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1

Characterization and immunogenicity of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine prepared using hydrazide-activated tetanus toxoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steps to produce, purify and control an immunogenic Brazilian conjugate vaccine against group C meningococcus (MenCPS–TT) using hydrazide-activated tetanus toxoid were developed. The conjugation methodology reduced the reaction time easily allowing scale-up. One freeze-dried pilot vaccine lot purified by tangential filtration, showed satisfactory quality control results including safety and stability. The pilot vaccine was immunogenic in mice in a

I. A. F. B. Silveira; R. C. Bastos; M. S. Neto; A. P. Laranjeira; E. F. Assis; S. A. R. Fernandes; M. L. Leal; W. C. Silva; C.-H. Lee; C. E. Frasch; J. M. Peralta; E. Jessouroun

2007-01-01

2

Characterization and immunogenicity of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine prepared using hydrazide-activated tetanus toxoid.  

PubMed

The steps to produce, purify and control an immunogenic Brazilian conjugate vaccine against group C meningococcus (MenCPS-TT) using hydrazide-activated tetanus toxoid were developed. The conjugation methodology reduced the reaction time easily allowing scale-up. One freeze-dried pilot vaccine lot purified by tangential filtration, showed satisfactory quality control results including safety and stability. The pilot vaccine was immunogenic in mice in a dose-dependent fashion generating a 10-20-fold rise in IgG response in mice. The vaccine also induced high bactericidal titers. Vaccine concentrations of 1 and 0.1 microg showed higher avidity indices, suggesting induction of immunologic memory. These results support initiation of Phase I clinical studies with the MenCPS-TT conjugate vaccine. PMID:17719147

Silveira, I A F B; Bastos, R C; Neto, M S; Laranjeira, A P; Assis, E F; Fernandes, S A R; Leal, M L; Silva, W C; Lee, C-H; Frasch, C E; Peralta, J M; Jessouroun, E

2007-10-10

3

Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease  

PubMed Central

Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses) have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines – MenACWY-DT (Menactra®) and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo®) – using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix®) was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of MenACWY-TT in infants from the age of 6 weeks. PMID:24729718

Hedari, Carine P; Khinkarly, Rima W; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

2014-01-01

4

Neonatal mouse protection against infection with multiple group B streptococcal (GBS) serotypes by maternal immunization with a tetravalent GBS polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.  

PubMed Central

Most cases of neonatal sepsis and meningitis caused by group B streptococci (GBS) are attributable to one of four major capsular serotypes: Ia, Ib, II, or III. Because resistance to infection with GBS has been correlated with the presence of serum antibodies to the type-specific capsular polysaccharides in both experimental animals and human neonates, efforts have been made to elicit protective immunity with GBS capsular polysaccharide vaccines. However, the GBS capsular polysaccharides alone are not highly immunogenic in either animals or human volunteers. Therefore, we and other investigators have attempted to enhance immunogenicity by coupling individual capsular polysaccharides to a carrier protein. Here we report the synthesis and immunogenicity in rabbits of a GBS type Ib polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid vaccine prepared by the direct, covalent attachment of tetanus toxoid to a selected number of sialic acid residues on the type-specific polysaccharide. In addition, the Ib polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine was combined with similar tetanus toxoid conjugates of GBS type Ia, II, and III polysaccharides to form a tetravalent GBS conjugate vaccine. Protective efficacy of the GBS tetravalent conjugate vaccine was demonstrated in a mouse maternal immunization-neonatal challenge model of GBS infection. The results support testing in human subjects of a multivalent GBS conjugate vaccine of this design, with the eventual goal of protecting newborns against GBS infection. PMID:8039893

Paoletti, L C; Wessels, M R; Rodewald, A K; Shroff, A A; Jennings, H J; Kasper, D L

1994-01-01

5

Immunogenicity, safety, and memory of different schedules of Neisseria meningitidis A\\/C-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants in Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied one to four doses of meningococcal polysaccharides A and C conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (Men D) versus A\\/C polysaccharide (Men PS) vaccine in 618 infants in Niger. Men PS at 24 months permitted evaluating memory. Two Men D doses (at 3 and 9 months) induced higher serum bactericidal activity (SBA) than other regimens. SBA titers after Men PS

J.-P Chippaux; A Garba; C Ethevenaux; G Campagne; F de Chabalier; S Djibo; P Nicolas; H Ali; M Charrondière; R Ryall; M Bybel; A Schuchat

2004-01-01

6

Antibody persistence and immune memory 15 months after priming with an investigational tetravalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in toddlers and young children  

PubMed Central

The present extension study, conducted in children originally vaccinated at 12–14 mo or 3–5 y of age, assessed antibody persistence and immune memory induced by an investigational tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT). In the original study, participants were randomized to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT or licensed age-appropriate meningococcal control vaccines. Fifteen months post-vaccination, all participants underwent serum sampling to evaluate antibody persistence and participants previously vaccinated as toddlers received a polysaccharide challenge to assess immune memory development.   Exploratory comparisons showed that (1) All children and ? 92.3% of the toddlers maintained serum bactericidal (rSBA) titers ? 1:8 at 15 mo post MenACWY-TT vaccination; statistically significantly higher rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were observed compared with control vaccines. (2) At one month after polysaccharide challenge, all toddlers primed with MenACWY-TT or with the monovalent serogroup C conjugate vaccine had rSBA titers ? 1:8 and ? 1:128 for serogroup C and similar rSBA-GMTs; rSBA-GMTs for serogroups A, W-135 and Y were statistically significantly higher in toddlers primed with MenACWY-TT compared with the control vaccine. Thus, a single dose of MenACWY-TT induced persisting antibodies in toddlers and children and immune memory in toddlers. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00126984. PMID:22485049

Knuf, Markus; Baine, Yaela; Bianco, Véronique; Boutriau, Dominique; Miller, Jacqueline M.

2012-01-01

7

Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines  

PubMed Central

The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

Pichichero, Michael E

2013-01-01

8

Safety and immunogenicity of a meningococcal (Groups A, C, Y, W-135) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy children aged 2 to 10 years in Chile.  

PubMed

Immune responses to meningococcal conjugate (Menactra; MCV-4) and plain polysaccharide (Menomune-A/C/Y/W-135; PSV-4) vaccines against serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 were assessed in 220 of 1037 Chilean children aged 2 to 10 years participating in a comparative safety trial. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Geometric mean serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers 28 days postvaccination were comparable in both groups for all four serogroups. Seroconversion was evident in > 97% of MCV-4 and > 90% of PSV-4 vaccinees who tested seronegative at baseline. Menactra safely induced broad and robust immune responses against serogroups A, C, Y and W-135 in this population. PMID:17012878

Lagos, Rosanna; Papa, Thomas; Muñoz, Alma; Ryall, Robert; Pina, Miriam; Bassily, Ehab

2005-01-01

9

[Oropharyngeal carriers in Venezuelan children in two child care settings, vaccinated or not with Haemophilus influenzae type b tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PRP-T)].  

PubMed

The objective was to estimate the oropharyngeal carrier rate of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and non typeable (NTHi) in unvaccinated and vaccinated children, with PRP/T vaccine, both cared at home and attending day care centers. Healthy children of either sex, younger of 7 years, excluding those that received antibiotics one month prior to the inclusion, were recruited from control clinics for healthy babies, and assigned to Group I fully immunized and Group II unimmunized. Both, children cared at home and attending day care centers were included. Parents provided an informed consent. Specimens were obtained from the oropharynx for culture, identification and serotyped by slide agglutination (Phadebact Haemophilus test). P values were obtained with Chi-square, Fisher's and Z test. Odds ratio was obtained when appropriated. Results were as following: a total of 320 children were enrolled, 99 in group I (49 cared at home, 50 attending day care) and 221 in group II (94 cared at home, 127 attending day care) the percentage of carriers was 22.8% (17.8% NTHi and 5% Hib). The carriage rate of NTHi was similar in groups I and II cared at home (18% vs 19%), and for those attending day care were 16% vs 17%. Carriage rate of Hib in children attending day care of group II was 12% vs 1% of those cared at home (p = 0.002). None of the children in group I was colonized by Hib. The Hib carrier rate was more similar to that of industrialized countries in the pre vaccine era in children cared at home, however, attendance to a day care center significantly increases its risk. The PRP/T vaccine appears to prevent the carrier state in both care settings. PMID:15782533

Castillo-Febres, Olga; López, Giomaris; Ortegal, Federico; Estopiñan, Milagros; Casanova-Escalona, Laddy; Sánchez-Naveda, Miriam; Decker, Michael; Edwards, Kathryn M

2005-03-01

10

Disparity in Functional Activity between Serum Anticapsular Antibodies Induced in Adults by Immunization with an Investigational Group A and C Neisseria meningitidis-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine and by a Polysaccharide Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines elicit higher concentrations of serum anticapsular antibody in infants and children than do unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines. The conjugate-induced antibodies also have higher avidity and complement-mediated bactericidal activity. Similar vaccine-related differences in the magnitude or functional activity of antibody are observed infrequently in immunized adults. We compared the antibody responses of adults immunized with an investigational group A and C meningococcal conjugate vaccine to those elicited by an unconjugated meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Although there were no significant differences between the respective geometric mean bactericidal titers of the two vaccine groups, it took, on average, three- to fourfold higher concentrations of polysaccharide-induced serum anticapsular antibody to achieve 50% complement-mediated bacteriolysis than conjugate-induced antibody (P < 0.001 for groups A and C). At limiting doses, the polysaccharide-induced anticapsular antibodies also were less effective in conferring passive protection against meningococcal bacteremia in infant rats challenged with a group C strain (P < 0.04). The avidity index of the group C antibodies was higher in the conjugate vaccine group than in the polysaccharide vaccine group (P < 0.005). The disparities in the functional activity of the anticapsular antibodies elicited in adults by the two vaccines imply fundamental differences in the respective B-cell populations stimulated. PMID:12761124

Harris, Shannon L.; Finn, Adam; Granoff, Dan M.

2003-01-01

11

Effects of chain length on the immunogenicity in rabbits of group B Streptococcus type III oligosaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates.  

PubMed Central

One method to improve the immunogenicity of polysaccharide antigens is the covalent coupling of the native polysaccharide or a derivative oligosaccharide to a carrier protein. In general, T cell-dependent properties are enhanced in conjugates of smaller saccharides, but a conformational epitope of the native polysaccharide may be better expressed in conjugates of larger saccharides. We have reported previously the synthesis and immunogenicity in animals of an oligosaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine against type III group B Streptococcus. In this study, we sought to determine the optimal size of group B Streptococcus type III oligosaccharide for use in a conjugate vaccine by evaluating the relative immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines containing oligosaccharides that were twofold smaller (7,000 Mr) or larger (27,000 Mr) than that reported previously (14,500 Mr). All three type III oligosaccharide conjugate vaccines were immunogenic in rabbits, in contrast to native, uncoupled group B Streptococcus type III polysaccharide. However, with respect to eliciting specific antibodies that were protective in vivo, the vaccine containing the intermediate-size oligosaccharide was superior to the smaller or larger conjugate vaccine. Analysis of opsonic activity of vaccine-induced antibodies demonstrated a predominance of IgG antibodies, thought to reflect T cell dependence, in response to shorter chain length conjugates, while the conformational epitope of the native polysaccharide was maximally expressed on longer chain length conjugates. These opposing trends may account for the optimal immunogenicity of an intermediate-size group B Streptococcus type III oligosaccharide conjugate vaccine. PMID:1729272

Paoletti, L C; Kasper, D L; Michon, F; DiFabio, J; Jennings, H J; Tosteson, T D; Wessels, M R

1992-01-01

12

Safety and immunogenicity of an acellular pertussis diphtheria tetanus vaccine given as a single injection with Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if an acellular pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine could be combined with a Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccine as a single injection, we randomized 468 children between 17 and 21 months of age previously immunized with three doses of each vaccine to receive a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and Haemophilus influenzae b-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine

Scott A. Halperin; Luis Barreto; Brian J. Eastwood; Lorna Medd; Roland Guasparini; Elaine Mills

1997-01-01

13

Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines: characteristics, development, and clinical trials.  

PubMed

The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

Pichichero, Michael E

2013-12-01

14

The investigational meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) and the seasonal influenza virus vaccine are immunogenic and well-tolerated when co-administered in adults  

PubMed Central

Co-administration of meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) with seasonal influenza vaccine was investigated in a subset of adults enrolled in a larger study evaluating lot-to-lot consistency of ACWY-TT and non-inferiority to licensed tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS). Subjects in this sub-study were randomized (3:1:1) to receive ACWY-TT alone (ACWY-TT group) or with seasonal influenza vaccine (Coad), or licensed MenPS alone. Serum bactericidal antibodies (rSBA) and serum haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 mo post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of the Coad group compared with ACWY-TT group was demonstrated in terms of rSBA geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) to serogroups A, W-135 and Y. For serogroup C the pre-defined non-inferiority limit was marginally exceeded. Post-vaccination rSBA GMTs were significantly higher (exploratory analysis) in the Coad group compared with the MenPS group for serogroups A, W-135, and Y and were similar to the MenPS group for serogroup C. Overall, > 97% of subjects achieved rSBA titers ? 1:128 for all serogroups. The Coad group met all criteria defined by the Committee on Human Medicinal Products (CHMP) for seroprotection, seroconversion and seroconversion factor for HI antibodies for all three influenza strains. Grade 3 solicited local/general symptoms were reported by ? 1.9% of subjects in any group. These data support the co-administration of ACWY-TT with seasonal influenza vaccine when protection is needed against both diseases.   This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00453986 PMID:22485048

Reyes, Mari Rose Aplasca-De Los; Dimaano, Efren; Macalalad, Noel; Dbaibo, Ghassan; Bianco, Véronique; Baine, Yaela; Miller, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

15

Synthesis and immunogenicity evaluation of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A) is a human restricted pathogen that can cause systemic infection (paratyphoid fever) with recently increased incidence particularly in developing countries. Currently there is no licensed vaccine for prevention of infection from S. Paratyphi A. In this study the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of S. Paratyphi A was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) with and without adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a linker. Binding of the OSP to a carrier protein was intended to convert a T-cell independent OSP response to a T-cell dependent response inducing higher levels of anti-OSP antibodies and immunological memory. These conjugates (OSP-AH-DT and OSP-DT) were evaluated for their immunogenicity in mice. The S. Paratyphi A OSP-DT conjugate induced a poor anti-OSP response less than that observed with LPS while the OSP-AH-DT conjugate induced a significantly higher antibody titer compared with LPS alone. The study also demonstrated diphtheria toxoid as a potential carrier protein for conjugate vaccine candidates using S. Paratyphi A OSP. PMID:24603090

Ali, Aamir; An, So J; Cui, Changfa; Haque, Abdul; Carbis, Rodney

2014-01-01

16

Identification of a novel vaccine adjuvant that stimulates and maintains diphtheria toxoid immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunomodulation by plant-derived medicines is well-documented with effects on both innate and adaptive immunity. This study reports potent and long-lasting diphtheria toxoid-specific immunity by the botanical medicinal, Rehmannia Six Formula, using an in vivo mouse model of vaccine immunity. A significant vaccine adjuvant effect was observed with an increase in serum anti-diphtheria toxoid total and IgG antibodies following oral administration

Paul V. Licciardi; John R. Underwood

2010-01-01

17

Purification and immunogenicity of genetically obtained pneumolysin toxoids and their conjugation to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 19F polysaccharide.  

PubMed Central

As part of an ongoing study concerned with improving human vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, the genes for two defined pneumolysin (PL) toxoids (pneumolysoids), Pd-A (PL with a Cys----Gly substitution at amino acid 428) and Pd-B (PL with a Trp----Phe substitution at position 433), were inserted into the high-expression vector pKK233-2 in Escherichia coli and the pneumolysoids were purified. Groups of mice which had been immunized with either Pd-A, Pd-B, or native PL purified from S. pneumoniae were then challenged either intranasally or intraperitoneally with virulent pneumococci. Mice in all immunized groups survived significantly longer than sham-immunized controls. Both pneumolysoids were more effective than PL as protective immunogens. Pneumolysoid Pd-B was conjugated covalently with pneumococcal type 19F capsular polysaccharide (19F PS), and the immunogenicities of both the protein and the PS moieties of the conjugate in mice were determined. Significant anti-PL titers were obtained, and the immunogenicity of the 19F PS moiety was markedly enhanced compared with that of unconjugated PS. Conjugation also appears to have converted the 19F PS into an antigen capable of inducing a booster effect. These results support the notion that the efficacy of human, PS-based antipneumococcal vaccines might be improved by supplementation with pneumolysoid in the form of a covalent pneumolysoid-PS conjugate. PMID:2050399

Paton, J C; Lock, R A; Lee, C J; Li, J P; Berry, A M; Mitchell, T J; Andrew, P W; Hansman, D; Boulnois, G J

1991-01-01

18

Immunogenicity of group B Streptococcus type III polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid vaccine in baboons.  

PubMed Central

Maternal vaccination has been proposed as a rational approach for the prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. In this study, baboons were used as a nonhuman primate model to evaluate the immunogenicity of a GBS type III glycoconjugate vaccine. Type III-specific immunoglobulin G with opsonic activity was induced after vaccination with type III polysaccharide coupled to tetanus toxoid administered with an aluminum adjuvant. This suggests that baboons could be used in evaluating maternal transfer of GBS-specific antibodies by vaccination during pregnancy. PMID:8550227

Paoletti, L C; Kennedy, R C; Chanh, T C; Kasper, D L

1996-01-01

19

Phase I Clinical Evaluation of a Synthetic Oligosaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae Type b in Human Adult Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1989, we have been involved in the development of a vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b. The new vaccine is based on the conjugation of synthetic oligosaccharides to tetanus toxoid. Our main goals have been (i) to verify the feasibility of using the synthetic antigen and (ii) to search for new production alternatives for this important infant vaccine. Overall,

Gilda Torano; Maria E. Toledo; A. Baly; Violeta Fernandez-Santana; Francisco Rodriguez; Yunia Alvarez; Teresita Serrano; Alexis Musachio; Ibis Hernandez; E. Hardy; A. Rodriguez; Hector Hernandez; Aristides Aguilar; Raydel Sanchez; Manuel Diaz; Verena Muzio; Jorgelina Dfana; M. C. Rodriguez; Lazaro Heynngnezz; Vicente Verez-Bencomo

2006-01-01

20

Novel Synthetic (Poly)Glycerolphosphate-Based Antistaphylococcal Conjugate Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcal infections are a major source of global morbidity and mortality. Currently there exists no antistaphylococcal vaccine in clinical use. Previous animal studies suggested a possible role for purified lipoteichoic acid as a vaccine target for eliciting protective IgG to several Gram-positive pathogens. Since the highly conserved (poly)glycerolphosphate backbone of lipoteichoic acid is a major antigenic target of the humoral immune system during staphylococcal infections, we developed a synthetic method for producing glycerol phosphoramidites to create a covalent 10-mer of (poly)glycerolphosphate for potential use in a conjugate vaccine. We initially demonstrated that intact Staphylococcus aureus elicits murine CD4+ T cell-dependent (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgM and IgG responses in vivo. Naive mice immunized with a covalent conjugate of (poly)glycerolphosphate and tetanus toxoid in alum plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides produced high secondary titers of serum (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgG. Sera from immunized mice enhanced opsonophagocytic killing of live Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Mice actively immunized with the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine showed rapid clearance of staphylococcal bacteremia in vivo relative to mice similarly immunized with an irrelevant conjugate vaccine. In contrast to purified, natural lipoteichoic acid, the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine itself exhibited no detectable inflammatory activity. These data suggest that a synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based conjugate vaccine will contribute to active protection against extracellular Gram-positive pathogens expressing this highly conserved backbone structure in their membrane-associated lipoteichoic acid. PMID:23649092

Chen, Quanyi; Dintaman, Jay; Lees, Andrew; Sen, Goutam; Schwartz, David; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Park, Saeyoung; Lee, Jean C.; Mond, James J.

2013-01-01

21

Antibody Responses to Natural Rattlesnake Envenomation and a Rattlesnake Toxoid Vaccine in Horses  

PubMed Central

Antivenom antibody titers following administration of rattlesnake venom for antivenom production in horses are well documented; however, antivenom antibody titers following natural rattlesnake envenomation in horses are not. Antibody titers produced in response to the commercially available rattlesnake venom vaccine are also not published. Our study objectives were to measure antivenom antibody titers in rattlesnake-bitten horses and compare them to titers in horses vaccinated with the rattlesnake venom vaccine. Additionally, titers were compared in pregnant versus nonpregnant horses to assess the affect of pregnancy on vaccine response and were measured pre- and postsuckle in foals of vaccinated mares to detect passive transfer of vaccine immunoglobulins. Blood samples were collected from16 rattlesnake-bitten horses. Thirty-six horses (11 pregnant mares, 12 nonpregnant mares, 13 geldings) were vaccinated using a Crotalus atrox venom toxoid vaccine. Blood was collected before administering each vaccination and 30 days following the third vaccination. Blood was collected from foals of vaccinated mares pre- and postsuckle. All serum was assayed for anti-Crotalus atrox venom antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rattlesnake-bitten horses had higher (P = 0.001) titers than vaccinated horses. There was no significant difference between titers in vaccinated pregnant versus nonpregnant horses. One mare had a positive titer at foaling, and the foals had positive postsuckle titers. Antivenom antibody titer development was variable following natural envenomation and vaccination, and vaccine-induced titers were lower than natural envenomation titers. Further studies are required to determine if natural or vaccine antivenom antibody titers reduce the effects of envenomation. PMID:23515015

Carmichael, Robert C.; Holbrook, Todd C.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Ownby, Charlotte L.; McFarlane, Dianne; Payton, Mark E.

2013-01-01

22

Immunogenicity of malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate, y230.CA14 following crosslinking in the presence of tetanus toxoid.  

PubMed

Proteolytically processed 310 kDa form of Plasmodium falciparum gamete surface antigen, Pfs230, is the target of malaria transmission-blocking monoclonal antibodies. To design a recombinant malaria transmission-blocking subunit vaccine, the amino terminus of the 310 kDa surface-exposed form of Pfs230 was mapped to amino acids (aa) 522 and 584 using a series of peptides and recombinant proteins encoding distinct regions of Pfs230. Antiserum generated against an Escherichia coli-produced recombinant protein, spanning the Pfs230 processing site and extending into the cysteine domains, r230/MBP.C (aa 443-1132), reduced parasite infectivity by 71.2-89.8%. To determine if the region spanning the cleavage site blocked malaria transmission when produced as a secreted protein by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, y230.CA14 (aa 467-584) was generated, purified, emulsified in adjuvant and used to vaccinate mice. In contrast to E. coli-produced r230/MBP.C, the immune response generated against y230. CA14 was very weak. To enhance the response, y230.CA14 was mixed with tetanus toxoid, chemically crosslinked, repurifed, and its immunogenicty compared with unconjugated y230.CA14. Conjugated-y230. CA14/TT required fewer booster injections to induce an immune response against Pfs230 and the antibodies generated reacted with the surface of intact gametes and immunoprecipitated radiolabelled Pfs230 extracted from 125I surface-labelled gametes to a greater extent. After seven injections, all y230.CA14 vaccinated mice developed anti-Pfs230 antibodies and the isotype profile was the same. In addition to enhancing the initial immune response generated against y230.CA14, conjugation focuses the immune response toward epitopes within the region of Pfs230 present on the surface of the gamete. PMID:10583858

Vincent, A A; Fanning, S; Caira, F C; Williamson, K C

1999-11-01

23

Modulation of Benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate  

SciTech Connect

Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also toxic for mammalian immune cells. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. We showed that high levels of antibodies against B[a]P and its metabolites modulate the redistribution of these PAHs in the blood. After immunization, increased levels of B[a]P and its metabolites were recovered in the blood. B[a]P significantly suppressed the proliferative response of both T and B cells after a sub-acute administration, an effect that was completely reversed by vaccination. In immunized mice also the immunotoxic effect of B[a]P on IFN-{gamma}, IL-12, TNF-{alpha} production and the reduced B cell activation was restored. Finally, our results showed that specific antibodies inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 by B[a]P in lymphocytes and Cyp1b1 in the liver, enzymes that are known to convert the procarcinogen B[a]P to the ultimate DNA-adduct forming metabolite, a major risk factor of chemical carcinogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that vaccination with a B[a]P conjugate vaccine based on a carrier protein used in licensed human vaccines reduces immunotoxicity and possibly other detrimental effects associated with B[a]P.

Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Willieme, Stephanie; Farinelle, Sophie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J.F. [Institute of Immunology, LNS/CRP-Sante, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Muller, Claude P. [Institute of Immunology, LNS/CRP-Sante, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)], E-mail: claude.muller@LNS.ETAT.LU

2009-10-01

24

Transcriptomic Response of Porcine PBMCs to Vaccination with Tetanus Toxoid as a Model Antigen  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to characterize in vivo genome-wide transcriptional responses to immune stimulation in order to get insight into the resulting changes of allocation of resources. Vaccination with tetanus toxoid was used as a model for a mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response in pig. Expression profiles of PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) before and at 12 time points over a period of four weeks after initial and booster vaccination at day 14 were studied by use of Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The transcriptome data in total comprised more than 5000 genes with different transcript abundances (DE-genes). Within the single time stages the numbers of DE-genes were between several hundred and more than 1000. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis mainly revealed canonical pathways of cellular immune response and cytokine signaling as well as a broad range of processes in cellular and organismal growth, proliferation and development, cell signaling, biosynthesis and metabolism. Significant changes in the expression profiles of PBMCs already occurred very early after immune stimulation. At two hours after the first vaccination 679 DE-genes corresponding to 110 canonical pathways of cytokine signaling, cellular immune response and other multiple cellular functions were found. Immune competence and global disease resistance are heritable but difficult to measure and to address by breeding. Besides QTL mapping of immune traits gene expression profiling facilitates the detection of functional gene networks and thus functional candidate genes. PMID:23536793

Adler, Marcel; Murani, Eduard; Brunner, Ronald; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

2013-01-01

25

Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience  

PubMed Central

Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles. PMID:21991444

Miller, Jacqueline M.; Mesaros, Narcisa; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela

2011-01-01

26

Chitosan-HPMC-blended microspheres as a vaccine carrier for the delivery of tetanus toxoid.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to develop a suitable and alternate adjuvant for the tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine that induces long term immunity after a single-dose immunization. In our study, the preformulation studies were carried out by using different ratios (7/3, 8/2, and 9/1) of chitosan-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-blended empty microspheres. Moreover, TT was stabilized with heparin (at heparin concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% w/v) and encapsulated in ideal chitosan - HPMC (CHBMS) microspheres, by the water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion method. The vaccine entrapment and the in vitro release efficiency of the CHBMS was evaluated for a period of 90 days. The release of antigens from the microspheres was determined by ELISA. Antigen integrity was investigated by SDS-PAGE. From the optimization studies, it was found that a chitosan/HPMC ratio of 8/2 produced a good yield, with microspheres that were spherical, regular and uniformly-sized. In the CHBMS, a heparin concentration of 3% w/v resulted in well-sustained antigen delivery for a period of 90 days. It was found that the characteristics of initial release could be observed in 2 days, followed by a constant release, and an almost 100% complete release in 90 days. From the in vitro release characteristics, the ideal batch of CHBMS (3% w/v heparin) was evaluated for in vivo studies by the antibody induction method. The antibody levels were measured for different combinations for the period of 9 months, and finally, with a second booster dose after 1 year. In conclusion, it was observed that CHBMS (combination-1) resulted in the antibody level of 4.5 IU/mL of guinea pig serum, and the level was 3.5 IU/mL for the Central Research Institute's alum-adsorbed tetanus toxoid (CRITT) (combination 2), after 1 year, with a second booster dose. This novel approach of using CHBMS may have potential advantages for single-step immunization with vaccines. PMID:25472756

Arthanari, Saravanakumar; Mani, Ganesh; Peng, Mei Mei; Jang, Hyun Tae

2014-12-01

27

Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan

2004-09-01

28

Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of conjugates composed of the O-specific polysaccharide of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Shiga's bacillus) bound to tetanus toxoid.  

PubMed Central

The background for developing conjugate vaccines for shigellosis composed of the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) bound to a protein is described elsewhere (C. Y. Chu, R. Schneerson, and J. B. Robbins, submitted for publication). Briefly, there is direct evidence for type (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-specific protection after infection with the wild type or with attenuated strains of shigellae. Prospective studies of Israeli armed forces recruits show a correlation between preexisting serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) LPS antibodies and resistance to shigellosis (D. Cohen, M. S. Green, C. Block, R. Slephon, and I. Ofek, J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:386-389, 1991). In order to elicit IgG LPS-specific antibodies to Shigella dysenteriae type 1, the O-SP of this pathogen was purified and bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) by three schemes. The most immunogenic used a modification of a published method (C. Y. Chu, R. Schneerson, J. B. Robbins, and S. C. Rastogi, Infect. Immun. 40:245-256, 1983). The resultant O-SP-TT conjugates were stable and elicited high levels of IgG O-SP antibodies and booster responses in young mice when injected subcutaneously in saline at 1/10 the proposed human dose. Adsorption onto alum or concurrent administration with monophosphoryl lipid A enhanced both the IgG and IgM antibody responses to the O-SP of the conjugate; both the nonadsorbed and adsorbed conjugates elicited higher rises of IgG than of IgM antibodies. Clinical evaluations of S. dysenteriae type 1 O-SP-TT conjugates are planned. Images PMID:1937803

Chu, C Y; Liu, B K; Watson, D; Szu, S S; Bryla, D; Shiloach, J; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B

1991-01-01

29

Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate  

SciTech Connect

Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Schroeder, Henri [University of Nancy, URAFPA, INRA UC340, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

2013-09-01

30

Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine formulation and risk of childhood leukaemia.  

PubMed

Incidence of childhood leukaemia was studied among subjects of a vaccine trial in Finland comparing the polysaccharide-diptheria toxoid conjugate and oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine formulations. Eighty cases of childhood leukaemia were detected: 35 among children on the polysaccharide-diptheria toxoid conjugate arm, and 45 among children on the oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate arm, which was not statistically significant. PMID:12189546

Groves, F; Sinha, D; Auvinen, A

2002-08-27

31

Adjuvant effect of DEAE-dextran and tetanus toxoid on whole cell heat inactivated phenol preserved typhoid vaccine.  

PubMed

Active mouse protection test (AMPT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine the immunogenicity of whole cell typhoid vaccine when administered in conjunction with either tetanus toxoid (TT) or DEAE-Dextran (DD). Immunization of mice with whole cell typhoid vaccine showed enhanced potency either when administered in conjunction with TT or DD and values were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in comparison to conventional or standard typhoid vaccines. For ELISA, the mice were immunized with 2 different schedules, one in which a single dose of 0.25 ml subcutaneously (s/c) was administered and in another two doses of 0.25 ml each s/c, 14 days apart. In case of single dose schedule of immunization D vaccine (Whole cell typhoid + 5 mg/ml DD) showed significant increase of immune response (3.201 log10) as compared to plain vaccine (2.550 log10). Two dose schedule further increased the titres to 3.856 log10. DD adjuvanted vaccine showed higher potency by AMPT as compared to the TT adjuvanted vaccine or plain vaccine. The present study clearly demonstrates that a single dose of 0.25 ml which is equivalent to half of the conventionally used single human dose of typhoid vaccine adjuvanted with DD can significantly improve the immunogenicity of the vaccine. PMID:9009480

Kaistha, J; Sokhey, J; Singh, S; Kumar, S; John, P C; Sharma, N C

1996-10-01

32

Process development and immunogenicity studies on a serogroup 'X' Meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.  

PubMed

Meningococcal group X (MenX) is responsible for recent outbreaks of meningitis reported in sub-Saharan region of Africa. Although protective vaccines are available for meningitis, they are not effective against MenX. An efficacious, monovalent conjugate vaccine was designed against MenX and a fed-batch fermentation process was developed. The MenX polysaccharide (PS) was purified and yield estimated to be 15-fold higher than the reported elsewhere. Structure of MenX polysaccharide was confirmed by (1)H, (13)C NMR spectroscopy analysis. Molecular weight of PS was found to be 310 kDa using HPLC-SEC coupled to refractive index (RI) detector. The MenX-Tetanus toxoid (TT) monovalent conjugate proved to be highly immunogenic in mice, and the bactericidal titers of MenX-TT conjugate were 10-fold higher than native PS. Increasing the dose of MenX-TT conjugate from 0.5 ?g to 1.0 ?g induced an 8-fold higher antibody titer as well as serum bactericidal titer. The current work suggests that the MenX-TT conjugate is a candidate vaccine against meningitis caused by Meningococcal group X strains. PMID:24411634

Chilukuri, Srinivas Reddy; Reddy, Peddi; Avalaskar, Nikhil; Mallya, Asha; Pisal, Sambhaji; Dhere, Rajeev M

2014-05-01

33

On Technological and Immunological Benefits of Multivalent Single-Injection Microsphere Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. With the aim of developing multivalent vaccines for single-injection, we examined the feasibility of combining antigens in biodegradable microspheres. Such vaccines are expected to improve vaccination coverage by reducing the number of vaccination sessions required to generate immunity.\\u000aMethods. Mono- and multivalent vaccines of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate, diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT), and pertussis toxin

Gérard Boehm; Marisa Peyre; Dorothea Sesardic; Rachel J. Huskisson; Fatme Mawas; Alexandra Douglas; Dorothy Xing; Hans P. Merkle; Bruno Gander; Pål Johansen

2002-01-01

34

Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation on the immune response to tetanus toxoid vaccination in a mouse model.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation could enhance the immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine in a mouse model. Vaccination of TT was performed on day 7 and 21 in mice fed daily with Spirulina (50 and 150 mg/kg body weight). Both Spirulina supplementation and TT vaccination did not significantly affect body weight gain of the mice. Supplementation of Spirulina significantly enhanced IgG level (p = .01) after the first but not after the second TT vaccination. The anti-TT IgG levels of the groups that received low dose and high dose of Spirulina were not significantly different. Spirulina supplementation did not show significant effects on in vitro splenocyte proliferation and cytokine (IFN-? and IL-4) production induced by Con A and TT. This study showed that Spirulina supplementation could enhance primary immune response in terms of antibody production, but not secondary immune response following TT vaccination in a mouse model. PMID:23927690

Chu, Wan-Loy; Quynh, Le Van; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

2013-09-01

35

Combined conjugate vaccines: enhanced immunogenicity with the N19 polyepitope as a carrier protein.  

PubMed

The N19 polyepitope, consisting of a sequential string of universal human CD4(+)-T-cell epitopes, was tested as a carrier protein in a formulation of combined glycoconjugate vaccines containing the capsular polysaccharides (PSs) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. Good antibody responses to all four polysaccharides were induced by one single immunization of mice with N19-based conjugates. Two immunizations with N19 conjugates elicited anti-MenACWY antibody titers comparable to those induced after three doses of glycoconjugates containing CRM197 as carrier protein. Compared to cross-reacting material (CRM)-based constructs, lower amounts of N19-MenACWY conjugates still induced high bactericidal titers to all four PSs. Moreover, N19-MenACWY-conjugated constructs induced faster and higher antibody avidity maturation against meningococcal C PS than CRM-based conjugates. Very importantly, N19-specific antibodies did not cross-react with the parent protein from which N19 epitopes were derived, e.g., tetanus toxoid and influenza virus hemagglutinin. Finally, T helper epitopes of the N19 carrier protein were effectively generated both in vivo (after immunization with the N19 itself) and in vitro (after restimulation of epitope-specific spleen cells). Taken together, these data show that the N19 polyepitope represents a strong and valid option for the generation of improved or new combined glycoconjugate vaccines. PMID:16113302

Baraldo, Karin; Mori, Elena; Bartoloni, Antonella; Norelli, Francesco; Grandi, Guido; Rappuoli, Rino; Finco, Oretta; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

2005-09-01

36

Oligosaccharide conjugates of Bordetella pertussis and bronchiseptica induce bactericidal antibodies, an addition to pertussis vaccine  

PubMed Central

Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is especially dangerous for infants and children. Despite mass vaccination, reported pertussis cases have increased in the United States and other parts of the world, probably because of increased awareness, improved diagnostic means, and waning vaccine-induced immunity among adolescents and adults. Licensed vaccines do not kill the organism directly; the addition of a component inducing bactericidal antibodies would improve vaccine efficacy. We investigated Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica LPS-derived core oligosaccharide (OS) protein conjugates for their immunogenicity in mice. B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica core OS were bound to aminooxylated BSA via their terminal Kdo residues. The two conjugates induced similar anti-B. pertussis LPS IgG levels in mice. B. bronchiseptica was investigated because it is easier to grow than B. pertussis. Using B. bronchiseptica genetically modified strains deficient in the O-specific polysaccharide, we isolated fractions of core OS with one to five repeats of the terminal trisaccharide, having at the nonreducing end a GlcNAc or GalNAc, and bound them to BSA at different densities. The highest antibody levels in mice were elicited by conjugates containing an average of 8–17 OS chains per protein and with one repeat of the terminal trisaccharide. Conjugate-induced antisera were bactericidal against B. pertussis, and the titers correlated with ELISA-measured antibody levels (r = 0.74). Such conjugates are easy to prepare and standardize; added to a recombinant pertussis toxoid, they may induce antibacterial and antitoxin immunity. PMID:21367691

Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Lagergård, Teresa; Ginzberg, Ariel; King, Jerry D.; Preston, Andrew; Maskell, Duncan J.; Pozsgay, Vince; Keith, Jerry M.; Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel

2011-01-01

37

Oligosaccharide conjugates of Bordetella pertussis and bronchiseptica induce bactericidal antibodies, an addition to pertussis vaccine.  

PubMed

Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease that is especially dangerous for infants and children. Despite mass vaccination, reported pertussis cases have increased in the United States and other parts of the world, probably because of increased awareness, improved diagnostic means, and waning vaccine-induced immunity among adolescents and adults. Licensed vaccines do not kill the organism directly; the addition of a component inducing bactericidal antibodies would improve vaccine efficacy. We investigated Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica LPS-derived core oligosaccharide (OS) protein conjugates for their immunogenicity in mice. B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica core OS were bound to aminooxylated BSA via their terminal Kdo residues. The two conjugates induced similar anti-B. pertussis LPS IgG levels in mice. B. bronchiseptica was investigated because it is easier to grow than B. pertussis. Using B. bronchiseptica genetically modified strains deficient in the O-specific polysaccharide, we isolated fractions of core OS with one to five repeats of the terminal trisaccharide, having at the nonreducing end a GlcNAc or GalNAc, and bound them to BSA at different densities. The highest antibody levels in mice were elicited by conjugates containing an average of 8-17 OS chains per protein and with one repeat of the terminal trisaccharide. Conjugate-induced antisera were bactericidal against B. pertussis, and the titers correlated with ELISA-measured antibody levels (r = 0.74). Such conjugates are easy to prepare and standardize; added to a recombinant pertussis toxoid, they may induce antibacterial and antitoxin immunity. PMID:21367691

Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Lagergård, Teresa; Ginzberg, Ariel; King, Jerry D; Preston, Andrew; Maskell, Duncan J; Pozsgay, Vince; Keith, Jerry M; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel

2011-03-01

38

Continuing Effectiveness of Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Chad, 2013  

PubMed Central

In 2011, vaccination with a serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine was implemented in 3 of 23 regions in Chad. Cases of meningitis declined dramatically in vaccinated areas, but an epidemic continued in the rest of Chad. In 2012, the remaining Chad population was vaccinated, and the epidemic was halted. PMID:25536336

Gamougam, Kadidja; Daugla, Doumagoum M.; Toralta, Jacques; Ngadoua, Cyriaque; Fermon, Florence; Page, Anne-Laure; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Caugant, Dominique A.; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline L.; Greenwood, Brian M.

2015-01-01

39

Continuing effectiveness of serogroup a meningococcal conjugate vaccine, chad, 2013.  

PubMed

In 2011, vaccination with a serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine was implemented in 3 of 23 regions in Chad. Cases of meningitis declined dramatically in vaccinated areas, but an epidemic continued in the rest of Chad. In 2012, the remaining Chad population was vaccinated, and the epidemic was halted. PMID:25536336

Gamougam, Kadidja; Daugla, Doumagoum M; Toralta, Jacques; Ngadoua, Cyriaque; Fermon, Florence; Page, Anne-Laure; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Caugant, Dominique A; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline L; Stuart, James M; Greenwood, Brian M

2015-01-01

40

Evaluation of two carrier protein–angiotensin I conjugate vaccines to assess their future potential to control high blood pressure (hypertension) in man  

PubMed Central

Aims We aim to modulate the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) by active immunization against angiotensin I hormone (AI), potentially providing a novel conjugate vaccine treatment for hypertension in man. Methods Immunization studies in rat and human subjects compare the effectiveness of tetanus toxoid (TT) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) vaccines for immunotherapy following conjugation with an AI peptide analogue (AI). Cardiovascular responses were assessed in immunized rats and human subjects (two-dose trial only), following increasing i.v. infusions of either AI or angiotensin II hormone (AII). Results The AI–TT and AI–KLH conjugate vaccines induced an equivalent immune response, and inhibition of the pressor effects to exogenous AI in rats. Single-dose clinical trials with both conjugate vaccines only resulted in an immune response to the KLH carrier protein. A two-dose clinical trial of AI–KLH conjugate vaccine resulted in a significant immune response to AI. A shift in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) dose–response was demonstrated following challenge with AI and AII for the study volunteer showing the largest anti-AI IgG induction. Conclusion KLH was shown to be a suitable alternative to TT as a carrier protein for AI, thus supporting continued evaluation of our AI–KLH conjugate vaccine for treatment of hypertension in man. PMID:14651724

Downham, M R; Auton, T R; Rosul, A; Sharp, H L; Sjöström, L; Rushton, A; Richards, J P; Mant, T G K; Gardiner, S M; Bennett, T; Glover, J F

2003-01-01

41

Immunochemical characterization of synthetic hexa-, octa- and decasaccharide conjugate vaccines for Vibrio cholerae O:1 Serotype Ogawa with emphasis on antigenic density and chain length  

PubMed Central

Cholera remains to be a global health problem without suitable vaccines for endemic control or outbreak relief. Here we describe a new parenteral vaccine based on neoglyco-conjugate of synthetic fragments of O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) of Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa. Hexa-, octa- and decasaccharides of the O-SP with carboxylic acid at the reducing end were chemically synthesized and conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). The conjugates prepared by a novel linking scheme consisted of 17-atom linker of hydrazide and alkyl bonds elicited robust serum IgG anti-LPS responses with vibriocidal activities in mice. There is a length dependence in immune response with decasaccharide conjugates elicited the highest anti-LPS IgG. There seems to be an indication that regardless of the carbohydrate chain length, a molar ratio of 230±10 monosaccharide units per TT induced high antibody response. The conjugates also elicited cross-reactive antibodies to serotype Inaba. The formulation of the proposed cholera conjugate vaccine, similar to other licensed polysaccharide vaccine, is suitable for children immunization. A parenteral cholera vaccine could overcome the diminishing immunogenicity in most of oral vaccines due to the gastrointestinal complexity and environmental enteropathy in children living in impoverished environment and could be considered for global cholera immunization. PMID:23955520

Ftacek, Peter; Nelson, Victor; Szu, Shousun C.

2013-01-01

42

Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.  

PubMed

An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (P<0.001) according to MCC vaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60?g/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85?g/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86?g/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26?g/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible. PMID:25510388

Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

2015-01-29

43

Dosing Schedules for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses—the schedule—that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

2014-01-01

44

Tetanus Toxoid?Pulsed Monocyte Vaccination for Augmentation of Collateral Vessel Growth  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of collateral growth (arteriogenesis) has been linked to both the innate and adaptive immune systems. While therapeutic approaches for the augmentation of arteriogenesis have focused on innate immunity, exploiting both innate and adaptive immune responses has not been examined. We hypothesized that tetanus toxoid (tt) immunization of mice followed by transplantation of monocytes (Mo) exposed ex vivo to tt augments arteriogenesis after ligation of the hind limb. Methods and Results Mo were generated from nonimmunized BALB/c mice, exposed ex vivo to tt for 24 hours and intravenously injected (ttMo, 2.5×106) into the tail veins of tt?immunized syngeneic mice whose hind limbs had been ligated 24 hours prior to transplantation. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging was applied, and a perfusion index (PI) was calculated (ratio ligated/unligated). Twenty?one days after ligation, the arteriogenesis of untreated BALB/c mice was limited (PI=0.49±0.09). Hind limb function was impaired in 80% of animals. Injection of non?engineered Mo insignificantly increased the PI to 0.56±0.07. However, ttMo transplantation resulted in a strong increase of the PI to 0.82±0.08 (n=7; P<0.001), with no (0%) detectable functional impairment. ttMo injected into nonimmunized mice had no effect. The strong arteriogenic response of ttMo transplantation into immunized mice was prevented when mice had been depleted of T?helper cells by CD4?antibody pretreatment (PI=0.50±0.08; n=17; P<0.001), supporting the hypothesis that transplanted cells interact with recipient lymphocytes. Conclusions Transplantation of ttMo into pre?immunized mice strongly promotes arteriogenesis. This therapeutic approach is feasible and highly attractive for the alleviation of morbidity associated with vascular occlusive disease. PMID:24732919

Herold, Joerg; Francke, Alexander; Weinert, Soenke; Schmeisser, Alexander; Hebel, Katrin; Schraven, Burkhart; Roehl, Friedich?Wilhelm; Strasser, Ruth H.; Braun?Dullaeus, Ruediger C.

2014-01-01

45

Serotype-Specific and Age-Dependent Generation of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide-Specific Memory B-Cell and Antibody Responses to Immunization with a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine?  

PubMed Central

Glycoconjugate vaccines have dramatically reduced the incidence of encapsulated bacterial diseases in toddlers under 2 years of age, but vaccine-induced antibody levels in this age group wane rapidly. We immunized adults and 12-month-old toddlers with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to determine differences in B-cell and antibody responses. The adults and 12-month-old toddlers received a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The toddlers received a second dose at 14 months of age. The frequencies of diphtheria toxoid and serotype 4, 14, and 23F polysaccharide-specific plasma cells and memory B cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The toddlers had no preexisting polysaccharide-specific memory B cells or serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody but had good diphtheria toxoid-specific memory responses. The frequencies of plasma cells and memory B cells increased by day 7 (P < 0.0001) in the adults and the toddlers following a single dose of conjugate, but the polysaccharide responses were significantly lower in the toddlers than in the adults (P = 0.009 to <0.001). IgM dominated the toddler antibody responses, and class switching to the IgG was serotype dependent. A second dose of vaccine enhanced the antibody and memory B-cell responses in the toddlers but not the ex vivo plasma cell responses. Two doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine are required in toddlers to generate memory B-cell frequencies and antibody class switching for each pneumococcal polysaccharide equivalent to that seen in adults. PMID:18032593

Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A.; Oh, Sarah; Hamaluba, Mainga; Westcar, Sharon; Beverley, Peter C. L.; Pollard, Andrew J.

2008-01-01

46

Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The first conjugate vaccine was approved for use in the US in 1988 to protect infants and young children against the capsular bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Since its introduction in the US, this vaccine has been approved in most developed countries, including Denmark and Israel where the vaccine was added to their national vaccine programs in 1993 and 1994, respectively. There have been marked increases in the reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among children in the US beginning with birth cohorts in the late 1980s and in Denmark and Israel starting approximately 4-5 years later. Although these increases may partly reflect ascertainment biases, an exogenous trigger could explain a significant portion of the reported increases in ASDs. It is hypothesized here that the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the US in 1988 and its subsequent introduction in Denmark and Israel could explain a substantial portion of the initial increases in ASDs in those countries. The continuation of the trend toward increased rates of ASDs could be further explained by increased usage of the vaccine, a change in 1990 in the recommended age of vaccination in the US from 15 to 2 months, increased immunogenicity of the vaccine through changes in its carrier protein, and the subsequent introduction of the conjugate vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although conjugate vaccines have been highly effective in protecting infants and young children from the significant morbidity and mortality caused by Hib and S. pneumoniae, the potential effects of conjugate vaccines on neural development merit close examination. Conjugate vaccines fundamentally change the manner in which the immune systems of infants and young children function by deviating their immune responses to the targeted carbohydrate antigens from a state of hypo-responsiveness to a robust B2 B cell mediated response. This period of hypo-responsiveness to carbohydrate antigens coincides with the intense myelination process in infants and young children, and conjugate vaccines may have disrupted evolutionary forces that favored early brain development over the need to protect infants and young children from capsular bacteria. PMID:21993250

Richmand, Brian J

2011-12-01

47

Acute cerebellar ataxia following meningococcal group C conjugate vaccination.  

PubMed

Acute cerebellar ataxia is the most common cause of childhood ataxia, usually resulting from infections or vaccinations. Cases of acute cerebellar ataxia have been reported as a consequence of several viral and bacterial infections as well as immunizing agents, such as varicella, influenza, hepatitis B, and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccines. Although immunization with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines has been associated with several neurological side effects, acute cerebellar ataxia has not been previously reported. The authors describe a case of a 12-year-old girl exhibiting acute cerebellar ataxia following meningococcal group C conjugate vaccination. In this patient, cerebellar symptoms started within 24 hours from the vaccination, and infective causes have been ruled out by serum and liquoral analyses. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were normal. Progressive clinical improvement was obtained after corticosteroid treatment. This case increases the small number of postvaccinal ataxias and contributes to further clarifying the complex pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:23275434

Cutroneo, Paola Maria; Italiano, Domenico; Trifirò, Gianluca; Tortorella, Gaetano; Russo, Alessandra; Isola, Stefania; Caputi, Achille Patrizio; Spina, Edoardo

2014-01-01

48

Synthetic ?-(1?6)-Linked N-Acetylated and Nonacetylated Oligoglucosamines Used To Produce Conjugate Vaccines for Bacterial Pathogens ? †  

PubMed Central

Vaccines for pathogens usually target strain-specific surface antigens or toxins, and rarely is there broad antigenic specificity extending across multiple species. Protective antibodies for bacteria are usually specific for surface or capsular antigens. ?-(1?6)-Poly-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) is a surface polysaccharide produced by many pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Yersinia pestis, Bordetella pertussis, Acinetobacter baumannii, and others. Protective antibodies to PNAG are elicited when a deacetylated glycoform (deacetylated PNAG [dPNAG]; <30% acetate) is used in conjugate vaccines, whereas highly acetylated PNAG does not induce such antibodies. Chemical derivation of dPNAG from native PNAG is imprecise, so we synthesized both ?-(1?6)-d-glucosamine (GlcNH2) and ?-(1?6)-d-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oligosaccharides with linkers on the reducing termini that could be activated to produce sulfhydryl groups for conjugation to bromoacetyl groups introduced onto carrier proteins. Synthetic 5-mer GlcNH2 (5GlcNH2) or 9GlcNH2 conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) elicited mouse antibodies that mediated opsonic killing of multiple S. aureus strains, while the antibodies that were produced in response to 5GlcNAc- or 9GlcNAc-TT did not mediate opsonic killing. Rabbit antibodies to 9GlcNH2-TT bound to PNAG and dPNAG antigens, mediated killing of S. aureus and E. coli, and protected against S. aureus skin abscesses and lethal E. coli peritonitis. Chemical synthesis of a series of oligoglucosamine ligands with defined differences in N acetylation allowed us to identify a conjugate vaccine formulation that generated protective immune responses to two of the most challenging bacterial pathogens. This vaccine could potentially be used to engender protective immunity to the broad range of pathogens that produce surface PNAG. PMID:19948836

Gening, Marina L.; Maira-Litrán, Tomás; Kropec, Andrea; Skurnik, David; Grout, Martha; Tsvetkov, Yury E.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.; Pier, Gerald B.

