 99.5 to 100% in the Men-PS group achieved rSBA titers of ?1:128. Pain was the most common solicited local symptom and was reported more frequently in the ACWY group (53.9 to 54.7%) than in the Men-PS group (36.8%). The most common solicited general symptoms were fatigue and headache, which were reported by 28.6 to 30.3% and 26.9 to 31.0% of subjects, respectively. Two subjects reported SAEs; one SAE was considered to be related to vaccination (blighted ovum; ACWY-B group). The level of serogroup A PS O-acetylation did not affect vaccine immunogenicity. MenACWY-TT (lot A) was not inferior to Men-PS in terms of vaccine response and was well tolerated. PMID:23885033

  14. Meningococcal polysaccharide A O-acetylation levels do not impact the immunogenicity of the quadrivalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: results from a randomized, controlled phase III study of healthy adults aged 18 to 25 years.

    PubMed

    Lupisan, Socorro; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Sosa, Nestor; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Bianco, Véronique; Baine, Yaela; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we compared the immunogenicities of two lots of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) that differed in serogroup A polysaccharide (PS) O-acetylation levels and evaluated their immunogenicities and safety in comparison to a licensed ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (Men-PS). In this phase III, partially blinded, controlled study, 1,170 healthy subjects aged 18 to 25 years were randomized (1:1:1) to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT lot A (ACWY-A) (68% O-acetylation), MenACWY-TT lot B (ACWY-B) (92% O-acetylation), or Men-PS (82% O-acetylation). Immunogenicity was evaluated in terms of serum bactericidal activity using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit serum bactericidal activity [rSBA]). Solicited symptoms, unsolicited adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded. The immunogenicities, in terms of rSBA geometric mean titers, were comparable for both lots of MenACWY-TT. The vaccine response rates across the serogroups were 79.1 to 97.0% in the two ACWY groups and 73.7 to 94.1% in the Men-PS group. All subjects achieved rSBA titers of ?1:8 for all serogroups. All subjects in the two ACWY groups and 99.5 to 100% in the Men-PS group achieved rSBA titers of ?1:128. Pain was the most common solicited local symptom and was reported more frequently in the ACWY group (53.9 to 54.7%) than in the Men-PS group (36.8%). The most common solicited general symptoms were fatigue and headache, which were reported by 28.6 to 30.3% and 26.9 to 31.0% of subjects, respectively. Two subjects reported SAEs; one SAE was considered to be related to vaccination (blighted ovum; ACWY-B group). The level of serogroup A PS O-acetylation did not affect vaccine immunogenicity. MenACWY-TT (lot A) was not inferior to Men-PS in terms of vaccine response and was well tolerated. PMID:23885033

  15. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Peeters, C C; Tenbergen-Meekes, A M; Haagmans, B; Evenberg, D; Poolman, J T; Zegers, B J; Rijkers, G T

    1991-10-01

    We have prepared conjugates of pneumococcal type 4 polysaccharides (PS4) or oligosaccharides to tetanus toxoid using the carbodiimide method. The use of a spacer, 6-aminohexanoic acid, resulted in higher incorporation of carrier protein. Conjugates contained up to 10% free polysaccharide, but no free protein. In general, polysaccharide conjugates induced higher anti-PS4 IgG antibody titers than oligosaccharide conjugates. Conjugates with the highest amount of incorporated protein were the most immunogenic. The response to conjugated PS4 does show characteristics of a T cell-dependent antibody response, in terms of both isotype distribution and induction of immunological memory. Repeated immunization with high doses of PS4TT conjugate resulted in a virtually negative anti-PS4 IgG response, suggestive of the induction of high dose tolerance. PMID:1757114

  16. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines: characteristics, development, and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  17. Synthesis and immunogenicity evaluation of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aamir; An, So J; Cui, Changfa; Haque, Abdul; Carbis, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A) is a human restricted pathogen that can cause systemic infection (paratyphoid fever) with recently increased incidence particularly in developing countries. Currently there is no licensed vaccine for prevention of infection from S. Paratyphi A. In this study the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of S. Paratyphi A was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) with and without adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a linker. Binding of the OSP to a carrier protein was intended to convert a T-cell independent OSP response to a T-cell dependent response inducing higher levels of anti-OSP antibodies and immunological memory. These conjugates (OSP-AH-DT and OSP-DT) were evaluated for their immunogenicity in mice. The S. Paratyphi A OSP-DT conjugate induced a poor anti-OSP response less than that observed with LPS while the OSP-AH-DT conjugate induced a significantly higher antibody titer compared with LPS alone. The study also demonstrated diphtheria toxoid as a potential carrier protein for conjugate vaccine candidates using S. Paratyphi A OSP. PMID:24603090

  18. The immunogenicity and safety of an investigational meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) compared with a licensed meningococcal tetravalent polysaccharide vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Dbaibo, Ghassan; Macalalad, Noel; Reyes, Mari Rose Aplasca-De Los; Dimaano, Efren; Bianco, Véronique; Baine, Yaela; Miller, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of ACWY-TT compared with licensed ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS) in healthy adults, and lot-to-lot consistency of three ACWY-TT lots were evaluated in a phase 3, open, controlled study. Adults aged 18–55 y were randomized to receive ACWY-TT (one of three lots) or MenPS. Serum bactericidal antibodies (rSBA) were measured pre- and 1 mo post-vaccination. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed 4 d (solicited symptoms) and 31 d (unsolicited symptoms) post-vaccination. Serious AEs were reported up to 6 mo after vaccination. The number of vaccinated subjects was 1247 (ACWY-TT, n = 935; MenPS, n = 312). ACWY-TT lot-to-lot consistency and non-inferiority of ACWY-TT as compared with MenPS groups were demonstrated according to pre-specified criteria. The percentages of subjects with a vaccine response (VR = rSBA titer ? 1:32 in initially seronegative; ? 4-fold increase in initially seropositive) to ACWY-TT vs. MenPS were 80.1%/69.8% (serogroup A), 91.5%/ 92.0% (C), 90.2%/85.5% (W-135), 87.0%/78.8% (Y). Exploratory analyses showed that for serogroups A, W-135 and Y, VR rates and GMTs were significantly higher for ACWY-TT compared with MenPS. For each serogroup, ? 98.0% of subjects had rSBA titers ? 1:128. Grade 3 solicited AEs were reported in ? 1.6% of subjects in any group. The immunogenicity of ACWY-TT vaccine was non-inferior to MenPS for all four serogroups in adults, with significantly higher VR rates to serogroups A, W-135 and Y and an acceptable safety profile. Consistency of 3 ACWY-TT production lots was demonstrated. These data suggest that, if licensed, ACWY-TT conjugate vaccine may be used for protection against invasive meningococcal disease in healthy adults.   This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00453986 PMID:22485050

  19. Safety and Immunogenicity of Increasing Doses of a Clostridium difficile Toxoid Vaccine Administered to Healthy Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAREN L. KOTLOFF; STEVEN S. WASSERMAN; GENEVIEVE A. LOSONSKY; WILLIAM THOMAS; RICHARD NICHOLS; ROBERT EDELMAN; MARGARET BRIDWELL; THOMAS P. MONATH

    2001-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial diarrhea in industrialized countries. Although most ill- nesses respond to available therapy, infection can increase morbidity, prolong hospitalization, and produce life- threatening colitis. Vaccines are being explored as an alternative means for protecting high-risk individuals. We assessed the safety, immunogenicity, and dose response of a parenteral vaccine containing C. difficile toxoids A

  20. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a Haemophilus influenzae type b tetanus conjugate vaccine when administered separately or mixed with concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine for primary and for booster immunizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Schmitt; F. Zepp; S. Müschenborn; G. Sümenicht; A. Schuind; K. Beutel; M. Knuf; H. L. Bock; H. Bogaerts; R. Clemens

    1998-01-01

    With an increasing number of new vaccines available for routine childhood immunization, combination vaccines are needed in\\u000a order to maintain or achieve a high compliance with recommended immunization programmes. In a prospective, randomized, comparative,\\u000a multi-centre study, 822 healthy infants were enrolled to receive three doses of either a candidate or a commercially available\\u000a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine concomitantly

  1. Vaccination of turkeys with Clostridium septicum bacterin-toxoid: evaluation of protection against clostridial dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Thachil, Anil J; McComb, Brian; Kromm, Michelle; Nagaraja, Kakambi V

    2013-06-01

    Clostridial dermatitis is an acute disease causing high mortality in turkeys. Both Clostridium septicum and Clostridium pefringens have been isolated from these cases; however, reports from several diagnostic laboratories indicate an increased isolation rate of C septicum compared with C. perfringens from cases of clostridial dermatitis in recent years. Previous studies suggested C. septicum was more potent than C. perfringens in causing clostridial dermatitis in turkeys. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the use of a C. septicum bacterin-toxoid to control clostridial dermatitis in turkeys. A C. septicum bacterin-toxoid was prepared and was initially tested in 6-wk-old commercial turkeys under laboratory conditions for its safety and efficacy. Subsequently, the bacterin-toxoid was evaluated for use in commercial turkey farms with a consistent history of clostridial dermatitis. Birds in the field were vaccinated subcutaneously once at 6 wk of age with C. septicum bacterin-toxoid, and then mortality in both vaccinated and unvaccinated groups was recorded and compared. Blood samples from birds in both groups were examined using ELISA to detect antibody response to the C. septicum toxoid. The C. septicum bacterin-toxoid was found to be safe and to elicit antibodies against the toxoid. In vaccinated commercial turkeys, control of clostridial dermatitis was achieved via antibiotic use and clostridial dermatitis mortality was significantly reduced compared with that of birds in the unvaccinated group. The C. septicum bacterin-toxoid seems to be a valuable tool for the turkey industry to reduce losses due to clostridial dermatitis. PMID:24689176

  2. Conjugation of ?-glucan markedly increase the immunogencity of meningococcal group Y polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weilin; Ji, Shaoyang; Zhao, Yubao; Hu, Tao

    2015-04-21

    Meningococcal disease is a fatal illness of sudden onset caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcal capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is a major virulence factor that generally does not induce immunological memory. Conjugation with a carrier protein can significantly increase the immunogenicity of CPS and induce immunological memory. However, it is highly desired to optimize the CPS-specific immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine. Although adjuvant has been widely used to improve the immunogenicity of antigens, co-administration and conjugation of adjuvant with the conjugate vaccine has rarely been investigated. As a stimulator of humoral and cellular immunity, ?-glucan can activate macrophages and trigger intracellular processes to secrete cytokines initiating inflammatory reactions. In the present study, a conjugate vaccine (CPS-TT) was generated by conjugation of tetanus toxoid (TT) with meningococcal group Y CPS. CPS-TT was further conjugated with ?-glucan to generate CPS-TT-G. Immunization with CPS-TT-G led to an 8.2-fold increase in the CPS-specific IgG titers as compared with CPS-TT. Presumably, conjugation of ?-glucan ensured the two components to simultaneously reach the antigen presenting cells and stimulate the immune response. In contrast, co-administration of ?-glucan suppressed the CPS-specific immunogenicity of CPS-TT. Thus, conjugation of ?-glucan is an effective strategy to markedly improve the CPS-specific immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine. PMID:25728319

  3. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C May; L. Rey; Chi-Jen Lee; Juan Arciniega

    2004-01-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and\\/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The

  4. Antibody Responses to Natural Rattlesnake Envenomation and a Rattlesnake Toxoid Vaccine in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Robert C.; Holbrook, Todd C.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Ownby, Charlotte L.; McFarlane, Dianne; Payton, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Antivenom antibody titers following administration of rattlesnake venom for antivenom production in horses are well documented; however, antivenom antibody titers following natural rattlesnake envenomation in horses are not. Antibody titers produced in response to the commercially available rattlesnake venom vaccine are also not published. Our study objectives were to measure antivenom antibody titers in rattlesnake-bitten horses and compare them to titers in horses vaccinated with the rattlesnake venom vaccine. Additionally, titers were compared in pregnant versus nonpregnant horses to assess the affect of pregnancy on vaccine response and were measured pre- and postsuckle in foals of vaccinated mares to detect passive transfer of vaccine immunoglobulins. Blood samples were collected from16 rattlesnake-bitten horses. Thirty-six horses (11 pregnant mares, 12 nonpregnant mares, 13 geldings) were vaccinated using a Crotalus atrox venom toxoid vaccine. Blood was collected before administering each vaccination and 30 days following the third vaccination. Blood was collected from foals of vaccinated mares pre- and postsuckle. All serum was assayed for anti-Crotalus atrox venom antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rattlesnake-bitten horses had higher (P = 0.001) titers than vaccinated horses. There was no significant difference between titers in vaccinated pregnant versus nonpregnant horses. One mare had a positive titer at foaling, and the foals had positive postsuckle titers. Antivenom antibody titer development was variable following natural envenomation and vaccination, and vaccine-induced titers were lower than natural envenomation titers. Further studies are required to determine if natural or vaccine antivenom antibody titers reduce the effects of envenomation. PMID:23515015

  5. [Vaccination of splenectomized children. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine].

    PubMed

    Kristensen, K

    1994-01-10

    Twenty splenectomized children and adolescents aged four to 18 years were immunized once with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine. Prior to vaccination, ten of 20 patients had anticapsular antibodies below what could be considered the minimum protective level in the splenectomized (0.6 microgram per ml), whereas all obtained high antibody levels after vaccination. In addition, one infant with congenital asplenia was vaccinated at two, four, and six months of age, and was shown to respond well after the second and third injections, obtaining serum antibody concentrations of 0.84 and 10.7 microgram per ml respectively. Because asplenic individuals have an increased risk of invasive Hib infection, these data suggest that vaccination of such individuals against Hib may be justified. PMID:8296410

  6. Novel synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based antistaphylococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanyi; Dintaman, Jay; Lees, Andrew; Sen, Goutam; Schwartz, David; Shirtliff, Mark E; Park, Saeyoung; Lee, Jean C; Mond, James J; Snapper, Clifford M

    2013-07-01

    Staphylococcal infections are a major source of global morbidity and mortality. Currently there exists no antistaphylococcal vaccine in clinical use. Previous animal studies suggested a possible role for purified lipoteichoic acid as a vaccine target for eliciting protective IgG to several Gram-positive pathogens. Since the highly conserved (poly)glycerolphosphate backbone of lipoteichoic acid is a major antigenic target of the humoral immune system during staphylococcal infections, we developed a synthetic method for producing glycerol phosphoramidites to create a covalent 10-mer of (poly)glycerolphosphate for potential use in a conjugate vaccine. We initially demonstrated that intact Staphylococcus aureus elicits murine CD4(+) T cell-dependent (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgM and IgG responses in vivo. Naive mice immunized with a covalent conjugate of (poly)glycerolphosphate and tetanus toxoid in alum plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides produced high secondary titers of serum (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgG. Sera from immunized mice enhanced opsonophagocytic killing of live Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Mice actively immunized with the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine showed rapid clearance of staphylococcal bacteremia in vivo relative to mice similarly immunized with an irrelevant conjugate vaccine. In contrast to purified, natural lipoteichoic acid, the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine itself exhibited no detectable inflammatory activity. These data suggest that a synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based conjugate vaccine will contribute to active protection against extracellular Gram-positive pathogens expressing this highly conserved backbone structure in their membrane-associated lipoteichoic acid. PMID:23649092

  7. Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Duane A; Batich, Kristen A; Gunn, Michael D; Huang, Min-Nung; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Nair, Smita K; Congdon, Kendra L; Reap, Elizabeth A; Archer, Gary E; Desjardins, Annick; Friedman, Allan H; Friedman, Henry S; Herndon, James E; Coan, April; McLendon, Roger E; Reardon, David A; Vredenburgh, James J; Bigner, Darell D; Sampson, John H

    2015-03-19

    After stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to induce immune responses. As such, autologous DCs generated ex vivo have been pulsed with tumour antigens and injected back into patients as immunotherapy. While DC vaccines have shown limited promise in the treatment of patients with advanced cancers including glioblastoma, the factors dictating DC vaccine efficacy remain poorly understood. Here we show that pre-conditioning the vaccine site with a potent recall antigen such as tetanus/diphtheria (Td) toxoid can significantly improve the lymph node homing and efficacy of tumour-antigen-specific DCs. To assess the effect of vaccine site pre-conditioning in humans, we randomized patients with glioblastoma to pre-conditioning with either mature DCs or Td unilaterally before bilateral vaccination with DCs pulsed with Cytomegalovirus phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) RNA. We and other laboratories have shown that pp65 is expressed in more than 90% of glioblastoma specimens but not in surrounding normal brain, providing an unparalleled opportunity to subvert this viral protein as a tumour-specific target. Patients given Td had enhanced DC migration bilaterally and significantly improved survival. In mice, Td pre-conditioning also enhanced bilateral DC migration and suppressed tumour growth in a manner dependent on the chemokine CCL3. Our clinical studies and corroborating investigations in mice suggest that pre-conditioning with a potent recall antigen may represent a viable strategy to improve anti-tumour immunotherapy. PMID:25762141

  8. Ganglioside conjugate vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedhelm Helling; Philip O. Livingston

    1994-01-01

    Gangliosides are known to be suitable targets for immune attack against cancer but they are poorly immunogenic. Active immunization\\u000a with ganglioside\\/BCG or liposome vaccines results in moderate titer IgM antibody responses of short duration. Covalent attachment\\u000a of poorly immunogenic antigens to immunogenic proteins is a potent method for inducing an IgG antibody response. GD3, a dominant\\u000a ganglioside on malignant melanoma,

  9. Toxoid Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Grabenstein

    \\u000a Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis represented important causes of morbidity and mortality well into the early part of the\\u000a twentieth century. With advances in bacteriology deriving from the work of Pasteur and Koch during the latter portion of the\\u000a nineteenth century, the organisms responsible for each of these serious infections were cultivated, leading to some of the\\u000a earliest and most dramatic

  10. Modulation of Benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    SciTech Connect

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Willieme, Stephanie; Farinelle, Sophie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J.F. [Institute of Immunology, LNS/CRP-Sante, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Muller, Claude P. [Institute of Immunology, LNS/CRP-Sante, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)], E-mail: claude.muller@LNS.ETAT.LU

    2009-10-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also toxic for mammalian immune cells. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. We showed that high levels of antibodies against B[a]P and its metabolites modulate the redistribution of these PAHs in the blood. After immunization, increased levels of B[a]P and its metabolites were recovered in the blood. B[a]P significantly suppressed the proliferative response of both T and B cells after a sub-acute administration, an effect that was completely reversed by vaccination. In immunized mice also the immunotoxic effect of B[a]P on IFN-{gamma}, IL-12, TNF-{alpha} production and the reduced B cell activation was restored. Finally, our results showed that specific antibodies inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 by B[a]P in lymphocytes and Cyp1b1 in the liver, enzymes that are known to convert the procarcinogen B[a]P to the ultimate DNA-adduct forming metabolite, a major risk factor of chemical carcinogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that vaccination with a B[a]P conjugate vaccine based on a carrier protein used in licensed human vaccines reduces immunotoxicity and possibly other detrimental effects associated with B[a]P.

  11. Transcriptomic response of porcine PBMCs to vaccination with tetanus toxoid as a model antigen.

    PubMed

    Adler, Marcel; Murani, Eduard; Brunner, Ronald; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize in vivo genome-wide transcriptional responses to immune stimulation in order to get insight into the resulting changes of allocation of resources. Vaccination with tetanus toxoid was used as a model for a mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response in pig. Expression profiles of PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) before and at 12 time points over a period of four weeks after initial and booster vaccination at day 14 were studied by use of Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The transcriptome data in total comprised more than 5000 genes with different transcript abundances (DE-genes). Within the single time stages the numbers of DE-genes were between several hundred and more than 1000. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis mainly revealed canonical pathways of cellular immune response and cytokine signaling as well as a broad range of processes in cellular and organismal growth, proliferation and development, cell signaling, biosynthesis and metabolism. Significant changes in the expression profiles of PBMCs already occurred very early after immune stimulation. At two hours after the first vaccination 679 DE-genes corresponding to 110 canonical pathways of cytokine signaling, cellular immune response and other multiple cellular functions were found. Immune competence and global disease resistance are heritable but difficult to measure and to address by breeding. Besides QTL mapping of immune traits gene expression profiling facilitates the detection of functional gene networks and thus functional candidate genes. PMID:23536793

  12. Rapid disappearance of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis after routine childhood immunisation with conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Peltola, H; Kilpi, T; Anttila, M

    1992-09-01

    Mortality from meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a disease that affects mainly infants and young children, can reach 5% in industrialised countries and ten times that in non-industrialised countries. To determine the efficacy of vaccination against Hib, we carried out a retrospective survey of the incidence of Hib meningitis over five decades in the Greater Helsinki area of Finland, where all children with bacterial meningitis are treated in one of three centres. Except for a meningococcal epidemic in the early 1970s, Hib was the leading cause of childhood bacterial meningitis until the Hib conjugate vaccines changed the picture profoundly. In 1986-87 the polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate (PRP-D) was given experimentally to 50% of infants. In 1988-89 all infants were vaccinated, 50% with PRP-D, 50% with another conjugate vaccine, the oligosaccharide-CRM197 protein conjugate (HbOC). Since 1990 a third conjugate vaccine, the polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (PRP-T), has been administered routinely to all infants. The vaccines were administered at age 3-6 months, with a booster dose at 14-18 months. In the first 5 years of the Hib vaccination programme the number of cases of Hib meningitis in children aged 0-4 years fell sharply, from 30 in 1986 (the first year of the programme) to none in 1991. The decline contrasts sharply with the rising trend up to the mid 1980s. Vaccination seems to be the only explanation for the observed change in the epidemiology of Hib meningitis. PMID:1355165

  13. Chitosan-HPMC-blended microspheres as a vaccine carrier for the delivery of tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Arthanari, Saravanakumar; Mani, Ganesh; Peng, Mei Mei; Jang, Hyun Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a suitable and alternate adjuvant for the tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine that induces long term immunity after a single-dose immunization. In our study, the preformulation studies were carried out by using different ratios (7/3, 8/2, and 9/1) of chitosan-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-blended empty microspheres. Moreover, TT was stabilized with heparin (at heparin concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% w/v) and encapsulated in ideal chitosan - HPMC (CHBMS) microspheres, by the water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion method. The vaccine entrapment and the in vitro release efficiency of the CHBMS was evaluated for a period of 90 days. The release of antigens from the microspheres was determined by ELISA. Antigen integrity was investigated by SDS-PAGE. From the optimization studies, it was found that a chitosan/HPMC ratio of 8/2 produced a good yield, with microspheres that were spherical, regular and uniformly-sized. In the CHBMS, a heparin concentration of 3% w/v resulted in well-sustained antigen delivery for a period of 90 days. It was found that the characteristics of initial release could be observed in 2 days, followed by a constant release, and an almost 100% complete release in 90 days. From the in vitro release characteristics, the ideal batch of CHBMS (3% w/v heparin) was evaluated for in vivo studies by the antibody induction method. The antibody levels were measured for different combinations for the period of 9 months, and finally, with a second booster dose after 1 year. In conclusion, it was observed that CHBMS (combination-1) resulted in the antibody level of 4.5 IU/mL of guinea pig serum, and the level was 3.5 IU/mL for the Central Research Institute's alum-adsorbed tetanus toxoid (CRITT) (combination 2), after 1 year, with a second booster dose. This novel approach of using CHBMS may have potential advantages for single-step immunization with vaccines. PMID:25472756

  14. Liposomally-encapsulated ricin toxoid vaccine delivered intratracheally elicits a good immune response and protects against a lethal pulmonary dose of ricin toxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth D. Griffiths; Stephen C. Bailey; Joy L. Hambrook; Martin Keyte; Promukh Jayasekera; John Miles; E. Williamson

    1997-01-01

    A small study was performed to examine whether the instillation of ricin toxoid vaccine into the lungs of Porton rats offered protection from lethal effects of subsequent intratracheal challenge with ricin toxin. Further, the immune response to liposomally-encapsulated vaccine and the protection offered was compared with vaccine either adsorbed to Alhydrogel adjuvant or as a simple aqueous solution. The formaldehyde-treated

  15. Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Raman; Finn, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia are important causes of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. More than 90% of the cases are caused by serogroups A, B and C; the remaining 10% are largely caused by the W-135 and Y strains. During the mid-to-late 1990s there was an increase in meningococcal serogroup (MS) C disease in the UK and some parts of Europe. MS C polysaccharide vaccines that were developed in the 1960s are weakly immunogenic and not protective in infants under 2 years of age, but are effective in older recipients. Meningitec (Wyeth-Ayerst) is produced by conjugation of serogroup C oligosaccharide with a mutant diphtheria protein (CRM197), with the aim of inducing T-cell dependent immune responses. It has been found to be immunogenic in infants, toddlers, older children and adults. The vaccine has also been shown to induce immunological memory and therefore is likely to give long-term protection against disease. It received a license for use in the UK in October 1999 and was introduced into the UK immunisation schedule in November 1999. Surveillance studies after introduction of this and similar vaccines have demonstrated a dramatic fall in the incidence of MS C disease. Pre-licensure research studies and post-licensure adverse event data have confirmed that the vaccine is safe. PMID:11772343

  16. Vaccination with recombinant Clostridium perfringens toxoids ? and ? promotes elevated antepartum and passive humoral immunity in swine.

    PubMed

    Salvarani, Felipe M; Conceição, Fabricio R; Cunha, Carlos E P; Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Pires, Prhiscylla S; Silva, Rodrigo O S; Alves, Guilherme G; Lobato, Francisco C F

    2013-08-28

    Due to the increasingly restricted use of antimicrobials in animal production systems, the prevention and control of Clostridium perfringens type A- and C-induced diarrhea in piglets should be based on passive immunization via the prepartum vaccination of sows. Given the current obstacles in the production of conventional clostridial vaccines, the use of recombinant proteins has been considered to represent a promising alternative. In the present study, the neutralizing antibody response of immunized sows and their litters to a bivalent vaccine containing the C. perfringens recombinant toxoids alpha (rTA) and beta (rTB) produced in Escherichia coli was assessed. Rabbits (n=8) and pregnant sows (n=7) were immunized with 200?g of each recombinant antigen using Al(OH)3 as adjuvant. The alpha and beta antitoxin titer detected in the rabbits' serum pool was 9.6 and 20.4IU/mL, respectively. The mean alpha and beta antitoxin titers in the sows' sera were 6.0±0.9IU/mL and 14.5±2.2IU/mL, and the corresponding individual coefficients of variation (CV) were 16.04% and 14.91%, respectively. The mean alpha and beta antitoxin titers in the litters' serum pools were 4.2±0.4IU/mL and 10.9±1.7IU/mL, and the CV between litters was 9.23% and 9.85%, respectively. The results showed that the rTA and rTB proteins produced and tested in the present study induced an immune response and can be regarded as candidates for the development of a commercial vaccine against C. perfringens type A- and C-induced diarrhea in pigs. PMID:23845812

  17. Mass psychogenic illness following tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed Central

    Kharabsheh, S.; Al-Otoum, H.; Clements, J.; Abbas, A.; Khuri-Bulos, N.; Belbesi, A.; Gaafar, T.; Dellepiane, N.

    2001-01-01

    In September 1998, more than 800 young people in Jordan believed they had suffered from the side-effects of tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccine administered at school; 122 of them were admitted to hospital. For the vast majority, their symptoms did not result from the vaccine but arose from mass psychogenic illness. The role played by the media, the children's parents, and the medical profession in the escalation of this mass reaction appeared, at first sight, to be unusual and even unique to the circumstances in Jordan at the time. A review of the literature showed, however, that this mass reaction was similar in many ways to previous outbreaks, even though the underlying causes varied. There are about 200 published accounts of mass responses to situations involving suspected poisoning or other events. Because such mass reactions are relatively rare and the triggers so diverse, individuals faced with responding to them are unlikely to have prior experience in how to handle them and are unlikely to take bold steps to prevent their escalation. Indeed they may be unaware that such events have been recorded before. The lessons learned from this incident in Jordan may help other immunization programme managers to handle crisis situations elsewhere. PMID:11545334

  18. A novel approach to generate a recombinant toxoid vaccine against Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Donald, Robert G K; Flint, Mike; Kalyan, Narender; Johnson, Erik; Witko, Susan E; Kotash, Cheryl; Zhao, Ping; Megati, Shakuntala; Yurgelonis, Irina; Lee, Phillip Kwok; Matsuka, Yury V; Severina, Elena; Deatly, Anne; Sidhu, Mini; Jansen, Kathrin U; Minton, Nigel P; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2013-07-01

    The Clostridium difficile toxins A and B are primarily responsible for symptoms of C. difficile associated disease and are prime targets for vaccine development. We describe a plasmid-based system for the production of genetically modified toxins in a non-sporulating strain of C. difficile that lacks the toxin genes tcdA and tcdB. TcdA and TcdB mutations targeting established glucosyltransferase cytotoxicity determinants were introduced into recombinant plasmids and episomally expressed toxin mutants purified from C. difficile transformants. TcdA and TcdB mutants lacking glucosyltransferase and autoproteolytic processing activities were ~10?000-fold less toxic to cultured human IMR-90 cells than corresponding recombinant or native toxins. However, both mutants retained residual cytotoxicity that could be prevented by preincubating the antigens with specific antibodies or by formalin treatment. Such non-toxic formalin-treated mutant antigens were immunogenic and protective in a hamster model of infection. The remaining toxicity of untreated TcdA and TcdB mutant antigens was associated with cellular swelling, a phenotype consistent with pore-induced membrane leakage. TcdB substitution mutations previously shown to block vesicular pore formation and toxin translocation substantially reduced residual toxicity. We discuss the implications of these results for the development of a C. difficile toxoid vaccine. PMID:23629868

  19. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of conjugates composed of the O-specific polysaccharide of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Shiga's bacillus) bound to tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, C Y; Liu, B K; Watson, D; Szu, S S; Bryla, D; Shiloach, J; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B

    1991-01-01

    The background for developing conjugate vaccines for shigellosis composed of the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) bound to a protein is described elsewhere (C. Y. Chu, R. Schneerson, and J. B. Robbins, submitted for publication). Briefly, there is direct evidence for type (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-specific protection after infection with the wild type or with attenuated strains of shigellae. Prospective studies of Israeli armed forces recruits show a correlation between preexisting serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) LPS antibodies and resistance to shigellosis (D. Cohen, M. S. Green, C. Block, R. Slephon, and I. Ofek, J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:386-389, 1991). In order to elicit IgG LPS-specific antibodies to Shigella dysenteriae type 1, the O-SP of this pathogen was purified and bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) by three schemes. The most immunogenic used a modification of a published method (C. Y. Chu, R. Schneerson, J. B. Robbins, and S. C. Rastogi, Infect. Immun. 40:245-256, 1983). The resultant O-SP-TT conjugates were stable and elicited high levels of IgG O-SP antibodies and booster responses in young mice when injected subcutaneously in saline at 1/10 the proposed human dose. Adsorption onto alum or concurrent administration with monophosphoryl lipid A enhanced both the IgG and IgM antibody responses to the O-SP of the conjugate; both the nonadsorbed and adsorbed conjugates elicited higher rises of IgG than of IgM antibodies. Clinical evaluations of S. dysenteriae type 1 O-SP-TT conjugates are planned. Images PMID:1937803

  20. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    SciTech Connect

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Schroeder, Henri [University of Nancy, URAFPA, INRA UC340, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2013-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

  1. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-09-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  2. Memory B and T cell responses induced by serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines: Longitudinal analysis comparing responses elicited by free polysaccharide, conjugate and carrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence Deauvieau; Sebastien Dussurgey; Daniele Rossignol; Aymeric de Montfort; Nicolas Burdin; Bruno Guy

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a 1-year longitudinal study in mice vaccinated by free serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae PS (PS4), the corresponding tetanus toxoid (TT)-conjugated vaccine, or the TT carrier alone. B and T cell immunity induced by these three types of antigen, were compared by monitoring the (i) long-term persistence of specific serum antibodies, (ii) frequency of memory B cell precursors

  3. Preparation and testing of a Haemophilus influenzae Type b/Hepatitis B surface antigen conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    An, So Jung; Woo, Joo Sung; Chae, Myung Hwa; Kothari, Sudeep; Carbis, Rodney

    2015-03-24

    The majority of conjugate vaccines focus on inducing an antibody response to the polysaccharide antigen and the carrier protein is present primarily to induce a T-cell dependent response. In this study conjugates consisting of poly(ribosylribitolphosphate) (PRP) purified from Haemophilus influenzae Type b bound to Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) virus like particles were prepared with the aim of inducing an antibody response to not only the PRP but also the HBsAg. A conjugate consisting of PRP bound to HBsAg via an adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) spacer induced strong IgG antibodies to both the PRP and HBsAg. When conjugation was performed without the ADH spacer the induction of an anti-PRP response was equivalent to that seen by conjugate with the ADH spacer, however, a negligible anti-HBsAg response was induced. For comparison, PRP was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and Vi polysaccharide purified from Salmonella Typhi conjugated to HBsAg both using an ADH spacer. The PRPAH-DT conjugate induced strong anti-PRP and anti-DT responses, the Vi-AHHBsAg conjugate induced a good anti-HBsAg response but not as strong as that induced by the PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate. This study demonstrated that in mice it was possible to induce robust antibody responses to both polysaccharide and carrier protein provided the conjugate has certain physico-chemical properties. A PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate with the capacity to induce anti-PRP and anti-HBsAg responses could be incorporated into a multivalent pediatric vaccine and simplify formulation of such a vaccine. PMID:25659268

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of two doses of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine or one dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine, both administered concomitantly with routine immunization to 12- to 18-month-old children

    PubMed Central

    Noya, Francisco; McCormack, Deirdre; Reynolds, Donna L; Neame, Dion; Oster, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose series of a quadrivalent meningococcal (serogroups A, C, Y and W) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-D) administered to toddlers. METHODS: Children were randomly assigned (1:1) at study entry to receive MenACYW-D at 12 and 18 months of age (group 1; n=61) or meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MCC) at 12 months of age (group 2; n=62). All received routine childhood immunizations. A, C, Y and W antibody titres were measured in group 1 before and one month after the 18-month MenACYW-D vaccination and were measured in group 2 at one and seven months post-MCC vaccination. Antibodies elicited by diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed combined with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine coadministered at the 18-month vaccination were measured one month later. Safety data were collected. RESULTS: At 19 months of age, ?96% in group 1 achieved protective titres for the four meningococcal serogroups after dose 2; 67% in group 2 exhibited protective titres against serogroup C 28 days after MCC vaccination at 12 months of age, declining to 27% seven months later. DTaP-IPV-Hib elicited high antibody concentrations/titres in groups 1 and 2, consistent with historical values. The safety profiles after each dose generated no unexpected safety signals; no serious adverse events were related to vaccination. DISCUSSION: A two-dose series of MenACYW-D given concomitantly with a DTaP-IPV-Hib booster dose at 18 months of age demonstrated a good immunogenicity and safety profile. A two-dose series of MenACYW-D can be used as an alternative to one dose of MCC and provides protection against additional serogroups (NCT ID: NCT01359449). PMID:25285126

  5. Process development and immunogenicity studies on a serogroup 'X' Meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chilukuri, Srinivas Reddy; Reddy, Peddi; Avalaskar, Nikhil; Mallya, Asha; Pisal, Sambhaji; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-05-01

    Meningococcal group X (MenX) is responsible for recent outbreaks of meningitis reported in sub-Saharan region of Africa. Although protective vaccines are available for meningitis, they are not effective against MenX. An efficacious, monovalent conjugate vaccine was designed against MenX and a fed-batch fermentation process was developed. The MenX polysaccharide (PS) was purified and yield estimated to be 15-fold higher than the reported elsewhere. Structure of MenX polysaccharide was confirmed by (1)H, (13)C NMR spectroscopy analysis. Molecular weight of PS was found to be 310 kDa using HPLC-SEC coupled to refractive index (RI) detector. The MenX-Tetanus toxoid (TT) monovalent conjugate proved to be highly immunogenic in mice, and the bactericidal titers of MenX-TT conjugate were 10-fold higher than native PS. Increasing the dose of MenX-TT conjugate from 0.5 ?g to 1.0 ?g induced an 8-fold higher antibody titer as well as serum bactericidal titer. The current work suggests that the MenX-TT conjugate is a candidate vaccine against meningitis caused by Meningococcal group X strains. PMID:24411634

  6. Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation on the immune response to tetanus toxoid vaccination in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wan-Loy; Quynh, Le Van; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation could enhance the immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine in a mouse model. Vaccination of TT was performed on day 7 and 21 in mice fed daily with Spirulina (50 and 150 mg/kg body weight). Both Spirulina supplementation and TT vaccination did not significantly affect body weight gain of the mice. Supplementation of Spirulina significantly enhanced IgG level (p = .01) after the first but not after the second TT vaccination. The anti-TT IgG levels of the groups that received low dose and high dose of Spirulina were not significantly different. Spirulina supplementation did not show significant effects on in vitro splenocyte proliferation and cytokine (IFN-? and IL-4) production induced by Con A and TT. This study showed that Spirulina supplementation could enhance primary immune response in terms of antibody production, but not secondary immune response following TT vaccination in a mouse model. PMID:23927690

  7. Biochemical and biological characteristics of cross-reacting material 197 (CRM 197), a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin: Use as a conjugation protein in vaccines and other potential clinical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Bröker; Paolo Costantino; Lisa DeTora; E. David McIntosh; Rino Rappuoli

    2011-01-01

    The biochemical and biological characteristics of CRM197 are reviewed. Polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccines represent an important technological advancement that allowed for protection against dangerous diseases in vulnerable populations such as infants. The first carrier proteins, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, were chosen in the context of an extensive body of information describing their immunogenicity and safety profiles in clinical use. These

  8. Men with Low Vitamin A Stores Respond Adequately to Primary Yellow Fever and Secondary Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination12

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shaikh M.; Haskell, Marjorie J.; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B.

    2008-01-01

    Current recommendations for vitamin A intake and liver stores (0.07 ?mol/g) are based on maintaining normal vision. Higher levels may be required for maintaining normal immune function. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between total body vitamin A stores in adult men and measures of adaptive immune function. We conducted an 8-wk residential study among 36 healthy Bangladeshi men with low vitamin A stores. Subjects received a standard diet and were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive vitamin A (240 mg) or placebo during wk 2 and 3. Subjects received Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines during wk 5. Vitamin A stores were estimated by isotopic dilution during wk 8. Vaccine-specific lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and serum antibody responses were evaluated before and after vaccination. Vitamin A supplementation increased YFV- and TT-specific lymphocyte proliferation and YFV-specific interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-? production but inhibited development of a TT-specific IL-10 response. Both groups developed protective antibody responses to both vaccines. Some responses correlated positively with vitamin A stores. These findings indicate that the currently recommended vitamin A intake is sufficient to sustain a protective response to YFV and TT vaccination. However, YFV-specific lymphocyte proliferation, some cytokine responses, and neutralizing antibody were positively associated with liver vitamin A stores > 0.084 ?mol/g. Such increases may enhance vaccine protection but raise the question of whether immune-mediated chronic diseases may by exacerbated by high-level dietary vitamin A. PMID:18936231

  9. Outer Membrane Proteins as a Carrier for Detoxified Lipooligosaccharide Conjugate Vaccines for Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Huai; Gu, Xin-Xing

    1999-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common cause of otitis media and respiratory tract infections. Outer membrane proteins (OMP) and lipooligosaccharide (LOS) are major surface antigens of NTHi and potential vaccine candidates. De-O-acylated LOS (dLOS) or oligosaccharide (OS) was coupled to total OMP to form dLOS-OMP and OS-OMP conjugates, while a dLOS-tetanus toxoid (TT) was synthesized for comparison. These conjugates were evaluated in mice and rabbits for immunogenicity. dLOS-OMP elicited a better boostable antibody response against LOS than did dLOS-TT, while OS-OMP was not immunogenic. Formulation of the conjugates with Ribi adjuvant significantly enhanced the immunogenicity of dLOS-OMP and dLOS-TT but not that of OS-OMP. In addition, rabbit antisera elicited by dLOS-OMP but not dLOS-TT (or OMP alone) demonstrated bactericidal activity against 40% of the NTHi strains tested. These results indicate that dLOS is a better derivative of LOS than OS and that OMP is a good carrier for NTHi LOS-based conjugate vaccines. PMID:10496940

  10. Continuing effectiveness of serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Chad, 2013.

    PubMed

    Gamougam, Kadidja; Daugla, Doumagoum M; Toralta, Jacques; Ngadoua, Cyriaque; Fermon, Florence; Page, Anne-Laure; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Caugant, Dominique A; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline L; Stuart, James M; Greenwood, Brian M

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, vaccination with a serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine was implemented in 3 of 23 regions in Chad. Cases of meningitis declined dramatically in vaccinated areas, but an epidemic continued in the rest of Chad. In 2012, the remaining Chad population was vaccinated, and the epidemic was halted. PMID:25536336

  11. Continuing Effectiveness of Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Chad, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gamougam, Kadidja; Daugla, Doumagoum M.; Toralta, Jacques; Ngadoua, Cyriaque; Fermon, Florence; Page, Anne-Laure; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Caugant, Dominique A.; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline L.; Greenwood, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, vaccination with a serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine was implemented in 3 of 23 regions in Chad. Cases of meningitis declined dramatically in vaccinated areas, but an epidemic continued in the rest of Chad. In 2012, the remaining Chad population was vaccinated, and the epidemic was halted. PMID:25536336

  12. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan Peptide Mimotope-Protein Conjugates in Human Immunoglobulin Transgenic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Maitta; Kausik Datta; Andrew Lees; Shelley Sims Belouski; Liise-anne Pirofski

    2004-01-01

    Peptide mimotopes of capsular polysaccharides have been proposed as antigens for vaccines against encap- sulated pathogens. In this study, we determined the antibody response to and efficacy of P13, a peptide mimetic of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), in mice that produce human antibodies. P13 was conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and administered subcutaneously

  13. Immunochemical characterization of synthetic hexa-, octa- and decasaccharide conjugate vaccines for Vibrio cholerae O:1 Serotype Ogawa with emphasis on antigenic density and chain length

    PubMed Central

    Ftacek, Peter; Nelson, Victor; Szu, Shousun C.

    2013-01-01

    Cholera remains to be a global health problem without suitable vaccines for endemic control or outbreak relief. Here we describe a new parenteral vaccine based on neoglyco-conjugate of synthetic fragments of O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) of Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa. Hexa-, octa- and decasaccharides of the O-SP with carboxylic acid at the reducing end were chemically synthesized and conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). The conjugates prepared by a novel linking scheme consisted of 17-atom linker of hydrazide and alkyl bonds elicited robust serum IgG anti-LPS responses with vibriocidal activities in mice. There is a length dependence in immune response with decasaccharide conjugates elicited the highest anti-LPS IgG. There seems to be an indication that regardless of the carbohydrate chain length, a molar ratio of 230±10 monosaccharide units per TT induced high antibody response. The conjugates also elicited cross-reactive antibodies to serotype Inaba. The formulation of the proposed cholera conjugate vaccine, similar to other licensed polysaccharide vaccine, is suitable for children immunization. A parenteral cholera vaccine could overcome the diminishing immunogenicity in most of oral vaccines due to the gastrointestinal complexity and environmental enteropathy in children living in impoverished environment and could be considered for global cholera immunization. PMID:23955520

  14. Neither antibody to a group B streptococcal conjugate vaccine nor the vaccine itself is teratogenic in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Lawrence C.; Guttormsen, Hilde-Kari; Christian, Mildred S.; Hoberman, Alan M.; McInnes, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of human neonatal bacterial disease, resulting in pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis and sometimes, death. Supportive preclinical studies of GBS capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-protein conjugate vaccines have led to several phase 1 and phase 2 trials in healthy, non-pregnant adults, which demonstrated that the vaccines, produced at the Channing Laboratory, were safe and immunogenic. However, evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of a GBS conjugate vaccine administered to pregnant women demanded that it be manufactured under current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and that it undergo developmental toxicity evaluation. In this report, we describe a GBS type III CPS-tetanus toxoid (III-TT) vaccine lot 3-1-96 manufactured and vialed under cGMP and our evaluation of the effect of this vaccine and of GBS type III CPS-specific antibody on conception and early- and late-stage fetal development in rabbits. III-TT lot 3-1-96 was compositionally similar to prototype III-TT lot 91-1, produced under non-GMP, and was potent in a mouse maternal vaccination-neonatal pup challenge model of GBS disease. Four groups of 30 female rabbits each were randomized to receive III-TT lot 3-1-96 vaccine, saline-alum, or combinations of these treatments before and after insemination. The dose of conjugated CPS on a weight basis was 1 ?g/kg, mimicking the anticipated actual human dose. Based on the weight of the rabbits, this was 20- to 100-fold greater than the expected human dose. Does were pre-assigned to deliver litters naturally or have their kits delivered by Caesarean-section at gestation day 29, to assess late fetal development. Sera from does and kits were collected, and the presence of type III CPS-specific IgG was confirmed by quantitative ELISA. Based on all assessments, GBS type III-TT lot 3-1-96, nor antibody to it did not affect embryo-fetal viability, sex ratio, growth or cause malformations (i.e., it was non-teratogenic). In addition, that III-TT lot 3-1-96 was found to be safe and immunogenic in two clinical studies involving healthy non-pregnant adults supports a clinical evaluation of this vaccine in pregnant women. PMID:18443428

  15. Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-29

    An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (P<0.001) according to MCC vaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 ?g/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 ?g/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 ?g/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 ?g/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible. PMID:25510388

  16. Dosing Schedules for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses—the schedule—that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

  17. Self heat-shock protein (hsp60) peptide serves in a conjugate vaccine against a lethal pneumococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Könen-Waisman, S; Cohen, A; Fridkin, M; Cohen, I R

    1999-02-01

    Healthy persons manifest a high frequency of T cells reactive to epitopes of the self 60-kDa heat-shock protein (hsp60) molecule. It was reasoned that a self hsp60 peptide, p458m, might provide T cell help for a response to the T independent capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 4 (PS4). The conjugate vaccine (PS4-p458m) induced resistance to challenge with >300,000 times the minimal lethal dose of pneumococci. PS4 conjugated to other immunogenic carriers (tetanus toxoid, a pneumolysin peptide, and others) or a commercial pneumococcal vaccine were far less effective. The effectiveness of the PS4-p458m conjugate was associated with an increased IgG1 antibody response to PS4, with long-term memory, and with T cell responses to the p458m peptide. Thus, T cell reactivity to a self epitope in a conjugate vaccine can be mobilized to induce help for resistance to a lethal infection. PMID:9878025

  18. Serotype-specific and age-dependent generation of pneumococcal polysaccharide-specific memory B-cell and antibody responses to immunization with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Oh, Sarah; Hamaluba, Mainga; Westcar, Sharon; Beverley, Peter C L; Pollard, Andrew J

    2008-02-01

    Glycoconjugate vaccines have dramatically reduced the incidence of encapsulated bacterial diseases in toddlers under 2 years of age, but vaccine-induced antibody levels in this age group wane rapidly. We immunized adults and 12-month-old toddlers with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to determine differences in B-cell and antibody responses. The adults and 12-month-old toddlers received a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The toddlers received a second dose at 14 months of age. The frequencies of diphtheria toxoid and serotype 4, 14, and 23F polysaccharide-specific plasma cells and memory B cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The toddlers had no preexisting polysaccharide-specific memory B cells or serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody but had good diphtheria toxoid-specific memory responses. The frequencies of plasma cells and memory B cells increased by day 7 (P < 0.0001) in the adults and the toddlers following a single dose of conjugate, but the polysaccharide responses were significantly lower in the toddlers than in the adults (P = 0.009 to <0.001). IgM dominated the toddler antibody responses, and class switching to the IgG was serotype dependent. A second dose of vaccine enhanced the antibody and memory B-cell responses in the toddlers but not the ex vivo plasma cell responses. Two doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine are required in toddlers to generate memory B-cell frequencies and antibody class switching for each pneumococcal polysaccharide equivalent to that seen in adults. PMID:18032593

  19. Subnormal and waning immunity to tetanus toxoid in previously vaccinated HIV-infected children and response to booster doses of the vaccine.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shahana A; Matin, Fazle

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding waning immunity to tetanus toxoid (TT) in HIV-infected children and the need for booster doses before the recommended interval of 5-10 years. Anti-tetanus antibodies were assessed by ELISA in 24 HIV-infected and 24 control children. A protective level (>0.1 IU/ml) of TT antibodies was observed in 62% of HIV-infected children and in 100% of controls. HIV-infected children with five doses had a significantly (p=0.01) lower prevalence of protective immunity compared to controls. Follow-up anti-TT antibody levels in nine HIV-infected children declined from 1.27 to 0.26 IU/ml, but levels did not decline in the seven controls; five of the seven (71%) children with a non-protective level of antibodies responded with a level>0.16 IU/ml following one booster dose of the vaccine. HIV-infected children may need TT boosters before the recommended 5-10 years. PMID:24139228

  20. Evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity in United Kingdom laboratory workers of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal capsular group C conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)/meningococcal capsular group C (MenC) conjugate vaccine with a tetanus toxoid carrier protein (Hib/MenC-TT) is not licensed for use in those above 2 years of age due to lack of data on safety and efficacy, certain patient groups at high risk of MenC and/or Hib disease are recommended to receive it. Laboratory workers working with Hib and/or MenC cultures may be at a potentially increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases and vaccination is therefore an important safety consideration. We undertook a clinical trial to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of Hib/MenC-TT vaccine in this cohort. Methods A total of 33 subjects were recruited to the trial, all of whom were vaccinated. Serology was completed on samples taken at baseline and four weeks following vaccination to determine MenC specific IgG, MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA), anti-Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) IgG and anti-tetanus toxoid IgG responses. Results At baseline, high proportions of subjects had protective antibody concentrations against MenC, Hib and tetanus due to previous vaccination and/or natural exposure. Vaccination induced?>?3, 10 and 220 fold increases in geometric mean concentrations for MenC SBA, anti-tetanus toxoid IgG and anti-Hib PRP IgG, respectively. Following vaccination, 97% of subjects had putative protective SBA titres???8, 100% had short term protective anti-Hib PRP IgG concentrations???0.15 ?g/mL and 97% had protective anti-tetanus toxoid concentrations???0.1 IU/mL. No safety concerns were reported with minor local reactions being reported by 21% of subjects. Conclusions Immunological responses determined in this trial are likely a combination of primary and secondary responses due to previous vaccination and natural exposure. Subjects were a representative cross-section of laboratory workers, enabling us to conclude that a single dose of Hib/MenC-TT was safe and immunogenic in healthy adults providing the evidence that this vaccine may be used for providing protection in an occupational setting. PMID:25071861

  1. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 ?g of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 ?g of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173. PMID:25068497

  2. Global use of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda R. Ojo; Rosalyn E. O’Loughlin; Adam L. Cohen; Jennifer D. Loo; Karen M. Edmond; Sharmila S. Shetty; Allyson P. Bear; Lois Privor-Dumm; Ulla K. Griffiths; Rana Hajjeh

    2010-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have been underutilized globally. We report progress in global use of Hib vaccines included in national immunization schedules. The number of countries using Hib vaccine increased from 89\\/193 (46%) in 2004 to 158\\/193 (82%) by the end of 2009. The increase was greatest among low-income countries eligible for financial support from the GAVI

  3. Phase I trial of two recombinant vaccines containing the 19kd carboxy terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (msp-1 19) and T helper epitopes of tetanus toxoid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A Keitel; K. E Kester; R. L Atmar; A. C White; N. H Bond; C. A Holland; U Krzych; D. R Palmer; A Egan; C Diggs; W. R Ballou; B. F Hall; D Kaslow

    1999-01-01

    The safety and immunogenicity of 2 yeast-derived, blood-stage malaria vaccines were evaluated in a phase l trial. Healthy adults were given 2 or 3 doses of alum-adsorbed vaccine containing the 19 kDa carboxy-terminal fragment of the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-119) derived from the 3D7 or the FVO strain of Plasmodium falciparum fused to tetanus toxoid T-helper epitopes P30 and P2.

  4. 10-Valent pneumococcal non-typeable haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine: a review in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Plosker, Greg L

    2014-10-01

    The 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) (Synflorix™) includes ten serotype-specific polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae, eight of which are conjugated individually to a nonlipidated cell-surface lipoprotein (protein D) of non-typeable H. influenzae and two of which are conjugated to nontoxic tetanus or diphtheria toxoid carrier proteins. This article provides an overview of the well-established immunogenicity of PHiD-CV, including functional immune responses and immunologic memory, as well as immune responses in preterm infants and HIV-infected children. It also includes a brief discussion of cross-protection against vaccine-related serotypes (6A and 19A) and focuses on labelling in the EU, where PHiD-CV is approved for active immunization against invasive disease, pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) caused by S. pneumoniae in infants and young children up to 5 years of age. Evidence of the protective efficacy and effectiveness of PHiD-CV against pneumococcal diseases is available from several studies, including the randomized, double-blind trials COMPAS (Clinical Otitis Media and Pneumonia Study) and FinIP (Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease), as well as postmarketing studies from various countries. As would be expected, protection against pneumonia or AOM is substantially lower than that against invasive pneumococcal disease, as many micro-organisms other than pneumococcal vaccine serotypes can cause pneumonia and AOM, thereby limiting the overall protection of PHiD-CV against these diseases. PHiD-CV has a safety and reactogenicity profile similar to that of other pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. PMID:25192686

  5. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    Certiva® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Daptacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  6. Inclusion of a universal tetanus toxoid CD4(+) T cell epitope P2 significantly enhanced the immunogenicity of recombinant rotavirus ?VP8* subunit parenteral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaobo; Wen, Ke; Cao, Dianjun; Li, Guohua; Jones, Ronald W; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-07-31

    Currently available live oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®), are highly efficacious in developed countries. However, the immunogenicity and efficacy of such vaccines in some developing countries are low. We reported previously that bacterially-expressed rotavirus ?VP8* subunit vaccine candidates with P[8], P[4] or P[6] specificity elicited high-titer virus neutralizing antibodies in animals immunized intramuscularly. Of note was the finding that antibodies induced with the P[8]?VP8* vaccine neutralized both homotypic P[8] and heterotypic P[4] rotavirus strains to high titer. To further improve its vaccine potential, a tetanus toxoid universal CD4(+) T cell epitope P2 was introduced into P[8] or P[6]?VP8* construct. The resulting recombinant fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were of high solubility and were produced with high yield. Two doses (10 or 20 ?g/dose) of the P2-P[8]?VP8* vaccine or P2-P[6]?VP8* vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant elicited significantly higher geometric mean homologous neutralizing antibody titers than the vaccines without P2 in intramuscularly immunized guinea pigs. Interestingly, high levels of neutralizing antibody responses induced in guinea pigs with 3 doses of the P2-P[8]?VP8* vaccine persisted for at least 6 months. Furthermore, in the gnotobiotic piglet challenge study, three intramuscular doses (50 ?g/dose) of the P2-P[8]?VP8* vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant significantly delayed the onset of diarrhea and significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea and the cumulative diarrhea score after oral challenge with virulent human rotavirus Wa (G1P[8]) strain. The P2-P[8]?VP8* vaccine induced serum virus neutralizing antibody and VP4-specific IgG antibody production prechallenge, and primed the pigs for higher antibody and intestinal and systemic virus-specific IFN-? producing CD4(+) T cell responses postchallenge. These two subunit vaccines could be used at a minimum singly or preferably in bivalent formulation to provide antigenic coverage of most of the G types of global importance. PMID:24962749

  7. Conjugate-like immunogens produced as protein capsular matrix vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Thanawastien, Ann; Cartee, Robert T.; Griffin, Thomas J.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides are the primary antigenic components involved in protective immunity against encapsulated bacterial pathogens. Although immunization of adolescents and adults with polysaccharide antigens has reduced pathogen disease burden, pure polysaccharide vaccines have proved ineffective at conferring protective immunity to infants and the elderly, age cohorts that are deficient in their adaptive immune responses to such antigens. However, T-cell–independent polysaccharide antigens can be converted into more potent immunogens by chemically coupling to a “carrier protein” antigen. Such “conjugate vaccines” efficiently induce antibody avidity maturation, isotype switching, and immunological memory in immunized neonates. These immune responses have been attributed to T-cell recognition of peptides derived from the coupled carrier protein. The covalent attachment of polysaccharide antigens to the carrier protein is thought to be imperative to the immunological properties of conjugate vaccines. Here we provide evidence that covalent attachment to carrier proteins is not required for conversion of T-independent antigens into T-dependent immunogens. Simple entrapment of polysaccharides or a d-amino acid polymer antigen in a cross-linked protein matrix was shown to be sufficient to produce potent immunogens that possess the key characteristics of conventional conjugate vaccines. The versatility and ease of manufacture of these antigen preparations, termed protein capsular matrix vaccines (PCMVs), will likely provide improvements in the manufacture of vaccines designed to protect against encapsulated microorganisms. This in turn could improve the availability of such vaccines to the developing world, which has shown only a limited capacity to afford the cost of conventional conjugate vaccines. PMID:25699685

  8. Conjugate-like immunogens produced as protein capsular matrix vaccines.

    PubMed

    Thanawastien, Ann; Cartee, Robert T; Griffin, Thomas J; Killeen, Kevin P; Mekalanos, John J

    2015-03-10

    Capsular polysaccharides are the primary antigenic components involved in protective immunity against encapsulated bacterial pathogens. Although immunization of adolescents and adults with polysaccharide antigens has reduced pathogen disease burden, pure polysaccharide vaccines have proved ineffective at conferring protective immunity to infants and the elderly, age cohorts that are deficient in their adaptive immune responses to such antigens. However, T-cell-independent polysaccharide antigens can be converted into more potent immunogens by chemically coupling to a "carrier protein" antigen. Such "conjugate vaccines" efficiently induce antibody avidity maturation, isotype switching, and immunological memory in immunized neonates. These immune responses have been attributed to T-cell recognition of peptides derived from the coupled carrier protein. The covalent attachment of polysaccharide antigens to the carrier protein is thought to be imperative to the immunological properties of conjugate vaccines. Here we provide evidence that covalent attachment to carrier proteins is not required for conversion of T-independent antigens into T-dependent immunogens. Simple entrapment of polysaccharides or a d-amino acid polymer antigen in a cross-linked protein matrix was shown to be sufficient to produce potent immunogens that possess the key characteristics of conventional conjugate vaccines. The versatility and ease of manufacture of these antigen preparations, termed protein capsular matrix vaccines (PCMVs), will likely provide improvements in the manufacture of vaccines designed to protect against encapsulated microorganisms. This in turn could improve the availability of such vaccines to the developing world, which has shown only a limited capacity to afford the cost of conventional conjugate vaccines. PMID:25699685

  9. Transcutaneous Immunization with Cross-Reacting Material CRM197 of Diphtheria Toxin Boosts Functional Antibody Levels in Mice Primed Parenterally with Adsorbed Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Stickings, Paul; Peyre, Marisa; Coombes, Laura; Muller, Sylviane; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2008-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) capitalizes on the accessibility and immunocompetence of the skin, elicits protective immunity, simplifies vaccine delivery, and may be particularly advantageous when frequent boosting is required. In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice. The cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin was used as the boosting antigen and was administered alone or together with either one of two commonly used mucosal adjuvants, cholera toxin (CT) and a partially detoxified mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTR72). We report that TCI with CRM197 significantly boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine. In the presence of LTR72 as an adjuvant, toxin-neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those elicited by CRM197 alone and were comparable to the functional antibody levels induced after parenteral booster immunization with the adsorbed DTxd vaccine. Time course study showed that high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 14 weeks after the transcutaneous boost. In addition, TCI resulted in a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response in all groups of mice boosted with the CRM197 protein. These findings highlight the promising prospect of using booster administrations of CRM197 via the transcutaneous route to establish good herd immunity against diphtheria. PMID:18227167

  10. Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage and immunity four years after receiving the Haemophilus influenzae oligosaccharide-CRM197 (HbOC) conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Barbour, M L; Booy, R; Crook, D W; Griffiths, H; Chapel, H M; Moxon, E R; Mayon-White, D

    1993-06-01

    Late in 1991, before the implementation of a national immunization program against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in the United Kingdom, we performed a 4-year follow-up of 120 children who in 1987 had been enrolled in an immunogenicity trial in which 60 of them (vaccinees) received an Hib conjugate vaccine (HbOC) at the same time as diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-pertussis vaccine at the ages of 3, 5 and 9 months. Sixty others (controls) received only diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-pertussis vaccine at the same ages and were not subsequently immunized against Hib. We investigated Hib pharyngeal colonization using the antiserum agar method and the concentrations of serum IgG antibody to the type b capsule by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 4 years of age the Hib colonization rates in vaccinees and controls were 8% (5 of 60) and 5% (3 of 60), respectively. The children colonized with Hib had greater serum anti-capsular IgG concentrations than did noncolonized children (P < 0.001), and colonized vaccinees tended to have higher concentrations than colonized controls (P = 0.053). Regardless of Hib colonization status vaccinees had greater antibody concentrations than controls (P < 0.001). Forty-nine percent of vaccinees had an antibody concentration > 1 microgram/ml. There was an inverse relationship between the Hib colony count on culture and the serum IgG concentration. These data indicate that the increase in serum antibody concentration after immunization with an Hib conjugate vaccine is sustained and that immunization primes for a booster response on exposure to Hib. There may be a relationship between previous Hib conjugate immunization and the density of Hib colonization in children. PMID:8345980

  11. Effect of Currently Approved Carriers and Adjuvants on the Pre-Clinical Efficacy of a Conjugate Vaccine against Oxycodone in Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pravetoni, Marco; Vervacke, Jeffrey S.; Distefano, Mark D.; Tucker, Ashli M.; Laudenbach, Megan; Pentel, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against the highly abused prescription opioid oxycodone has shown pre-clinical efficacy for blocking oxycodone effects. The current study further evaluated a candidate vaccine composed of oxycodone derivatized at the C6 position (6OXY) conjugated to the native keyhole limpet hemocyanin (nKLH) carrier protein. To provide an oxycodone vaccine formulation suitable for human studies, we studied the effect of alternative carriers and adjuvants on the generation of oxycodone-specific serum antibody and B cell responses, and the effect of immunization on oxycodone distribution and oxycodone-induced antinociception in mice and rats. 6OXY conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or a GMP grade KLH dimer (dKLH) was as effective as 6OXY conjugated to the nKLH decamer in mice and rats, while the 6OXY hapten conjugated to a TT-derived peptide was not effective in preventing oxycodone-induced antinociception in mice. Immunization with 6OXY-TT s.c. absorbed on alum adjuvant provided similar protection to 6OXY-TT administered i.p. with Freund’s adjuvant in rats. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant, alone or in combination with alum, offered no advantage over alum alone for generating oxycodone-specific serum antibodies or 6OXY-specific antibody secreting B cells in mice vaccinated with 6OXY-nKLH or 6OXY-TT. The immunogenicity of oxycodone vaccines may be modulated by TLR4 signaling since responses to 6OXY-nKLH in alum were decreased in TLR4-deficient mice. These data suggest that TT, nKLH and dKLH carriers provide consistent 6OXY conjugate vaccine immunogenicity across species, strains and via different routes of administration, while adjuvant formulations may need to be tailored to individual immunogens or patient populations. PMID:24797666

  12. Nasopharyngeal microbial interactions in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Eileen M; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Mulholland, E Kim; Satzke, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    The nasopharynx of children is often colonised by microorganisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) that can cause infections including pneumonia and otitis media. In this complex environment, bacteria and viruses may impact each other through antagonistic as well as synergistic interactions. Vaccination may alter colonisation dynamics, evidenced by the rise in non-vaccine serotypes following pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Discovery of an inverse relationship between S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus carriage generated concern that pneumococcal vaccination could increase S. aureus carriage and disease. Here we review data on co-colonisation of pathogens in the nasopharynx, focusing on S. pneumoniae and the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. Thus far, pneumococcal vaccination has not had a sustained impact on S. aureus carriage but it is associated with an increase in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in acute otitis media aetiology. Advances in bacterial and viral detection methodologies have facilitated research in nasopharyngeal microbiology and will aid investigation of potential vaccine-induced changes, particularly when baseline studies can be conducted prior to pneumococcal vaccine introduction. PMID:23523773

  13. Functional Antibodies Elicited by Two Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial?

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Nina; Väkeväinen, Merja; Verho, Jouko; Kilpi, Terhi; Käyhty, Helena

    2007-01-01

    In the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial, the now-licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccine containing polysaccharides conjugated to protein CRM197 (PncCRM) and the experimental pneumococcal polysaccharide-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex conjugate vaccine (PncOMPC), showed similar efficacy profiles against acute otitis media despite different antibody concentrations in sera. We now report the opsonophagocytic activities (OPA) in these sera. OPA, antibody concentration, and avidity for serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were determined in sera of infants who received either pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) or control vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and either the homologous or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age. OPA varied by vaccine and serotype. The majority of PCV recipients had positive OPA after the fourth dose, while OPA was undetectable in the control group. Coinciding with the efficacy data, the concentration of antibodies required for 50% killing was low for 6B and high for 19F for both PCVs. Contradictory to the efficacy data, PncOMPC induced lower functional capacity to 23F than PncCRM. OPA correlated with antibody concentration, while avidity and functional capacity of antibodies showed no correlation. The OPA data provide valuable additional information for serotype-specific differences in protection and when evaluating serotype-specific immunogenicity and should thus be considered when defining serological correlates of protection. PMID:17261612

  14. Memory B and T cell responses induced by serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines: longitudinal analysis comparing responses elicited by free polysaccharide, conjugate and carrier.