2010-01-01

49

Combinations of protein polysaccharide conjugate vaccines for intranasal immunization.  

PubMed

The ability of 2 mutants of heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LTK63 and LTR72) to enhance the immunogenicity of 2 protein polysaccharide conjugate vaccines, Neisseria meningitidis group C (MenC) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), both of which are conjugated to the nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), after intranasal (inl) immunization in mice was evaluated. In addition, the question of whether combining both vaccines in a single formulation with heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin mutants reduced the response to either vaccine was investigated. The results showed that potent serum antibody responses against MenC and Hib could be elicited by inl immunization in combination with the mucosal adjuvants. Moreover, IgA mucosal responses were induced only in animals immunized through the inl route. Finally, the coadministration of 2 conjugate vaccines simultaneously did not adversely affect the responses against either. These studies support the rationale for developing mucosal vaccines, based on combining protein polysaccharide conjugates with heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin mutants, for infants and young children. PMID:12402209

Ugozzoli, Mildred; Mariani, Massimo; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Soenawan, Elawati; O'Hagan, Derek T

2002-11-01

50

Evaluation in Mice of a Conjugate Vaccine for Cholera Made from Vibrio cholerae O1 (Ogawa) O-Specific Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Background Protective immunity against cholera is serogroup specific. Serogroup specificity in Vibrio cholerae is determined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Generally, polysaccharides are poorly immunogenic, especially in young children. Methodology Here we report the evaluation in mice of a conjugate vaccine for cholera (OSP:TThc) made from V. cholerae O1 Ogawa O-Specific Polysaccharide–core (OSP) and recombinant tetanus toxoid heavy chain fragment (TThc). We immunized mice intramuscularly on days 0, 21, and 42 with OSP:TThc or OSP only, with or without dmLT, a non-toxigenic immunoadjuvant derived from heat labile toxin of Escherichia coli. Principal Findings We detected significant serum IgG antibody responses targeting OSP following a single immunization in mice receiving OSP:TThc with or without adjuvant. Anti-LPS IgG responses were detected following a second immunization in these cohorts. No anti-OSP or anti-LPS IgG responses were detected at any time in animals receiving un-conjugated OSP with or without immunoadjuvant, and in animals receiving immunoadjuvant alone. Responses were highest following immunization with adjuvant. Serum anti-OSP IgM responses were detected in mice receiving OSP:TThc with or without immunoadjuvant, and in mice receiving unconjugated OSP. Serum anti-LPS IgM and vibriocidal responses were detected in all vaccine cohorts except in mice receiving immunoadjuvant alone. No significant IgA anti-OSP or anti-LPS responses developed in any group. Administration of OSP:TThc and adjuvant also induced memory B cell responses targeting OSP and resulted in 95% protective efficacy in a mouse lethality cholera challenge model. Conclusion We describe a protectively immunogenic cholera conjugate in mice. Development of a cholera conjugate vaccine could assist in inducing long-term protective immunity, especially in young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens. PMID:24516685

Kalsy, Anuj; Yu, Y.; Freeman, Y. Wu; Sultana, Tania; Rashu, Md. Rasheduzzaman; Desai, Ishaan; Eckhoff, Grace; Leung, Daniel T.; Charles, Richelle C.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Clements, John D.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Vann, W. F.; Ková?, Pavol; Ryan, Edward T.

2014-01-01

51

Synthetic peptide representing a T-cell epitope of CRM197 substitutes as carrier molecule in a Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) conjugate vaccine.  

PubMed

The cross-reactive material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin is considered to be advantageous as a carrier molecule in the formulation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine. In order to more precisely understand the function of the CRM197 in the vaccine, we have begun mapping the T-cell epitopes of the protein. A peptide which represents a segment of the primary sequence of CRM197 has been identified and found to stimulate diphtheria toxoid or CRM197-primed murine T-lymphocytes. In addition, the peptide is capable of priming T-cells in vivo for a subsequent in vitro T-cell response to itself or to the intact CRM197 molecule. The ability of the peptide to replace CRM197 as a carrier molecule was examined by immunizing mice with PRP, PRP-CRM197 conjugate, or PRP covalently coupled to the peptide. Antibodies to PRP were only detected in the PRP-CRM197 or PRP-peptide immunized groups. Both conjugates elicited primary and secondary antibody responses. Thus, a synthetic peptide representing a defined T-cell epitope of CRM197 has been functionally demonstrated based on its ability to act as a carrier molecule in a PRP conjugate vaccine. PMID:2481959

Bixler, G S; Eby, R; Dermody, K M; Woods, R M; Seid, R C; Pillai, S

1989-01-01

52

Transcutaneous Immunization with Cross-Reacting Material CRM197 of Diphtheria Toxin Boosts Functional Antibody Levels in Mice Primed Parenterally with Adsorbed Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccine?  

PubMed Central

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) capitalizes on the accessibility and immunocompetence of the skin, elicits protective immunity, simplifies vaccine delivery, and may be particularly advantageous when frequent boosting is required. In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice. The cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin was used as the boosting antigen and was administered alone or together with either one of two commonly used mucosal adjuvants, cholera toxin (CT) and a partially detoxified mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTR72). We report that TCI with CRM197 significantly boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine. In the presence of LTR72 as an adjuvant, toxin-neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those elicited by CRM197 alone and were comparable to the functional antibody levels induced after parenteral booster immunization with the adsorbed DTxd vaccine. Time course study showed that high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 14 weeks after the transcutaneous boost. In addition, TCI resulted in a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response in all groups of mice boosted with the CRM197 protein. These findings highlight the promising prospect of using booster administrations of CRM197 via the transcutaneous route to establish good herd immunity against diphtheria. PMID:18227167

Stickings, Paul; Peyre, Marisa; Coombes, Laura; Muller, Sylviane; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Sesardic, Dorothea

2008-01-01

53

A universal polysaccharide conjugated vaccine against O111 E. coli.  

PubMed

E. coli O111 strains are responsible for outbreaks of blood diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome throughout the world. Because of their phenotypic variability, the development of a vaccine against these strains which targets an antigen that is common to all of them is quite a challenge. Previous results have indicated, however, that O111 LPS is such a candidate, but its toxicity makes LPS forbidden for human use. To overcome this problem, O111 polysaccharides were conjugated either to cytochrome C or to EtxB (a recombinant B subunit of LT) as carrier proteins. The O111-cytochrome C conjugate was incorporated in silica SBA-15 nanoparticles and administered subcutaneously in rabbits, while the O111-EtxB conjugate was incorporated in Vaxcine(TM), an oil-based delivery system, and administered orally in mice. The results showed that one year post-vaccination, the conjugate incorporated in silica SBA-15 generated antibodies in rabbits able to inhibit the adhesion of all categories of O111 E. coli to epithelial cells. Importantly, mice immunized orally with the O111-EtxB conjugate in Vaxcine(TM) generated systemic and mucosal humoral responses against all categories of O111 E. coli as well as antibodies able to inhibit the toxic effect of LT in vitro. In summary, the results obtained by using 2 different approaches indicate that a vaccine that targets the O111 antigen has the potential to prevent diarrhea induced by O111 E. coli strains regardless their mechanism of virulence. They also suggest that a conjugated vaccine that uses EtxB as a carrier protein has potential to combat diarrhea induced by ETEC. PMID:25483465

Andrade, Gabrielle R; New, Roger R C; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo A; Williams, Neil A; Alves, Rosely C B; Pimenta, Daniel C; Vigerelli, Hugo; Melo, Bruna S; Rocha, Letícia B; Piazza, Roxane M F; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Domingos, Marta O

2014-10-01

54

Functional T-Cell Deficiency in Adolescents Who Experience Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease despite Receiving the Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine?  

PubMed Central

Some individuals have experienced meningococcal disease despite receiving the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in adolescence. We sought to determine whether this is due to subclinical functional B- or T-cell immunodeficiency. Of 53 vaccine failures identified by enhanced surveillance of England and Wales from 1999 to 2004, 15 received MCC vaccine in adolescence, 9 of whom were recruited 2 to 6 years following convalescence from meningococcal disease. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated with polyclonal activators designed to mimic T-cell-independent B-cell stimulation by bacterial polysaccharides and the T-cell stimulation provided by the protein component of the conjugate vaccine. Subsequent proliferation and activation of T and B lymphocytes were measured, along with T-cell help to B cells. Compared to age-, sex-, geographically, and ethnicity-matched controls, CD4 T-cell proliferation rates in response to both anti-CD3 (T-cell receptor [TCR]) stimulation and anti-CD3 in the presence of B cells activated through anti-IgD conjugated to dextran (?-?-dex) were lower in PBMCs derived from vaccine failures (P = 0.044 and P = 0.029, respectively). There was reduced CD4 cell activation of the patient cells compared to controls following stimulation by CD3 (P = 0.048). B-cell activation during incubation of PBMCs with the T-cell stimuli, anti-CD3 (P = 0.044), or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 (P = 0.018) was relatively impaired in patients. Anti-tetanus toxoid IgG concentrations were lower in the vaccine failure group (P = 0.0385). There was a relative defect of T-cell responsiveness to T-cell-dependent antigen stimulation in MCC vaccine failures, which was manifested in reduced T-cell help to B cells. PMID:20463106

Foster, Rachel A.; Carlring, Jennifer; Lees, Andrew; Borrow, Ray; Ramsay, Mary; Kacsmarski, Ed; Miller, Elizabeth; McKendrick, Michael W.; Heath, Andrew W.; Read, Robert C.

2010-01-01

55

Acute mastoiditis in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.  

PubMed

Following the introduction of the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, we observed an inverse relationship between the increasing rate of immunized children and the proportion of middle ear fluid cultures collected during acute mastoiditis episodes that tested positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae among a subset of children 0 to 6 years old who had initially presented with severe acute otitis media and had bacterial cultures collected during tympanocentesis or from spontaneous otorrhea. PMID:24920600

Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Roth, Yehudah; Dalal, Ilan; Goldfarb, Abraham; Marom, Tal

2014-08-01

56

Preparation and testing of a Vi conjugate vaccine using pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) from Streptococcus pneumoniae as the carrier protein.  

PubMed

In the current study pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) was conjugated to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi to make available a vaccine against typhoid fever that has the potential to also provide broad protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae. High yielding production processes were developed for the purification of PspAs from families 1 and 2. The purified PspAs were conjugated to Vi with high recovery of both Vi and PspA. The processes developed especially for PspA family 2 could readily be adapted for large scale production under cGMP conditions. Previously we have shown that conjugation of diphtheria toxoid (DT) to Vi polysaccharide improves the immune response to Vi but can also enhance the response to DT. In this study it was shown that conjugation of PspA to Vi enhanced the anti-PspA response and that PspA was a suitable carrier protein as demonstrated by the characteristics of a T-cell dependent response to the Vi. We propose that a bivalent vaccine consisting of PspA from families 1 and 2 bound to Vi polysaccharide would protect against typhoid fever and has the potential to also protect against pneumococcal disease and should be considered for use in developing countries. PMID:25171842

Kothari, Neha; Genschmer, Kristopher R; Kothari, Sudeep; Kim, Jeong Ah; Briles, David E; Rhee, Dong Kwon; Carbis, Rodney

2014-09-29

57

Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant properties of PAA in Leishmania infection. Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in Leishmania parasites. In the study, LPG and PAA were conjugated by a multi-step procedure, and final products were analyzed with GPC and MALDI-TOF MS techniques. In cytotoxicity experiments, LPG-PAA conjugates did not indicate toxic effects on L929 and J774 murine macrophage cells. We assume that LPG-PAA conjugate can be a potential vaccine candidate, and will be immunologically characterized in further studies to prove its potential. PMID:23731716

Topuzogullari, Murat; Cakir Koc, Rabia; Dincer Isoglu, Sevil; Bagirova, Melahat; Akdeste, Zeynep; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga N; Yesilkir Baydar, Serap; Canim Ates, Sezen; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

2013-01-01

58

Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant properties of PAA in Leishmania infection. Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in Leishmania parasites. In the study, LPG and PAA were conjugated by a multi-step procedure, and final products were analyzed with GPC and MALDI-TOF MS techniques. In cytotoxicity experiments, LPG-PAA conjugates did not indicate toxic effects on L929 and J774 murine macrophage cells. We assume that LPG-PAA conjugate can be a potential vaccine candidate, and will be immunologically characterized in further studies to prove its potential. PMID:23731716

2013-01-01

59

Economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in The Gambia  

PubMed Central

Background Gambia is the second GAVI support-eligible country to introduce the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), but a country-specific cost-effectiveness analysis of the vaccine is not available. Our objective was to assess the potential impact of PCVs of different valences in The Gambia. Methods We synthesized the best available epidemiological and cost data using a state-transition model to simulate the natural histories of various pneumococcal diseases. For the base-case, we estimated incremental cost (in 2005 US dollars) per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted under routine vaccination using PCV9 compared to no vaccination. We extended the base-case results for PCV9 to estimate the cost-effectiveness of PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13, each compared to no vaccination. To explore parameter uncertainty, we performed both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. We also explored the impact of vaccine efficacy waning, herd immunity, and serotype replacement, as a part of the uncertainty analyses, by assuming alternative scenarios and extrapolating empirical results from different settings. Results Assuming 90% coverage, a program using a 9-valent PCV (PCV9) would prevent approximately 630 hospitalizations, 40 deaths, and 1000 DALYs, over the first 5 years of life of a birth cohort. Under base-case assumptions ($3.5 per vaccine), compared to no intervention, a PCV9 vaccination program would cost $670 per DALY averted in The Gambia. The corresponding values for PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were $910, $670, and $570 per DALY averted, respectively. Sensitivity analyses that explored the implications of the uncertain key parameters showed that model outcomes were most sensitive to vaccine price per dose, discount rate, case-fatality rate of primary endpoint pneumonia, and vaccine efficacy against primary endpoint pneumonia. Conclusions Based on the information available now, infant PCV vaccination would be expected to reduce pneumococcal diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in The Gambia. Assuming a cost-effectiveness threshold of three times GDP per capita, all PCVs examined would be cost-effective at the tentative Advance Market Commitment (AMC) price of $3.5 per dose. Because the cost-effectiveness of a PCV program could be affected by potential serotype replacement or herd immunity effects that may not be known until after a large scale introduction, type-specific surveillance and iterative evaluation will be critical. PMID:20815900

2010-01-01

60

Evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (meningococcal protein conjugate) in Canadian infants  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess adverse effects and immune responses with a three-dose series of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningococcal protein conjugate (PedvaxHIB or Hib.OMP) vaccine, including any immunological response alterations from concurrent administration with routine vaccines for infants. Design: Randomized, controlled trial with treatment group crossover for dose 3. Setting: Two public health units near Vancouver. Participants: One hundred and ten healthy infants eight to 14 weeks old were enrolled; 105 completed the study (95%). Interventions: All participants received two doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (dpt) vaccine (at two and four months of age) and one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (mmr) vaccine at 12 months. In each instance, Hib.OMP was given either concurrently in another limb or after a delay of two weeks (after dpt) or four weeks (after mmr). Main Outcome Measures: Adverse effects, particularly fever and local erythema, were monitored by parents for 72 h after each dose of Hib.OMP vaccine. Five blood samples were taken at prescribed intervals to assess responses to each dose of Hib.OMP and to selected other vaccine antigens. Main Results: Follow-up was obtained after all 322 doses of Hib.OMP. Local adverse effects were infrequent and mild: 13% had redness, 17% tenderness. Systemic effects in those given Hib.OMP alone included fever in 8%, irritability in 29%. Anti-polyribose-ribitol phosphate (prp) responses to Hib.OMP were not impaired by coadministration with dpt or mmr vaccines, nor were tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin levels or rubella or measles response rates affected. After two doses of Hib.OMP, 92% were seropositive and 64% had greater than 1.0 ?g/mL of anti-prp. After three doses, 100% were seropositive and 82% exceeded 1.0 ?g/mL. Conclusion: Hib.OMP vaccine was well tolerated, immunogenic and compatible with vaccines routinely given to infants in Canada. PMID:22451769

Scheifele, David W; Bjornson, Gordean L; Meekison, William G; Guasparini, Roland; Mitchell, Leslie A

1994-01-01

61

A completely synthetic toxoid vaccine containing Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin and antigenic determinants of the heat-labile toxin B subunit.  

PubMed Central

The immunodeterminant regions of the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit were identified by determining the antigenicity, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, of synthetically produced peptides corresponding to various segments of its 124-amino-acid sequence. The addition of the 18-amino-acid sequence of heat-stable toxin (ST) to some of these peptides enhanced their B subunit antigenicity. Peptide residues containing the 26 amino acids of B subunit sequence 58 to 83 joined to the 18-amino-acid sequence of ST yielded a 44-amino-acid peptide whose antigenicity was 50% that of both native B subunit and ST. This peptide was completely nontoxic when tested in Chinese hamster ovary tissue culture, suckling mouse, and rat ligated ileal loop assays. Peroral immunization of rats with the polymeric form of this peptide yielded a dose-dependent response of intestinal immunoglobulin A antitoxin titers to both the ST and B subunit components and provided strong protection against challenge with viable ST- and heat-labile toxin-producing E. coli strains. The immunogenicity of the synthetic peptide in rats was the same as that of ST and about 50% that of native B subunit. The completely synthetic peptide vaccine has the following advantages over previously described toxoid vaccines that consist of synthetic ST chemically cross-linked to native B subunit derived from bacterial cultures: it is produced by a single synthetic process, it is completely nontoxic, and it is immunogenic for both ST and B subunit. PMID:2581899

Houghten, R A; Engert, R F; Ostresh, J M; Hoffman, S R; Klipstein, F A

1985-01-01

62

Heavy-chain isotype patterns of human antibody-secreting cells induced by Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in relation to age and preimmunity.  

PubMed Central

The influence of preexisting immunity on the heavy-chain isotypes of circulating antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) induced by vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and by vaccination with TT or DT alone in 51 healthy adults and 9 infants was studied. In adults, the isotypes of TT and DT AbSC were dominated by immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) followed by IgG4 and IgA1. HibCP AbSC were dominated by the isotype IgA1 followed by (in decreasing order) IgG2, IgA2, IgM, and IgG1. The isotype distributions of TT and DT AbSC were independent of whether the toxoids were coupled to HibCP, and the isotypes of HibCP AbSC were not influenced by the nature of the carrier (TT or DT). Furthermore, the isotype distributions were unaffected by recent immunization with components of the conjugates, although this reduced the numbers of AbSC. The heavy-chain gene usage of HibCP AbSC in adults differed clearly from that in infants, which was restricted largely to the genes mu, gamma 1, and alpha 1, all lying upstream in the heavy-chain constant-region gene locus, while the usage in adults also, to different extents, involved the downstream genes gamma 2 and alpha 2. The ratio between the numbers of HibCP AbSC using heavy-chain genes from the downstream duplication unit (gamma 2, gamma 4, and alpha 2) and those using genes from the upstream duplication unit (gamma 3, gamma 1, and alpha 1) correlated with the preimmunization level of natural HibCP antibodies (r = 0.59; P = 0.00002). A possible role of natural exposure for Hib or cross-reactive bacteria on the mucosal surfaces in the shaping of the isotype response to HibCP conjugate vaccines is discussed. PMID:8039873

Barington, T; Juul, L; Gyhrs, A; Heilmann, C

1994-01-01

63

Carrier priming with CRM197 or diphtheria toxoid has a different impact on the immunogenicity of the respective glycoconjugates: Biophysical and immunochemical interpretation.  

PubMed

Glycoconjugate vaccines play an enormous role in preventing infectious diseases. The main carrier proteins used in commercial conjugate vaccines are the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Modern childhood routine vaccination schedules include the administration of several vaccines simultaneously or in close sequence, increasing the concern that the repeated exposure to conjugates based on these carrier proteins might interfere with the anti-polysaccharide response. Extending previous observations we show here that priming mice with CRM197 or DT does not suppress the response to the carbohydrate moiety of CRM197 meningococcal serogroup A (MenA) conjugates, while priming with DT can suppress the response to DT-MenA conjugates. To explain these findings we made use of biophysical and immunochemical techniques applied mainly to MenA conjugates. Differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism data revealed that the CRM197 structure was altered by the chemical conjugation, while DT and the formaldehyde-treated form of CRM197 were less impacted, depending on the degree of glycosylation. Investigating the binding and avidity properties of IgGs induced in mice by non-conjugated carriers, we found that CRM197 induced low levels of anti-carrier antibodies, with decreased avidity for its MenA conjugates and poor binding to DT and respective MenA conjugates. In contrast, DT induced high antibody titers able to bind with comparable avidity both the protein and its conjugates but showing very low avidity for CRM197 and related conjugates. The low intrinsic immunogenicity of CRM197 as compared to DT, the structural modifications induced by glycoconjugation and detoxification processes, resulting in conformational changes in CRM197 and DT epitopes with consequent alteration of the antibody recognition and avidity, might explain the different behavior of CRM197 and DT in a carrier priming context. PMID:25448110

Pecetta, S; Lo Surdo, P; Tontini, M; Proietti, D; Zambonelli, C; Bottomley, M J; Biagini, M; Berti, F; Costantino, P; Romano, M R

2015-01-01

64

Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine trial in Oxford: implications for the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and immunogenicity of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine was investigated in 103 infants immunised at 3, 5, and 9 months of age; the infants also received diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus and polio vaccines. Side effects were compared with 99 matched infants receiving diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus and polio vaccines only. No serious side effects were observed

G Tudor-Williams; J Frankland; D Isaacs; R T Mayon-White; J A MacFarlane; D G Rees; E R Moxon

1989-01-01

65

Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effica- cy, safety, and immunogenicity of the heptavalent CRM197 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) against inva- sive disease caused by vaccine serotypes and to determine the effec- tiveness of this vaccine against clinical episodes of otitis media. Methods: The Wyeth Lederle heptavalent CRM197 PCV was given to infants at 2, 4, 6 and 12 to 15 months

STEVEN BLACK; HENRY SHINEFIELD; BRUCE FIREMAN; EDWIN LEWIS; PAULA RAY; JOHN R. HANSEN; LAURA ELVIN; KATHY M. ENSOR; JILL HACKELL; GEORGE SIBER; FRANK MALINOSKI; DACE MADORE; IH CHANG; ROBERT KOHBERGER; WENDY WATSON; ROBERT AUSTRIAN; KATHY EDWARDS

2000-01-01

66

Otitis media in children vaccinated during consecutive 7-valent or 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination schedules  

PubMed Central

Background In 2001 when 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced, almost all (90%) young Australian Indigenous children living in remote communities had some form of otitis media (OM), including 24% with tympanic membrane perforation (TMP). In late 2009, the Northern Territory childhood vaccination schedule replaced PCV7 with 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10). Methods We conducted regular surveillance of all forms of OM in children in remote Indigenous communities between September 2008 and December 2012. This analysis compares children less than 36 months of age who received a primary course of at least two doses of PCV7 or PHiD-CV10, and not more than one dose of another pneumococcal vaccine. Results Mean ages of 444 PCV7- and 451 PHiD-CV10-vaccinated children were 20 and 18 months, respectively. Bilaterally normal middle ears were detected in 7% and 9% respectively. OM with effusion was diagnosed in 41% and 51% (Risk Difference 10% [95% Confidence Interval 3 to 17] p?=?0.002), any suppurative OM (acute OM or any TMP) in 51% versus 39% (RD ?12% [95% CI ?19 to ?5] p?=?0.0004], and TMP in 17% versus 14% (RD ?3% [95% CI ?8 to 2] p?=?0.2), respectively. Multivariate analyses described a similar independent negative association between suppurative OM and PHiD-CV10 compared to PCV7 (Odds Ratio?=?0.6 [95% CI 0.4 to 0.8] p?=?0.001). Additional children in the household were a risk factor for OM (OR?=?2.4 [95% CI 2 to 4] p?=?0.001 for the third additional child), and older age and male gender were associated with less disease. Other measured risk factors were non-significant. Similar clinical results were found for children who had received non-mixed PCV schedules. Conclusions Otitis media remains a significant health and social issue for Australian Indigenous children despite PCV vaccination. Around 90% of young children have some form of OM. Children vaccinated in with PHiD-CV10 had less suppurative OM than children vaccinated with PCV7. Ongoing surveillance during the PCV13 era, and trials of early intervention including earlier and mixed vaccine schedules are warranted. PMID:25109288

2014-01-01

67

Impact du vaccin pneumococcique conjugué sur les pneumopathies en pédiatrie Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumonia in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the impact of a vaccine for an infectious disease is an indirect approach to the evaluation of the importance of the disease when the diagnosis is difficult. Streptocccus pneumoniae is the most important cause of severe pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) may be used as a probe to define the burden of pneumococcal disease and better characterize the

E. Bingen

68

Comparative immunogenicity of conjugates composed of Escherichia coli O111 O-specific polysaccharide, prepared by treatment with acetic acid or hydrazine, bound to tetanus toxoid by two synthetic schemes.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli O111, of various H types and virulence factors, causes enteritis throughout the world, especially in young children. This O type is found rarely in healthy individuals. Serum antibodies to the O-specific polysaccharide of O111 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protect mice and dogs against infection with this E. coli serotype. The O111 O-specific polysaccharide is composed of a pentasaccharide repeat unit with two colitoses bound to the C-3 and C-6 of glucose in a trisaccharide backbone; this structure is identical to that of Salmonella adelaide (O35), another enteric pathogen. Nonpyrogenic O111 O-specific polysaccharide was prepared by treatment of its LPS with acetic acid (O-SP) or the organic base hydrazine (DeA-LPS). The O-SP had a reduced concentration of colitose. These products were derivatized with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) or thiolated with N-succinimidyl-3(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The four derivatives were covalently bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) by carbodiimide-mediated condensation or with SPDP to form conjugates. Immunization of BALB/c and general-purpose mice by a clinically acceptable route showed that DeA-LPS-TTADH, of the four conjugates, elicited the highest level of LPS antibodies. Possible reasons to explain this differential immunogenicity between the four conjugates are discussed. PMID:7542631