    PubMed

    Deauvieau, Florence; Dussurgey, Sebastien; Rossignol, Daniele; de Montfort, Aymeric; Burdin, Nicolas; Guy, Bruno

    2009-12-11

    We have conducted a 1-year longitudinal study in mice vaccinated by free serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae PS (PS4), the corresponding tetanus toxoid (TT)-conjugated vaccine, or the TT carrier alone. B and T cell immunity induced by these three types of antigen, were compared by monitoring the (i) long-term persistence of specific serum antibodies, (ii) frequency of memory B cell precursors in spleen, and (iii) T cell responses against the carrier. While PS4-specific antibody response appeared later than the anti-carrier response upon primary immunization, PS4-specific B memory and serum responses were quantitatively and qualitatively similar to the ones observed against TT upon immunization by either the free carrier or the conjugate. We also observed a parallel persistent carrier-specific T cell response in the spleen. These data indicate that the nature and long-term kinetics of the anti-PS4 antibody response induced by the conjugate vaccine are similar to "classical" T-dependent response elicited by conventional protein antigens. PMID:19878751

  15. Cancer Vaccine Composed of Oligonucleotides Conjugated to Apoptotic Tumor Cells

    Cancer.gov

    NCI Scientists have discovered that conjugating CpG ODNs to apoptotic tumor cells to improve vaccine activity by ensuring that the ODN remains associated with the tumor antigen so that both are internalized by professional antigen presenting cells. The strategy eliminates the need to define specific tumor-associated antigens, substituting instead the entire tumor cell (which in the absence of CpG ODN is poorly immunogenic).

  16. Immunologic memory in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J McVernon; P D R Johnson; A J Pollard; M P E Slack; E R Moxon

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To compare the convalescent antibody response to invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease between conjugate vaccine immunised and unimmunised children, to look for evidence of priming for immunologic memory.Methods: Unmatched case-control study in the UK and Eire 1992–2001 and Victoria, Australia 1988–1990. A total of 93 children were identified as having invasive Hib disease following three doses of

  17. Immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in asplenic individuals.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Elaine; Print, Fiona; Falconer, Michelle; Lamden, Kenneth; Ghebrehewet, Samuel; Phin, Nick; Baxter, David; Helbert, Matthew; McCann, Rosemary; Andrews, Nick; Balmer, Paul; Borrow, Ray; Kaczmarski, Edward

    2009-02-01

    Asplenic individuals are at increased risk of infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has not been investigated in this clinical risk group. We investigated immune responses to pneumococcal vaccination in asplenic individuals. Eligible subjects aged > or =4 years received one dose 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and, if no prior 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) had been received within previous 5 years, one dose was given 6 months following PCV7. Pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were taken. Pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG levels were determined for 9 serotypes; the 7 in PCV7 plus serotypes1 and by standardized ELISA. One hundred and eleven asplenic individuals were recruited [median age 54.8 years, (18.1-81.8)]. Median age at splenectomy was 29.6 years (3.6-78.3); 108 (97.3%) individuals had previously received PPV23. Compliance with UK recommendations on immunization and prophylaxis in this group was poor, 91 (82%) subjects had received Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and only 68 (62%) had received meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine. In total 61 (55%) subjects were taking antibiotic prophylaxis and 12 subjects had reported previous invasive pneumococcal disease, five episodes of which occurred post-splenectomy. High serotype-specific IgG concentrations were observed pre-PCV7, with significant increases (p < 0.01) in geometric mean concentrations pre- to post-PCV7 for the PCV7 serotypes. Post-PCV7, between 27% (serotype 14) and 69% (serotype 23F) of subjects had a > or =2-fold rise in IgG. Pre-PCV7, the percentage of individuals with levels > or =0.35 microg/mL ranged between 77% (serotype 4) and 97% (serotypes 14, 19F), whilst post-PCV7 this was 90% (serotype 6B) and 99% (serotype 14). No significant increases were observed post-PPV23. Asplenic individuals responded well to PCV7, though protective levels were demonstrated pre-PCV7 in majority of participants due to prior PPV23. Although immunogenic, there is insufficient evidence here to recommend routine PCV7 immunization over PPV23 immunization in adult asplenic individuals. PMID:18758242

  18. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant properties of PAA in Leishmania infection. Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in Leishmania parasites. In the study, LPG and PAA were conjugated by a multi-step procedure, and final products were analyzed with GPC and MALDI-TOF MS techniques. In cytotoxicity experiments, LPG-PAA conjugates did not indicate toxic effects on L929 and J774 murine macrophage cells. We assume that LPG-PAA conjugate can be a potential vaccine candidate, and will be immunologically characterized in further studies to prove its potential. PMID:23731716

  19. [Pneumococcal vaccine: protection of adults and reduction of antibiotic resistence by vaccination of children with a conjugated vaccine].

    PubMed

    Pletz, Mathias W

    2011-06-01

    Pneumococcal infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis) are common and usually involve toddlers, immunocompromised and the elderly. Main reservoir of pneumococci is the nasopharyngeal zone of healthy carriers, especially of toddlers. Currently, two types of pneumococcal vaccines are in clinical use, which induce production of antibodies against capsular polysaccharides. The older vaccine consists of pure capsular polysaccharides. It induces a limited immunity, because polysaccharides are poor antigens that stimulate mainly B-cells. In children under two years of age this vaccine is not used, because it does not induce a sufficient immunologic response, presumably because of the immaturity of their immune system. In 2000, a vaccination program with a novel pneumococcal vaccine was launched in the USA. This vaccine contains capsular polysaccharides, that are conjugated with a highly immunogenic protein. It induces both a T cell and B cell response that results in specific humoral and mucosal immunity. U.S. data demonstrate, that serotypes covered by the conjugated vaccine can be reduced in the whole population by vaccination of children being the main reservoir of pneumococci. This so called ,,herd protection" results in a decrease in invasive pneumococcal diseases in vaccinees and non-vaccinees as well as in a reduction of antibiotic resistance rates by reducing resistant pneumococcal cones. PMID:21812250

  20. Immunogenicity of a Promiscuous T Cell Epitope Peptide Based Conjugate Vaccine against Benzo[a]pyrene: Redirecting Antibodies to the Hapten

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Revets, Dominique; Muller, Claude P.

    2012-01-01

    The prototype polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is an environmental pollutant and food contaminant of epidemiological importance. To protect against adverse effects of this ubiquitous carcinogen, we developed an immunoprophylactic strategy based on a B[a]P-protein conjugate vaccine to induce B[a]P specific antibodies (Grova et al., Vaccine. 2009;27:4142–51). Here, we investigated in mice the efficacy of B[a]P-peptide conjugates based on promiscuous T cell epitopes (TCE) into further improve this approach. We showed that B[a]P-peptide conjugates induced very different levels of hapten-specific antibodies with variable functional efficacy, depending on the carrier. In some cases peptide carriers induced a more efficient antibody response against B[a]P than tetanus toxoid as a protein carrier, with the capacity to sequester more B[a]P in the blood. Reducing the carrier size to a single TCE can dramatically shift the antibody bias from the carrier to the B[a]P. Conjugates based on the TCE FIGITEL induced the best anti-hapten response and no antibodies against the carrier peptide. Some peptide conjugates increased the selectivity of the antibodies for the activated metabolite 7,8-diol-B[a]P and B[a]P by one or two orders of magnitude. The antibody efficacy was also demonstrated in their ability to sequester B[a]P in the blood and modulate its faecal excretion (15–56%). We further showed that pre-existing immunity to the carrier from which the TCE was derived did not reduce the immunogenicity of the peptide conjugate. In conclusion, we showed that a vaccination against B[a]P using promiscuous TCEs of tetanus toxin as carriers is feasible even in case of a pre-existing immunity to the toxoid and that some TCE epitopes dramatically redirect the antibody response to the hapten. Further studies to demonstrate a long-term protection of an immunoprophylactic immunisation against B[a]P are warranted. PMID:22666501

  1. Lessons learned during the development and transfer of technology related to a new Hib conjugate vaccine to emerging vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, A; Boog, C; Jadhav, S; Kreeftenberg, H

    2014-07-16

    The incidence of Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) disease in developed countries has decreased since the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccines in their National Immunization Programs (NIP). In countries where Hib vaccination is not applied routinely, due to limited availability and high cost of the vaccines, invasive Hib disease is still a cause of mortality. Through the development of a production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine and related quality control tests and the transfer of this technology to emerging vaccine manufacturers in developing countries, a substantial contribution was made to the availability and affordability of Hib conjugate vaccines in these countries. Technology transfer is considered to be one of the fastest ways to get access to the technology needed for the production of vaccines. The first Hib conjugate vaccine based on the transferred technology was licensed in 2007, since then more Hib vaccines based on this technology were licensed. This paper describes the successful development and transfer of Hib conjugate vaccine technology to vaccine manufacturers in India, China and Indonesia. By describing the lessons learned in this process, it is hoped that other technology transfer projects can benefit from the knowledge and experience gained. PMID:24923635

  2. Preclinical evaluation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine process intended for technology transfer.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Ahd; Verdijk, Pauline; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in low- and middle-income countries has been limited by cost and availability of Hib conjugate vaccines for a long time. It was previously recognized by the Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc, originating from the former Vaccinology Unit of the National Institute of Public Health [RIVM] and the Netherlands Vaccine Institute [NVI]) that local production of a Hib conjugate vaccine would increase the affordability and sustainability of the vaccine and thereby help to speed up Hib introduction in these countries. A new affordable and a non-infringing production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine was developed, including relevant quality control tests, and the technology was transferred to a number of vaccine manufacturers in India, Indonesia, and China. As part of the Hib technology transfer project managed by Intravacc, a preclinical toxicity study was conducted in the Netherlands to test the safety and immunogenicity of this new Hib conjugate vaccine. The data generated by this study were used by the technology transfer partners to accelerate the clinical development of the new Hib conjugate vaccine. A repeated dose toxicity and local tolerance study in rats was performed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new Hib conjugate vaccine compared to a licensed vaccine. The results showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in rats, no major differences in both safety and immunogenicity in rats were found between the vaccine produced according to the production process developed by Intravacc and the licensed one. Rats may be useful to verify the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines and for preclinical evaluation. In general, nonclinical evaluation of the new Hib conjugate vaccine, including this proof of concept (safety and immunogenicity study in rats), made it possible for technology transfer partners, having implemented the original process with no changes in the manufacturing process and vaccine formulation, to start directly with phase 1 clinical trials. PMID:25483504

  3. Impact of State Vaccine Financing Policy on Uptake of Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Stokley, Shannon; Shaw, Kate M.; Barker, Lawrence; Santoli, Jeanne M.; Shefer, Abigail

    2006-01-01

    Objective. We examined heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) uptake among children aged 19 to 35 months in the United States and determined how uptake rates differed by state vaccine financing policy. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2001–2003 National Immunization Survey. States that changed their vaccine financing policy between 2001 and 2003 (n=17) were excluded from analysis. Logistic regression was performed to identify the association between state vaccine financing policy and receipt of 3 or more doses of PCV7 after control for demographic characteristics. Results. The proportion of children receiving 3 or more doses increased from 6.7% in 2001 to 69.0% in 2003. After controlling for demographic characteristics, children residing in states that provided all vaccines except PCV7 to all children had lower odds of receiving 3 or more doses compared to children residing in states that provided PCV7 only to children eligible for the Vaccines for Children program (odds ratio=0.58; 95% confidence interval=0.51, 0.66). Conclusion. It is essential that we continue to monitor the effect that state vaccine financing policy has on the delivery of PCV7 and future vaccines, which are likely to be increasingly expensive. PMID:16735626

  4. Investigation in a murine model of possible mechanisms of enhanced local reactions to post-primary diphtheria-tetanus toxoid boosters in recipients of acellular pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Yuen, Chun-Ting; Asokanathan, Catpagavalli; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Okada, Kenji; Kataoka, Michiyo; Markey, Kevin; Corbel, Michael; Xing, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    In recipients primed with acellular pertussis diphtheria-tetanus combined vaccine (DTaP) an increased incidence of severe local reactions with extensive redness/swelling has been reported for each subsequent dose of diphtheria-tetanus based combination vaccine given as a booster. This has been attributed to residual active pertussis toxin (PT) in the primary vaccine. In this study, we investigated the possible contribution of the A-subunit enzymatic activity and the B-oligomer carbohydrate binding activity of residual PT in DTaP to local reactions in a murine model using Japanese DTaP batches produced before and after the introduction of a test for reversion of pertussis toxoid to toxin. Residual PT activity was correlated with the B-oligomer carbohydrate binding activity. The in vivo mouse footpad swelling model assay indicated that the B-oligomer carbohydrate binding activity and possibly other factors were associated with intensified sensitization to local reaction following diphtheria toxoid booster. PMID:25424818

  5. Baseline immunity to diphtheria and immunologic response after booster vaccination with reduced diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccine in Thai health care workers.

    PubMed

    Wiboonchutikul, Surasak; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sangsajja, Chariya; Thientong, Varaporn; Likanonsakul, Sirirat; Srisopha, Somkid; Termvises, Patamavadee; Rujitip, Jitlada; Loiusirirotchanakul, Suda; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2014-07-01

    A prospective study to evaluate immune status against diphtheria and immunologic response after tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster vaccination was conducted in 250 Thai health care workers (HCWs). A protective antibody was found in 89.2% of the HCWs (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.3%-91.5%) before receipt of the Td booster vaccination, compared with 97.2% (95% CI, 95.1%-99.3%) after receipt of the first dose of booster (P < .001). The mean antibody level against diphtheria increased from 0.39 IU/mL (95% CI, 0.35-0.44 IU/mL) before the Td booster vaccination to 1.20 IU/mL (95% CI, 1.12-1.29 IU/mL) after the vaccination (P < .001). Td booster vaccination should be considered for Thai HCWs to maintain immunity against diphtheria, which still circulates in Thailand. PMID:24751139

  6. Dosing schedules for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: considerations for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Cynthia G; Goldblatt, David; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses-the schedule-that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

  7. Immune Response to Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine in Asplenic Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Balmer; Michelle Falconer; Paula McDonald; Nick Andrews; Emily Fuller; Christine Riley; Edward Kaczmarski; Raymond Borrow

    2004-01-01

    Asplenic individuals are known to be at increased risk of infection with encapsulated bacteria. Recent United Kingdom recommendations stated that this at-risk group should receive one dose of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine. However, the immune response of asplenic individuals to MCC vaccine is unknown. The immune response of asplenics (n 130) to immunization with the MCC vaccine

  8. Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN BLACK; HENRY SHINEFIELD; BRUCE FIREMAN; EDWIN LEWIS; PAULA RAY; JOHN R. HANSEN; LAURA ELVIN; KATHY M. ENSOR; JILL HACKELL; GEORGE SIBER; FRANK MALINOSKI; DACE MADORE; IH CHANG; ROBERT KOHBERGER; WENDY WATSON; ROBERT AUSTRIAN; KATHY EDWARDS

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effica- cy, safety, and immunogenicity of the heptavalent CRM197 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) against inva- sive disease caused by vaccine serotypes and to determine the effec- tiveness of this vaccine against clinical episodes of otitis media. Methods: The Wyeth Lederle heptavalent CRM197 PCV was given to infants at 2, 4, 6 and 12 to 15 months

  9. Conjugating recombinant proteins to Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoProtein A: A strategy for enhancing immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Qian; Yimin Wu; Olga Muratova; Hong Zhou; Gelu Dobrescu; Peter Duggan; Lambert Lynn; Guanhong Song; Yanling Zhang; Karine Reiter; Nicholas MacDonald; David L. Narum; Carole A. Long; Louis H. Miller; Allan Saul; Gregory E. D. Mullen

    2007-01-01

    Conjugation of polysaccharides to carrier proteins has been a successful approach for producing safe and effective vaccines. In an attempt to increase the immunogenicity of two malarial vaccine candidate proteins of Plasmodium falciparum, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) to a blood stage vaccine candidate and surface protein 25 (Pfs25) a mosquito stage vaccine candidate, were each independently chemically conjugated to

  10. Pediatric Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Vaccine Serotypes following the Introduction of Conjugate Vaccination in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Ingels, Helene; Rasmussen, Jeppe N.; Andersen, Peter H. S.; Bjerre, Catherine C.; Goldblatt, David; Ashton, Lindsey; Haston, Mitch; Konradsen, Helle B.; Lambertsen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule) in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction of PCV7 in the program, mainly due to a decline in IPD caused by PCV7-serotypes. We report the results from a nationwide population-based cohort study of laboratory confirmed IPD cases in children younger than 5 years during October 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 and describe the characteristics of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number) and 105 (55%) caused by one of the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13. Ten children had received at least one PCV7 dose before the onset of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype. Seven children were considered to be incompletely vaccinated before IPD, but only three cases fulfilled the criteria of vaccine failure (caused by serotypes 14, 19F and 23F). One case of vaccine failure was observed in a severely immunosuppressed child following three PCV7 doses, and two cases were observed in immunocompetent children following two infant doses before they were eligible for their booster. None of the IPD cases caused by the additional PCV13 serotypes had been vaccinated by PCV13 and there were therefore no PCV13-vaccine failures in the first 8-months after PCV13 introduction in Denmark. PMID:23365635

  11. Otitis media in children vaccinated during consecutive 7-valent or 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination schedules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2001 when 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced, almost all (90%) young Australian Indigenous children living in remote communities had some form of otitis media (OM), including 24% with tympanic membrane perforation (TMP). In late 2009, the Northern Territory childhood vaccination schedule replaced PCV7 with 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10). Methods We conducted regular surveillance of all forms of OM in children in remote Indigenous communities between September 2008 and December 2012. This analysis compares children less than 36 months of age who received a primary course of at least two doses of PCV7 or PHiD-CV10, and not more than one dose of another pneumococcal vaccine. Results Mean ages of 444 PCV7- and 451 PHiD-CV10-vaccinated children were 20 and 18 months, respectively. Bilaterally normal middle ears were detected in 7% and 9% respectively. OM with effusion was diagnosed in 41% and 51% (Risk Difference 10% [95% Confidence Interval 3 to 17] p?=?0.002), any suppurative OM (acute OM or any TMP) in 51% versus 39% (RD ?12% [95% CI ?19 to ?5] p?=?0.0004], and TMP in 17% versus 14% (RD ?3% [95% CI ?8 to 2] p?=?0.2), respectively. Multivariate analyses described a similar independent negative association between suppurative OM and PHiD-CV10 compared to PCV7 (Odds Ratio?=?0.6 [95% CI 0.4 to 0.8] p?=?0.001). Additional children in the household were a risk factor for OM (OR?=?2.4 [95% CI 2 to 4] p?=?0.001 for the third additional child), and older age and male gender were associated with less disease. Other measured risk factors were non-significant. Similar clinical results were found for children who had received non-mixed PCV schedules. Conclusions Otitis media remains a significant health and social issue for Australian Indigenous children despite PCV vaccination. Around 90% of young children have some form of OM. Children vaccinated in with PHiD-CV10 had less suppurative OM than children vaccinated with PCV7. Ongoing surveillance during the PCV13 era, and trials of early intervention including earlier and mixed vaccine schedules are warranted. PMID:25109288

  12. Determining trace amounts and the origin of formaldehyde impurity in Neisseria meningitidis A/C/Y/W-135-DT conjugate vaccine formulated in isotonic aqueous 1× PBS by improved C18-UPLC method.

    PubMed

    Gudlavalleti, Seshu K; Crawford, Erika N; Tran, Nhi N; Orten, Dana J; Harder, Jeffery D; Reddy, Jeeri R

    2015-03-25

    The ability to accurately measure and report trace amounts of residual formaldehyde impurity in a vaccine product is not only critical in the product release but also a regulatory requirement. In many bacterial or viral vaccine manufacturing procedures, formaldehyde is used either at a live culture inactivation step or at a protein de-toxification step or at both. Reported here is a validated and improved C18-UPLC method (developed based on previously published C-8 HPLC method) to determine the traces of formaldehyde process impurity in a liquid form Neisseria meningitidis A/C/Y/W-135-DT conjugate vaccine formulated in isotonic aqueous 1× PBS. UPLC C-18 column and the conditions described distinctly resolved the 2,4-DNPH-HCHO adduct from the un-reacted 2,4-DNPH as detected by TUV detector at 360nm. This method was shown to be compatible with PBS formulation and extremely sensitive (with a quantitation limit of 0.05ppm) and aided to determine formaldehyde contamination sources by evaluating the in-process materials as a track-down analysis. Final nanogram levels of formaldehyde in the formulated single dose vialed vaccine mainly originated from the diphtheria toxoid carrier protein used in the production of the conjugate vaccine, whereas relative contribution from polysaccharide API was minimal. PMID:25668795

  13. The Differential Impact of Coadministered Vaccines, Geographic Region, Vaccine Product and Other Covariates on Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antipneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antibody concentrations are used as predictors of vaccine efficacy against vaccine serotype (ST) pneumococcal disease among infants. While pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are recommended globally, factors associated with optimal PCV immune response are not well described. We aimed to systematically assess local setting factors, beyond dosing schedule, which may affect PCV antibody levels. Methods: We conducted a literature review of PCV immunogenicity, abstracting data from published reports, unpublished sources, and conference abstracts from 1994 to 2010 (and ad hoc 2011 reports). Studies included in this analysis evaluated ? 2 primary doses of PCV before 6 months of age in non–high-risk populations, used 7-valent or higher PCV products (excluding Aventis-Pasteur and Merck products) and provided information on geometric mean concentration (GMC) for STs 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F or 23F. Using random effects meta-regression, we assessed the impact of geographic region, coadministered vaccines and PCV product on postprimary GMC, adjusting for dosing schedule and ELISA laboratory method. Results: Of 12,980 citations reviewed, we identified 103 vaccine study arms for this analysis. Children in studies from Asia, Africa and Latin America had significantly higher GMC responses compared with those in studies from Europe and North America. Coadministration with acellular pertussis DTP compared with whole-cell DTP had no effect on PCV immunogenicity except for ST14, where GMCs were higher when coadministered with acellular pertussis DTP. Vaccine product, number of PCV doses, dosing interval, age at first dose and ELISA laboratory method also affected the GMC. Conclusions: PCV immunogenicity is associated with geographic region and vaccine product; however, the associations and magnitude varied by ST. Consideration of these factors is essential when comparing PCV immunogenicity results between groups and should be included in the evidence base when selecting optimal PCV vaccine schedules in specific settings. PMID:24336055

  14. Vaccine-preventable disease and immunization in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Bart, K J; Lin, K F

    1990-06-01

    Vaccines have given health care providers control over a substantial portion of the morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Global efforts have immunized two-thirds of the world's children with DTP and polio vaccines; 72% have received BCG and 59% measles vaccine; but only 29% of pregnant women have received two doses of tetanus toxoid. In addition, vaccines against yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, hepatitis B, rubella, and mumps and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine are being used in specific regions of the world. New vaccine candidates will enhance the vaccine armamentarium over the next decade to include the causes of pneumonia, diarrhea, and meningitis: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal and meningococcal protein conjugate vaccines, typhoid and rotavirus vaccine. Genetically engineered vaccine vehicles, genetic reassortants, and genetic deletions are being investigated as new vaccine candidates. PMID:2190145

  15. Making new vaccines affordable: a comparison of financing processes used to develop and deploy new meningococcal and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Greenwood, Brian; Clift, Charles; Goel, Akshay; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Smith, Richard; Heymann, David L

    2011-11-26

    Mechanisms to increase access to health products are varied and controversial. Two innovative mechanisms have been used to accelerate the development of low-price supply lines for conjugate vaccines. The Meningitis Vaccine Project is a so-called push mechanism that facilitated technology transfer to an Indian company to establish capacity to manufacture a vaccine. The Advanced Market Commitment for pneumococcal vaccines is a so-called pull mechanism that guarantees companies a supplement paid in addition to the purchase price for vaccines for a specific period. We compare these approaches, identifying key dimensions of each and considering their potential for replication. We also discuss issues that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) face now that these new vaccines are available. Progress towards GAVI's strategic aims is needed and funding is crucial. Approaches that decrease the financial pressure on GAVI and greatly increase political and financial engagement by low-income countries should also be considered. PMID:21664678

  16. Effect of nationwide vaccination of 3-month-old infants in The Netherlands with conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: High efficacy and lack of herd immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loek van Alphen; Lodewijk Spanjaard; Arie van der Ende; Ilse Schuurman; Jacob Dankert

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The effect of nationwide vaccination in The Netherlands with conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine on the incidence of H. influenzae meningitis was assessed in the first 3 years after the introduction of vaccination to the birth cohort at 3 months of age. Study design: Children in The Netherlands born after April 1, 1993, were vaccinated at the age

  17. Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in children following heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Lakshman; C Murdoch; G Race; R Burkinshaw; L Shaw; A Finn

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To ascertain whether the reduction in nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine serotypes induced by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) administered to infants persists beyond the age of 2 years.Methods: Non-randomised, unblinded controlled study of 2–5 year old children who had received three doses of heptavalent PnCV (7VPnCV) in infancy and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 13 months, and unimmunised controls. Nasopharyngeal

  18. Physicochemical analysis of purified diphtheria toxoids: is toxoided then purified the same as purified then toxoided?

    PubMed

    Frech, C; Hilbert, A K; Hartmann, G; Mayer, K; Sauer, T; Bolgiano, B

    2000-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin can be converted into a highly immunogenic and irreversibly detoxified vaccine either using the conventional process in which the crude toxin is formalinised and subsequently purified (DTxd(conv)) or by detoxification of the highly purified toxin (DTxd(new)). In this study, both DTxd(new) and DTxd(conv) were evaluated by use of physico-chemical methods. For some methods, results were also compared to those obtained for cross-reacting material (CRM197), which is a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin. DTxd(new) was assayed to have a specific purity of at least 2300 LF/mg protein N, thereby exceeding Pharm. Eur. requirements by up to 35%. Superior purity of DTxd(new) could also be demonstrated by size exclusion HPLC experiments and by amino acid composition studies. Far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of DTxd(new) almost resembled that of CRM197, suggesting only minor molecular changes during detoxification. This study worked out differences between purified diphtheria toxoids. Physico-chemical means revealed the advantages of DTxd(new) being the purer and more defined product, thus making it highly efficient for its use as a vaccine carrier as well as a component of vaccine combinations. PMID:11214238

  19. IC31, a two-component novel adjuvant mixed with a conjugate vaccine enhances protective immunity against pneumococcal disease in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, T A; Lingnau, K; Nagy, E; Jonsdottir, I

    2009-03-01

    IC31 is a novel adjuvant which combines the immunostimulatory effects of an 11-mer antibacterial peptide (KLKL(5)KLK) and a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN1a) which is a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist without containing cytosine phosphate guanine (CpG) motifs. The effects of IC31 on neonatal immune response to vaccination have not been reported. Neonatal mice were immunized once or twice with a Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 polysaccharide conjugate containing Tetanus Toxoid (Pnc1-TT) carrier protein, with or without IC31 or CpG-ODN. IC31 significantly enhanced IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies (Ab) to the serotype 1 polysaccharide. One dose of Pnc1-TT and low dose IC31 elicited high Ab levels that protected the neonatal mice completely from bacteraemia and significantly reduced lung infection following i.n. challenge with serotype 1 pneumococcal strain. One-sixth of an adult murine dose of IC31 was sufficient and optimal for induction of protective immunity in neonatal mice. Two doses of Pnc1-TT with or without adjuvants protected the neonatal mice completely, but more rapid Ab response was observed when IC31 was given with the Pnc1-TT. IC31 is a promising new adjuvant for neonatal vaccinations, rapidly enhancing protective humoral responses when combined with Pnc1-TT. PMID:19281531

  20. Effect of Age and Vaccination With a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on the Density of Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Roca, A.; Bottomley, C.; Hill, P. C.; Bojang, A.; Egere, U.; Antonio, M.; Darboe, O.; Greenwood, B. M.; Adegbola, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?This study evaluated the impact of age and pneumococcal vaccination on the density of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage. Methods.?A cluster-randomized trial was conducted in rural Gambia. In 11 villages (the vaccine group), all residents received 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7), while in another 10 villages (the control group), only children <30 months old or born during the study period received PCV-7. Cross-sectional surveys (CSSs) were conducted to collect nasopharyngeal swabs before vaccination (baseline CSS) and 4, 12, and 22 months after vaccination. Pneumococcal density was defined using a semiquantitative classification (range, 1–4) among colonized individuals. An age-trend analysis of density was conducted using data from the baseline CSS. Mean pneumococcal density was compared in CSSs conducted before and after vaccination. Results.?Mean bacterial density among colonized individuals in the baseline CSS was 2.57 for vaccine-type (VT) and non–vaccine-type (NVT) pneumococci; it decreased with age (P < .001 for VT and NVT). There was a decrease in the density of VT carriage following vaccination in individuals older than 5 years (from 2.44 to 1.88; P = .001) and in younger individuals (from 2.57 to 2.11; P = .070) in the vaccinated villages. Similar decreases in density were observed with NVT within vaccinated and control villages. No significant differences were found between vaccinated and control villages in the postvaccination comparisons for either VT or NVT. Conclusions.?A high density of carriage among young subjects might partly explain why children are more efficient than adults in pneumococcal transmission. PCV-7 vaccination lowered the density of VT and of NVT pneumococcal carriage in the before-after vaccination analysis. Clinical Trials Registration.?ISRCTN51695599. PMID:22700830

  1. Development and phase 1 clinical testing of a conjugate vaccine against meningococcus A and C.

    PubMed

    Costantino, P; Viti, S; Podda, A; Velmonte, M A; Nencioni, L; Rappuoli, R

    1992-01-01

    A conjugate vaccine against meningococcus A and C was prepared using the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM 197 as a carrier protein. Capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis group A and C were hydrolysed and the resulting oligosaccharides were then coupled to CRM 197 in order to obtain conjugates with a carbohydrate content of 25-30%. The final vaccine that contained 11 micrograms of each oligosaccharide and 88 micrograms of CRM 197 was used to immunize mice and rabbits. After the preclinical studies which showed that the vaccine was safe and immunogenic in animal models, a pilot phase 1 clinical trial, blind versus placebo, was performed on adult volunteers. The difference between the incidence of adverse reactions associated with vaccine and placebo administration was not statistically significant. All the volunteers who received the vaccine had a significant increase in antibodies to group A and C meningococcal capsular polysaccharides after the first dose. PMID:1523880

  2. Predicting the impact of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: serotype composition is not enough.

    PubMed

    Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard; Adegbola, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. A heptavalent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV) has proven highly effective in preventing pneumococcal disease in industrialized countries. Two higher-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are now widely available, even in the poorest countries. These differ from each other in the number of serotypes and carrier proteins used for their conjugation. Some have assumed that the only meaningful clinical difference between PCV formulations is a function of the number of serotypes each contains. A careful review of recent clinical data with these and several unlicensed PCV formulations points to important similarities but also that some key properties of each vaccine likely differ from one another. PMID:25266168

  3. Vi-CRM197 as a new conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Micoli, F.; Rondini, S.; Pisoni, I.; Proietti, D.; Berti, F.; Costantino, P.; Rappuoli, R.; Szu, S.; Saul, A.; Martin, L.B.

    2014-01-01

    An efficacious, low cost vaccine against typhoid fever, especially for young children, would make a major impact on disease burden in developing countries. The virulence capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi (Vi) coupled to recombinant mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A (Vi-rEPA) has been shown to be highly efficacious. We investigated the use of carrier proteins included in infant vaccines, standardized the conjugation process and developed key assays required for routine lot release at production scale. Vi from a BSL1 organism, Citrobacter freundii, strain WR7011, was used as an alternative to Vi from S. Typhi. We showed that Vi conjugated to CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, widely used in commercial vaccines, was produced at high yield. Vi-CRM197 proved immunogenic in animal studies, even without adjuvant. Thus, Vi-CRM197 appears to be a suitable candidate for the development of a commercially viable, effective typhoid vaccine for developing countries. PMID:21115057

  4. Preparation, characterization, and immunological properties in mice of Escherichia coli O157 O-specific polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Konadu, E; Robbins, J B; Shiloach, J; Bryla, D A; Szu, S C

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 causes severe enteritis and the extraintestinal complication of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, with their highest incidence occurring in children. We postulated that serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the O-specific polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may confer protective immunity to enteric pathogens by inducing bactericidal reactions against the ingested organisms in the jejunum (J. B. Robbins, C. Chu, and R. Schneerson, Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:346-361, 1992; S. C. Szu, R. Gupta, and J. B. Robbins, p. 381-394, in I. K. Wachsmuth, P. A. Blake, and O. Olsvik, ed., Vibrio cholerae, 1994). Because polysaccharide-protein conjugates induce serum IgG antibodies in infants, we bound the O-specific polysaccharide of E. coli O157 to proteins. E. coli O157 LPS, treated with acetic acid or hydrazine, was derivatized with adipic acid dihydrazide and bound to proteins by carbodiimide-mediated condensation. Conjugates of these adipic hydrazide derivative were prepared with bovine serum albumin, formalin-treated exotoxin C of Clostridium welchii (Pig Bel toxoid), or Pseudomonas aeruginosa recombinant exoprotein A. The conjugates had low levels of endotoxin and elicited serum antibodies with bactericidal activity to the O157 LPS. The largest increase in LPS antibodies was of the IgG class. Clinical evaluation of E. coli O157-toxoid conjugates is planned. Images PMID:7927787

  5. Cost-effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Blank, Patricia R; Szucs, Thomas D

    2012-06-13

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been shown to be highly cost-effective. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) offers seroprotection against six additional serotypes. A decision-analytic model was constructed to estimate direct medical costs and clinical effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia, and otitis media relative to PCV7 vaccination. The option with an one-dose catch-up vaccination in children of 15-59 months was also considered. Assuming 83% vaccination coverage and considering indirect effects, 1808 IPD, 5558 pneumonia and 74,136 otitis media cases could be eliminated from the entire population during a 10-year modelling period. The PCV13 vaccination programme would lead to additional costs (+€26.2 Mio), but saved medical costs of -€77.1 Mio due to cases averted and deaths avoided, overcompensate these costs (total cost savings -€50.9 Mio). The national immunisation programmes with PCV13 can be assumed cost saving when compared with the current vaccine PCV7 in Switzerland. PMID:22521287

  6. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines - a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Visser, Adele; Hoosen, Anwar

    2012-09-01

    Introduction of Hib vaccine is known to positively impact on reduction of both morbidity and mortality in children less than 5 years of age. Incorporation of this vaccine into a National EPI, however, does come at a significant cost, which is especially important in non-GAVI funded countries. Compounded reduction in response in certain patient populations and possible indication of booster doses further impacts on cost-benefit analyses. Despite these issues, South Africa has supplied Hib vaccine as part of the National EPI in the form of a combination vaccine, Pentaxim, which combines Hib with Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis (DTP) and Poliomyelitis since 2009. Prior to this, another combination vaccine was utilized containing Hib and DTP. This has subsequently lead to a significant reduction in invasive Hib disease post-introduction, therefore largely justifying utilization. PMID:22939022

  7. A conjugate vaccine using enantiopure hapten imparts superior nicotine-binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Lockner, Jonathan W; Lively, Jenny M; Collins, Karen C; Vendruscolo, Janaína C M; Azar, Marc R; Janda, Kim D

    2015-01-22

    A leading nicotine conjugate vaccine was only efficacious for one-third of clinical trial participants, likely due in part to its use of racemic nicotine hapten, (±)-3'-AmNic. Immunization of male Wistar rats with (+)-, (-)-, or (±)-3'-AmNicSucTT and subsequent antibody immunoassays suggest that a vaccine using enantiopure (-)-3'-AmNic hapten imparts superior capacity to bind (-)-nicotine. Future nicotine vaccine clinical candidates must incorporate this design consideration (i.e., hapten enantiopurity) in order to maximize efficacy. PMID:25493909

  8. Phase 1 trial of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, Daniel A; Komjathy, Steven F; Hu, Branda T; Baker, Sherryl; Supan, Lois A; Monahan, Carol A; Gruber, William; Siber, George R; Lockhart, Stephen P

    2007-08-14

    In a Phase 1 study, 15 healthy subjects were randomized to receive a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and 15 to receive a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPS). Antibody responses were measured immediately before and approximately one month after vaccination. Serotype-specific antibodies were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and an opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) for functional antibodies. PCV13 was as immunogenic or more immunogenic than 23vPS and was well tolerated. PMID:17629361

  9. Preparation and Evaluation of a New Lipopolysaccharide-based Conjugate as a Vaccine Candidate for Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Siadat, Seyed Davar; Vaziri, Farzam; Eftekhary, Mamak; Karbasian, Maryam; Moshiri, Arfa; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad R.; Ardestani, Mehdi S.; Alitappeh, Meghdad Abdollahpour; Arsang, Amin; Fateh, Abolfazl; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Bahrmand, Ahmad R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Development of an efficacious vaccine against brucellosis has been a challenge for scientists for many years. At present, there is no licensed vaccine against human brucellosis. To overcome this problem, currently, antigenic determinants of Brucella cell wall such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are considered as potential candidates to develop subunit vaccines. Methods In this study, Brucella abortus LPS was used for conjugation to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B outer membrane vesicle (OMV) as carrier protein using carbodiimide and adipic acid–mediated coupling and linking, respectively. Groups of eight BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with 10 ?g LPS alone, combined LPS + OMV and conjugated LPS–OMV on 0 days, 14 days, 28 days and 42 days. Anti-LPS IgG was measured in serum. Results The yield of LPS to OMV in LPS–OMV conjugate was 46.55%, on the basis of carbohydrate content. The ratio for LPS to OMV was 4.07. The LPS–OMV conjugate was the most immunogenic compound that stimulated following the first injection with increased IgG titer of ?5-fold and ?1.3-fold higher than that produced against LPS and LPS in noncovalent complex to OMV (LPS + OMV), respectively. The highest anti-LPS IgG titer was detected 2 weeks after the third injection (Day 42) of LPS–OMV conjugate. The conjugated compound elicited higher titers of IgG than LPS + OMV, that showed a 100–120-fold rise of anti-LPS IgG in mice. Conclusion These results indicate that our conjugated LPS–OMV can be used as a brucellosis vaccine, but further investigation is required. PMID:25737825

  10. Assessment of the stability and immunogenicity of meningococcal oligosaccharide C-CRM197 conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ho, M M; Bolgiano, B; Corbel, M J

    2000-11-22

    In this stability study, meningococcal C-CRM(197) conjugate vaccines from two different manufacturers that differ in oligosaccharide chain length, number of conjugation sites, conjugation chemistry, manufacturing process and formulation were used. Both the bulk concentrated and final fill preparations were incubated at -20, 4, 23, 37 or 55 degrees C for 5 weeks or subjected to ten cycles of freeze-thawing. The structural stability, hydrodynamic size and integrity of the treated vaccines were monitored by size exclusion chromatography (FPLC-SEC), high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The data showed that the structural stability of the oligosaccharide chains and of the protein carrier varied between the two conjugates. The experimental immunogenicity was not severely affected by repeated freeze-thawing, incubation at -20 or 4 degrees C, but one developed conformational changes in the protein carrier when incubated at 23 degrees C or above, although the integrity of the oligosaccharide structure was maintained. This was not associated with any reduction in primary IgG or IgM antibody responses to meningococcal C polysaccharide. In the other conjugate vaccine, exposure to 55 degrees C resulted in the release of a substantial proportion of free saccharide that was accompanied by significant reduction in both IgG and IgM antibody responses to immunisation in the model system. In conclusion, the two meningococcal C-CRM(197) conjugate vaccines were stable when stored at the recommended temperatures, although their structural stability and subsequent immunogenicity were influenced by their conjugation chemistry and formulation. PMID:11115692

  11. Combined schedule of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in children and young adults with sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Vernacchio; Ellis J. Neufeld; Kristin MacDonald; Susan Kurth; Saya Murakami; Courtney Hohne; Michelle King; Deborah Molrine

    1998-01-01

    We compared the immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal-conjugate vaccine plus 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine to immunization with 23-valent vaccine only in individuals ?2 years of age with sickle cell disease. IgG pneumococcal antibody concentrations were higher in the combined schedule group with no increase in side effects observed after immunization with 23-valent vaccine. (J Pediatr 1998;133:275-8)

  12. Effectiveness of Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine in Salvador, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Cristiane Wanderley; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Flannery, Brendan; Reis, Joice Neves

    2015-01-01

    Background During a citywide epidemic of serogroup C meningococcal disease in Salvador in 2010, Brazil, the state government initiated mass vaccination targeting two age groups with high attack rates: individuals aged <5 years and 10–24 years. More than 600,000 doses of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines were administered. We performed a case-control study to evaluate vaccine uptake, document vaccine effectiveness and identify reasons for non-vaccination. Methods and Findings Population-based surveillance identified patients with laboratory-confirmed invasive meningococcal C (MenC) disease during 2010. Information on MenC vaccination was obtained from case patients and age-matched individuals from the same neighborhoods. MenC vaccine effectiveness was estimated based on the exact odds ratios obtained by conditional logistic regression analysis. Of 51 laboratory-confirmed cases of serogroup C meningococcal disease among patients <5 and 10–24 years of age 50 were included in the study and matched with 240 controls. Overall case-fatality was 25%. MenC vaccine coverage among controls increased from 7.1% to 70.2% after initiation of the vaccination campaign. None of the 50 case patients but 70 (29.2%) of the 240 control individuals, including 59 (70.2%) of 84 matched with cases from the period after MenC vaccination, had received at least one MenC vaccine dose. Overall effectiveness of MenC was 98% with a lower 95% exact confidence limit of 89%. Conclusions MenC vaccines administered during the meningococcal epidemic were highly effective, suggesting that rapid vaccine uptake through campaigns contributed to control of meningococcal disease. PMID:25874777

  13. Single priming dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine (NeisVac-C®) in infants.

    PubMed

    Poellabauer, Eva-Maria; Pavlova, Borislava G; Fritsch, Sandor; Singer, Julia; Neubauer, Christian; Doralt, Jennifer; Valenta-Singer, Barbara; Ehrlich, Hartmut J

    2013-08-01

    Since the introduction of the meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in the pediatric population in 1999, numerous clinical studies have confirmed the immunogenicity and safety of the NeisVac-C(®) vaccine, and several have observed a strong immune response after a single priming dose, which could be successfully boosted. Maximizing protection of infants with as few vaccine doses as possible would increase the general acceptability of the immunization strategies and support broader coverage without increasing vaccination costs. This was a randomized feasibility study of a single priming NeisVac-C(®) vaccine dose administered at 4 or 6 months of age, compared to the currently licensed two dose priming at 2 and 4 months of age, followed by a booster vaccination at 12-13 months of age. High seroprotection rates and serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titers were observed in all study groups, whether a single or two dose priming vaccination was administered, at all time points investigated: one month after the priming vaccination(s) (>99% of subjects rSBA?8), prior to booster vaccination (>65% of subjects with rSBA?8, with the lowest titers and GMTs seen in the two dose priming group), as well as after booster vaccination administration (99% with rSBA?128 in all three study groups, with the highest GMT of 2472 seen in the 4 month single dose group). This study confirmed trends seen in previous reports that a single-dose priming vaccination at 4 or 6 months of age can be considered a valuable alternative to the currently licensed two-dose priming vaccination schedule. PMID:23672977

  14. Impact of infant 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on serotypes in adult pneumonia

    E-print Network

    Rodrigo, Chamira; Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; Mckeever, Tricia M; Trotter, Caroline L; Slack, Mary; George, Robert; Lim, Wei Shen

    2015-01-01

    of the study. Between the pre- and post PCV13 periods of the study, the incidence of CAP due to serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine declined by 88% (IRR 0.12, 95%CI0.08-0.20,p<0.001), and CAP due to the additional 6 serotypes...

  15. Immunological evaluation of an alginate-based conjugate as a vaccine candidate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Farjah, Ali; Owlia, Parviz; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mohammadpour, Hashem Khorsand

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections, is usually resistant to antimicrobial agents, and is the leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa produce a virulence factor known as alginate. Developing a strategy to raise opsonic antibodies against alginate could be promising for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients. Conjugation of alginate to a carrier protein is a good method for increasing the immunogenicity of alginate. We conjugated alginate to the outer membrane vesicle (OMV) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, which is a safe carrier protein, and evaluated its efficacy in mice. To evaluate the immune response, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b titers were analyzed. Immunization of mice with the alginate-OMV conjugate raised the levels of opsonic antibodies, and the vaccinated mice were protected when challenged intranasally with P. aeruginosa. Further studies showed that the conjugated vaccine could eliminate P. aeruginosa from the lungs of infected mice. This study supports the proposal that immunization of mice with an alginate-OMV conjugate vaccine could be safe and protective against P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:25470757

  16. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... What is Td vaccine?Td vaccine can protect adolescents and adults from tetanus ... be given earlier after a severe and dirty wound or burn.Your doctor can ...

  17. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccines against cancer: the Memorial Sloan Kettering experience.

    PubMed

    Musselli, C; Livingston, P O; Ragupathi, G

    2001-10-01

    Passively administered and actively induced antibodies have been associated with the eradication of circulating tumor cells and micrometastases in mice and humans. We have identified a series of cell surface carbohydrate and peptide antigens on melanomas, sarcomas, and cancer of the breast, prostate. ovary, and lung tissues. We found that breaking tolerance toward these tumor antigens was best achieved using vaccines containing antigens chemically conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) plus a potent immunological adjuvant (QS-21). To date, by using this approach to vaccination. antibodies have been induced in patients against glycolipid antigens GM2, GD2, GD3, FucosylGM1, Globo H, and Lewis Y, and glycoprotein (mucin) antigens Tn, sialyl Tn. TF, and MUC1. More recently, in a comparative study we investigated the T cell response induced by MUCI-KLH conjugates. Although a MUC1-specific T cell response was not consistently detected in any patient, the role of KLH in orienting the cytokine environment was crucial. We were able to confirm that KLH in these conjugate vaccines induces a Th1 T cell response as demonstrated by the high anti-KLH INF-gamma secretion and the IgGI and IgG3 subclasses of this high titer IgG antibodies induced. Clinical trials using KLH conjugated glycolipid and glycoprotein vaccines, are currently ongoing. These range from phase I/II single antigens trials with glycosilated MUC1, polysialic acid, synthetic Fucosyl GMI and GD2, to phase II trials with a polyvalent vaccine containing six or seven antigens. Randomized phase II trials with polyvalent vaccines are planned for initiation in 2001-2002 in patients with ovarian, breast, and prostate cancer. PMID:11768620

  18. Epidemiology of vaccine-preventable invasive diseases in Catalonia in the era of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Izquierdo, Conchita; Hernández, Sergi; Broner, Sonia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Domínguez, Àngela; of Catalonia Study Group, the Microbiological Reporting System

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the incidence and distribution of cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and invasive Hemophilus influenzae disease (IHiD) notified by hospital laboratories to the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia between 2005 and 2009. Incidence rates were compared using the rate ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 6,661 cases, 6,012 were IPD, 436 IMD and 213 IHiD. The global annual incidence per 105 inhabitants was 16.62 (95% CI 16.20–17.04) for IPD, 1.21 (95% CI 1.09–1.32) for IMD and 0.59 (95% CI 0.51–0.67) for IHiD. IPD increased in 2009 compared with 2005 (RR:1.55, 95%CI: 1.43–1.70) and IMD and IHiD remained stable. Pneumonia was the most-frequent clinical manifestation of IPD (75.6%) and IHiD (44.1%) and meningoencephalitis with or without sepsis for IMD (70.6%). The male:female ratio was 1.37 for IPD, 1.0 for IMD and 1.15 for IHiD. The age groups with the highest incidence were the ? 2 y and 2–4 y groups for IPD (66.40 and 50.66/100,000 persons-year) and IMD (14.88 and 7.26/100,000 persons-year) and the ? 2 y and ? 65 y groups for IHiD (1.88 and 1.89/100,000 persons-year). The most-frequent serotypes were serotype 1 (19.0%) in IPD and untypeable serotypes (60.8%) in IHiD. Serogroup B (78.3%) was the most frequent in IMD. S. pneumoniae is the most-frequent agent causing invasive disease in Catalonia. The main clinical manifestations were pneumonia in IPD and IHiD and meningitis in IMD. The main causative agent of meningitis was N. meningitidis in people aged < 20 y and S. pneumoniae in people aged ? 20 y. Vaccination with conjugate vaccines may reduce the risk of infectious disease in our setting. PMID:23303166

  19. Increased Protection against Pneumococcal Disease by Mucosal Administration of Conjugate Vaccine plus Interleukin-12

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Joyce M.; Briles, David E.; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, its main entry route being the nasal mucosa. The recent development of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has led to a dramatic improvement in protection against invasive disease in infants and children, but these vaccines have been found to be only 50 to 60% protective against bacterial carriage. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intranasal (i.n.) conjugate vaccine delivery using interleukin-12 (IL-12) as a mucosal adjuvant. Immunized mice treated with IL-12 demonstrated increased expression of lung and splenic gamma interferon and IL-10 mRNAs; high levels of antibody, particularly serum immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and respiratory IgA; and significantly increased opsonic activity. After intraperitoneal challenge with type 3 pneumococci, there was 75% survival of i.n. vaccinated mice compared to 0% survival of unvaccinated mice. In addition, after i.n. challenge with type 14 pneumococci, vaccinated mice possessed fewer bacterial colonies in the upper respiratory tract than unvaccinated mice. However, no significant difference in type 14 carriage was observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups following intramuscular vaccination, the typical route of vaccination in humans. Using mice with a genetic disruption in IgA expression, it was found that pneumococcus-specific IgA played a significant role in the clearance of bacteria from the upper respiratory tract. We conclude that i.n vaccination in the presence of IL-12 is able to enhance systemic and mucosal immune responses to pneumococci and efficiently protect against both invasive infection and bacterial carriage. PMID:12874361

  20. Do pneumococcal conjugate vaccines provide any cross-protection against serotype 19A?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in several countries has led to a rapid, significant drop in vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in immunized children. In the United States and some other countries with high antibiotic use, a subsequent rise in serotype 19A IPD has been taken to indicate that the 19F conjugate in the vaccine provides no cross-protection against the immunologically related 19A. Discussion We systematically assessed the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of 19F-containing vaccines against 19A disease or nasopharyngeal carriage by searching English-language articles in the electronic databases PubMed, Current contents, Scopus, and Embase from 1985 to 2008. The vaccine efficacy and effectiveness point estimates were consistently positive for modest protection against 19A IPD and acute otitis media (AOM). However, statistical significance was not reached in any individual study. No consistent impact of 7vCRM on 19A nasopharyngeal colonization could be detected. These findings are discussed in context of immunogenicity analyses indicating that 7vCRM induces functionally active anti-19A antibodies after the booster dose, and that other 19F-containing vaccine formulations may elicit higher levels of such antibodies after both primary and booster doses. Summary Taken together, these results suggest that 19F-conjugates can provide some protection against 19A disease. The magnitude of this protection in a given setting will likely depend on several factors. These include the anti-19A immunogenicity of the specific vaccine formulation, the number of doses of that formulation needed to elicit the response, and the burden of 19A disease that occurs after those doses. It is possible that a modest protective effect may be obscured by the presence of countervailing selection pressures (such as high antibiotic use) that favor an increase in colonization with antibiotic-non-susceptible strains of 19A. PMID:20122261

  1. A morphine conjugate vaccine attenuates the behavioral effects of morphine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Therese A.; Shen, Xiaoyun Y.; O'Malley, Patrick W.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Lykissa, Ernest D.; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines for opioid dependence may provide a treatment that would reduce or slow the distribution of the drug to brain, thus reducing the drug's reinforcing effects. We tested whether a conjugate vaccine against morphine (keyhole limpet hemocyanin-6-succinylmorphine; KLH-6-SM) administered to rats would produce antibodies and show specificity for morphine or other heroin metabolites. The functional effects of the vaccine were tested with antinociceptive and conditioned place preference (CPP) tests. Rats were either vaccinated with KLH-6-SM and received two boosts 3 and 16 weeks later or served as controls and received KLH alone. Anti-morphine antibodies were produced in vaccinated rats; levels increased and were sustained at moderate levels through 24 weeks. Antibody binding was inhibited by free morphine and other heroin metabolites as demonstrated by competitive inhibition ELISA. Vaccinated rats showed reduced morphine CPP, tested during weeks 4 to 6, and decreased antinociceptive responses to morphine, tested at week 7. Brain morphine levels, assessed using gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) on samples obtained at 26 weeks, were significantly lower in vaccinated rats. This suggests that morphine entry into the brain was reduced or slowed. These results provide support for KLH-6-SM as a candidate vaccine for opioid dependence. PMID:23739535

  2. Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in children following heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, R; Murdoch, C; Race, G; Burkinshaw, R; Shaw, L; Finn, A

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To ascertain whether the reduction in nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine serotypes induced by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) administered to infants persists beyond the age of 2 years. Methods: Non-randomised, unblinded controlled study of 2–5 year old children who had received three doses of heptavalent PnCV (7VPnCV) in infancy and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 13 months, and unimmunised controls. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken in summer (150 vaccinated subjects, 126 controls) and winter (143 vaccinated subjects, 188 controls). The swabs were cultured and serotyped for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Results: Carriage rates (vaccinated subjects: 24.7% and 43.4%; controls: 27.0% and 41.0%, in summer and winter respectively) and carriage of vaccine serotypes (subjects: 10.0% and 30.0%; controls: 13.5% and 31.5%, in summer and winter respectively) were similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Effects of vaccination in infancy on rates of nasal carriage of pneumococcus and serotype replacement in children living in a largely unvaccinated population are no longer evident by 2–5 years of age. PMID:12598380

  3. Immune response to the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 30 asplenic children.

    PubMed

    Mikoluc, B; Kayhty, H; Bernatowska, E; Motkowski, R

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of pneumococcal antibodies after a dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 30 asplenic children between 4 months and 19 years of age. Fifteen children had received pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) approximately 5 years prior to vaccination with PCV7. The antibody concentrations against serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F were measured by ELISA before and after the PCV7 vaccination. Before vaccination with PCV7, the antibody concentrations were similar in children who had or had not received PPV previously. A dose of PCV7 stimulated a good immune response in asplenic patients. Prior immunization with PPV did not affect the antibody concentration after the vaccination with PCV7. In conclusion, asplenic children vaccinated with PPV may need revaccination with PPV earlier than the recommended 3-5 years after the first dose. PCV7 induces a satisfactory immune response in asplenic patients and should be considered as an alternative vaccine in that patient group. PMID:18584224

  4. Safety of immunization during pregnancy: a review of the evidence of selected inactivated and live attenuated vaccines.

    PubMed

    Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Englund, Janet A; Kang, Gagandeep; Mangtani, Punam; Neuzil, Kathleen; Nohynek, Hanna; Pless, Robert; Lambach, Philipp; Zuber, Patrick

    2014-12-12

    Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are responsible for significant maternal, neonatal, and young infant morbidity and mortality. While there is emerging scientific evidence, as well as theoretical considerations, indicating that certain vaccines are safe for pregnant women and fetuses, policy formulation is challenging because of perceived potential risks to the fetus. This report presents an overview of available evidence on pregnant women vaccination safety monitoring in pregnant women, from both published literature and ongoing surveillance programs. Safety data were reviewed for vaccines against diseases which increase morbidity in pregnant women, their fetus or infant as well as vaccines which are used in mass vaccination campaigns against diseases. They include inactivated seasonal and pandemic influenza, mono- and combined meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugated vaccines, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis combination vaccines, as well as monovalent or combined rubella, oral poliomyelitis virus and yellow fever vaccines. No evidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been identified from immunization of pregnant women with these vaccines. PMID:25285883

  5. Outer membrane protein complex of Meningococcus enhances the antipolysaccharide antibody response to pneumococcal polysaccharide-CRM??? conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R

    2011-05-01

    Bacterial polysaccharides (PS) are T cell-independent antigens that do not induce immunologic memory and are poor immunogens in infants. Conjugate vaccines in which the PS is covalently linked to a carrier protein have enhanced immunogenicity that resembles that of T cell-dependent antigens. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, which uses the outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) from meningococcus as a carrier protein, elicits protective levels of anti-capsular PS antibody (Ab) after a single dose, in contrast to other conjugate vaccines, which require multiple doses. We have previously shown that OMPC robustly engages Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and enhances the early anti-Hib PS Ab titer associated with an increase in TLR2-mediated induction of cytokines. We now show that the addition of OMPC to the 7-valent pneumococcal PS-CRM??? conjugate vaccine during immunization significantly increases the anti-PS IgG and IgM responses to most serotypes of pneumococcus contained in the vaccine. The addition of OMPC also increased the likelihood of anti-PS IgG3 production against serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 18C, 19F, and 23F. Splenocytes from mice who had received OMPC with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine produced significantly more interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and gamma interferon (IFN-?) than splenocytes from mice who received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) plus the conjugate vaccine. We conclude that OMPC enhances the anti-PS Ab response to pneumococcal PS-CRM??? conjugate vaccine, an effect associated with a distinct change in cytokine profile. It may be possible to reduce the number of conjugate vaccine doses required to achieve protective Ab levels by priming with adjuvants that are TLR2 ligands. PMID:21450979

  6. Opsonic and Protective Properties of Antibodies Raised to Conjugate Vaccines Targeting Six Staphylococcus aureus Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Clarissa; Wilk, Katarzyna; Lee, Jean C.; Gening, Marina; Nifantiev, Nikolay; Pier, Gerald B.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections for which a vaccine is greatly desired. Antigens found on the S. aureus outer surface include the capsular polysaccharides (CP) of serotype 5 (CP5) or 8 (CP8) and/or a second antigen, a ?-(1?6)-polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PNAG). Antibodies specific for either CP or PNAG antigens have excellent in vitro opsonic killing activity (OPKA), but when mixed together have potent interference in OPKA and murine protection. To ascertain if this interference could be abrogated by using a synthetic non-acetylated oligosaccharide fragment of PNAG, 9GlcNH2, in place of chemically partially deacetylated PNAG, three conjugate vaccines consisting of 9GlcNH2 conjugated to a non-toxic mutant of alpha-hemolysin (Hla H35L), CP5 conjugated to clumping factor B (ClfB), or CP8 conjugated to iron-surface determinant B (IsdB) were used separately to immunize rabbits. Opsonic antibodies mediating killing of multiple S. aureus strains were elicited for all three vaccines and showed carbohydrate antigen-specific reductions in the tissue bacterial burdens in animal models of S. aureus skin abscesses, pneumonia, and nasal colonization. Carrier-protein specific immunity was also shown to be effective in reducing bacterial levels in infected lungs and in nasal colonization. However, use of synthetic 9GlcNH2 to induce antibody to PNAG did not overcome the interference in OPKA engendered when these were combined with antibody to either CP5 or CP8. Whereas each individual vaccine showed efficacy, combining antisera to CP antigens and PNAG still abrogated individual OPKA activities, indicating difficulty in achieving a multi-valent vaccine targeting both the CP and PNAG antigens. PMID:23077517

  7. Serogroup quantitation of multivalent polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate meningococcal vaccines from China.

    PubMed

    Cook, Matthew C; Gibeault, Sabrina; Filippenko, Vasilisa; Ye, Qiang; Wang, Junzhi; Kunkel, Jeremy P

    2013-07-01

    The active components of most meningococcal vaccines are four antigenic serogroup capsular polysaccharides (A, C, Y, W135). The vaccines, monovalent or multivalent mixtures of either free polysaccharides or polysaccharides conjugated to antigenic carrier proteins, may be in liquid or lyophilised formulations, with or without excipients. Acid hydrolysis and chromatographic methods for serogroup quantitation, which were previously optimised and qualified using polysaccharide-based standards and a narrow range of real vaccines, are here challenged with multiple lots of a broad assortment of additional multivalent polysaccharide-based meningococcal vaccine products. Centrifugal filtration successfully removed all interfering lactose excipient without loss of polysaccharides to allow for the determination of Y and W135 serogroups. Replicate operations by three different analysts indicated high method reproducibility. Results indicated some lot-to-lot and product-to-product variations. However, all vaccines were within general specifications for each serogroup polysaccharide, with the exception of all lots of one polysaccharide vaccine - which by these methods were found to be deficient in the serogroup A component only. These robust techniques are very useful for the evaluation of antigen content and consistency of manufacture. The deformulation, hydrolysis and chromatographic methods may be adaptable for the evaluation of other types of polysaccharide-based vaccines. PMID:23665303

  8. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine stability: catalytic depolymerization of PRP in the presence of aluminum hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie W Sturgess; Kay Rush; Ronald J Charbonneau; James I Lee; David J West; Robert D Sitrin; John P Hennessey

    1999-01-01

    The structural stability of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide, polyribosylribitolphosphate (PRP) in an aluminum hydroxide adsorbed, polysaccharide–protein conjugate vaccine was monitored using modifications of an HPLC assay developed by Tsai et al. [Tsai C-M, Gu X-X, Byrd RA. Quantification of polysaccharide in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric

  9. A preclinical study comparing approaches for augmenting the immunogenicity of a heptavalent KLH-conjugate vaccine against epithelial cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Govind Ragupathi; Fusataka Koide; Natarajan Sathyan; Ella Kagan; Maria Spassova; William Bornmann; Polly Gregor; Celso A. Reis; Henrik Clausen; Samuel J. Danishefsky; Philip O. Livingston

    2003-01-01

    Previously using a series of monovalent vaccines, we demonstrated that the optimal method for inducing an antibody response against cancer cell-surface antigens is covalent conjugation of the antigens to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the use of a saponin adjuvant. We have prepared a heptavalent-KLH conjugate vaccine containing the seven epithelial cancer antigens GM2, Globo H, Lewis y, TF(c), Tn(c),

  10. Production of a conjugate vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from Citrobacter Vi.

    PubMed

    Micoli, F; Rondini, S; Pisoni, I; Giannelli, C; Di Cioccio, V; Costantino, P; Saul, A; Martin, L B

    2012-01-20

    A conjugate vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was produced by chemically linking Vi, purified from Citrobacter, to the non-toxic mutant diphtheria toxin CRM(197) via an adipic dihydrazide spacer using N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide coupling chemistry. The polysaccharide purification process was developed based on Vi precipitation from culture supernatant with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), solubilization of the CTA-polysaccharide salt with ethanol followed by exchange of the CTA(+) counter ion with Na(+). The purified Vi polysaccharide was fully O-acetylated and with high purity. The conjugation process was optimized to obtain a scalable process that has been used for GMP production at pilot scale of vaccine currently in clinical trials. PMID:22172503

  11. N19 Polyepitope as a Carrier for Enhanced Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Baraldo; Elena Mori; Antonella Bartoloni; Roberto Petracca; Aldo Giannozzi; Francesco Norelli; Rino Rappuoli; Guido Grandi; Giuseppe Del Giudice

    2004-01-01

    N19, a string of human universal CD4 T-cell epitopes from various pathogen-derived antigens, was shown to exert a stronger carrier effect than CRM197 for the induction of anti-group C Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide (MenC), after immunization of mice with various dosages of N19-MenC or CRM-MenC conjugate vaccines. After two immunizations, the N19-based construct induced anti-MenC antibody and protective bactericidal antibody

  12. Modeling the impact of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Chinese infants: an economic analysis of a compulsory vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare, from a Chinese societal perspective, the projected health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of adding pneumococcal conjugate heptavalent vaccine (PCV-7) to the routine compulsory child immunization schedule. Methods A decision-tree model, with data and assumptions adapted for relevance to China, was developed to project the health outcomes of PCV-7 vaccination (compared with no vaccination) over a 5-year period as well as a lifetime. The vaccinated birth cohort included 16,000,000 children in China. A 2?+?1 dose schedule at US$136.51 per vaccine dose was used in the base-case analysis. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. The impact of a net indirect effect (herd immunity) was evaluated. Outcomes are presented in terms of the saved disease burden, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Results In a Chinese birth cohort, a PCV-7 vaccination program would reduce the number of pneumococcus-related infections by at least 32% and would prevent 2,682 deaths in the first 5 years of life, saving $1,190 million in total costs and gaining an additional 9,895 QALYs (discounted by 3%). The incremental cost per QALY was estimated to be $530,354. When herd immunity was taken into account, the cost per QALY was estimated to be $95,319. The robustness of the model was influenced mainly by the PCV-7 cost per dose, effectiveness herd immunity and incidence of pneumococcal diseases. With and without herd immunity, the break-even costs in China were $29.05 and $25.87, respectively. Conclusions Compulsory routine infant vaccination with PCV-7 is projected to substantially reduce pneumococcal disease morbidity, mortality, and related costs in China. However, a universal vaccination program with PCV-7 is not cost-effective at the willingness-to-pay threshold that is currently recommended for China by the World Health Organization. PMID:24507480

  13. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Vaccine-type Nasopharyngeal Carriage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine type (VT) pneumococci, an important driver of vaccine programs’ overall benefits. The dosing schedule that best reduces carriage is unclear. Methods: We performed a systematic review of English language publications from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) reporting PCV effects on VT carriage to assess variability in effect by dosing schedule. Results: We identified 32 relevant studies (36 citations) from 12,980 citations reviewed. Twenty-one (66%) evaluated PCV7; none used PCV10 or PCV13. Five studies evaluated 2 primary doses and 13 three primary doses. After the first year of life, 14 evaluated 3-dose primary series with PCV booster (3+1), seven 3 doses plus 23-valent polysaccharide booster “3+1PPV23,” five “3+0,” four “2+1,” three “2+1PPV23” and two “2+0.” Four studies directly compared schedules. From these, 3 primary doses reduced VT carriage more than 2 doses at 1–7 months following the series (1 study significant; 2 borderline). In a study, the 2+1 schedule reduced VT carriage more than 2+0 at 18, but not at 24 months of age. One study of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine booster showed no effect. All 16 clinical trials with unvaccinated controls and 11 observational studies with before-after designs showed reduction in VT carriage. Conclusions: The available literature demonstrates VT-carriage reduction for 2+0, 2+1, 3+0 and 3+1 PCV schedules, but not for 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine booster. Comparisons between schedules show that 3 primary doses and a 2+1 schedule may reduce carriage more than 2 primary doses and a 2+0 schedule, respectively. PMID:24336057

  14. Direct Effect of 10-Valent Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccination on Pneumococcal Carriage in Children Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Ana Lucia; Ternes, Yves Mauro; Vieira, Maria Aparecida; Moreira, Weslley Garcia; Lamaro-Cardoso, Juliana; Kipnis, André; Cardoso, Maria Regina; Brandileone, Maria Cristina; Moura, Iaci; Pimenta, Fabiana C.; da Gloria Carvalho, Maria; Saraiva, Fabricia Oliveira; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Minamisava, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background 10-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine/PCV10 was introduced in the Brazilian National Immunization Program along the year of 2010. We assessed the direct effectiveness of PCV10 vaccination in preventing nasopharyngeal/NP pneumococcal carriage in infants. Methods A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted in Goiania Brazil, from December/2010-February/2011 targeting children aged 7–11 m and 15–18 m. Participants were selected using a systematic sampling. NP swabs, demographic data, and vaccination status were collected from 1,287 children during home visits. Main outcome and exposure of interest were PCV10 vaccine-type carriage and dosing schedules (3p+0, 2p+0, and one catch-up dose), respectively. Pneumococcal carriage was defined by a positive culture and serotyping was performed by Quellung reaction. Rate ratio/RR was calculated as the ratio between the prevalence of vaccine-types carriage in children exposed to different schedules and unvaccinated for PCV10. Adjusted RR was estimated using Poisson regression. PCV10 effectiveness/VE on vaccine-type carriage was calculated as 1-RR*100. Results The prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 41.0% (95%CI: 38.4–43.7). Serotypes covered by PCV10 and PCV13 were 35.2% and 53.0%, respectively. Vaccine serotypes 6B (11.6%), 23F (7.8%), 14 (6.8%), and 19F (6.6%) were the most frequently observed. After adjusted for confounders, children who had received 2p+0 or 3p+0 dosing schedule presented a significant reduction in pneumococcal vaccine-type carriage, with PCV10 VE equal to 35.9% (95%CI: 4.2–57.1; p?=?0.030) and 44.0% (95%CI: 14.–63.5; p?=?0.008), respectively, when compared with unvaccinated children. For children who received one catch-up dose, no significant VE was detected (p?=?0.905). Conclusion PCV10 was associated with high protection against vaccine-type carriage with 2p+0 and 3p+0 doses for children vaccinated before the second semester of life. The continuous evaluation of carriage serotypes distribution is likely to be useful for evaluating the long-term effectiveness and impact of pneumococcal vaccination on serotypes reduction. PMID:24892409

  15. Evaluation of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Immunoassays Using a 22F Adsorption Step with Serum Samples from Infants Vaccinated with Conjugate Vaccines? †

    PubMed Central

    Poolman, Jan T.; Frasch, Carl E.; Käyhty, Helena; Lestrate, Pascal; Madhi, Shabir A.; Henckaerts, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The history of the pneumococcal polysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is characterized by a continuous search for increased specificity. A third-generation ELISA that uses 22F polysaccharide inhibition has increased the specificity of the assay, particularly at low antibody concentrations. The present work compared various 22F ELISAs and non-22F ELISAs. The comparisons involved three different laboratories, including a WHO reference laboratory, and included sera from subjects from different geographic areas immunized with different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, including the licensed 7-valent Prevenar vaccine and the 10-valent Synflorix vaccine. All comparisons led to the same conclusion that the threshold defined as 0.35 ?g/ml for the WHO non-22F ELISA is lower when any 22F ELISA is used. The use of highly purified polysaccharides for coating further improved the specificity of the assay. In conclusion, we confirm that the 22F ELISA can be recommended as a reference method for the determination of antibodies against pneumococcal polysaccharides. PMID:19889940

  16. Evaluation of pneumococcal polysaccharide immunoassays using a 22F adsorption step with serum samples from infants vaccinated with conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Poolman, Jan T; Frasch, Carl E; Käyhty, Helena; Lestrate, Pascal; Madhi, Shabir A; Henckaerts, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The history of the pneumococcal polysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is characterized by a continuous search for increased specificity. A third-generation ELISA that uses 22F polysaccharide inhibition has increased the specificity of the assay, particularly at low antibody concentrations. The present work compared various 22F ELISAs and non-22F ELISAs. The comparisons involved three different laboratories, including a WHO reference laboratory, and included sera from subjects from different geographic areas immunized with different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, including the licensed 7-valent Prevenar vaccine and the 10-valent Synflorix vaccine. All comparisons led to the same conclusion that the threshold defined as 0.35 microg/ml for the WHO non-22F ELISA is lower when any 22F ELISA is used. The use of highly purified polysaccharides for coating further improved the specificity of the assay. In conclusion, we confirm that the 22F ELISA can be recommended as a reference method for the determination of antibodies against pneumococcal polysaccharides. PMID:19889940

  17. Impact of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine introduction in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    von Gottberg, A.; de Gouveia, L.; Madhi, S. A.; du Plessis, M.; Quan, V.; Soma, K.; Huebner, R.; Flannery, B.; Schuchat, A.; Klugman, Kp

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in reported invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in South Africa within the first five years of introduction of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the routine child immunization schedule. METHODS: We used national laboratory-based surveillance data to identify cases of invasive H. influenzae disease between July 1999 and June 2004, and submitted isolates for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. FINDINGS: The absolute number of Hib cases (reported to the national surveillance system) among children below one year of age decreased by 65%, from 55 cases in 1999-2000 to 19 cases in 2003-04. Enhanced surveillance initiated in 2003, identified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and incomplete vaccination as contributing factors for Hib transmission. The total number of laboratory-confirmed cases of H. influenzae remained unchanged because non-type b disease was being increasingly reported to the surveillance system concomitant with system enhancements. Children with non-typable disease were more likely to be HIV-positive (32 of 34, 94%) than children with Hib disease (10 of 14, 71%), P = 0.051. Recent Hib isolates were more likely to be multidrug resistant (2% in 1999-2000 versus 19% in 2003-04, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Data from a newly established national laboratory-based surveillance system showed a decrease in Hib disease burden among South African children following conjugate vaccine introduction and identified cases of non-typable disease associated with HIV infection. PMID:17128361

  18. Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Fully Liquid Combination Diphtheria–Tetanus Toxoid–Five-Component Acellular Pertussis (DTaP5), Inactivated Poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine Compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib Vaccine Administered at 3, 5, and 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria–tetanus toxoid–five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP5-IPV-Hib) and DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP5-IPV-Hib to DTaP3-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP5-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.) PMID:23966556

  19. Randomized, controlled, multicenter study of the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid combination diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccine administered at 3, 5, and 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-10-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP(5)), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib) and DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib to DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.). PMID:23966556

  20. Mother-infant vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine: persistence of maternal antibodies and responses of infants to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Holmlund, Emma; Nohynek, Hanna; Quiambao, Beatriz; Ollgren, Jukka; Käyhty, Helena

    2011-06-20

    Protection against pneumococcal infection early in life is needed. This could be achieved by maternal vaccination or by starting infant vaccinations as early as possible. In an open controlled study, pregnant women received both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and tetanus toxoid or tetanus toxoid alone. Infants received PPV at 7 or 17 weeks and the second dose at 3 years of age. Antibodies to six pneumococcal serotypes were measured with the non-22F and 22F enzyme immunoassays (EIA). Elevated antibody concentrations after maternal vaccination persisted in infants until 4 months of age. Infants responded to serotypes 1 and 5, but not to serotypes 6B, 14, 18C and 19F. High maternal antibody concentrations at early age reduced the responses, but not the antibody concentrations, of infants to PPV. The percentages of infants with concentrations >0.35 ?g/ml and >1 ?g/ml were high at birth, but decreased by age during the first 10 months of life. Revaccination with PPV at 3 years of age induced a good immune response. PMID:21550374

  1. GD3 Vaccines for Melanoma: Superior Immunogenicity of Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin Conjugate Vaccines I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedhelm Helling; Ann Shang; Michele Calves; Shengle Zhang; Shunlin Ren; Robert K. Yu; Herbert E Oettgen; Philip O. Livingston

    Cell surface gangliosides show altered patterns of expression as a con- sequence of malignant transformation and have therefore been of interest as potential targets for immunotherapy, including vaccine construction. One obstacle has been that some of the gangliosides that are overexpressed in human cancers are poorly immunogenic in humans. A case in point is 13o3, a prominent ganglioside of human

  2. Hyporesponsiveness to the infecting serotype after vaccination of children with seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine following invasive pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kazuyo; Matsubara, Kousaku; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Nishi, Junichiro; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Suga, Shigeru; Ihara, Toshiaki; Chang, Bin; Akeda, Yukihiro; Oishi, Kazunori

    2014-03-14

    Antibody responses to the infecting serotype in children who are vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) after having invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) have not been fully investigated. Of 56 children diagnosed with IPD between October 2009 and April 2013 in whom the infecting serotype was confirmed, 17 who were vaccinated with PCV7 following IPD were tested to determine the geometric mean concentration of serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the geometric mean titers of opsonization indices (OIs) using paired sera obtained at the onset of IPD and after PCV doses following the resolution of IPD. The geometric mean concentrations of serotype-specific IgG for all PCV7 serotypes other than serotype 6B were significantly increased after the last PCV7 dose compared with those at the time of IPD onset (P<0.01), as were the geometric mean titers of OIs for all PCV7 serotypes. In 14 children with IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes for whom both IgG and OI results were available, the OIs for the infecting serotype at the time of IPD onset were <8, although the IgG levels varied between from <0.2 to >5.0?g/ml. After the last PCV7 dose, the OIs for the infecting serotype remained <8 for six (43%) of 14 children. In these six children, hyporesponsiveness to PCV7 was specific for the infecting serotype. Hyporesponsiveness was found for serotypes 6B (n=5) and 23F (n=1). No difference was found between the responders (n=8) and the hyporesponders (n=6) with regard to any clinical characteristics. Our data suggest that hyporesponsiveness to the infecting serotype may occur in children vaccinated with PCV7 following IPD. PMID:24486367

  3. Clonal analysis of invasive pneumococcal isolates in Scotland and coverage of serotypes by the licensed conjugate polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine: possible implications for UK vaccine policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. McChlery; K. J. Scott; S. C. Clarke

    2005-01-01

    A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has gained licensure and has proven successful in the USA for preventing pneumococcal disease and reducing the incidence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal strains. The ability, therefore, to accurately monitor the likely effect of the introduction of PCV7 vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease in the UK is essential. Serotyping and multilocus sequence typing was performed on

  4. Antigen-specific B-cell response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in asplenic individuals with ?-thalassemia previously immunized with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Papadatou, Ioanna; Piperi, Cristina; Alexandraki, Krystallenia; Kattamis, Antonis; Theodoridou, Maria; Spoulou, Vana

    2014-09-15

    Current guidelines recommend a combined schedule of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and PPSV23 (23-valent polysaccharide vaccine) for asplenic individuals. We show that PCV13 induces a T-dependent immune response in asplenic individuals with ?-thalassemia, but previous PPSV23s affect the memory B-cell response in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT01846923. PMID:24879786

  5. Laboratory and preliminary clinical characterization of Vi capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Szu, S C; Taylor, D N; Trofa, A C; Clements, J D; Shiloach, J; Sadoff, J C; Bryla, D A; Robbins, J B

    1994-01-01

    To improve its immunogenicity for children and adults and to make it suitable for routine immunization of infants against typhoid fever, the capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi (Vi) was bound to the B subunit of the heat-labile toxin (LT-B) of Escherichia coli or the recombinant exoprotein A (rEPA) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The conjugates elicited higher levels of antibodies (micrograms per milliliter of serum) in mice and in guinea pigs than did Vi and, unlike Vi alone, elicited booster antibody responses in both species. In adult volunteers, Vi-LT-B and Vi-rEPA, respectively, elicited higher levels of antibodies than Vi alone after the first injection (4.74 versus 1.77 and 4.91 versus 1.77; P < 0.005) and 26 weeks later (2.32 and 2.69 versus 0.54; P < 0.04); a second injection of the conjugates did not elicit a booster response of Vi antibodies. None of the 51 vaccinees had fever or significant local reactions. Vi-rEPA elicited slightly higher levels of Vi antibodies than did Vi-LT-B at all intervals after injection, but these differences were not significant. Each conjugate elicited antibodies to its carrier protein. The antibody responses elicited in adults by Vi bound to LT-B and rEPA are similar to those of other polysaccharide-protein conjugates. These conjugates promise to be an improved Vi vaccine. Studies of Vi conjugates with adults and infants in areas where typhoid is endemic are planned. PMID:7927707

  6. Synthesis of a glycopeptide vaccine conjugate for induction of antibodies recognizing O-mannosyl glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Westerlind, Ulrika

    2014-05-01

    In spite of the clear importance of protein O-mannosylation in brain glycobiology, tools are lacking for specific detection, enrichment, and identification of proteins containing these modifycations. We envisioned inducing antibodies that specifically recognize O-mannose glycans on proteins and peptides. With this in mind, we prepared a glycopeptide vaccine construct containing the N-acetyllactosamine-extended mannose motif Gal?1-4GlcNAc?1-2Man?Thr, found as a common core structure on almost all mammalian O-mannosyl glycoproteins identified. O-mannose glycosylated amino acid building blocks and the corresponding glycopeptides were prepared by chemical synthesis and then conjugated to an immune carrier protein. After administration of the synthetic vaccine into rabbits, strong immune responses were obtained. Further evaluation by ELISA neutralization experiments and glycopeptide microarrays showed that the induced antibodies were highly specific to the glycopeptide antigen. PMID:24753400

  7. Evolving role of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Azzari, Chiara; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Dagan, Ron

    2014-08-01

    Since the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), PCVs with extended coverage have become available, and there is emerging global evidence that these vaccines, in particular PCV13, have further reduced rates of invasive pneumococcal disease compared with PCV7. The present article aims to address emerging topics related to PCV13 use in routine clinical practice; specifically: (1) the potential role of high-valent PCVs in reducing pneumococcal disease burden; (2) the impact of PCVs on nasopharyngeal carriage and how this may contribute to reductions in otitis media and pneumonia, as well as the prevalence of resistant pneumococcal strains; (3) new PCV13 indications and (4) importance of schedule adherence for PCV in the prevention of cases of vaccine serotype-specific invasive pneumococcal disease. The beneficial effects of PCVs in protecting individuals from a wide spectrum of pneumococcal diseases can be increased by improving the vaccine coverage and adhering to the recommended vaccination schedules. There is increasing evidence that PCV13 has reduced much of the post-PCV7 burden of pneumococcal diseases in the pediatric community, including reducing pneumococcal colonization and the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease and mucosal diseases. This has also led to a reduction in antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal diseases. The role of PCV13 in clinical practice is evolving, with PCV13 now available for children and adolescents between the ages of 6 weeks and 17 years, thus ensuring that children in all age groups can be protected against vaccine-serotype pneumococcal diseases. Continued surveillance is warranted to monitor the impact of PCV13 on disease burden. PMID:24618937

  8. Synthetic Teichoic Acid Conjugate Vaccine against Nosocomial Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Laverde, Diana; Wobser, Dominique; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Hogendorf, Wouter; van der Marel, Gijsbert; Berthold, Martin; Kropec, Andrea; Codee, Jeroen; Huebner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are amphiphilic polymers that are important constituents of the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria. The chemical structures of LTA vary among organisms, albeit in the majority of Gram-positive bacteria the LTAs feature a common poly-1,3-(glycerolphosphate) backbone. Previously, the specificity of opsonic antibodies for this backbone present in some Gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated, suggesting that this minimal structure may be sufficient for vaccine development. In the present work, we studied a well-defined synthetic LTA-fragment, which is able to inhibit opsonic killing of polyclonal rabbit sera raised against native LTA from Enterococcus faecalis 12030. This promising compound was conjugated with BSA and used to raise rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the opsonic activity of this serum was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay and specificity was confirmed by an opsonophagocytic inhibition assay. The conjugated LTA-fragment was able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediate killing of the clinical strains E. faecalis 12030, Enterococcus faecium E1162, and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2 (USA400). Prophylactic immunization with the teichoic acid conjugate and with the rabbit serum raised against this compound was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies in mice, and in an enterococcal endocarditis rat model. In all animal models, a statistically significant reduction of colony counts was observed indicating that the novel synthetic LTA-fragment conjugate is a promising vaccine candidate for active or passive immunotherapy against E. faecalis and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25333799

  9. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine does not influence Staphylococcus aureus carriage in young children with acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robert; Levy, Corinne; Thollot, Franck; de La Rocque, France; Koskas, Marc; Bonnet, Eric; Fritzell, Bernard; Varon, Emmanuelle

    2007-12-15

    We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus among infants and young children with acute otitis media in a country where use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been progressively implemented. Among 1783 children enrolled, 60.8% carried S. pneumoniae, and 9% carried S. aureus. Among S. pneumoniae carriers, the rate of S. aureus carriage was 8.4%, compared with 9.9% among S. pneumoniae noncarriers. The rate of S. pneumoniae carriage in the PCV7-vaccinated population was lower (59.8%) than that observed in the nonvaccinated population (66.2%; P<.04). In contrast, in young children (age, <2 years) with acute otitis media, our study suggests that the S. aureus carriage rate is not affected by PCV7 immunization (9.0% in vaccinated children vs. 8.7% in nonvaccinated children). Furthermore, in children aged >1 year, the booster dose induces a sharp reduction in the carriage of vaccine serotypes of S. pneumoniae, without any change in S. aureus carriage. PMID:18190319

  10. Serological response patterns of melanoma patients immunized with a GM2 ganglioside conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K; Livingston, P O; Fortunato, S R; Stockert, E; Helling, F; Ritter, G; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1995-03-28

    Gangliosides, such as GM2, GD2, GD3, and 9-O-acetyl GD3, are receiving attention as targets for antibody-based and vaccine-based therapies of melanoma. GM2 appears to be a particularly immunogenic ganglioside in humans, as indicated by the presence of naturally occurring IgM anti-GM2 antibodies in approximately 5% of humans and the fact that immunization with irradiated GM2-expressing melanoma cells or purified GM2 adherent to bacillus Calmette-Guérin elicits GM2 antibodies of low to moderate titers in a high proportion of vaccinated patients. To develop vaccines that consistently induce high titers of IgM as well as IgG anti-GM2 antibodies, vaccines containing GM2 conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin as the carrier protein and QS-21 as the adjuvant have been constructed. The serological response of vaccinated patients was monitored by ELISA using purified GM2 ganglioside for IgM and IgG anti-GM2 antibodies and for GM2 cell surface-reactive antibodies by immune adherence assays and cytotoxic tests (IgM antibodies) and mixed hemadsorption assays (IgG antibodies). The majority of vaccinated patients developed IgM and IgG antibodies detectable by ELISA. In most cases, the results of IgM ELISA correlated with assays for cell surface-reactive IgM antibodies. This was not true for IgG anti-GM2 antibodies, where strong discrepancies were seen between high titers in ELISA and little or no reactivity in mixed hemadsorption tests for cell surface-reactive antibodies. These IgG antibodies (and the less frequent IgM antibodies that show similar discrepancies) may be directed against GM2 determinants that are buried, hidden, or not present on GM2-expressing target cells. With regard to a major objective of ganglioside vaccines--i.e., generation of cytotoxic antibodies--the GM2-keyhole limpet hemocyanin/QS-21 vaccine is clearly superior to the previously tested GM2/bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. However, variability in patient response and lack of persistence of high-titered IgM cytotoxic antibodies in many patients are problems that remain to be solved. PMID:7708728

  11. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Pediatric Tympanostomy Tube Insertion in Partial Immunized Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mao-Che; Wang, Ying-Piao; Chu, Chia-Huei; Shiao, An-Suey; Chou, Pesus

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the impact of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population. Study Design. Retrospective ecological study. Methods. This study used Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000–2009. Every child under 17 years old who received tubes during this 10-year period was identified and analyzed. The tube insertion rates in different age groups and the risk to receive tubes in different birth cohorts before and after the release of the vaccine in 2005 were compared. Results. The tube insertion rates for children under 17 years of age ranged from 21.6 to 31.9 for 100,000 persons/year. The tube insertion rate of children under 2 years old decreased significantly after 2005 in period effect analysis (? = ?0.074, P < 0.05, and the negative ? value means a downward trend) and increased in children 2 to 9 years old throughout the study period (positive ? values which mean upward trends, P < 0.05). The rate of tube insertion was lower in 2004-2005 and 2006-2007 birth cohorts than that of 2002-2003 birth cohort (RR = 0.90 and 0.21, 95% CI 0.83–0.97 and 0.19–0.23, resp.). Conclusion. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may reduce the risk of tube insertion for children of later birth cohorts. The vaccine may have the protective effect on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population.

  12. Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on immunization coverage among infants

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Nancy D; Kleinman, Ken; Chan, K Arnold; Yu, Xian-Jie; France, Eric K; Xu, Stanley; Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John; Santoli, Jeanne; Lieu, Tracy A

    2005-01-01

    Background The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to the U.S. recommended childhood immunization schedule in the year 2000 added three injections to the number of vaccinations a child is expected to receive during the first year of life. Surveys have suggested that the addition of PCV has led some immunization providers to move other routine childhood vaccinations to later ages, which could increase the possibility of missing these vaccines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether introduction of PCV affected immunization coverage for recommended childhood vaccinations among 13-month olds in four large provider groups. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed computerized data on vaccinations for 33,319 children in four large provider groups before and after the introduction of PCV. The primary outcome was whether the child was up to date for all non-PCV recommended vaccinations at 13 months of age. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between PCV introduction and the primary outcome. The secondary outcome was the number of days spent underimmunized by 13 months. The association between PCV introduction and the secondary outcome was evaluated using a two-part modelling approach using logistic and negative binomial regression. Results Overall, 93% of children were up-to-date at 13 months, and 70% received all non-PCV vaccinations without any delay. Among the entire study population, immunization coverage was maintained or slightly increased from the pre-PCV to post-PCV periods. After multivariate adjustment, children born after PCV entered routine use were less likely to be up-to-date at 13 months in one provider group (Group C: OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3 – 0.8) and were less likely to have received all vaccine doses without any delay in two Groups (Group B: OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3 – 0.6; Group C: OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4 – 0.7). This represented 3% fewer children in Group C who were up-to-date and 14% (Group C) to 16% (Group B) fewer children who spent no time underimmunized at 13 months after PCV entered routine use compared to the pre-PCV baseline. Some disruptions in immunization delivery were also observed concurrent with temporary recommendations to suspend the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine, preceding the introduction of PCV. Conclusion These findings suggest that the introduction of PCV did not harm overall immunization coverage rates in populations with good access to primary care. However, we did observe some disruptions in the timely delivery of other vaccines coincident with the introduction of PCV and the suspension of the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. This study highlights the need for continued vigilance in coming years as the U.S. introduces new childhood vaccines and policies that may change the timing of existing vaccines. PMID:16313673

  13. Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits similar antibody response as standard 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine in adult patients with RA treated with immunomodulating drugs.

    PubMed

    Kapetanovic, Meliha Crnkic; Roseman, Carmen; Jönsson, Göran; Truedsson, Lennart

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare antibody response in immunosuppressed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to that of RA patients and healthy controls vaccinated with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and to study the impact of disease and/or treatment characteristics and type of vaccine on antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with RA. In total, 253 RA patients treated with methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNF blockers as monotherapy or anti-TNF?+?MTX were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PCV7. In addition, 149 RA patients receiving corresponding treatments and 47 healthy controls were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PPV23. Serotype-specific IgG to 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and 4-6 weeks after vaccination using ELISA. Antibody response ratio (ARR), i.e. ratio between post-/prevaccination antibody levels, was compared between corresponding treatment groups. Differences in ARR were analysed using analysis of variance. Positive antibody response (posAR) was defined as equal to or greater than twofold increase in prevaccination antibody levels. Possible predictors of posAR were analysed using logistic regression model. Corresponding RA treatment groups showed similar ARR and posAR for both serotypes regardless of vaccine type. Higher age at vaccination and concomitant MTX were identified as predictors of impaired posAR for both serotypes tested, whereas type of vaccine did not influence posAR significantly. PCV7 elicits similar antibody response as PPV23 in patients with RA receiving immunosuppressive treatment. In RA patients, higher age and MTX treatment but not type of vaccine predicted impaired posAR. PMID:21956234

  14. The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood pneumonia incidence, severe morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Jhass, Arnoupe; Madhi, Shabir A; Clark, Andrew; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Bhopal, Sunil; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Background With the aim of populating the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) with parameters of effectiveness of existing interventions, we conducted a systematic review of the literature assessing the effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal (PC) conjugate vaccines on incidence, severe morbidity and mortality from childhood pneumonia. Methods We summarized cluster randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) and case–control studies of Hib conjugate vaccines and RCTs of 9- and 11-valent PC conjugate vaccines conducted in developing countries across outcome measures using standard meta-analysis methods. We used a set of standardized rules developed for the purpose of populating the LiST tool with required parameters to promote comparability across reviews of interventions against the major causes of childhood mortality. The estimates could be adjusted further to account for factors such as PC vaccine serotype content, PC serotype distribution and human immunodeficiency virus prevalence but this was not included as part of the LiST model approach. Results The available evidence from published data points to a summary effect of the Hib conjugate vaccine on clinical pneumonia of 4%, on clinical severe pneumonia of 6% and on radiologically confirmed pneumonia of 18%. Respective effectiveness estimates for PC vaccines (all valent) on clinical pneumonia is 7%, clinical severe pneumonia is 7% and radiologically confirmed pneumonia is 26%. Conclusions The findings indicated that radiologically confirmed pneumonia, as a severe morbidity proxy for mortality, provided better estimates for the LiST model of effect of interventions on mortality reduction than did other outcomes evaluated. The LiST model will use this to estimate the pneumonia mortality reduction which might be observed when scaling up Hib and PC conjugate vaccination in the context of an overall package of child health interventions. PMID:20348119

  15. Conjugating recombinant proteins to Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoProtein A: a strategy for enhancing immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidates

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Feng; Wu, Yimin; Muratova, Olga; Zhou, Hong; Dobrescu, Gelu; Duggan, Peter; Lynn, Lambert; Song, Guanhong; Zhang, Yanling; Reiter, Karine; MacDonald, Nicholas; Narum, David L.; Long, Carole A.; Miller, Louis H.; Saul, Allan; Mullen., Gregory E. D.

    2007-01-01

    Conjugation of polysaccharides to carrier proteins has been a successful approach for producing safe and effective vaccines. In an attempt to increase the immunogenicity of two malarial vaccine candidate proteins of Plasmodium falciparum, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) for blood stage vaccines and surface protein 25 (Pfs25) for mosquito stage vaccines, each was chemically conjugated to the mutant, nontoxic Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoProtein A (rEPA). AMA1 is a large (66 kD) relatively good immunogen in mice; Pfs25 is a poorly immunogenic protein when presented on alum to mice. Mice were immunized on days 0 and 28 with AMA1 or Pfs25 rEPA conjugates or unconjugated AMA1 or Pfs25, all formulated on Alhydrogel. Remarkably, sera from mice 14 days after the second immunization with Pfs25-rEPA conjugates displayed over a 1000 fold higher antibody titers as compared to unconjugated Pfs25. In contrast, AMA1 conjugated under the same conditions induced only a 3 fold increase in antibody titers. When tested for functional activity, antibodies elicited by the AMA1-rEPA inhibited invasion of erythrocytes by blood-stage parasites and antibodies elicited by the Pfs25-rEPA conjugates blocked the development of the sexual stage parasites in the mosquito midgut. These results demonstrate that conjugation to rEPA induces a marked improvement in the antibody titer in mice for the poor immunogen (Pfs25) and for the larger protein (AMA1). These conjugates now need to be tested in humans to determine if mice are predictive of the response in humans. PMID:17428587

  16. Production of glycoprotein vaccines in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Conjugate vaccines in which polysaccharide antigens are covalently linked to carrier proteins belong to the most effective and safest vaccines against bacterial pathogens. State-of-the art production of conjugate vaccines using chemical methods is a laborious, multi-step process. In vivo enzymatic coupling using the general glycosylation pathway of Campylobacter jejuni in recombinant Escherichia coli has been suggested as a simpler method for producing conjugate vaccines. In this study we describe the in vivo biosynthesis of two novel conjugate vaccine candidates against Shigella dysenteriae type 1, an important bacterial pathogen causing severe gastro-intestinal disease states mainly in developing countries. Results Two different periplasmic carrier proteins, AcrA from C. jejuni and a toxoid form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin were glycosylated with Shigella O antigens in E. coli. Starting from shake flask cultivation in standard complex medium a lab-scale fed-batch process was developed for glycoconjugate production. It was found that efficiency of glycosylation but not carrier protein expression was highly susceptible to the physiological state at induction. After induction glycoconjugates generally appeared later than unglycosylated carrier protein, suggesting that glycosylation was the rate-limiting step for synthesis of conjugate vaccines in E. coli. Glycoconjugate synthesis, in particular expression of oligosaccharyltransferase PglB, strongly inhibited growth of E. coli cells after induction, making it necessary to separate biomass growth and recombinant protein expression phases. With a simple pulse and linear feed strategy and the use of semi-defined glycerol medium, volumetric glycoconjugate yield was increased 30 to 50-fold. Conclusions The presented data demonstrate that glycosylated proteins can be produced in recombinant E. coli at a larger scale. The described methodologies constitute an important step towards cost-effective in vivo production of conjugate vaccines, which in future may be used for combating severe infectious diseases, particularly in developing countries. PMID:20701771

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of a CRM-conjugated meningococcal ACWY vaccine administered concomitantly with routine vaccines starting at 2 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Terry M; Nissen, Michael D; Naz, Aftab; Shepard, Julie; Bedell, Lisa; Hohenboken, Matthew; Odrljin, Tatjana; Dull, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infants are at the highest risk for meningococcal disease and a broadly protective and safe vaccine is an unmet need in this youngest population. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 4-dose infant/toddler regimen of MenACWY-CRM given at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age concomitantly with pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Hemophilus influenzae type b-inactivated poliovirus-combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV/Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), 7- or 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV), and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). Results: Four doses of MenACWY-CRM induced hSBA titers ?8 in 89%, 95%, 97%, and 96% of participants against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y, respectively. hSBA titers ?8 were present in 76–98% of participants after the first 3 doses. A categorical linear analysis incorporating vaccine group and study center showed responses to routine vaccines administered with MenACWY-CRM were non-inferior to routine vaccines alone, except for seroresponse to the pertussis antigen fimbriae. The reactogenicity profile was not affected when MenACWY-CRM was administered concomitantly with routine vaccines. Conclusion: MenACWY-CRM administered with routine concomitant vaccinations in young infants was well tolerated and induced highly immunogenic responses against each of the serogroups without significant interference with the immune responses to routine infant vaccinations. Methods: Healthy 2 month old infants were randomized to receive MenACWY-CRM with routine vaccines (n = 258) or routine vaccines alone (n = 271). Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA). Medically attended adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs) and AEs leading to study withdrawal were collected throughout the study period. PMID:24220326

  18. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.115...Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid shall...

  19. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.115...Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid shall...

  20. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.115...Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid shall...

  1. Characterization of Heat-Stable (STa) Toxoids of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Fused to Double Mutant Heat-Labile Toxin Peptide in Inducing Neutralizing Anti-STa Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Robertson, Donald C.; Nataro, James P.; Clements, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing challenge in developing vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children of developing countries and travelers to these countries, is to protect against heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa). STa and heat-labile toxin (LT) are virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. LT antigens are often used in vaccine development, but STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Toxic STa is not safe for vaccines, but only STa possessing toxicity is believed to be able to induce neutralizing antibodies. However, recent studies demonstrated that nontoxic STa derivatives (toxoids), after being fused to an LT protein, induced neutralizing antibodies and suggested that different STa toxoids fused to an LT protein might exhibit different STa antigenic propensity. In this study, we selected 14 STa toxoids from a mini-STa toxoid library based on toxicity reduction and reactivity to anti-native STa antibodies, and genetically fused each toxoid to a monomeric double mutant LT (dmLT) peptide for 14 STa-toxoid-dmLT toxoid fusions. These toxoid fusions were used to immunize mice and were characterized for induction of anti-STa antibody response. The results showed that different STa toxoids (in fusions) varied greatly in anti-STa antigenicity. Among them, STaN12S, STaN12T, and STaA14H were the top toxoids in inducing anti-STa antibodies. In vitro neutralization assays indicated that antibodies induced by the 3×STaN12S-dmLT fusion antigen exhibited the greatest neutralizing activity against STa toxin. These results suggested 3×STaN12S-dmLT is a preferred fusion antigen to induce an anti-STa antibody response and provided long-awaited information for effective ETEC vaccine development. PMID:24549325

  2. Characterization of heat-stable (STa) toxoids of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fused to double mutant heat-labile toxin peptide in inducing neutralizing Anti-STa antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Robertson, Donald C; Nataro, James P; Clements, John D; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-05-01

    A long-standing challenge in developing vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children of developing countries and travelers to these countries, is to protect against heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa). STa and heat-labile toxin (LT) are virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. LT antigens are often used in vaccine development, but STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Toxic STa is not safe for vaccines, but only STa possessing toxicity is believed to be able to induce neutralizing antibodies. However, recent studies demonstrated that nontoxic STa derivatives (toxoids), after being fused to an LT protein, induced neutralizing antibodies and suggested that different STa toxoids fused to an LT protein might exhibit different STa antigenic propensity. In this study, we selected 14 STa toxoids from a mini-STa toxoid library based on toxicity reduction and reactivity to anti-native STa antibodies, and genetically fused each toxoid to a monomeric double mutant LT (dmLT) peptide for 14 STa-toxoid-dmLT toxoid fusions. These toxoid fusions were used to immunize mice and were characterized for induction of anti-STa antibody response. The results showed that different STa toxoids (in fusions) varied greatly in anti-STa antigenicity. Among them, STaN12S, STaN12T, and STaA14H were the top toxoids in inducing anti-STa antibodies. In vitro neutralization assays indicated that antibodies induced by the 3×STaN12S-dmLT fusion antigen exhibited the greatest neutralizing activity against STa toxin. These results suggested 3×STaN12S-dmLT is a preferred fusion antigen to induce an anti-STa antibody response and provided long-awaited information for effective ETEC vaccine development. PMID:24549325

  3. Cost-effectiveness of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Turkey: a decision analytical model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, which place a considerable burden on healthcare resources, can be reduced in a cost-effective manner using a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7). We compare the cost effectiveness of a 13-valent PCV (PCV-13) and a 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) with that of PCV-7 in Turkey. Methods A cost-utility analysis was conducted and a decision analytical model was used to estimate the proportion of the Turkish population <10 years old that would experience 10 mutually exclusive outcomes over the course of 1 year from a perspective of a healthcare system. Model outcomes were adjusted according to the population demographics and region-specific serotype distribution in Turkey. Health outcomes and direct healthcare costs were simulated for PCV-7, PCV-13 and PHiD-CV. Results PCV-13 and PHiD-CV are projected to have a substantial impact on pneumococcal disease in Turkey versus PCV-7, with 2,223 and 3,156 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and 2,146 and 2,081 life years, respectively, being saved under a 3+1 schedule. Projections of direct medical costs showed that a PHiD-CV vaccination programme would provide the greatest cost savings, offering additional savings of US$11,718,813 versus PCV-7 and US$8,235,010 versus PCV-13. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV dominated PCV-13 in terms of QALYs gained and cost savings in 58.3% of simulations. Conclusion Under the modeled conditions, PHiD-CV would provide the most cost-effective intervention for reducing pneumococcal disease in Turkish children. PMID:23137037

  4. Genetic conjugation of components in two pneumococcal fusion protein vaccines enhances paediatric mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pope, Caroline; Oliver, Elizabeth H; Ma, Jiangtao; Langton Hewer, Claire; Mitchell, Tim J; Finn, Adam

    2015-03-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonises the upper respiratory tract and can cause pneumonia, meningitis and otitis media. Existing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are expensive to produce and only protect against 13 of the 90+ pneumococcal serotypes; hence there is an urgent need for the development of new vaccines. We have shown previously in mice that pneumolysin (Ply) and a non-toxic variant (?6Ply) enhance antibody responses when genetically fused to pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA), a potentially valuable effect for future vaccines. We investigated this adjuvanticity in human paediatric mucosal primary immune cell cultures. Adenoidal mononuclear cells (AMNC) from children aged 0-15 years (n=46) were stimulated with conjugated, admixed or individual proteins, cell viability and CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses were assessed using flow cytometry and cytokine secretion was measured using multiplex technology. Proliferation of CD4+ T-cells in response to PsaAPly, was significantly higher than responses to individual or admixed proteins (p=0.002). In contrast, an enhanced response to PsaA?6Ply compared to individual or admixed proteins only occurred at higher concentrations (p<0.01). Evaluation of cytotoxicity suggested that responses occurred when Ply-induced cytolysis was inhibited, either by fusion or mutation, but importantly an additional toxicity independent immune enhancing effect was also apparent as a result of fusion. Responses were MHC class II dependent and had a Th1/Th17 profile. Genetic fusion of ?6Ply to PsaA significantly modulates and enhances pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cell responses without the cytolytic effects of some other pneumolysoids. Membrane binding activity of such proteins may confer valuable adjuvant properties as fusion may assist ?6Ply to deliver PsaA to the APC surface effectively, contributing to the initiation of anti-pneumococcal CD4+ T-cell immunity. PMID:25698489

  5. Capsule Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine against Diarrheal Disease Caused by Campylobacter jejuni? †

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mario A.; Baqar, Shahida; Hall, Eric R.; Chen, Yu-Han; Porter, Chad K.; Bentzel, David E.; Applebee, Lisa; Guerry, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Campylobacter jejuni is one of the few identified virulence determinants of this important human pathogen. Since CPS conjugate vaccines have been so effective against other mucosal pathogens, we evaluated this approach using CPSs from two strains of C. jejuni, 81-176 (HS23 and HS36 serotype complex) and CG8486 (HS4 serotype complex). The CPSs of 81-176 and CG8486 were independently linked to the carrier protein CRM197 by reductive amination between an aldehyde(s), strategically created at the nonreducing end of each CPS, and accessible amines of CRM197. In both cases, the CPS:CRM197 ratio used was 2:1 by weight. Mass spectrometry and gel electrophoresis showed that on average, each glycoconjugate preparation contained, at least in part, two to five CPSs attached to one CRM197. When administered subcutaneously to mice, these vaccines elicited robust immune responses and significantly reduced the disease following intranasal challenge with the homologous strains of C. jejuni. The CPS81-176-CRM197 vaccine also provided 100% protection against diarrhea in the New World monkey Aotus nancymaae following orogastric challenge with C. jejuni 81-176. PMID:19114545

  6. Pediatric Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the United States in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under 5 years of age. In the United States, 90% of invasive pneumococcal infections in children are caused by 13 serotypes of S. pneumoniae. The licensure (in 2000) and subsequent widespread use of a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) have had a significant impact on decreasing the incidence of serious invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in all age groups, especially in children under 2 years of age. However, the emergence of replacement non-PCV7 serotypes, especially serotype 19A, has resulted in an increase in the incidence of serious and invasive infections. In 2010, a 13-valent PCV was licensed in the United States. However, the impact that this vaccine will have on IPD remains to be seen. The objectives of this review are to discuss the epidemiology of serious and invasive pneumococcal infections in the United States in the PCV era and to review some of the pneumococcal vaccines that are in development. PMID:22763632

  7. Piliation of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in the Era before Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Katherine; Kamng'ona, Arox; Cornick, Jennifer; Bentley, Stephen D.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Everett, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    The pneumococcal pilus has been shown to be an important determinant of adhesion and virulence in mouse models of colonization, pneumonia, and bacteremia. A pilus is capable of inducing protective immunity, supporting its inclusion in next-generation pneumococcal protein vaccine formulations. Whether this vaccine target is common among pneumococci in sub-Saharan Africa is uncertain. To define the prevalence and genetic diversity of type I and II pili among invasive pneumococci in Malawi prior to the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) into routine childhood immunization, we examined 188 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected between 2002 and 2008 (17% serotype 1). In this region of high disease burden, we found a low frequency of invasive piliated pneumococci (14%) and pilus gene sequence diversity similar to that seen previously in multiple global pneumococcal lineages. All common serotypes with pilus were covered by PCV13 and so we predict that pilus prevalence will be reduced in the Malawian pneumococcal population after PCV13 introduction. PMID:24027261

  8. Impact of Ten-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Finnish Children – A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Jukka; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Siira, Lotta; Palmu, Arto A.; Virtanen, Mikko J.; Nohynek, Hanna; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Toropainen, Maija; Nuorti, J. Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ?5 years of age during the first three years after NVP introduction. Methods We conducted a population-based, observational follow-up study. The cohort of vaccine-eligible children (all children born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed from 3 months of age until the end of 2013. For the indirect effect, another cohort of older children ineligible for PCV10 vaccination was followed from 2011 through 2013. Both cohorts were compared with season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. National, population-based laboratory surveillance data were used to compare culture-confirmed serotype-specific IPD rates in the vaccine target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models. Results The overall IPD rate among vaccine-eligible children was reduced by 80% (95%CI 72 to 85); the reduction in vaccine-type IPD was 92% (95%CI 86 to 95). However, a non-significant increase in non-vaccine type IPD was observed. During 2012–2013, we also observed a 48% (95%CI 18 to 69) reduction in IPD among unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age, which was mostly attributable to the ten vaccine serotypes. Conclusions This is the first population-based study investigating the impact of PCV10 introduction without prior PCV7 use. A substantial decrease in IPD rates among vaccine-eligible children was observed. A smaller and temporally delayed reduction among older, unvaccinated children suggests that PCV10 also provides indirect protection against vaccine-type IPD. Changes in serotype distribution warrant continuous monitoring of potential increases in non-vaccine serotypes. PMID:25781031

  9. Serological Basis for Use of Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccines in the United Kingdom: Reevaluation of Correlates of Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAY BORROW; NICK ANDREWS; DAVID GOLDBLATT; ELIZABETH MILLER

    2001-01-01

    The antibody data supporting the use of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines in the United Kingdom were generated by serum bactericidal assay (SBA) using rabbit complement (rSBA). This may give higher titers than those obtained with human complement (hSBA), for which the \\

  10. Concentration and High Avidity of Pneumococcal Antibodies Persist at Least 4 Years after Immunization with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Åhman, Heidi; Palmu, Arto; Grönholm, Sinikka; Kilpi, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    To provide more extensive evidence of long-term effects of vaccination on immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a follow-up study of the Finnish Otitis Media (FinOM) Vaccine Trial was conducted. One of the objectives was to assess the persistence and avidity of pneumococcal antibodies 4 years after pneumococcal vaccination given in infancy. Children with complete follow-up in the FinOM trial up to 24 months of age were invited to a single visit in their fifth year of life. A blood sample was taken from all children for determination of anticapsular antibody concentrations to vaccine serotypes and avidity of antibodies to three serotypes. Children had been vaccinated at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age with 7-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide, CRM197 conjugate vaccine (PCV7), or a control vaccine. Serum IgG antibody concentrations to vaccine serotypes remained significantly higher in children who had received PCV7 than in control children for 4 years after the fourth PCV7 dose. Concentrations of antibodies to frequently carried serotypes (6B and 19F) declined less than those of antibodies to a rarely carried serotype (4), suggesting that natural boosting contributed to antibody persistence. Furthermore, antibody avidity was significantly higher in PCV7 than control vaccine recipients. Four doses of PCV7 given in infancy elicit long-lasting antibody responses with high avidity. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00378417.) PMID:23658394

  11. Immunogenicity of reduced dose priming schedules of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine followed by booster at 12 months in infants: open label randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Ameneh; McKenna, Jennifer; Campbell, Danielle; Attard-Montalto, Simon; Birks, Jacqueline; Voysey, Merryn; White, Catherine; Finn, Adam; Macloed, Emma; Faust, Saul N; Kent, Alison Louise; Heath, Paul T; Borrow, Ray; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the immunogenicity of a single dose infant priming schedule of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) conjugate vaccine is non-inferior to a two dose priming schedule when followed by a booster dose at age 12 months. Design Phase IV open label randomised controlled trial carried out from July 2010 until August 2013 Setting Four centres in the United Kingdom and one centre in Malta. Participants Healthy infants aged 6-12 weeks followed up until age 24 months. Interventions In the priming phase of the trial 509 infants were randomised in a 10:10:7:4 ratio into four groups to receive either a single MenC-cross reacting material 197 (CRM) dose at 3 months; two doses of MenC-CRM at 3 and 4 months; a single MenC-polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (TT) dose at 3 months; or no MenC doses, respectively. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-MenC-TT vaccine was administered to all infants at 12 months of age. All infants also received the nationally routinely recommended vaccines. Blood samples were taken at age 5, 12, 13, and 24 months. Main outcome measure MenC serum bactericidal antibody assay with rabbit complement (rSBA) one month after the Hib-MenC-TT vaccine. Non-inferiority was met if the lower 95% confidence limit of the difference in the mean log10 MenC rSBA between the single dose MenC-CRM and the two dose MenC-CRM groups was >?0.35. Results The primary objective was met: after a Hib-MenC-TT booster dose at 12 months of age the MenC rSBA geometric mean titres induced in infants primed with a single MenC-CRM dose were not inferior to those induced in participants primed with two MenC-CRM doses in infancy (660 (95% confidence interval 498 to 876) v 295 (220 to 398)) with a corresponding difference in the mean log10 MenC rSBA of 0.35 (0.17 to 0.53) that showed superiority of the single over the two dose schedule). Exploration of differences between the priming schedules showed that one month after Hib-MenC-TT vaccination, MenC rSBA ?1:8 was observed in >96% of participants previously primed with any of the MenC vaccine schedules in infancy and in 83% of those who were not vaccinated against MenC in infancy. The MenC rSBA geometric mean titres induced by the Hib-MenC-TT boost were significantly higher in children who were primed with one rather than two MenC-CRM doses in infancy. Only priming with MenC-TT, however, induced robust MenC bactericidal antibody after the Hib-MenC-TT booster that persisted until 24 months of age. Conclusions MenC vaccination programmes with two MenC infant priming doses could be reduced to a single priming dose without reducing post-boost antibody titres. When followed by a Hib-MenC-TT booster dose, infant priming with a single MenC-TT vaccine dose induces a more robust antibody response than one or two infant doses of MenC-CRM. Bactericidal antibody induced by a single Hib-MenC-TT conjugate vaccine dose at 12 months of age (that is, a toddler only schedule), without infant priming, is not well sustained at 24 months. Because of rapid waning of MenC antibody, programmes using toddler only schedules will still need to rely on herd protection to protect infants and young children. Trial registration Eudract No: 2009-016579-31; NCT01129518; study ID: 2008_06 (http://clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:25832102

  12. Childhood meningitis in the conjugate vaccine era: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sadarangani, Manish; Willis, Louise; Kadambari, Seilesh; Gormley, Stuart; Young, Zoe; Beckley, Rebecca; Gantlett, Katherine; Orf, Katharine; Blakey, Sarah; Martin, Natalie G; Kelly, Dominic F; Heath, Paul T; Nadel, Simon; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial conjugate vaccines have dramatically changed the epidemiology of childhood meningitis; viral causes are increasingly predominant, but the current UK epidemiology is unknown. This prospective study recruited children under 16?years of age admitted to 3 UK hospitals with suspected meningitis. 70/388 children had meningitis-13 bacterial, 26 viral and 29 with no pathogen identified. Group B Streptococcus was the most common bacterial pathogen. Infants under 3?months of age with bacterial meningitis were more likely to have a reduced Glasgow Coma Score and respiratory distress than those with viral meningitis or other infections. There were no discriminatory clinical features in older children. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count and plasma C-reactive protein at all ages, and CSF protein in infants <3?months of age, distinguished between bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis or other infections. Improved diagnosis of non-bacterial meningitis is urgently needed to reduce antibiotic use and hospital stay. PMID:25256088

  13. Influenza virus antigens conjugated with a synthetic polyelectrolyte: a novel model of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Petrov, R V; Khaitov, R M; Zhdanov, V M; Sinyakov, M S; Norimov, A Sh; Nekrasov, A V; Podchernyaeva RYa; Kharitonenkov, I G; Shchipanova, M V

    1985-12-01

    Haemagglutinin (HA), a mixture of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase (HA + NA), and matrix (M) protein were isolated from the influenza A virus and covalently coupled to a synthetic polyelectrolyte (P). A single injection into mice of the resultant conjugates (virogates) brought about efficient stimulation of the primary immune response specific to the corresponding viral antigens. Mice immunized with virogates HA.P or (HA + NA).P were largely protected against a lethal challenge infection with homologous virus. Immunization of mice with M.P virogate containing M protein originated from a 1934 influenza strain resulted in pronounced protection against a lethal challenge infection with a 1980 strain. Virogates are discussed as a novel model of artificial vaccines. PMID:3936300

  14. Effects of an Oxycodone Conjugate Vaccine on Oxycodone Self-Administration and Oxycodone-Induced Brain Gene Expression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pravetoni, Marco; Pentel, Paul R.; Potter, David N.; Chartoff, Elena H.; Tally, Laura; LeSage, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription opioid abuse is an increasing public health concern in the USA. A vaccine comprising a hapten (OXY) conjugated to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (OXY-KLH) has been shown to attenuate the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone. Here, the vaccine's ability to prevent acquisition of intravenous (i.v.) oxycodone self-administration was studied in rats. Effects of vaccination on oxycodone-induced changes in the expression of several genes within the mesolimbic system, which are regulated by chronic opiate use, were also examined. Vaccination with OXY-KLH reduced the proportion of rats acquiring i.v. self-administration of oxycodone under a fixed ratio (FR) 3 schedule of reinforcement compared to control rats immunized with the unconjugated KLH carrier protein. Vaccination significantly reduced the mean number of infusions at FR3, total number of infusions, and total oxycodone intake during the entire protocol. Compared to oxycodone self-administering control rats immunized with the carrier alone, rats vaccinated with the OXY-KLH immunogen showed increased levels of adenylate cyclase 5 (Adcy5) and decreased levels of early growth response protein 2 (Egr2) and the early immediate gene c-Fos in the striatum. These data suggest that vaccination with OXY-KLH can attenuate the reinforcing effects of oxycodone at a clinically-relevant exposure level. Analysis of mRNA expression identified some addiction-relevant markers that may be of interest in understanding oxycodone effects or the protection provided by vaccination. PMID:25025380

  15. Polymeric Microparticles as a Generic Platform for Vaccine Delivery

    E-print Network

    Merkle, Hans P.