Gupta, R K; Egan, W; Bryla, D A; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

1995-01-01

69

Effect of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA–TT) on serogroup A meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad: a community study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background A serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide–tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA–TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed in India in 2009, and pre-qualified by WHO in 2010, on the basis of its safety and immunogenicity. This vaccine is now being deployed across the African meningitis belt. We studied the effect of PsA–TT on meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad during a serogroup A meningococcal meningitis epidemic. Methods We obtained data for the incidence of meningitis before and after vaccination from national records between January, 2009, and June, 2012. In 2012, surveillance was enhanced in regions where vaccination with PsA–TT had been undertaken in 2011, and in one district where a reactive vaccination campaign in response to an outbreak of meningitis was undertaken. Meningococcal carriage was studied in an age-stratified sample of residents aged 1–29 years of a rural area roughly 13–15 and 2–4 months before and 4–6 months after vaccination. Meningococci obtained from cerebrospinal fluid or oropharyngeal swabs were characterised by conventional microbiological and molecular methods. Findings Roughly 1·8 million individuals aged 1–29 years received one dose of PsA–TT during a vaccination campaign in three regions of Chad in and around the capital N'Djamena during 10 days in December, 2011. The incidence of meningitis during the 2012 meningitis season in these three regions was 2·48 per 100?000 (57 cases in the 2·3 million population), whereas in regions without mass vaccination, incidence was 43·8 per 100?000 (3809 cases per 8·7 million population), a 94% difference in crude incidence (p<0·0001), and an incidence rate ratio of 0·096 (95% CI 0·046–0·198). Despite enhanced surveillance, no case of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis was reported in the three vaccinated regions. 32 serogroup A carriers were identified in 4278 age-stratified individuals (0·75%) living in a rural area near the capital 2–4 months before vaccination, whereas only one serogroup A meningococcus was isolated in 5001 people living in the same community 4–6 months after vaccination (adjusted odds ratio 0·019, 95% CI 0·002–0·138; p<0·0001). Interpretation PSA–TT was highly effective at prevention of serogroup A invasive meningococcal disease and carriage in Chad. How long this protection will persist needs to be established. Funding The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and Médecins Sans Frontères. PMID:24035220

Daugla, DM; Gami, JP; Gamougam, K; Naibei, N; Mbainadji, L; Narbé, M; Toralta, J; Kodbesse, B; Ngadoua, C; Coldiron, ME; Fermon, F; Page, A-L; Djingarey, MH; Hugonnet, S; Harrison, OB; Rebbetts, LS; Tekletsion, Y; Watkins, ER; Hill, D; Caugant, DA; Chandramohan, D; Hassan-King, M; Manigart, O; Nascimento, M; Woukeu, A; Trotter, C; Stuart, JM; Maiden, MCJ; Greenwood, BM

2013-01-01

70

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: The potential to alter antibiotic use and nasopharyngeal carriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, the incidence of drug-resistant pneumococcal strains has increased dramatically due to the overuse or inappropriate use of antibiotics. In addition, attendance at day care centers and previous treatment with certain classes of antibiotics are predisposing factors for infections with these drug-resistant strains. Implementation of widespread vaccination of infants and young children with the pneumococcal saccharide conjugated vaccine,

Ron Dagan

2002-01-01

71

Development and technology transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines for developing countries.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment/Netherlands Vaccine Institute (RIVM/NVI, Bilthoven, The Netherlands), and the subsequent transfer of its production process to manufacturers in developing countries. In 1998, at the outset of the project, the majority of the world's children were not immunized against Hib because of the high price and limited supply of the conjugate vaccines, due partly to the fact that local manufacturers in developing countries did not master the Hib conjugate production technology. To address this problem, the RIVM/NVI has developed a robust Hib conjugate vaccine production process based on a proven model, and transferred this technology to several partners in India, Indonesia, Korea and China. As a result, emerging manufacturers in developing countries acquired modern technologies previously unavailable to them. This has in turn facilitated their approach to producing other conjugate vaccines. As an additional spin-off from the project, a World Health Organization (WHO) Hib quality control (QC) course was designed and conducted at the RIVM/NVI, resulting in an increased regulatory capacity for conjugate vaccines in developing countries at the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) level. For the local populations, this has translated into an increased and sustainable supply of affordable Hib conjugate-containing combination vaccines. During the course of this project, developing countries have demonstrated their ability to produce large quantities of high-quality modern vaccines after a successful transfer of the technology. PMID:22683521

Beurret, Michel; Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans

2012-07-13

72

MER5101, a novel A?1-15:DT conjugate vaccine, generates a robust anti-A? antibody response and attenuates A? pathology and cognitive deficits in APPswe/PS1?E9 transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

Active amyloid-? (A?) immunotherapy is under investigation to prevent or treat early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In 2002, a Phase II clinical trial (AN1792) was halted due to meningoencephalitis in ?6% of the AD patients, possibly caused by a T-cell-mediated immunological response. Thus, generating a vaccine that safely generates high anti-A? antibody levels in the elderly is required. In this study, MER5101, a novel conjugate of A?1-15 peptide (a B-cell epitope fragment) conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein, diphtheria toxoid (DT), and formulated in a nanoparticular emulsion-based adjuvant, was administered to 10 mo-old APPswe/PS1?E9 transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (Wt) mice. High anti-A? antibody levels were observed in both vaccinated APPswe/PS1?E9 Tg and Wt mice. Antibody isotypes were mainly IgG1 and IgG2b, suggesting a Th2-biased response. Re-stimulation of splenocytes with the A?1-15:DT conjugate resulted in a strong proliferative response, whereas proliferation was absent after re-stimulation with A?1-15 or A?1-40/42 peptides, indicating a cellular immune response against DT while avoiding an A?-specific T cell response. Moreover, significant reductions in cerebral A? plaque burden, accompanied by attenuated microglial activation and increased synaptic density, were observed in MER5101 vaccinated APPswe/PS1?E9 Tg mice compared to Tg adjuvant controls. Lastly, MER5101 immunized APPswe/PS1?E9 Tg mice showed improvement of cognitive deficits in both Contextual Fear Conditioning (CFC) and the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Our novel, highly immunogenic A? conjugate vaccine, MER5101, shows promise for improving A? vaccine safety and efficacy and therefore, may be useful for preventing and/or treating early AD. PMID:23595760

Liu, Bin; Frost, Jeffrey L.; Sun, Jing; Fu, Hongjun; Grimes, Stephen; Blackburn, Peter; Lemere, Cynthia A.

2013-01-01

73

Phase 1 trial of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a Phase 1 study, 15 healthy subjects were randomized to receive a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and 15 to receive a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPS). Antibody responses were measured immediately before and approximately one month after vaccination. Serotype-specific antibodies were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and an opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) for

Daniel A. Scott; Steven F. Komjathy; Branda T. Hu; Sherryl Baker; Lois A. Supan; Carol A. Monahan; William Gruber; George R. Siber; Stephen P. Lockhart

2007-01-01

74

Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of a Synthetic Oligosaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae Type b  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharide-protein conjugates as vaccines have proven to be very effective in preventing Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in industrialized countries. However, cost-effective technologies need to be devel- oped for increasing the availability of anti-H. influenzae type b vaccines in countries from the developing world. Consequently, vaccine production with partially synthetic antigens is a desirable goal for many reasons. They may

V. Fernandez-Santana; F. Cardoso; A. Rodriguez; T. Carmenate; L. Pena; Y. Valdes; E. Hardy; F. Mawas; L. Heynngnezz; M. C. Rodriguez; I. Figueroa; J. Chang; M. E. Toledo; A. Musacchio; I. Hernandez; M. Izquierdo; K. Cosme; R. Roy; V. Verez-Bencomo

2004-01-01

75

Meningococcal A, C, Y and W?135 polysaccharide?protein conjugate vaccines  

PubMed Central

Serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccines, first launched in the UK in 1999, have been used successfully in Australia, Canada and several other European countries. Combination conjugate vaccines, containing more than one meningococcal polysaccharide, have been developed to broaden protection against the disease. A tetravalent meningococcal A, C, Y and W?135 conjugate vaccine was licensed for use in 11–55?year old adolescents and adults in the US in January 2005, and subsequently also in 2–11?year old children in Canada in May 2006. This article discusses the different glycoconjugate meningococcal vaccines which have been developed and the potential for their use to control disease caused by serogroups A, C, Y and W?135 of Neisseria meningitidis. PMID:17895339

Pace, David; Pollard, Andrew J

2007-01-01

76

Predicting the impact of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: serotype composition is not enough.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. A heptavalent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV) has proven highly effective in preventing pneumococcal disease in industrialized countries. Two higher-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are now widely available, even in the poorest countries. These differ from each other in the number of serotypes and carrier proteins used for their conjugation. Some have assumed that the only meaningful clinical difference between PCV formulations is a function of the number of serotypes each contains. A careful review of recent clinical data with these and several unlicensed PCV formulations points to important similarities but also that some key properties of each vaccine likely differ from one another. PMID:25266168

Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard; Adegbola, Richard A

2015-03-01

77

Toxoid flocculation assay by laser light-scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internationally accepted designations of antigen content for toxoid vaccines are provided by the WHO in Lf (limes flocculationis) units, based on the formation of antigen–antibody complexes. The current assay method for Lf determination involves observation of the complexes by eye, making the development of a more objective system highly desirable. Here we report a novel detection system using a laser

Masaaki Iwaki; Yoshinobu Horiuchi; Takako Komiya; Tadashi Fukuda; Yoshichika Arakawa; Motohide Takahashi

2007-01-01

78

Comparison of antibody kinetics following meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine between healthy adults previously vaccinated with meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine and vaccine-naïve controls.  

PubMed

Few data are available on the kinetics of meningococcal serogroup C-specific antibody production following meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccination, particularly in those who have received prior meningococcal A/C polysaccharide (MACP) vaccination(s). Laboratory staff who had previously received either one dose (n = 35), two doses (n = 18) of MACP vaccine or who were naïve to previous meningococcal vaccination (n = 42) were vaccinated with MCC. Bloods were taken pre-vaccination, on the subsequent 4 days and on days 10 and 28. Serogroup C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA), and anti-serogroup C-specific IgG, IgM and IgA were measured. There were no significant differences between the groups who had received either 2 or 1 prior dose(s) of MACP, therefore, these results were combined. Up to day 4 there was no evidence of a significant increase or decrease in the median levels of SBA, IgG, IgM or IgA in either the naïve or MACP groups, although about 20% of individuals did have 4-fold SBA rises by day 4. By day 10 there were large significant increases in the levels of SBA, IgG, IgM and IgA with respective fold increases from pre-vaccination levels of 4.6, 1.9, 1.2 and 2.1 in the MACP group and 270, 13.4, 4.8 and 33.8 in the naïve group. Further significant increases were seen between day 10 and 28 for SBA, IgG and IgM (naïve group only). By day 28, 4-fold SBA rises had occurred in 63.5% of the MACP group and 97.6% of the naïve group. The SBA GMT on day 28 significantly differed between the naïve and MACP groups with GMTs 2.8-fold higher in the naïve group (P = 0.021). In conclusion, no decline in serogroup C-specific antibody levels was demonstrated immediately post-MCC vaccination whilst these levels had risen significantly by day 10. Putative protective SBA titres (> or =8, 32 or 128) were observed by day 10 following MCC vaccination regardless of MACP history. PMID:11311998

Borrow, R; Southern, J; Andrews, N; Peake, N; Rahim, R; Acuna, M; Martin, S; Miller, E; Kaczmarski, E

2001-04-30

79

Phase 1 trial of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy adults.  

PubMed

In a Phase 1 study, 15 healthy subjects were randomized to receive a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and 15 to receive a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPS). Antibody responses were measured immediately before and approximately one month after vaccination. Serotype-specific antibodies were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and an opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) for functional antibodies. PCV13 was as immunogenic or more immunogenic than 23vPS and was well tolerated. PMID:17629361

Scott, Daniel A; Komjathy, Steven F; Hu, Branda T; Baker, Sherryl; Supan, Lois A; Monahan, Carol A; Gruber, William; Siber, George R; Lockhart, Stephen P

2007-08-14

80

Assessment of the stability and immunogenicity of meningococcal oligosaccharide C-CRM197 conjugate vaccines.  

PubMed

In this stability study, meningococcal C-CRM(197) conjugate vaccines from two different manufacturers that differ in oligosaccharide chain length, number of conjugation sites, conjugation chemistry, manufacturing process and formulation were used. Both the bulk concentrated and final fill preparations were incubated at -20, 4, 23, 37 or 55 degrees C for 5 weeks or subjected to ten cycles of freeze-thawing. The structural stability, hydrodynamic size and integrity of the treated vaccines were monitored by size exclusion chromatography (FPLC-SEC), high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The data showed that the structural stability of the oligosaccharide chains and of the protein carrier varied between the two conjugates. The experimental immunogenicity was not severely affected by repeated freeze-thawing, incubation at -20 or 4 degrees C, but one developed conformational changes in the protein carrier when incubated at 23 degrees C or above, although the integrity of the oligosaccharide structure was maintained. This was not associated with any reduction in primary IgG or IgM antibody responses to meningococcal C polysaccharide. In the other conjugate vaccine, exposure to 55 degrees C resulted in the release of a substantial proportion of free saccharide that was accompanied by significant reduction in both IgG and IgM antibody responses to immunisation in the model system. In conclusion, the two meningococcal C-CRM(197) conjugate vaccines were stable when stored at the recommended temperatures, although their structural stability and subsequent immunogenicity were influenced by their conjugation chemistry and formulation. PMID:11115692

Ho, M M; Bolgiano, B; Corbel, M J

2000-11-22

81

Combined schedule of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in children and young adults with sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal-conjugate vaccine plus 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine to immunization with 23-valent vaccine only in individuals ?2 years of age with sickle cell disease. IgG pneumococcal antibody concentrations were higher in the combined schedule group with no increase in side effects observed after immunization with 23-valent vaccine. (J Pediatr 1998;133:275-8)

Louis Vernacchio; Ellis J. Neufeld; Kristin MacDonald; Susan Kurth; Saya Murakami; Courtney Hohne; Michelle King; Deborah Molrine

1998-01-01

82

Immunological evaluation of an alginate-based conjugate as a vaccine candidate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections, is usually resistant to antimicrobial agents, and is the leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa produce a virulence factor known as alginate. Developing a strategy to raise opsonic antibodies against alginate could be promising for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients. Conjugation of alginate to a carrier protein is a good method for increasing the immunogenicity of alginate. We conjugated alginate to the outer membrane vesicle (OMV) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, which is a safe carrier protein, and evaluated its efficacy in mice. To evaluate the immune response, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b titers were analyzed. Immunization of mice with the alginate-OMV conjugate raised the levels of opsonic antibodies, and the vaccinated mice were protected when challenged intranasally with P. aeruginosa. Further studies showed that the conjugated vaccine could eliminate P. aeruginosa from the lungs of infected mice. This study supports the proposal that immunization of mice with an alginate-OMV conjugate vaccine could be safe and protective against P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:25470757

Farjah, Ali; Owlia, Parviz; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mohammadpour, Hashem Khorsand

2015-02-01

83

DTaP-IPV-Hep B-Hib vaccine (Hexaxim®) : a review of its use in primary and booster vaccination.  

PubMed

Hexaxim(®) (DTaP-IPV-Hep B-Hib) is a new, thiomersal-free, fully liquid, hexavalent combination pediatric vaccine containing diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen produced in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, and Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate) conjugated to tetanus toxoid. It is currently registered in markets outside of the EU for primary vaccination of infants from 6 weeks of age and for booster vaccination up to 24 months of age. In randomized controlled trials, primary vaccination of infants with Hexaxim(®) using various immunization schedules was highly immunogenic for all vaccine component antigens regardless of the administration schedule, producing high levels of seroprotection or seroconversion for each antigen. Hexaxim(®) was as immunogenic as the comparator DTwP- or DTaP-based vaccines in these studies. The serological responses were generally sustained at high levels over a follow-up of ?1 year, and booster vaccination at 15-18 months further enhanced the immune response. Hexaxim(®) was less reactogenic than a DTwP-based combination vaccine, and displayed a tolerability profile similar to those of the comparator DTaP-based combination vaccines. Thus, Hexaxim(®) provides effective seroprotection or seroconversion against six major childhood diseases simultaneously, both as primary and booster vaccination, and offers the benefits and convenience of a fully liquid, ready-to-use vaccine. PMID:23338932

McCormack, Paul L

2013-02-01

84

A pilot study to quantify parental anxiety associated with enrollment of an infant or toddler in a phase III vaccine trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to measure the anxiety felt by parents at the time of entry into a randomized controlled vaccine trial, and to determine if anxiety level was associated with parental demographic variables or past experience. The children were 2-month-old infants entering a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) of a diphtheria–tetanus toxoid–acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed with Haemophilus influenzae B conjugate, or

Joanne M Langley; Scott A Halperin; Bruce Smith

2003-01-01

85

Epidemiology of vaccine-preventable invasive diseases in Catalonia in the era of conjugate vaccines  

PubMed Central

We investigated the incidence and distribution of cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and invasive Hemophilus influenzae disease (IHiD) notified by hospital laboratories to the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia between 2005 and 2009. Incidence rates were compared using the rate ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 6,661 cases, 6,012 were IPD, 436 IMD and 213 IHiD. The global annual incidence per 105 inhabitants was 16.62 (95% CI 16.20–17.04) for IPD, 1.21 (95% CI 1.09–1.32) for IMD and 0.59 (95% CI 0.51–0.67) for IHiD. IPD increased in 2009 compared with 2005 (RR:1.55, 95%CI: 1.43–1.70) and IMD and IHiD remained stable. Pneumonia was the most-frequent clinical manifestation of IPD (75.6%) and IHiD (44.1%) and meningoencephalitis with or without sepsis for IMD (70.6%). The male:female ratio was 1.37 for IPD, 1.0 for IMD and 1.15 for IHiD. The age groups with the highest incidence were the ? 2 y and 2–4 y groups for IPD (66.40 and 50.66/100,000 persons-year) and IMD (14.88 and 7.26/100,000 persons-year) and the ? 2 y and ? 65 y groups for IHiD (1.88 and 1.89/100,000 persons-year). The most-frequent serotypes were serotype 1 (19.0%) in IPD and untypeable serotypes (60.8%) in IHiD. Serogroup B (78.3%) was the most frequent in IMD. S. pneumoniae is the most-frequent agent causing invasive disease in Catalonia. The main clinical manifestations were pneumonia in IPD and IHiD and meningitis in IMD. The main causative agent of meningitis was N. meningitidis in people aged < 20 y and S. pneumoniae in people aged ? 20 y. Vaccination with conjugate vaccines may reduce the risk of infectious disease in our setting. PMID:23303166

Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Izquierdo, Conchita; Hernández, Sergi; Broner, Sonia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Domínguez, Àngela; of Catalonia Study Group, the Microbiological Reporting System

2013-01-01

86

Epidemiology of vaccine-preventable invasive diseases in Catalonia in the era of conjugate vaccines.  

PubMed

We investigated the incidence and distribution of cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and invasive Hemophilus influenzae disease (IHiD) notified by hospital laboratories to the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia between 2005 and 2009. Incidence rates were compared using the rate ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 6,661 cases, 6,012 were IPD, 436 IMD and 213 IHiD. The global annual incidence per 10 ( 5) inhabitants was 16.62 (95% CI 16.20-17.04) for IPD, 1.21 (95% CI 1.09-1.32) for IMD and 0.59 (95% CI 0.51-0.67) for IHiD. IPD increased in 2009 compared with 2005 (RR:1.55, 95%CI: 1.43-1.70) and IMD and IHiD remained stable. Pneumonia was the most-frequent clinical manifestation of IPD (75.6%) and IHiD (44.1%) and meningoencephalitis with or without sepsis for IMD (70.6%). The male:female ratio was 1.37 for IPD, 1.0 for IMD and 1.15 for IHiD. The age groups with the highest incidence were the ? 2 y and 2-4 y groups for IPD (66.40 and 50.66/100,000 persons-year) and IMD (14.88 and 7.26/100,000 persons-year) and the ? 2 y and ? 65 y groups for IHiD (1.88 and 1.89/100,000 persons-year). The most-frequent serotypes were serotype 1 (19.0%) in IPD and untypeable serotypes (60.8%) in IHiD. Serogroup B (78.3%) was the most frequent in IMD. S. pneumoniae is the most-frequent agent causing invasive disease in Catalonia. The main clinical manifestations were pneumonia in IPD and IHiD and meningitis in IMD. The main causative agent of meningitis was N. meningitidis in people aged < 20 y and S. pneumoniae in people aged ? 20 y. Vaccination with conjugate vaccines may reduce the risk of infectious disease in our setting. PMID:23303166

Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Izquierdo, Conchita; Hernández, Sergi; Broner, Sonia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Domínguez, Àngela

2013-03-01

87

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines and Otitis Media: An Appraisal of the Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant otitis media pathogen and its prevention through effective vaccination could diminish childhood illness and antibiotic use. This paper reviews 5 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) trials that used otitis media as an endpoint: Northern California Kaiser Permanente (NCKP; vaccine, 7-valent PCV [PCV7]-CRM); Finnish Otitis Media (FinOM; vaccines, PCV7-CRM or PCV7-OMPC); Native American Trial (vaccine, PCV7-CRM); Pneumococcal Otitis Efficacy Trial (POET; vaccine, 11-valent PCV [PCV11]-PD). For the microbiological endpoint, vaccine efficacy against vaccine-serotype pneumococcal otitis media was about 60% across trials. Against the clinical endpoint of all episodes, vaccine efficacy was 7% (PCV7-CRM/NCKP), 6% (PCV7-CRM/FinOM), ?1% (PCV7-OMPC/FinOM), and ?0.4% (PCV7-CRM/Native American Trial); 34% against first episodes of ear, nose, and throat specialist-referral cases (PCV11-PD/POET). Both follow-up through 2 years of age, for the 5 trials, and long-term follow-up, for PCV7-CRM/NCKP and PCV7-CRM/FinOM, demonstrated greater vaccine efficacy against recurrent AOM and tympanostomy-tube placement, suggesting that vaccination against early episodes of AOM may prevent subsequent episodes of complicated otitis media. Although study designs varied by primary endpoint measured, age at follow-up, source of middle-ear fluid for culture, case ascertainment, and type of randomization, each clinical trial demonstrated vaccine efficacy against microbiological and/or clinical otitis media. PMID:22701486

Fletcher, Mark A.; Fritzell, Bernard

2012-01-01

88

Preclinical study of influenza virus A M2 peptide conjugate vaccines in mice, ferrets, and rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A universal influenza virus vaccine that does not require frequent updates and\\/or annual immunizations will offer significant advantages over current seasonal flu vaccines. The highly conserved influenza virus A M2 membrane protein has been previously suggested as a potential antigen target for such a vaccine. Here, we report systematic evaluation of M2 peptide conjugate vaccines (synthetic peptides of M2 extracellular

Jiang Fan; Xiaoping Liang; Melanie S Horton; Helen C Perry; Michael P Citron; Gwen J Heidecker; Tong-Ming Fu; Joseph Joyce; Craig T Przysiecki; Paul M Keller; Victor M Garsky; Roxana Ionescu; Yvette Rippeon; Li Shi; Michael A Chastain; Jon H Condra; Mary-Ellen Davies; Jason Liao; Emilio A Emini; John W Shiver

2004-01-01

89

Do pneumococcal conjugate vaccines provide any cross-protection against serotype 19A?  

PubMed Central

Background Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in several countries has led to a rapid, significant drop in vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in immunized children. In the United States and some other countries with high antibiotic use, a subsequent rise in serotype 19A IPD has been taken to indicate that the 19F conjugate in the vaccine provides no cross-protection against the immunologically related 19A. Discussion We systematically assessed the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of 19F-containing vaccines against 19A disease or nasopharyngeal carriage by searching English-language articles in the electronic databases PubMed, Current contents, Scopus, and Embase from 1985 to 2008. The vaccine efficacy and effectiveness point estimates were consistently positive for modest protection against 19A IPD and acute otitis media (AOM). However, statistical significance was not reached in any individual study. No consistent impact of 7vCRM on 19A nasopharyngeal colonization could be detected. These findings are discussed in context of immunogenicity analyses indicating that 7vCRM induces functionally active anti-19A antibodies after the booster dose, and that other 19F-containing vaccine formulations may elicit higher levels of such antibodies after both primary and booster doses. Summary Taken together, these results suggest that 19F-conjugates can provide some protection against 19A disease. The magnitude of this protection in a given setting will likely depend on several factors. These include the anti-19A immunogenicity of the specific vaccine formulation, the number of doses of that formulation needed to elicit the response, and the burden of 19A disease that occurs after those doses. It is possible that a modest protective effect may be obscured by the presence of countervailing selection pressures (such as high antibiotic use) that favor an increase in colonization with antibiotic-non-susceptible strains of 19A. PMID:20122261

2010-01-01

90

A morphine conjugate vaccine attenuates the behavioral effects of morphine in rats  

PubMed Central

Vaccines for opioid dependence may provide a treatment that would reduce or slow the distribution of the drug to brain, thus reducing the drug's reinforcing effects. We tested whether a conjugate vaccine against morphine (keyhole limpet hemocyanin-6-succinylmorphine; KLH-6-SM) administered to rats would produce antibodies and show specificity for morphine or other heroin metabolites. The functional effects of the vaccine were tested with antinociceptive and conditioned place preference (CPP) tests. Rats were either vaccinated with KLH-6-SM and received two boosts 3 and 16 weeks later or served as controls and received KLH alone. Anti-morphine antibodies were produced in vaccinated rats; levels increased and were sustained at moderate levels through 24 weeks. Antibody binding was inhibited by free morphine and other heroin metabolites as demonstrated by competitive inhibition ELISA. Vaccinated rats showed reduced morphine CPP, tested during weeks 4 to 6, and decreased antinociceptive responses to morphine, tested at week 7. Brain morphine levels, assessed using gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) on samples obtained at 26 weeks, were significantly lower in vaccinated rats. This suggests that morphine entry into the brain was reduced or slowed. These results provide support for KLH-6-SM as a candidate vaccine for opioid dependence. PMID:23739535

Kosten, Therese A.; Shen, Xiaoyun Y.; O'Malley, Patrick W.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Lykissa, Ernest D.; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

2013-01-01

91

Outer Membrane Protein Complex of Meningococcus Enhances the Antipolysaccharide Antibody Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide–CRM197 Conjugate Vaccine ?  