    2006-10-26

    alone Y Waeckerle-Men et al. Vaccine 24:1847-1857 (2006) Encapsulation of tetanus toxoid (TT) in PLGA microspheres to prolong antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells by human MoDC 0 100 200 300 IF N - ? ( pg/ ml ) S o l . F l u M 5 0 ? g / m l MS... by cationic PLL surface coatings on PS microparticles Controls Controls 4.5 ?m PS Dendritic cell maturation (CD83) upon surface coating of poly(styrene) (PS) microspheres by conjugation of Ab 0 2040608010120 CD40 PS IgG-PS CD40-PS avb3-PS avb5-PS LPS...

  16. Baseline Meningococcal Carriage in Burkina Faso before the Introduction of a Meningococcal Serogroup A Conjugate Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Paul A.; Diomandé, Fabien; Wei, Stanley C.; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Sangaré, Lassana; Sanou, Idrissa; Kandolo, Denis; Kaboré, Pascal; Clark, Thomas A.; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Absatou, Ki Ba; Ouédraogo, Charles D.; Hassan-King, Musa; Thomas, Jennifer Dolan; Hatcher, Cynthia; Djingarey, Mamoudou; Messonnier, Nancy; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, Marc; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2011-01-01

    The serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine MenAfriVac has the potential to confer herd immunity by reducing carriage prevalence of epidemic strains. To better understand this phenomenon, we initiated a meningococcal carriage study to determine the baseline carriage rate and serogroup distribution before vaccine introduction in the 1- to 29-year old population in Burkina Faso, the group chosen for the first introduction of the vaccine. A multiple cross-sectional carriage study was conducted in one urban and two rural districts in Burkina Faso in 2009. Every 3 months, oropharyngeal samples were collected from >5,000 randomly selected individuals within a 4-week period. Isolation and identification of the meningococci from 20,326 samples were performed by national laboratories in Burkina Faso. Confirmation and further strain characterization, including genogrouping, multilocus sequence typing, and porA-fetA sequencing, were performed in Norway. The overall carriage prevalence for meningococci was 3.98%; the highest prevalence was among the 15- to 19-year-olds for males and among the 10- to 14-year-olds for females. Serogroup Y dominated (2.28%), followed by serogroups X (0.44%), A (0.39%), and W135 (0.34%). Carriage prevalence was the highest in the rural districts and in the dry season, but serogroup distribution also varied by district. A total of 29 sequence types (STs) and 51 porA-fetA combinations were identified. The dominant clone was serogroup Y, ST-4375, P1.5-1,2-2/F5-8, belonging to the ST-23 complex (47%). All serogroup A isolates were ST-2859 of the ST-5 complex with P1.20,9/F3-1. This study forms a solid basis for evaluating the impact of MenAfriVac introduction on serogroup A carriage. PMID:21228139

  17. Stabilization of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids against moisture-induced aggregation.

    PubMed

    Schwendeman, S P; Costantino, H R; Gupta, R K; Siber, G R; Klibanov, A M; Langer, R

    1995-11-21

    The progress toward single-dose vaccines has been limited by the poor solid-state stability of vaccine antigens within controlled-release polymers, such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide). For example, herein we report that lyophilized tetanus toxoid aggregates during incubation at 37 degrees C and elevated humidity--i.e., conditions relevant to its release from such systems. The mechanism and extent of this aggregation are dependent on the moisture level in the solid protein, with maximum aggregation observed at intermediate moisture contents. The main aggregation pathway is consistent with formaldehyde-mediated cross-linking, where reactive electrophiles created and stored in the vaccine upon formalinization (exposure to formaldehyde during vaccine preparation) react with nucleophiles of a second vaccine molecule to form intermolecular cross-links. This process is inhibited by the following: (i) succinylating the vaccine to block reactive amino groups; (ii) treating the vaccine with sodium cyanoborohydride, which presumably reduces Schiff bases and some other electrophiles created upon formalinization; and (iii) addition of low-molecular-weight excipients, particularly sorbitol. The moisture-induced aggregation of another formalinized vaccine, diphtheria toxoid, is also retarded by succinylation, suggesting the generality of this mechanism for formalinized vaccines. Hence, mechanistic stability studies of the type described herein may be important for the development of effective single-dose vaccines. PMID:7479971

  18. Impact of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in children up to two years of age in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grando, Indianara Maria; Moraes, Camile de; Flannery, Brendan; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Horta, Marco Aurélio P; Pinho, Diana Lucia Moura; Nascimento, Gilmara Lima

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae on the morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal meningitis in children ? 2 years in Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. This is a descriptive study and ecological analysis using data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases. Pre-vaccination (2007-2009) and post-vaccination (2011-2012) periods were defined to compare incidence rates and mortality. A total of 1,311 cases and 430 deaths were reported during the study period. Incidence decreased from 3.70/100,000 in 2007 to 1.84/100,000 in 2012, and mortality decreased from 1.30/100,000 to 0.40/100,000, or 50% and 69% respectively, with the greatest impact in the 6-11 month age group. This decrease in Pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality rates two years after introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine suggests its effectiveness. PMID:25760162

  19. Pediatric complicated pneumonia and pneumococcal serotype replacement: trends in hospitalized children pre and post introduction of routine vaccination with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thea K. Chibuk; Joan L. Robinson; Dawn S. Hartfield

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have described an increase in the incidence of complicated pneumonia in children, primarily caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The objective of this study was to determine if the incidence of complicated pneumonias in total and due to different pneumococcal\\u000a serotypes has changed following the introduction of routine immunization with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7).\\u000a A retrospective review of patients

  20. A preclinical study comparing approaches for augmenting the immunogenicity of a heptavalent KLH-conjugate vaccine against epithelial cancers.

    PubMed

    Ragupathi, Govind; Koide, Fusataka; Sathyan, Natarajan; Kagan, Ella; Spassova, Maria; Bornmann, William; Gregor, Polly; Reis, Celso A; Clausen, Henrik; Danishefsky, Samuel J; Livingston, Philip O

    2003-10-01

    Previously using a series of monovalent vaccines, we demonstrated that the optimal method for inducing an antibody response against cancer cell-surface antigens is covalent conjugation of the antigens to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the use of a saponin adjuvant. We have prepared a heptavalent-KLH conjugate vaccine containing the seven epithelial cancer antigens GM2, Globo H, Lewis(y), TF(c), Tn(c), STn(c), and glycosylated MUC1. In preparation for testing this vaccine in the clinic, we tested the impact on antibody induction of administering the individual conjugates plus adjuvant compared with a mixture of the seven conjugates plus adjuvant, and of several variables thought to augment immunogenicity. These include approaches for decreasing suppressor cell activity or increasing helper T-lymphocyte activity (low dose cyclophosphamide or anti-CTLA-4 MAb), different saponin adjuvants at various doses (QS-21 and GPI-0100), and different methods of formulation (lyophilization and use of polysorbate 80). We find that: (1). Immunization with the heptavalent-KLH conjugate plus GPI-0100 vaccine induces antibodies against the seven antigens of comparable titer to those induced by the individual-KLH conjugate vaccines, high titers of antibodies against Tn (median ELISA titer IgM/IgG 320/10240), STn (640/5120), TF (320/10240), MUC1 (80/20480), and globo H (640/40); while lower titers of antibodies against Lewis(y)()(160/0) and only occasional antibodies against GM2 are induced. (2). These antibodies reacted with the purified synthetic antigens by ELISA, and with naturally expressed antigens on the cancer cell surface by FACS. (3). None of the approaches for further altering the suppressor cell/helper T-cell balance nor changes to the standard formulation by lyophilization or use of polysorbate 80 had any impact on antibody titers. (4). An optimal dose of saponin adjuvant, QS-21 (50 microg) or GPI-0100 (1000 microg), is required for optimal antibody titers. This heptavalent vaccine is sufficiently optimized for testing in the clinic. PMID:12811527

  1. Kinetics and Avidity of Antibodies Evoked by Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines PncCRM and PncOMPC in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Nina; Åhman, Heidi; Verho, Jouko; Jokinen, Jukka; Väkeväinen, Merja; Kilpi, Terhi; Käyhty, Helena

    2005-01-01

    The licensure of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) relies on immunogenicity data. When defining correlates of protection, vaccine efficacy data must be included. In the FinOM Vaccine Efficacy Trial, the PncOMPC vaccine showed an efficacy profile similar to that of the licensed PncCRM vaccine despite different antibody responses after primary and booster vaccinations. We determined antibody kinetics and avidities in a subgroup of infants participating in the FinOM trial. A total of 166 infants in three vaccine groups were immunized at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age with 7-valent PCV, PncCRM or PncOMPC, or hepatitis B vaccine. Concentrations of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides were determined at 2, 4, 6, 7, 12, 13, and 24 months of age, and the avidity index (AI) to serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were determined at 7, 12, 13, and 24 months of age by enzyme immunoassay. Both PCVs were highly immunogenic, but they demonstrated different kinetics of antibody response; the concentration of IgG against serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F declined faster after the third and fourth doses of vaccine in the PncCRM group than in the PncOMPC group. For both PCVs, the mean AI of anti-6B and -23F, but not of anti-19F, increased during the follow-up, which is in line with serotype-specific protection in the FinOM trial. Our data suggest that the kinetics and avidities of antibodies should be considered, in addition to antibody responses, when defining correlates of protection. PMID:15618174

  2. Conjugation of lymphoma idiotype to CD40 antibody enhances lymphoma vaccine immunogenicity and antitumor effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Carlring, Jennifer; Szabo, Marika J; Dickinson, Robert; De Leenheer, Evy; Heath, Andrew W

    2012-03-01

    Personalized immunotherapy of lymphoma based on tumor idiotype (Id) has shown anti-idiotype humoral immune responses in 40%-50% and cellular immune responses in 50%-75% of follicular lymphoma patients, indicating that this therapy can be clinically successful. We have developed a novel vaccine against lymphoma consisting of an anti-CD40 Ab (ADX40) chemically conjugated to the tumor idiotype A20 and tested it in a murine lymphoma model. BALB/c mice were immunized with 2 doses of immunogen alone or in conjunction with additional adjuvants before tumor challenge. ADX40-Id vaccination resulted in significantly retarded tumor growth and reduced mouse morbidity. Moreover, similar mouse survival was obtained with 2 injections of ADX40-Id as with 8 injections using the standard therapy of keyhole limpet hemocyanin Id + GM-CSF. Co-administration of ADX40-Id with 3-O-deacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A further significantly enhanced vaccine efficacy, resulting in an increased overall survival. Anti-Id-specific Abs were detected at elevated levels after ADX40-Id immunization; however, in vivo depletion of CD4 and/or CD8 T cells before challenge showed that CD8 effector T cells were the major mediators of tumor protection. The results of the present study show that the ADX40-Id conjugate vaccine is a potential candidate as a stand-alone vaccine or in combination with currently licensed adjuvants for lymphoma immunotherapy. PMID:22234700

  3. Has the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine had an impact on invasive pneumococcal disease in Western Australia?

    PubMed

    Giele, Carolien; Moore, Hannah; Bayley, Kathy; Harrison, Catherine; Murphy, Denise; Rooney, Kylie; Keil, Anthony D; Lehmann, Deborah

    2007-03-22

    Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been ongoing in Western Australia since 1996. We describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged <2 years between 1996 and 2005. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been offered to Aboriginal children and other high-risk children since July 2001 and to all Australian children since January 2005. A total of 1655 IPD cases were reported of whom 361 (55 Aboriginal) were aged <2 years. From 1996-2001 to 2002-2005, IPD incidence declined from 192 to 124/100,000/annum in Aboriginal children and from 70 to 56/100,000/annum in non-Aboriginal children. Incidence of IPD due to vaccine serotypes (VT) declined from 118 to 43/100,000/annum (p=0.05) in Aboriginal children and from 59 to 45/100,000/annum in non-Aboriginal children (p<0.001), with no increased incidence of disease due to non-vaccine serotypes. Continued surveillance is essential to measure the impact of the childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination program on IPD incidence and to identify the emergence of disease due to non-vaccine serotypes. PMID:17064825

  4. Protein antigens increase the protective efficacy of a capsule-based vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus in a rat model of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lattar, Santiago M; Noto Llana, Mariángeles; Denoël, Philippe; Germain, Sophie; Buzzola, Fernanda R; Lee, Jean C; Sordelli, Daniel O

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an invasive bacterial pathogen, and antibiotic resistance has impeded adequate control of infections caused by this microbe. Moreover, efforts to prevent human infections with single-component S. aureus vaccines have failed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy in rats of vaccines containing both S. aureus capsular polysaccharides (CPs) and proteins. The serotypes 5 CP (CP5) and 8 CP (CP8) were conjugated to tetanus toxoid and administered to rats alone or together with domain A of clumping factor A (ClfA) or genetically detoxified alpha-toxin (dHla). The vaccines were delivered according to a preventive or a therapeutic regimen, and their protective efficacy was evaluated in a rat model of osteomyelitis. Addition of dHla (but not ClfA) to the CP5 or CP8 vaccine induced reductions in bacterial load and bone morphological changes compared with immunization with either conjugate vaccine alone. Both the prophylactic and therapeutic regimens were protective. Immunization with dHla together with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine used as a control did not reduce staphylococcal osteomyelitis. The emergence of unencapsulated or small-colony variants during infection was negligible and similar for all of the vaccine groups. In conclusion, addition of dHla to a CP5 or CP8 conjugate vaccine enhanced its efficacy against S. aureus osteomyelitis, indicating that the inclusion of multiple antigens will likely enhance the efficacy of vaccines against both chronic and acute forms of staphylococcal disease. PMID:24126523

  5. The effect of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on immunological priming induced by 7-valent conjugate vaccine in asplenic subjects with beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Orthopoulos, George V; Theodoridou, Maria C; Ladis, Vasilis A; Tsousis, Dimitris K; Spoulou, Vana I

    2009-01-14

    The effect of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) on the 7-valent conjugate (PCV) vaccine-induced priming was evaluated in 35 splenectomised beta-thalassemics [median (range) age: 30 (12-41) years] vaccinated with either PCV/PPV or two PCVs 1 month apart, followed by a PPV booster 12 months later. 28/35 had already received 1-3 PPVs in the past. Different schedules induced similar anamnestic responses; however priming for 3/5 serotypes induced by one or two PCVs, was inferior in subjects who had received > or =2 PPVs in the past when compared with 23 aged-matched PPV-naïve beta-thalassemics. One PPV following PCV does not affect PCV priming; multiple PPVs induce hyporesponsiveness for some serotypes in splenectomised subjects with beta-thalassemia. PMID:19010369

  6. Rituximab and abatacept but not tocilizumab impair antibody response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of newer biologic treatments including rituximab, abatacept and tocilizumab on antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination using a 7-valent conjugate vaccine in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with RA receiving rituximab, abatacept or tocilizumab as monotherapy or combined with methotrexate (MTX) participated in the study. Specific IgG antibodies against 23F and 6B serotypes were measured at vaccination and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination using standardised ELISA. Geometric mean antibody levels (GML) were calculated. Antibody response (AR) was defined as the ratio between post- and pre-vaccination antibody levels and a positive antibody response (posAR) was AR ?2. Results In total, 88 patients were enrolled in the study. Of 55 patients treated with rituximab, 26 (46%) were on concomitant MTX. Of patients receiving abatacept (n?=?17) and tocilizumab (n?=?16) biologic treatment was given in combination with MTX in 13 (76%) and 9 (56%) patients, respectively. Patients treated with rituximab had significantly lower AR compared to those on tocilizumab, as well as compared to previously reported RA patients on MTX and controls (spondylarthropathy patients treated with NSAIDs and/or analgesics). In total, 10.3% of patients on rituximab monotherapy and no patient on rituximab?+?MTX had posAR for both serotypes. For abatacept and tocilizumab the corresponding figures were 17.6% and 50%. Conclusion In this cohort of patients with established RA, treatment with rituximab and abatacept was associated with diminished antibody response but this was most pronounced for rituximab. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administrated during ongoing tocilizumab treatment seems to be associated with sufficient antibody response. Pneumococcal vaccination should preferably be encouraged before initiation of rituximab or abatacept treatment. Trial registration NCT00828997 and EudraCT EU 2007-006539-29. PMID:24286269

  7. Size determination of bacterial capsular oligosaccharides used to prepare conjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis groups Y and W135.

    PubMed

    Bardotti, Angela; Averani, Giovanni; Berti, Francesco; Berti, Stefania; Galli, Chiara; Giannini, Sara; Fabbri, Barbara; Proietti, Daniela; Ravenscroft, Neil; Ricci, Stefano

    2005-03-14

    The glycoconjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis groups Y and W135 consist of pools of selected oligosaccharides conjugated to the protein carrier (CRM197). Consistent production of these vaccines requires control and thus determination of the average degree of polymerisation of the oligosaccharides used for conjugation. Acid hydrolysis generates group Y and W135 oligosaccharides with N-acetylneuraminic acid at the reducing end. A method, involving NaBH4 reduction and quantification of this terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid by use of high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) following acid hydrolysis (2M TFA), was developed. The average degree of polymerisation is calculated from the ratio of reduced N-acetylneuraminic acid to total N-acetylneuraminic acid. The assay was qualified by application to group C, Y and W135 oligosaccharide standards characterised by liquid chromatography, mass and NMR spectroscopy. PMID:15734061

  8. A Poly-N-acetylglucosamine-Shiga toxin broad-spectrum conjugate vaccine for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Skurnik, David; Pozzi, Clarissa; Roux, Damien; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Munera, Diana; Gening, Marina L; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Waldor, Matthew K; Pier, Gerald B

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens produce the ?-(1-6)-linked poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) surface polysaccharide that is being developed as a broadly protective antimicrobial vaccine. However, it is unknown whether systemically injected PNAG vaccines or antibodies would provide protective immunity against pathogens confined to the gastrointestinal tract such as Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), an important group of gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens for which effective immunotherapeutics are lacking. To ascertain whether systemic IgG antibody to PNAG impacts this infectious situation, a vaccine consisting of a synthetic nonamer of nonacetylated PNAG, 9GlcNH2, conjugated to the Shiga toxin 1b subunit (9GlcNH2-Stx1b) was produced. Rabbit antibodies raised to the conjugate vaccine were tested for bacterial killing and toxin neutralization in vitro and protection against infection in infant mice. Cell surface PNAG was detected on all 9 STEC isolates tested, representing 6 STEC serogroups, including E. coli O157:H7. Antibody to the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate neutralized Stx1 potently and Stx2 modestly. For O157:H7 and O104:H4 STEC strains, antibodies elicited by the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate possessed opsonic killing and bactericidal activity. Following intraperitoneal injection, antibodies to both PNAG and Stx were needed for infant mouse protection against O157 STEC. These antibodies also mediated protection against the Stx2-producing O104:H4 strain that was the cause of a recent outbreak in Germany, although sufficient doses of antibody to PNAG alone were protective against this strain in infant mice. Our observations suggest that vaccination against both PNAG and Stx, using a construct such as the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate vaccine, would be protective against a broad range of STEC serogroups. IMPORTANCE The presence of poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) on many pathogens presents an opportunity to target this one structure with a multispecies vaccine. Whether antibodies to PNAG can protect against pathogens confined to the gastrointestinal tract is not known. As Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are serious causes of infection whose virulence is dependent on elaboration of Stx, we prepared a vaccine containing a synthetic nonamer of PNAG (9GlcNH2) conjugated to Shiga toxin 1b subunit (9GlcNH2-Stx1b) to evaluate bacterial killing, toxin neutralization, and protective efficacy in infant mice. All nine (100%) clinical strains of STEC from different serogroups expressed PNAG. Vaccine-induced antibody mediated in vitro killing of STEC and neutralization of both Stx1 and Stx2. Passive administration of antibody to the conjugate showed protection requiring immunity to both PNAG and Stx for O157 strains, although for an O104 strain, antibody to PNAG alone was protective. Immunity to PNAG may contribute to protection against STEC infections. PMID:24667709

  9. Prompt effect of replacing the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with the 13-valent vaccine on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Norway.

    PubMed

    Steens, Anneke; Bergsaker, Marianne A Riise; Aaberge, Ingeborg S; Rønning, Karin; Vestrheim, Didrik F

    2013-12-16

    The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the childhood immunisation programme in Norway in 2006 substantially decreased the incidence of vaccine-type (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in all age groups. Additionally, a slight increase in the non-vaccine (NVT) serotype IPD incidence (serotype replacement) was observed. After replacing PCV7 with PCV13 in 2011, a further decrease in IPD incidence is expected. However, the protection by the six additional serotypes opens new nasopharyngeal niches for colonisation, which favours conditions for serotype replacement. Close monitoring of IPD therefore remains important in order to quickly detect changes. In this observational retrospective population-based cohort study we used data notified nationally between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2012 to determine the VT- and NVT-IPD incidences. The diversity in serotype distribution per year was analysed using the Simpson's index of diversity. Immunisation history of young children was obtained from the Norwegian Vaccination Registry to determine vaccine failure. The incidence of VT-IPD decreased in the targeted (<5 years) and non-targeted (?5) age groups since PCV7 introduction and further decreased after the replacement with PCV13. Only two cases of vaccine failure were identified. This indicates very high effectiveness of the 2+1 schedules with PCV7 or PCV13 and suggests that non-vaccinated individuals profit through indirect protection. The decrease in incidence of PCV7-IPD in non-targeted age groups became larger in later years, indicating a lag phase for the indirect effects, and suggests that the indirect protection of PCV13 will increase in coming years. The incidence of some NVT, specifically serotypes 23B and 15A, increased after PCV13 introduction. This coincided with an increased Simpson's index of diversity in the targeted age group. As this suggests that serotype replacement is again occurring, continues monitoring of IPD is important so that adaptations to vaccine recommendations can be promptly issued. PMID:24176490

  10. Self Heat?Shock Protein (hsp60) Peptide Serves in a Conjugate Vaccine against a Lethal Pneumococcal Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Cohen; Mati Fridkin

    1999-01-01

    Healthy persons manifest a high frequency of T cells reactive to epitopes of the self 60-kDa heat-shock protein (hsp60) molecule. It was reasoned that a self hsp60 peptide, p458m, might provide T cell help for a response to the T independent capsular polysaccharide of Strepto- coccus pneumoniae type 4 (PS4). The conjugate vaccine (PS4-p458m) induced resistance to challenge with 1300,000

  11. GM2-KLH conjugate vaccine: increased immunogenicity in melanoma patients after administration with immunological adjuvant QS-21.

    PubMed

    Helling, F; Zhang, S; Shang, A; Adluri, S; Calves, M; Koganty, R; Longenecker, B M; Yao, T J; Oettgen, H F; Livingston, P O

    1995-07-01

    The cell surface gangliosides GM2, GD2, and GD3 are often overexpressed in malignant melanoma. We have shown previously that immunization of melanoma patients with GM2 and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin induced an IgM antibody response in most patients and that patients with high titer GM2 antibodies showed increased survival. As is commonly seen with carbohydrate antigens (which are T independent), the IgM response was short lived, and an IgG response was rarely observed. To increase immunogenicity, we conjugated GM2 covalently with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). GM2-KLH vaccine was given to melanoma patients alone or with one of the three adjuvants: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, DETOX, or QS-21. The most effective vaccine was GM2-KLH with QS-21. It induced a much higher titer, a longer-lasting IgM GM2 antibody response, and a consistent IgG response (isotype IgG1 and IgG3). It also induced the highest titer anti-KLH response. The results suggest that the conjugate GM2-KLH plus QS-21 vaccine elicited significant T-cell help. Because there was no serious toxicity, this vaccine approach is attractive for augmenting the immunogenicity of other gangliosides, such as GD2 and GD3, and to determine the effects of ganglioside antibodies on the course of melanoma. In addition, the finding that QS-21 significantly increased the immunogenicity of GM2-KLH suggests that it may do the same for other conjugate vaccines, many of which are currently used without adjuvant. PMID:7796403

  12. Monitoring stability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines; correlation of physico-chemical methods and immunogenicity assays.

    PubMed

    Ho, M M; Lemercinier, X; Bolgiano, B; Corbel, M J

    2000-01-01

    Two meningococcal C-CRM197 conjugates differing in oligosaccharide chain length, number of conjugation sites, conjugation chemistry and process were monitored for stability at various temperatures or after repeated freeze-thawing by physico-chemical assays. The results were compared with assessment of immunogenicity in mice, previously shown to correlate with performance of the vaccine in clinical trials. The structural stability of the oligosaccharide chains and the protein carrier varied between the two types of conjugates. Neither was adversely affected by repeated freeze-thawing but one developed conformational changes in the protein carrier, detected by optical (CD, fluorescence) and NMR spectroscopy, when incubated at 23 degrees C or above, although integrity of the oligosaccharide structure was maintained. This was not associated with any reduction in primary IgM or IgG antibody responses to meningococcal C polysaccharide. Exposure to more extreme conditions resulting in release of a substantial proportion of free saccharide from the other conjugate sample was accompanied by significant reduction in both IgG and IgM antibody responses. In conclusion, FPLC-SEC, HPAEC-PAD and NMR spectroscopy were found useful for monitoring the stability of meningococcal C-CRM197 conjugates. Although optical spectroscopy was a sensitive method for detecting modification of the protein carrier, the results did not correlate with reduced immunogenicity. PMID:11214232

  13. Clonal analysis of invasive pneumococcal isolates in Scotland and coverage of serotypes by the licensed conjugate polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine: possible implications for UK vaccine policy.

    PubMed

    McChlery, S M; Scott, K J; Clarke, S C

    2005-04-01

    A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has gained licensure and has proven successful in the USA for preventing pneumococcal disease and reducing the incidence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal strains. The ability, therefore, to accurately monitor the likely effect of the introduction of PCV7 vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease in the UK is essential. Serotyping and multilocus sequence typing was performed on invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=645) from Scotland during 2003. The information gained from this was used to evaluate serotype coverage by the vaccine and the relationship between serotypes. In the present study, invasive pneumococcal disease in Scotland was caused by 33 different serotypes, consisting of 150 sequence types. Overall, 48.4% of the isolates were of serotypes included in the PCV7. Pneumococci were most frequently associated with sequence types 9, 124, and 162. PCV7 would provide protection in 71.8% of infants under 5 years of age against the serotypes in the vaccine. There was limited evidence of the potential for capsule switch among currently circulating invasive pneumococci. The successful implementation of a suitable vaccination programme should lead to a reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease in the UK as well as a reduction in antibiotic resistance of pneumococcal strains. PMID:15902532

  14. Quantitative analysis of IgG class and subclass and IgA serum response to Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a polysaccharides following vaccination with Shigella conjugate vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Robin; Yona Keisari; Raphael Slepon; Shai Ashkenazi; Dani Cohen

    1999-01-01

    It has been recently reported that a conjugate vaccine composed of the O-specific polysaccharide of S. sonnei bound to Pseudomonas aeruginosa recombinant exoprotein A (rEPA) conferred 74% protection against S. sonnei shigellosis. In the present study affinity purified Shigella antibodies were used as standards to quantify and characterize the serum antibody response to vaccination with Shigella sonnei or Shigella flexneri

  15. An Oxycodone Conjugate Vaccine Elicits Drug-Specific Antibodies that Reduce Oxycodone Distribution to Brain and Hot-Plate Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Le Naour, M.; Harmon, T. M.; Tucker, A. M.; Portoghese, P. S.; Pentel, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Opioid conjugate vaccines have shown promise in attenuating the behavioral effects of heroin or morphine in animals. The goal of this study was to extend this approach to oxycodone (OXY), a commonly abused prescription opioid. Haptens were generated by adding tetraglycine (Gly)4 or hemisuccinate (HS) linkers at the 6-position of OXY. Immunization of rats with OXY(Gly)4 conjugated to the carrier proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) produced high-titer antibodies to OXY and its metabolite oxymorphone with substantially lower affinities for other structurally related opioid agonists and antagonists. There was no measurable binding of antibody by the (Gly)4 linker alone or off-target opioids methadone and buprenorphine. OXY(HS) conjugates were less immunogenic despite achieving protein haptenation ratios comparable to OXY(Gly)4-BSA. In rats given a single intravenous dose of OXY, immunization with OXY(Gly)4-KLH increased OXY protein binding and retention in serum while decreasing its unbound (free) concentration in plasma and distribution to brain. Vaccine efficacy correlated with serum antibody titers, and it was greatest in rats given the lowest OXY dose (0.05 mg/kg) but was significant even after a larger OXY dose (0.5 mg/kg), equivalent to the high end of the therapeutic range in humans. These effects of OXY(Gly)4-KLH on drug disposition were comparable to those of nicotine or cocaine vaccines that are in clinical trials as addiction treatments. Immunization with OXY(Gly)4-KLH also reduced OXY analgesia in a thermal nociception test. These data support further study of vaccination with the OXY(Gly)4-KLH immunogen as a potential treatment option for OXY abuse or addiction. PMID:22262924

  16. Use of a conjugate polysaccharide vaccine in the prevention of invasive staphylococcal disease: Is an additional vaccine needed or possible?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry R. Shinefield

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous bacterial species that causes serious disease in certain settings. S. aureus disease is difficult to treat, and antibiotic-resistant strains have become common. A vaccine to protect against infection would therefore be beneficial. However, the virulence of S. aureus is determined by a number of different factors, which makes design of a widely effective vaccine difficult.

  17. Controlled Delivery of Diphtheria Toxoid Using Biodegradable Poly(D,L-Lactide) Microcapsules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manmohan Singh; Amarjit Singh; Gursharan Prasad Talwar

    1991-01-01

    Diphtheria toxoid, which is an important vaccine in the expanded program of immunization (EPI) in the developing countries, was microencapsulated using poly(D,L,-lactide) of 49,000 molecular weight and the in-water drying technique. The microcapsules were subjected to an in vitro antigen release study using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed in the laboratory. Antibody titers in immunized Balb\\/C mice were

  18. Opsonophagocytic activity following a reduced dose 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine infant primary series and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Russell, F M; Carapetis, J R; Burton, R L; Lin, J; Licciardi, P V; Balloch, A; Tikoduadua, L; Waqatakirewa, L; Cheung, Y B; Tang, M L K; Nahm, M H; Mulholland, E K

    2011-01-10

    Opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) was measured following reduced infant doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) with or without 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) at 12 months, and subsequent re-exposure to a small dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (mPPS) at 17 months. Fijian infants were randomized to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 PCV-7 doses. Half received PPV-23 at 12 months and all received mPPS at 17 months. OPA was performed on up to 14 serotypes. Three and 2 PCV-7 doses resulted in similar OPA for most PCV-7 serotypes up to 9 months and for half of the serotypes at 12 months. A single dose improved OPA compared with the unvaccinated group. PPV-23 significantly improved OPA for all serotypes tested but in general, was associated with diminished responses following re-challenge. PMID:21044669

  19. An Assessment of the Screening Method to Evaluate Vaccine Effectiveness: The Case of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adam L.; Taylor, Thomas; Farley, Monica M.; Schaffner, William; Lesher, Lindsey J.; Gershman, Kenneth A.; Bennett, Nancy M.; Reingold, Arthur; Thomas, Ann; Baumbach, Joan; Harrison, Lee H.; Petit, Susan; Beall, Bernard; Zell, Elizabeth; Moore, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The screening method, which employs readily available data, is an inexpensive and quick means of estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE). We compared estimates of effectiveness of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) using the screening and case-control methods. Cases were children aged 19–35 months with pneumococcus isolated from normally sterile sites residing in Active Bacterial Core surveillance areas in the United States. Case-control VE was estimated for 2001–2004 by comparing the odds of vaccination among cases and community controls. Screening-method VE for 2001–2009 was estimated by comparing the proportion of cases vaccinated to National Immunization Survey-derived coverage among the general population. To evaluate the plausibility of screening-method VE findings, we estimated attack rates among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons. We identified 1,154 children with IPD. Annual population PCV7 coverage with ?1 dose increased from 38% to 97%. Case-control VE for ?1 dose was estimated as 75% against all-serotype IPD (annual range: 35–83%) and 91% for PCV7-type IPD (annual range: 65–100%). By the screening method, the overall VE was 86% for ?1 dose (annual range: ?240–70%) against all-serotype IPD and 94% (annual range: 62–97%) against PCV7-type IPD. As cases of PCV7-type IPD declined during 2001–2005, estimated attack rates for all-serotype IPD among vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals became less consistent than what would be expected with the estimated effectiveness of PCV7. The screening method yields estimates of VE that are highly dependent on the time period during which it is used and the choice of outcome. The method should be used cautiously to evaluate VE of PCVs. PMID:22870248

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Immunogenicity of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Compared to 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Frail, Hospitalized Elderly

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, C. Raina; Ridda, Iman; Gao, Zhanhai; Moa, Aye M.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Sullivan, John S.; Jones, Thomas R.; Hayen, Andrew; Lindley, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elderly people do not mount strong immune responses to vaccines. We compared 23-valent capsular polysaccharide (23vPPV) alone versus 7-valent conjugate (PCV7) vaccine followed by 23vPPV 6 months later in hospitalized elderly. Methods Participants were randomized to receive 23vPPV or PCV7-23vPPV. Antibodies against serotypes 3, 4, 6A, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and opsonophagocytic (OPA) assays at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Of 312 recruited, between 40% and 72% of subjects had undetectable OPA titres at baseline. After one dose, PCV7 recipients had significantly higher responses to serotypes 9V (both assays) and 23F (OPA only), and 23vPPV recipients had significantly higher responses to serotype 3 (ELISA), 19F and 19A (OPA only). In subjects with undetectable OPA titres at baseline, a proportionately greater rise in OPA titre (P<0.01) was seen for all serotypes after both vaccines. The GMT ratio of OPA was significantly higher at 12 months in the PCV7-23vPPV group for serotypes 6A, 9V, 18C and 23F. OPA titre levels for these serotypes increased moderately after 6 months, whereas immunity waned in the 23vPPV only arm. Conclusion We did not show overwhelming benefit of one vaccine over the other. Low baseline immunity does not preclude a robust immune response, reiterating the importance of vaccinating the frail elderly. A schedule of PCV7-23vPPV prevents waning of antibody, suggesting that both vaccines could be useful in the elderly. Follow up studies are needed to determine persistence of immunity. Trial Registration The Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12607000387426 PMID:24760002

  1. Dose-ranging study of a single injection of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (1 ×, 2 ×, or 4 ×) in healthy subjects aged 70 years or older.

    PubMed

    Lode, H; Schmoele-Thoma, B; Gruber, W; Ahlers, N; Fernsten, P; Baker, S; Razmpour, A; Siber, G; Hackell, J; Lockhart, S; Burkhardt, O; Welte, T; de Roux, A

    2011-07-12

    Healthy adults aged ? 70 years (N=443) with no history of pneumococcal vaccination received 7- or 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 or PCV9) at 1 × (PCV7 only), 2 × (PCV7+PCV9), or 4 × (2 × PCV7+2 × PCV9) dosage in a randomised, open-label study evaluating pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine (PnC). Controls received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). Both geometric mean concentration enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and opsonophagocytic activity antibody titres assessed 1 month after vaccination were significantly increased over baseline titres for all PCV7 serotypes, with a trend toward a dose-dependent immune response. Local reactions for the 4 × dose, but not the 2 × dose, were statistically significantly higher than for the 1 × dose. No treatment-related serious adverse events occurred. PMID:21596077

  2. Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for adults with immunocompromising conditions: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    2012-10-12

    On June 20, 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13; Prevnar 13, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer, Inc.) for adults aged ?19 years with immunocompromising conditions, functional or anatomic asplenia, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, or cochlear implants. PCV13 should be administered to eligible adults in addition to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23; Pneumovax 23, Merck & Co. Inc.), the vaccine currently recommended for these groups of adults. The evidence for the benefits and risk of PCV13 vaccination of adults with immunocompromising conditions was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework and designated as a Category A recommendation. This report outlines the new ACIP recommendations for PCV13 use; explains the recommendations for the use of PCV13 and PPSV23 among adults with immunocompromising conditions, functional or anatomic asplenia, CSF leaks, or cochlear implants; and summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP to make its recommendations. PMID:23051612

  3. Antibody and Plasmablast Response to 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients – Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Pasiarski, Marcin; Rolinski, Jacek; Grywalska, Ewelina; Stelmach-Goldys, Agnieszka; Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Gozdz, Stanislaw; Hus, Iwona; Malm, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) leads to significant immune system dysfunction. The predominant clinical presentation in 50% of patients involves recurrent, often severe, infections. Infections are also the most common (60–80%) cause of deaths in CLL patients. The scope of infections varies with the clinical stage of the disease. Treatment-naive patients typically present with respiratory tract infections caused by encapsulated bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Since 2012, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been recommended in the United States and some EU countries for pneumococcal infection prevention in patients with CLL (besides the long-standing standard, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, PPV23). The aim of this study was to compare the immune response to PCV13 in 24 previously untreated CLL patients and healthy subjects. Methods Both groups were evaluated for: the levels of specific pneumococcal antibodies, the levels of IgG and IgG subclasses and selected peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations including the frequency of plasmablasts before and after immunization. Results Adequate response to vaccination, defined as an at least two-fold increase in specific pneumococcal antibody titers versus pre-vaccination baseline titers, was found in 58.3% of CLL patients and 100% of healthy subjects. Both the CLL group and the control group demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the IgG2 subclass levels following vaccination (P?=?0.0301). After vaccination, the frequency of plasmablasts was significantly lower (P<0.0001) in CLL patients in comparison to that in controls. Patients who responded to vaccination had lower clinical stage of CLL as well as higher total IgG, and IgG2 subclass levels. No significant vaccine-related side effects were observed. Conclusions PCV13 vaccination in CLL patients is safe and induces an effective immune response in a considerable proportion of patients. To achieve an optimal vaccination response, the administration of PCV13 is recommended as soon as possible following CLL diagnosis. PMID:25506837

  4. Toll-like receptor 2 dependent immunogenicity of glycoconjugate vaccines containing chemically derived zwitterionic polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gallorini, Simona; Berti, Francesco; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Cozzi, Roberta; Tortoli, Marco; Volpini, Gianfranco; Telford, John L.; Beninati, Concetta; Maione, Domenico; Wack, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes serious infection in neonates and is an important target of vaccine development. Zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPS), obtained through chemical introduction of positive charges into anionic polysaccharides (PS) from GBS, have the ability to activate human and mouse antigen presenting cells (APCs) through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). To generate a polysaccharide vaccine with antigen (Ag) and adjuvant properties in one molecule, we have conjugated ZPS with a carrier protein. ZPS-glycoconjugates induce higher T-cell and Ab responses to carrier and PS, respectively, compared to control PS-glycoconjugates made with the native polysaccharide form. The increased immunogenicity of ZPS-conjugates correlates with their ability to activate dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, protection of mothers or neonate offspring from lethal GBS challenge is better when mothers are immunized with ZPS-conjugates compared to immunization with PS-conjugates. In TLR2 knockout mice, ZPS-conjugates lose both their increased immunogenicity and protective effect after vaccination. When ZPS are coadministered as adjuvants with unconjugated tetanus toxoid (TT), they have the ability to increase the TT-specific antibody titer. In conclusion, glycoconjugates containing ZPS are potent vaccines. They target Ag to TLR2-expressing APCs and activate these APCs, leading to better T-cell priming and ultimately to higher protective Ab titers. Thus, rational chemical design can generate potent PS-adjuvants with wide application, including glycoconjugates and coadministration with unrelated protein Ags. PMID:19805031

  5. Estimation of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Dynamics Parameters and the Impact of Conjugate Vaccination in

    E-print Network

    Vaccination in Australia K. L. Sutton1,2 , H. T. Banks2 , and C. Castillo-Ch´avez1 1 Department of Mathematics and mortality worldwide. Recent advances in the development of vaccines for these infections have raised of pneumococcal infection dynamics in a population with partial vaccination. The parameters obtained

  6. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3?+?1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy to improve infant population health in the region. PMID:24004943

  7. Serological response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, Alasdair; Kelleher, Peter; Lyall, Hermione; Haston, Mitch; Zancolli, Marta; Goldblatt, David; Kampmann, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with perinatally acquired HIV (paHIV) remain at an increased risk of pneumococcal infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Beyond infancy, responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) remain under-investigated. There are currently no published data on serological response to 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in the HIV-infected populations. Methods: We measured pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG in 48 paHIV-infected child patients (CP), 27 young adult healthy controls (AHC) and 30 child healthy controls (CHC). Opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) titres for three PCV13-exclusive serotypes were measured in a subset of children. Serotype-specific IgG was repeated 1 and 6 months following PCV13 vaccination of CP and AHC groups. OPA titres for four serotypes were measured at the 1-month time-point. Results: The majority of CP, CHC and AHC had serotype-specific IgG above 0.35??g/ml at baseline, although OPA activity was undetectable for two of the three serotypes studied. Baseline IgG concentrations were significantly lower in CP than AHC for a proportion of serotypes and were strongly predictive of responses to vaccine. After adjusting for baseline, postvaccination IgG concentrations were comparable, although responses to some serotypes were impaired for CP. OPA correlated well with IgG after vaccination. Detectable HIV viral load was associated with significantly lower IgG concentration and OPA titre. Conclusion: Children with paHIV mount a robust serological response to PCV13 for most but not all vaccine serotypes. Viral load suppression with HAART and higher baseline IgG concentration are associated with higher postvaccination antibody levels. This has implications for HAART treatment and vaccination practices. PMID:25222526

  8. National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Singleton, James A; Curtis, Robinette C; MacNeil, Jessica; Hariri, Susan

    2014-07-25

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive 1 dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 2 doses of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.* ACIP also recommends administration of "catch-up"† vaccinations, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), hepatitis B, and varicella, and, for all persons aged ?6 months, an annual influenza vaccination. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).§ This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which show that from 2012 to 2013, coverage increased for each of the vaccines routinely recommended for adolescents: from 84.6% to 86.0% for ?1 Tdap dose; from 74.0% to 77.8% for ?1 MenACWY dose; from 53.8% to 57.3% for ?1 HPV dose among females, and from 20.8% to 34.6% for ?1 HPV dose among males. Coverage varied by state and local jurisdictions and by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region. Healthy People 2020 vaccination targets for adolescents aged 13-15 years were reached in 42 states for ?1 Tdap dose, 18 for ?1 MenACWY dose, and 11 for ?2 varicella doses. No state met the target for ?3 HPV doses.¶ Use of patient reminder and recall systems, immunization information systems, coverage assessment and feedback to clinicians, clinician reminders, standing orders, and other interventions can help make use of every health care visit to ensure that adolescents are fully protected from vaccine-preventable infections and cancers (5), especially when such interventions are coupled with clinicians' vaccination recommendations. PMID:25055186

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel MUC1 glycopeptide conjugate vaccine candidate comprising a 4’-deoxy-4’-fluoro-Thomsen–Friedenreich epitope

    PubMed Central

    Gerlitzki, Bastian; Schmitt, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Summary The development of selective anticancer vaccines that provide enhanced protection against tumor recurrence and metastasis has been the subject of intense research in the scientific community. The tumor-associated glycoprotein MUC1 represents a well-established target for cancer immunotherapy and has been used for the construction of various synthetic vaccine candidates. However, many of these vaccine prototypes suffer from an inherent low immunogenicity and are susceptible to rapid in vivo degradation. To overcome these drawbacks, novel fluorinated MUC1 glycopeptide-BSA/TTox conjugate vaccines have been prepared. Immunization of mice with the 4’F-TF-MUC1-TTox conjugate resulted in strong immune responses overriding the natural tolerance against MUC1 and producing selective IgG antibodies that are cross-reactive with native MUC1 epitopes on MCF-7 human cancer cells. PMID:25670999

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel MUC1 glycopeptide conjugate vaccine candidate comprising a 4'-deoxy-4'-fluoro-Thomsen-Friedenreich epitope.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Manuel; Reindl, Maximilian; Gerlitzki, Bastian; Schmitt, Edgar; Hoffmann-Röder, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The development of selective anticancer vaccines that provide enhanced protection against tumor recurrence and metastasis has been the subject of intense research in the scientific community. The tumor-associated glycoprotein MUC1 represents a well-established target for cancer immunotherapy and has been used for the construction of various synthetic vaccine candidates. However, many of these vaccine prototypes suffer from an inherent low immunogenicity and are susceptible to rapid in vivo degradation. To overcome these drawbacks, novel fluorinated MUC1 glycopeptide-BSA/TTox conjugate vaccines have been prepared. Immunization of mice with the 4'F-TF-MUC1-TTox conjugate resulted in strong immune responses overriding the natural tolerance against MUC1 and producing selective IgG antibodies that are cross-reactive with native MUC1 epitopes on MCF-7 human cancer cells. PMID:25670999

  11. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the breadth of studies demonstrating benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), uncertainty remains regarding the optimal PCV dosing schedule in infants. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of PCV immunogenicity published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011). Studies included for analysis evaluated ?2 doses of 7-valent or higher product (excluding Aventis-Pasteur PCV11) administered to nonhigh-risk infants ?6 months of age. Impact of PCV schedule on geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) and proportion of subjects over 0.35 mcg/mL were assessed at various time points; the GMC 1 month postdose 3 (for various dosing regimens) for serotypes 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F was assessed in detail using random effects linear regression, adjusted for product, acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/whole-cell diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis coadministration, laboratory method, age at first dose and geographic region. Results: From 61 studies, we evaluated 13 two-dose (2+0) and 65 three-dose primary schedules (3+0) without a booster dose, 11 “2+1” (2 primary plus booster) and 42 “3+1” schedules. The GMC after the primary series was higher following 3-dose schedules compared with 2-dose schedules for all serotypes except for serotype 1. Pre- and postbooster GMCs were generally similar regardless of whether 2 or 3 primary doses were given. GMCs were significantly higher for all serotypes when dose 3 was administered in the second year (2+1) compared with ?6 months of age (3+0). Conclusions: While giving the third dose in the second year of life produces a higher antibody response than when given as part of the primary series in the first 6 months, the lower GMC between the 2-dose primary series and booster may result in less disease protection for infants in that interval than those who completed the 3-dose primary series. Theoretical advantages of higher antibodies induced by giving the third dose in the second year of life, such as increased protection against serotype 1 disease, longer duration of protection or more rapid induction of herd effects, need to be evaluated in practice. PMID:24336054

  12. Development of experimental carbohydrate-conjugate vaccines composed of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides and the universal helper T-lymphocyte epitope (PADRE ®)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Alexander; Marie-France del Guercio; Barbara Frame; Ajesh Maewal; Alessandro Sette; Moon H. Nahm; Mark J. Newman

    2004-01-01

    Experimental carbohydrate-conjugate vaccines composed of the 13 amino acid universal Pan HLA-DR Epitope (PADRE) and Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 14, 6B and 9V were produced. Simple carbodiimide-mediated condensation chemistry was used to conjugate the PADRE synthetic peptide to the three chemically different capsular polysaccharides in a 1:1 molar ratio. The immunogenicity of the PADRE peptide component of the

  13. A bivalent conjugate vaccine containing PspA families 1 and 2 has the potential to protect against a wide range of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains and Salmonella Typhi.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Neha; Kothari, Sudeep; Choi, Young Joo; Dey, Ayan; Briles, David E; Rhee, Dong Kwon; Carbis, Rodney

    2015-02-01

    Previously we showed that conjugation of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi enhanced the anti-PspA response without the need to add adjuvant. In the current study conjugates consisting of the ? helical regions of PspA families 1 or 2 bound to Vi were used to vaccinate mice to test their ability to protect against a lethal intravenous challenge of a range of various strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conjugate vaccine containing PspA family 1 provided good protection from PspA family 1 challenge strains but offered very little protection against PspA family 2 challenge strains. Similarly, PspA family 2 conjugates provided good protection from PspA family 2 challenge strains and poor protection against PspA family 1 challenge strains. This observation was supported by the low levels of cross-reactivity of PspA antibodies seen in ELISA plates coated with the heterologous PspA family. Cytokine profiles showed a mixed Th1/Th2 response to Vi and the Vi-PspA conjugates. IgG subclass analysis of the anti-Vi response showed a shift from predominantly IgG2a/3 to IgG1 after conjugation to PspA was consistent with other polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. The results demonstrate that conjugation of the ? helical region of PspA to Vi enhances its capacity to induce a protective immune response and that a vaccine based on the ? helical region of PspA should contain PspA from both families 1 and 2 to achieve broad cross-protection. PMID:25545593

  14. Impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children attending group daycare in southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Dunais, Brigitte; Bruno, Pascale; Touboul, Pia; Degand, Nicolas; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Fontas, Eric; Haas, Hervé; Girard-Pipau, Fernand; Ruimy, Raymond; Pradier, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Regular surveys of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage have been conducted among children attending daycare centers in Southeastern France from 1999 to 2012. We compared carriage rate, susceptibility patterns and serotype distribution in 2012, following implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, with findings from 5 previous surveys. Carriage rate was stable, antibiotic susceptibility improved and only serotype 19A persisted among vaccine-types. PMID:25742079

  15. Immunochemical studies of Shigella flexneri 2a and 6, and Shigella dysenteriae type 1 O-specific polysaccharide-core fragments and their protein conjugates as vaccine candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Kubler-Kielb; Evgeny Vinogradov; Christopher Mocca; Vince Pozsgay; Bruce Coxon; John B. Robbins; Rachel Schneerson

    2010-01-01

    There is no licensed vaccine for the prevention of shigellosis. Our approach to the development of a Shigella vaccines is based on inducing serum IgG antibodies to the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of their lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We have shown that low molecular mass O-SP-core (O-SPC) fragments isolated from Shigella sonnei LPS conjugated to proteins induced significantly higher antibody levels in

  16. A Phase II, Randomized Study on an Investigational DTPw-HBV\\/Hib-MenAC Conjugate Vaccine Administered to Infants in Northern Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abraham Hodgson; Abudulai Adams Forgor; Daniel Chandramohan; Zarifah Reed; Fred Binka; Cornelia Bevilacqua; Dominique Boutriau; Brian Greenwood; David Goldblatt

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundCombining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV\\/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana.Methods and FindingsIn this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were

  17. The Serotype Distribution among Healthy Carriers before Vaccination Is Essential for Predicting the Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Invasive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Flasche, Stefan; Le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; O’Brien, Katherine L.; Edmunds, W. John

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have substantially reduced morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal disease. The impact of the 7-valent PCV on all-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children was reported to vary between high-income countries. We investigate the ability to predict this heterogeneity from pre-vaccination data. We propose a parsimonious model that predicts the impact of PCVs from the odds of vaccine serotype (VT) among carriers and IPD cases in the pre-PCV period, assuming that VT are eliminated in a mature PCV programme, that full serotype replacement occurs in carriage and that invasiveness of the NVT group is unchanged. We test model performance against the reported impact of PCV7 on childhood IPD in high-income countries from a recent meta-analysis. The odds of pre-PCV7 VT IPD, PCV schedule, PCV coverage and whether a catch up campaign was used for introduction was gathered from the same analysis. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis to obtain the odds of pre-PCV7 VT carriage in the respective settings. The model predicted the reported impact on childhood IPD of mature PCV programmes; the ratio of predicted and observed incidence risk ratios was close to 1 in all settings. In the high income settings studied differences in schedule, coverage, and catch up campaigns were not associated with the observed heterogeneity in impact of PCV7 on childhood all-serotype IPD. The pre-PCV7 proportion of VT IPD alone also had limited predictive value. The pre-PCV7 proportion of VT carriage and IPD are the main determinants for the impact of PCV7 on childhood IPD and can be combined in a simple model to provide predictions of the vaccine preventable burden of IPD. PMID:25879748

  18. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Overcome Splenic Dependency of Antibody Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIJKE A. BREUKELS; ANDRE ZANDVOORT; GERMIE P. J. M. VAN DEN DOBBELSTEEN; ADRIE VAN DEN MUIJSENBERG; MONIQUE E. LODEWIJK; MICHEL BEURRET; PIETER A. KLOK; WIM TIMENS; GER T. RIJKERS

    2001-01-01

    Protection against infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae depends on the presence of antibodies against capsular polysaccharides that facilitate phagocytosis. Asplenic patients are at increased risk for pneumococcal infections, since both phagocytosis and the initiation of the antibody response to polysaccharides take place in the spleen. Therefore, vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines is recommended prior to sple- nectomy, which, as in the

  19. A clinical analysis of gelatin allergy and determination of its causal relationship to the previous administration of gelatin-containing acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Nakayama; Chikara Aizawa; Harumi Kuno-Sakai

    1999-01-01

    Background: The number of patients with allergic reactions after administration of gelatin-containing live vaccines is increasingly reported in Japan. These allergic reactions appear to be caused by gelatin allergy. It is still unknown how the patients were sensitized to gelatin. Objective: To determine the incidence of gelatin allergy and to identify contributing factors to gelatin allergy, we investigated the following

  20. Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the public immunization program in South Africa: translating research into policy.

    PubMed

    Madhi, Shabir A; Cohen, Cheryl; von Gottberg, Anne

    2012-09-01

    In April 2009, South Africa was the first African country to introduce pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV) into its public immunization program. This review summarizes studies on pneumococcal epidemiology and PCV undertaken in South Africa, which contributed to the process of advocating for the inclusion of PCV into the public immunization program. Surveillance prior to the introduction of 7-valent PCV (PCV-7) indicated that 70% (418/593) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in infants, the age-group at highest risk of IPD, was attributable to PCV-7 serotypes. Furthermore, 65% of all IPD in children under-5 years was associated with underlying HIV infection. Initial immunogenicity studies reported that PCV vaccination of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected children was associated with lower geometric mean antibody concentrations and proportion with a serotype-specific antibody concentration above the putative threshold (?0.35 ?g/ml) of protection for IPD for some of the serotypes. The functionality of antibody induced by PCV in HIV-infected infants was inferior to that of HIV-uninfected infants. Vaccine efficacy of 9-valent PCV in a trial from South Africa reported an 83% reduction of vaccine-serotype IPD in HIV-uninfected children in the first two years of life, with protection persisting thereafter. However, vaccine efficacy against vaccine-serotype IPD declined from 65% at 2.3 years of age to 39% by six years of age in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected children. Based on the observation that a two-dose primary series of PCV during infancy resulted in similar immunogenicity compared to a three-dose schedule, as well as similar impact on nasopharyngeal colonization and effectiveness against IPD in HIV-uninfected children, the South African immunization program adopted a two-dose primary series with a booster dose at 9 months of age. This schedule was largely premised on containing the cost of vaccine introduction, whilst including a booster dose of PCV to assist in prolonging the duration of protection in HIV-infected children. PMID:22939016

  1. MF59 adjuvant enhances antibody responses of infant baboons immunized with Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis group C oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Granoff, D M; McHugh, Y E; Raff, H V; Mokatrin, A S; Van Nest, G A

    1997-01-01

    The ability of the adjuvant MF59 to enhance the immunogenicity of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines was investigated in infant baboons. MF59 consists of stable droplets (<250 nm) of the metabolizable oil squalene and two surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate and sorbitan trioleate, in an oil-in-water emulsion. In humans, MF59 is well tolerated and enhances the immunogenicity of recombinant protein subunit or particle vaccines. Its effect on the immunogenicity of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines is unknown. Baboons 1 to 4 months of age were immunized intramuscularly with Neisseria meningitidis group C and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccines. The lyophilized vaccines were reconstituted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Al(OH)3 (alum), or MF59. Groups of five animals each were given three injections of the respective formulations, with one injection every 4 weeks. Four weeks after each immunization, the MF59 group had up to 7-fold-higher geometric mean anticapsular-antibody titers than the alum group and 5- to 10-fold-higher N. meningitidis group C bactericidal-antibody titers. Twenty-one weeks after the third immunization, the MF59 group still showed 5- to 10-fold-higher anticapsular-antibody titers. The antibody responses of the animals given the vaccines reconstituted with PBS were low at all times measured. Both the MF59 and alum groups, but not the PBS group, showed booster antibody responses to unconjugated Hib and N. meningitidis group C polysaccharides, results consistent with induction of memory B cells. Thus, MF59 may be useful for accelerating and augmenting immunity to polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in infants. PMID:9125551

  2. Levels and functionality of antibodies after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in schedules with different timing of the booster dose.

    PubMed

    van Westen, Els; Rodenburg, Gerwin D; van Gils, Elske J M; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Cowell, Lucy; Goldblatt, David; Rots, Nynke Y; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M

    2013-12-01

    The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been introduced in most high-income countries, although with differences in age, timing and number of primary doses before 6 months of age and presence and timing of a booster vaccination. The objective was to determine and compare the IgG antibody levels and functionality of IgG responses (avidity and opsonophagocytoses) at 1 and 2 years of age following 2 primary doses with a booster at 11 or 24 months of age. Children received PCV7 at 2 and 4 months (2-dose group), or at 2, 4 and 11 months (2+1-dose group), or no PCV7 (controls) before 1 year of age. All children received a PCV7 dose at 24 months of age. At the age of 12 months, the 2+1-dose group had higher IgG levels and functional antibody levels, compared to the 2-dose group for all serotypes, but at 25 months the difference between the 2-dose and 2+1-dose groups had disappeared for most serotypes. The kinetics of opsonophagocytic antibodies were in line with the specific IgG antibody levels for most serotypes, although differences between the 2-dose and the 2+1-dose group were more pronounced in OPA activity as compared to the IgG levels especially at the age of 24 months. Delaying the booster dose from 11 months to 24 months after 2 primary doses resulted in significantly higher OPA GMTs one month after the booster dose. This must, however, be balanced against the risk of leaving children unboosted between the age of 11 and 24 months at a time when disease risk is still high. Local decisions about the timing of a booster dose should also take into account vaccine coverage and the indirect herd effect in a well vaccinated population. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00189020. PMID:24120678

  3. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Vaccine-type Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Among Young Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are being implemented globally using a variety of different schedules. The optimal schedule to maximize protection of vaccinated children against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) is not known. Methods: To assess the relative benefit of various PCV dosing schedules, we conducted a systematic review of studies published in English from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) on PCV effectiveness against VT-IPD among children targeted to receive vaccine. Data on 2-dose and 3-dose primary series, both with and without a booster (“2+0,” “2+1,” “3+0” and “3+1”), were included. For observational studies using surveillance data or case counts, we calculated percentage reduction in VT-IPD before and after PCV introduction. Results: Of 4 randomized controlled trials and 31 observational studies reporting VT-IPD among young children, none evaluated a 2+0 complete series, 7 (19%) evaluated 2+1, 4 (11%) 3+0 and 27 (75%) 3+1. Most (86%) studies were from North America or Europe. Only 1 study (observational) directly compared 2 schedules (3+0 vs. 3+1); results supported the use of a booster dose. In clinical trials, vaccine efficacy ranged from 65% to 71% with 3+0 and 83% to 94% with 3+1. Surveillance data and case counts demonstrate reductions in VT-IPD of up to 100% with 2+1 (6 studies) or 3+1 (17 studies) schedules and up to 90% with 3+0 (2 studies). Reductions were observed as early as 1 year after PCV introduction. Conclusions: These data support the use of 2+1, 3+0 and 3+1 schedules, although most data of PCV impact on VT-IPD among young children are from high-income countries using 3+1. Differences between schedules for impact on VT-IPD are difficult to discern based on available data. PMID:24336053

  4. Depressive symptoms and immune response to meningococcal conjugate vaccine in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Moynihan, Jan A; Wyman, Peter A; Carnahan, Jennifer; Lofthus, Gerry; Quataert, Sally A; Bowman, Melissa; Caserta, Mary T

    2014-11-01

    Research findings in psychoneuroimmunology document reliable, bidirectional linkages among psychological processes, the nervous system, and the immune system. However, available data are based almost entirely on animal and adult human studies; the application to children and adolescents is uncertain. We capitalized on the experimental leverage provided by a routine vaccination to examine the link between mood symptoms and the immune response to a vaccine challenge in early adolescence. One hundred twenty-six 11-year-olds for whom vaccine response data were available were assessed at prevaccination and 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months following vaccination; self-report ratings of depression and anxiety as well as measures of psychosocial and somatic risk were assessed prior to vaccine response. Analyses indicated that children's internalizing mood symptoms were associated with elevated and persistently higher antibody responses, with evidence extending to two of the four serogroups. The associations remained after controlling for multiple possible confounders (social class, body mass index, sleep, psychosocial risk, and pubertal status). The observed enhanced vaccine response associated with depressive and anxious symptoms in early adolescence may reflect an important developmental difference in immune system-brain interplay between adults and children, and it underscores the need for further developmental studies of psychoneuroimmunology. PMID:25422979

  5. Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage following reduced doses of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine booster.

    PubMed

    Russell, F M; Carapetis, J R; Satzke, C; Tikoduadua, L; Waqatakirewa, L; Chandra, R; Seduadua, A; Oftadeh, S; Cheung, Y B; Gilbert, G L; Mulholland, E K

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a reduced-dose 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) primary series followed by a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPS) booster on nasopharyngeal (NP) pneumococcal carriage. For this purpose, Fijian infants aged 6 weeks were randomized to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 PCV doses. Within each group, half received 23vPPS at 12 months. NP swabs were taken at 6, 9, 12, and 17 months and were cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Isolates were serotyped by multiplex PCR and a reverse line blot assay. There were no significant differences in PCV vaccine type (VT) carriage between the 3- and 2-dose groups at 12 months. NP VT carriage was significantly higher (P, <0.01) in the unvaccinated group than in the 3-dose group at the age of 9 months. There appeared to be a PCV dose effect in the cumulative proportion of infants carrying the VT, with less VT carriage occurring with more doses of PCV. Non-PCV serotype (NVT) carriage rates were similar for all PCV groups. When groups were pooled by receipt or nonreceipt of 23vPPS at 12 months, there were no differences in pneumococcal, VT, or NVT carriage rates between the 2 groups at the age of 17 months. In conclusion, there appeared to be a PCV dose effect on VT carriage, with less VT carriage occurring with more doses of PCV. By the age of 17 months, NVT carriage rates were similar for all groups. 23vPPS had no impact on carriage, despite the substantial boosts in antibody levels. PMID:20943882

  6. Targeted delivery of vaccine to dendritic cells by chitosan nanoparticles conjugated with a targeting Peptide ligand selected by phage display technique.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Na; Kang, Sang-Kee; Yeo, Guen-Hye; Li, Hai-Ying; Jiang, Tao; Nah, Jae-Woon; Bok, Jin-Duck; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a novel dendritic cells (DC)-targeting peptide, TPAFRYS (TP) identified by phage display technique and conjugated to chitosan in order to develop an efficient DC-targeting vaccine delivery carrier. TP-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (TPC-NPs) were prepared with ovalbumin (OVA) as a model vaccine by ionic gelation. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry studies demonstrated the higher targeting ability of TPC-NPs to DCs in compared to chitosan NPs. Moreover, TPC-NPs exhibited higher targeting specificity in DCs than macrophage and myoblasts. Furthermore, immunization of mice with OVA-loaded TPC-NPs enhanced OVA-specific serum IgG and IgG isotype antibodies production. Thus, DC-targeting strategy demonstrates a potential approach to enhance the effectiveness of vaccines. PMID:25393207

  7. Polysaccharide Responsiveness Is Not Biased by Prior Pneumococcal-Conjugate Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bernth-Jensen, Jens Magnus; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharide responsiveness is tested by measuring antibody responses to polysaccharide vaccines to diagnose for humoral immunodeficiency. A common assumption is that this responsiveness is biased by any previous exposure to the polysaccharides in the form of protein-coupled polysaccharide vaccines, such as those used in many childhood vaccination programmes. To examine this assumption, we investigated the effect of protein-coupled polysaccharide vaccination on subsequent polysaccharide responsiveness. HIV-infected adults (n?=?47) were vaccinated twice with protein-coupled polysaccharides and six months later with pure polysaccharides. We measured immunoglobulin G responses against three polysaccharides present in only the polysaccharide vaccine (non-memory polysaccharides) and seven recurring polysaccharides (memory polysaccharides). Responsiveness was evaluated according to the consensus guidelines published by the American immunology societies. Impaired responsiveness to non-memory polysaccharides was more frequent than to memory polysaccharides (51% versus 28%, P?=?0.015), but the individual polysaccharides did not differ in triggering sufficient responses (74% versus 77%, P?=?0.53). Closer analysis revealed important shortcomings of the current evaluation guidelines. The interpreted response? number and their specificities influenced the likelihood of impaired responsiveness in a complex manor. This influence was propelled by the dichotomous approaches inherent to the American guidelines. We therefore define a novel more robust polysaccharide responsiveness measure, the Z-score, which condenses multiple, uniformly weighted responses into one continuous variable. Using the Z-score, responsiveness to non-memory polysaccharides and memory-polysaccharides were found to correlate (R2?=?0.59, P<0.0001). We found that polysaccharide responsiveness was not biased by prior protein-coupled polysaccharide vaccination in HIV-infected adults. Studies in additional populations are warranted. PMID:24146796

  8. Heat-Labile- and Heat-Stable-Toxoid Fusions (LTR192G-STaP13F) of Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Elicit Neutralizing Antitoxin Antibodies ?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Chengxian; Lawson, Steve R.; Knudsen, David E.; Nataro, James P.; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Adhesins and enterotoxins, including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (STa) toxins, are the key virulence factors. Antigenic adhesin and LT antigens have been used in developing vaccines against ETEC diarrhea. However, STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Our recent study showed that porcine-type STa toxoids became immunogenic and elicited neutralizing anti-STa antibodies after being genetically fused to a full-length porcine-type LT toxoid, LTR192G (W. Zhang et al., Infect. Immun. 78:316-325, 2010). In this study, we mutated human-type LT and STa genes, which are highly homologous to porcine-type toxin genes, for a full-length LT toxoid (LTR192G) and a full-length STa toxoid (STaP13F) and genetically fused them to produce LT192-STa13 toxoid fusions. Mice immunized with LT192-STa13 fusion antigens developed anti-LT and anti-STa IgG (in serum and feces) and IgA antibodies (in feces). Moreover, secretory IgA antibodies from immunized mice were shown to neutralize STa and cholera toxins in T-84 cells. In addition, we fused the STa13 toxoid at the N terminus and C terminus, between the A1 and A2 peptides, and between the A and B subunits of LT192 to obtain different fusions in order to explore strategies for enhancing STa immunogenicity. This study demonstrated that human-type LT192-STa13 fusions induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies and provided important information for developing toxoid vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21788385

  9. Economic evaluation of vaccination programme of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to the birth cohort in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Shu-ling; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro

    2013-06-01

    Japan is now preparing to incorporate PCV-7 into the national childhood immunisation programme. Our recently published economic evaluation of using PCV-7 to the birth cohort suggests that the cost to gain one QALY is lower than the WHO's cost-effectiveness criterion for intervention. However, many countries have started to introduce PCV-13 into their national immunisation schedule replacing PCV-7 for preventing pneumococcal diseases among young children. These raise the need to appraise the 'value for money' of replacing PCV-7 with PCV-13 vaccination programme in Japan. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov model and calculated incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Our base-case analyses, which assumed both PCVs have no net indirect effect and set the cost of PCV-7/PCV-13 per shot at ¥10,000 (US$125)/¥13,000 (US$163). The results show that in Base-case A (assumed PCV-13 has no additional protection against AOM compared to PCV-7), replacing PCV-7 with PCV-13 will cost ¥37,722,901 (US$471,536) or ¥35,584,455 (US$444,850) per QALY when the caregiver's productivity loss is not included or is included, respectively. While in Base-case B (assumed PCV-13 has additional protection against AOM compared to PCV-7), ¥343,830 (US$4298) per QALY or more QALY is gained by saving money without or with caregiver's productivity loss, respectively. We also find that, in Base-case B if cost per PCV-13 shot is equal to or less than that ¥17,000, then a PCV-13 vaccination programme offered to the birth cohort in Japan is likely to be a socially acceptable option compared to the current PCV-7 vaccination programme. Furthermore, if cost per PCV-13 shot is equal to or less than ¥12,000, replacing PCV-7 with PCV-13 will save money and gain more QALYs. While in Base-case A, the replacement can only be socially acceptable if cost per PCV-13 shot is equal to or less than ¥11,000. PMID:23588088

  10. Optimising assessments of the epidemiological impact in The Netherlands of paediatric immunisation with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine using dynamic transmission modelling.

    PubMed

    De Cao, Elisabetta; Melegaro, Alessia; Klok, Rogier; Postma, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to quantify the overall effects of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) vaccination programme in the Dutch population taking into account all the direct and indirect effects of the vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease. Using available Dutch data, a dynamic transmission model for the spread of pneumococci and potential subsequent invasive pneumococcal disease has been adapted to the Dutch setting. Overall, invasive pneumococcal disease cases in the Netherlands are predicted to decrease from a pre-vaccination level of 2623 cases annually to 2475, 2289, 2185, 2179, and 2178 cases annually 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-years, respectively, post-vaccination. Therefore, vaccination with PCV13 in the Netherlands is predicted to lower invasive pneumococcal disease cases per year by up to 445 cases in the medium- to long-term. The results are quite robust for the sensitivity analyses performed on the parameters that regulate herd immunity and competition between vaccine and non-vaccine types. PMID:24694656

  11. Nasopharyngeal flora in children with acute otitis media before and after implementation of 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in France

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have investigated the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal (Sp) and staphylococcal (Sa) nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage. Few have investigated the impact on Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) carriage. We aimed to compare the NP carriage rates in young children with acute otitis media (AOM) before and after PCV7 implementation in France. Methods Prior to PCV7 implementation, we performed 4 successive randomized trials with NP samples. These studies compared several antibiotic regimens for treating AOM in young children (6 to 30 months). After PCV7 implementation, to assess the impact of the vaccination program on NP flora, young children with AOM were enrolled in a prospective surveillance study. In each study, we obtained an NP sample to analyze the carriage rates of Sp, Hi, Mc and Sa and the factors influencing the carriage. Standardized history and physical examination findings were recorded; the methods used for NP swabs (sampling and cultures) were the same in all studies. Results We enrolled 4,405 children (mean age 13.9 months, median 12.8). Among the 2,598 children enrolled after PCV7 implementation, 98.3% were vaccinated with PCV7. In comparing the pre- and post-PCV7 periods, we found a slight but non-significant decrease in carriage rates of pneumococcus (AOR = 0.85 [0.69;1.05]), H. influenzae (AOR = 0.89 [0.73;1.09]) and S. aureus (AOR = 0.92 [0.70;1.19]). By contrast, the carriage rate of M. catarrhalis increased slightly but not significantly between the 2 periods (AOR = 1.08 [0.95;1.2]). Among Sp carriers, the proportion of PCV7 vaccine types decreased from 66.6% to 10.7% (P < 0.001), penicillin intermediate-resistant strains increased from 30.3% to 43.4% (P < 0.001), and penicillin-resistant strains decreased greatly from 22.8% to 3.8% (P < 0.001). The proportion of Hi ß-lactamase-producing strains decreased from 38.6% to 17.1% (P < 0.001). Conclusion The carriage rates of otopathogen species (Sp, Hi, Mc) and Sa did not significantly change in children with AOM after PCV7 implementation in France. However, we observed significant changes in carriage rates of PCV7 vaccine serotypes and penicillin non-susceptible Sp. PMID:22397629

  12. Protection of Piglets against Edema Disease by Maternal Immunization with Stx2e Toxoid

    PubMed Central

    Oanh, Thi Kim Nguyen; Nguyen, Viet Khong; De Greve, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Edema disease (ED) in piglets is caused by Shiga toxin Stx2e-producing Escherichia coli. We show that a genetically disarmed Stx2e toxoid is a safe antigen that generates antiserum protecting piglets against the Stx2e toxin. Immunization of suckling piglets with the Stx2e toxoid was safe, had no adverse effects on growth of the piglets, and resulted in effective prevention of edema disease clinical symptoms after challenge with the Stx2e toxin. Our data showed that maternal immunity against the Stx2e toxoid can be transmitted from the vaccinated sows to the piglets via the colostrum. Very high levels of Stx2e-specific serum antibodies persisted in these piglets until 1 month postweaning, bridging the critical period in which the weaned piglets are most susceptible to edema infection. Challenge with Stx2e toxin resulted in clinical signs of edema disease and death of all control piglets from nonimmunized sows, whereas none of the piglets from immunized sows developed clinical signs of ED. PMID:22083704

  13. Blood stream infection is associated with altered heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immune responses in very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, James L.; Li, Lei; Cotten, C. Michael; Phelps, Dale L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Van Meurs, Krisa; Das, Abhik; Vohr, Betty R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Stoll, Barbara J; D’Angio, Carl T

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sepsis in older children and adults modifies immune system function. We compared serotype-specific antibody responses to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in very low birth weight infants (<1500g,VLBW) with and without blood stream infection (BSI) during their birth hospitalization. Patients and Methods Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data for the Neonatal Research Network study of PCV7 responses among VLBWs. Infants received PCV7 at 2, 4, and 6 months after birth with blood drawn 4–6 weeks after 3rd dose. Serotype antibodies were compared between infants with or without a history of BSI. Regression models were constructed with birth-weight groups and other confounding factors identified in the primary study. Results 244 infants completed the vaccine series and had serum antibody available; 82 had BSI. After adjustment, BSI was not associated with reduced odds of serum antibody ?0.35?g/mL. Conclusions BSI was not associated with reduced odds of WHO-defined protective PCV7 responses in VLBWs. PMID:23370608

  14. Characteristics of Memory B Cells Elicited by a Highly Efficacious HPV Vaccine in Subjects with No Pre-existing Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Erin M.; Smith, Robin A.; Simonich, Cassandra A.; Niyonzima, Nixon; Carter, Joseph J.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide near complete protection against the types of HPV that most commonly cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (HPV 16 and 18) when administered to individuals naive to these types. These vaccines, like most other prophylactic vaccines, appear to protect by generating antibodies. However, almost nothing is known about the immunological memory that forms following HPV vaccination, which is required for long-term immunity. Here, we have identified and isolated HPV 16-specific memory B cells from female adolescents and young women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the absence of pre-existing immunity, using fluorescently conjugated HPV 16 pseudoviruses to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells. Antibodies cloned and expressed from these singly sorted HPV 16-pseudovirus labeled memory B cells were predominantly IgG (>IgA>IgM), utilized diverse variable genes, and potently neutralized HPV 16 pseudoviruses in vitro despite possessing only average levels of somatic mutation. These findings suggest that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides an excellent model for studying the development of B cell memory; and, in the context of what is known about memory B cells elicited by influenza vaccination/infection, HIV-1 infection, or tetanus toxoid vaccination, indicates that extensive somatic hypermutation is not required to achieve potent vaccine-specific neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:25330199

  15. Safety, Immunogenicity and Dose Ranging of a New Vi-CRM197 Conjugate Vaccine against Typhoid Fever: Randomized Clinical Testing in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    van Damme, Pierre; Kafeja, Froukje; Anemona, Alessandra; Basile, Venere; Hilbert, Anne Katrin; De Coster, Ilse; Rondini, Simona; Micoli, Francesca; Qasim Khan, Rana M.; Marchetti, Elisa; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan; Martin, Laura B.; Podda, Audino

    2011-01-01

    Background Typhoid fever causes more than 21 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths yearly worldwide, with more than 90% of the disease burden being reported from Asia. Epidemiological data show high disease incidence in young children and suggest that immunization programs should target children below two years of age: this is not possible with available vaccines. The Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health developed a conjugate vaccine (Vi-CRM197) for infant vaccination concomitantly with EPI vaccines, either starting at 6 weeks with DTP or at 9 months with measles vaccine. We report the results from a Phase 1 and a Phase 2 dose ranging trial with Vi-CRM197 in European adults. Methodology Following randomized blinded comparison of single vaccination with either Vi-CRM197 or licensed polysaccharide vaccines (both containing 25·0 µg of Vi antigen), a randomised observer blinded dose ranging trial was performed in the same center to compare three concentrations of Vi-CRM197 (1·25 µg, 5·0 µg and 12·5 µg of Vi antigen) with the polysaccharide vaccine. Principal Findings All vaccines were well tolerated. Compared to the polysaccharide vaccine, Vi-CRM197 induced a higher incidence of mild to moderate short lasting local pain. All Vi-CRM197 formulations induced higher Vi antibody levels compared to licensed control, with clear dose response relationship. Conclusions Vi-CRM197 did not elicit safety concerns, was highly immunogenic and is therefore suitable for further clinical testing in endemic populations of South Asia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01123941 NCT01193907 PMID:21980445

  16. Invasive and Noninvasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule and Surface Protein Diversity following the Use of a Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Croney, Christina M.; Nahm, Moon H.; Juhn, Steven K.; Briles, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in the United States in 2010 for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and otitis media. While many studies have reported its potential efficacy for IPD, not much is known about the epidemiology of noninvasive disease following its introduction. We characterized the capsular types and surface protein genes of noninvasive pediatric pneumococcal isolates collected between 2002 and 2010 (n = 1,058) at Children's of Alabama following the introduction of PCV7 and tested a subset of noninvasive and previously characterized IPD isolates for the presence of the pspA, pspC, and rrgC genes, which encode protection-eliciting proteins. PCV7 serotypes had dramatically decreased by 2010 (P < 0.0001), and only 50% of all noninvasive infections were caused by the PCV13 capsular serotypes. Serotype 19A accounted for 32% of the noninvasive isolates, followed by serotypes 35B (9%), 19F (7%), and 6C (6%). After 7 years of PCV7 usage, there were no changes in the frequencies of the pspA or pspC genes; 96% of the strains were positive for family 1 or 2 pspA genes, and 81% were also positive for pspC. Unexpectedly, more noninvasive than invasive strains were positive for rrgC (P < 0.0001), and the proportion of rrgC-positive strains in 2008 to 2010 was greater than that in 2002 to 2008 (IPD, P < 0.02; noninvasive, P < 0.001). Serotypes 19F, 19A, and 35B were more frequently rrgC positive (P < 0.005) than other serotypes. A vaccine containing antigens, such as PspA, PspC, and/or RrgC, can provide coverage against most non-PCV13-type pneumococci. Continued surveillance is critical for optimal future vaccine development. PMID:24006139

  17. Neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization primes T cells for preferential Th2 cytokine expression: A randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    van den Biggelaar, Anita. H.J.; Richmond, Peter C.; Pomat, William S.; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nadal-Sims, Marie A.; Devitt, Catherine J.; Siba, Peter M.; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of neonatal immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) on development of T-cell memory and general immune maturation were studied in a cohort of Papua New Guinean newborns. Neonatal 7vPCV priming (followed by a dose at 1 and 2 months of age) was associated with enhanced Th2, but not Th1, cytokine responses to CRM197 compared to 7vPCV at 1 and 2 months of age only. T cell responses to non-7vPCV vaccine antigens were similar in all groups, but TLR-mediated IL-6 and IL-10 responses were enhanced in 7vPCV vaccinated compared to controls. Neonatal 7vPCV vaccination primes T cell responses with a polarization towards Th2 with no bystander effects on other T cell responses. PMID:19150378

  18. Evaluation of the Immunogenicity and Biological Activity of the Citrobacter freundii Vi-CRM197 Conjugate as a Vaccine for Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi? †

    PubMed Central

    Rondini, Simona; Micoli, Francesca; Lanzilao, Luisa; Hale, Christine; Saul, Allan J.; Martin, Laura B.

    2011-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains a major health problem in developing countries. Young children are at high risk, and a vaccine effective for this age group is urgently needed. Purified capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Vi) is licensed as a vaccine, providing 50 to 70% protection in individuals older than 5 years. However, this vaccine is ineffective in infants. Vi conjugated to a carrier protein (i.e., an exoprotein A mutant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa [rEPA]) is highly immunogenic, provides long-term protection, and shows more than 90% protective efficacy in children 2 to 5 years old. Here, we describe an alternative glycoconjugate vaccine for S. Typhi, Vi-CRM197, where Vi was obtained from Citrobacter freundii WR7011 and CRM197, the mutant diphtheria toxin protein, was used as the carrier. We investigated the optimization of growth conditions for Vi production from C. freundii WR7011 and the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM197 conjugates in mice. The optimal saccharide/protein ratio of the glycoconjugates was identified for the best antibody production. We also demonstrated the ability of this new vaccine to protect mice against challenge with Vi-positive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:21248155

  19. Water Accessibility, Aggregation, and Motional Features of Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Francesco; Costantino, Paolo; Fragai, Marco; Luchinat, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    A relaxometric investigation of a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin and of its conjugates with capsular polysaccharides of different groups of Neisseria meningitidis was performed. The insertion of polysaccharides chains alters dramatically the hydrodynamic properties of the protein. The model-free analysis of the 1H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion profiles of their water solutions shows: i), a reduced protein hydration with respect to the carrier protein alone; ii), a much larger flexibility of the conjugates with respect to a compact macromolecule of the same molecular weight; and iii), a strong tendency to aggregate. The above findings are largely independent on the nature of the polysaccharide and thus provide a fairly general picture of the dynamic properties of glycoconjugate proteins. PMID:14695244

  20. Nanotoxoid Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hu, Che-Ming J; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-08-01

    To improve innate defense against diseases, vaccine formulations are routinely administered to mount immune responses against disease-causing organisms or their associated toxins. These formulations are typically prepared with weakened forms of microbes, their surface proteins, or their virulence factors, which can train the immune system to recognize and neutralize similar infectious threats in later exposures. Owing to many unique properties of nanoparticles in enhancing vaccine potency, nanoscale carriers are drawing increasing interest as a platform for developing safer and more effective vaccine formulations. Notably, a nanoparticle-based strategy was recently demonstrated to safely deliver intact, non-denatured protein toxins to mount a potent anti-toxin immune response. A biomimetic nanoparticle cloaked in biological membranes was used to sequester membrane-active toxins. Upon interaction with the nanoparticles, the toxins become retrained and lose their toxicity as they are precluded from interacting with cellular targets. The resulting particle/toxin complex adopts a nanoparticulate morphology that facilitates the toxins' intracellular delivery. This sequestration approach has immense immunological implications owing to its ability in enabling structurally preserved toxins for immune processing. This technique offers opportunities in novel toxoid vaccine designs that promise more effective anti-toxin immune responses and contrasts the existing paradigm in toxoid preparation, in which toxins are antigenically altered to ensure virulence removal. The potent nanotoxoid formulations provide a viable anti-virulence measure in combating microbial infections that involve membrane-damaging toxins, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Group A streptococcal infections. PMID:25285152

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Odusanya, Olumuyiwa O; Kuyinu, Yetunde A; Kehinde, Omolara A; Shafi, Fakrudeen; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Rüggeberg, Jens U; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, 3-dose primary vaccination of Nigerian infants with the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes, with comparable tolerability between PHiD-CV and control groups. In an open-label study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01153893), 68 primed children received a PHiD-CV booster dose co-administered with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) booster dose at 15–21 months and 36 children unprimed for pneumococcal vaccination received two PHiD-CV catch-up doses (first dose co-administered with DTPa booster dose) at 15–21 and 17–23 months. Adverse events were recorded and immune responses were measured before and one month after vaccination. In both groups, pain was the most frequent solicited local symptom and fever was the most frequent solicited general symptom after the booster dose and each catch-up dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms and no vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After booster vaccination, for each vaccine serotype, at least 98.5% of children had an antibody concentration ?0.2 µg/ml and at least 94.0% had an opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titer ?8. After 2-dose catch-up, for each vaccine serotype, at least 97.1% had an antibody concentration ?0.2 µg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.9%) and 23F (88.6%), and at least 91.4% had an OPA titer ?8, except for serotypes 6B (77.4%) and 19F (85.3%). PHiD-CV induced antibody responses against protein D in both groups. In conclusion, PHiD-CV administered to Nigerian toddlers as a booster dose or 2-dose catch-up was well tolerated and immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D. PMID:24356787

  2. Nanoparticle and polysaccharide conjugate: a potential candidate vaccine to improve immunological stimuli.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Sanjana P; Sahoo, Banalata; Behera, Birendra; Maiti, Tapas K

    2015-01-01

    Active polysaccharides isolated from various fungal sources have been implicated to stimulate immune response against various pathogens as well as self anomalies such as cancer. Therefore, the nuanced approach presented in our work was to blend polysaccharides derived from Pleurotus ostreatus with biocompatible ferrite nanoparticles and thereafter investigate the enhanced immune functionality of the polysaccharide-nanoparticle composite. A Schiff base reductive amination reaction occurred between the aldehyde group of the polysaccharide and the amine group of the nanoparticles in the presence of a strong reducing agent such as sodium cyanoborohydride to form a stable amide bond between the two conjugating molecules. The multifaceted conjugate was characterized by physiochemical techniques such as electron microscopy, FTIR, VSM and DLS measurements. This particulate form of the polysaccharide showed a marked escalation in the production of free radicals such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in murine macrophages as compared to the soluble form. Animal based experiments demonstrated a reduction in tumor volume and augmentation in the proliferation of splenocytes in particulate or conjugated polysaccharide treated mice. Furthermore, molecular signaling studies showed a high upregulation in p-p38 and p-MEK molecules in particulate polysaccharide treated RAW264.7 cells suggesting a cellular downstream mechanistic regulation behind the immunostimulative response. PMID:25450832

  3. Immunogenicity of a fucosyl-GM1-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccine in patients with small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dickler, M N; Ragupathi, G; Liu, N X; Musselli, C; Martino, D J; Miller, V A; Kris, M G; Brezicka, F T; Livingston, P O; Grant, S C

    1999-10-01

    Although small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is highly responsive to chemotherapy, relapses are common, and most patients die within 2 years of diagnosis. After initial therapy, standard treatment is observation alone. We have been investigating immunization against selected gangliosides as adjuvant therapy directed against residual and presumably resistant disease persisting after chemotherapy and irradiation. Previously, we reported that the presence of anti-GM2 ganglioside antibodies is associated with a prolonged disease-free survival in patients with melanoma, and that SCLC patients immunized with BEC2, an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody that mimics the ganglioside GD3, had a prolonged survival compared with historical controls. In the present trial, fucosyl-alpha1-2Galbeta1-3GalNAcbeta1-4(NeuAcalpha2-3) Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1Cer (Fuc-GM1), a ganglioside expressed on the SCLC cell surface, was selected as a target for active immunotherapy. Fuc-GM1 is present on most SCLCs but on few normal tissues. SCLC patients achieving a major response to initial therapy were vaccinated s.c. on weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 with Fuc-GM1 (30 microg) conjugated to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin and mixed with the adjuvant QS-21. Ten patients received at least five vaccinations and are evaluable for response. All patients demonstrated a serological response, with induction of both IgM and IgG antibodies against Fuc-GM1, despite prior treatment with chemotherapy with or without radiation. Posttreatment flow cytometry demonstrated binding of antibodies from patients' sera to tumor cells expressing Fuc-GM1. In the majority of cases, sera were also capable of complement-mediated cytotoxicity. Mild transient erythema and induration at injection sites were the only consistent toxicities. The Fuc-GM1-KLH + QS-21 vaccine is safe and immunogenic in patients with SCLC. Continued study of this and other ganglioside vaccines is ongoing. PMID:10537341

  4. Serological Response Patterns of Melanoma Patients Immunized with a GM2 Ganglioside Conjugate Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Kitamura; Philip O. Livingston; Sheila R. Fortunato; Elisabeth Stockert; Friedhelm Helling; Gerd Ritter; Herbert F. Oettgen; Lloyd J. Old

    1995-01-01

    Gangliosides, such as GM2, GD2, GD3, and 9-O-acetyl GD3, are receiving attention as targets for antibody-based and vaccine-based therapies of melanoma. GM2 appears to be a particularly immunogenic ganglioside in humans, as indicated by the presence of naturally occurring IgM anti-GM2 antibodies in ≈5% of humans and the fact that immunization with irradiated GM2-expressing melanoma cells or purified GM2 adherent

  5. Evidence for induction of polysaccharide specific B-cell-memory in the 1st year of life: plain Haemophilus influenzae type b - PRP (Hib) boosters children primed with a tetanus-conjugate Hib-DTPa-HBV combined vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Zepp; H.-J. Schmitt; A. Kaufhold; A. Schuind; M. Knuf; P. Habermehl; C. Meyer; H. Bogaerts; M. Slaoui; R. Clemens

    1996-01-01

    The lack of an adequate immune response to the major polysaccharide of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsule (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate) (PRP) in very young infants (conjugating\\u000a PRP to a T-cell dependent carrier protein. We studied whether administration of a tetanus-PRP conjugate vaccine reconstituted\\u000a with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B (DTPa-HBV) vaccine as a

  6. Immunochemical studies of Shigella flexneri 2a and 6, and Shigella dysenteriae type 1 O-specific polysaccharide-core fragments and their protein conjugates as vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Mocca, Christopher; Pozsgay, Vince; Coxon, Bruce; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel

    2010-07-19

    There is no licensed vaccine for the prevention of shigellosis. Our approach to the development of a Shigella vaccines is based on inducing serum IgG antibodies to the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of their lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We have shown that low molecular mass O-SP-core (O-SPC) fragments isolated from Shigella sonnei LPS conjugated to proteins induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice than the full length O-SP conjugates. This finding is now extended to the O-SPC of Shigella flexneri 2a and 6, and Shigella dysenteriae type 1. The structures of O-SPC, containing core plus 1-4 O-SP repeat units (RUs), were analyzed by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The first RUs attached to the cores of S. flexneri 2a and 6 LPS were different from the following RUs in their O-acetylation and/or glucosylation. Conjugates of core plus more than 1 RU were necessary to induce LPS antibodies in mice. The resulting antibody levels were comparable to those induced by the full length O-SP conjugates. In S. dysenteriae type 1, the first RU was identical to the following RUs, with the exception that the GlcNAc was bound to the core in the beta-configuration, while in all other RUs the GlcNAc was present in the alpha-configuration. In spite of this difference, conjugates of S. dysenteriae type 1 core with 1, 2, or 3 RUs induced LPS antibodies in mice with levels statistically higher than those of the full size O-SP conjugates. O-SPC conjugates are easy to prepare, characterize, and standardize, and their clinical evaluation is planned. PMID:20542498

  7. The impact of pre-existing antibody on subsequent immune responses to meningococcal A-containing vaccines.

    PubMed

    Idoko, Olubukola T; Okolo, Seline N; Plikaytis, Brian; Akinsola, Adebayo; Viviani, Simonetta; Borrow, Ray; Carlone, George; Findlow, Helen; Elie, Cheryl; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Ota, Martin; Kampmann, Beate

    2014-07-16

    Major epidemics of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis continue to affect the African meningitis belt. The development of an affordable conjugate vaccine against the disease became a priority for World Health Organization (WHO) in the late 1990s. Licensing of meningococcal vaccines has been based on serological correlates of protection alone, but such correlates might differ in different geographical regions. If high pre-vaccination antibody concentrations/titers impacts on the response to vaccination and possibly vaccine efficacy, is not clearly understood. We set out to define the pre-vaccination Meningococcal group A (Men A) antibody concentrations/titers in The Gambia and study their impact on the immunogenicity of Men A containing vaccines. Data from subjects originally enrolled in studies to test the safety and immunogenicity of the MenA vaccine recently developed for Africa meningococcal A polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid, MenAfriVac(®) (PsA-TT) were analyzed. Participants had been randomized to receive either the study vaccine PsA-TT or the reference quadrivalent plain polysaccharide vaccine containing meningococcal groups A, C, W, and Y, Mencevax(®) ACWY, GlaxoSmithKline (PsACWY) in a 2:1 ratio. Venous blood samples were collected before and 28 days after vaccination. Antibodies were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for geometric mean concentrations and serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) for functional antibody. The inter age group differences were compared using ANOVA and the pre and post-vaccination differences by t test. Over 80% of the ?19 year olds had pre-vaccination antibody concentrations above putatively protective concentrations as compared to only 10% of 1-2 year olds. Ninety-five percent of those who received the study vaccine had ?4-fold antibody responses if they had low pre-vaccination concentrations compared to 76% of those with high pre-vaccination concentrations. All subjects with low pre-vaccination titers attained ?4-fold responses as compared to 76% with high titers where study vaccine was received. Our data confirm the presence of high pre-vaccination Men A antibody concentrations/titers within the African meningitis belt, with significantly higher concentrations in older individuals. Although all participants had significant increase in antibody levels following vaccination, the four-fold or greater response in antibody titers were significantly higher in individuals with lower pre-existing antibody titers, especially after receiving PsA-TT. This finding may have some implications for vaccination strategies adopted in the future. PMID:24863486

  8. Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  9. Toxicity and Immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxoid Fusion 3xSTaA14Q-LTS63K/R192G/L211A in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E.; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STaP13F) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LTR192G elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STaA14Q) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LTS63K/R192G/L211A, tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTaA14Q-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STaA14Q for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTaA14Q-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:24146989

  10. Specific Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine-Induced IgG Antibodies Prevent Invasion of Shigella into Caco-2 Cells and May Be Curative [Corrected title: \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yehuda Chowers; Joachim Kirschner; Nathan Keller; Iris Barshack; Simon Bar-Meir; Shai Ashkenazi; Rachel Schneerson; John Robbins; Justen H. Passwell

    2007-01-01

    The O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of Shigella LPS is both an essential virulence factor and a protective antigen for this genus. A critical level of serum IgG anti-O-SP was shown to confer immunity to shigellosis, likely by complement-mediated bacteriolysis of the inoculum. Conjugate Shigella O-SP vaccines were shown to be safe and immunogenic in children, and, in a preliminary study,

  11. Efficacy of nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease in The Gambia: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FT Cutts; SMA Zaman; G Enwere; S Jaffar; OS Levine; JB Okoko; C Oluwalana; A Vaughan; SK Obaro; A Leach; KP McAdam; E Biney; M Saaka; U Onwuchekwa; F Yallop; NF Pierce; BM Greenwood; RA Adegbola

    2005-01-01

    Methods We undertook a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in eastern Gambia. Children age 6-51 weeks were randomly allocated three doses of either pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (n=8718) or placebo (8719), with intervals of at least 25 days between doses. Our primary outcome was first episode of radiological pneumonia. Secondary endpoints were clinical or severe clinical pneumonia, invasive pneumococcal disease, and all-cause

  12. Use of Prior Vaccinations for the Development of New Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etlinger, H. M.; Gillessen, D.; Lahm, H.-W.; Matile, H.; Schonfeld, H.-J.; Trzeciak, A.

    1990-07-01

    There is currently a need for vaccine development to improve the immunogenicity of protective epitopes, which themselves are often poorly immunogenic. Although the immunogenicity of these epitopes can be enhanced by linking them to highly immunogenic carriers, such carriers derived from current vaccines have not proven to be generally effective. One reason may be related to epitope-specific suppression, in which prior vaccination with a protein can inhibit the antibody response to new epitopes linked to the protein. To circumvent such inhibition, a peptide from tetanus toxoid was identified that, when linked to a B cell epitope and injected into tetanus toxoid-primed recipients, retained sequences for carrier but not suppressor function. The antibody response to the B cell epitope was enhanced. This may be a general method for taking advantage of previous vaccinations in the development of new vaccines.

  13. Effectiveness of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Children in South Africa: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Cheryl; von Mollendorf, Claire; de Gouveia, Linda; Naidoo, Nireshni; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; Nokeri, Vusi; Fortuin-de Smit, Melony; Malope-Kgokong, Babatyi; Moore, David; Reubenson, Gary; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Madhi, Shabir A.; Eley, Brian; Hallbauer, Ute; Kularatne, Ranmini; Conklin, Laura; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Klugman, Keith; Whitney, Cynthia G.; von Gottberg, Anne; Moore, David; Verwey, Charl; Varughese, Sheeba; Archary, Moherndran; Naby, Fathima; Dawood, Khathija; Naidoo, Ramola; Elliott, Gene; Hallbauer, Ute; Eley, Brian; Nuttall, James; Cooke, Louise; Finlayson, Heather; Rabie, Helena; Whitelaw, Andrew; Perez, Dania; Jooste, Pieter; Naidoo, Dhamiran; Kularatne, Ranmini; Reubenson, Gary; Cohen, Cheryl; de Gouveia, Linda; du Plessis, Mignon; Govender, Nevashan; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; von Mollendorf, Claire; Fortuin-de Smidt, Melony; Naidoo, Nireshni; Malope-Kgokong, Babatyi; Nokeri, Vusi; Ncha, Relebohile; Lindani, Sonwabo; von Gottberg, Anne; Spies, Barry; Sono, Lino; Maredi, Phasweni; Hamese, Ken; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Nchabeleng, Maphosane; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; van den Heever, Johann; Madhi, Shabir; Conklin, Laura; Verani, Jennifer; Whitney, Cynthia; Zell, Elizabeth; Loo, Jennifer; Nelson, George; Klugman, Keith; O'Brien, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Background.?South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ?2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and -uninfected children. Methods.?IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile site) cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance. Specimens were serotyped by Quellung or polymerase chain reaction. Four controls, matched for age, HIV status, and hospital were sought for each case. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated vaccine effectiveness (VE) as 1 minus the adjusted odds ratio for vaccination. Results.?From March 2010 through November 2012, we enrolled 187 HIV-uninfected (48 [26%] vaccine serotype) and 109 HIV-infected (43 [39%] vaccine serotype) cases and 752 HIV-uninfected and 347 HIV-infected controls aged ?16 weeks. Effectiveness of ?2 PCV7 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%–91%) among HIV-uninfected and ?12% (95% CI, ?449% to 77%) among HIV-infected children. Effectiveness of ?3 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 90% (95% CI, 14%–99%) among HIV-uninfected and 57% (95% CI, ?371% to 96%) among HIV-infected children. Among HIV-exposed but -uninfected children, effectiveness of ?2 doses was 92% (95% CI, 47%–99%) against vaccine-serotype IPD. Effectiveness of ?2 doses against all-serotype multidrug-resistant IPD was 96% (95% CI, 62%–100%) among HIV-uninfected children. Conclusions.?A 2 + 1 PCV7 schedule was effective in preventing vaccine-serotype IPD in HIV-uninfected and HIV-exposed, uninfected children. This finding supports the World Health Organization recommendation for this schedule as an alternative to a 3-dose primary series among HIV-uninfected individuals. PMID:24917657

  14. Development of chitosan conjugated DNA vaccine against nodavirus in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Ramya, V L; Sharma, R; Gireesh-Babu, P; Patchala, S R; Rather, A; Nandanpawar, P C; Eswaran, S

    2014-09-01

    The protective efficacy of a DNA construct containing extra small virus antisense (XSVAS) gene of nodavirus encapsulated with chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879). The delivery was carried out using oral and immersion methods. A plasmid concentration of 100 ng ?L(-1) when conjugated with chitosan NPs was found to be more effective in increasing the survivability of the infected prawn. The particle mean size, zeta potential and loading efficiency percentage were 297 nm, 27 mV and 85%, respectively. The ability of the chitosan to form a complex with the plasmid was studied by agarose gel electrophoresis. The NPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Persistence study showed the presence of the DNA construct up to 30th day post-treatment. The oral treatment was found to be better than the immersion treatment for delivery of the chitosan-conjugated DNA construct. This is probably the first report on the delivery of nanoconjugated DNA construct in M. rosenbergii, against nodavirus. PMID:24117511

  15. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type-b conjugate vaccine in children and young adults with congenital asplenia or after undergoing splenectomy.

    PubMed

    Mikoluc, B; Motkowski, R; Käyhty, H; Heropolitanska-Pliszka, E; Pietrucha, B; Bernatowska, E

    2012-05-01

    Absence of the spleen constitutes a risk of infection caused by encapsulated bacteria. The aim of our study was to determine the immune response to Haemophilus influenzae type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (HibCV) in asplenic individuals, considering the cause of asplenia, the age when splenectomy was carried out, and previous Hib vaccinations. Twenty asplenic patients, aged five to 25 years, were immunized with a single dose of HibCV. The specific antibody concentrations against HibCV were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Before vaccinations, the geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) had an average value of 3.21 ?g/ml and was comparable for all of the patients, regardless of the causes of asplenia. After vaccinations, the GMC was significantly higher, with an average of 6.78 ?g/ml. Further, 4.5 years after vaccinations, the GMC was comparable to that of previously unvaccinated children. Moreover, 17/20 patients had GMC???1.0 ?g/ml, which included all of the children with congenital asplenia, children splenectomized before the age of six years, and only 57% of children splenectomized after that age. HibCV gives asplenic patients long-term protection. Hence, HibCV should be administered regardless of previous vaccinations and time from splenectomy, even if antibody evaluation is not available. PMID:21874399

  16. Immunologic Response to Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Conjugate Vaccine and Risk Factors for Carriage among Hib Carriers and Noncarriers in Southwestern Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Baggett, Henry C.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Bulkow, Lisa; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Hurlburt, Debra; Holder, Patricia; Parkinson, Alan J.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Levine, Orin; Carlone, George M.; Butler, Jay C.

    2006-01-01

    Continued Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) carriage in rural Alaska contributes to the ongoing risk of invasive disease. Community-wide Hib carriage surveys were conducted in three villages in southwestern Alaska. Sixteen carriers and 32 age- and village-matched controls were enrolled and were vaccinated with Hib oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration, antibody avidity, and serum bactericidal activity (SBA) were measured prior to Hib vaccination and 2 and 12 months after vaccination. We identified no demographic or behavioral factors associated with Hib colonization. Prior to vaccination, Hib carriers had a higher IgG geometric mean concentration than controls did (8.2 versus 1.6 ?g/ml; P < 0.001) and a higher SBA geometric mean titer (7,132 versus 1,235; P = 0.006). Both groups responded to vaccination with increased IgG and SBA. These data illustrate the role of Hib colonization as an immunizing event and show that Hib carriers in communities with ongoing transmission have no evidence of reduced immune responsiveness that may have put them at risk for colonization. PMID:16760318

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Toll-Like Receptor 3 and CD44 Genes Are Associated with Persistence of Vaccine-Induced Immunity to the Serogroup C Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Branwen J.; Perrett, Kirsten P.; Hoe, J. Claire; Lee, Sue J.; Fletcher, Helen; Brocklebank, Denise; O'Connor, Daniel; Snape, Matthew D.; Hall, Andrew J.; Segal, Shelley; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of decay of antibody concentration following serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccination varies between individuals. This depends partly on vaccination age but may be influenced by human genetics. We studied 721 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 131 candidate genes in a first cohort of 905 Caucasians (11 to 21 years old; mean time after vaccination, 4.9 years) and 30 SNPs across 17 genes in a replication study using 155 children, aged 6 to 12 years (mean time after vaccination, 6.7 years), and 196 infants (1 year old; mean time after vaccination, 8 months). Individuals were classified as responders or nonresponders for total MenC IgG concentration and MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) measurements. Associated genes were examined further for quantitative outcome measures. Fifty-nine SNPs in 37 genes were associated with IgG persistence (adjusted for age at measurement), and 56 SNPs in 36 genes were associated with SBA persistence (adjusted for age at measurement and vaccine used). Three SNPs each within the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) (rs3775291, rs3775292, and rs5743312) and CD44 (rs11033013, rs353644, and rs996076) genes were associated with IgG (adjusted for age at measurement) or SBA (adjusted for age at measurement and vaccine used) persistence in the initial genetic study (P, 0.02 to 0.04). Single SNPs within the TLR3 (rs7657186) (P = 0.004 [unadjusted]) and CD44 (rs12419062) (P = 0.01 [unadjusted]) genes were associated with IgG persistence in the replication study. These results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the TLR3 and CD44 genes are associated with the persistence of the immune response to MenC vaccines 1 to 6 years after vaccination. PMID:22205660

  18. The acylated form of protein D of Haemophilus influenzae is more immunogenic than the nonacylated form and elicits an adjuvant effect when it is used as a carrier conjugated to polyribosyl ribitol phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Akkoyunlu, M; Melhus, A; Capiau, C; van Opstal, O; Forsgren, A

    1997-01-01

    The nonacylated form of protein D (PDm) of Haemophilus influenzae has been shown to induce the production of antibodies that are bactericidal to homologous and heterologous nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. In this study, immunization of rats with lipoprotein D (LPD) induced higher levels of anti-protein D immunoglobulin G and A serum antibodies than immunization with PDm, and the bactericidal activities of sera from LPD-immunized rats were greater than those of sera from PDm-immunized rats. Immunization with LPD or PDm did not prevent the development of acute otitis media (AOM) when rats were challenged with 10(4) CFU of an NTHi strain. However, on the eighth day of bacterial challenge, 50% (5 of 10) of LPD-immunized rats had recovered from otitis media and 30% (3 of 10) had negative middle ear cultures, whereas only 30% (3 of 10) of PDm-immunized rats had recovered, though none was culture positive. Immunization with an inactivated homologous bacterial strain elicited 70% protection (i.e., 7 of 10 rats) in the rat otitis media model. LPD and PDm were also conjugated to the H. influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide, polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP), to test protein D-conjugated PRP vaccine's potential for protection against Hib infection. When two LPD-conjugated and two PDm-conjugated PRP vaccines, each containing a different protein concentration, and a tetanus toxoid-conjugated vaccine (ACT-HIB) were tested in the experimental model of rat otitis induced with a Hib strain (Minn A), both of the LPD-conjugated and one of the PDm-conjugated vaccines induced significant protection from AOM, the level of protection being highest in animals given the vaccine with the highest LPD content. Sera from these rats also manifested the highest anti-PRP and anti-LPD antibody levels and the highest bactericidal activities against a Hib strain and an NTHi strain. PMID:9393790

  19. Molecular attributes of conjugate antigen influence function of antibodies induced by anti-nicotine vaccine in mice and non-human primates.

    PubMed

    McCluskie, Michael J; Thorn, Jennifer; Mehelic, Paul R; Kolhe, Parag; Bhattacharya, Keshab; Finneman, Jari I; Stead, David R; Piatchek, Michele Bailey; Zhang, Ningli; Chikh, Ghania; Cartier, Janna; Evans, Dana M; Merson, James R; Davis, Heather L

    2015-04-01

    Anti-nicotine vaccines aim to prevent nicotine entering the brain, and thus reduce or eliminate the reward that drives nicotine addiction. Those tested in humans to date have failed to improve quit rates over placebo, possibly because antibody (Ab) responses were insufficient to sequester enough nicotine in the blood in the majority of subjects. We have previously shown in mice that the carrier, hapten and linker used in the nicotine conjugate antigen each influence the function (nicotine-binding capacity) of the Ab induced. Herein we have evaluated immunogenicity in mice of 27 lots of NIC7-CRM, a conjugate of 5-aminoethoxy-nicotine (Hapten 7) and a mutant nontoxic form of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), that differed in three antigen attributes, namely hapten load (number of haptens conjugated to each molecule of CRM197), degree of conjugate aggregation and presence of adducts (small molecules attached to CRM197 via a covalent bond during the conjugation process). A range of functional responses (reduced nicotine in the brain of immunized animals relative to non-immunized controls) were obtained with the different conjugates, which were adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide and CpG TLR9 agonist. Trends for better functional responses in mice were obtained with conjugates having a hapten load of 11 to 18, a low level of high molecular mass species (HMMS) (i.e., not aggregated) and a low level of adducts and a more limited testing in cynomolgus monkeys confirmed these results. Thus hapten load, conjugate aggregation and presence of adducts are key antigen attributes that can influence Ab function induced by NIC7-CRM. PMID:25737198

  20. Concomitant Administration of Mycobacterium bovis BCG with the Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine to Neonatal Mice Enhances Antibody Response and Protective Efficacy ?

    PubMed Central

    Brynjolfsson, Siggeir F.; Bjarnarson, Stefania P.; Mori, Elena; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Jonsdottir, Ingileif

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG is administered to human neonates in many countries worldwide. The objective of the study was to assess if BCG could act as an adjuvant for polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in newborns and thereby induce protective immunity against encapsulated bacteria in early infancy when susceptibility is high. We assessed whether BCG could enhance immune responses to a meningococcal C (MenC) conjugate vaccine, MenC-CRM197, in mice primed as neonates, broaden the antibody response from a dominant IgG1 toward a mixed IgG1 and IgG2a/IgG2b response, and increase protective efficacy, as measured by serum bactericidal activity (SBA). Two-week-old mice were primed subcutaneously (s.c.) with MenC-CRM197. BCG was administered concomitantly, a day or a week before MenC-CRM197. An adjuvant effect of BCG was observed only when it was given concomitantly with MenC-CRM197, with increased IgG response (P = 0.002) and SBA (8-fold) after a second immunization with MenC-CRM197 without BCG, indicating increased T-cell help. In neonatal mice (1 week old) primed s.c. with MenC-CRM197 together with BCG, MenC-polysaccharide (PS)-specific IgG was enhanced compared to MenC-CRM197 alone (P = 0.0015). Sixteen days after the second immunization with MenC-CRM197, increased IgG (P < 0.05), IgG1 (P < 0.05), IgG2a (P = 0.06), and IgG2b (P < 0.05) were observed, and only mice primed with MenC-CRM197 plus BCG showed affinity maturation and detectable SBA (SBA > 128). Thus, vaccination with a meningococcal conjugate vaccine (and possibly with other conjugates) may benefit from concomitant administration of BCG in the neonatal period to accelerate and enhance production of protective antibodies, compared to the current infant administration of conjugate which follows BCG vaccination at birth. PMID:21900528

  1. Evaluation of two GnRH-I based vaccine formulations on the testes function of entire Suffolk cross ram lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth R. Earl; Mary M. Waterston; Elizabeth Aughey; Michael J. A. Harvey; Christian Matschke; Angela Colston; Valerie A. Ferro

    2006-01-01

    A modified GnRH peptide (CHWSYGLRPG-NH2) was conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and formulated with Quil A saponin or a sustained release injectible PLGA (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)\\/triacetin). For the Quil A formulations, two administrations of TT conjugate at 3-weekly intervals were followed by two booster injections with the DT conjugate in entire ram lambs. With the PLGA formulations, only

  2. Optimization and application of a multiplex bead-based assay to quantify serotype-specific IgG against Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharides: response to the booster vaccine after immunization with the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Elberse, Karin E M; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Schouls, Leo M

    2010-04-01

    We describe the optimization and application of a multiplex bead-based assay (Luminex) to quantify antibodies against polysaccharides of 13 pneumococcal serotypes. In the optimized multiplex immunoassay (MIA), intravenous immune globulin was introduced as an in-house reference serum, and nonspecific reacting antibodies were adsorbed with the commercial product pneumococcal C polysaccharides Multi. The antibody concentrations were assessed in 188 serum samples obtained pre- and post-booster vaccination at 11 months after administration of a primary series of the pneumococcal seven-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. The results of the MIA were compared with those of the ELISA for the serotypes included in the seven-valent conjugated polysaccharide vaccine and for a non-vaccine serotype, serotype 6A. The geometric mean concentrations of the antibodies determined by MIA were slightly higher than those determined by ELISA. The correlations between the assays were good, with R(2) values ranging from 0.84 to 0.91 for all serotypes except serotype 19F, for which R(2) was 0.70. The concentrations of antibody against serotype 6A increased after the administration of PCV-7 due to cross-reactivity with serotype 6B. The differences between the results obtained by ELISA and MIA suggest that the internationally established protective threshold of 0.35 microg/ml should be reevaluated for use in the MIA and may need to be amended separately for each serotype. PMID:20130129

  3. Isolation of carbohydrate-specific CD4+ T cell clones from mice after stimulation by two model glycoconjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Fikri Y; Li, Xiangming; Tsuji, Moriya; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe how to isolate carbohydrate-specific T cell clones (for which we propose the designation ‘Tcarbs’) after stimulation by two glycoconjugate vaccines. We describe how to prepare, purify and characterize two model glycoconjugate vaccines that can be used to generate Tcarbs. These glycoconjugate vaccines (GBSIII-OVA and GBSIII-TT) are synthesized by conjugation of type III group B streptococcal polysaccharide (GBSIII) to ovalbumin (OVA) or tetanus toxoid (TT). Upon immunization of mice with GBSIII-OVA, carbohydrate epitopes are presented to and recognized by CD4+ T cells. Subsequently, polysaccharide-recognizing CD4+ T cells are expanded in vitro by stimulating splenic CD4+ T cells with GBSIII-TT. The sequential use of two distinct glycoconjugate vaccines containing the same polysaccharide conjugated to heterologous carrier proteins selects for and expands carbohydrate-specific T cells. This protocol can readily be adapted to study the stimulation of the immune system by alternative glycoconjugate vaccines. This protocol takes 1–2 years to complete. PMID:23196974

  4. A cross-sectional observational study of pneumococcal carriage in children, their parents, and older adults following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hamaluba, Mainga; Kandasamy, Rama; Ndimah, Susan; Morton, Richard; Caccamo, Marisa; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Field, Aimee; Norman, Lily; Plested, Emma; Thompson, Ben A V; Zafar, Azhar; Kerridge, Simon A; Lazarus, Rajeka; John, Tessa; Holmes, Jane; Fenlon, Shannon N; Gould, Katherine A; Waight, Pauline; Hinds, Jason; Crook, Derrick; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ?65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period.Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7.7% coverage added by those in PCV13. In each group, the percentage of disease due to serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.0%, 7.4% and 5.1% with a further 65.3%, 42.1%, and 61.4% attributed to those in PCV13.The prevalence of carriage is the highest in children, with direct vaccine impact exemplified by low carriage and disease prevalence of PCV7 serotypes in vaccinated children, whereas the indirect effects of herd protection are implied by similar observations in unvaccinated parents and older adults. PMID:25569650

  5. Induction of anti-pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide antibodies by type 4 pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Peeters; Anne-Marie Tenbergen-Meekes; Jan Poolmann; Ben Zegers; Ger Rijkers

    1992-01-01

    We have prepared polysaccharide-protein conjugates consisting of type 4 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PS4) coupled to tetanus toxoid. The PS4 preparation used contained 2.5% pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (CPs). During the conjugation process, in addition to PS4-protein conjugates, CPs-protein conjugates were also formed. After immunization with PS4-protein conjugates, CPs-protein conjugates that are present as a contaminant induce IgG anti-CPs antibodies in

  6. Enhanced decision support for policy makers using a web interface to health-economic models--illustrated with a cost-effectiveness analysis of nation-wide infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hubben, G A A; Bos, J M; Glynn, D M; van der Ende, A; van Alphen, L; Postma, M J

    2007-05-01

    We have developed a web-based user-interface (web interface) to enhance the usefulness of health-economic evaluations to support decision making (http://pcv.healtheconomics.nl). It allows the user to interact with a health-economic model to evaluate predefined and customized scenarios and perform sensitivity analysis. To explore its usefulness, it was applied to an evaluation of cost-effectiveness of nation-wide infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), that was used to support a policy decision on the inclusion of PCV7 in the national vaccination program (NVP) of the Netherlands. We used a decision-tree analytic model to project the impact of infant vaccination with four doses of PCV7 on an annual cohort of infants born in the Netherlands. The base-case analysis includes the beneficial effects on unvaccinated individuals (herd protection). Additional scenarios varying the number of doses, discount rate for effects and the number of serotypes in the vaccine were evaluated and can be analysed on the web. Our model projects a base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (iCER) of euro14,000 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 9,800-20,200) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) or euro15,600 (95% UI: 11,100-23,900) per life year gained (LYG). PMID:17360082

  7. Modified Heat-Stable Toxins (hSTa) of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Lose Toxicity but Display Antigenicity after Being Genetically Fused to Heat-Labile Toxoid LT(R192G)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; Zhang, Chengxian; Mateo, Kristy; Nataro, James P.; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrhea in humans and animals. Heat-stable (STa) and heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins produced by ETEC disrupt fluid homeostasis in host small intestinal epithelial cells and cause fluid and electrolyte hyper-secretion that leads to diarrhea. ETEC strains producing STa or LT are sufficiently virulent to cause diarrhea, therefore STa and LT antigens must be included in ETEC vaccines. However, potent toxicity and poor immunogenicity (of STa) prevent them from being directly applied as vaccine components. While LT toxoids, especially LT(R192G), being used in vaccine development, STa toxoids have not been included. A recent study (IAI, 78:316-325) demonstrated porcine-type STa toxoids [pSTa(P12F) and pSTa(A13Q)] elicited protective anti-STa antibodies after being fused to a porcine-type LT toxoid [pLT(R192G)]. In this study, we substituted the 8th, 9th, 16th, or the 17th amino acid of a human-type STa (hSTa) and generated 28 modified STa peptides. We tested each STa peptide for toxicity and structure integrity, and found nearly all modified STa proteins showed structure alteration and toxicity reduction. Based on structure similarity and toxic activity, three modified STa peptides: STa(E8A), STa(T16Q) and STa(G17S), were selected to construct LT192-STa-toxoid fusions. Constructed fusions were used to immunize mice, and immunized mice developed anti-STa antibodies. Results from this study provide useful information in developing toxoid vaccines against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:22069760

  8. Relationship between serotypes, age, and clinical presentation of invasive pneumococcal disease in Madrid, Spain, after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the vaccination calendar.

    PubMed

    Picazo, J; Ruiz-Contreras, J; Casado-Flores, J; Giangaspro, E; Del Castillo, F; Hernández-Sampelayo, T; Otheo, E; Balboa, F; Ríos, E; Méndez, C

    2011-01-01

    To assess invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) clinical presentations and relationships with age and serotype in hospitalized children (<15 years) after PCV7 implementation in Madrid, Spain, a prospective 2-year (May 2007 to April 2009) laboratory-confirmed (culture and/or PCR) IPD surveillance study was performed (22 hospitals). All isolates (for serotyping) and culture-negative pleural/cerebrospinal fluids were sent to the reference laboratory for pneumolysin (ply) and autolysin (lyt) gene PCR analysis. A total of 330 IPDs were identified: 263 (79.7%) confirmed by culture and 67 (20.3%) confirmed by PCR. IPD distribution by age (months) was as follows: 23.6% (<12), 15.8% (12 to 23), 15.5% (24 to 35), 22.4% (36 to 59), and 22.7% (>59). Distribution by clinical presentation was as follows: 34.5% bacteremic pneumonia, 30.3% pediatric parapneumonic empyema (PPE), 13.6% meningitis, 13.3% primary bacteremia, and 8.2% others. Meningitis and primary bacteremia were the most frequent IPDs in children <12 months old, and bacteremic pneumonia and PPE were most frequent in those >36 months old. Frequencies of IPD-associated serotypes were as follows: 1, 26.1%; 19A, 18.8%; 5, 15.5%; 7F, 8.5%; 3, 3.9%; nontypeable/other 30 serotypes, 27.3%. Serotype 1 was linked to respiratory-associated IPD (38.6% in bacteremic pneumonia and 38.0% in PPE) and children of >36 months (51.4% for 36 to 59 months and 40.0% for >59 months), while serotype 19A was linked to nonrespiratory IPDs (31.1% in meningitis, 27.3% in primary bacteremia, and 51.9% in others) and children of <24 months (35.9% for children of <12 months and 36.5% for those 12 to 23 months old), with high nonsusceptibility rates for penicillin, cefotaxime, and erythromycin. After PCV7 implementation, non-PCV7 serotypes caused 95.5% of IPDs. The new 13-valent conjugate vaccine would provide 79.1% coverage of serotypes responsible for IPDs in this series. PMID:21047996

  9. Relationship between Serotypes, Age, and Clinical Presentation of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Madrid, Spain, after Introduction of the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine into the Vaccination Calendar ?