PubMed Central

Bacterial polysaccharides (PS) are T cell-independent antigens that do not induce immunologic memory and are poor immunogens in infants. Conjugate vaccines in which the PS is covalently linked to a carrier protein have enhanced immunogenicity that resembles that of T cell-dependent antigens. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, which uses the outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) from meningococcus as a carrier protein, elicits protective levels of anti-capsular PS antibody (Ab) after a single dose, in contrast to other conjugate vaccines, which require multiple doses. We have previously shown that OMPC robustly engages Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and enhances the early anti-Hib PS Ab titer associated with an increase in TLR2-mediated induction of cytokines. We now show that the addition of OMPC to the 7-valent pneumococcal PS-CRM197 conjugate vaccine during immunization significantly increases the anti-PS IgG and IgM responses to most serotypes of pneumococcus contained in the vaccine. The addition of OMPC also increased the likelihood of anti-PS IgG3 production against serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 18C, 19F, and 23F. Splenocytes from mice who had received OMPC with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine produced significantly more interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and gamma interferon (IFN-?) than splenocytes from mice who received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) plus the conjugate vaccine. We conclude that OMPC enhances the anti-PS Ab response to pneumococcal PS-CRM197 conjugate vaccine, an effect associated with a distinct change in cytokine profile. It may be possible to reduce the number of conjugate vaccine doses required to achieve protective Ab levels by priming with adjuvants that are TLR2 ligands. PMID:21450979

Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R.

2011-01-01

92

Safety of immunization during pregnancy: a review of the evidence of selected inactivated and live attenuated vaccines.  

PubMed

Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are responsible for significant maternal, neonatal, and young infant morbidity and mortality. While there is emerging scientific evidence, as well as theoretical considerations, indicating that certain vaccines are safe for pregnant women and fetuses, policy formulation is challenging because of perceived potential risks to the fetus. This report presents an overview of available evidence on pregnant women vaccination safety monitoring in pregnant women, from both published literature and ongoing surveillance programs. Safety data were reviewed for vaccines against diseases which increase morbidity in pregnant women, their fetus or infant as well as vaccines which are used in mass vaccination campaigns against diseases. They include inactivated seasonal and pandemic influenza, mono- and combined meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugated vaccines, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis combination vaccines, as well as monovalent or combined rubella, oral poliomyelitis virus and yellow fever vaccines. No evidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been identified from immunization of pregnant women with these vaccines. PMID:25285883

Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Englund, Janet A; Kang, Gagandeep; Mangtani, Punam; Neuzil, Kathleen; Nohynek, Hanna; Pless, Robert; Lambach, Philipp; Zuber, Patrick

2014-12-12

93

Salivary antibodies following parenteral immunization of infants with a meningococcal serogroup A and C conjugated vaccine.  

PubMed

Bacterial and viral salivary antibody testing is proving sensitive and specific, useful for epidemiological studies, and is simple and non-invasive. Salivary serogroup C polysaccharide-specific (SC PS-S) IgA and IgG were determined as a proportion of total salivary IgA and IgG in a group of UK infants who were recipients of a conjugated A/C meningococcal PS vaccine. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of salivary SC PS-S IgG per mg of total IgG (microg/mg) were 0.1 pre-vaccination, rising to 8.2 post first, 16.1 post second and 29.3 post third dose of vaccine. For IgA, the corresponding GMCs in ng/mg were 0.1, 82.8, 69.6 and 91.2. Significant correlations (P < 0.0001) were found between serum Ig and salivary IgG SC PS-S antibody for pre-vaccine and 1 month post each dose of vaccine suggesting that SC PS-S IgG in saliva was largely derived from serum. Of the five infants whose sera were analysed for isotype-specific responses, only traces of IgM and IgA were measurable suggesting that the SC PS-S IgA was locally produced. These findings suggests that the widespread use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is likely to reduce nasopharyngeal carriage and may thereby induce herd immunity in the vaccinated population. PMID:10579438

Borrow, R; Fox, A J; Cartwright, K; Begg, N T; Jones, D M

1999-10-01

94

Production of a conjugate vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from Citrobacter Vi.  

PubMed

A conjugate vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was produced by chemically linking Vi, purified from Citrobacter, to the non-toxic mutant diphtheria toxin CRM(197) via an adipic dihydrazide spacer using N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide coupling chemistry. The polysaccharide purification process was developed based on Vi precipitation from culture supernatant with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), solubilization of the CTA-polysaccharide salt with ethanol followed by exchange of the CTA(+) counter ion with Na(+). The purified Vi polysaccharide was fully O-acetylated and with high purity. The conjugation process was optimized to obtain a scalable process that has been used for GMP production at pilot scale of vaccine currently in clinical trials. PMID:22172503

Micoli, F; Rondini, S; Pisoni, I; Giannelli, C; Di Cioccio, V; Costantino, P; Saul, A; Martin, L B

2012-01-20

95

Effectively introducing a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africa: the Burkina Faso experience.  

PubMed

A new Group A meningococcal (Men A) conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac™, was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. Because Burkina Faso has repeatedly suffered meningitis epidemics due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis special efforts were made to conduct a country-wide campaign with the new vaccine in late 2010 and before the onset of the next epidemic meningococcal disease season beginning in January 2011. In the ensuing five months (July-November 2010) the following challenges were successfully managed: (1) doing a large safety study and registering the new vaccine in Burkina Faso; (2) developing a comprehensive communication plan; (3) strengthening the surveillance system with particular attention to improving the capacity for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of spinal fluid specimens; (4) improving cold chain capacity and waste disposal; (5) developing and funding a sound campaign strategy; and (6) ensuring effective collaboration across all partners. Each of these issues required specific strategies that were managed through a WHO-led consortium that included all major partners (Ministry of Health/Burkina Faso, Serum Institute of India Ltd., UNICEF, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, Meningitis Vaccine Project, CDC/Atlanta, and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health/Oslo). Biweekly teleconferences that were led by WHO ensured that problems were identified in a timely fashion. The new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine was introduced on December 6, 2010, in a national ceremony led by His Excellency Blaise Compaore, the President of Burkina Faso. The ensuing 10-day national campaign was hugely successful, and over 11.4 million Burkinabes between the ages of 1 and 29 years (100% of target population) were vaccinated. African national immunization programs are capable of achieving very high coverage for a vaccine desired by the public, introduced in a well-organized campaign, and supported at the highest political level. The Burkina Faso success augurs well for further rollout of the Men A conjugate vaccine in meningitis belt countries. PMID:22607898

Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Barry, Rodrigue; Bonkoungou, Mete; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre; Sebgo, Rene; Kandolo, Denis; Lingani, Clement; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Zuber, Patrick L F; Perea, William; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Dellepiane de Rey Tolve, Nora; Tevi-Benissan, Carole; Clark, Thomas A; Mayer, Leonard W; Novak, Ryan; Messonier, Nancy E; Berlier, Monique; Toboe, Desire; Nshimirimana, Deo; Mihigo, Richard; Aguado, Teresa; Diomandé, Fabien; Kristiansen, Paul A; Caugant, Dominique A; Laforce, F Marc

2012-05-30

96

Saccharide/protein conjugate vaccines for Bordetella species: preparation of saccharide, development of new conjugation procedures, and physico-chemical and immunological characterization of the conjugates  

PubMed Central

Bordetellae are Gram-negative bacilli causing respiratory tract infections of mammals and birds. Clinically important are B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica. B. pertussis vaccines have been successful in preventing pertussis in infants and children. Veterinary vaccines against B. bronchiseptica are available, but their efficacy and mode of action are not established. There is no vaccine against B. parapertussis. Based on the concept that immunity to non-capsulated Gram-negative bacteria may be conferred by serum IgG anti-LPS we studied chemical, serological and immunological properties of the O-specific polysaccharides (O-SP) of B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis obtained by different degradation procedures. One type of the B. parapertussis and two types of B. bronchiseptica O-SP were recognized based on the structure of their non-reducing end saccharide; no cross-reaction between the two B. bronchiseptica types was observed. Competitive inhibition assays showed the immunodominance of the non-reducing end of these O-SP. Conjugates of B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis O-SP were prepared by two methods: using the Kdo residue exposed by mild acid hydrolysis of the LPS or the core glucosamine residue exposed by deamination of the LPS, for binding to an aminooxylated protein. Both coupling methods were carried out at a neutral pH, room temperature, and in a short time. All conjugates, injected as saline solutions at a fraction of an estimated human dose, induced antibodies in mice to the homologous O-SP. These methodologies can be applied to prepare O-SP-based vaccines against other Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:18539367

Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Ben-Menachem, Gil; Pozsgay, Vince; Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel

2008-01-01

97

Saccharide/protein conjugate vaccines for Bordetella species: preparation of saccharide, development of new conjugation procedures, and physico-chemical and immunological characterization of the conjugates.  

PubMed

Bordetellae are Gram-negative bacilli causing respiratory tract infections of mammals and birds. Clinically important are B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica. B. pertussis vaccines have been successful in preventing pertussis in infants and children. Veterinary vaccines against B. bronchiseptica are available, but their efficacy and mode of action are not established. There is no vaccine against B. parapertussis. Based on the concept that immunity to non-capsulated Gram-negative bacteria may be conferred by serum IgG anti-LPS we studied chemical, serological and immunological properties of the O-specific polysaccharides (O-SP) of B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis obtained by different degradation procedures. One type of the B. parapertussis and two types of B. bronchiseptica O-SP were recognized based on the structure of their non-reducing end saccharide; no cross-reaction between the two B. bronchiseptica types was observed. Competitive inhibition assays showed the immunodominance of the non-reducing end of these O-SP. Conjugates of B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis O-SP were prepared by two methods: using the anhydro-Kdo residue exposed by mild acid hydrolysis of the LPS or the 2,5-anhydromannose residue exposed by deamination of the core glucosamine of the LPS, for binding to an aminooxylated protein. Both coupling methods were carried out at a neutral pH, room temperature, and in a short time. All conjugates, injected as saline solutions at a fraction of an estimated human dose, induced antibodies in mice to the homologous O-SP. These methodologies can be applied to prepare O-SP-based vaccines against other Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:18539367

Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Ben-Menachem, Gil; Pozsgay, Vince; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel

2008-07-01

98

IgG levels against 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes in non pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunized healthy Japanese and intravenous immunoglobulin preparations.  

PubMed

No studies showed specific antibody levels against all serotypes covered by 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) among polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products. Our study aimed to assess whether we could expect the efficacy of IVIG therapy for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and to clarify the age group which should be recommended for IVIG therapy in case of IPD. Serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels against PCV13 serotypes were measured in four IVIGs which were produced from Japanese donors who were not immunized with any pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), and in the serum of 160 non-PCV immunized Japanese subjects, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The functional opsonic activities of the IVIGs against serotypes 6B and 19A were assessed by a multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay. Japanese infants aged <2 years had a geometric mean IgG concentration of <0.35 ?g/ml against several serotypes. Serotype-specific IgG concentrations varied among IVIGs. In general, IgG antibodies against serotypes 6A, 14 and 19A were higher in each IVIG. Although opsonization indices also varied among preparations, each IVIG had the ability to opsonize both serotypes 6B and 19A. This study suggests that routine immunization with PCV is important for prevention of IPD, especially for children <2 years old and IVIGs might be effective for IPD patients. PMID:25242584

Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Hishiki, Haruka; Tanaka, Junko; Akeda, Yukihiro; Shimojo, Naoki; Oishi, Kazunori; Kohno, Yoichi

2014-12-01

99

Mutant Native Outer Membrane Vesicles Combined with a Serogroup A Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine for Prevention of Meningococcal Epidemics in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The meningococcal serogroup A (MenA) polysaccharide conjugate vaccine used in Sub-Saharan Africa does not prevent disease caused by MenW or MenX strains, which also cause epidemics in the region. We investigated the vaccine-potential of native outer membrane vesicles with over-expressed factor H-binding protein (NOMV-fHbp), which targeted antigens in African meningococcal strains, and was combined with a MenA polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings The NOMV-fHbp vaccine was prepared from a mutant African MenW strain with PorA P1.5,2, attenuated endotoxin (?LpxL1), deleted capsular genes, and over-expressed fHbp in variant group 1. The NOMV-fHbp was adsorbed with Al(OH)3 and used to reconstitute a lyophilized MenA conjugate vaccine, which normally is reconstituted with liquid MenC, Y and W conjugates in a meningococcal quadrivalent conjugate vaccine (MCV4-CRM, Novartis). Mice immunized with the NOMV-fHbp vaccine alone developed serum bactericidal (human complement) activity against 13 of 15 African MenA strains tested; 10 of 10 African MenX strains, 7 of 7 African MenW strains, and 6 of 6 genetically diverse MenB strains with fHbp variant group 1 (including 1 strain from The Gambia). The combination NOMV-fHbp/MenA conjugate vaccine elicited high serum bactericidal titers against the two MenA strains tested that were resistant to bactericidal antibodies elicited by the NOMV-fHbp alone; the combination elicited higher titers against the MenA and MenW strains than those elicited by a control MCV4-CRM vaccine (P<0.05); and high titers against MenX and MenB strains. For most strains, the titers elicited by a control NOMV-fHbp knock out vaccine were <1?10 except when the strain PorA matched the vaccine (titers >1?000). Conclusion/Significance The NOMV-fHbp/MenA conjugate vaccine provided similar or higher coverage against MenA and MenW strains than a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, and extended protection against MenX strains responsible for epidemics in Africa, and MenB strains with fHbp in variant group 1. PMID:23805230

Pajon, Rolando; Fergus, Andrew M.; Granoff, Dan M.

2013-01-01

100

Prior exposure to the carrier regulates rat immune responses to a conjugate vaccine.  

PubMed

Small vaccine antigens including peptides generally need to be linked to larger molecules or carriers in order to induce high levels of immune responses. The potential of unwanted immune responses to the carriers represents a major drawback for the conjugated vaccines. The carriers could also regulate the immune responses to the haptens and these effects need to be prevented in order to achieve adequate responses to the vaccines. We examined means to reduce the unwanted reactions to the carrier. For this purpose, we investigated whether prior exposure of rats to a human IgG(1) (hIgG(1)) carrier would affect their subsequent responses to an OVA peptide (i.e., OVA(173-196)). Prior exposure to the hIgG(1) carrier did not affect the T cell responses to the peptide antigen. However, IgG(1) Ab responses to the peptide antigen were enhanced while IgE Abs were reduced. These results show that responses to the hapten are not systematically relevant to the carrier pre-immunization and that the conjugate could achieve desired responses by selective immune responses suppression. Such models of vaccines with enhanced anti-hapten responses and reduced levels of potentially harmful responses could be of great interest for the development of new immune therapies. PMID:16039553

Ben Nasser, Imed; Fennira-Ben Aïssa, Fatma; Boyaka, Prosper N; Jeddi, Moncef; Tome, Daniel

2005-10-01

101

Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Uruguay, a Middle-Income Country  

PubMed Central

Background In 2008, a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the routine childhood immunization program in Uruguay, with a 2+1 schedule. In 2010, PCV13 replaced PCV7, and the same 2+1 schedule was used. The effect of these pneumococcal vaccines on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) and on serotype distribution was analyzed retrospectively, based on passive national laboratory surveillance. Methods Data from 1,887 IPD isolates from 5 years before and 5 years after PCV7 introduction (7 before and 3 after PCV13 introduction) was examined to assess the incidence rate per 100,000 age-specific population of all IPD, PCV7-serotypes, and PCV13-serotypes associated IPD among children <2 years and 2 to 4 years old, and patients ?5 years old. Trends of frequency for each serotype were also analyzed. Results Comparison of pre-vaccination (2003–2007) and post-vaccination (2008–2012) periods showed a significant decrease in IPD incidence among children <2 years old (IR 68.7 to IR 29.6, p<0.001) and children 2 to 4 years (p<0.04). IPD caused by serotypes in PCV7 was reduced by 95.6% and IPD caused by 6 serotypes added in PCV13 was reduced by 83.9% in children <5 years old. Indirect effects of both conjugate vaccines were observed among patients ?5 years old one year after the introduction of each vaccine, in 2010 for PCV7 and in 2012 for PCV13. Nevertheless, for reasons that still need to be explained, perhaps due to ascertainment bias, total IPD in this group increased after 2007. In 2012, the relative frequency of vaccine serotypes among vaccinated and unvaccinated population declined, except for serotype 3. Non vaccine serotypes with increasing frequency were identified, in rank order: 12F, 8, 24F, 22F, 24A, 15C, 9N, 10A and 33. Conclusion Consecutive immunization with PCV7 and PCV13 has significantly reduced IPD in children <5 years of age in Uruguay. PMID:25375647

García Gabarrot, Gabriela; López Vega, Mariana; Pérez Giffoni, Gabriel; Hernández, Silvia; Cardinal, Pablo; Félix, Viviana; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Camou, Teresa

2014-01-01

102

Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Vaccine-type Nasopharyngeal Carriage  

PubMed Central

Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine type (VT) pneumococci, an important driver of vaccine programs’ overall benefits. The dosing schedule that best reduces carriage is unclear. Methods: We performed a systematic review of English language publications from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) reporting PCV effects on VT carriage to assess variability in effect by dosing schedule. Results: We identified 32 relevant studies (36 citations) from 12,980 citations reviewed. Twenty-one (66%) evaluated PCV7; none used PCV10 or PCV13. Five studies evaluated 2 primary doses and 13 three primary doses. After the first year of life, 14 evaluated 3-dose primary series with PCV booster (3+1), seven 3 doses plus 23-valent polysaccharide booster “3+1PPV23,” five “3+0,” four “2+1,” three “2+1PPV23” and two “2+0.” Four studies directly compared schedules. From these, 3 primary doses reduced VT carriage more than 2 doses at 1–7 months following the series (1 study significant; 2 borderline). In a study, the 2+1 schedule reduced VT carriage more than 2+0 at 18, but not at 24 months of age. One study of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine booster showed no effect. All 16 clinical trials with unvaccinated controls and 11 observational studies with before-after designs showed reduction in VT carriage. Conclusions: The available literature demonstrates VT-carriage reduction for 2+0, 2+1, 3+0 and 3+1 PCV schedules, but not for 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine booster. Comparisons between schedules show that 3 primary doses and a 2+1 schedule may reduce carriage more than 2 primary doses and a 2+0 schedule, respectively. PMID:24336057

2014-01-01

103

Pneumococcal Serotypes before and after Introduction of Conjugate Vaccines, United States, 1999–20111  

PubMed Central

Serotyping data for pneumococci causing invasive and noninvasive disease in 2008–2009 and 2010–2011 from >43 US centers were compared with data from preconjugate vaccine (1999–2000) and postconjugate vaccine (2004–2005) periods. Prevalence of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes decreased from 64% of invasive and 50% of noninvasive isolates in 1999–2000 to 3.8% and 4.2%, respectively, in 2010–2011. Increases in serotype 19A stopped after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in 2010. Prevalences of other predominant serotypes included in or related to PCV13 (3, 6C, 7F) also remained similar for 2008–2009 and 2010–2011. The only major serotype that increased from 2008–2009 to 2010–2011 was nonvaccine serotype 35B. These data show that introduction of the 7-valent vaccine has dramatically decreased prevalence of its serotypes and that addition of serotypes in PCV13 could provide coverage of 39% of isolates that continue to cause disease. PMID:23763847

Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Dohrn, Cassie L.; Riahi, Fathollah; Diekema, Daniel J.; Doern, Gary V.

2013-01-01

104

Direct Effect of 10-Valent Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccination on Pneumococcal Carriage in Children Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background 10-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine/PCV10 was introduced in the Brazilian National Immunization Program along the year of 2010. We assessed the direct effectiveness of PCV10 vaccination in preventing nasopharyngeal/NP pneumococcal carriage in infants. Methods A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted in Goiania Brazil, from December/2010-February/2011 targeting children aged 7–11 m and 15–18 m. Participants were selected using a systematic sampling. NP swabs, demographic data, and vaccination status were collected from 1,287 children during home visits. Main outcome and exposure of interest were PCV10 vaccine-type carriage and dosing schedules (3p+0, 2p+0, and one catch-up dose), respectively. Pneumococcal carriage was defined by a positive culture and serotyping was performed by Quellung reaction. Rate ratio/RR was calculated as the ratio between the prevalence of vaccine-types carriage in children exposed to different schedules and unvaccinated for PCV10. Adjusted RR was estimated using Poisson regression. PCV10 effectiveness/VE on vaccine-type carriage was calculated as 1-RR*100. Results The prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 41.0% (95%CI: 38.4–43.7). Serotypes covered by PCV10 and PCV13 were 35.2% and 53.0%, respectively. Vaccine serotypes 6B (11.6%), 23F (7.8%), 14 (6.8%), and 19F (6.6%) were the most frequently observed. After adjusted for confounders, children who had received 2p+0 or 3p+0 dosing schedule presented a significant reduction in pneumococcal vaccine-type carriage, with PCV10 VE equal to 35.9% (95%CI: 4.2–57.1; p?=?0.030) and 44.0% (95%CI: 14.–63.5; p?=?0.008), respectively, when compared with unvaccinated children. For children who received one catch-up dose, no significant VE was detected (p?=?0.905). Conclusion PCV10 was associated with high protection against vaccine-type carriage with 2p+0 and 3p+0 doses for children vaccinated before the second semester of life. The continuous evaluation of carriage serotypes distribution is likely to be useful for evaluating the long-term effectiveness and impact of pneumococcal vaccination on serotypes reduction. PMID:24892409

Andrade, Ana Lucia; Ternes, Yves Mauro; Vieira, Maria Aparecida; Moreira, Weslley Garcia; Lamaro-Cardoso, Juliana; Kipnis, André; Cardoso, Maria Regina; Brandileone, Maria Cristina; Moura, Iaci; Pimenta, Fabiana C.; da Gloria Carvalho, Maria; Saraiva, Fabricia Oliveira; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Minamisava, Ruth

2014-01-01

105

Evaluation of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Immunoassays Using a 22F Adsorption Step with Serum Samples from Infants Vaccinated with Conjugate Vaccines? †  

PubMed Central

The history of the pneumococcal polysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is characterized by a continuous search for increased specificity. A third-generation ELISA that uses 22F polysaccharide inhibition has increased the specificity of the assay, particularly at low antibody concentrations. The present work compared various 22F ELISAs and non-22F ELISAs. The comparisons involved three different laboratories, including a WHO reference laboratory, and included sera from subjects from different geographic areas immunized with different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, including the licensed 7-valent Prevenar vaccine and the 10-valent Synflorix vaccine. All comparisons led to the same conclusion that the threshold defined as 0.35 ?g/ml for the WHO non-22F ELISA is lower when any 22F ELISA is used. The use of highly purified polysaccharides for coating further improved the specificity of the assay. In conclusion, we confirm that the 22F ELISA can be recommended as a reference method for the determination of antibodies against pneumococcal polysaccharides. PMID:19889940

Poolman, Jan T.; Frasch, Carl E.; Käyhty, Helena; Lestrate, Pascal; Madhi, Shabir A.; Henckaerts, Isabelle

2010-01-01

106

Randomized, Controlled Trial of a 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administered Concomitantly with an Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

A randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) coadministered with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in pneumococcal vaccine-naive adults. Participants ages 50 to 59 years (n = 1,116) received TIV with PCV13 (group 1) or placebo (group 2) (1:1 randomization); 1 month later, group 1 received placebo and group 2 received PCV13. A hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay for TIV and a standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for pneumococcal serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers (assessed post hoc) were measured at baseline and 1 and 2 months postvaccination. The rises in HAI assay geometric mean titer (GMT) and percentage of participants in groups 1 and 2 with ?4-fold increases in HAI responses (A/H1N1, 84.0% and 81.2%, respectively; A/H3N2, 71.1% and 69.5%, respectively; and B, 60.6% and 60.3%, respectively) were similar. In group 1, all serotypes met the predefined IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratio noninferiority criterion relative to group 2, but GMCs were lower in group 1 than group 2. When comparing group 1 with group 2, 5 serotypes did not meet the OPA GMT ratio noninferiority criterion, and OPA GMTs were significantly lower for 10 serotypes. PCV13 injection site reactions were similar and mostly mild in both groups. Systemic events were more frequent in group 1 (86.2%) than group 2 (76.7%; P < 0.001); no vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. Coadministration of PCV13 and TIV was well tolerated but associated with lower PCV13 antibody responses and is of unknown clinical significance. Given the positive immunologic attributes of PCV13, concomitant administration with TIV should be dictated by clinical circumstances. PMID:22739693

Gurtman, Alejandra; Rubino, John; Smith, William; van Cleeff, Martin; Jayawardene, Deepthi; Giardina, Peter C.; Emini, Emilio A.; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.; Schmöle-Thoma, Beate

2012-01-01

107

Hyporesponsiveness to the infecting serotype after vaccination of children with seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine following invasive pneumococcal disease.  