    PubMed Central

    Picazo, J.; Ruiz-Contreras, J.; Casado-Flores, J.; Giangaspro, E.; Del Castillo, F.; Hernández-Sampelayo, T.; Otheo, E.; Balboa, F.; Ríos, E.; Méndez, C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) clinical presentations and relationships with age and serotype in hospitalized children (<15 years) after PCV7 implementation in Madrid, Spain, a prospective 2-year (May 2007 to April 2009) laboratory-confirmed (culture and/or PCR) IPD surveillance study was performed (22 hospitals). All isolates (for serotyping) and culture-negative pleural/cerebrospinal fluids were sent to the reference laboratory for pneumolysin (ply) and autolysin (lyt) gene PCR analysis. A total of 330 IPDs were identified: 263 (79.7%) confirmed by culture and 67 (20.3%) confirmed by PCR. IPD distribution by age (months) was as follows: 23.6% (<12), 15.8% (12 to 23), 15.5% (24 to 35), 22.4% (36 to 59), and 22.7% (>59). Distribution by clinical presentation was as follows: 34.5% bacteremic pneumonia, 30.3% pediatric parapneumonic empyema (PPE), 13.6% meningitis, 13.3% primary bacteremia, and 8.2% others. Meningitis and primary bacteremia were the most frequent IPDs in children <12 months old, and bacteremic pneumonia and PPE were most frequent in those >36 months old. Frequencies of IPD-associated serotypes were as follows: 1, 26.1%; 19A, 18.8%; 5, 15.5%; 7F, 8.5%; 3, 3.9%; nontypeable/other 30 serotypes, 27.3%. Serotype 1 was linked to respiratory-associated IPD (38.6% in bacteremic pneumonia and 38.0% in PPE) and children of >36 months (51.4% for 36 to 59 months and 40.0% for >59 months), while serotype 19A was linked to nonrespiratory IPDs (31.1% in meningitis, 27.3% in primary bacteremia, and 51.9% in others) and children of <24 months (35.9% for children of <12 months and 36.5% for those 12 to 23 months old), with high nonsusceptibility rates for penicillin, cefotaxime, and erythromycin. After PCV7 implementation, non-PCV7 serotypes caused 95.5% of IPDs. The new 13-valent conjugate vaccine would provide 79.1% coverage of serotypes responsible for IPDs in this series. PMID:21047996

  10. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide is immunogenic when present on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells: TLR4 signaling induced by a conjugate vaccine or by lipopolysaccharide is conducive.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noam; Stolarsky-Bennun, Michal; Amir-Kroll, Hila; Margalit, Raanan; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Cohen-Sfady, Michal; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Fridkin, Mati; Bercovier, Herve; Eisenbach, Lea; Jung, Steffen; Cohen, Irun R

    2008-02-15

    Previously, we reported that a peptide, p458, from the sequence of the mammalian 60-kDa heat shock protein (hsp60) molecule can serve as a carrier in conjugate vaccines with capsular polysaccharide (CPS) molecules of various bacteria. These conjugate vaccines were effective injected in PBS without added adjuvants. We now report that p458 conjugated to pneumococcal CPS type 4 (PS4) manifests innate adjuvant effects: it stimulated mouse macrophages to secrete IL-12 and induced the late appearance of PS4 on the macrophage surface in a TLR4-dependent manner; PS4 alone or conjugated to other carriers did not stimulate macrophages in vitro. The injection of macrophages manifesting PS4 on the surface into mice induced long-term resistance to lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae challenge. The TLR4 ligand LPS could also induce the late appearance on the surface of unconjugated PS4 and resistance to challenge in injected mice. Resistance was not induced by macrophages containing only internalized PS4 or by pulsed macrophages that had been lysed. Glutaraldehyde-fixed macrophages pulsed with PS4 did induce resistance to lethal challenge. Moreover, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells activated by LPS and pulsed with unconjugated CPS were also effective in inducing resistance to lethal challenge. Resistance induced by the PS4-pulsed bone marrow-derived dendritic cell was specific for pneumococcal CPS serotypes (type 3 or type 4) and was associated with the induction of CPS-specific IgG and IgM Abs. PMID:18250450

  11. European enhanced surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease in 2010: data from 26 European countries in the post-heptavalent conjugate vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Navarro Torné, Adoración; Dias, Joana Gomes; Quinten, Chantal; Hruba, Frantiska; Busana, Marta Cecilia; Lopalco, Pier Luigi; Gauci, Andrew J Amato; Pastore-Celentano, Lucia

    2014-06-17

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of severe infectious diseases worldwide. This paper presents the results from the first European invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) enhanced surveillance where additional and valuable data were reported and analysed. Following its authorisation in Europe in 2001 for use in children aged between two months and five years, the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was progressively introduced in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries, albeit with different schemes and policies. In mid-2010 European countries started to switch to a higher valency vaccine (PCV10/PCV13), still without a significant impact by the time of this surveillance. Therefore, this surveillance provides an overview of baseline data from the transition period between the introduction of PCV7 and the implementation of PCV10/PCV13. In 2010, 26 EU/EEA countries reported 21 565 cases of IPD to The European Surveillance System (TESSy) applying the EU 2008 case definition. Serotype was determined in 9946/21565 (46.1%) cases. The most common serotypes were 19A, 1, 7F, 3, 14, 22F, 8, 4, 12F and 19F, accounting for 5949/9946 (59.8%) of the serotyped isolates. Data on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) in the form of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were submitted for penicillin 5384/21565 (25.0%), erythromycin 4031/21565 (18.7%) and cefotaxime 5252/21565 (24.4%). Non-susceptibility to erythromycin was highest at 17.6% followed by penicillin at 8.9%. PCV7 serotype coverage among children <5 years in Europe, was 19.2%; for the same age group, the serotype coverage for PCV10 and PCV13 were 46.1% and 73.1%, respectively. In the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the monitoring of changing trends in antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution are essential in assessing the impact of vaccines and antibiotic use control programmes across European countries. PMID:24795228

  12. Immunization of mice with pneumolysin toxoid confers a significant degree of protection against at least nine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J E; Lock, R A; Peeters, C C; Poolman, J T; Andrew, P W; Mitchell, T J; Hansman, D; Paton, J C

    1994-01-01

    Pneumolysin is the thiol-activated cytolysin produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice were immunized with a genetically engineered toxoid version of pneumolysin, which was derived from a serotype 2 pneumococcus. The toxoid carried the mutation Trp-433-->Phe. Alum was used as the adjuvant. Immunized mice had significantly increased levels of anti-pneumolysin antibodies, principally immunoglobulin G1. Mice were challenged intraperitoneally or intranasally with 12 strains covering capsular serotypes 1 to 6, 7F, 8, and 18C. Following challenge, the survival rate and/or the time of death of nonsurvivors (survival time) was significantly greater than that of sham-immunized mice for all nine serotypes. However, differences in the degree of protection were noted between different strains. The route of challenge also appeared to influence the degree of protection. Nevertheless, the significant, albeit in some cases partial, protection provided against all nine pneumococcal serotypes supports the conclusion that pneumolysin toxoids warrant consideration for inclusion in a human vaccine. PMID:7960154

  13. A single administration of tetanus toxoid in biodegradable microspheres elicits T cell and antibody responses similar or superior to those obtained with aluminum hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Men; Claudio Thomasin; Hans P. Merkle; Bruno Gander; Giampietro Corradin

    1995-01-01

    The use of biodegradable polymer microspheres as a single dose vaccine delivery system was investigated by using tetanus toxoid (TT). In order to compare the immunogenicity of TT-microspheres (TT-MS) with aluminum hydroxide (alum)-based TT, BALBc mice were immunized with TT in different formulations including individual or mixtures of MS and TT-alum. All TT-MS formulations elicited high proliferative and antibody responses

  14. Recombinant Group B Streptococcus Beta C Protein and a Variant with the Deletion of Its Immunoglobulin A-Binding Site Are Protective Mouse Maternal Vaccines and Effective Carriers in Conjugate Vaccines?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Hui; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Guttormsen, Hilde-Kari; Liu, Yong-Dong; Paoletti, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-01

    Immunogenic vaccines against group B Streptococcus (GBS) have been created by coupling the GBS capsular polysaccharides (CPS) to carrier proteins. The GBS beta C protein (BCP) serves as an effective carrier while inducing protective immunity against BCP-expressing strains. BCP also binds human immunoglobulin A (IgA), a characteristic that may be undesirable for use in humans. Here, we examined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant GBS BCP (rBCP), an rBCP modified to eliminate its IgA-binding site (rBCP?IgA), and their corresponding GBS serotype III CPS conjugates (III-rBCP and III-rBCP?IgA). Deletion of the IgA-binding site or conjugation to CPS did not alter antigenic BCP epitopes. Recombinant proteins and conjugates elicited specific, high-titered IgG in mice. Antisera to rBCP, rBCP?IgA, III-rBCP, and III-rBCP?IgA opsonized GBS strains A909 (Ia/BCP+) and H36B (Ib/BCP+) for killing by HL-60 cells; antiserum to III-rBCP and III-rBCP?IgA also opsonized strain M781 (III/BCP?). Vaccination of female mice with either rBCP or rBCP?IgA protected ?40% of their pups challenged with GBS strain A909. Pups born to III-rBCP- or III-rBCP?IgA-vaccinated dams survived at rates of 56% and 66%, respectively. Over 90% of pups born to dams that received the type III CPS conjugates survived challenge with GBS strain M781. In summary, rBCP and rBCP?IgA proteins and the conjugates containing them were immunogenic in mice, inducing both CPS- and protein-specific functional IgG. These results suggest that the rBCP?IgA could be used as a carrier to augment the immunogenicity of the CPS while expanding coverage to GBS strains bearing BCP. PMID:17470542

  15. Induction of Protective Serum Meningococcal Bactericidal and Diphtheria-Neutralizing Antibodies and Mucosal Immunoglobulin A in Volunteers by Nasal Insufflations of the Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Polysaccharide-CRM197 Conjugate Vaccine Mixed with Chitosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiming Huo; Ruchi Sinha; Edel A. McNeela; Ray Borrow; Rafaela Giemza; Catherine Cosgrove; Paul T. Heath; Kingston H. G. Mills; Rino Rappuoli; George E. Griffin; David J. M. Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-six healthy volunteers received either a single intramuscular injection of Neisseria meningitidis sero- group C polysaccharide (MCP)-CRM197 conjugate vaccine in alum or two nasal insufflations 28 days apart of the same vaccine powder, without alum, mixed with chitosan. Nasal immunization was well tolerated, with fewer symptoms reported than after intramuscular injection. The geometric mean concentrations of MCP- specific immunoglobulin G

  16. Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Core O Polysaccharide Conjugated to H:g,m Flagellin as a Candidate Vaccine for Protection against Invasive Infection with S. Enteritidis?†

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M.; Wang, Jin Y.; Schmidlein, Patrick J.; Lees, Andrew; Ernst, Robert K.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are a common cause of gastroenteritis but also cause invasive infections and enteric fever in certain hosts (young children in sub-Saharan Africa, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals). Salmonella O polysaccharides (OPS) and flagellar proteins are virulence factors and protective antigens. The surface polysaccharides of Salmonella are poorly immunogenic and do not confer immunologic memory, limitations overcome by covalently attaching them to carrier proteins. We conjugated core polysaccharide-OPS (COPS) of Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to flagellin protein from the homologous strain. COPS and flagellin were purified from a genetically attenuated (?guaBA) “reagent strain” (derived from an isolate from a patient with clinical bacteremia) engineered for increased flagellin production (?clpPX). Conjugates were constructed by linking flagellin monomers or polymers at random COPS hydroxyls with various polysaccharide/protein ratios by 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) or at the 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) terminus by thioether chemistry. Mice immunized on days 0, 28, and 56 with COPS-flagellin conjugates mounted higher anti-LPS IgG levels than mice receiving unconjugated COPS and exhibited high antiflagellin IgG; anti-LPS and antiflagellin IgG levels increased following booster doses. Antibodies generated by COPS-flagellin conjugates mediated opsonophagocytosis of S. Enteritidis cells into mouse macrophages. Mice immunized with flagellin alone, COPS-CRM197, or COPS-flagellin conjugates were significantly protected from lethal challenge with wild-type S. Enteritidis (80 to 100% vaccine efficacy). PMID:21807909

  17. Genetic fusions of heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) toxoids of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit neutralizing anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Zhang, Chengxian; Francis, David H; Fang, Ying; Knudsen, David; Nataro, James P; Robertson, Donald C

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and farm animals. E. coli fimbriae, or colonization factor antigens (CFAs), and enterotoxins, including heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins (ST), are the key virulence factors in ETEC diarrhea. Unlike fimbriae or LT, STa has not often been included as an antigen in development of vaccines against ETEC diarrhea because of its poor immunogenicity. STa becomes immunogenic only after being coupled with a strongly immunogenic carrier protein. However, native or shorter STa antigens either had to retain toxic activity in order to become antigenic or elicited anti-STa antibodies that were not sufficiently protective. In this study, we genetically mutated the porcine LT (pLT) gene for a pLT(192(R-->G)) toxoid and the porcine STa (pSTa) gene for three full-length pSTa toxoids [STa(11(N-->K)), STa(12(P-->F)), and STa(13(A-->Q))] and used the full-length pLT(192) as an adjuvant to carry the pSTa toxoid for pLT(192):pSTa-toxoid fusion antigens. Rabbits immunized with pLT(192):pSTa(12) or pLT(192):pSTa(13) fusion protein developed high titers of anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies. Furthermore, rabbit antiserum and antifecal antibodies were able to neutralize purified cholera toxin (CT) and STa toxin. In addition, preliminary data suggested that suckling piglets born by a sow immunized with the pLT(192):pSTa(13) fusion antigen were protected when challenged with an STa-positive ETEC strain. This study demonstrated that pSTa toxoids are antigenic when fused with a pLT toxoid and that the elicited anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies were protective. This fusion strategy could provide instructive information to develop effective toxoid vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea in animals and humans. PMID:19858307

  18. Immunogenicity and serotype-specific efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-9) determined during an efficacy trial in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Saaka, M; Okoko, B J; Kohberger, R C; Jaffar, S; Enwere, G; Biney, E E; Oluwalana, C; Vaughan, A; Zaman, S M A; Asthon, L; Goldblatt, D; Greenwood, B M; Cutts, F T; Adegbola, R A

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the immunogenicity of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-9) in a subgroup of Gambian children enrolled in a large vaccine efficacy trial. To place the antibody results in context, in this paper we also report previously unpublished data on serotype-specific clinical vaccine efficacy from the main trial. In the sub-study, a single 2-4 ml venous blood specimen was collected from 212 Gambian children 4-6 weeks after the administration of a third dose of PCV-9 or placebo. IgG antibodies to pneumococcal serotype 1, 4, 5, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F polysaccharides were measured by ELISA. The proportions of infants with antibody concentrations above 0.2, 0.35 and 1.0 microg/ml, and the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibodies were substantially higher for each serotype in children who received three doses of PCV-9 than those in the placebo group. Among PCV-9 recipients, GMCs ranged between 2.61 and 11.09 microg/ml with the highest being against serotype 14 and the lowest against 9V polysaccharide. The estimated overall protective antibody level for all nine serotypes, based on the vaccine efficacy against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of 77% (95% CI: 51, 90) observed in the trial, was 2.3 microg/ml (95% CI: 1.0, 5.0). The PCV-9 studied was immunogenic in a Gambian population where it was also found to be efficacious. PMID:18514974

  19. Maternal vaccination against subclinical necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atle Lovland; Magne Kaldhusdal; Keith Redhead; Eystein Skjerve; Atle Lillehaug

    2004-01-01

    The inclusion of antibacterial feed additives has until now been the major strategy for controlling Clostridium perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis in broilers. In the present study, the effect of maternal immunization against the disease was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected intramuscularly with candidate vaccines based on C. perfringens type A and type C toxoids adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Vaccination resulted

  20. Vaccinations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease — reinforcing the importance of vaccines in your pet's preventive health care program. Are there risks? Any treatment carries some risk, but these risks should be weighed against the benefits of protecting your pet from potentially fatal diseases. Most pets respond well ...

  1. Worldwide Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Global Analysis of the Disease Burden 25 Years after the Use of the Polysaccharide Vaccine and a Decade after the Advent of Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Heikki

    2000-01-01

    Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) diseases began a quarter of a century ago with a polysaccharide vaccine; this vaccine was followed by four different conjugates 10 years later. In this review, the burden of global Hib disease is quantified following this 25-year period of vaccine availability to determine the potential impact of conjugate vaccines. This task was accomplished by analysis of data available in 10 languages in 75 geographical regions of over 50 countries. All severe Hib diseases, not only meningitis, were characterized, and special attention was paid to the most vulnerable age group, i.e., children aged 0 to 4 years. Prior to vaccination, the weighted worldwide incidence of meningitis in patients younger than 5 years was 57/100,000, and for all Hib diseases except nonbacteremic pneumonia, it was 71/100,000, indicating 357,000 and 445,000 cases per year, respectively. At least 108,500 of these children died. For all age groups combined, there were 486,000 cases of Hib disease, excluding pneumonia, with 114,200 deaths and probably an equal number of sequelae per annum. If the figures for nonbacteremic pneumonia are included, a conservative estimate is that over 2.2 million cases of infection and 520,000 deaths from Hib disease occurred worldwide, but the true numbers might have been greater. Despite these large numbers and availability of safe and efficacious vaccines, only 38,000 cases annually are prevented—a meager 8% or less than a 2% reduction in cases, depending on whether nonbacteremic pneumonia is included in the calculations. Although vaccination has had great success in some affluent countries, the current level of activity has had a very small impact globally. The use of conjugates, preferably with a reduced number of doses and in combination with other vaccines or perhaps in fractional doses, should be extended to less privileged countries, where most Hib disease occurs. PMID:10756001

  2. Tetanus toxoid coverage as an indicator of serological protection against neonatal tetanus.

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Michael S.; Roungou, Jean-Baptiste; Kristiansen, Max; Heron, Iver; Yango, Alphonse; Guenengafo, Alexis; Ndamobissi, Robert

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A Multiple-Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was conducted at mid-decade in more than 60 developing countries to measure progress towards the year 2000 World Summit for Children goals. These goals included the protection of at least 90% of children against neonatal tetanus through the immunization of their mothers, as measured by tetanus toxoid (TT) coverage. In the Central African Republic (CAR), serological testing was added to the MICS to understand better the relationship between survey estimates of TT coverage and the prevalence of serological protection. METHODS: In the CAR MICS, mothers of children younger than one year of age gave verbal histories of the TT vaccinations they had received, using the MICS TT questionnaire. A subsample of mothers was tested for tetanus antitoxin, using a double-antigen enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). Seropositivity was defined as a titre of > or =0.01 IU/ml, and TT coverage was defined as the proportion of mothers protected at delivery, according to their history of TT vaccinations. FINDINGS: Among the 222 mothers in the subsample, weighted TT coverage was 74.4% (95% Confidence Interval (CI); 67.0% - 81.7%) and tetanus antitoxin seroprevalence was 88.7% (95% CI; 83.2% - 94.2%). The weighted median antitoxin titre was 0.35 IU/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Tetanus toxoid coverage in the CAR was lower than the prevalence of serological protection against neonatal tetanus. If this relationship holds for other countries, TT coverage estimates from the MICS may underestimate the extent to which the year 2000 goal for protecting children against neonatal tetanus was reached. We also showed that a high level of serological protection had been achieved in a country facing major public health challenges and resource constraints. PMID:12378286

  3. Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D–Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; François, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods.?A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results.?In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, ?31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions.?PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration?NCT00652951. PMID:23118268

  4. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits cross-functional opsonophagocytic killing responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6D in children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the immune response to serogroup 6 with the opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPKA) in children aged 12–23 months of age after immunization with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) containing serotype 6B. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 59 children who had blood sampling for medical examination. Immunization status against PCV7 was confirmed by immunization records and samples were categorized according to immunization status into a booster, primary, or control group. The OPKA was performed for serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D. Results Subjects with no previous PCV7 immunization history showed opsonic activity for serogroup 6 in 5-30% (according to serotype). In subjects vaccinated with a 3-dose primary series, 81% showed opsonic activity for serotypes 6B and 6D, and 29% showed opsonic activity for serotypes 6A and 6C. Among subjects vaccinated with a booster dose, all subjects had opsonic activity against serotype 6B. Subjects in the booster group with opsonic activity against serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D were 100%, 78%, and 89%, respectively. Conclusions In subjects aged 12–23 months, an immune response is elicited after a primary series of immunizations with PCV7 for serotypes 6B and 6D, and a booster dose enhances a cross reactive immune response against serotypes 6A, 6C and 6D. PMID:24112237

  5. Effectiveness of Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children Younger Than 5 Years of Age for Prevention of Pneumonia Updated Analysis Using World Health Organization Standardized Interpretation of Chest Radiographs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hansen; Steven Black; Henry Shinefield; Thomas Cherian; Jane Benson; Bruce Fireman; Edwin Lewis; Janelle Lee

    Background: A World Health Organization (WHO) working group in 2001 developed a method for standardizing interpretation of chest radiographs in children for epidemiologic purposes. We reevaluated radiographs from the Kaiser Permanente Pneumococcal Efficacy trial using this method. Methods: Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was eval- uated in a randomized, controlled study including 37,868 infants. Effectiveness against pneumonia was previously evaluated using

  6. Development and Use of a Serum Bactericidal Assay Using Pooled Human Complement To Assess Responses to a Meningococcal Group A Conjugate Vaccine in African Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Freyja; Mocca, Brian; Borrow, Ray; Findlow, Helen; Hassan-King, Musa; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Idoko, Olubukola; Sow, Samba; Kulkarni, Prasad; LaForce, F. Marc

    2014-01-01

    A meningococcal group A polysaccharide (PS) conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) has been developed for African countries affected by epidemic meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis. Complement-mediated serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assays are used to assess protective immune responses to meningococcal vaccination. Human complement (hC?) was used in early studies demonstrating antibody-mediated protection against disease, but it is difficult to obtain and standardize. We developed and evaluated a method for sourcing hC? and then used the SBA assay with hC? (hSBA) to measure bactericidal responses to PsA-TT vaccination in 12- to 23-month-old African children. Sera with active complement from 100 unvaccinated blood donors were tested for intrinsic bactericidal activity, SBA titer using rabbit complement (rSBA), and anti-group A PS antibody concentration. Performance criteria and pooling strategies were examined and then verified by comparisons of three independently prepared hC? lots in two laboratories. hSBA titers of clinical trial sera were then determined using this complement sourcing method. Two different functional antibody tests were necessary for screening hC?. hSBA titers determined using three independent lots of pooled hC? were within expected assay variation among lots and between laboratories. In African toddlers, PsA-TT elicited higher hSBA titers than meningococcal polysaccharide or Hib vaccines. PsA-TT immunization or PS challenge of PsA-TT-primed subjects resulted in vigorous hSBA memory responses, and titers persisted in boosted groups for over a year. Quantifying SBA using pooled hC? is feasible and showed that PsA-TT was highly immunogenic in African toddlers. PMID:24671551

  7. All-Cause Pneumonia Hospitalizations in Children <2 Years Old in Sweden, 1998 to 2012: Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Anders; Ekelund, Mats; Fletcher, Mark A.; Nyman, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background In late 2007, some Swedish County Councils started 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) implementation for children, and PCV7 was included in the national immunization program in 2009. By 2010, both PCV10 and PCV13 were licensed, and the selection of vaccine was subject to County Councils tenders. This study investigated the impact of the order of PCV introduction into vaccination programs on the incidence of all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations in children <2 years-old. Methods Using population-based data from the publicly available National Inpatient Registry, the incidence of inpatient pneumonia (ICD-10 J12-J18) hospitalizations by County Councils among children <2 years old was identified between 1998 and 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRR; 95% CI) were calculated during the nationwide implementation of PCV7 and then between County Councils, as based on the higher-valent vaccine chosen for a program. Results There was a lower risk of all-cause pneumonia hospitalization among <2 year-old children following the introduction of PCV7, as compared to the pre-PCV7 period (0.77; 0.63–0.93). A decreased risk of all-cause pneumonia was also observed in the County Councils that followed the order PCV7 then PCV13 (0.82; 0.66–1.01), while no trend was observed in County Councils with a program in the order PCV7 then PCV10 (1.03; 0.82–1.30). When comparing the higher-valent vaccines, there was a 21% (0.79; 0.66–0.96) lower risk for childhood pneumonia hospitalization in County Councils finally using PCV13 as compared to the experience in County Councils that ultimately adopted PCV10. Conclusions Among children <2 years-old, all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations were significantly reduced by 23% one to two years after introduction of PCV7 vaccination in Sweden. In those County Councils that next introduced PCV13, a further decline in all-cause pneumonia hospitalization was observed, in contrast to those County Councils that followed with PCV10; this 21% lower risk for childhood pneumonia hospitalization was statistically significant. PMID:25379659

  8. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...prepared from toxoided broth cultures of selected toxogenic...hemolysis of rabbit red blood cells. (6) Incubate toxin-antitoxin...ml of a 1.5 percent suspension of washed freshly drawn rabbit red blood cells suspended in normal saline...the unlysed red blood cells. (8) Determine...

  9. Bioneedles as vaccine carriers.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Hoang J H B; van de Wijdeven, Gijsbert G P; Kelder, Annemarie B; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M; Kersten, Gideon F A

    2008-05-01

    Bioneedles are small hollow mini implants fabricated from biodegradable polymers which can be filled with antigen. Bioneedles can be used for vaccination without syringes and needles. Formulations have been prepared containing tetanus toxoid with and without aluminum phosphate. Stability and immunogenicity of Bioneedles were compared with liquid formulations. The antigen, when formulated in Bioneedles, retained fully its antigenicity up to 60 degrees C for 1 week whereas the antigen, in its liquid form, lost all activity at 60 degrees C after 1 week. After 3 weeks at 60 degrees C, a recovery of 60% was still found in the Bioneedles. Mice injected with Bioneedles with adjuvanted tetanus toxoid showed a comparable functional antibody response to the group receiving conventional liquid injections. This response was achieved with a four times lower antigen concentration when using the Bioneedles compared to the regular injections. We conclude that Bioneedles are good alternatives for injections using needles and syringes. PMID:18406021

  10. Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ? 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ?2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,295; control, n?=?10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p?=?0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization–defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28–30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,211; control, n?=?10,140) and AOM (n?=?3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: ?1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p?=?0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n?=?11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n?=?11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763

  11. Does a 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine prevent respiratory exacerbations in children with recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis, chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis are characterised by a chronic wet cough and are important causes of childhood respiratory morbidity globally. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most commonly associated pathogens. As respiratory exacerbations impair quality of life and may be associated with disease progression, we will determine if the novel 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) reduces exacerbations in these children. Methods A multi-centre, parallel group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial in tertiary paediatric centres from three Australian cities is planned. Two hundred six children aged 18 months to 14 years with recurrent PBB, CSLD or bronchiectasis will be randomised to receive either two doses of PHiD-CV or control meningococcal (ACYW135) conjugate vaccine 2 months apart and followed for 12 months after the second vaccine dose. Randomisation will be stratified by site, age (<6 years and ?6 years) and aetiology (recurrent PBB or CSLD/bronchiectasis). Clinical histories, respiratory status (including spirometry in children aged ?6 years), nasopharyngeal and saliva swabs, and serum will be collected at baseline and at 2, 3, 8 and 14 months post-enrolment. Local and systemic reactions will be recorded on daily diaries for 7 and 30 days, respectively, following each vaccine dose and serious adverse events monitored throughout the trial. Fortnightly, parental contact will help record respiratory exacerbations. The primary outcome is the incidence of respiratory exacerbations in the 12 months following the second vaccine dose. Secondary outcomes include: nasopharyngeal carriage of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae vaccine and vaccine- related serotypes; systemic and mucosal immune responses to H. influenzae proteins and S. pneumoniae vaccine and vaccine-related serotypes; impact upon lung function in children aged ?6 years; and vaccine safety. Discussion As H. influenzae is the most common bacterial pathogen associated with these chronic respiratory diseases in children, a novel pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that also impacts upon H. influenzae and helps prevent respiratory exacerbations would assist clinical management with potential short- and long-term health benefits. Our study will be the first to assess vaccine efficacy targeting H. influenzae in children with recurrent PBB, CSLD and bronchiectasis. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) number: ACTRN12612000034831. PMID:24010917

  12. Safety and Immunogenicity of Improved Shigella O-Specific Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines in Adults in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Passwell, Justen H.; Harlev, Efrat; Ashkenazi, Shai; Chu, Chiayung; Miron, Dan; Ramon, Reut; Farzan, Naheed; Shiloach, Joseph; Bryla, Dolores A.; Majadly, Fathy; Roberson, Robin; Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Data suggest that the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Shigella species is both an essential virulence factor and a protective antigen and that a critical level of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) to this antigen will confer immunity to shigellosis. Because covalent attachment of polysaccharides to proteins increases their immunogenicity, especially in infants and in young children, the O-SP of Shigella species were bound to medically useful proteins, and the safety and immunogenicity of the resultant conjugates were confirmed in adults and 4- to 7-year-old children. Succinylation of the carrier protein improved the immunogenicity of Shigella conjugates in mice and increased their yield. Based on these results, a clinical trial of O-SP conjugates of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a bound to succinylated mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (rEPAsucc) or native or succinylated Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin mutant (CRM9 or CRM9succ) was conducted in healthy adults. The conjugates were safe and immunogenic. S. sonnei-CRM9, S. sonnei-CRM9succ, and S. sonnei-rEPAsucc elicited significant rises of geometric mean (GM) IgG anti-LPS within 1 week of injection (P < 0.001). At 26 weeks, the GM anti-LPS levels elicited by these three conjugates were similar and higher than their prevaccination levels (P < 0.0001). GM IgG anti-LPS levels elicited by S. flexneri 2a-rEPAsucc were significantly higher than those elicited by S. flexneri 2a-rCRM9succ at all intervals after injection. At 26 weeks, the levels of IgG anti-LPS in vaccinees were higher than their prevaccination levels (P < 0.0001). The serum antibody responses were specific, as there was no significant rise of anti-LPS to the heterologous O-SP in any vaccinee. Both conjugates elicited statistically significant rises of serum antibodies to the injected carrier protein. At 6 months, these five Shigella conjugates elicited higher fold rises than similar conjugates (D. N. Taylor et al., Infect. Immun. 61:3678–3687, 1993). Based on these data, we chose S. sonnei-CRM9 and S. flexneri 2a-rEPAsucc for evaluation in children. PMID:11179298

  13. One-Step Multiplex PCR Assay for Detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae Serogroups/Types Covered by 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13)

    PubMed Central

    Coskun-Ari, Fatma Filiz; Guldemir, Dilek; Durmaz, Riza

    2012-01-01

    The life-threatening illnesses caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae have been declined significantly after the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Continuous monitoring of the vaccine serogroups/types is necessary to follow the changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal diseases. Recently, the sequential multiplex PCR approach, which uses several different sets of reactions, has been commonly adopted for determining capsular serogroups/types of S. pneumoniae isolates. In our study, we focused on development of a one-step multiplex PCR assay detecting all 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A/B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F serogroups/types targeted by PCV13. The content of multiplex PCR mix and the cycling conditions were optimized in a manner that allowed rapid and accurate serotyping of a pneumococcal isolate by performing only a single amplification reaction. In our study of 182 clinical isolates, the one-step multiplex PCR assay exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that its utilization can significantly reduce the use of traditional antiserum method requiring expensive reagents. PMID:23226519

  14. Serum IgM antibodies contribute to high levels of opsonophagocytic activities in toddlers immunized with a single dose of the 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Simell, Birgit; Nurkka, Anu; Ekström, Nina; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Käyhty, Helena; Dagan, Ron

    2012-10-01

    In immunogenicity trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), only IgG antibody concentrations to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPSs) are usually determined, along with the opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of antipneumococcal antibodies. We aimed to determine the role of both IgG and IgM in OPA in toddlers receiving one dose of 9-valent PCV (PCV9). The IgG and IgM antibody concentrations to PPSs of serotypes 6A, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by enzyme immunoassay in sera from toddlers (ages 18 to 35 months) 1 month after a single PCV9 dose. The OPA for the same serotypes was measured by multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA). Further, IgG and IgM concentrations and MOPA were measured to PPS of serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F in sera collected 12 months after vaccination. The detected MOPA titers were high in comparison to the IgG concentrations 1 month after immunization. The IgM concentrations were higher than IgG concentrations for serotypes 6A and 14 (P < 0.001) and as high as IgG for serotypes 9V, 19F, and 23F. Correlation of the IgM antibody concentrations with MOPA (r = 0.35 to 0.65) was stronger compared to that of the IgG antibodies (r = 0.07 to 0.41). The depletion of IgG antibodies in three sets of pooled sera only slightly decreased the OPA activity against serotype 14. At 12 months after immunization, 50 to 100% of serum samples still showed detectable MOPA activity against serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F. Our results suggest that IgM contributes to OPA 1 month after a single PCV9 vaccination in toddlers and that functionally active IgM and IgG antibodies persist for at least a year. PMID:22875604

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Nigerian children: Booster dose and 2-dose catch-up regimens in the second year of life.

    PubMed

    Odusanya, Olumuyiwa O; Kuyinu, Yetunde A; Kehinde, Omolara A; Shafi, Fakrudeen; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Rüggeberg, Jens U; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, 3-dose primary vaccination of Nigerian infants with the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes, with comparable tolerability between PHiD-CV and control groups. In an open-label study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01153893), 68 primed children received a PHiD-CV booster dose co-administered with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) booster dose at 15-21 months and 36 children unprimed for pneumococcal vaccination received two PHiD-CV catch-up doses (first dose co-administered with DTPa booster dose) at 15-21 and 17-23 months. Adverse events were recorded and immune responses were measured before and one month after vaccination. In both groups, pain was the most frequent solicited local symptom and fever was the most frequent solicited general symptom after the booster dose and each catch-up dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms and no vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After booster vaccination, for each vaccine serotype, at least 98.5% of children had an antibody concentration ? 0.2 µg/ml and at least 94.0% had an opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titer ? 8. After 2-dose catch-up, for each vaccine serotype, at least 97.1% had an antibody concentration ? 0.2 µg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.9%) and 23F (88.6%), and at least 91.4% had an OPA titer ?8, except for serotypes 6B (77.4%) and 19F (85.3%). PHiD-CV induced antibody responses against protein D in both groups. In conclusion, PHiD-CV administered to Nigerian toddlers as a booster dose or 2-dose catch-up was well tolerated and immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D. PMID:24356787

  16. Enhancing the immunogenicity of tumour lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccines by conjugation to virus-like particles

    PubMed Central

    Win, S J; McMillan, D G G; Errington-Mais, F; Ward, V K; Young, S L; Baird, M A; Melcher, A A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tumour cell lysates are an excellent source of many defined and undefined tumour antigens and have been used clinically in immunotherapeutic regimes but with limited success. Methods: We conjugated Mel888 melanoma lysates to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus virus-like particles (VLP), which can act as vehicles to deliver multiple tumour epitopes to dendritic cells (DC) to effectively activate antitumour responses. Results: Virus-like particles did not stimulate the phenotypic maturation of DC although, the conjugation of lysates to VLP (VLP-lysate) did overcome lysate-induced suppression of DC activation. Lysate-conjugated VLP enhanced delivery of antigenic proteins to DC, while the co-delivery of VLP-lysates with OK432 resulted in cross-priming of naïve T cells, with expansion of a MART1+ population of CD8+ T cells and generation of a specific cytotoxic response against Mel888 tumour cell targets. The responses generated with VLP-lysate and OK432 were superior to those stimulated by unconjugated lysate with OK432. Conclusion: Collectively, these results show that the combination of VLP-lysate with OK432 delivered to DC overcomes the suppressive effects of lysates, and enables priming of naïve T cells with superior ability to specifically kill their target tumour cells. PMID:22134504

  17. Induction of anti-pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide antibodies by type 4 pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugates.

    PubMed

    Peeters, C; Tenbergen-Meekes, A M; Poolmann, J; Zegers, B; Rijkers, G

    1992-01-01

    We have prepared polysaccharide-protein conjugates consisting of type 4 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PS4) coupled to tetanus toxoid. The PS4 preparation used contained 2.5% pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (CPs). During the conjugation process, in addition to PS4-protein conjugates, CPs-protein conjugates were also formed. After immunization with PS4-protein conjugates, CPs-protein conjugates that are present as a contaminant induce IgG anti-CPs antibodies in mice. Pneumococcal oligosaccharides, prepared by periodate oxidation of PS4, did not contain detectable amounts of CPs; hence, oligosaccharide-protein conjugates did not induce anti-CPs antibodies. PMID:1579084

  18. Policy analysis of the use of hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b-, Streptococcus pneumoniae-conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in national immunization schedules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Miller; Laura McCann

    2000-01-01

    After the development of national vaccine programmes to deliver six vaccines to infants, new vaccine adoption has been limited. Analysis of the health and economic implications of new vaccination options can help national policy-makers. Country specific quantitative policy analyses were conducted to estimate the impact of vaccination against hepatitis B (HB), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and

  19. Protective effect of acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Blennow, M; Hedenskog, S; Granström, M

    1988-06-01

    Two acellular pertussis vaccines, a mono-component toxoid of pertussis toxin and a two-component vaccine containing both the toxoid and filamentous haemagglutinin, were used for primary immunization of infants 5 1/2 to 10 months of age in two clinical trials in Sweden. Over a follow-up period of 12 to 17 months, 37 children were exposed to pertussis in the household or a daycare centre. Only one child developed mild, culture-confirmed pertussis as opposed to the expected number of 30 to 33 cases based on an assumed attack rate of 80-90% in non-immunized children. These preliminary findings indicate that, given as primary immunization to infants, the vaccines provide protection against pertussis. PMID:3137039

  20. Caseous lymphadenitis vaccine development: site-specific inactivation of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis phospholipase D gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Tachedjian; Jolanta Krywult; Robert J. Moore; Adrian L. M. Hodgson

    1995-01-01

    Vaccines for ovine caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) are currently formulated using partially purified, formalin inactivated phospholipase D (PLD) derived from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis culture supernatants. Chemical treatment has been a common and effective way of inactivating bacterial toxins for use in toxoid vaccines. Genetic inactivation of toxin genes using site-specific mutagenesis has the potential to improve this process by providing a safer

  1. The Efficacy and Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccination among Thai Elderly Persons Living in the Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rungnirand Praditsuwan; Prasert Assantachai; Chantapong Wasi; Pilaipan Puthavatana; Uraiwan Kositanont

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the Thai elderly living in an urban community. Material and Method: The study design was a stratified, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 635 participants aged 60 years and older living in an urban community was randomized to receive an influenza vaccine or tetanus toxoid as a

  2. Incidence of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in the Island of Majorca (2008-2010), an area with non-universal vaccination, and estimations of serotype & children population coverage by available conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization reported in 2007 that inclusion of PCV7 in national immunization programs should be seen as a priority, also encouraging countries to conduct appropriate surveillances for monitoring the impact of vaccination. These analyses should be conducted in specific geographical areas and should be aimed to evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), by age groups, clinical presentation, and vaccine serotypes (and non-vaccine serotypes to detect possible replacement). This study aimed to monitor the evolution of IPD incidence in children <15 years requiring hospitalization in the Island of Majorca. Methods A prospective clinical surveillance of all culture and/or PCR-confirmed IPD in children <15 years was performed in all hospitals in the Island of Majorca (approximately 900,000 inhabitants) from January 2008 to December 2010. Incidence rate (IR) was calculated as cases/100000 inhabitants using children population data. Results 66 IPDs were identified: 39 (59.1%) parapneumonic pneumococcal empyema (PPE), 16 (24.2%) bacteremic pneumonia (BP), 7 (10.6%) primary bacteremia, 3 (4.5%) meningitis, and 1 (1.5%) osteomyelitis. IRs in the three-year study period were: 64.22 for children 12-?59 months. By study year, IRs were 21.25 in 2008, 19.89 in 2009 and 9.80 in 2010. The reduction found in 2010 was significant and due to significant reductions in IRs of IPDs caused by serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13. Overall, estimated serotype coverage by conjugate vaccines was 12.1% for PCV7, 37.9% for PCV10 and 65.2% for PCV13. Of the 66 hospitalized children with IPD, 20 had received at least one dose of PCV7 (13 cases with identified serotype). None of these 13 cases was caused by PCV7 serotypes, all were caused by PCV13 serotypes and only 53.8% by PCV10 serotypes. Conclusions The results of the present study evidence the importance of expanding the number of serotypes covered by PCV, and the added value of PCV13 with respect to PCV10 and PCV7, even in an area of low prevalence of 19A as the Island of Majorca. PMID:24498901

  3. Nasopharyngeal carriage, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children from Brazil before the introduction of the 10-valent conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nasopharyngeal colonization plays an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases, and infants and young children are considered to be the main reservoir of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rates and characteristics associated with nasopharyngeal carriage, the distribution of serotypes and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in a large metropolitan area in Brazil before the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Methods Between March and June 2010, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 242 children aged <6 years attending one day care center and the emergency room of a pediatric hospital. Pneumococcal isolates were identified by conventional methods and serotypes were determined by a sequential multiplex PCR assay and/or the Quellung reaction. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the pneumococci were assessed by the disk diffusion method. MICs for erythromycin and penicillin were also performed. Erythromycin resistance genes were investigated by PCR. Results The overall colonization rate was 49.2% and it was considerably higher among children in the day care center. Pneumococcal carriage was more common among day care attenders and cohabitants with young siblings. The most prevalent serotypes were 6B, 19F, 6A, 14, 15C and 23F, which accounted for 61.2% of the isolates. All isolates were susceptible to clindamycin, levofloxacin, rifampicin and vancomycin. The highest rate of non-susceptibility was observed for sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (51.2%). Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) accounted for 27.3% of the isolates (MICs of 0.12-4 ?g/ml). Penicillin non-susceptibility was strongly associated with serotypes 14 and 23F. Hospital attendance and the presence of respiratory or general symptoms were frequently associated with PNSP carriage. The two erythromycin-resistant isolates (MICs of 2 and 4 ?g/ml) belonged to serotype 6A, presented the M phenotype and harbored the mef(A/E) gene. Conclusions Correlations between serotypes, settings and penicillin non-susceptibility were observed. Serotypes coverage projected for the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was low (45.5%), but pointed out the potential reduction of PNSP nasopharyngeal colonization by nearly 20%. PMID:23849314

  4. Safety and Immunogenicity of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in 2 to 10 Year-Old Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Siberry, George K.; Warshaw, Meredith G.; Williams, Paige L.; Spector, Stephen A.; Decker, Michael D.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Yogev, Ram; Heckman, Barbara E.; Manzella, Adam; Roa, Jhoanna; Nachman, Sharon; Lujan-Zilbermann, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV-infected children are at increased risk of meningococcal infection and poor response to quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4), but MCV4 has not been studied in pre-adolescent HIV-infected children. Methods The P1065 trial enrolled 2-10 year-old HIV-infected children with CD4 ?25% to receive MCV4 at entry and at week 24. Rates of response (?4-fold rise in rabbit serum bactericidal antibody [rSBA]) against each meningococcal serogroup [A, C, Y, W-135], geometric mean titers (GMT), and rates of seroprotection (rSBA titer ?1:128) were determined from sera obtained at entry and weeks 4, 24, 28 and 72. Adverse events (AE) were assessed for 6 weeks after each MCV4 dose. Results At entry, 47% of the 59 participants were male, 56% black, 31% Latino, median age was 6 years, 88% were receiving antiretroviral therapy, and 75% had viral load <400 copies/mL. There were no serious AEs within 6 weeks after MCV4 doses; all vaccination reactions were mild. Response after a single MCV4 dose was high to serogroup A (92%) and W-135 (98%); responses improved after a second dose for serogroup C (43% to 80%) [p<0.0001] and Y (76% to 84%) [p=0.38]. By week 72, seroprotection rates were 93%, 91%, 78% and 46% for serogroups W-135, Y, A and C, respectively. Conclusions Two doses of MCV4 were safe and immunogenic in 2-10 year-old HIV-infected children. The second dose increased the proportion of children who made a response to serogroup C. Seroprotection waned substantially for serogroups A and C within one year of last MCV4 dose. PMID:21987006

  5. Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-02-01

    Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2015. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, other adult vaccinations are recommended for specific populations based on a person's age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ?19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ?19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ?60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 5.9%); coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic disparities in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Awareness of the need for vaccines for adults is low among the general population, and adult patients largely rely on health care provider recommendations for vaccination. The Community Preventive Services Task Force and the National Vaccine Advisory Committee have recommended that health care providers incorporate vaccination needs assessment, recommendation, and offer of vaccination into every clinical encounter with adult patients to improve vaccination rates and to narrow the widening racial/ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage. PMID:25654611

  6. Antibody Persistence and Immunologic Memory after Sequential Pneumococcal Conjugate and Polysaccharide Vaccination in HIV-Infected Children on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abzug, Mark J.; Song, Lin Ye; Levin, Myron J.; Nachman, Sharon A.; Borkowsky, William; Pelton, Stephen I.

    2013-01-01

    Background The capacity of pneumococcal vaccination to confer memory in HIV-infected children is critical for durable protection. Methods HIV-infected children 2–<19 years administered two doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and one dose of polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) on HAART were randomized four-five years later to receive a PCV7 or PPV booster. Total and high avidity antibodies to serotypes 1 (PPV) and 6B and 14 (PCV7 and PPV) were determined by ELISA. Memory was defined as persistence of ?0.5 mcg/mL of serotype-specific antibody on day 0 or change from <0.5 mcg/mL to ?0.5 mcg/mL between day 0 and week 1, or, ?4-fold antibody rise between day 0 and week 1. Results Prior to boosting, four to five years after the previous PCV7-PCV7-PPV series, geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were 0.46 mcg/mL (serotype 1), 1.31 mcg/mL (serotype 6B), and 1.47 mcg/mL (serotype 14), with concentrations ?0.5 mcg/mL in 41% (serotype 1) to 82% (serotypes 6B and 14). Memory based on antibody concentration ?0.5 mcg/mL before or 1 week after boosting with PCV7 or PPV was demonstrated in 42–61% for serotype 1 and 87–94% for serotypes 6B and 14, with lower rates based on day 0 to week 1 ?4-fold antibody rise (serotype 1, 3–13%; serotype 6B, 13–31%; serotype 14, 29–53%). Antibody concentrations post-boosting were greater following PCV7 than PPV for serotypes 6B and 14. Ratios of highly avid to total antibody pre- and post-boosting were 0.5–0.8. Predictors of memory included higher CD4% (nadir before HAART and at P1024 and P1061s entry), CD19% (at P1024 and P1061s entry), and antibody response after the PCV7-PCV7-PPV primary series and lower viral load (at P1024 and P1061s entry) and age. Conclusions Protective antibody concentrations, high avidity, and booster responses to PCV7 or PPV indicative of memory were present four-five years after PCV7-PCV7-PPV in HIV-infected children on HAART. PMID:23954381

  7. Impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in a pandemic similar to the 2009 H1N1 in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of bacterial coinfection in autopsy data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza (“flu”) pandemic suggest synergies between flu and pneumococcal disease (PD) during pandemic conditions, and highlight the importance of interventions like the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) that may mitigate the impact of a pandemic. Methods We used a decision-analytic model, estimated from published sources, to assess the impact of pediatric vaccination with PCV13 versus the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) on PD incidence and mortality in a normal flu season (10% flu incidence) and in a pandemic similar to 2009-2010 H1N1 (20% flu incidence, mild virulence, high impact in children). Both direct and indirect (herd) effects against PD were considered. Effectiveness of PCV13 was extrapolated from observed PCV7 data, using assumptions of serotype prevalence and PCV13 protection against the 6 serotypes not in PCV7. To simulate 2009–2010 H1N1, autopsy data were used to estimate the overall proportion of flu deaths with bacterial coinfections. By assuming that increased risk of death during the pandemic occurred among those with comorbidity (using obesity as proxy) and bacterial coinfections primarily due to S. pneumoniae or S. aureus, we estimated the proportion co-infected among all (fatal and non-fatal) flu cases (7.6% co-infected with any organism; 2.2% with S. pneumoniae). PD incidence, mortality, and total healthcare costs were evaluated over a 1-year horizon. Results In a normal flu season, compared to PCV7, PCV13 is expected to prevent an additional 13,400 invasive PD (IPD) cases, 399,000 pneumonia cases, and 2,900 deaths, leading to cost savings of $472 M. In a pandemic similar to 2009–2010 H1N1, PCV13 would prevent 22,800 IPD cases, 872,000 pneumonia cases, and 3,700 deaths, resulting in cost savings of $1.0 B compared to PCV7. Conclusions In a flu pandemic similar to the 2009–2010 H1N1, protection against the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13 would likely be effective in preventing pandemic-related PD cases, mortality, and associated costs. PMID:23687999

  8. Highly pure, multi-epitopic lipopeptide vaccine delivery system: Synthesis and investigation

    E-print Network

    Moyle, Peter M.

    2006-10-25

    vaccine tuberculosis e.g. Rabies vaccine e.g. DNA vaccines, virus like particles (VLPs), peptide vaccines Adapted from: Med Res Rev 1997;17:277 Killed Vaccines Attenuated ?Weakened? Vaccines Toxoids ? Disease prevention ? Reduces health care costs...Highly Pure, Multi-Epitopic Lipopeptide Vaccine Delivery System: Synthesis and Investigation Peter M Moyle,a Colleen Olive,b Aniko Horv?th,a Levente Karpati,a Mei-Fong Ho,b Melinda Burgess,b Michael F Good,b Istvan Totha,* a School of Pharmacy...

  9. The Known Immunologically Active Components of Astragalus Account for Only a Small Proportion of the Immunological Adjuvant Activity When Combined with Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; Xiao, Weilie; Ragupathi, Govind; Lau, Clara B. S.; Leung, Ping Chung; Yeung, K. Simon; George, Constantine; Cassileth, Barrie; Kennelly, Edward; Livingston, Philip O.

    2013-01-01

    The 95% ethanol extract of Astragalus has been demonstrated to have potent activity as an immunological adjuvant when administered with vaccines of various types. We endeavor here to identify the components of this extract that are responsible for this adjuvant activity. Mice were immunized with KLH conjugated to cancer carbohydrate antigens globo H and GD3 and cancer peptide antigen MUC1 combined with different Astragalus fractions or with commercially available Astragalus saponins and flavonoids. The antibody responses against cancer antigens and KLH were quantitated in ELISA assays, and toxicity was calculated by weight loss. Astragalosides II and IV were the most active components, but the toxicity of these two differed dramatically. Astragaloside II was the most toxic Astragalus component with 5–10% weight loss at a dose of 500 µg while astragaloside IV showed no weight loss at all at this dose, suggesting that astragaloside IV might be utilized as an immunological adjuvant in future studies. Several flavonoids also had significant adjuvant activity. However, when the activities of these known immunologically active components of Astragalus (and of endotoxin) are calculated based on the extent of their presence in the 95% ethanol extract, they provide only a small proportion of the immunological activity. This raises the possibility that additional uniquely active components of Astragalus may contribute to adjuvant activity, or that the adjuvant activity of Astragalus is greater than the activity of the sum of its parts. PMID:21128203

  10. RESPONSE OF CALVES PERSISTENTLY INFECTED WITH NONCYTOPATHIC BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS (BVDV) SUBTYPE 1B AFTER VACCINATION WITH HETEROLOGOUS BVDV STRAINS IN MODIFIED LIVE VIRUS VACCINES AND MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA BACTERIA-TO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seronegative calves persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subtype 1b were vaccinated with each of four modified live virus (MLV) BVDV vaccines and a Mannheimia haemolytica bacterin-toxoid. Nasal swabs and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were collected for virus isolati...

  11. Emergence of serogroup 15 Streptococcus pneumoniae of diverse genetic backgrounds following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Nelson, E Anthony S; Ang, Irene; Subramanian, Reema; Ma, Helen; Ip, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Serogroup 15 pneumococcal isolates from nasopharyngeal carriage of hospitalized children admitted to a teaching hospital in Hong Kong from April 2009 to September 2013 were characterized by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing, and antimicrobial non-susceptibility testing. The overall proportion of serogroup 15 isolates in the pre-PCV7 and post-PCV13 periods rose from 5.7% to 20.0%. The increase in trend for serotype 15B/C was statistically significant among children presented with pneumonia; bronchiolitis; upper respiratory tract infection; and febrile, non-respiratory diseases and for serotype 15A/F, among children with bronchiolitis and febrile, non-respiratory diseases. The predominant PFGE cluster of serotype 15B/C belonged to sequence type (ST) 199. Replacement of this more susceptible cluster (Ery and Tet non-susceptibilities of 32.2% and 25.4%) with the non-susceptible cluster, ST8859 (Ery and Tet non-susceptibilities of 91.7% and 87.5%) was noted. ST63 was the predominant serotype 15A cluster (Ery and Tet non-susceptibilities of 97.4% and 92.3%). Serogroup 15 subtypes have emerged in the post-PCV13 era, and these non-susceptible clusters warrant closer monitoring as candidates for incorporation to future pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:25445117

  12. Maternal Supplementation with LGG Reduces Vaccine-Specific Immune Responses in Infants at High-Risk of Developing Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Licciardi, Paul V.; Ismail, Intan H.; Balloch, Anne; Mui, Milton; Hoe, Edwin; Lamb, Karen; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonization at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognized as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7) vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib, and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N?=?31) compared to placebo treatment (N?=?30) but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific T regulatory in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines. PMID:24324465

  13. Selection of a Novel Anti-Nicotine Vaccine: Influence of Antigen Design on Antibody Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pryde, David C.; Jones, Lyn H.; Gervais, David P.; Stead, David R.; Blakemore, David C.; Selby, Matthew D.; Brown, Alan D.; Coe, Jotham W.; Badland, Matthew; Beal, David M.; Glen, Rebecca; Wharton, Yvonne; Miller, Gavin J.; White, Phil; Zhang, Ningli; Benoit, Michelle; Robertson, Karen; Merson, James R.; Davis, Heather L.; McCluskie, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-nicotine vaccines may aid smoking cessation via the induction of anti-nicotine antibodies (Ab) which reduce nicotine entering the brain, and hence the associated reward. Ab function depends on both the quantity (titer) and the quality (affinity) of the Ab. Anti-nicotine vaccines tested previously in clinical studies had poor efficacy despite high Ab titer, and this may be due to inadequate function if Ab of low affinity were induced. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of novel nicotine-like haptens which were all linked to diphtheria toxoid (DT) as carrier, but which differed in the site of attachment of linker to nicotine, the nature of linker used, and the handle used to attach the hapten to DT. The resulting hapten conjugates were evaluated in a mouse model, using CpG (a TLR9 agonist) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) as adjuvants, whereby Ab titers, affinity and function were evaluated using a radiolabeled nicotine challenge model. A series of additional linkers varying in length, rigidity and polarity were used with a single hapten to generate additional DT-conjugates, which were also tested in mice. Conjugates made with different haptens resulted in various titers of anti-nicotine Ab. Several haptens gave similarly high Ab titers, but among these, Ab affinity and hence function varied considerably. Linker also influenced Ab titer, affinity and function. These results demonstrate that immune responses induced in mice by nicotine-conjugate antigens are greatly influenced by hapten design including site of attachment of linker to nicotine, the nature of linker used, and the handle used to attach the hapten to DT. While both Ab titer and affinity contributed to function, affinity was more sensitive to antigen differences. PMID:24098532

  14. Evaluation of the Induction of Immune Memory following Infant Immunisation with Serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis Conjugate Vaccines – Exploratory Analyses within a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Ameneh; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Amber J.; McKenna, Jennifer A.; Pace, David; Birks, Jacqueline; Snape, Matthew D.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim We measured meningococcal serogroup C (MenC)-specific memory B-cell responses in infants by Enzyme-Linked Immunospot (ELISpot) following different MenC conjugate vaccine schedules to investigate the impact of priming on immune memory. Methods Infants aged 2 months were randomised to receive 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 at 3 or 3 and 4 months, 1 dose of MenC-TT at 3 months, or no primary MenC doses. All children received a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-MenC booster at 12 months. Blood was drawn at 5, 12, 12 months +6 days and 13 months of age. Results Results were available for 110, 103, 76 and 44 children from each group respectively. Following primary immunisations, and prior to the 12-month booster, there were no significant differences between 1- or 2-dose primed children in the number of MenC memory B-cells detected. One month following the booster, children primed with 1 dose MenC-TT had more memory B-cells than children primed with either 1-dose (p?=?0.001) or 2-dose (p<0.0001) MenC-CRM197. There were no differences in MenC memory B-cells detected in children who received 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 in infancy and un-primed children. Conclusions MenC-specific memory B-cell production may be more dependent on the type of primary vaccine used than the number of doses administered. Although the mechanistic differences between MenC-CRM197 and MenC-TT priming are unclear, it is possible that structural differences, including the carrier proteins, may underlie differential interactions with B- and T-cell populations, and thus different effects on various memory B-cell subsets. A MenC-TT/Hib-MenC-TT combination for priming/boosting may offer an advantage in inducing more persistent antibody. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Register 2009-016579-31 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01129518 PMID:25020050

  15. Guidelines on Vaccinations in Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cesaro, Simone; Giacchino, Mareva; Fioredda, Francesca; Barone, Angelica; Battisti, Laura; Bezzio, Stefania; Frenos, Stefano; De Santis, Raffaella; Livadiotti, Susanna; Marinello, Serena; Zanazzo, Andrea Giulio; Caselli, Désirée

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Vaccinations are the most important tool to prevent infectious diseases. Chemotherapy-induced immune depression may impact the efficacy of vaccinations in children. Patients and Methods. A panel of experts of the supportive care working group of the Italian Association Paediatric Haematology Oncology (AIEOP) addressed this issue by guidelines on vaccinations in paediatric cancer patients. The literature published between 1980 and 2013 was reviewed. Results and Conclusion. During intensive chemotherapy, vaccination turned out to be effective for hepatitis A and B, whilst vaccinations with toxoid, protein subunits, or bacterial antigens should be postponed to the less intensive phases, to achieve an adequate immune response. Apart from varicella, the administration of live-attenuated-virus vaccines is not recommended during this phase. Family members should remain on recommended vaccination schedules, including toxoid, inactivated vaccine (also poliomyelitis), and live-attenuated vaccines (varicella, measles, mumps, and rubella). By the time of completion of chemotherapy, insufficient serum antibody levels for vaccine-preventable diseases have been reported, while immunological memory appears to be preserved. Once immunological recovery is completed, usually after 6 months, response to booster or vaccination is generally good and allows patients to be protected and also to contribute to herd immunity. PMID:24868544

  16. [Surveillance of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes in Argentina from 2005 to 2010 during the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine era].

    PubMed

    Efron, Adriana M; Moscoloni, María A; Reijtman, Vanesa R; Regueira, Mabel

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in the immunization programs of many countries has greatly reduced this invasive disease and the carriage caused by this serotype, also increasing other capsular types and non-capsular isolations. There were 313 isolations of H. influenzae under study, which were recovered from a sterile site coming from pediatric and adult patients carrying the invasive disease. Patients were treated at 90 different hospitals belonging to the Red Nacional de Laboratorios para Meningitis e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas Bacterianas (National Lab Network for Meningitis and Acute Bacterial Respiratory Infections) from 2005 to 2010 for the following disorders: pneumonia, 40.3% (n=126), meningitis, 30.0% (n=94) and bacteremia, 26.5% (n=83). In pediatric patients (n=279), the highest frequency of isolations corresponded to children under the age of 2 years, 74.5% (n=208). Regarding type distribution, 61.3% corresponded to non-capsular H. influenzae (n=192), 20.1% to type b (n=63), 11.2% to type a (n=35), 4.8% to type f, and 2.6% to other types. Capsular H. influenzae was predominant in meningitis whereas non-capsular H. influenzae in pneumonia and bacteremia. The biotype was determined in 306 isolations. The totality (100%) of type a (n=35) was biotype II whereas 66.7% of type b (n=63) was biotype I. Slide agglutination and PCR tests were used in 220 isolations. There was a match of 0.982 (IC: 0.92-1.00) between them. During the last year, there was a great increase in type b, showing the importance of clinical and laboratory-based surveillance of the invasive disease caused by H. influenzae. PMID:24401777

  17. The Impact of Making Vaccines Thermostable in Niger’s Vaccine Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Cakouros, Brigid E.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Connor, Diana L.; Welling, Joel; Kone, Souleymane; Djibo, Ali; Wateska, Angela R.; Pierre, Lionel; Brown, Shawn T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine the effects on the vaccine cold chain of making different types of World Health Organization (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunizations (EPI) vaccines thermostable. Methods Utilizing a detailed computational, discrete-event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain, we simulated the impact of making different combinations of the six current EPI vaccines thermostable. Findings Making any EPI vaccine thermostable relieved existing supply chain bottlenecks (especially at the lowest levels), increased vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines, and decreased cold storage and transport capacity utilization. By far, the most substantial impact came from making the pentavalent vaccine thermostable, increasing its own vaccine availability from 87% to 97% and the vaccine availabilities of all other remaining non-thermostable EPI vaccines to over 93%. By contrast, making each of the other vaccines thermostable had considerably less effect on the remaining vaccines, failing to increase the vaccine availabilities of other vaccines to more than 89%. Making tetanus toxoid vaccine along with the pentavalent thermostable further increased the vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines by at least 1–2%. Conclusion Our study shows the potential benefits of making any of Niger’s EPI vaccines thermostable and therefore supports further development of thermostable vaccines. Eliminating the need for refrigerators and freezers should not necessarily be the only benefit and goal of vaccine thermostability. Rather, making even a single vaccine (or some subset of the vaccines) thermostable could free up significant cold storage space for other vaccines, and thereby help alleviate supply chain bottlenecks that occur throughout the world. PMID:22789507

  18. Quantification of each serogroup polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis in A/C/Y/W-135-DT conjugate vaccine by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Gudlavalleti, Seshu Kumar; Crawford, Erika Nicole; Harder, Jeffery David; Reddy, Jeeri Raghava

    2014-06-01

    Invasive bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis can be prevented by active immunization with meningococcal polysaccharide or polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. In a tetravalent A/C/Y/W-135-DT meningococcal conjugate vaccine vial, or in a final formulated bulk, accurate identification and quantification of each polysaccharide are critical in product release. Determination of sialic acid serogroups (C, W-135, and Y) unambiguously is complex since all these serogroups contribute to the sialic acid monosaccharide peaks that overlap in the high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). We report a quantification method that involves generation of monosaccharide standard plots for respective sugars mannosamine-6-phosphate, sialic acid, galactose- and glucose-derived from hydrolysis of mixtures of the four serogroups A, C, W, and Y reference polysaccharides. These plots were then used to obtain the unknown polysaccharide concentrations of A/C/Y/W-135 in vialed vaccine or from formulated final bulks. We also present our results of the HPAEC-PAD profiles on groups C, W-135, and Y polysaccharides when hydrolyzed individually and/or in mixtures to discuss the individual sialic acid peak contributions. PMID:24810004

  19. Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination.