PubMed

Antibody responses to the infecting serotype in children who are vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) after having invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) have not been fully investigated. Of 56 children diagnosed with IPD between October 2009 and April 2013 in whom the infecting serotype was confirmed, 17 who were vaccinated with PCV7 following IPD were tested to determine the geometric mean concentration of serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the geometric mean titers of opsonization indices (OIs) using paired sera obtained at the onset of IPD and after PCV doses following the resolution of IPD. The geometric mean concentrations of serotype-specific IgG for all PCV7 serotypes other than serotype 6B were significantly increased after the last PCV7 dose compared with those at the time of IPD onset (P<0.01), as were the geometric mean titers of OIs for all PCV7 serotypes. In 14 children with IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes for whom both IgG and OI results were available, the OIs for the infecting serotype at the time of IPD onset were <8, although the IgG levels varied between from <0.2 to >5.0?g/ml. After the last PCV7 dose, the OIs for the infecting serotype remained <8 for six (43%) of 14 children. In these six children, hyporesponsiveness to PCV7 was specific for the infecting serotype. Hyporesponsiveness was found for serotypes 6B (n=5) and 23F (n=1). No difference was found between the responders (n=8) and the hyporesponders (n=6) with regard to any clinical characteristics. Our data suggest that hyporesponsiveness to the infecting serotype may occur in children vaccinated with PCV7 following IPD. PMID:24486367

Tamura, Kazuyo; Matsubara, Kousaku; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Nishi, Junichiro; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Suga, Shigeru; Ihara, Toshiaki; Chang, Bin; Akeda, Yukihiro; Oishi, Kazunori

2014-03-14

108

Antigen-specific B-cell response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in asplenic individuals with ?-thalassemia previously immunized with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.  

PubMed

Current guidelines recommend a combined schedule of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and PPSV23 (23-valent polysaccharide vaccine) for asplenic individuals. We show that PCV13 induces a T-dependent immune response in asplenic individuals with ?-thalassemia, but previous PPSV23s affect the memory B-cell response in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT01846923. PMID:24879786

Papadatou, Ioanna; Piperi, Cristina; Alexandraki, Krystallenia; Kattamis, Antonis; Theodoridou, Maria; Spoulou, Vana

2014-09-15

109

Immunogenicity Following One, Two, or Three Doses of the 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine  

PubMed Central

The aim was to identify an appropriate infant pneumococcal vaccination strategy for resource poor countries. Fijian infants received 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in early infancy. Following 3 PCV doses, geometric mean concentration (GMC) to all 7 serotypes were ? 1.0?g/mL, and >85% of children achieved antibody levels ?0.35?g/mL at 18 weeks. Following 2 doses, GMC were lower for 6B, 14, and 23F, but higher for 19F compared with 3 doses. Following a single dose, significant responses were seen for all serotypes post primary series compared with the unvaccinated. By 12 months, differences between 2 and 3 doses persisted for serotype 14 only. Although GMC following 3 doses are higher than after 2 doses, the differences were small. A single dose may offer some protection for most serotypes. PMID:19616498

Russell, FM; Balloch, A; Tang, MLK; Carapetis, JR; Licciardi, P; Nelson, J; Jenney, AWJ; Tikoduadua, L; Waqatakirewa, L; Pryor, J; Byrnes, GB; Cheung, YB; Mulholland, EK

2009-01-01

110

Synthesis of a glycopeptide vaccine conjugate for induction of antibodies recognizing O-mannosyl glycopeptides.  

PubMed

In spite of the clear importance of protein O-mannosylation in brain glycobiology, tools are lacking for specific detection, enrichment, and identification of proteins containing these modifycations. We envisioned inducing antibodies that specifically recognize O-mannose glycans on proteins and peptides. With this in mind, we prepared a glycopeptide vaccine construct containing the N-acetyllactosamine-extended mannose motif Gal?1-4GlcNAc?1-2Man?Thr, found as a common core structure on almost all mammalian O-mannosyl glycoproteins identified. O-mannose glycosylated amino acid building blocks and the corresponding glycopeptides were prepared by chemical synthesis and then conjugated to an immune carrier protein. After administration of the synthetic vaccine into rabbits, strong immune responses were obtained. Further evaluation by ELISA neutralization experiments and glycopeptide microarrays showed that the induced antibodies were highly specific to the glycopeptide antigen. PMID:24753400

Yu, Jin; Westerlind, Ulrika

2014-05-01

111

Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected individuals  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial opportunistic infection in HIV-infected individuals. Anti-retroviral treatment (ART) of HIV-infected individuals reduces their risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), however, it remains 20- to 40-fold greater compared with age-matched general population. This review summarizes the available published data on the immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (PCV) in HIV-infected children and adults.   Several studies have demonstrated that PCV are safe in the HIV-infected persons. Although PCV are immunogenic in HIV-infected infants, the antibodies produced are functionally impaired, there is possibly a lack or loss of anamnestic responses and immunity declines in later life However, quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to PCV in HIV-infected infants are enhanced when vaccination occurs whilst on ART, as well as if vaccination occurs when the CD4+ cell percentage is ? 25% and if the nadir CD4+ is >15%. Although the efficacy of PCV was lower, the vaccine preventable burden of hospitalization for IPD and clinical pneumonia were 18-fold and 9-fold greater, respectively, in HIV-infected children compared with –uninfected children. In HIV-infected adults, PCV vaccination induces more durable and functional antibody responses in individuals on ART at the time of vaccination than in ART-naive adults, independently of baseline CD4+ cell count, although there does not appear to be much benefit from a second-dose of PCV. PCV has also been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent IPD by 74% in HIV-infected adults not on ART, albeit, also with subsequent decline in immunity and protection. PMID:22426374

Nunes, Marta C.; Madhi, Shabir A.

2012-01-01

112

Synthetic Teichoic Acid Conjugate Vaccine against Nosocomial Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are amphiphilic polymers that are important constituents of the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria. The chemical structures of LTA vary among organisms, albeit in the majority of Gram-positive bacteria the LTAs feature a common poly-1,3-(glycerolphosphate) backbone. Previously, the specificity of opsonic antibodies for this backbone present in some Gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated, suggesting that this minimal structure may be sufficient for vaccine development. In the present work, we studied a well-defined synthetic LTA-fragment, which is able to inhibit opsonic killing of polyclonal rabbit sera raised against native LTA from Enterococcus faecalis 12030. This promising compound was conjugated with BSA and used to raise rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the opsonic activity of this serum was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay and specificity was confirmed by an opsonophagocytic inhibition assay. The conjugated LTA-fragment was able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediate killing of the clinical strains E. faecalis 12030, Enterococcus faecium E1162, and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2 (USA400). Prophylactic immunization with the teichoic acid conjugate and with the rabbit serum raised against this compound was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies in mice, and in an enterococcal endocarditis rat model. In all animal models, a statistically significant reduction of colony counts was observed indicating that the novel synthetic LTA-fragment conjugate is a promising vaccine candidate for active or passive immunotherapy against E. faecalis and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25333799

Laverde, Diana; Wobser, Dominique; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Hogendorf, Wouter; van der Marel, Gijsbert; Berthold, Martin; Kropec, Andrea; Codee, Jeroen; Huebner, Johannes

2014-01-01

113

Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumococcal Colonization in Response to Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Children with Recurrent Acute Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

A randomized double-blind trial with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was conducted in The Netherlands among 383 children, aged 1 to 7 years, with a history of recurrent acute otitis media. No effect of vaccination on the pneumococcal colonization rate was found. However, a shift in serotype distribution was clearly observed (R. Veenhoven et al., Lancet 361:2189-2195, 2003). We investigated the molecular epidemiology of 921 pneumococcal isolates retrieved from both the pneumococcal vaccine (PV) and control vaccine (CV) groups during the vaccination study. Within individuals a high turnover rate of pneumococcal restriction fragment end labeling genotypes, which was unaffected by vaccination, was observed. Comparison of the genetic structures before and after completion of the vaccination scheme revealed that, despite a shift in serotypes, there was clustering of 70% of the pneumococcal populations. The remaining isolates (30%) were equally observed in the PV and CV groups. In addition, the degree of genetic clustering was unaffected by vaccination. However, within the population genetic structure, nonvaccine serotype clusters with the serotypes 11, 15, and 23B became predominant over vaccine-type clusters after vaccination. Finally, overall pneumococcal resistance was low (14%), and, albeit not significant, a reduction in pneumococcal resistance as a result of pneumococcal vaccination was observed. Molecular surveillance of colonization in Dutch children shows no effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on the degree of genetic clustering and the genetic structure of the pneumococcal population. However, within the genetic pneumococcal population structure, a clear shift toward nonvaccine serotype clusters was observed. PMID:15634953

Bogaert, D.; Veenhoven, R. H.; Sluijter, M.; Wannet, W. J. W.; Rijkers, G. T.; Mitchell, T. J.; Clarke, S. C.; Goessens, W. H. F.; Schilder, A. G.; Sanders, E. A. M.; de Groot, R.; Hermans, P. W. M.

2005-01-01

114

Induction of opsonophagocytic killing activity with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Ugandan adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of IgG determined by ELISA may have limited relevance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults because of non-functional antibodies. 58 HIV-1-infected and 29 HIV-uninfected Ugandan adults were immunized with conjugate vaccine (CV) followed by polysaccharide vaccine (PV) after a 2-month interval, and the opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) titers against serotype 4 or 14 pneumococcal strains as well as the

Meng Chen; Francis Ssali; Maureen Mulungi; Peter Awio; Hiroyuki Yoshimine; Reiki Kuroki; Akitsugu Furumoto; Susumu Tanimura; Cissy Kityo; Tsuyoshi Nagatake; Peter Mugyenyi; Kazunori Oishi

2008-01-01

115

Production of glycoprotein vaccines in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Conjugate vaccines in which polysaccharide antigens are covalently linked to carrier proteins belong to the most effective and safest vaccines against bacterial pathogens. State-of-the art production of conjugate vaccines using chemical methods is a laborious, multi-step process. In vivo enzymatic coupling using the general glycosylation pathway of Campylobacter jejuni in recombinant Escherichia coli has been suggested as a simpler method for producing conjugate vaccines. In this study we describe the in vivo biosynthesis of two novel conjugate vaccine candidates against Shigella dysenteriae type 1, an important bacterial pathogen causing severe gastro-intestinal disease states mainly in developing countries. Results Two different periplasmic carrier proteins, AcrA from C. jejuni and a toxoid form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin were glycosylated with Shigella O antigens in E. coli. Starting from shake flask cultivation in standard complex medium a lab-scale fed-batch process was developed for glycoconjugate production. It was found that efficiency of glycosylation but not carrier protein expression was highly susceptible to the physiological state at induction. After induction glycoconjugates generally appeared later than unglycosylated carrier protein, suggesting that glycosylation was the rate-limiting step for synthesis of conjugate vaccines in E. coli. Glycoconjugate synthesis, in particular expression of oligosaccharyltransferase PglB, strongly inhibited growth of E. coli cells after induction, making it necessary to separate biomass growth and recombinant protein expression phases. With a simple pulse and linear feed strategy and the use of semi-defined glycerol medium, volumetric glycoconjugate yield was increased 30 to 50-fold. Conclusions The presented data demonstrate that glycosylated proteins can be produced in recombinant E. coli at a larger scale. The described methodologies constitute an important step towards cost-effective in vivo production of conjugate vaccines, which in future may be used for combating severe infectious diseases, particularly in developing countries. PMID:20701771

2010-01-01

116

Cost-effectiveness of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Turkey: a decision analytical model  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, which place a considerable burden on healthcare resources, can be reduced in a cost-effective manner using a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7). We compare the cost effectiveness of a 13-valent PCV (PCV-13) and a 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) with that of PCV-7 in Turkey. Methods A cost-utility analysis was conducted and a decision analytical model was used to estimate the proportion of the Turkish population <10 years old that would experience 10 mutually exclusive outcomes over the course of 1 year from a perspective of a healthcare system. Model outcomes were adjusted according to the population demographics and region-specific serotype distribution in Turkey. Health outcomes and direct healthcare costs were simulated for PCV-7, PCV-13 and PHiD-CV. Results PCV-13 and PHiD-CV are projected to have a substantial impact on pneumococcal disease in Turkey versus PCV-7, with 2,223 and 3,156 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and 2,146 and 2,081 life years, respectively, being saved under a 3+1 schedule. Projections of direct medical costs showed that a PHiD-CV vaccination programme would provide the greatest cost savings, offering additional savings of US$11,718,813 versus PCV-7 and US$8,235,010 versus PCV-13. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV dominated PCV-13 in terms of QALYs gained and cost savings in 58.3% of simulations. Conclusion Under the modeled conditions, PHiD-CV would provide the most cost-effective intervention for reducing pneumococcal disease in Turkish children. PMID:23137037

2012-01-01

117

Efficacy of a Conjugate Vaccine Containing Polymannuronic Acid and Flagellin against Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection in Mice?  

PubMed Central

Vaccines that could effectively prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infections in the settings of cystic fibrosis (CF) and nosocomial pneumonia could be exceedingly useful, but to date no effective immunotherapy targeting this pathogen has been successfully developed for routine use in humans. Evaluations using animals and limited human trials of vaccines and their associated immune effectors against different P. aeruginosa antigens have suggested that antibody to the conserved surface polysaccharide alginate, as well as the flagellar proteins, often give high levels of protection. However, alginate itself does not elicit protective antibody in humans, and flagellar vaccines containing the two predominant serotypes of this antigen may not provide sufficient coverage against variant flagellar types. To evaluate if combining these antigens in a conjugate vaccine would be potentially efficacious, we conjugated polymannuronic acid (PMA), containing the blocks of mannuronic acid conserved in all P. aeruginosa alginates, to type a flagellin (FLA) and evaluated immunogenicity, opsonic killing activity, and passive protective efficacy in mice. The PMA-FLA conjugate was highly immunogenic in mice and rabbits and elicited opsonic antibodies against mucoid but not nonmucoid P. aeruginosa, but nonetheless rabbit antibody to PMA-FLA showed evidence of protective efficacy against both types of this organism in a mouse lung infection model. Importantly, the PMA-FLA conjugate vaccine did not elicit antibodies that neutralized the Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)-activating activity of flagellin, an important part of innate immunity to flagellated microbial pathogens. Conjugation of PMA to FLA appears to be a promising path for developing a broadly protective vaccine against P. aeruginosa. PMID:21628521

Campodónico, Victoria L.; Llosa, Nicolas J.; Bentancor, Leticia V.; Maira-Litran, Tomas; Pier, Gerald B.

2011-01-01

118

A Poly-N-Acetylglucosamine?Shiga Toxin Broad-Spectrum Conjugate Vaccine for Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Many pathogens produce the ?-(1?6)-linked poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) surface polysaccharide that is being developed as a broadly protective antimicrobial vaccine. However, it is unknown whether systemically injected PNAG vaccines or antibodies would provide protective immunity against pathogens confined to the gastrointestinal tract such as Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), an important group of gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens for which effective immunotherapeutics are lacking. To ascertain whether systemic IgG antibody to PNAG impacts this infectious situation, a vaccine consisting of a synthetic nonamer of nonacetylated PNAG, 9GlcNH2, conjugated to the Shiga toxin 1b subunit (9GlcNH2-Stx1b) was produced. Rabbit antibodies raised to the conjugate vaccine were tested for bacterial killing and toxin neutralization in vitro and protection against infection in infant mice. Cell surface PNAG was detected on all 9 STEC isolates tested, representing 6 STEC serogroups, including E. coli O157:H7. Antibody to the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate neutralized Stx1 potently and Stx2 modestly. For O157:H7 and O104:H4 STEC strains, antibodies elicited by the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate possessed opsonic killing and bactericidal activity. Following intraperitoneal injection, antibodies to both PNAG and Stx were needed for infant mouse protection against O157 STEC. These antibodies also mediated protection against the Stx2-producing O104:H4 strain that was the cause of a recent outbreak in Germany, although sufficient doses of antibody to PNAG alone were protective against this strain in infant mice. Our observations suggest that vaccination against both PNAG and Stx, using a construct such as the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate vaccine, would be protective against a broad range of STEC serogroups. PMID:24667709

Lu, Xi; Skurnik, David; Pozzi, Clarissa; Roux, Damien; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Ritchie, Jennifer M.; Munera, Diana; Gening, Marina L.; Tsvetkov, Yury E.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.; Waldor, Matthew K.; Pier, Gerald B.

2014-01-01

119

Dynamic models of pneumococcal carriage and the impact of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been introduced in national immunisation programmes of most industrialised countries and recently in two African GAVI eligible countries (Rwanda and The Gambia). However the long term effects of PCV are still unclear, as beneficial direct and herd immunity effects might be countered by serotype replacement. METHOD: A dynamic, age-structured, compartmental model of Streptococcus

Alessia Melegaro; Yoon Hong Choi; Robert George; W John Edmunds; Elizabeth Miller; Nigel J Gay

2010-01-01

120

Characterization of heat-stable (STa) toxoids of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fused to double mutant heat-labile toxin peptide in inducing neutralizing Anti-STa antibodies.  

PubMed

A long-standing challenge in developing vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children of developing countries and travelers to these countries, is to protect against heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa). STa and heat-labile toxin (LT) are virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. LT antigens are often used in vaccine development, but STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Toxic STa is not safe for vaccines, but only STa possessing toxicity is believed to be able to induce neutralizing antibodies. However, recent studies demonstrated that nontoxic STa derivatives (toxoids), after being fused to an LT protein, induced neutralizing antibodies and suggested that different STa toxoids fused to an LT protein might exhibit different STa antigenic propensity. In this study, we selected 14 STa toxoids from a mini-STa toxoid library based on toxicity reduction and reactivity to anti-native STa antibodies, and genetically fused each toxoid to a monomeric double mutant LT (dmLT) peptide for 14 STa-toxoid-dmLT toxoid fusions. These toxoid fusions were used to immunize mice and were characterized for induction of anti-STa antibody response. The results showed that different STa toxoids (in fusions) varied greatly in anti-STa antigenicity. Among them, STaN12S, STaN12T, and STaA14H were the top toxoids in inducing anti-STa antibodies. In vitro neutralization assays indicated that antibodies induced by the 3×STaN12S-dmLT fusion antigen exhibited the greatest neutralizing activity against STa toxin. These results suggested 3×STaN12S-dmLT is a preferred fusion antigen to induce an anti-STa antibody response and provided long-awaited information for effective ETEC vaccine development. PMID:24549325

Ruan, Xiaosai; Robertson, Donald C; Nataro, James P; Clements, John D; Zhang, Weiping

2014-05-01

121

Vaccines (immunizations) - overview  

MedlinePLUS

... diphtheria, mumps, measles, pertussis (whooping cough), meningitis, and polio. Many of these infections can cause serious or ... MMR - vaccine Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Pneumococcal polysaccharide ... (vaccine) Rotavirus vaccine Tdap vaccine Tetanus - vaccine

122

[Impact of a conjugated anti meningococcal A vaccine on notification of bacterial meningitis in West Burkina Faso (2009-2012).  

PubMed

Burkina Faso is a sub-saharan African country completely included in the meningococcal meningitis belt. The western part of the country suffered from many meningococcal A epidemics, in spite of reactive collective campaigns with polysaccharide A vaccine. On 6th December 2010, Burkina Faso was the first African country to conduct a collective vaccination campaign of all the 1-29 years old population with a new conjugated meningococcal Avaccine (MenAfriVac™). Before this campaign, in Western Burkina (4,064,928 inhabitants, 27.5% of total population), a rehearsal of the staff of all peripheral medical laboratories has been conducted, with delivery of laboratory equipment, reactants, and possibility to transfer CSF specimens at the central level to confirm bacteriologic species in cause by latex, culture and PCR analysis. For this campaign, an administrative coverage of 100.3% was reached. A nearly complete disappearance of meningitis due to meningococcus A was recorded, but an increase of cases due to meningococcus X, W135. With the increase of quality of surveillance, and MenAfriVac™ vaccination showed its beneficial effect on meningococcus A meningitis. If we want however to impact on the number of recorded acute bacteriological meningitis, we will have to use multi-antigenic, if possible conjugated, meningococcal vaccines against locally circulating meningococcal species, the number of pneumococcal meningitis being contained by the recent inclusion in EPI of a 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:24390976

Ouangraoua, S; Schlumberger, M; Yaro, S; Ouédraogo, A S; Sanou, S; Drabo, A; Yaméogo, T M; Ouedraogo, R

2014-01-01

123

Meningococcal Serogroup A, C, W135 and Y Conjugated Vaccine: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC) was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W135,Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was licensed for use in subjects of 12 months of age and above. Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of meningococcal vaccination at 14 months and an additional vaccination at the age of 12 years, both with the MenACWY vaccine. Methods A decision analysis cohort model, with 185,000 Dutch newborns, was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different immunization strategies. For strategies including a vaccination at 12 years of age, an additional cohort with adolescents aged 12 years was followed. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated for the current disease incidence and for a scenario when herd immunity is lost. Results Vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months is cost-saving. Vaccinating with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would prevent 7 additional cases of meningococcal serogroup A,C,W135,Y disease in the birth cohort and adolescent cohort followed for 99 years compared to the current vaccine schedule of a single vaccination with MenC at 14 months. With the current incidence, this strategy resulted in an ICER of €635,334 per quality adjusted life year. When serogroup C disease incidence returns to pre-vaccination levels due to a loss of vaccine-induced herd-immunity, vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would be cost-saving. Conclusions Routine vaccination with MenACWY is cost-saving. With the current epidemiology, a booster-dose with MenACWY is not likely cost-effective. When herd immunity is lost, a booster-dose has the potential of being cost-effective. A dynamic model should be developed for more precise estimation of the cost-effectiveness of the prevention of disappearance of herd immunity. PMID:23741448

van der Ende, Arie; Westra, Tjalke A.; Postma, Maarten J.

2013-01-01

124

9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.115 Section...Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid shall be...

2010-01-01

125

Childhood meningitis in the conjugate vaccine era: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Bacterial conjugate vaccines have dramatically changed the epidemiology of childhood meningitis; viral causes are increasingly predominant, but the current UK epidemiology is unknown. This prospective study recruited children under 16?years of age admitted to 3 UK hospitals with suspected meningitis. 70/388 children had meningitis-13 bacterial, 26 viral and 29 with no pathogen identified. Group B Streptococcus was the most common bacterial pathogen. Infants under 3?months of age with bacterial meningitis were more likely to have a reduced Glasgow Coma Score and respiratory distress than those with viral meningitis or other infections. There were no discriminatory clinical features in older children. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count and plasma C-reactive protein at all ages, and CSF protein in infants <3?months of age, distinguished between bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis or other infections. Improved diagnosis of non-bacterial meningitis is urgently needed to reduce antibiotic use and hospital stay. PMID:25256088

Sadarangani, Manish; Willis, Louise; Kadambari, Seilesh; Gormley, Stuart; Young, Zoe; Beckley, Rebecca; Gantlett, Katherine; Orf, Katharine; Blakey, Sarah; Martin, Natalie G; Kelly, Dominic F; Heath, Paul T; Nadel, Simon; Pollard, Andrew J

2015-03-01

126

Effects of an Oxycodone Conjugate Vaccine on Oxycodone Self-Administration and Oxycodone-Induced Brain Gene Expression in Rats  

PubMed Central

Prescription opioid abuse is an increasing public health concern in the USA. A vaccine comprising a hapten (OXY) conjugated to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (OXY-KLH) has been shown to attenuate the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone. Here, the vaccine's ability to prevent acquisition of intravenous (i.v.) oxycodone self-administration was studied in rats. Effects of vaccination on oxycodone-induced changes in the expression of several genes within the mesolimbic system, which are regulated by chronic opiate use, were also examined. Vaccination with OXY-KLH reduced the proportion of rats acquiring i.v. self-administration of oxycodone under a fixed ratio (FR) 3 schedule of reinforcement compared to control rats immunized with the unconjugated KLH carrier protein. Vaccination significantly reduced the mean number of infusions at FR3, total number of infusions, and total oxycodone intake during the entire protocol. Compared to oxycodone self-administering control rats immunized with the carrier alone, rats vaccinated with the OXY-KLH immunogen showed increased levels of adenylate cyclase 5 (Adcy5) and decreased levels of early growth response protein 2 (Egr2) and the early immediate gene c-Fos in the striatum. These data suggest that vaccination with OXY-KLH can attenuate the reinforcing effects of oxycodone at a clinically-relevant exposure level. Analysis of mRNA expression identified some addiction-relevant markers that may be of interest in understanding oxycodone effects or the protection provided by vaccination. PMID:25025380

Pravetoni, Marco; Pentel, Paul R.; Potter, David N.; Chartoff, Elena H.; Tally, Laura; LeSage, Mark G.

2014-01-01

127

Safety and tolerability of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the elderly.  