    PubMed

    Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-12-01

    Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal ?-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health. PMID:24292514

  20. Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-12-01

    Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal ?-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health.

  1. Genetic and antigenic characterization of Canadian invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) case isolates in the post-MenC conjugate vaccine era, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Raymond S W; Hoang, Linda; Tyrrell, Gregory; Horsman, Greg; Wylie, John; Jamieson, Frances B; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported a shift in the electrophoretic type (ET) of invasive MenC in Canada from predominantly ET-15 to ET-37 in the post-MenC conjugate vaccine period. This study sought to confirm this trend by examining all culture-confirmed invasive MenC case isolates in Canada in the period from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013. Of the 50 MenC isolates, 18 belonged to ET-15, 28 belonged to ET-37 (but not ET-15), and four belonged to other clonal types. Analysis of the serotype and serosubtype antigens, porA and fetA gene sequences provided data to show that invasive MenC belonging to ET-15 and ET-37 were two very different subpopulations within the ST-11 clonal complex. Sequence analysis of the fHbp genes suggested that 12 different types of factor H-binding protein were found among the ET-15 isolates while 86?% of ET-37 isolates were found to have fHbp genes predicted to encode peptide 22. The nadA gene in 12 MenC isolates was disrupted due to IS1301 insertion and 11 of these 12 isolates belonged to ET-15. Ten per cent of the invasive MenC were found to have a frame-shift mutation in their fHbp genes that predicted no fHbp produced. Significant diversity and frame-shift mutations of fHbp genes were found in invasive MenC strains in Canada. PMID:25627205

  2. Haemophilus influenzae type b-outer membrane protein complex glycoconjugate vaccine induces cytokine production by engaging human toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and requires the presence of TLR2 for optimal immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Latz, Eicke; Franko, Jennifer; Golenbock, Douglas T; Schreiber, John R

    2004-02-15

    Conjugate vaccines consisting of the capsular polysaccharide (PS) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) covalently linked to carrier proteins, unlike pure PS, are immunogenic in infants and have significantly reduced Hib infections in the United States, but require multiple doses to induce protective anti-PS Ab titers. Hib-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) conjugate vaccine, however, elicits protective anti-PS Ab titers after one dose. We found that OMPC and Hib-OMPC engaged human Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, inducing IL-8 production, and engaged mouse TLR2 on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, inducing TNF release. Hib conjugated to the carrier proteins CRM(197) and tetanus toxoid did not engage TLR2 on HEK or dendritic cells. Engagement of TLR2 by Hib-OMPC was MyD88 dependent, as Hib-OMPC-induced TNF production was ablated in MyD88 knockout (KO) mice. Hib-OMPC was significantly less immunogenic in TLR2 KO mice, inducing lower Hib PS IgG and IgM titers compared with those in wild-type mice. Splenocytes from OMPC-immunized TLR2 KO mice also produced significantly less IL-6 and TNF-alpha than those from wild-type mice. Hib-OMPC is unique among glycoconjugate vaccines by engaging TLR2, and the ability of Hib-OMPC to elicit protective levels of Abs after one dose may be related to TLR2-mediated induction and regulation of cytokines produced by T cells and macrophages in addition to the peptide/MHC II-dependent recruitment of T cell help commonly afforded by carrier proteins. TLR2 engagement by an adjuvant or carrier protein may be a useful strategy for augmentation of the anti-PS Ab response induced by glycoconjugate vaccines. PMID:14764714

  3. Vaccination against Colonizing Bacteria with Multiple Serotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Lipsitch

    1997-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines protect vaccinated individuals against both disease from and nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Protection is specific to the capsular serotype(s) included in the vaccine. This specificity has raised concern that vaccination against particular (``targeted'') serotypes may cause an increase in carriage of (and diseases attributable to) nontargeted serotypes. I analyzed a mathematical model designed to

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of a fully liquid vaccine containing five-component pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus-inactivated poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines administered at two, four, six and 18 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ronald; Barreto, Luis; Ferro, Santiago; Thippawong, John; Guasparini, Roland; Meekison, William; Russell, Margaret; Mills, Elaine; Harrison, Dana; Lavigne, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The safety, immunogenicity and lot consistency of a fully liquid, five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine, comprised of diphteria, tetanus and acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib [Pediacel, sanofi pasteur, Canada]) were assessed and compared with that of Hib vaccine reconstituted with the five-component acellular pertussis combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV//Hib, Pentacel [sanofi pasteur, Canada]). METHODS Infants were recruited at vaccine study centres in Montreal, Quebec; Simon Fraser Health Region, British Columbia, and southern Alberta after the protocol had been approved by the relevant institutional ethics committees. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians of all subjects. At two months of age, the infants were randomly assigned to receive one of three consecutive production lots of DTaP-IPV-Hib by intramuscular injection. Reactions to vaccinations were assessed by parental observation and through telephone interviews conducted by study nurses. Blood samples were obtained at two, six, seven, 18 and 19 months of age for measurement of antibodies to vaccine antigens. RESULTS: Most injection site and systemic reactions were mild or moderate, and of brief duration. All infants were protected against tetanus, diphtheria and all three polio serotypes after both primary and booster vaccinations. Antibody responses to pertussis antigens were similar to those observed in Swedish infants, in whom the five-component vaccine was shown to be 85% effective. Proportions of infants with antipolyribosylribitol phosphate antibody of 0.15 ?g/mL or greater and 1.0 ?g/mL or greater, were 97.9% and 88.9%, respectively, following primary immunization, and 100% and 99% following booster vaccination. Safety and immunogenicity results with both reconstituted and fully liquid combination vaccines were comparable. CONCLUSIONS The fully liquid combination vaccine was comparable in terms of safety and immunogenicity with the reconstituted combination vaccine. PMID:18923741

  5. A long acting biodegradable controlled delivery of chitosan microspheres loaded with tetanus toxoide as model antigen.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sujith; Sadasivan, C

    2014-03-01

    The chitosan microspheres formulated by emulsion cross-linking method were found to be smooth and spherical without aggregation. The particle size range was between 1 and 90?m. The particle sizes were found to be influenced by the concentration of the chitosan gel. Tetanus toxoide (TT) vaccine was loaded by passive adsorption from an aqueous solution into the preformed chitosan microspheres cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. The loaded TT on to microspheres was estimated by ELISA method. The loading capacity was found to be 40% with microspheres prepared with 1% chitosan gel, 43% for 2% and 46% for the mixed batch of microspheres prepared from 1% and 2% chitosan gel. The loading efficiency was found to decrease with increase in the concentration of chitosan gel. The in vitro release of the antigenic TT into the phosphate buffer at 37°C from different batch of microspheres was studied and release had a remarkable dependence on the size of micropsheres. The percentage release of TT from chitosan microspheres prepared from 1% chitosan gel was 2.7% in 120days and that from 2% chitosan gel was only 2%. The mixed batch of microspheres could release 2.3% in 120days. The antigen integrity was investigated by SDS-PAGE with brilliant blue staining. The SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed that the antigen integrity was not affected by passive adsorption of protein antigen to preformed chitosan microspheres. The study revealed that the cross-linked chitosan microspheres would be an interesting system for long-term delivery of macromolecules drugs. PMID:24051124

  6. Age-Stratified Prevalences of Pneumococcal-Serotype-Specific Immunoglobulin G in England and Their Relationship to the Serotype-Specific Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Prior to the Introduction of the Pneumococcal 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Balmer, Paul; Borrow, Ray; Findlow, Jamie; Warrington, Rosalind; Frankland, Sarah; Waight, Pauline; George, Robert; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Recent changes to the childhood immunization schedule in the United Kingdom have resulted in the inclusion of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. However, the seroprevalence of pneumococcal antibodies in the population was unknown. To address this, we measured pneumococcal, age-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations specific for nine serotypes by an assay run on the Bioplex platform, using 2,664 serum samples collected in England from 2000 to 2004. The lowest concentrations of IgG specific to all serotypes and the proportions of serotype-specific IgG concentrations of ?0.35 ?g/ml were observed in children aged <1 year. From 1 year on, there was a general increase in antibody levels with increasing age, and they remained high in adults. Maternal antibody was detected in young children aged <36 days but waned rapidly. Comparison of the age-specific seroprevalence of serotype-specific IgG to the serotype-specific incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease demonstrated a general inverse relationship for all age groups except the elderly. These data provide a baseline for natural immunity to the pneumococcal serotypes analyzed prior to the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United Kingdom. PMID:17881503

  7. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines PREVenar13 and SynflorIX in sequence or alone in high-risk Indigenous infants (PREV-IX_COMBO): protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Amanda Jane; Mulholland, Edward Kim; Santosham, Mathu; Torzillo, Paul John; Brown, Ngiare Joy; McIntyre, Peter; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi; Skull, Sue; Balloch, Anne; Andrews, Ross; Carapetis, Jonathan; McDonnell, Joseph; Krause, Vicki; Morris, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Otitis media (OM) starts within weeks of birth in almost all Indigenous infants living in remote areas of the Northern Territory (NT). OM and associated hearing loss persist from infancy throughout childhood and often into adulthood. Educational and social opportunities are greatly compromised. Pneumococcus and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are major OM pathogens that densely colonise the nasopharynx and infect the middle ear from very early in life. Our hypothesis is that compared to current single vaccine schedules, a combination of vaccines starting at 1?month of age, may provide earlier, broadened protection. Methods and analyses This randomised outcome assessor, blinded controlled trial will recruit 425 infants between 28 and 38?days of age and randomly allocate them (1:1:1) to one of three pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) schedules: Synflorix at 2, 4, 6?months of age, Prevenar13 at 2, 4 and 6?months of age, or an investigational schedule of Synflorix at 1, 2 and 4?months plus Prevenar13 at 6?months of age. The blinded primary outcomes at 7?months of age are immunogenicity of specific vaccine antigens (geometric mean concentration (GMC) and proportion of participants with above threshold GMC of 0.35?µg/L). Secondary outcomes at all timepoints are additional immunogenicity measures and proportion of participants with nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci and NTHi, and any OM, including any tympanic membrane perforation. Parental interviews will provide data on common risk factors for OM. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from NT Department of Health and Menzies HREC (EC00153), Central Australian HREC (EC00155) and West Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee (WAAHEC- 377-12/2011). Final trial results, data analyses, interpretation and conclusions will be presented in appropriate written and oral formats to parents and guardians, participating communities, local, national and international conferences, and published in peer-reviewed open access journals. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12610000544077 and NCT01174849. PMID:25596202

  8. Assessment of the potency and potential immunomodulatory effects of the measles mumps rubella and varicella vaccine in infants.

    PubMed

    Yerkovich, Stephanie T; Rowe, Julie; Richmond, Peter; Suriyaarachchi, Devinda; Heaton, Tricia; Hollams, Elysia; Ladyman, Claire; Serralha, Michael; Sadowska, Agata; Loh, Richard; Wesselingh, Steven L; Sly, Peter D; Holt, Patrick G

    2007-02-26

    This study compared the potency and immunomodulatory effects of measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine given to infants alone or in combination with varicella (MMR and V). In an additional group, MMR vaccination was delayed 42 days to permit analysis of potential effects on underlying maturation of systemic immune functions. Assessment of immunity to the vaccines indicated consistent antibody production coupled with mixed Th1/Th2 memory, and no significant differences between vaccine groups or to the group who had their MMR vaccination delayed. Parallel analyses of cytokine responses to phytohaemagglutinin and tetanus toxoid did not detect any "bystander" effects of the vaccines on systemic immunity. PMID:17224218

  9. pertussis vaccines that induce antitoxin immunity and that are widely used in

    E-print Network

    Read, Andrew

    that is synthesized by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which allows this bacterium to obtain nutrients when resources argue against these predictions. The introduction of diphtheria toxoid vaccine at the beginning of this pathogen and to the persistence of non-virulent forms of the bacterium2­4 . Diphtheria is caused by a toxin

  10. EFFICACY OF A TYPE C BOTULISM VACCINE IN GREEN-WINGED TEAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonie E. Rocke; Michael D. Samuel; Pamela K. Swift; Gregory S. Yarris

    2000-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a single dose of Botumink toxoid for protecting wild green- winged teal (Anas crecca) during botulism epizootics caused by Clostridium botulinum type C. We challenged control and immunized ducks with four different doses of type C botulinum toxin to determine the LD50 for this species and to evaluate vaccine protection. Fewer immunized ducks were affected

  11. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease.Pneumococcal disease is caused by infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. These bacteria can spread from person to person through close contact.Pneumococcal disease can lead to severe health problems, including pneumonia, blood infections, and meningitis.Meningitis is an infection ...

  12. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7)

    MedlinePLUS

    What is pneumococcal disease?Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can make children very sick. It causes blood infections, pneumonia, and bacterial meningitis, mostly in young children. (Meningitis is an infection of the covering of the brain.) Pneumococcal meningitis kills about 3 ...

  13. Extensive Swelling After Booster Doses of Acellular Pertussis?Tetanus?Diphtheria Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret B. Rennels; Maria A. Deloria; Bs Michael E. Pichichero

    ABSTRACT. Background. Diphtheria and tetanus tox- oid combined with acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines are less reactogenic than diphtheria and tetanus toxoid combined with whole cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccines. However, local reactions increase in rate and severity with each successive DTaP dose, and swelling of the entire injected limb has been reported after booster doses. Methods. We reviewed reports of swelling

  14. Maternal immunization with vaccines containing recombinant NetB toxin partially protects progeny chickens from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xu X; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens. PMID:24219318

  15. Maternal immunization with vaccines containing recombinant NetB toxin partially protects progeny chickens from necrotic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens. PMID:24219318

  16. Protection against avian necrotic enteritis after immunisation with NetB genetic or formaldehyde toxoids?

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes da Costa, Sérgio P.; Mot, Dorien; Bokori-Brown, Monika; Savva, Christos G.; Basak, Ajit K.; Van Immerseel, Filip; Titball, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    NetB (necrotic enteritis toxin B) is a recently identified ?-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens. This toxin has been shown to play a major role in avian necrotic enteritis. In recent years, a dramatic increase in necrotic enteritis has been observed, especially in countries where the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feedstuffs has been banned. The aim of this work was to determine whether immunisation with a NetB toxoid would provide protection against necrotic enteritis. The immunisation of poultry with a formaldehyde NetB toxoid or with a NetB genetic toxoid (W262A) resulted in the induction of antibody responses against NetB and provided partial protection against disease. PMID:23727000

  17. A randomized double-blind trial comparing a two-component acellular to a whole-cell pertussis vaccine in Senegal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Simondon; Marie-Pierre Preziosi; Ablaye Yam; Coumba Toure Kane; Laurence Chabirand; Isabelle Iteman; Gary Sanden; Souleymane Mboup; Agnes Hoffenbach; Kim Knudsen; Nicole Guiso; Steven Wassilak; Michel Cadoz

    1997-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind trial comparing a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (pertussis toxoid and filamentous hemagglutinin) with a whole-cell vaccine (DTwP) was conducted. A case-contact study was nested in the trial to estimate absolute efficacy. From 1990 through 1994, 4181 children were randomized to receive one of the vaccines at 2, 4, and 6 months. Severe adverse events were monitored weekly

  18. Determinants of Release Rate of Tetanus Vaccine from Polyester Microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J. Alonso; Smadar Cohen; Tae G. Park; Rajesh K. Gupta; George R. Siber; Robert Langer

    1993-01-01

    Controlled-release formulations based on poly(lactic) (PLA) and poly(lactic\\/glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres containing tetanus vaccine were designed. The polymers forming the microspheres were L-PLA of different molecular weights and DL-PLGA, 50:50. These microspheres were prepared by two solvent elimination procedures, both using a double emulsion, and were characterized for size, morphology, and toxoid release kinetics. The influence of formulation variables such

  19. Cattle Vaccines

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.

    2005-11-11

    Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

  20. Randomized, Open-Label Study of the Impact of Age on Booster Responses to the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine in Children in India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sukanta; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Simon, Anna; Ravula, Sudheer; Francois, Nancy; Mehta, Shailesh; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    In this phase III, open-label, multicenter, and descriptive study in India, children primed with 3 doses (at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks) of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were randomized (1:1) to receive a booster dose at 9 to 12 (early booster) or 15 to 18 months old (late booster) in order to evaluate impact of age at booster. We also evaluated a 2-dose catch-up vaccination plus an experimental booster dose in unprimed children age 12 to 18 months. The early booster, late booster, and catch-up vaccinations were administered to 74, 95, and 87 children, respectively; 66, 71, and 81 children, respectively, were included in the immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort. One month postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ?95.2% (early booster) and ?93.8% (late booster) of the children had antibody concentrations of ?0.2 ?g/ml; ?96.7% and ?93.0%, respectively, had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers of ?8. The postbooster antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were in similar ranges for early and late boosters; the OPA titers appeared to be lower for most PHiD-CV serotypes (except 6B and 19F) after the early booster. After dose 2 and postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ?88.6% and ?96.3%, respectively, of the catch-up immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort had antibody concentrations of ?0.2 ?g/ml; ?71.4% and ?90.6%, respectively, had OPA titers of ?8. At least 1 serious adverse event was reported by 2 children in the early booster (skin infection and gastroenteritis) and 1 child in the catch-up group (febrile convulsion and urinary tract infection); all were resolved, and none were considered by the investigators to be vaccine related. PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses regardless of age at booster. Booster vaccination following 2 catch-up doses induced robust immune responses indicative of effective priming and immunological memory. (These studies have been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT01030822 and NCT00814710; a protocol summary is available at www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com [study ID 112909]). PMID:25008901

  1. Production of glycoprotein vaccines in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Ihssen; Michael Kowarik; Sandro Dilettoso; Cyril Tanner; Michael Wacker; Linda Thöny-Meyer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conjugate vaccines in which polysaccharide antigens are covalently linked to carrier proteins belong to the most effective and safest vaccines against bacterial pathogens. State-of-the art production of conjugate vaccines using chemical methods is a laborious, multi-step process. In vivo enzymatic coupling using the general glycosylation pathway of Campylobacter jejuni in recombinant Escherichia coli has been suggested as a simpler

  2. Chronic helminth infections impair pneumococcal vaccine responses.

    PubMed

    Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Thomas, Paul G; Iverson, Amy R; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-09-22

    Pneumonia is the leading killer of children and disproportionately affects developing countries. Vaccination campaigns against Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of pneumonia, have recently been launched with a new conjugate vaccine in Africa. Using a mouse model, we assessed the potential role that the high burden of helminth infections in the countries targeted for vaccine might have on vaccine effectiveness. Mice vaccinated with either commercial conjugate or purified polysaccharide vaccines had impaired antibody responses if they were chronically infected with Taenia crassiceps. This translated to increased susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia and high mortality compared to helminth-negative vaccinated animals, which were fully protected from disease and death. Antibodies taken from Taenia-infected, vaccinated mice were unable to effectively opsonize S. pneumoniae for killing by alveolar macrophages, and did not protect against pneumococcal challenge when adoptively transferred into naïve animals. These data may have implications for vaccination programs in countries endemic with helminths. PMID:25131738

  3. Evaluation of a Subunit H5 Vaccine and an Inactivated H5N2 Avian Influenza Marker Vaccine in Ducks Challenged with Vietnamese H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Chua, Tze-Hoong; Leung, Connie Y H; Fang, H E; Chow, Chun-Kin; Ma, Siu-Kit; Sia, Sin-Fun; Ng, Iris H Y; Fenwick, Stanley G; James, Cassandra M; Chua, Sin Bin; Chew, Siang Thai; Kwang, Jimmy; Peiris, J S M; Ellis, Trevor M

    2010-01-01

    The protective efficacy of a subunit avian influenza virus H5 vaccine based on recombinant baculovirus expressed H5 haemagglutinin antigen and an inactivated H5N2 avian influenza vaccine combined with a marker antigen (tetanus toxoid) was compared with commercially available inactivated H5N2 avian influenza vaccine in young ducks. Antibody responses, morbidity, mortality, and virus shedding were evaluated after challenge with a Vietnamese clade 1 H5N1 HPAI virus [A/VN/1203/04 (H5N1)] that was known to cause a high mortality rate in ducks. All three vaccines, administered with water-in-oil adjuvant, provided significant protection and dramatically reduced the duration and titer of virus shedding in the vaccinated challenged ducks compared with unvaccinated controls. The H5 subunit vaccine was shown to provide equivalent protection to the other two vaccines despite the H5 antibody responses in subunit vaccinated ducks being significantly lower prior to challenge. Ducks vaccinated with the H5N2 marker vaccine consistently produced antitetanus toxoid antibody. The two novel vaccines have attributes that would enhance H5N1 avian influenza surveillance and control by vaccination in small scale and village poultry systems. PMID:23074648

  4. Evaluation of a Subunit H5 Vaccine and an Inactivated H5N2 Avian Influenza Marker Vaccine in Ducks Challenged with Vietnamese H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Tze-Hoong; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Fang, H. E.; Chow, Chun-Kin; Ma, Siu-Kit; Sia, Sin-Fun; Ng, Iris H. Y.; Fenwick, Stanley G.; James, Cassandra M.; Chua, Sin Bin; Chew, Siang Thai; Kwang, Jimmy; Peiris, J. S. M.; Ellis, Trevor M.

    2010-01-01

    The protective efficacy of a subunit avian influenza virus H5 vaccine based on recombinant baculovirus expressed H5 haemagglutinin antigen and an inactivated H5N2 avian influenza vaccine combined with a marker antigen (tetanus toxoid) was compared with commercially available inactivated H5N2 avian influenza vaccine in young ducks. Antibody responses, morbidity, mortality, and virus shedding were evaluated after challenge with a Vietnamese clade 1 H5N1 HPAI virus [A/VN/1203/04 (H5N1)] that was known to cause a high mortality rate in ducks. All three vaccines, administered with water-in-oil adjuvant, provided significant protection and dramatically reduced the duration and titer of virus shedding in the vaccinated challenged ducks compared with unvaccinated controls. The H5 subunit vaccine was shown to provide equivalent protection to the other two vaccines despite the H5 antibody responses in subunit vaccinated ducks being significantly lower prior to challenge. Ducks vaccinated with the H5N2 marker vaccine consistently produced antitetanus toxoid antibody. The two novel vaccines have attributes that would enhance H5N1 avian influenza surveillance and control by vaccination in small scale and village poultry systems. PMID:23074648

  5. Immunization with PCEP microparticles containing pertussis toxoid, CpG ODN and a synthetic innate defense regulator peptide induces protective immunity against pertussis.

    PubMed

    Garlapati, Srinivas; Eng, Nelson F; Kiros, Tadele G; Kindrachuk, Jason; Mutwiri, George K; Hancock, Robert E W; Halperin, Scott A; Potter, Andrew A; Babiuk, Lorne A; Gerdts, Volker

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the efficacy of a novel microparticle (MP) based vaccine formulation consisting of pertussis toxoid (PTd), polyphosphazene (PCEP), CpG ODN 10101 and synthetic cationic innate defense regulator peptide 1002 (IDR) against Bordetella pertussis in mice. We studied whether encapsulation of these IDR-CpG ODN complexes into polyphosphazene-based microparticles further enhanced their immunomodulatory activity compared to soluble formulations containing PCEP (SOL), or without PCEP (AQ). In vitro stimulation of murine macrophages showed MP induced significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. When assessed in a B. pertussis infection challenge model, a single immunization with MP formulation led to significantly lower bacterial loads compared to other formulations and non-vaccinated animals. ELISPOT of splenocytes showed that MP group mice had significantly higher number of antigen-specific IL-17 secreting cells. The cytokine profile in lung homogenates of MP group mice after challenge showed significantly higher amounts of MCP-1, TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-12 and IL-17 and significantly lowered IL-10 levels suggesting a strong Th1 shift. Protection was observed against challenge infection with B. pertussis. On the other hand protective immune responses elicited in Quadracel(®) immunized mice were Th2 skewed. Hence, we conclude that formulation of PTd, PCEP, CpG ODN and IDR into MP generates a protective immune response in mice against pertussis emphasizing the potential of MP as a delivery vehicle for the potential development of single-shot vaccines. PMID:21771625

  6. Verb Conjugations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sr. Smith

    2007-10-17

    Here each student will be able to practice and enhance their understanding of Spanish Verb Conjugations. Follow the four steps below as you progress through examples, phrases, training, and a review. View the Conjugation Examples and familiarize yourself with the Preterite conjugations. Take a look at the Phrases associated with the Preterite Verbs. Here you will learn how to use Preterite Verbs in sentences. The following link will allow you to practice your conjugations in ...

  7. [Antipneumococcal vaccines in sickle-cell anemia and asplenia].

    PubMed

    Cohen, R

    2003-09-01

    TWO MEANS OF PREVENTION: Asplenic and sickle-cell anemia patients are susceptible to infections caused by polysaccharide-encapsulated bacteria, particularly pneumococci, Haemophilus influenzae b, and meningococci. Prevention of these frequent and serious infections depends on antibiotic prophylaxis and vaccination. ANTI-POLYSACCHARIDE PNEUMOCOCCI: Vaccination Pneumo 23 is a 23-valent vaccine corresponding to more than 90% of the pneumococci strains implicated in systemic infections. The efficacy of conjugated polysaccharide vaccines for the prevention of systemic infections, particularly when caused by antibiotic-resistant strains, can optimize the efficacy potential of antibiotic prophylaxis, the immense majority of strains not covered by the conjugated vaccine being susceptible to penicillin. CONJUGATED PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE: Prevenar is a seven-valence vaccine which induces a thymodependent antibody response. The efficacy of the conjugated vaccine against systemic infections, particularly antibiotic resistant strains, can have a potentializing effect on antibiotic prophylaxis, the vast majority of the strains not present in the conjugated vaccine being sensitive to penicillin. OTHER VACCINES: Finally, it should be recalled that conjugated antigroup C meningococcal vaccines are recommended for asplenic and sickle-cell anemia patients. In France, the anti-Haemophilus b vaccine is included in the vaccination calendar for all infants. PMID:14631639

  8. Recombinant human antibody fragment against tetanus toxoid produced by phage display

    PubMed Central

    Neelakantam, B.; Sridevi, N. V.; Shukra, A. M.; Sugumar, P.; Samuel, S.

    2014-01-01

    Phage display technology is a powerful in vitro method for the identification of specific monoclonal antibodies (antibody fragments) to an antigenic target and allows the rapid generation and selection of high affinity, fully human antibodies directed toward any disease target appropriate for antibody therapy. In the present study, we exploited the phage display technology for the selection of an antigen binding fragment (Fabs) toward tetanus toxoid using human naïve phage antibody library constructed from peripheral blood lymphocytes of naïve human donors. The phages displaying Fab were subjected to three rounds of bio-panning with tetanus toxoid as antigen on a solid phase. The high affinity antibody fragments were expressed in HB2151 strain of Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The binding activity and specificity of the antibody fragment was established by its reactivity toward tetanus toxoid and non-reactivity toward other related toxins as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis. The selected Fab fragment forming the antigen-binding complexes with the toxoid in flocculation assay indicates that the Fab may have a potential neutralizing ability toward antigen. PMID:24678405

  9. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of reduced antigen content diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis vaccines as a booster in 4–7-year-old children primed with diphtheria–tetanus–whole cell pertussis vaccine before 2 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Dagan; Karim Igbaria; Lolita Piglansky; Francis Van Brusteghem; Vincent Melot; Achim Kaufhold

    1999-01-01

    Background. The recent introduction of acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa) offers the possibility of booster doses in older children and adults. This can be conveniently accomplished by combining acellular pertussis antigens with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. However the optimal dosage for the booster injection has not yet been determined.Objective. To compare the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis vaccines (DTPa) with

  10. Mycobacterial heat-shock proteins as carrier molecules. II: The use of the 70-kDa mycobacterial heat-shock protein as carrier for conjugated vaccines can circumvent the need for adjuvants and Bacillus Calmette Guérin priming.

    PubMed

    Barrios, C; Lussow, A R; Van Embden, J; Van der Zee, R; Rappuoli, R; Costantino, P; Louis, J A; Lambert, P H; Del Giudice, G

    1992-06-01

    In a recent work, we have shown that mycobacterial heat-shock proteins (hsp) of 65-kDa (GroEL-type) and 70-kDa (DnaK-type) acted as carrier molecules in mice, previously primed with Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (bacillus Calmette-Guérin, BCG), for the induction of high and long-lasting titers of IgG against the repetitive malaria synthetic peptide (NANP)40. Anti-peptide antibodies were induced when the malaria peptide, conjugated to the mycobacterial hsp, was given in the absence of any adjuvants (Lussow et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 1991. 87:2960). In this report, we show that mice immunized with peptides or oligosaccharides conjugated to the 70-kDa hsp produced high titers of IgG antibodies in the absence of any previous priming with BCG. The anti-peptide antibody response persisted for at least 1 year. This adjuvant-free carrier effect of the 70-kDa hsp was T cell dependent, since no anti-peptide nor anti-70-kDa IgG antibodies were induced in athymic nu/nu mice. Previous immunization of mice with the 65-kDa or 70-kDa hsp did not have any negative effect on the induction of anti-peptide IgG antibodies after immunization with hsp-peptide conjugates in the absence of adjuvants. Furthermore, preimmunization with the 65-kDa hsp could substitute for BCG in providing an effective priming for the induction of anti-(NANP) antibodies. Finally, both the 65-kDa and 70-kDa hsp acted as carrier molecules for the induction of IgG antibodies to group C meningococcal oligosaccharides, in the absence of adjuvants. These findings strongly suggest that the use of hsp as carriers in conjugated constructs for the induction of anti-peptide and anti-oligosaccharide antibodies could be of value in the design of new vaccines for eventual use in humans. PMID:1601031

  11. Immunization of Rhesus monkeys with the conjugate vaccine IGN402 induces an IgG immune response against carbohydrate and protein antigens, and cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Kircheis; Petra Vondru; Irene Zinöcker; Daniela Häring; Andreas Nechansky; Hans Loibner; Geert C. Mudde

    2006-01-01

    Tumor-associated antigens resulting from aberrant glycosylation, such as the SialylTn carbohydrate antigen, are over-expressed on cancer cells and provide potential targets for cancer vaccination. However, as T-cell-independent antigens carbohydrates are poorly immunogenic, and fail to induce memory. In order to increase the immunogenicity we have coupled the SialylTn carbohydrate antigen to a highly immunogenic carrier molecule, the murine monoclonal antibody

  12. Design and characterization of a chimeric multiepitope construct containing CfaB, heat-stable toxoid, CssA, CssB, and heat-labile toxin subunit B of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: a bioinformatic approach.

    PubMed

    Zeinalzadeh, Narges; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Ahangari, Ghasem; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amani, Jafar; Bathaie, S Zahra; Jafari, Mahyat

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) are two key virulence factors in ETEC pathogenesis, and the heterogeneity of the CFs is the bottleneck in reaching an effective vaccine. In this study, a candidate subunit vaccine, which is composed of CfaB, CssA and CssB, structural subunits of colonization factor antigen I and CS6 CFs, labile toxin subunit B, and the binding subunit of heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid, was designed to provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. The different features of chimeric gene, its mRNA stability, and chimeric protein properties were analyzed by using bioinformatic tools. The optimized chimeric gene was chemically synthesized and expressed successfully in a prokaryotic host. The purified protein was used for assessment of bioinformatic data by experimental methods. PMID:24372617

  13. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25749248

  14. Tetanus Toxin Fragment C Expressed in Live Salmonella Vaccines Enhances Antibody Responses to Its Fusion Partner Schistosoma haematobium Glutathione S-Transferase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEONG JIN LEE; KATHARINE A. SINHA; JULIA A. HARRISON; RAQUEL DEMARCO DE HORMAECHE; GILLES RIVEAU; RAYMOND J. PIERCE; ANDRE CAPRON; R. ALAN WILSON; C. M. ANJAM KHAN

    2000-01-01

    Tetanus toxoid has been used widely as an adjuvant. The atoxic fragment C from tetanus toxin (TetC) is potently immunogenic when expressed in Salmonella vaccine strains and has been used as a fusion partner for antigens (Ag). However, there has been no formal comparison of the immunomodulatory impact of TetC on its fusion partners. In this study, we have addressed

  15. Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Double-Blind Trial of the Correlation of Functional and Binding Antibody Responses Elicited by 13-Valent and 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines and Association with Nasopharyngeal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Christine; Patterson, Scott; Trammel, James; Greenberg, David; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Cooper, David; Gurtman, Alejandra; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    In a randomized double-blind trial in healthy Israeli infants in Israel who received the 13-valent or 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 or PCV7, respectively) at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months, PCV13 significantly reduced nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization of serotypes 1, 6A, 7F, 19A, cross-reacting 6C, and the common PCV7 serotype 19F, from ages 7 to 24 months. No differences were observed between the vaccine groups for serotype 3 or for the remaining common PCV7 serotypes. For serotype 5, too few events were observed to draw an inference. Generally consistent with these findings, PCV13 elicited significantly higher enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG-binding antibody responses than did PCV7 for the additional PCV13 serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, 19A, and for the common serotype 19F, with similar or lower responses for the remaining common serotypes. To further assess immunogenicity and colonization, we conducted a post hoc analysis of PCV13 functional antibody responses measured by opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assays in a randomly selected subset of subjects. The pattern of functional antibody OPA responses elicited by PCV13 relative to PCV7 was similar to that of the ELISA anticapsular IgG-binding antibody responses described above. In addition, the OPA responses generally correlated positively with IgG responses for all 13 serotypes among the PCV13 recipients and for all 7 common serotypes and the additional serotype 6A but not for 19A or the other serotypes unique to PCV13 among the PCV7 recipients. This post hoc analysis supports an association between serum OPA functional and IgG-binding antibody levels, allowing for a transfer of inferred associations between IgG responses and NP colonization to OPA responses. PMID:24990907

  16. Differential activation of CD57-defined natural killer cell subsets during recall responses to vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    White, Matthew J; Nielsen, Carolyn M; McGregor, Reuben H C; Riley, Eleanor H C; Goodier, Martin R

    2014-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the effector phase of vaccine-induced adaptive immune responses, secreting cytokines and releasing cytotoxic granules. The proportion of responding NK cells varies between individuals and by vaccine, suggesting that functionally discrete subsets of NK cells with different activation requirements may be involved. Here, we have used responses to individual components of the DTP vaccine [tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), whole cell inactivated pertussis] to characterize the NK cell subsets involved in interleukin-2-dependent recall responses. Culture with TT, DT or pertussis induced NK cell CD25 expression and interferon-? production in previously vaccinated individuals. Responses were the most robust against whole cell pertussis, with responses to TT being particularly low. Functional analysis of discrete NK cell subsets revealed that transition from CD56bright to CD56dim correlated with increased responsiveness to CD16 cross-linking, whereas increasing CD57 expression correlated with a loss of responsiveness to cytokines. A higher frequency of CD56dim CD57? NK cells expressed CD25 and interferon-? following stimulation with vaccine antigen compared with CD56dim CD57+ NK cells and made the largest overall contribution to this response. CD56dim CD57int NK cells represent an intermediate functional phenotype in response to vaccine-induced and receptor-mediated stimuli. These findings have implications for the ability of NK cells to contribute to the effector response after vaccination and for vaccine-induced immunity in older individuals. PMID:24843874

  17. Duration of the immune response to MMR vaccine in children of two age-different groups.

    PubMed

    Li Volti, S; Giammanco-Bilancia, G; Grassi, M; Garozzo, R; Gluck, R; Giammanco, G

    1993-05-01

    A combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) was administered to both a group of children aged 10-12 months simultaneously with booster doses of compulsory diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and oral poliovirus vaccine and a group of children aged 15-24 months who had previously received booster doses of the compulsory vaccines. Apart from one subject belonging to the second group who was non responder and one from the same group who did not seroconvert against the mumps virus alone, 5 to 6 weeks after MMR vaccine administration we found protective levels of antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella viruses in all children. The follow up of both groups at 3 years did not reveal difference between the two groups. Protective levels of serum antibodies against measles and mumps were found in the two groups, although a significant decline of rubella antibodies was shown (p < 0.05). Since the immunogenicity of the vaccines in the two groups did not differ, we recommend that the scientific community reconsider the vaccination schedule until now recommended. In our opinion the MMR vaccine should be administered simultaneously with booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and oral poliovirus vaccine at 10-12 months of age because this policy improves parents' compliance, markedly reduces community costs and simplifies routine immunization schedule. PMID:8405317

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the safety and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumo23(®) [PPV23], Sanofi Pasteur) as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar(®), Pfizer). This was a randomized, observer-blinded, 2-arm, controlled, multicenter phase III study performed in Thailand to assess and describe the immunogenicity and safety of PPV23 as a booster dose in children who had received the 3 primary doses of PCV7, the pneumococcal vaccine available during the study period. Children primed with 3 doses of PCV7 were randomized 1:1 to receive a booster immunization with PPV23 or PCV7. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional antibody levels by multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay on day 30. A total of 339 children were enrolled. Geometric mean serum antibody concentrations against serotypes common to PCV7 and PPV23 (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) increased in both groups but they were higher for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C, and 19F in the PPV23 group. Opsonization indices increased in both groups for all measured serotypes (1, 6B, 14, 19A, and 23F) and were higher for serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F in the PCV7 group and for serotypes 1 and 19A in PPV23 group. Solicited reactions and unsolicited adverse events were similar in the 2 groups and generally mild and transient. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. These results confirm that boosting with PPV23 is immunogenic and well tolerated in healthy toddlers primed with PCV7. PMID:25424793

  19. Evaluation of two GnRH-I based vaccine formulations on the testes function of entire Suffolk cross ram lambs.

    PubMed

    Earl, Elizabeth R; Waterston, Mary M; Aughey, Elizabeth; Harvey, Michael J A; Matschke, Christian; Colston, Angela; Ferro, Valerie A

    2006-04-12

    A modified GnRH peptide (CHWSYGLRPG-NH(2)) was conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and formulated with Quil A saponin or a sustained release injectible PLGA (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/triacetin). For the Quil A formulations, two administrations of TT conjugate at 3-weekly intervals were followed by two booster injections with the DT conjugate in entire ram lambs. With the PLGA formulations, only two injections were administered; the first containing TT and the second DT at 6-weekly intervals. Evaluation was carried out by comparing the specific antibody levels produced in relationship to hormone profiles and testicular changes. The Quil A formulation was considered the most effective, as it caused significant reduction in testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels, resulting in marked suppression of spermatogenesis. PMID:16483697

  20. A controlled field trial of plain and aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed cholera vaccines in Surabaya, Indonesia, during 1973-75

    PubMed Central

    Saroso, J. Sulianti; Bahrawi, W.; Witjaksono, H.; Budiarso, Ratna L. P.; Brotowasisto; Ben?i?, Z.; Dewitt, W. E.; Gomez, C. Z.

    1978-01-01

    A controlled field trial comparing the effectiveness of a plain cholera vaccine with that of a vaccine adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide was carried out in a cholera-endemic area of Indonesia during 1973-75. Tetanus toxoid adsorbed to aluminium phosphate was used as the control. In vaccinees aged 1-4 years, the adsorbed cholera vaccine provided about 88% protection for 6 months following vaccination and still provided about 50% protection between 11 and 14 months after vaccination. In the same age group, the plain vaccine provided only 53% protection during the first 6 months and no appreciable protection beyond that period. In those aged 5 years and over, both vaccines provided 50-60% protection throughout the period of observation (14 months). Neither vaccine caused any serious side effects. PMID:365388

  1. Edible vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Meloen; W. D. O. Hamilton; J. I. Casal; K. Dalsgaard; J. P. M. Langeveld

    1998-01-01

    The ultimate vaccine is an oral vaccine which given once protects against a multitude of diseases. Furthermore this ultimate vaccine needs to be very stable and inexpensive to produce. Probably this latter condition can be met only if the vaccines are produced in plants. Such vaccines are called ‘edible vaccines’. Edible vaccines can be produced in plants in many ways.

  2. Evaluation of TLR Agonists as Potential Mucosal Adjuvants for HIV gp140 and Tetanus Toxoid in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Buffa, Viviana; Klein, Katja; Fischetti, Lucia; Shattock, Robin J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the impact of a range of TLR ligands and chitosan as potential adjuvants for different routes of mucosal immunisation (sublingual (SL), intranasal (IN), intravaginal (IVag) and a parenteral route (subcutaneous (SC)) in the murine model. We assess their ability to enhance antibody responses to HIV-1 CN54gp140 (gp140) and Tetanus toxoid (TT) in systemic and vaginal compartments. A number of trends were observed by route of administration. For non-adjuvanted antigen, SC>SL>IN immunisation with respect to systemic IgG responses, where endpoint titres were greater for TT than for gp140. In general, co-administration with adjuvants increased specific IgG responses where IN?=?SC>SL, while in the vaginal compartment IN>SL>SC for specific IgA. In contrast, for systemic and mucosal IgA responses to antigen alone SL>IN?=?SC. A number of adjuvants increased specific systemic IgA responses where in general IN>SL>SC immunisation, while for mucosal responses IN?=?SL>SC. In contrast, direct intravaginal immunisation failed to induce any detectable systemic or mucosal responses to gp140 even in the presence of adjuvant. However, significant systemic IgG responses to TT were induced by intravaginal immunisation with or without adjuvant, and detectable mucosal responses IgG and IgA were observed when TT was administered with FSL-1 or Poly I?C. Interestingly some TLRs displayed differential activity dependent upon the route of administration. MPLA (TLR4) suppressed systemic responses to SL immunisation while enhancing responses to IN or SC immunisation. CpG B enhanced SL and IN responses, while having little or no impact on SC immunisation. These data demonstrate important route, antigen and adjuvant effects that need to be considered in the design of mucosal vaccine strategies. PMID:23272062

  3. Vaccine process technology.

    PubMed

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory perspective, Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) are important initiatives that can be applied effectively to many types of vaccine processes. Universal demand for vaccines requires that a manufacturer plan to supply tens and sometimes hundreds of millions of doses per year at low cost. To enable broader use, there is intense interest in improving temperature stability to allow for excursions from a rigid cold chain supply, especially at the point of vaccination. Finally, there is progress in novel routes of delivery to move away from the traditional intramuscular injection by syringe approach. PMID:22407777

  4. A nonadjuvanted transcutaneous tetanus patch is effective in boosting anti-tetanus toxoid immune responses.

    PubMed

    Seid, Robert C; Reinisch, Christoph; Schlegl, Robert; Moehlen, Michael; Meinke, Andreas; Lundberg, Urban

    2014-02-01

    Dry tetanus toxoid (TTx) patches were formulated without any adjuvant, with excipients to impart antigen stabilization and to enhance skin delivery. The booster effects of the TTx patches were assessed using a guinea pig model. The study revealed significant rises in TTx IgG titers induced by the TTx patches after a low-dose subcutaneous (s.c.) prime with TTx adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The TTx patch can therefore be considered an effective alternative to a subcutaneous booster. PMID:24334688

  5. Protection of the nursing pig against experimentally induced enteric colibacillosis by vaccination of dam with fimbrial antigens of E coli (K88, K99 and 987P)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LK Nagy; T MacKenzie; KR Painter

    1985-01-01

    Pregnant gilts were vaccinated with two doses of alhydrogel adsorbed fimbrial antigens of Escherichia coli (K88ab, K88ac, K99 and 987P) supplemented with beta toxoid of Clostridium perfringens type C. Their piglets, and piglets of nonvaccinated gilts, were subsequently orogastrically challenged with one or other of the four fimbrial types of enteropathogenic E coli. Some of the vaccinated animals were reinjected

  6. Effect of schedule on reactogenicity and antibody persistence of acellular and whole-cell pertussis vaccines: value of laboratory tests as predictors of clinical performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Miller; L. A. E. Ashworth; K. Redhead; C. Thornton; P. A. Waight; T. Coleman

    1997-01-01

    The performance of four acellular pertussis vaccines containing between two and five pertussis antigens combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids was compared with that of British whole-cell diphtheria\\/tetanus\\/pertussis (DTP) vaccine both in laboratory assays for potency, toxicity and immunogenicity, and for reactogenicity and immunogenicity in infants. Clinical responses were evaluated in double blind randomized Phase II trials using 3\\/5\\/9 month

  7. Efficacy of a type C botulism vaccine in green-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Swift, P.K.; Yarris, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a single dose of Botumink toxoid for protecting wild green-winged teal (Anas crecca) during botulism epizootics caused by Clostridium botulinum type C. We challenged control and immunized ducks with four different doses of type C botulinum toxin to determine the LD50 for this species and to evaluate vaccine protection. Fewer immunized ducks were affected with botulism than control ducks, indicating that a single dose of Botumink toxoid could increase the survival of ducks during epizootics. However, the frequency of immunized ducks with signs of botulism increased with the challenge dose of botulinum toxin. Even at doses of botulinum toxin approximately 2 to 4 green-winged teal LD50, about 50% of the immunized ducks were affected. We believe an improved vaccine or a better delivery system is required to justify immunization of wild birds for experimental survival studies.

  8. Efficacy of a type C botulism vaccine in green-winged teal.

    PubMed

    Rocke, T E; Samuel, M D; Swift, P K; Yarris, G S

    2000-07-01

    We tested the efficacy of a single dose of Botumink toxoid for protecting wild green-winged teal (Anas crecca) during botulism epizootics caused by Clostridium botulinum type C. We challenged control and immunized ducks with four different doses of type C botulinum toxin to determine the LD50 for this species and to evaluate vaccine protection. Fewer immunized ducks were affected with botulism than control ducks, indicating that a single dose of Botumink toxoid could increase the survival of ducks during epizootics. However, the frequency of immunized ducks with signs of botulism increased with the challenge dose of botulinum toxin. Even at doses of botulinum toxin approximately 2 to 4 green-winged teal LD50, about 50% of the immunized ducks were affected. We believe an improved vaccine or a better delivery system is required to justify immunization of wild birds for experimental survival studies. PMID:10941734

  9. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... men Two vaccines called HPV2 (Cervarix) and HPV4 (Gardasil) are approved: Both vaccines protect against the two ...

  10. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... around the world and kills about 200,000. Typhoid vaccine can prevent typhoid. ... Who should get typhoid vaccine and when?Routine typhoid vaccination is not recommended in the United States, but typhoid vaccine is recommended for: Travelers ...

  11. Genetic fusions of heat-labile toxoid (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb) of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit protective anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Francis, David H

    2010-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-associated diarrhea causes a substantial economic loss to swine producers worldwide. The majority of ETEC strains causing porcine diarrhea, especially postweaning diarrhea (PWD), produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb). LT is commonly used in vaccine development, but STb has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity. As a virulence factor in porcine diarrhea, STb needs to be included as an antigen for development of broad-spectrum vaccines. In this study, we used an LT toxoid (LT(R192G) [hereafter, LT(192)]) derived from porcine ETEC to carry a mature STb peptide for LT(192)-STb fusions to enhance STb immunogenicity for potential vaccine application. Anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies were detected in immunized rabbits and pigs. In addition, when challenged with an STb-positive ETEC strain, all 10 suckling piglets borne by immunized gilts remained healthy, whereas 7 out 9 piglets borne by unimmunized gilts developed moderate diarrhea. This study indicates that the LT(192)-STb fusion enhanced anti-STb immunogenicity and suggests the LT(192)-STb fusion antigen can be used in future vaccine development against porcine ETEC diarrhea. PMID:20505006

  12. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on the Incidence of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children after Five Years of Its Introduction in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Hortal, María; Estevan, Miguel; Meny, Miguel; Iraola, Inés; Laurani, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the most frequent serotypes demonstrated that invasive disease and pneumonia were important manifestations affecting children under 5 years of age. Therefore, pneumococcal diseases prevention became a public health priority. Uruguay was the first Latin American country to incorporate PCV7 into its National Immunization Program. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence rates for hospitalized pneumonia in children from the pre PCV introduction period and the following five years of PCVs application in Uruguay. Methods and Findings Population-based surveillance of pneumonia hospitalization rates, in children, less than 14 years of age, had been performed prior pneumococcal vaccination, and continued following PCV7 introduction and PCV13 replacement, using the same methodology. Hospitalized children with pneumonia were enrolled from January 1, 2009 through December 31st, 2012. The study was carried out in an area with a population of 238,002 inhabitants of whom 18, 055 were under five years of age. Patients with acute lower respiratory infections for whom a chest radiograph was performed on admission were eligible. Digitalized radiographs were interpreted by a reference radiologist, using WHO criteria. Pneumonia was confirmed in 2,697 patients, 1,267 with consolidated and 1,430 with non consolidated pneumonia of which incidence decrease, between 2009 and 2012, was 27.3% and 46.4% respectively. 2001–2004 and 2009–2012 comparison showed a significant difference of 20.4% for consolidated pneumonia hospitalizations. A significant incidence decline was recorded among children 6 to 35 months of age. Conclusions An overall significant reduction in pneumonia hospitalizations was observed following the introduction of PCV7 and furthermore following the change to PCV13. PMID:24905093

  13. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year.

    PubMed

    Seither, Ranee; Masalovich, Svetlana; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Singleton, James A; Greby, Stacie M

    2014-10-17

    State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children. PMID:25321068

  14. Genetic Fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (Multiepitope Fusion Antigen) and a Toxoid Fusion of Heat-Stable Toxin (STa) and Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Retain Broad Anti-CFA and Antitoxin Antigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Sack, David A.; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa)]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2):243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3), CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6)] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5):1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in multivalent vaccine development. PMID:25803825

  15. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  16. An Age-Structured Model for Pneumococcal Infection with Vaccination

    E-print Network

    An Age-Structured Model for Pneumococcal Infection with Vaccination Karyn L. Sutton1,2,3 , H. T the young and the old. The development of an effective vaccine against these infections, especially the younger ages, has not been successful despite the licensing of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7

  17. Diversity of the Antibody Response to Tetanus Toxoid: Comparison of Hybridoma Library to Phage Display Library

    PubMed Central

    Sorouri, Mahsa; Fitzsimmons, Sean P.; Aydanian, Antonina G.; Bennett, Sonita; Shapiro, Marjorie A.

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are important tools in research and since the 1990s have been an important therapeutic class targeting a wide variety of diseases. Earlier methods of mAb production relied exclusively on the lengthy process of making hybridomas. The advent of phage display technology introduced an alternative approach for mAb production. A potential concern with this approach is its complete dependence on an in vitro selection process, which may result in selection of VH-VL pairs normally eliminated during the in vivo selection process. The diversity of VH-VL pairs selected from phage display libraries relative to an endogenous response is unknown. To address these questions, we constructed a panel of hybridomas and a phage display library using the spleen of a single tetanus toxoid-immunized mouse and compared the diversity of the immune response generated using each technique. Surprisingly, the tetanus toxoid-specific antibodies produced by the hybridoma library exhibited a higher degree of VH-VL genetic diversity than their phage display-derived counterparts. Furthermore, the overlap among the V-genes from each library was very limited. Consistent with the notion that accumulation of many small DNA changes lead to increased antigen specificity and affinity, the phage clones displayed substantial micro-heterogeneity. Contrary to previous reports, we found that antigen specificity against tetanus toxoid is encoded by both V? and VH genes. Finally, the phage-derived tetanus-specific clones had a lower binding affinity than the hybridomas, a phenomenon thought to be the result of random pairing of the V-genes. PMID:25268771

  18. Booster vaccination: the role of reduced antigen content vaccines as a preschool booster.

    PubMed

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Trucchi, Cecilia; Conversano, Michele; Zivelonghi, Giambattista; Zoppi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The need for boosters for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, and polio, starting from preschool age, is related to the waning immune protection conferred by vaccination, the elimination/reduction of natural boosters due to large-scale immunization programs, and the possibility of reintroduction of wild agents from endemic areas. Taking into account the relevance of safety/tolerability in the compliance with vaccination among the population, it have been assessed whether today enough scientific evidences are available to support the use of dTap-IPV booster in preschool age. The review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed search engine. A total of 41 works has been selected; besides, the documentation produced by the World Health Organization, the European Centre for Disease Control, and the Italian Ministry of Health has been consulted. Many recent papers confirm the opportunity to use a low antigenic dose vaccine starting from 4 to 6 years of age. There is also evidence that 10 years after immunization the rate of seroprotected subjects against diphtheria does not differ significantly between those vaccinated with paediatric dose (DTaP) or reduced dose (dTaP or dTap) product. The dTpa vaccine is highly immunogenic for diphtheria toxoids regardless of prior vaccination history (2 + 1 and 3 + 1 schedules). PMID:24678509

  19. Enhanced mucosal immune responses against tetanus toxoid using novel delivery system comprised of chitosan-functionalized gold nanoparticles and botanical adjuvant: characterization, immunogenicity, and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Barhate, Ganesh; Gautam, Manish; Gairola, Sunil; Jadhav, Suresh; Pokharkar, Varsha

    2014-11-01

    Approaches based on combined use of delivery systems and adjuvants are being favored to maximize efficient mucosal delivery of antigens. Here, we describe a novel delivery system comprised of chitosan-functionalized gold nanoparticles (CsAuNPs) and saponin-containing botanical adjuvant; Asparagus racemosus extract (ARE) for oral delivery of tetanus toxoid (TT). A significant increase in TT-specific IgG (34.53-fold) and IgA (43.75-fold) was observed when TT-CsAuNPs were formulated with ARE (TT-ARE-CsAuNPs). The local IgA immune responses for TT also showed a significant increase (106.5-fold in intestine washes and 99.74-fold in feces) with ARE-based formulations as compared with plain TT group. No effect of ARE was observed on size, charge, and loading properties of CsAuNPs. Additionally, no effect of ARE and CsAuNPs was observed on antigenicity and secondary structure of TT as determined by fluorescence, circular dichroism, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The stability studies demonstrated excellent stability profile of formulation at recommended storage conditions. The study establishes the possible role of immunomodulatory adjuvants in particulate delivery systems for mucosal delivery of vaccines. PMID:25219511

  20. A comparative study of PENTA™ vaccine booster doses given at 12, 15 or 18 months of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W Scheifele; Roland Guasparini; Pierre Lavigne

    1999-01-01

    For infants immunized with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines, booster immunization is usually recommended in the second year of life, typically between 12 and 18 months. This study assessed the effect of age at booster immunization on pre-immunization antibody trough levels and on subsequent responses, for a PRP-T conjugate vaccine. Subjects were healthy children who had received PENTA™ vaccine

  1. Structure function attributes of gold nanoparticle vaccine association: effect of particle size and association temperature.

    PubMed

    Barhate, Ganesh A; Gaikwad, Sushama M; Jadhav, Suresh S; Pokharkar, Varsha B

    2014-08-25

    Many biotherapeutic applications of gold nanoparticles make use of conjugated or adsorbed protein moieties. Physical parameters of association such as particle size, morphology, surface chemistry and temperature influences the protein-nanoparticle association and thereby their interaction with the biological environment. In present study, effect of size of chitosan reduced gold nanoparticles (CsAuNPs) and association temperature on structure and function of tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine has been investigated. CsAuNPs were synthesized in the sizes of 20±3, 40±5 and 80±7 nm followed by loading of TT. Binding process of CsAuNPs with TT was investigated at their predetermined micro molar concentrations. Upon binding of TT onto CsAuNPs, particle surface was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. CD spectroscopic evaluation of TT bound 20 nm CsAuNPs led to 75% reduction in secondary structure of TT and thereby compromised immune function. Binding of TT with 40 and 80 nm sized CsAuNPs did not cause significant modifications in secondary structure or function of TT. Thermodynamic studies using temperature dependent fluorescence spectroscopy revealed an increase in association constants with the temperature. Based on thermodynamic data three phases in CsAuNPs and TT association process were traced. Samples from these distinct phases were also investigated for immunological recognition. Ex-vivo interaction of TT-CsAuNPs with TT positive and negative sera followed by relative change in particle size and zeta potential was studied. The findings here suggests prominent role of particle size and association temperature on adsorbed TT structure and function. Such studies may help in engineering functional nanotherapeutics. PMID:24907644

  2. Vaccination with recombinant NetB toxin partially protects broiler chickens from necrotic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease. PMID:23865568

  3. Immunological Links to Nonspecific Effects of DTwP and BCG Vaccines on Infant Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2011-01-01

    A number of mainly observational studies suggest that many African females below the age of one year die each year from the nonspecific effects of vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and killed (whole-cell) Bordetella pertussis (DTwP). In contrast, similar studies suggest that many African females and males may have their lives saved each year by the nonspecific immunological benefits of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. From an immunological point of view, we hypothesise that the adverse effects of DTwP vaccine may occur because of the Th2-polarising effect of the aluminium phosphate adjuvant in the vaccine and because intramuscular administration of the vaccine may cause chronic inflammation at the site of injection. However, the Th1-polarising effect of BCG is likely to be beneficial. Sexual dimorphism affecting immune functions and vitamin A supplementation may influence both the deleterious and beneficial nonspecific effects of immunisation. PMID:21760811

  4. Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim; Masin, Jiri

    2014-10-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (ACT, AC-Hly or CyaA) is a key virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis. It targets bactericidal activities of phagocytes, such as oxidative burst and complement- or antibody-mediated opsonophagocytic killing of bacteria. Through cAMP signaling, CyaA also skews TLR-triggered maturation of dendritic cells, inhibiting proinflammatory IL-12 and TNF-? secretion and enhancing IL-10 production and Treg expansion, likely hampering induction of adaptive immune responses to Bordetella infections. Non-enzymatic CyaA toxoid is a potent protective antigen and adjuvant that boosts immunogenicity of co-administered B. pertussis antigens and improves potency of acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in mice. This makes CyaA a prime antigen candidate for inclusion into a next generation of aP vaccines. Moreover, recombinant CyaA toxoids were recently shown to be safe in humans in frame of Phase I clinical evaluation of a CyaA-based immunotherapeutic vaccine that induces Th1-polarized CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses targeting cervical tumors. PMID:25090574

  5. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2012-13 school year.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    State and local school vaccination requirements are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and minimize the risk from vaccine preventable diseases. To assess school vaccination coverage and exemptions, CDC annually analyzes school vaccination coverage data from federally funded immunization programs. These awardees include 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), five cities, and eight U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions. This report summarizes vaccination coverage from 48 states and DC and exemption rates from 49 states and DC for children entering kindergarten for the 2012-13 school year. Forty-eight states and DC reported vaccination coverage, with medians of 94.5% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.1% for local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination; and 93.8% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among awardees with a 2-dose requirement. Forty-nine states and DC reported exemption rates, with the median total of 1.8%. Although school entry coverage for most awardees was at or near national Healthy People 2020 targets of maintaining 95% vaccination coverage levels for 2 doses of MMR vaccine, 4 doses of DTaP† vaccine, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination and high exemption levels can cluster within communities, increasing the risk for disease. Reports to CDC are aggregated at the state level; however, local reporting of school vaccination coverage might be accessible by awardees. These local-level data can be used to create evidence-based health communication strategies to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the benefits of vaccinations to the health of their children and other kindergarteners. PMID:23903595

  6. Titres of specific antibodies to poliovirus type 3 and tetanus toxoid in saliva and serum of children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Gentile, V; Brunetti, L; Hanson, L A; Armenio, L

    2001-02-01

    A study of antibody levels (in saliva and blood) against common vaccine antigens was performed in a population of 32 children suffering from recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). None of the patients had primary or secondary immunodeficiency syndromes or other known predisposing factors for respiratory diseases. Titres of the isotype-specific antibodies immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) against two vaccine antigens--poliovirus type 3 (P3) and tetanus toxoid (TT), a viral antigen and a bacterial antigen, respectively--were measured in unstimulated saliva and serum, both in patients and in 24 healthy children (controls), by using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, levels of total IgA and avidity of IgA antibodies to both P3 and TT in saliva were evaluated. No difference was found between patients and controls as to levels of total IgA, or specific IgA and IgM antibodies against both P3 and TT in saliva. Furthermore, the avidity of salivary IgA antibodies against the two antigens did not differ between the two populations. However, the average concentrations of saliva-specific IgG antibodies to both the viral and the bacterial antigen were significantly lower (p <0.01 for P3 and p <0.05 for TT, respectively) in saliva of children with recurrent URTI, whereas no difference was found in serum for any immunoglobulin isotype determined compared with healthy individuals. The results of the present study provide suggestive evidence for the existence of subtle IgG-restricted defects in antibody responses at the mucosal level, but not at the serum level, in some children with undue susceptibility to URTI. PMID:11251864

  7. Toxoid construction of AsaP1, a lethal toxic aspzincin metalloendopeptidase of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, and studies of its activity and processing.