PubMed

Background In September 2011 the European Medical Agency authorized the use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults aged ?50 years. The same occurred in the US in December 2011 when the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of PCV13 in the same target age-group with indication for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal diseases and community acquired pneumonia sustained by the serotypes contained in the vaccine. The Liguria Region, in Italy, implemented in 2013 an active and free of charge immunization strategy with PCV13 among adults affected by specific risk conditions and the elderly aged ?70 years. Methods An observational study was performed in order to assess the safety and tolerability of PCV13 among elderly dwelling in the metropolitan area of Genoa, the capital city of Liguria Region. Eligible subjects, who received PCV13 following the public health immunization campaign at the Local Health Unit 3 of Genoa, provided a written informed consent to take part in the study. Eight-hundred-seventy-one subjects were enrolled between October 2013 and May 2014: all were monitored by qualified healthcare personnel for at least 30 min after vaccination at the outpatient clinics, in order to assess any possible sudden reaction. The occurrence of a series of local and systemic solicited reactions and of any unsolicited Adverse Events (AEs) was monitored using a self-administered clinical diary and by regular phone contacts up to 14 and 21 d following immunization, respectively. Moreover, a 6-months follow-up following vaccination was planned in order to monitor Severe Adverse Events (SAEs). Results No sudden reaction occurred in vaccinees at the outpatient clinics. Pain (27.4%) was the most frequent reaction reported by subjects at the injection site, while new muscle pain (13.6%), fatigue (10.7%), and headache (9.9%) resulted the most common systemic reactions. Rates of the main reactions reported in this on-field study resulted generally lower than those registered in clinical trials performed in the elderly. The incidence of fever (2.2%) following vaccination was low at values superimposable to that reported in previous studies. Conclusion This observational study showed a good safety and tolerability of PCV13 among the elderly in routine clinical practice further confirming the evidence coming from clinical trials in the same age-group. PMID:25483531

Durando, Paolo; Rosselli, Roberto; Cremonesi, Ilaria; Orsi, Andrea; Albanese, Erika; Barberis, Ilaria; Paganino, Chiara; Trucchi, Cecilia; Martini, Mariano; Marensi, Lorenzo; Turello, Valter; Study Group, The Ligurian Pneumococcal; Bregante, Alessandro; Cacciani, Roberto; Iudici, Rocco; La Marca, Diego; Pedano, Leonardo; Petrucci, Amadio Franco; Santolini, Maria; Sbisà, Valentina; Zacconi, Monica

2015-01-01

128

Vaccines against human diarrheal pathogens: current status and perspectives.  

PubMed

Worldwide, nearly 1.7 billion people per year contract diarrheal infectious diseases (DID) and almost 760?000 of infections are fatal. DID are a major problem in developing countries where poor sanitation prevails and food and water may become contaminated by fecal shedding. Diarrhea is caused by pathogens such as bacteria, protozoans and viruses. Important diarrheal pathogens are Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp. and rotavirus, which can be prevented with vaccines for several years. The focus of this review is on currently available vaccines against these three pathogens, and on development of new vaccines. Currently, various types of vaccines based on traditional (killed, live attenuated, toxoid or conjugate vaccines) and reverse vaccinology (DNA/mRNA, vector, recombinant subunit, plant vaccines) are in development or already available. Development of new vaccines demands high levels of knowledge, experience, budget, and time, yet promising new vaccines often fail in preclinical and clinical studies. Efficacy of vaccination also depends on the route of delivery, and mucosal immunization in particular is of special interest for preventing DID. Furthermore, adjuvants, delivery systems and other vaccine components are essential for an adequate immune response. These aspects will be discussed in relation to the improvement of existing and development of new vaccines against DID. PMID:24861668

Böhles, Nathalie; Böhles, Nathalie; Busch, Kim; Busch, Kim; Hensel, Michael; Hensel, Michael

2014-01-01

129

Protein Antigens Increase the Protective Efficacy of a Capsule-Based Vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus in a Rat Model of Osteomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is an invasive bacterial pathogen, and antibiotic resistance has impeded adequate control of infections caused by this microbe. Moreover, efforts to prevent human infections with single-component S. aureus vaccines have failed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy in rats of vaccines containing both S. aureus capsular polysaccharides (CPs) and proteins. The serotypes 5 CP (CP5) and 8 CP (CP8) were conjugated to tetanus toxoid and administered to rats alone or together with domain A of clumping factor A (ClfA) or genetically detoxified alpha-toxin (dHla). The vaccines were delivered according to a preventive or a therapeutic regimen, and their protective efficacy was evaluated in a rat model of osteomyelitis. Addition of dHla (but not ClfA) to the CP5 or CP8 vaccine induced reductions in bacterial load and bone morphological changes compared with immunization with either conjugate vaccine alone. Both the prophylactic and therapeutic regimens were protective. Immunization with dHla together with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine used as a control did not reduce staphylococcal osteomyelitis. The emergence of unencapsulated or small-colony variants during infection was negligible and similar for all of the vaccine groups. In conclusion, addition of dHla to a CP5 or CP8 conjugate vaccine enhanced its efficacy against S. aureus osteomyelitis, indicating that the inclusion of multiple antigens will likely enhance the efficacy of vaccines against both chronic and acute forms of staphylococcal disease. PMID:24126523

Lattar, Santiago M.; Noto Llana, Mariángeles; Denoël, Philippe; Germain, Sophie; Buzzola, Fernanda R.; Lee, Jean C.

2014-01-01

130

A Poly-N-acetylglucosamine-Shiga toxin broad-spectrum conjugate vaccine for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Many pathogens produce the ?-(1-6)-linked poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) surface polysaccharide that is being developed as a broadly protective antimicrobial vaccine. However, it is unknown whether systemically injected PNAG vaccines or antibodies would provide protective immunity against pathogens confined to the gastrointestinal tract such as Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), an important group of gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens for which effective immunotherapeutics are lacking. To ascertain whether systemic IgG antibody to PNAG impacts this infectious situation, a vaccine consisting of a synthetic nonamer of nonacetylated PNAG, 9GlcNH2, conjugated to the Shiga toxin 1b subunit (9GlcNH2-Stx1b) was produced. Rabbit antibodies raised to the conjugate vaccine were tested for bacterial killing and toxin neutralization in vitro and protection against infection in infant mice. Cell surface PNAG was detected on all 9 STEC isolates tested, representing 6 STEC serogroups, including E. coli O157:H7. Antibody to the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate neutralized Stx1 potently and Stx2 modestly. For O157:H7 and O104:H4 STEC strains, antibodies elicited by the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate possessed opsonic killing and bactericidal activity. Following intraperitoneal injection, antibodies to both PNAG and Stx were needed for infant mouse protection against O157 STEC. These antibodies also mediated protection against the Stx2-producing O104:H4 strain that was the cause of a recent outbreak in Germany, although sufficient doses of antibody to PNAG alone were protective against this strain in infant mice. Our observations suggest that vaccination against both PNAG and Stx, using a construct such as the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate vaccine, would be protective against a broad range of STEC serogroups. IMPORTANCE The presence of poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) on many pathogens presents an opportunity to target this one structure with a multispecies vaccine. Whether antibodies to PNAG can protect against pathogens confined to the gastrointestinal tract is not known. As Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are serious causes of infection whose virulence is dependent on elaboration of Stx, we prepared a vaccine containing a synthetic nonamer of PNAG (9GlcNH2) conjugated to Shiga toxin 1b subunit (9GlcNH2-Stx1b) to evaluate bacterial killing, toxin neutralization, and protective efficacy in infant mice. All nine (100%) clinical strains of STEC from different serogroups expressed PNAG. Vaccine-induced antibody mediated in vitro killing of STEC and neutralization of both Stx1 and Stx2. Passive administration of antibody to the conjugate showed protection requiring immunity to both PNAG and Stx for O157 strains, although for an O104 strain, antibody to PNAG alone was protective. Immunity to PNAG may contribute to protection against STEC infections. PMID:24667709

Lu, Xi; Skurnik, David; Pozzi, Clarissa; Roux, Damien; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Munera, Diana; Gening, Marina L; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Waldor, Matthew K; Pier, Gerald B

2014-01-01

131

Pneumococcal Conjugate and Plain Polysaccharide Vaccines Have Divergent Effects on Antigen-Specific B Cells  

PubMed Central

Background.?A 23-valent unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vP), routinely administered at the age of 65, has limited effectiveness, and revaccination induces attenuated antibody responses. It is not known whether pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugated vaccines (PCV), although highly effective in infants, offer any immunological advantages over 23vP in adults. Methods.?We immunized adults with schedules combining both PCV and 23vP and investigated B-cell responses to establish whether PCV7 (a 7-valent PCV) induced T-dependent responses in adults, to assess the role of memory B cells in 23vP-induced antibody hyporesponsiveness, and to identify the B-cell subtypes involved. Results.?A single dose of PCV7 induced significant increases in serotype-specific memory B-cell populations in peripheral blood indicating a T-dependent response. Conversely, immunization with 23vP resulted in a decrease in memory B-cell frequency. Furthermore, memory B-cell responses to subsequent immunization with PCV7, when given after 23vP, were attenuated. Notably, B1b cells, a subset important in protecting mice against pneumococci, were also depleted following immunization with 23vP in humans. Conclusions.?This study indicates that PCV7 may have an immunological advantage over 23vP in adults and that 23vP-induced depletion of memory and B1b-cell subsets may provide a basis for antibody hyporesponsiveness and the limited effectiveness of 23vP. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN: 78768849. PMID:22457293

Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Ly-Mee; Bowman, Jaclyn; Bateman, Elizabeth A. L.; Diggle, Linda; Angus, Brian; Peto, Tim E.; Beverley, Peter C.; Mant, David; Pollard, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

132

Immunization of ovarian cancer patients with a synthetic Lewis(y)-protein conjugate vaccine: a phase 1 trial.  

PubMed

As the initial step in developing carbohydrate-based vaccines for the treatment of ovarian cancer patients in an adjuvant setting, 25 patients were immunized with a Lewis(y) pentasaccharide (Le(y))-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-conjugate vaccine together with the immunological adjuvant QS-21. Four different doses of the vaccine, containing 3, 10, 30, and 60 microg of carbohydrate were administered s.c. at 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, and 19 weeks to groups of 6 patients. Sera taken from the patients at regular intervals were assayed by ELISA for reactivity with naturally occurring forms of Le(y) (Le(y)-ceramide and Le(y) mucin) and by flow cytometry and a complement-dependent cytoxicity assay for reactivity with Le(y)-expressing tumor cells. The majority of the patients (16/24) produced anti-Le(y) antibodies as assessed by ELISA, and a proportion of these had strong anti-tumor cell reactivity as assessed by flow cytometry and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. One serum, analyzed in detail, was shown to react with glycolipids but not with glycoproteins or mucins expressed by ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3. The vaccine was well tolerated and no gastrointestinal, hematologic, renal, or hepatic toxicity related to the vaccine was observed. On the basis of this study, Le(y)-KLH should be a suitable component for a polyvalent vaccine under consideration for the therapy of epithelial cancers. PMID:10861456

Sabbatini, P J; Kudryashov, V; Ragupathi, G; Danishefsky, S J; Livingston, P O; Bornmann, W; Spassova, M; Zatorski, A; Spriggs, D; Aghajanian, C; Soignet, S; Peyton, M; O'Flaherty, C; Curtin, J; Lloyd, K O

2000-07-01

133

Interpreting results from trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a statistical test for detecting vaccine-induced increases in carriage of nonvaccine serotypes.  

PubMed

Conjugate vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) protect against nasopharyngeal carriage of serotypes included in the vaccine. However, in several clinical trials, vaccinees have shown increased carriage of nonvaccine serotypes of pneumococcus. These increases may be due to serotype replacement, if vaccine-induced protection against carriage of vaccine serotypes increases susceptibility to carriage of nonvaccine serotypes. Alternatively, observed increases may be an artifact of "unmasking," in which nonvaccine serotypes are more readily detected among vaccinees than among controls because vaccine serotypes are not present. In this paper, a statistical test for distinguishing serotype replacement from unmasking is described. The test attempts to reject a null model of unmasking alone; serotype replacement is inferred if the observed increase in detectable nonvaccine serotype carriage among vaccinees is significantly greater than that expected under the null model. Significance is assessed using the Bayesian "posterior predictive p value" as modified by Robins et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 2000;95:1143-56). Analysis of data from a South African trial suggests that replacement may have occurred in the study, but results do not reach the conventional level of significance in rejecting the null hypothesis of unmasking (p = 0.074). The author performs sensitivity analyses for the prior and for unmeasured confounding by differences in susceptibility to pneumococcus carriage. The implications of the findings and the assumptions and limitations of this technique are then discussed. PMID:11427408

Lipsitch, M

2001-07-01

134

Whom and Where Are We Not Vaccinating? Coverage after the Introduction of a New Conjugate Vaccine against Group A Meningococcus in Niger in 2010  

PubMed Central

MenAfriVac is a new conjugate vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A developed for the African “meningitis belt”. In Niger, the first two phases of the MenAfriVac introduction campaign were conducted targeting 3,135,942 individuals aged 1 to 29 years in the regions of Tillabéri, Niamey, and Dosso, in September and December 2010. We evaluated the campaign and determined which sub-populations or areas had low levels of vaccination coverage in the regions of Tillabéri and Niamey. After Phase I, conducted in the Filingué district, we estimated coverage using a 30×15 cluster-sampling survey and nested lot quality assurance (LQA) analysis in the clustered samples to identify which subpopulations (defined by age 1–14/15–29 and sex) had unacceptable vaccination coverage (<70%). After Phase II, we used Clustered Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (CLQAS) to assess if any of eight districts in Niamey and Tillabéri had unacceptable vaccination coverage (<75%) and estimated overall coverage. Estimated vaccination coverage was 77.4% (95%CI: 84.6–70.2) as documented by vaccination cards and 85.5% (95% CI: 79.7–91.2) considering verbal history of vaccination for Phase I; 81.5% (95%CI: 86.1–77.0) by card and 93.4% (95% CI: 91.0–95.9) by verbal history for Phase II. Based on vaccination cards, in Filingué, we identified both the male and female adult (age 15–29) subpopulations as not reaching 70% coverage; and we identified three (one in Tillabéri and two in Niamey) out of eight districts as not reaching 75% coverage confirmed by card. Combined use of LQA and cluster sampling was useful to estimate vaccination coverage and to identify pockets with unacceptable levels of coverage (adult population and three districts). Although overall vaccination coverage was satisfactory, we recommend continuing vaccination in the areas or sub-populations with low coverage and reinforcing the social mobilization of the adult population. PMID:22276104

Kim, Sung Hye; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Yacouba, Harouna; Coulibaly, Tiekoura; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Perea, William A.; Wierzba, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

135

An Oxycodone Conjugate Vaccine Elicits Drug-Specific Antibodies that Reduce Oxycodone Distribution to Brain and Hot-Plate Analgesia  

PubMed Central

Opioid conjugate vaccines have shown promise in attenuating the behavioral effects of heroin or morphine in animals. The goal of this study was to extend this approach to oxycodone (OXY), a commonly abused prescription opioid. Haptens were generated by adding tetraglycine (Gly)4 or hemisuccinate (HS) linkers at the 6-position of OXY. Immunization of rats with OXY(Gly)4 conjugated to the carrier proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) produced high-titer antibodies to OXY and its metabolite oxymorphone with substantially lower affinities for other structurally related opioid agonists and antagonists. There was no measurable binding of antibody by the (Gly)4 linker alone or off-target opioids methadone and buprenorphine. OXY(HS) conjugates were less immunogenic despite achieving protein haptenation ratios comparable to OXY(Gly)4-BSA. In rats given a single intravenous dose of OXY, immunization with OXY(Gly)4-KLH increased OXY protein binding and retention in serum while decreasing its unbound (free) concentration in plasma and distribution to brain. Vaccine efficacy correlated with serum antibody titers, and it was greatest in rats given the lowest OXY dose (0.05 mg/kg) but was significant even after a larger OXY dose (0.5 mg/kg), equivalent to the high end of the therapeutic range in humans. These effects of OXY(Gly)4-KLH on drug disposition were comparable to those of nicotine or cocaine vaccines that are in clinical trials as addiction treatments. Immunization with OXY(Gly)4-KLH also reduced OXY analgesia in a thermal nociception test. These data support further study of vaccination with the OXY(Gly)4-KLH immunogen as a potential treatment option for OXY abuse or addiction. PMID:22262924

Le Naour, M.; Harmon, T. M.; Tucker, A. M.; Portoghese, P. S.; Pentel, P. R.

2012-01-01

136

An oxycodone conjugate vaccine elicits drug-specific antibodies that reduce oxycodone distribution to brain and hot-plate analgesia.  

PubMed

Opioid conjugate vaccines have shown promise in attenuating the behavioral effects of heroin or morphine in animals. The goal of this study was to extend this approach to oxycodone (OXY), a commonly abused prescription opioid. Haptens were generated by adding tetraglycine (Gly)(4) or hemisuccinate (HS) linkers at the 6-position of OXY. Immunization of rats with OXY(Gly)(4) conjugated to the carrier proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) produced high-titer antibodies to OXY and its metabolite oxymorphone with substantially lower affinities for other structurally related opioid agonists and antagonists. There was no measurable binding of antibody by the (Gly)(4) linker alone or off-target opioids methadone and buprenorphine. OXY(HS) conjugates were less immunogenic despite achieving protein haptenation ratios comparable to OXY(Gly)(4)-BSA. In rats given a single intravenous dose of OXY, immunization with OXY(Gly)(4)-KLH increased OXY protein binding and retention in serum while decreasing its unbound (free) concentration in plasma and distribution to brain. Vaccine efficacy correlated with serum antibody titers, and it was greatest in rats given the lowest OXY dose (0.05 mg/kg) but was significant even after a larger OXY dose (0.5 mg/kg), equivalent to the high end of the therapeutic range in humans. These effects of OXY(Gly)(4)-KLH on drug disposition were comparable to those of nicotine or cocaine vaccines that are in clinical trials as addiction treatments. Immunization with OXY(Gly)(4)-KLH also reduced OXY analgesia in a thermal nociception test. These data support further study of vaccination with the OXY(Gly)(4)-KLH immunogen as a potential treatment option for OXY abuse or addiction. PMID:22262924

Pravetoni, M; Le Naour, M; Harmon, T M; Tucker, A M; Portoghese, P S; Pentel, P R

2012-04-01

137

A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Immunogenicity of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Compared to 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Frail, Hospitalized Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Elderly people do not mount strong immune responses to vaccines. We compared 23-valent capsular polysaccharide (23vPPV) alone versus 7-valent conjugate (PCV7) vaccine followed by 23vPPV 6 months later in hospitalized elderly. Methods Participants were randomized to receive 23vPPV or PCV7-23vPPV. Antibodies against serotypes 3, 4, 6A, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and opsonophagocytic (OPA) assays at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Of 312 recruited, between 40% and 72% of subjects had undetectable OPA titres at baseline. After one dose, PCV7 recipients had significantly higher responses to serotypes 9V (both assays) and 23F (OPA only), and 23vPPV recipients had significantly higher responses to serotype 3 (ELISA), 19F and 19A (OPA only). In subjects with undetectable OPA titres at baseline, a proportionately greater rise in OPA titre (P<0.01) was seen for all serotypes after both vaccines. The GMT ratio of OPA was significantly higher at 12 months in the PCV7-23vPPV group for serotypes 6A, 9V, 18C and 23F. OPA titre levels for these serotypes increased moderately after 6 months, whereas immunity waned in the 23vPPV only arm. Conclusion We did not show overwhelming benefit of one vaccine over the other. Low baseline immunity does not preclude a robust immune response, reiterating the importance of vaccinating the frail elderly. A schedule of PCV7-23vPPV prevents waning of antibody, suggesting that both vaccines could be useful in the elderly. Follow up studies are needed to determine persistence of immunity. Trial Registration The Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12607000387426 PMID:24760002

MacIntyre, C. Raina; Ridda, Iman; Gao, Zhanhai; Moa, Aye M.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Sullivan, John S.; Jones, Thomas R.; Hayen, Andrew; Lindley, Richard I.

2014-01-01

138

Antibody and Plasmablast Response to 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients – Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) leads to significant immune system dysfunction. The predominant clinical presentation in 50% of patients involves recurrent, often severe, infections. Infections are also the most common (60–80%) cause of deaths in CLL patients. The scope of infections varies with the clinical stage of the disease. Treatment-naive patients typically present with respiratory tract infections caused by encapsulated bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Since 2012, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been recommended in the United States and some EU countries for pneumococcal infection prevention in patients with CLL (besides the long-standing standard, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, PPV23). The aim of this study was to compare the immune response to PCV13 in 24 previously untreated CLL patients and healthy subjects. Methods Both groups were evaluated for: the levels of specific pneumococcal antibodies, the levels of IgG and IgG subclasses and selected peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations including the frequency of plasmablasts before and after immunization. Results Adequate response to vaccination, defined as an at least two-fold increase in specific pneumococcal antibody titers versus pre-vaccination baseline titers, was found in 58.3% of CLL patients and 100% of healthy subjects. Both the CLL group and the control group demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the IgG2 subclass levels following vaccination (P?=?0.0301). After vaccination, the frequency of plasmablasts was significantly lower (P<0.0001) in CLL patients in comparison to that in controls. Patients who responded to vaccination had lower clinical stage of CLL as well as higher total IgG, and IgG2 subclass levels. No significant vaccine-related side effects were observed. Conclusions PCV13 vaccination in CLL patients is safe and induces an effective immune response in a considerable proportion of patients. To achieve an optimal vaccination response, the administration of PCV13 is recommended as soon as possible following CLL diagnosis. PMID:25506837

Pasiarski, Marcin; Rolinski, Jacek; Grywalska, Ewelina; Stelmach-Goldys, Agnieszka; Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Gozdz, Stanislaw; Hus, Iwona; Malm, Anna

2014-01-01

139

Estimation of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Dynamics Parameters and the Impact of Conjugate Vaccination in  

E-print Network

Vaccination in Australia K. L. Sutton1,2 , H. T. Banks2 , and C. Castillo-Ch´avez1 1 Department of Mathematics and mortality worldwide. Recent advances in the development of vaccines for these infections have raised of pneumococcal infection dynamics in a population with partial vaccination. The parameters obtained

140

DNA Vaccination against Tuberculosis: Expression of a Ubiquitin-Conjugated Tuberculosis Protein Enhances Antimycobacterial Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic immunization is a promising new technology for developing vaccines against tuberculosis that are more effective. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intracellular turnover of antigens expressed by DNA vaccines on the immune response induced by these vaccines in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The mycobacterial culture filtrate protein MPT64 was expressed as a chimeric protein

GIOVANNI DELOGU; ANGELA HOWARD; FRANK M. COLLINS; SHELDON L. MORRIS

2000-01-01

141

Serological response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Background: Children with perinatally acquired HIV (paHIV) remain at an increased risk of pneumococcal infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Beyond infancy, responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) remain under-investigated. There are currently no published data on serological response to 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in the HIV-infected populations. Methods: We measured pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG in 48 paHIV-infected child patients (CP), 27 young adult healthy controls (AHC) and 30 child healthy controls (CHC). Opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) titres for three PCV13-exclusive serotypes were measured in a subset of children. Serotype-specific IgG was repeated 1 and 6 months following PCV13 vaccination of CP and AHC groups. OPA titres for four serotypes were measured at the 1-month time-point. Results: The majority of CP, CHC and AHC had serotype-specific IgG above 0.35??g/ml at baseline, although OPA activity was undetectable for two of the three serotypes studied. Baseline IgG concentrations were significantly lower in CP than AHC for a proportion of serotypes and were strongly predictive of responses to vaccine. After adjusting for baseline, postvaccination IgG concentrations were comparable, although responses to some serotypes were impaired for CP. OPA correlated well with IgG after vaccination. Detectable HIV viral load was associated with significantly lower IgG concentration and OPA titre. Conclusion: Children with paHIV mount a robust serological response to PCV13 for most but not all vaccine serotypes. Viral load suppression with HAART and higher baseline IgG concentration are associated with higher postvaccination antibody levels. This has implications for HAART treatment and vaccination practices. PMID:25222526

Bamford, Alasdair; Kelleher, Peter; Lyall, Hermione; Haston, Mitch; Zancolli, Marta; Goldblatt, David; Kampmann, Beate

2014-01-01

142

Functional activity of antibodies to the group B polysaccharide of group B streptococci elicited by a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine.  

PubMed Central

Group B streptococci (GBS) are a major cause of sepsis and meningitis in infants. While antibodies directed to the type-specific GBS capsule have been shown to be protective, it is less clear whether antibodies to the group B polysaccharide, a noncapsular, cell wall-associated antigen, may play a role in immunity. To investigate the functional activity of group B polysaccharide-specific antibodies, we tested sera from rabbits vaccinated with group B polysaccharide coupled to tetanus toxoid (B-TT). Anti-B-TT was weakly opsonic in vitro for a highly encapsulated type III strain, while antiserum elicited by vaccination with type III capsular polysaccharide linked to tetanus toxoid (III-TT) was a very effective opsonin. In contrast to anti-III-TT, anti-B-TT given before or after bacterial challenge was only marginally effective in protecting newborn mice against lethal infection with type III GBS. The number of C3 molecules bound to type III GBS was augmented by anti-III-TT but not by high antibody concentrations of anti-B-TT. These results suggest that the difference in opsonic activity between anti-B-TT and anti-III-TT may be due to a difference in their ability to deposit C3. In addition, the maximum number of antibody molecules bound to the bacterial surface was greater for anti-III-TT than for anti-B-TT. That anti-B-TT binds to fewer sites than anti-III-TT may explain the differences in complement activation and in opsonic and protective efficacy of antibodies to group B polysaccharide compared with antibodies to the type-specific capsular polysaccharide. Images PMID:8168919

Marques, M B; Kasper, D L; Shroff, A; Michon, F; Jennings, H J; Wessels, M R

1994-01-01

143

Birth control vaccines: the progress continues.  