    PubMed

    Schwenteit, Johanna; Bogdanovi?, Xenia; Fridjonsson, Olafur H; Aevarsson, Arnthor; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Hinrichs, Winfried; Gudmundsdottir, Bjarnheidur K

    2013-03-23

    AsaP1 is a toxic aspzincin metalloendopeptidase secreted by the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes. The protease is highly immunogenic and antibodies against AsaP1 evoke a passive protection against infection with A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes. The protease is expressed as 37 kDa pre-pro-protein and processed to an active enzyme of 19kDa in A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes. Recombinant expression of AsaP1(rec) in E. coli results in a protease of 22 kDa that is not secreted. AsaP1(rec) induces comparable pathological changes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to native AsaP1(wt). The aim of the study was to construct AsaP1 toxoids by exchanging catalytically important amino acids in the active site region of the protease. Four different AsaP1 mutants (AsaP1(E294A), AsaP1(E294Q), AsaP1(Y309A), and AsaP1(Y309F)) were successfully constructed by one step site directed mutagenesis, expressed in E. coli BL21 C43 as pre-pro-proteins and purified by His-tag affinity chromatography and gel filtration. Three of the resulting mutants (AsaP1(E294A), AsaP1(E294Q), and AsaP1(Y309A)) were not caseinolytic active and are detected as unprocessed pre-pro-proteins of 37 kDa. Caseinolytic active AsaP1(rec) and a mutant with reduced activity, AsaP1(Y309F), were processed to a size of 22 kDa. Furthermore, AsaP1(rec) is able to process the inactive mutants to the mature size of 22 kDa, allowing the conclusion that AsaP1 is autocatalytically processed. All four mutants AsaP1(E294A), AsaP1(E294Q), AsaP1(Y309A) and AsaP1(Y309F) are non-toxic in fish but induce a specific anti-AsaP1 antibody response in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) and are therefore true toxoids and possible vaccine additives. PMID:23031341

  8. Genetic Variants in Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9, and FC? Receptor II Are Associated with Antibody Response to Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in HIV-Infected Youth

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Min; Lujan-Zilbermann, Jorge; Singh, Kumud K.; Warshaw, Meredith G.; Williams, Paige L.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Fenton, Terence; Siberry, George K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association of host genetic variants with the antibody response to the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) in HIV-infected youth. Genetic variants associated with severity of meningococcal disease, including the IgG Fc receptor (FC?RII)-A484T, interleukin-10 (IL-10)-A1082G, -C819T, and -C627A, IL-4-C589T, mannose binding lectin-2 (MBL2)-A/O, -H/L, -P/Q, and -X/Y, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-G2408A, TLR4-A12874G and -C13174T, and TLR9-T1237C and -T1486C were determined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for 271 HIV-infected subjects (median, 17 years). Response was defined as a ?4-fold increase from entry in bactericidal antibody titers to each serogroup. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to evaluate the association of allelic variants with the immunologic response to all serogroups within each subject with and without adjusting for CD4 percentage and HIV viral load. At week 4, but not after, subjects with TLR2-2408-G/A versus -G/G genotypes and the TLR4-12874-A/A genotype were more likely to achieve a ?4-fold increase overall in the four serogroups (unadjusted P of 0.006 and adjusted P of 0.008 and unadjusted P of 0.008 and adjusted P of 0.019, respectively). At week 28, the TLR9-1237 T allele was associated with enhanced antibody response (T allele versus C/C, unadjusted P of 0.014 and adjusted P of 0.009), which was maintained at week 72 (unadjusted and adjusted P of 0.008). At week 72, the Fc?RII-131Arg allotype was associated with a ?4-fold increase in antibody titer versus those with His/His (unadjusted P of 0.009; adjusted P of <0.001). These findings suggest that for HIV-infected youth, the initial antibody response to MCV4 is associated with variants in TLR2 and TLR4 while the long-term response is associated with genetic polymorphisms in TLR9 and Fc?RIIa. PMID:23595505

  9. Evaluation of synergistic effect of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles and aluminum based adjuvant for improving vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vivek; Kumar, Manoj; Dalela, Manu; Brahmne, H G; Singh, Harpal

    2014-08-25

    Aluminum based adjuvants have been used widely to induce long lasting protective immunity through vaccination. But reported incidences of toxicity and side effects of aluminum have raised concerns regarding their safety in childhood vaccines. The present study demonstrates the synergistic effect of admixture of polylactic acid-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) based biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) and aluminum phosphate as a potential adjuvant system using tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model antigen. The immunological activity of the admixture formulation was maintained up to 180 days of storage at 5 °C±3 °C. Percent adsorption/encapsulation of tetanus toxoid increased to nearly 90% in admixture formulation as compared to 55% in conventional vaccine. Admixture preparation (PLA-PEG-Al 0.2 mg-TT and PLA-Al 0.2 mg-TT) showed 80% and 50% survival respectively, even at 180 days as compared to 30% survival observed in the conventional tetanus vaccine. The present study established the feasibility to formulate a dosage form with improved efficacy and reduced aluminum concentration for vaccination. PMID:24939616

  10. 9 CFR 113.110 - Clostridium Botulinum Type C Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated...vaccinates and three unvaccinated controls of the same source and approximately...post-injection, the vaccinates and the controls shall be challenged intraperitoneally... (2) The vaccinates and controls shall be observed for 7...

  11. Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

  12. ROTAVIRUS VACCINES

    PubMed Central

    Kang, G

    2008-01-01

    Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intussusception. Early vaccines were based on animal strains. More recently developed and licenced vaccines are either animal-human reassortants or are based on human strains. In India, two candidate vaccines are in the development process, but have not yet reached efficacy trials. Many challenges regarding vaccine efficacy and safety remain. In addition to completing clinical evaluations of vaccines in development in settings with the highest disease burden and virus diversity, there is also a need to consider alternative vaccine development strategies. PMID:17185842

  13. Microneedle patches for vaccine delivery

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyemee; Shin, Juhyung

    2014-01-01

    In today's medical industry, the range of vaccines that exist for administration in humans represents an eclectic variety of forms and immunologic mechanisms. Namely, these are the live attenuated viruses, inactivated viruses, subunit proteins, and virus-like particles for treating virus-caused diseases, as well as the bacterial-based polysaccharide, protein, and conjugated vaccines. Currently, a new approach to vaccination is being investigated with the concept of DNA vaccines. As an alternative delivery route to enhance the vaccination efficacy, microneedles have been devised to target the rich network of immunologic antigen-presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis layers under the skin. Numerous studies have outlined the parameters of microneedle delivery of a wide range of vaccines, revealing comparable or higher immunogenicity to conventional intramuscular routes, overall level of stability, and dose-sparing advantages. Furthermore, recent mechanism studies have begun to successfully elucidate the biological mechanisms behind microneedle vaccination. This paper describes the current status of microneedle vaccine research. PMID:24427762

  14. Crossreactivity and inheritance of idiotypes restricted to human anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Brozek, C M; Geha, R S

    1987-01-01

    The presence of cross-reactive idiotypes on human IgG antibodies of tetanus toxoid (TT) antigen was assessed by examining the capacity of two anti-idiotypic (ID) antisera raised against IgG (Fab')2 anti-TT (idiotype) from two subjects to bind radiolabeled "idiotype" and to inhibit the binding of radiolabeled TT to IgG from unrelated subjects and from family members of the idiotype donors. Idiotypic crossreactivity with unrelated individuals was infrequent and weak but was frequent and stronger among siblings. The strongest idiotypic crossreactivity was seen between identical twins in studies using four anti-ID raised against the anti-TT idiotypes of two sets of twins. The results of the present study suggest that idiotypic determinants restricted to human anti-TT antibodies are, at least in part, encoded by inherited genes, which are infrequently shared among unrelated individuals. PMID:3558824

  15. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Inactivated.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every winter, usually between October and May. Flu is caused by the influenza virus, and can

  16. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Live idiomas. Visite www.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease by the influenza virus, and can be spread by coughing, sneezing, and close contact. Anyone can get flu

  17. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Lien, Jyh-Ming

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Inactivated idiomas. Visite www.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every winter, usually between October and May. Flu is caused by influenza

  18. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 566: Update on immunization and pregnancy: tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    In the face of dramatic and persistent increases in pertussis disease in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has updated its guidelines for the use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) for pregnant women. The new guidance was issued based on an imperative to minimize the significant burden of pertussis disease in vulnerable newborns, the reassuring safety data on the use of Tdap in adults, and the evolving immunogenicity data that demonstrate considerable waning of immunity after immunization. The revised Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines recommend that health care personnel administer a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy, irrespective of the patient's prior history of receiving Tdap. To maximize the maternal antibody response and passive antibody transfer and levels in the newborn, optimal timing for Tdap administration is between 27 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation, although Tdap may be given at any time during pregnancy. However, there may be compelling reasons to vaccinate earlier in pregnancy. There is no evidence of adverse fetal effects from vaccinating pregnant women with an inactivated virus or bacterial vaccines or toxoids, and a growing body of robust data demonstrates safety of such use. For women who previously have not received Tdap, if Tdap was not administered during pregnancy it should be administered immediately postpartum to the mother in order to reduce the risk of transmission to the newborn. Additionally, other family members and planned direct caregivers also should receive Tdap as previously recommended (sustained efforts at cocooning). Given the rapid evolution of data surrounding this topic, immunization guidelines are likely to change over time and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists will continue to issue updates accordingly. PMID:23812487

  19. Oral immunization of a live attenuated Escherichia coli strain expressing a holotoxin-structured adhesin-toxoid fusion (1FaeG-FedF-LTA?:5LTB) protected young pigs against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-03-01

    ETEC strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and enterotoxins are the predominant cause of porcine post-weaning diarrhea (PWD). PWD continues causing significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. Vaccines effectively protecting against PWD are needed. Our recent study revealed that a tripartite adhesin-toxin monomer (FaeG-FedF-LT(A2-B)) elicited protective antibodies. In this study, we constructed a new adhesin-toxoid fusion, expressed it as a 1A:5B holotoxin-structured antigen (1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B)) in an avirulent Escherichia coli strain, and evaluated its vaccine potential in pig challenge studies. Piglets orally inoculated with this live strain showed no adverse effects but developed systemic and mucosal antibodies that neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence of K88 and F18 fimbriae in vitro. Moreover, the immunized piglets, when were challenged with ETEC strain 3030-2 (K88ac/LT/STb), had significant fewer bacteria colonized at small intestines and did not develop diarrhea; whereas the control piglets developed severe diarrhea and died. These results indicated the 1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B) fusion antigen induced protective antiadhesin and antitoxin immunity in pigs, and suggested a live attenuated vaccine can be potentially developed against porcine ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, presenting antigens in a holotoxin structure to target host local mucosal immunity can be used in vaccine development against other enteric diseases. PMID:23375979

  20. Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 in Malaria-Naive, Exposed, and\\/or -Rechallenged Aotus vociferans Monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREA F. EGAN; MICHAEL J. BLACKMAN; DAVID C. KASLOW

    2000-01-01

    Protection against a lethal challenge infection of Plasmodium falciparum was elicited in malaria-naive Aotus vociferans monkeys by vaccination with the C terminus 19-kDa protein of the major merozoite surface protein (MSP-119) fused to tetanus toxoid universal T-cell epitopes P30 and P2. Three of four monkeys were protected against a 10 4 -parasite challenge. Four monkeys were challenged with 10 5

  1. Rotavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jacqueline E; Patel, Manish M; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin; Fleming, Jessica; Lewis, Kristen; Jiang, Baoming; Gentsch, Jon; Steele, Duncan; Parashar, Umesh D

    2011-01-01

    Early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in the Americas, Europe, and in Australia have documented substantial declines in rotavirus disease burden following the introduction of vaccination. However, the full public health impact of rotavirus vaccines has not been realized as they have not been introduced into routine immunization programs in countries of Africa and Asia with the highest rotavirus disease morbidity and mortality burden. In this article, we review the epidemiology of rotavirus disease, the development and current status of rotavirus vaccines including newly available vaccine impact data from early-introducer countries, and future priorities for implementation and monitoring of rotavirus vaccination programs in developing countries. PMID:22108032

  2. Mucosal Adjuvant Potential of Quillaja saponins and Cross-linked Dextran Microspheres, Co-administered with Liposomes Encapsulated with Tetanus Toxoid

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam Ariaee, Faezeh; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal vaccination is particularly a striking route for mucosal immunization, due to the ease of administration and the induction of both mucosal and humoral immunity. However, soluble antigens (Ag) are not sufficiently taken up after the nasal administration and need to be co-administered with adjuvants, penetration enhancers or encapsulated in particles. So, in this study, tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model Ag was entrapped in nonionic liposomes. The effect of the co-administration of Quillaja saponin (QS) as an adjuvant and cross-linked dextran microspheres (CDM) as penetration enhancer on immune responses was also studied. TT or TT + QS loaded liposomes were prepared by dehydration-rehydration method (DRV), followed by the extrusion through 400 nm filters. Some formulations were mixed with CDM. Liposomes were first characterized for their size range, mean diameter and morphology using particle size analyzer, optical and transmission electron microscopes. The volume mean diameter of liposomes was determined as 3836 ± 179 and 624 ± 114 nm before and after the extrusion, respectively. Structural efficiency of TT extracted from liposomes was confirmed by SDS-PAGE method. Encapsulation efficiencies of TT and QS were 44 ± 8.50% and 60 ± 6.02%, respectively. Rabbits were nasally immunized with various formulations and serum IgG titers and nasal lavage sIgA titers were determined by an ELISA method. TT + QS liposomes induced higher sIgA levels in comparison with TT liposomes (p < 0.05), but the difference in serum IgG levels was not significant. Results indicated that neutral liposomes administered nasally, have a good potential for induction of mucosal immunity and co-encapsulation of QS and TT in liposomes improved the systemic and mucosal immune responses. PMID:24250499

  3. Approaches to the control of acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Corbel, M J; Xing, D K; Bolgiano, B; Hockley, D J

    1999-06-01

    The quality control of acellular pertussis vaccines presents particular problems related to the differences in composition and method of detoxification used in the various type of preparation. These vaccines are not amenable to potency assay by the active mouse protection test used for whole-cell pertussis vaccines and assurance of protective activity is problematic. In contrast, monitoring of these vaccines for safety is relatively straightforward and is centred on assays for the lipooligosaccharide endotoxin, active pertussis toxin and absence of reversion to toxicity of detoxified product. The absence of heat-labile toxin, tracheal cytotoxin and adenyl cyclase toxin is assumed provided that adequate validation of the process has been performed. Confirmation of the antigenic content of the detoxified bulk components is difficult to achieve by conventional binding assays based on monoclonal antibodies because of changes in accessibility of reactive sites post-toxoiding. However, single radial diffusion assay using polyclonal antisera permits estimation of pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (P69). Dot blot immunoassay can be used for the fimbrial agglutinogens 2 and 3 (Fim 2 and 3) and potentially could also be used to check the composition of final filling lots for PT, FHA, P69 and Fim 2 and 3. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting can be applied to monitor purity of purified bulk components and the characteristics of these change after chemical detoxification. Electron microscopy provides a useful semi-quantitative supporting method for checking purity of bulk components. Physico-chemical examination, particularly CD and fluorescence spectroscopy, offer a means of monitoring the consistency of detoxified bulk components. No completely satisfactory method is available for monitoring potency. Immunogenicity assays may be useful for checking consistency but do not necessarily correlate with protection. At present, active protection against aerosol challenge offers the best prospect of a functional assay. PMID:10600202

  4. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    Stone, John W.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Blum, David L.; Kuhn, Sam J.; Wright, David W.; Crowe, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, confocal microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine-induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response. PMID:23799651

  5. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, John W.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Blum, David L.; Kuhn, Sam J.; Wright, David W.; Crowe, James E., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response.

  6. Cancer Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are now giving researchers the knowledge required to design cancer treatment vaccines that can accomplish both goals ( ... al. TRICOM vector based cancer vaccines. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2006; 12(3):351–361. [PubMed Abstract] Zou ...

  7. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Asthma Concussions Smart Snacking HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > HPV Vaccine Print A A ...

  8. Vaccine trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Farrington; E. Miller

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews some of the issues involved in evaluating vaccines in humans. Vaccine trials are required for licensure\\u000a and are essential for demonsrating a vaccine’s safety and protective efficacy. The formal framework of phase I, II, and III\\u000a trials is described, with particular emphasis on the choice of hypotheses, trial design, and biases that arise in the context\\u000a of

  9. Pneumococcal vaccine and opsonic pneumococcal antibody.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Young; Moseley, M Allen; Burton, Robert L; Nahm, Moon H

    2013-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for the majority of bacterial pneumonia cases as well as invasive pneumococcal diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Use of conjugate vaccines targeting the pneumococcal capsule has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive diseases, and there are active efforts to further improve the conjugate vaccines. However, in children new pneumococcal vaccines can no longer be tested with placebo-based clinical trials because effective vaccines are currently available. Thus, vaccine studies must depend on surrogate markers of vaccine efficacy. Although traditional antibody levels (e.g., ELISA) are useful as a surrogate marker of protection, they have limitations, and a bioassay measuring the capacity of antibodies to opsonize pneumococci has been developed. This opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA) replicates the in vivo mechanism of antibody protection and should therefore better reflect protection by vaccine-induced antibodies. Technical improvements of OPA have made this bioassay rapid, multiplexed, and practical for analyzing small samples including those from children. Strong correlations between ELISA and OPA have been observed in many studies of young children. However, poor correlations have been found in some important clinical situations (such as determination of protection by cross-reactive antibodies) and populations (such as elderly adults and immunodeficient patients). In these settings, OPA has become a useful supplementary measure of pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity. Current efforts to standardize OPA will further expand its uses. PMID:23657429

  10. Vaccination Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Meade, Douglas B.

    Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic Models Douglas B. Meade Department of Mathematics University://www.math.sc.edu/~meade/ 27 May 1999 #12; May 1999 IMA Mathematical Biology Seminar 0 Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic and natural death -- no death from infection -- no vaccination Ref: Shulgin, Stone, and Agur, Bull Math Bio

  11. Rabies vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Carlos Paolazzi; Oscar Pérez; Javier De Filippo

    1999-01-01

    Rabies vaccines produced by means of molecular biology are described. Recombinant vaccines employing either viruses as vectors\\u000a (vaccinia, adenovirus, poxvirus, baculovirus, plant viruses) or a plasmid vector carrying the rabies virus glycoprotein gene\\u000a are discussed. Synthetic peptide technology directed to rabies vaccine production is also presented.

  12. Men with Low Vitamin A Stores Respond Adequately to Primary Yellow Fever and Secondary Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current recommendations for vitamin A intake and liver stores (20 mg/g) are based on maintaining normal vision. Higher levels may be required for maintaining normal immune function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an 8 wk residential study among 36 healthy Bangladeshi men with low serum retino...

  13. Glycoprotein Vaccines DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006327

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ben G.

    Glycoprotein Vaccines DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006327 A Coordinated Synthesis and Conjugation Strategy and use of well-defined glycoprotein therapeutics and glyco- vaccines--uniform in sugar, site, and level eval- uate the structure­activity relationships (SARs) between glycoprotein and immunogenicity, we have

  14. Therapeutic HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine?

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Therapeutic HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine? A vaccine is a medical product designed to stimulate there are currently no vaccines to prevent or treat HIV, researchers are developing and testing potential HIV vaccines. HIV vaccines designed to prevent HIV infection in HIV negative people are called preventive vaccines

  15. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume. Images p190-a p191-a p193-a p196-a PMID:9182305

  16. O:2-CRM197 Conjugates against Salmonella Paratyphi A

    PubMed Central

    Micoli, Francesca; Rondini, Simona; Gavini, Massimiliano; Lanzilao, Luisa; Medaglini, Donata; Saul, Allan; Martin, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric fevers remain a common and serious disease, affecting mainly children and adolescents in developing countries. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was believed to cause most enteric fever episodes, but several recent reports have shown an increasing incidence of S. Paratyphi A, encouraging the development of a bivalent vaccine to protect against both serovars, especially considering that at present there is no vaccine against S. Paratyphi A. The O-specific polysaccharide (O:2) of S. Paratyphi A is a protective antigen and clinical data have previously demonstrated the potential of using O:2 conjugate vaccines. Here we describe a new conjugation chemistry to link O:2 and the carrier protein CRM197, using the terminus 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO), thus leaving the O:2 chain unmodified. The new conjugates were tested in mice and compared with other O:2-antigen conjugates, synthesized adopting previously described methods that use CRM197 as carrier protein. The newly developed conjugation chemistry yielded immunogenic conjugates with strong serum bactericidal activity against S. Paratyphi A. PMID:23144798

  17. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  18. Designer vaccines to prevent infections due to group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Kasper, D L

    1995-10-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the major cause of serious infections in neonates and an important cause of infection in adults, particularly peripartum women and patients with diabetes mellitus and malignancy. Immunity to GBS in neonates is associated with naturally acquired maternal antibodies to the type-specific capsular polysaccharides of these organisms. IgG class antibodies directed to these polysaccharides are passed transplacentally and protect the child from invasive GBS disease. Phase I and II clinical trials showed that the purified polysaccharides had limited immunogenicity. However, vaccine responders passed functional IgG class antibodies to their children. A glycoconjugate vaccine has been designed so that the type-specific polysaccharides are covalently linked to a carrier protein. This secondary amine linkage is between aldehyde groups created on the eighth carbon of a selected number of periodate-oxidized sialic acid residues of the polysaccharide and epsilon-amino groups on lysine residues of tetanus toxoid. Careful epitope mapping studies had demonstrated that modification by controlled periodate oxidation could be accomplished and that an important conformational epitope on the polysaccharide would be preserved. Preclinical testing of the glycoconjugate vaccines in animal models of GBS disease demonstrated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine-induced antibodies. Phase I clinical testing of the glycoconjugate vaccine is in progress, and the early results appear promising. PMID:8608425

  19. Tumor endothelial marker 1–specific DNA vaccination targets tumor vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Facciponte, John G.; Ugel, Stefano; De Sanctis, Francesco; Li, Chunsheng; Wang, Liping; Nair, Gautham; Sehgal, Sandy; Raj, Arjun; Matthaiou, Efthymia; Coukos, George; Facciabene, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1; also known as endosialin or CD248) is a protein found on tumor vasculature and in tumor stroma. Here, we tested whether TEM1 has potential as a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy by immunizing immunocompetent mice with Tem1 cDNA fused to the minimal domain of the C fragment of tetanus toxoid (referred to herein as Tem1-TT vaccine). Tem1-TT vaccination elicited CD8+ and/or CD4+ T cell responses against immunodominant TEM1 protein sequences. Prophylactic immunization of animals with Tem1-TT prevented or delayed tumor formation in several murine tumor models. Therapeutic vaccination of tumor-bearing mice reduced tumor vascularity, increased infiltration of CD3+ T cells into the tumor, and controlled progression of established tumors. Tem1-TT vaccination also elicited CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses against murine tumor-specific antigens. Effective Tem1-TT vaccination did not affect angiogenesis-dependent physiological processes, including wound healing and reproduction. Based on these data and the widespread expression of TEM1 on the vasculature of different tumor types, we conclude that targeting TEM1 has therapeutic potential in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24642465

  20. Vaccination of travelers: how far have we come and where are we going?

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Hill, David R; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2011-11-01

    Vaccine recommendations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. We review progress made in the past decade regarding vaccines used primarily by persons traveling from high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries. The combined hepatitis A-B vaccine, the recently licensed Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine and conjugated quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines are discussed. This article provides updates on yellow fever vaccine-associated visceral and neurologic adverse events, indications for influenza vaccine in travelers, the rapid immunization schedule for tick-borne encephalitis vaccine, schedules for postexposure rabies prophylaxis, and new insights about oral cholera vaccines following the outbreak in Haiti. The future should bring vaccines for serogroup B Neiserria meningitidis, dengue and malaria, as well as an inactivated yellow fever vaccine. PMID:22043959

  1. A plant-based oral vaccine to protect against systemic intoxication by Shiga toxin type 2.

    PubMed

    Wen, Sharon X; Teel, Louise D; Judge, Nicole A; O'Brien, Alison D

    2006-05-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome, the leading cause of kidney failure in children, often follows infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and is mediated by the Shiga type toxins, particularly type 2 (Stx2), produced by such strains. The challenge in protecting against this life-threatening syndrome is to stimulate an immune response at the site of infection while also protecting against Shiga intoxication at distal sites such as the kidney. As one approach to meeting this challenge, we sought to develop and characterize a prototypic orally delivered, plant-based vaccine against Stx2, an AB5 toxin. First, we genetically inactivated the Stx2 active A subunit gene and then optimized both subunit genes for expression in plants. The toxoid genes were then transformed into the Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) cell line NT-1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Toxoid expression was detected in NT-1 cell extracts, and the assembly of the holotoxoid was confirmed. Finally, mice were immunized by feeding with the toxoid-expressing NT-1 cells or by parenteral immunization followed by oral vaccination (prime-boost strategy). The immunized mice produced Stx2-specific mucosal IgA and Stx2-neutralizing serum IgG. The protective efficacy of these responses was assessed by challenging the immunized mice with E. coli O91:H21 strain B2F1, an isolate that produces an activatable variant of Stx2 (Stx2d) and is lethal to mice. The oral immunization fully protected mice from the challenge. Results of this study demonstrated that a plant-based oral vaccine can confer protection against lethal systemic intoxication. PMID:16641102

  2. Irradiation of the Crude Venom of Bothrops jararacussu to Obtain Toxoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Camila G.; Avalloni, Tânia M.; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; de J. Oliveira, Sara; de Oliveira, José M.; Cogo, José C.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to reduce the toxicity of Bothrops jararacussu venom using gamma-rays of low-energy coming from a source of Americium-241 (E = 59.6 keV and 3.7×109 Bq of activity) in order to obtain a toxoid. The radiation dose that each sample received was controlled by exposure time of the venom to the radiation beam. Mouse nerve phrenic-diaphragm preparation was used for testing the loss of venom toxicity, since the venom causes an irreversible neuromuscular blockade. In this condition, the several samples of irradiated venom, when assayed in neuromuscular preparation showed that with a dose of 0.051 Gy the paralysis caused by the irradiated venom was of 91%, at 0.360 Gy was of 79%, at 1.662 Gy was of 50% and at 2.448 Gy was of 42%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the irradiation model was able to induce a progressive loss of the venom toxicity.

  3. Formulation, characterization and release studies of alginate microspheres encapsulated with tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Tafaghodi, M; Sajadi Tabasi, S A; Jaafari, M R

    2006-01-01

    Alginate is a safe, non-immunogenic and inexpensive natural polymer with high mucoadhesive properties. Alginate microspheres can be used as a delivery system for antigens to mucosal surfaces. In the present study alginate microspheres were prepared by an emulsification technique. The effects of sonication time, concentration of alginate, emulsifier and calcium chloride, and also the volume of calcium solution, were evaluated on mean size, size range, surface roughness and porosity, sphericity and clumping of microspheres using an optical microscope and particle size analyzer. The most desirable conditions were 90 s sonication, 3% alginate solution, 2% surfactant and 60 ml of 0.33% CaCl2 in octanol. The resulting microspheres had a mean size of 1.34 +/- 0.3 microm and size range of 0.3 +/- 2.0 microm, with no surface roughness and porosity, low clumping and high sphericity. The encapsulation efficiency was about 47.7%. All batches showed nearly the same release profiles with a low burst release. The stability of the model antigen (tetanus toxoid (TT)) extracted from microspheres was confirmed by SDS-PAGE; and the antigenicity of TT was studied by ELISA and found to be 91 +/- 5% of the original TT. It can be concluded that, with regard to the size and morphological characteristics of the prepared microspheres and their ability in preserving the antigenicity of the encapsulated TT, they could be used as a delivery system for mucosal delivery of TT. PMID:17024880

  4. Panel 6: Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, Stephen I.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Godfroid, Fabrice; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Leach, Amanda; Patel, Janak; Murphy, Timothy F.; Selak, Sanja; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To update progress on the effectiveness of vaccine for prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and identification of promising candidate antigens against Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Review Methods Literature searches were performed in OvidSP and PubMed restricted to articles published between June 2007 and September 2011. Search terms included otitis media, vaccines, vaccine antigens, and each of the otitis pathogens and candidate antigens identified in the ninth conference report. Conclusions The current report provides further evidence for the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in the prevention of otitis media. Observational studies demonstrate a greater decline in AOM episodes than reported in clinical efficacy trials. Unmet challenges include extending protection to additional serotypes and additional pathogens, the need to prevent early episodes, the development of correlates of protection for protein antigens, and the need to define where an otitis media vaccine strategy fits with priorities for child health. Implications for Practice Acute otitis media continues to be a burden on children and families, especially those who suffer from frequent recurrences. The 7-valent PCV (PCV7) has reduced the burden of disease as well as shifted the pneumococcal serotypes and the distribution of otopathogens currently reported in children with AOM. Antibiotic resistance remains an ongoing challenge. Multiple candidate antigens have demonstrated the necessary requirements of conservation, surface exposure, immunogenicity, and protection in animal models. Further research on the role of each antigen in pathogenesis, in the development of correlates of protection in animal models, and in new adjuvants to elicit responses in the youngest infants is likely to be productive and permit more antigens to move into human clinical trials. PMID:23536534

  5. Nanogel antigenic protein-delivery system for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nochi, Tomonori; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Haruko; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Mejima, Mio; Kohda, Tomoko; Harada, Norihiro; Kong, Il Gyu; Sato, Ayuko; Kataoka, Nobuhiro; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kurokawa, Shiho; Takahashi, Yuko; Tsukada, Hideo; Kozaki, Shunji; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an innovative method of freely controlling nanometre-sized materials. Recent outbreaks of mucosal infectious diseases have increased the demands for development of mucosal vaccines because they induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. Here we developed an intranasal vaccine-delivery system with a nanometre-sized hydrogel (`nanogel') consisting of a cationic type of cholesteryl-group-bearing pullulan (cCHP). A non-toxic subunit fragment of Clostridium botulinum type-A neurotoxin BoHc/A administered intranasally with cCHP nanogel (cCHP-BoHc/A) continuously adhered to the nasal epithelium and was effectively taken up by mucosal dendritic cells after its release from the cCHP nanogel. Vigorous botulinum-neurotoxin-A-neutralizing serum IgG and secretory IgA antibody responses were induced without co-administration of mucosal adjuvant. Importantly, intranasally administered cCHP-BoHc/A did not accumulate in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Moreover, intranasally immunized tetanus toxoid with cCHP nanogel induced strong tetanus-toxoid-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. These results indicate that cCHP nanogel can be used as a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccination.

  6. 9 CFR 113.110 - Clostridium Botulinum Type C Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...intraperitoneally with botulinum Type C toxin which has been titrated in mice to provide for a 104.0 mouse MLD dose. The titration technique shall include inoculation of the mice intraperitoneally. (2) The vaccinates and controls shall be...

  7. Vaccine allergies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the increasing numbers of vaccine administrations are associated with increased reports of adverse vaccine reactions. Whilst the general adverse reactions including allergic reactions caused by the vaccine itself or the vaccine components, are rare, they can in some circumstances be serious and even fatal. In accordance with many IgE-mediated reactions and immediate-type allergic reactions, the primary allergens are proteins. The proteins most often implicated in vaccine allergies are egg and gelatin, with perhaps rare reactions to yeast or latex. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the injectable influenza vaccine can be safely administered, although with appropriate precautions, to patients with severe egg allergy, as the current influenza vaccines contain small trace amounts of egg protein. If an allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and decision regarding re-vaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. Facilities and health care professionals should be available to treat immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) in all settings where vaccines are administered. PMID:24427763

  8. Duration of immunity induced by an adjuvanted and inactivated equine influenza, tetanus and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 combination vaccine.

    PubMed

    Heldens, J G; Kersten, A J; Weststrate, M W; van den Hoven, R

    2001-11-01

    An adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated equine influenza, herpesvirus antigens, and tetanus toxoid was administered to young seronegative foals of 8 months of age by deep intramuscular injection in the neck (Group A). The first two vaccinations were given 4 weeks apart. The third was administered 6 months later. Another group of foals (Group B) was vaccinated according to the same scheme at the same time with monovalent equine herpes virus (EHV) vaccine (EHV1.4) vaccine. Antibody responses to the equine influenza (single radial haemolysis; SRH) and tetanus (ToBi ELISA) components of the vaccines were examined from first vaccination until 1 year after the third vaccination. The influenza components of the combination vaccine induced high antibody titres at two weeks after the second vaccination whereafter titres declined until the time of the third vaccination. After the third vaccination, the titres rose rapidly again to remain high for at least 1 year. Antibody titres against tetanus peaked only after the third vaccination but remained high enough to offer protective immunity for at least 1 year. Foals vaccinated with monovalent EHV1.4 remained seronegative for influenza and tetanus throughout the study. Four and a half months after the third vaccination of groups A and B, a third group of animals was vaccinated twice with monovalent EHV1.4 vaccine 4 weeks apart (Group C). Two weeks after the administration of the second dose in the later group, all groups (A, B, C and an unvaccinated control group D) were challenged with EHV-4. Vaccinated foals (Group A, B, C) showed a clear reduction of clinical symptoms and virus excretion after EHV-4 challenge compared with the unvaccinated control foals. No difference could be demonstrated among the vaccinated groups, suggesting that the combination vaccine protects as well as the monovalent vaccine. In EHV1.4-vaccinated foals both antigenic fractions induced clear protection up to 6 months after vaccination (9). It can therefore be anticipated that the efficacy of the combination vaccine against EHV-1 challenge is similar to the efficacy against EHV-1 induced by EHV1.4 vaccination. PMID:11765243

  9. DNA conjugation andDNA conjugation and reversibility onreversibility on

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    DNA conjugation andDNA conjugation and reversibility onreversibility on chitosan surfaceschitosan surfaceschitosan surfaceschitosan surfaces Rubloff Research Group Accomplishments #12;DNA conjugation and reversibility onDNA conjugation and reversibility on chitosan surfaceschitosan surfaces Accomplishment Single

  10. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jennifer B; Breman, Joel G; Manclark, Charles R; Meade, Bruce D; Collins, William E; Lobel, Hans O; Saliou, Pierre; Roberts, Jacquelin M; Campaoré, Pierre; Miller, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Background Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi), stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following administration of measles vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP) vaccines. Methods In 1975, six villages divided into two groups of children ?74 months of age from Burkina Faso, were assigned to receive amodiaquine hydrochloride chemoprophylaxis (CH+) every two weeks for seven months or no chemoprophylaxis (CH-). After five months, children in each group received either one dose of measles or two doses of DTP vaccines. Results For recipients of the measles vaccine, the seroconversion rates in CH+ and CH- children, respectively, were 93% and 96% (P > 0.05). The seroresponse rates in CH+ and CH- children respectively, were 73% and 86% for diphtheria (P > 0.05) and 77% and 91% for tetanus toxoid (P > 0.05). In a subset analysis, in which only children who strictly adhered to chemoprophylaxis criteria were included, there were, likewise, no significant differences in seroconversion or seroresponse for measles, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccines (P > 0.05). While analysis for pertussis showed a 43% (CH+) and 67% (CH-) response (P < 0.05), analyses using logistic regression to control for sex, age, chemoprophylaxis, weight-for-height Z-score, and pre-vaccination geometric mean titer (GMT), demonstrated that chemoprophylaxis was not associated with a significantly different conversion rate following DTP and measles vaccines. Seven months of chemoprophylaxis decreased significantly the malaria IFA and ELISA GMTs in the CH+ group. Conclusion Malaria chemoprophylaxis prior to vaccination in malaria endemic settings did not improve or impair immunogenicity of DTP and measles vaccines. This is the first human study to look at the association between malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to whole-cell pertussis vaccine. PMID:16271153

  11. Vaccination coverage survey in Dhaka District.

    PubMed

    Khan, M N A; Rahman, M L; Awal Miah, A; Islam, M S; Musa, S A J M; Tofail, F

    2005-08-01

    A survey was conducted in Dhaka District to measure the level of routine immunization coverage of children (12-23 months), to assess the tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization coverage among mothers of children (12-23 month), to evaluate EPI program continuity (dropout rates) and quality (percent of Invalid doses, vaccination card availability etc.) For this purpose, a thirty cluster cross-sectional survey was conducted in October 2002 to assess the immunization coverage in Dhaka. In this survey 30 clusters were randomly selected from a list of villages in 63 Unions of Dhaka following probability proportion to size (PPS) sampling procedure. A total of 210 children was studied using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was employed using software SPSS package for data analysis. The study showed that the routine immunization coverage in Dhaka among children by 12 months of age by card + history was 97% for BCG, 97% for Diphtheria, Pertussis Tetanus (DPT 1) and Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV 1), 75% for DPT3 and OPV3 and 67% for measles. Sixty six percent of all children surveyed had received valid doses of all vaccines by 12 months (fully immunized child). Programme access as measured by crude DPT1 coverage was better in Keranigonj (97%). Vaccination cards retention rate for children was 84%. Invalid DPT (1,2 or 3) doses were given to 25% of vaccinated children; 18% of measles doses were invalid. Surprisingly, major cause for invalid doses were not due to early immunizations or due to card lost but for giving tick in the card, instead of writing a valid date. DPT1 and DPT3 and DPT1- Measles drop out rates were 5% and 13% respectively. Major reason parents gave for never vaccinating their children (zero dose children) was (43%), major reasons for incomplete vaccination was lack of knowledge regarding subsequent doses (46%). TT surveys were also conducted for mothers of the children surveyed for vaccination coverage (mothers between 15-49 year old). Valid TT 1-5 coverage by card+ history was 97%, 55%, 44%, 24% and 11%, respectively. Card retention rate for TT was 67%. The findings of this study revealed that access to child and TT immunizations were good. But high dropouts and invalid doses reduced these percentages of fully immunized child to 66%. Programmatic strategy must be undertaken to reduce the existing high dropout rate in both child and TT immunizations. PMID:16967809

  12. Filovirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bradfute, Steven B; Dye, John M

    2011-01-01

    Filoviruses can cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Although there are currently no clinically proven treatments for filovirus disease, much progress has been made in recent years in the discovery of therapeutics and vaccines against these viruses. A variety of vaccine platforms have been shown to be effective against filovirus infection. This review summarizes the literature in this field, focusing on vaccines that have been shown to protect NHPs from infection. Furthermore, the uses of rodent models in vaccine development, as well as correlates of immunity, are discussed. PMID:21519188

  13. Preventive HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine?

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Preventive HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine? A vaccine is a medical product designed to stimulate infection or make you sick. What is the difference between a preventive HIV vaccine and a therapeutic HIV vaccine? Therapeutic HIV vaccines are designed to control HIV infection in people who are already HIV

  14. Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of middle ear fluid pathogens in Costa Rican children with otitis media before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the National Immunization Program: acute otitis media microbiology in Costa Rican children.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K

    2015-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010-2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3-59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (? 2 PCV7 doses or ? 1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9.7%), 6B (9.7%), and 14 (9.7%) pre-PCV7 introduction, and 19F (27.6%), 14 (8.0%), and 35B (8.0%) post-PCV7 introduction. Following PCV7 introduction, a change in the distribution of AOM episodes caused by H. influenzae and pneumococcal serotypes included in PCV7 was observed in Costa Rican children. Pneumococcal vaccines impact should be further evaluated following broader vaccination coverage. PMID:25590837

  15. Vaccines within vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus Types 4 and 7 (Ad4 and Ad7) are associated with acute respiratory distress (ARD). In order to prevent widespread Ad-associated ARD (Ad-ARD) the United States military immunizes new recruits using a safe and effective lyophilized wildtype Ad4 and Ad7 delivered orally in an enteric-coated capsule. We cloned Ad4 and Ad7 and modified them to express either a GFP-Luciferase (GFPLuc) fusion gene or a centralized influenza H1 hemagglutinin (HA1-con). BALB/c mice were injected with GFPLuc expressing viruses intramuscularly (i.m.) and intranasally (i.n.). Ad4 induced significantly higher luciferase expression levels as compared with Ad7 by both routes. Ad7 transduction was restored using a human CD46+ transgenic mouse model. Mice immunized with serial dilutions of viruses expressing the HA1-con influenza vaccine gene were challenged with 100 MLD50 of influenza virus. Ad4 protected BALB/c mice at a lower dose by i.m. immunization as compared with Ad7. Unexpectedly, there was no difference in protection by i.n. immunization. Although Ad7 i.m. transduction was restored in CD46+ transgenic mice, protection against influenza challenge required even higher doses as compared with the BALB/c mice. However, Ad7 i.n. immunized CD46+ transgenic mice were better protected as compared with Ad4. Interestingly, the restoration of Ad7 transduction in CD46+ mice did not increase vaccine efficacy and indicates that Ad7 may transduce a different subset of cells through alternative receptors in the absence of CD46. These data indicate that both Ad4 and Ad7 can effectively induce anti-H1N1 immunity against a heterologous challenge using a centralized H1 gene. Future studies in non-human primates or human clinical trials will determine the overall effectiveness of Ad4 and Ad7 as vaccines for influenza. PMID:24280656

  16. [Towards a new vaccine economy?].

    PubMed

    Poirot, P; Martin, J F

    1994-01-01

    When Jonas Salk announced in the mid-50s the availability of a new vaccine against poliomyelitis, the world had the impression that it was now controlling infectious diseases. In fact, the success of this vaccine has been considerable and although some innovations lead to the launch of vaccines against flu, measles, rubella or mumps, the world vaccine market remained remarkably stable till the mid-80s. However, since 1984 (launch of the hepatitis B vaccine) there have been very substantial changes and further change is expected in the next ten years in the world market. Today, big companies are making a concentrated supply: Pasteur Mérieux with its subsidiary Connaught, SmithKline Beecham who acquired the Belgian company RIT, and Merck & Co. who is joining its forces with Pasteur Mérieux. Medium sized and small companies remain and reflect the situation of the past, but must work hard to secure their long term existence eventhough the world demand is going to double before the year 2000. Very substantial technological innovations explain to a large extent the development of the supply: progress in molecular biology, and particularly genetic engineering, lead to recombinant vaccines of which hepatitis B is the best example with worldwide sales in the range of $600 million a year. Similarly, conjugation technologies have allowed the development of new vaccines against meningitis, particularly Haemophilus influenzae type b. More recently, an efficacious vaccine against hepatitis A has been launched and many new products will be marketed in the next years against herpes, Lyme disease, and agents of other meningitis, etc.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921683

  17. Possible alternative to European Pharmacopoeia's method of analysis Test for Fc Function of Immunoglobulin (2.7.9) by using tetanus toxoid as antigen.

    PubMed

    Perez-del-Pulgar, S; Lopez, M; Gensana, M; Jorquera, J I

    2006-08-01

    Preparations of intravenous immunoglobulins must keep functional integrity throughout the purification process. In order to assess Fc fragment functionality, the European Pharmacopoeia proposes the Test for Fc function of immunoglobulin (2.7.9), which is based on a rubella antigen of high titre. Sometimes, such antigen is difficult to obtain. In the present study, we develop the same assay using tetanus toxoid instead of rubella antigen, adapting the procedure for the use of tetanus toxoid. The comparison between rubella-based and tetanus-based assays showed that the slopes of the haemolysis curves were higher if red blood cells had been sensitised with the rubella antigen than with tetanus toxoid. Nonetheless, the tetanus-based assay gave satisfactory results and it could be a good alternative antigen target. PMID:17694642

  18. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  19. A method of lyophilizing vaccines containing aluminum salts into a dry powder without causing particle aggregation or decreasing the immunogenicity following reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinran; Thakkar, Sachin G; Ruwona, Tinashe B; Williams, Robert O; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-04-28

    Many currently licensed and commercially available human vaccines contain aluminum salts as vaccine adjuvants. A major limitation with these vaccines is that they must not be exposed to freezing temperatures during transport or storage such that the liquid vaccine freezes, because freezing causes irreversible coagulation that damages the vaccines (e.g., loss of efficacy). Therefore, vaccines that contain aluminum salts as adjuvants are formulated as liquid suspensions and are required to be kept in cold chain (2-8°C) during transport and storage. Formulating vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum salts into dry powder that can be readily reconstituted before injection may address this limitation. Spray freeze-drying of vaccines with low concentrations of aluminum salts and high concentrations of trehalose alone, or a mixture of sugars and amino acids, as excipients can convert vaccines containing aluminum salts into dry powder, but fails to preserve the particle size and/or immunogenicity of the vaccines. In the present study, using ovalbumin as a model antigen adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate, a commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccine adjuvanted with potassium alum, a human hepatitis B vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, and a human papillomavirus vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, it was shown that vaccines containing a relatively high concentration of aluminum salts (i.e., up to ~1%, w/v, of aluminum hydroxide) can be converted into a dry powder by thin-film freezing followed by removal of the frozen solvent by lyophilization while using low levels of trehalose (i.e., as low as 2% w/v) as an excipient. Importantly, the thin-film freeze-drying process did not cause particle aggregation, nor decreased the immunogenicity of the vaccines. Moreover, repeated freezing-and-thawing of the dry vaccine powder did not cause aggregation. Thin-film freeze-drying is a viable platform technology to produce dry powders of vaccines that contain aluminum salts. PMID:25735896

  20. Vaccination Debate

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    The debate over childhood vaccination and a parent’s right to refuse or delay continues to make headlines… in the wake of the recent measles outbreak. ... request is made to spread out a child’s vaccination schedule. Researchers sent out surveys to more than ...

  1. DNA Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna L. Montgomery; Jeffrey B. Ulmer; John J. Donnelly; Margaret A. Liu

    1997-01-01

    In just a few years, injection of plasmid DNA to elicit immune responses in vivo has developed from an interesting observation to a viable vaccine strategy. DNA vaccines have been shown to elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses and to be effective in a variety of preclinical bacterial, viral, and parasitic animal models. This review will discuss the current

  2. Malaria vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Amador; Manuel E. Patarroyo

    1996-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of the malaria vaccine during the last 20 years. Ninety percent of the 300–500 million clinical cases of malaria per year worldwide occur in Africa. Thus, research must be directed toward the 1 million African children under 5 years of age who die every year of malaria. An asexual blood-stage vaccine, capable

  3. Biologic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

  4. Randomised study of the possible adjuvant effect of BCG vaccine on the immunogenicity of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in Senegalese infants.

    PubMed

    Simondon, F; Preziosi, M P; Pinchinat, S; Yam, A; Chabirand, L; Wassilak, S; Pines, E; Trape, J F; Salomon, H; Hoffenbach, A

    1999-01-01

    Following a study in Senegal (1990-1995) in which the relative efficacy of a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) was compared with that of a diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine in children given a simultaneous injection of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, this subsequent study was conducted to evaluate the possible adjuvant effect of the BCG vaccine on acellular pertussis vaccine components. A second objective was to compare the immunogenicity of these components when administered in accordance with a 2-4-6-month (spaced) schedule or an accelerated 2-3-4-month schedule. In all, 390 healthy Senegalese infants were randomly divided into three groups of 130 infants. Antibodies to acellular pertussis components were measured in serum samples obtained within 2 days of the first DTaP dose and 1 month after the third dose. BCG vaccine, given simultaneously with the DTaP vaccine, did not influence the immunogenicity of the acellular pertussis vaccine components when compared with separate administration of the two vaccines. Infants immunised according to a 2-4-6-month schedule had a significantly higher immune response than those immunised according to a 2-3-4-month schedule with respect to the response to pertussis toxoid assessed by seroneutralisation on Chinese hamster ovary cells (P<0.0001). These results suggest that BCG and DTaP vaccines can be given simultaneously without interference or enhancement and that more optimal immunogenicity is achieved with an extended than with an accelerated schedule. PMID:10192710

  5. Long-Term Effects of Tetanus Toxoid Inoculation on the Demography and Life Expectancy of the Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    KESSLER, MATTHEW J.; PACHECO, RAISA HERNÁNDEZ; RAWLINS, RICHARD G.; RUIZ-LAMBRIDES, ANGELINA; DELGADO, DIANA L.; SABAT, ALBERTO M.

    2014-01-01

    Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population’s age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates. PMID:25230585

  6. [Pneumococcal vaccination--yes or no?].

    PubMed

    Hess, T

    1998-07-01

    Invasive pneumococcal infections, defined as demonstration of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures or CSF, are frequent and associated with high mortality in risk groups. Risk groups are the over-65s, individuals with anatomic or functional asplenia, immunosuppressed patients, patients with haemotological neoplasias and HIV-infected subjects, as well as, in general, al sufferers from chronic cardiopulmonary disease, diabetics and patients with severe renal failure or nephrotic syndrome. The 23valent polysaccharide vaccine produces a reliable immune response in children aged over 2 years and adults. The immune response is diminished in severely immunocompromised subjects and in the elderly. Numerous clinical studies provide evidence of the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in the he prevention of invasive pneumococcal infection. Pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for the above mentioned risk groups. It should be observed that for the group at most risk, i.e. heavily immunosuppressed and HIV-infected subjects, there are no convincing data on clinical effectiveness. Regarding non-bacteriaemic pneumococcal pneumonias there are only pointers to the possible usefulness of polysaccharide vaccines. Booster vaccination is not recommended by the manufacturers in view of the reportedly increased incidence of side effects. Studies show that side effects are not more frequent than with primary vaccination. A single revaccination is particularly indicated in status post splenectomy. The conjugate vaccines now under development will improve the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccination and will also be usable in children aged under 2 years. PMID:9691344

  7. Rotavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G

    1998-01-01

    Encouraging results have been reported from several large trials of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine, with efficacy of 70-80% against severe disease. A recent Venezuelan study showed similar results to trials in USA and Europe. The vaccine may soon be licensed in USA. It provides the exciting prospect of a strategy to prevent one of the world's major child killers. Other candidate vaccines are under development including human-bovine reassortants, neonatal strains, non-replicating rotaviruses, vector vaccines and other genetically engineered products. Second and third generation rotavirus vaccines are on the horizon. The need for a rotavirus vaccine is well accepted by paediatricians, but public health authorities need to be lobbied. Other issues which need to be addressed include relative importance of non-group A rotaviruses, possible administration with OPV, the influence of breast feeding, and most importantly, cost. It is essential that rotavirus vaccine is somehow made available to all of the world's children, not just those in developed countries. PMID:9553287

  8. Bacterial vaccines and serotype replacement: lessons from Haemophilus influenzae and prospects for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsitch, M.

    1999-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines have reduced the incidence of invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae, type b (Hib), in industrialized countries and may be highly effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the serotype specificity of these vaccines has led to concern that their use may increase carriage of and disease from serotypes not included in the vaccine. Replacement has not occurred with the use of Hib vaccines but has occurred in trials of pneumococcal vaccines. Mathematical models can be used to elucidate these contrasting outcomes, predict the conditions under which serotype replacement is likely, interpret the results of conjugate vaccine trials, design trials that will better detect serotype replacement (if it occurs), and suggest factors to consider in choosing the serotype composition of vaccines. PMID:10341170

  9. Bacterially Produced Recombinant Influenza Vaccines Based on Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Jegerlehner, Andrea; Zabel, Franziska; Langer, Alice; Dietmeier, Klaus; Jennings, Gary T.; Saudan, Philippe; Bachmann, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Although current influenza vaccines are effective in general, there is an urgent need for the development of new technologies to improve vaccine production timelines, capacities and immunogenicity. Herein, we describe the development of an influenza vaccine technology which enables recombinant production of highly efficient influenza vaccines in bacterial expression systems. The globular head domain of influenza hemagglutinin, comprising most of the protein's neutralizing epitopes, was expressed in E. coli and covalently conjugated to bacteriophage-derived virus-like particles produced independently in E.coli. Conjugate influenza vaccines produced this way were used to immunize mice and found to elicit immune sera with high antibody titers specific for the native influenza hemagglutinin protein and high hemagglutination-inhibition titers. Moreover vaccination with these vaccines induced full protection against lethal challenges with homologous and highly drifted influenza strains. PMID:24260136

  10. Vibriobactin Antibodies: A Vaccine Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Raymond J.; Bharti, Neelam; Singh, Shailendra; McManis, James S.; Wiegand, Jan; Green, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    A new target strategy in the development of bacterial vaccines, the induction of antibodies to microbial outer membrane ferrisiderophore complexes, is explored. A vibriobactin (VIB) analogue, with a thiol tether, 1-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-5,9-bis[[(4S,5R)-2-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-4-oxazolyl]carbonyl]-14-(3-mercaptopropanoyl)-1,5,9,14-tetraazatetradecane, was synthesized and linked to ovalbumin (OVA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The antigenicity of the VIB microbial iron chelator conjugates and their iron complexes was evaluated. When mice were immunized with the resulting OVA-VIB conjugate, a selective and unequivocal antigenic response to the VIB hapten was observed; IgG monoclonal antibodies specific to the vibriobactin fragment of the BSA and OVA conjugates were isolated. The results are consistent with the idea that the isolated adducts of siderophores covalently linked to their bacterial outer membrane receptors represent a credible target for vaccine development. PMID:19492834

  11. Pertussis Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop vaccines against pertussis.

  12. Prospects for Vaccine Prevention of Meningococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Lee H.

    2006-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States and worldwide. A serogroup A/C/W-135/Y polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine has been licensed in the United States since 1981 but has not been used universally outside of the military. On 14 January 2005, a polysaccharide conjugate vaccine that covers meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y was licensed in the United States for 11- to 55-year-olds and is now recommended for the routine immunization of adolescents and other high-risk groups. This review covers the changing epidemiology of meningococcal disease in the United States, issues related to vaccine prevention, and recommendations on the use of the new vaccine. PMID:16418528

  13. DNA vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harriet L. Robinson; Celia Aurora Tiglao Torres

    1997-01-01

    DNA vaccines use eukaryotic expression vectors to produce immunizing proteins in the vaccinated host. Popular methods of delivery are intramuscular and intradermal saline injections of DNA and gene gun bombardment of skin with DNA-coated gold beads. The method of DNA inoculation (gene gun versus intramuscular injection) and the form of the DNA-expressed antigen (cell-associated versus secreted) determine whether T-cell help

  14. Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Immunization Schedules Possible Side Effects of Chickenpox Vaccine Childcare and School Vaccine Requirements Related Pages Who Should ... Immunization Schedules Possible Side Effects of Chickenpox Vaccine Childcare and School Vaccine Requirements Top of Page Images ...

  15. Low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles as new carriers for nasal vaccine delivery in mice.

    PubMed

    Vila, Ana; Sánchez, Alejandro; Janes, Kevin; Behrens, Isabel; Kissel, Thomas; Vila Jato, José Luis; Alonso, María José

    2004-01-01

    High molecular weight (Mw) chitosan (CS) solutions have already been proposed as vehicles for nasal immunization. The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential utility of low Mw CS in the form of nanoparticles as new long-term nasal vaccine delivery vehicles. For this purpose, CS of low Mws (23 and 38 kDa) was obtained previously by a depolymerization process of the commercially available CS (70 kDa). Tetanus toxoid (TT), used as a model antigen, was entrapped within CS nanoparticles by an ionic cross-linking technique. TT-loaded nanoparticles were first characterized for their size, electrical charge, loading efficiency and in vitro release of antigenically active toxoid. The nanoparticles were then administered intranasally to conscious mice in order to study their feasibility as vaccine carriers. CS nanoparticles were also labeled with FITC-BSA and their interaction with the rat nasal mucosa examined by confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM). Irrespective of the CS Mw, the nanoparticles were in the 350 nm size range, and exhibited a positive electrical charge (+40 mV) and associated TT quite efficiently (loading efficiency: 50-60%). In vitro release studies showed an initial burst followed by an extended release of antigenically active toxoid. Following intranasal administration, TT-loaded nanoparticles elicited an increasing and long-lasting humoral immune response (IgG concentrations) as compared to the fluid vaccine. Similarly, the mucosal response (IgA levels) at 6 months post-administration of TT-loaded CS nanoparticles was significantly higher than that obtained for the fluid vaccine. The CLSM images indicated that CS nanoparticles can cross the nasal epithelia and, hence, transport the associated antigen. Interestingly, the ability of these nanoparticles to provide improved access to the associated antigen to the immune system was not significantly affected by the CS Mw. Indeed, high and long-lasting responses could be obtained using low Mw CS molecules. Furthermore, the response was not influenced by the CS dose (70-200 microg), achieving a significant response for a very low CS dose. In conclusion, nanoparticles made of low Mw CS are promising carriers for nasal vaccine delivery. PMID:14729088

  16. Detection of Clostridium perfringens type C in pig herds following disease outbreak and subsequent vaccination.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, K; Wyder, M; Gobeli, S; Candi, A; Doherr, M G; Zehnder, B; Zimmermann, W; Posthaus, H

    2012-11-17

    Immunisation of sows using Clostridium perfringens type C toxoid vaccines is recommended to prevent necrotising enteritis (NE) on pig breeding farms. Absence of disease, however, oftentimes leads to the false assumption of pathogens being eradicated. The prevalence of C perfringens type C was determined by PCR in faecal samples of piglets and sows in three Swiss pig breeding farms two to four years after implementation of a vaccination programme following disease outbreaks. C perfringens type C could still be detected several years after an outbreak despite absence of NE. In-herd prevalence of the pathogens varied significantly between the farms and was also lower compared with a farm which experienced a recent outbreak. In conclusion, C perfringens type C can be detected on once-affected farms, even in the absence of NE for several years. PMID:23100304

  17. Long-term effects of tetanus toxoid inoculation on the demography and life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Matthew J; Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Ruiz-Lambrides, Angelina; Delgado, Diana L; Sabat, Alberto M

    2015-02-01

    Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population's age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates. Am. J. Primatol. 77:211-221, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25230585

  18. Toward selective elicitation of T H1-controlled vaccination responses: vaccine applications of bacterial surface layer proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrice Jahn-Schmid; Paul Messner; Frank M. Unger; Uwe B. Sleytr; Otto Scheiner; Dietrich Kraft

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial surface layer proteins have been utilized as combined vaccine carrier\\/adjuvants and offer a number of advantages in these applications. The crystalline protein arrays contain functional groups in precisely defined orientations for coupling of haptens. Conventional applications of S-layer vaccines do not cause observable trauma or side effects. Depending on the nature of the S-layer preparations, antigenic conjugates will induce

  19. Cytomegalovirus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McVoy, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    An effective cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine could prevent the majority of birth defects caused by congenital CMV infections. Candidate vaccines in clinical evaluation include live attenuated, protein subunit, DNA, and viral-vectored approaches. Subunit approaches have focused on the CMV proteins pp65 and IE1 as important inducers of cytotoxic T cells and glycoprotein B (gB) as an important inducer of neutralizing antibodies. A vaccine comprised of recombinant gB protein with MF59 adjuvant reduced the incidence of primary infection by 50%. Recent revelations regarding CMV entry pathways into different cell types suggest a possible course for improvement. A 5-subunit pentameric complex is uniquely required for endothelial and epithelial cell entry. Sera from naturally infected subjects contain high-potency neutralizing activities specific for this complex, whereas the gB/MF59 vaccine fails to induce comparable neutralizing activities. A vaccine's ability to induce salivary antibodies that neutralize epithelial cell entry may be especially important for preventing oral transmission as the first cells infected are presumably epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. In addition, recent evidence suggests that antibodies can inhibit postentry CMV spread between endothelial and epithelial cells. Such activities may serve to limit viral replication in tissues or impair dissemination to the placenta and fetus. Thus, inclusion of epitopes derived from the pentameric complex may provide enhanced efficacy by inducing potent neutralizing/spread-inhibiting antibodies that target virus replication in a broad spectrum of cell types. Next-generation vaccine candidates in preclinical development incorporate peptides, subunits, or multisubunit complexes representing parts or all of the pentameric complex. Approaches include peptides, recombinant proteins, DNA, replication-defective viral vectors, genetically disabled CMV, and inactivated CMV virions. The diversity of novel strategies under development engenders optimism that a successful candidate will emerge. PMID:24257427

  20. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic vaccinia virus vaccine: Promising in liver cancer patients FDA panel endorses quadrivalent influenza vaccines Approval for the first meningitis B vaccine Stallergenes seeks FDA approval for sublingual grass-pollen allergy tablet Live-attenuated dengue vaccine promising in Phase 1 GAVI funds HPV vaccines for girls in developing countries First human trials for new superantigen bioterrorism vaccine Hexyon hexavalent pediatric vaccine recommended for approval