PubMed

During 1986-1988, the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction used the diphtheria toxoid as a carrier for a fragment of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) molecule (a conjugate immunogen) and an immunostimulant in a phase I clinical trial of this prototype antifertility vaccine in sterilized women. Between 1990 and 1991, it conducted teratology studies in rats and rabbits to determine whether the vaccine causes fetal abnormalities. The vaccine did not adversely affect either the animals or their fetuses. Clinical trials of the vaccine's effectiveness (phase II trials) are scheduled for 1992. At least 2 injections several weeks apart, are needed to produce an anti-hCG immune response which is only effective for 3-6 months, however. So the same components of the original vaccine were placed in a polymer to deliver the vaccine slowly over a prolonged and predetermined time frame. WHO hoped that this advanced vaccine would raise effective immunity levels long enough to last for at least 1 year after 1 injection. WHO is conducting dose-response and toxicity studies of this prototype vaccine in rabbits and baboons to identify the optimal dose which would elicit an effective immunity level over a desired period of time and would be safe for testing in humans. WHO hopes to begin a phase I clinical trial with this advanced anti-hCG vaccine in late 1992. WHO anticipates that the preclinical and clinical trials will reveal a need for further modifications and improvements. WHO is supported multicenter research on antitrophoblast vaccines which target membrane cells of the preimplantation embryo since 1985. It uses monoclonal antibodies (MABs) and recombinant DNA technology to identify and isolate surface molecules. So far this research has tested 15,000 MABs but is centering on 9 MAbs. A study in baboons showed that 1 MAB reduced fertility, even though researchers could only use minute amounts of the protein in the injection. PMID:12286012

1992-01-01

144

Safety and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine in Vietnamese infants: a randomised, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pneumococcal infections are major causes of child mortality and morbidity worldwide and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major concern, especially in Asian countries. The present study was designed to evaluate the reactogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) when co-administered with the licensed diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B virus, inactivated poliovirus and H. influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) in a 3-dose primary vaccination course in Vietnamese infants. Methods This phase III, open, randomised study was conducted in one centre in Ho Chi Minh City between February and July 2011. Healthy infants (N=300) were randomised (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib alone (Control group) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. Results Within 31 days post-vaccination, 8.2% of overall doses in the PHiD-CV group and 3.0% of overall doses in the Control group were followed by at least one solicited and/or unsolicited, local and/or general adverse event of grade 3 intensity. Pain at injection site was the most common grade 3 solicited symptom, which was reported following 6.5% and 1.0% of overall doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups, respectively. Within 4 days post-vaccination, the most common solicited local and general symptoms reported with any intensity were pain (48.9% and 31.0% of doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups) and irritability (58.0% and 40.4% of doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups). Within 31 days post-vaccination, the incidence of unsolicited symptoms was comparable in both groups (following 12.3% and 14.8% of doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups, respectively). Throughout the study, 13 serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 9 infants in the PHiD-CV group and 11 SAEs in 6 infants in the Control group. None of them were fatal or considered causally related to vaccination. Conclusions PHiD-CV had a clinically acceptable safety profile when co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in Vietnamese infants. The reactogenicity of PHiD-CV was comparable to that observed in other South-East Asian populations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01153841 PMID:23432812

2013-01-01

145

Pneumococcal Carriage in Young Children One Year after Introduction of the 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background In mid 2010, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was replaced by the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for childhood immunization in Italy. Our objective in this study was to obtain a snapshot of pneumococcal carriage frequency, colonizing serotypes, and antibiotic resistance in healthy children in two Italian cities one year after PCV13 was introduced. Methods Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 571 children aged 0-5 years from November 2011-April 2012. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Penicillin and/or erythromycin non-susceptible isolates were analyzed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results Among the children examined, 81.2% had received at least one dose of PCV7 or PCV13 and 74.9% had completed the recommended vaccination schedule for their age. Among the latter, 57.3% of children had received PCV7, 27.1% PCV13, and 15.6% a combination of the two vaccines. The overall carriage rate was 32.9%, with children aged 6-35 months the most prone to pneumococcal colonization (6-23 months OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.19-6.43 and 24-35 months OR: 3.15, 95%CI: 2.36-4.22). A total of 184 pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and divided into PCV7 (5.4%), PCV13 (18.0%), and non-PCV13 (82.0%) serotypes. Serotypes 6C, 24F, and 19A were the most prevalent (10.3%, 8.6%, and 8.1%, respectively). The proportion of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC >0.6 mg/L) isolates was 30.9%, while 42.3% were erythromycin resistant. Non-PCV13 serotypes accounted for 75.4% and 70.8% of the penicillin and erythromycin non-susceptible isolates, respectively. Conclusions Our results revealed low rates of PCV7 and PCV13 serotypes in Italian children, potentially due to the effects of vaccination. As the use of PCV13 continues, its potential impact on vaccine serotypes such as 19A and cross-reactive serotypes such as 6C will be assessed, with this study providing a baseline for further analysis of surveillance isolates. PMID:24124543

Camilli, Romina; Daprai, Laura; Cavrini, Francesca; Lombardo, Donatella; D’Ambrosio, Fabio; Del Grosso, Maria; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; Landini, Maria Paola; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Torresani, Erminio; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Sambri, Vittorio; Pantosti, Annalisa

2013-01-01

146

Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel MUC1 glycopeptide conjugate vaccine candidate comprising a 4’-deoxy-4’-fluoro-Thomsen–Friedenreich epitope  

PubMed Central

Summary The development of selective anticancer vaccines that provide enhanced protection against tumor recurrence and metastasis has been the subject of intense research in the scientific community. The tumor-associated glycoprotein MUC1 represents a well-established target for cancer immunotherapy and has been used for the construction of various synthetic vaccine candidates. However, many of these vaccine prototypes suffer from an inherent low immunogenicity and are susceptible to rapid in vivo degradation. To overcome these drawbacks, novel fluorinated MUC1 glycopeptide-BSA/TTox conjugate vaccines have been prepared. Immunization of mice with the 4’F-TF-MUC1-TTox conjugate resulted in strong immune responses overriding the natural tolerance against MUC1 and producing selective IgG antibodies that are cross-reactive with native MUC1 epitopes on MCF-7 human cancer cells.

Gerlitzki, Bastian; Schmitt, Edgar

2015-01-01

147

A bivalent conjugate vaccine containing PspA families 1 and 2 has the potential to protect against a wide range of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains and Salmonella Typhi.  

PubMed

Previously we showed that conjugation of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi enhanced the anti-PspA response without the need to add adjuvant. In the current study conjugates consisting of the ? helical regions of PspA families 1 or 2 bound to Vi were used to vaccinate mice to test their ability to protect against a lethal intravenous challenge of a range of various strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conjugate vaccine containing PspA family 1 provided good protection from PspA family 1 challenge strains but offered very little protection against PspA family 2 challenge strains. Similarly, PspA family 2 conjugates provided good protection from PspA family 2 challenge strains and poor protection against PspA family 1 challenge strains. This observation was supported by the low levels of cross-reactivity of PspA antibodies seen in ELISA plates coated with the heterologous PspA family. Cytokine profiles showed a mixed Th1/Th2 response to Vi and the Vi-PspA conjugates. IgG subclass analysis of the anti-Vi response showed a shift from predominantly IgG2a/3 to IgG1 after conjugation to PspA was consistent with other polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. The results demonstrate that conjugation of the ? helical region of PspA to Vi enhances its capacity to induce a protective immune response and that a vaccine based on the ? helical region of PspA should contain PspA from both families 1 and 2 to achieve broad cross-protection. PMID:25545593

Kothari, Neha; Kothari, Sudeep; Choi, Young Joo; Dey, Ayan; Briles, David E; Rhee, Dong Kwon; Carbis, Rodney

2015-02-01

148

Synthesis of Mercapto (+) methamphetamine Haptens and Their Use for Obtaining Improved Epitope Density on (+) Methamphetamine Conjugate Vaccines  

PubMed Central

This study reports the synthesis of the mercapto hapten (S)-N-(2-(mercaptoethyl)-6-(3-(2-(methylamino)propyl)phenoxy)hexanamide [3, (+)-METH HSMO9] and its use to prepare METH-conjugated vaccines (MCV) from maleimide activated proteins. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of the MCV synthesized using 3 showed there was a high and controllable epitope density on two different carrier proteins. In addition, the MCV produced a substantially greater immunological response in mice than previous METH haptens, and a monoclonal antibody generated from this MCV in mice showed a very high affinity for (+)-METH (KD = 6.8 nM). The efficient covalent coupling of (+)-METH HSMO9 to the activated carrier proteins suggests this approach could be cost effective for large-scale production of MCV. In addition, the general methods described for the synthesis of (+) METH HSMO9 (3) and its use to synthesize MCV will be applicable for conjugated vaccines of small molecules and other substances of abuse such as morphine, nicotine, and cocaine. PMID:21682289

Carroll, F. Ivy; Blough, Bruce E.; Pidaparthi, Ramakrishna R.; Abraham, Philip; Gong, Paul K.; Deng, Liu; Huang, Xiaodong; Gunnell, Melinda; Lay, Jackson O.; Peterson, Eric C.; Owens, S. Michael

2011-01-01

149

Economic and clinical evaluation of a catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children already immunized with three doses of the 7-valent vaccine in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new 13-valent conjugated polysaccharide vaccine (PCV13) against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, which replaced the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) in the regional immunization programmes for newborns and children who started but not completed the 3 doses schedule of PCV7, is available in Italy since 2010. The opportunity of administering a further dose of PCV13 to children under 5 years of age who

Sara Boccalini; Chiara Azzari; Massimo Resti; Claudia Valleriani; Martina Cortimiglia; Emilia Tiscione; Angela Bechini; Paolo Bonanni

150

Immunologic Memory Induced by a Glycoconjugate Vaccine in a Murine Adoptive Lymphocyte Transfer Model  

PubMed Central

We have developed an adoptive cell transfer model in mice to study the ability of a glycoprotein conjugate vaccine to induce immunologic memory for the polysaccharide moiety. We used type III capsular polysaccharide from the clinically relevant pathogen group B streptococci conjugated to tetanus toxoid (GBSIII-TT) as our model vaccine. GBS are a major cause of neonatal infections in humans, and type-specific antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide protect against invasive disease. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from mice immunized with the GBSIII-TT conjugate vaccine conferred anti-polysaccharide immunologic memory to naive recipient mice. The transfer of memory occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The observed anamnestic immune response was characterized by (i) more rapid kinetics, (ii) isotype switching from immunoglobulin M (IgM) to IgG, and (iii) 10-fold-higher levels of type III-specific IgG antibody than for the primary response in animals with cells transferred from placebo-immunized mice. The adoptive cell transfer model described in this paper can be used for at least two purposes: (i) to evaluate conjugate vaccines with different physicochemical properties for their ability to induce immunologic memory and (ii) to study the cellular interactions required for an immune response to these molecules. PMID:9573085

Guttormsen, Hilde-Kari; Wetzler, Lee M.; Finberg, Robert W.; Kasper, Dennis L.

1998-01-01

151

Stabilization of Tetanus Toxoid Encapsulated in PLGA Microspheres  

PubMed Central

Delivery of vaccine antigens from controlled-release poly(lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres is a novel approach to reduce the number of antigen doses required for protection against infection. A major impediment to developing single-shot vaccines is encapsulated antigen instability during months of exposure to physiological conditions. For example, efforts to control neonatal tetanus in developing countries with a single-dose TT vaccine have been plagued by poor stability of the 150 kDa formaldehyde-detoxified protein antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT) in PLGA microspheres. We examined the denatured states of PLGA-encapsulated TT, revealing two primary TT instability mechanisms: 1) protein aggregation mediated by formaldehyde and 2) acid-induced protein unfolding and epitope damage. Further, we systemically identified excipients which can efficiently inhibit TT aggregation and retain TT antigenicity under simulated deleterious conditions, i.e., elevated temperature and humidity. By employing these novel additives in the PLGA system, we report the slow and continuous release of high doses of TT for one month with retained antigen stability during bioerosion of PLGA. PMID:18710256

Jiang, Wenlei; Schwendeman, Steven P.

2014-01-01

152

Real time and accelerated stability studies of Tetanus toxoid manufactured in public sector facilities of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Tetanus is an acute illness represented by comprehensive increased inflexibility and spastic spasms of skeletal muscles. The poor quality tetanus toxoid vaccine can raise the prevalence of neonatal tetanus. WHO has taken numerous steps to assist national regulatory authorities and vaccine manufacturers to ensure its quality and efficacy. It has formulated international principles for stability evaluation of each vaccine, which are available in the form of recommendations and guidelines. The aim of present study was to ensure the stability of tetanus vaccines produced by National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan by employing standardized methods to ensure constancy of tetanus toxoid at elevated temperature, if during storage/transportation cold chain may not be maintained in hot weather. A total of three batches filled during full-scale production were tested. All Stability studies determination were performed on final products stored at 2-8°C and elevated temperatures in conformance with the ICH Guideline of Stability Testing of Biological Products. These studies gave comparison between real time shelf-life stability and accelerated stability studies. The findings indicate long?term thermo stability and prove that this tetanus vaccine can remain efficient under setting of routine use when suggested measures for storage and handling are followed in true spirit. PMID:24191338

Parveen, Ghazala; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz; Begum, Anwar; Mahmood, Sidra; Raza, Naeem

2013-11-01

153

Levels and functionality of antibodies after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in schedules with different timing of the booster dose.  

PubMed

The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been introduced in most high-income countries, although with differences in age, timing and number of primary doses before 6 months of age and presence and timing of a booster vaccination. The objective was to determine and compare the IgG antibody levels and functionality of IgG responses (avidity and opsonophagocytoses) at 1 and 2 years of age following 2 primary doses with a booster at 11 or 24 months of age. Children received PCV7 at 2 and 4 months (2-dose group), or at 2, 4 and 11 months (2+1-dose group), or no PCV7 (controls) before 1 year of age. All children received a PCV7 dose at 24 months of age. At the age of 12 months, the 2+1-dose group had higher IgG levels and functional antibody levels, compared to the 2-dose group for all serotypes, but at 25 months the difference between the 2-dose and 2+1-dose groups had disappeared for most serotypes. The kinetics of opsonophagocytic antibodies were in line with the specific IgG antibody levels for most serotypes, although differences between the 2-dose and the 2+1-dose group were more pronounced in OPA activity as compared to the IgG levels especially at the age of 24 months. Delaying the booster dose from 11 months to 24 months after 2 primary doses resulted in significantly higher OPA GMTs one month after the booster dose. This must, however, be balanced against the risk of leaving children unboosted between the age of 11 and 24 months at a time when disease risk is still high. Local decisions about the timing of a booster dose should also take into account vaccine coverage and the indirect herd effect in a well vaccinated population. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00189020. PMID:24120678

van Westen, Els; Rodenburg, Gerwin D; van Gils, Elske J M; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Cowell, Lucy; Goldblatt, David; Rots, Nynke Y; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M

2013-12-01

154

Increase in the nasopharyngeal carriage of non-vaccine serogroup 15 Streptococcus pneumoniae after introduction of children pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

This study assessed pneumococcal carriage in the early periods after routine use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Hong Kong. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1110 children (<5 years) admitted with acute illness during September 2010-August 2013. Pneumococcal carriage rate was 13.5% in unvaccinated children, 14.1% in children who had ?1 PCV dose and 15.3% in children who had ?3 PCV doses. Nonv-PCV13 serotypes comprised 56.4% of all isolates. The most common serogroup/types were 15 (15A, 5.1%; 15B, 10.3%; 15C, 9.6%; 15F, 0.6%), 19F (17.9%), 6A (7.1%) and 6C (7.1%). Carriage of serogroup 15 was more common among vaccinated children (4.1% versus 0.6%, P = 0.033). Molecular typing revealed that expansion of several clones (clonal complex, CC63, CC199, CC1262, CC3397) was responsible for the increase in serogroup 15. Almost all CC63 and CC3397 isolates were nonsusceptible to both penicillin and erythromycin. The finding highlights the emergence of serogroup 15 following PCV13 use. PMID:25483278

Ho, Pak-Leung; Chiu, Susan S; Law, Pierra Y; Chan, Eunice L; Lai, Eileen L; Chow, Kin-Hung

2015-02-01

155

Safety and tolerability of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the elderly: An observational study in Liguria Region, Italy.  

PubMed

Background In September 2011 the European Medical Agency authorized the use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults aged ?50 years. The same occurred in the US in December 2011 when the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of PCV13 in the same target age-group with indication for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal diseases and community acquired pneumonia sustained by the serotypes contained in the vaccine. The Liguria Region, in Italy, implemented in 2013 an active and free of charge immunization strategy with PCV13 among adults affected by specific risk conditions and the elderly aged ?70 years. Methods An observational study was performed in order to assess the safety and tolerability of PCV13 among elderly dwelling in the metropolitan area of Genoa, the capital city of Liguria Region. Eligible subjects, who received PCV13 following the public health immunization campaign at the Local Health Unit 3 of Genoa, provided a written informed consent to take part in the study. Eight-hundred-seventy-one subjects were enrolled between October 2013 and May 2014: all were monitored by qualified healthcare personnel for at least 30 min after vaccination at the outpatient clinics, in order to assess any possible sudden reaction. The occurrence of a series of local and systemic solicited reactions and of any unsolicited Adverse Events (AEs) was monitored using a self-administered clinical diary and by regular phone contacts up to 14 and 21 d following immunization, respectively. Moreover, a 6-months follow-up following vaccination was planned in order to monitor Severe Adverse Events (SAEs). Results No sudden reaction occurred in vaccinees at the outpatient clinics. Pain (27.4%) was the most frequent reaction reported by subjects at the injection site, while new muscle pain (13.6%), fatigue (10.7%), and headache (9.9%) resulted the most common systemic reactions. Rates of the main reactions reported in this on-field study resulted generally lower than those registered in clinical trials performed in the elderly. The incidence of fever (2.2%) following vaccination was low at values superimposable to that reported in previous studies. Conclusion This observational study showed a good safety and tolerability of PCV13 among the elderly in routine clinical practice further confirming the evidence coming from clinical trials in the same age-group. PMID:25221940

Durando, Paolo; Rosselli, Roberto; Cremonesi, Ilaria; Orsi, Andrea; Albanese, Erika; Barberis, Ilaria; Paganino, Chiara; Trucchi, Cecilia; Martini, Mariano; Marensi, Lorenzo; Turello, Valter; Study Group, The Ligurian Pneumococcal; Bregante, Alessandro; Cacciani, Roberto; Iudici, Rocco; La Marca, Diego; Pedano, Leonardo; Petrucci, Amadio Franco; Santolini, Maria; Sbisà, Valentina; Zacconi, Monica

2014-08-19

156

Immunogenicity following the first and second doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected and -uninfected infants?,??  

PubMed Central

Background The immunogenicity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has not been evaluated in HIV-infected infants following the first and second PCV-doses. We studied antibody kinetics of serotypes included in 7-valent PCV in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected infants prior to and following each of three PCV-doses. Methods HIV-uninfected infants born to HIV-uninfected (HUU) and HIV-infected mothers (HEU); and perinatal HIV-infected children with CD4+ < 25% randomized to initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) when clinically and/or immunologically indicated (ART?) or immediately (ART+) were enrolled. Vaccination occurred at approximately 7.4, 11.5 and 15.5 weeks of age. Serotype-specific antibody was measured by ELISA following each PCV-dose and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) to three serotypes following the second and third doses. Results Pre-vaccination, antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in HUU compared to HIV-exposed groups for most serotypes. GMCs and proportion of infants with antibody ?0.35 ?g/ml were similar in HUU compared to other groups following the second PCV-dose. In all groups, GMCs were greater following the third compared to post-second dose; and a higher proportion within each group had antibody ?0.35 ?g/ml to 6B and 23F. OPA GMTs increased after the third compared to post-second dose for studied-serotypes; as did the proportion with OPA ?8 to 23F. Conclusion A two-dose primary-series of PCV probably confers similar protection against invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected compared to HUU children. The inferior response to serotypes 6B and 23F, and lower GMCs and OPA GMTs, following two compared to after three PCV-doses may have implications in the prevention of pneumococcal disease in high-burden countries. PMID:23228814

Madhi, Shabir A.; Izu, Alane; Violari, Avye; Cotton, Mark F.; Panchia, Ravindre; Dobbels, Els; Sewraj, Poonam; van Niekerk, Nadia; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Adrian, Peter V.

2013-01-01

157

Safety, Immunogenicity and Dose Ranging of a New Vi-CRM197 Conjugate Vaccine against Typhoid Fever: Randomized Clinical Testing in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Typhoid fever causes more than 21 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths yearly worldwide, with more than 90% of the disease burden being reported from Asia. Epidemiological data show high disease incidence in young children and suggest that immunization programs should target children below two years of age: this is not possible with available vaccines. The Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health developed a conjugate vaccine (Vi-CRM197) for infant vaccination concomitantly with EPI vaccines, either starting at 6 weeks with DTP or at 9 months with measles vaccine. We report the results from a Phase 1 and a Phase 2 dose ranging trial with Vi-CRM197 in European adults. Methodology Following randomized blinded comparison of single vaccination with either Vi-CRM197 or licensed polysaccharide vaccines (both containing 25·0 µg of Vi antigen), a randomised observer blinded dose ranging trial was performed in the same center to compare three concentrations of Vi-CRM197 (1·25 µg, 5·0 µg and 12·5 µg of Vi antigen) with the polysaccharide vaccine. Principal Findings All vaccines were well tolerated. Compared to the polysaccharide vaccine, Vi-CRM197 induced a higher incidence of mild to moderate short lasting local pain. All Vi-CRM197 formulations induced higher Vi antibody levels compared to licensed control, with clear dose response relationship. Conclusions Vi-CRM197 did not elicit safety concerns, was highly immunogenic and is therefore suitable for further clinical testing in endemic populations of South Asia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01123941 NCT01193907 PMID:21980445

van Damme, Pierre; Kafeja, Froukje; Anemona, Alessandra; Basile, Venere; Hilbert, Anne Katrin; De Coster, Ilse; Rondini, Simona; Micoli, Francesca; Qasim Khan, Rana M.; Marchetti, Elisa; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan; Martin, Laura B.; Podda, Audino

2011-01-01

158

Evaluation of Cryptococcus neoformans galactoxylomannan-protein conjugate as vaccine candidate against murine cryptococcosis  

PubMed Central

Galactoxylomannan (GalXM) is a complex polysaccharide produced by the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans that mediates profound immunological derangements in murine models. GalXM is essentially non-immunogenic and produces immune paralysis in mice. Previous studies have attempted to enhance immunogenicity by conjugating GalXM to a protein carrier, but only transient antibody responses were elicited. Here we report the generation of two GalXM conjugates with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis, respectively, using 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) as the cyanylating reagent. Both conjugates induced potent and sustained antibody responses as detected by both cross antigen-based and CovaLink direct ELISAs. We confirmed the specificity of the response to GalXM by inhibition ELISA and immunofluorescence. The isotype composition analysis revealed that IgG and IgM were abundant in the immune sera against GalXM, consistent with the induction of a T cell-dependent response. IgG1 was the predominant IgG subclass against GalXM, while immunization with Quil A as adjuvant elicited a significantly higher production of IgG2a than with Freund's adjuvant. Immune sera were not opsonic for C. neoformans and there was no survival difference between immune and non-immune mice challenged with C. neoformans. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the GalXM-protein conjugate to induce robust immune responses although no evidence was obtained that such responses contributed to host defense. PMID:21238568

Chow, Siu-Kei; Casadevall, Arturo

2011-01-01

159

Nanoparticle and polysaccharide conjugate: a potential candidate vaccine to improve immunological stimuli.  

PubMed

Active polysaccharides isolated from various fungal sources have been implicated to stimulate immune response against various pathogens as well as self anomalies such as cancer. Therefore, the nuanced approach presented in our work was to blend polysaccharides derived from Pleurotus ostreatus with biocompatible ferrite nanoparticles and thereafter investigate the enhanced immune functionality of the polysaccharide-nanoparticle composite. A Schiff base reductive amination reaction occurred between the aldehyde group of the polysaccharide and the amine group of the nanoparticles in the presence of a strong reducing agent such as sodium cyanoborohydride to form a stable amide bond between the two conjugating molecules. The multifaceted conjugate was characterized by physiochemical techniques such as electron microscopy, FTIR, VSM and DLS measurements. This particulate form of the polysaccharide showed a marked escalation in the production of free radicals such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in murine macrophages as compared to the soluble form. Animal based experiments demonstrated a reduction in tumor volume and augmentation in the proliferation of splenocytes in particulate or conjugated polysaccharide treated mice. Furthermore, molecular signaling studies showed a high upregulation in p-p38 and p-MEK molecules in particulate polysaccharide treated RAW264.7 cells suggesting a cellular downstream mechanistic regulation behind the immunostimulative response. PMID:25450832

Devi, K Sanjana P; Sahoo, Banalata; Behera, Birendra; Maiti, Tapas K

2015-01-01

160

Duration of protective immunity conferred by maternal tetanus toxoid immunization: further evidence from Matlab, Bangladesh.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Although maternal tetanus immunization has been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of neonatal tetanus, unresolved questions remain concerning the required minimum number of doses and the resulting duration of effective immunity. This study examined the duration of effective immunity against neonatal tetanus provided by maternal tetanus immunization. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind cholera vaccine trial of 41,571 children and nonpregnant adult women carried out in 1974 in the Matlab comparison area of rural Bangladesh provided a unique opportunity to address dose and immunity issues. RESULTS: Children of women who received either 1 or 2 injections of tetanus toxoid experienced 4- to 14-day mortality levels consistently lower than those of children of unimmunized mothers. Analysis of neonatal-tetanus-related mortality showed that 2 injections of tetanus toxoid provided significant protection for subsequent durations of up to 12 or 13 years. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that a limited-dose regimen of maternal tetanus toxoid provides significant and extended protection against the risk of neonatal tetanus death. PMID:9618617

Koenig, M A; Roy, N C; McElrath, T; Shahidullah, M; Wojtyniak, B

1998-01-01

161

Laboratory and clinical evaluation of conjugate vaccines composed of Staphylococcus aureus type 5 and type 8 capsular polysaccharides bound to Pseudomonas aeruginosa recombinant exoprotein A.  

PubMed Central

The synthesis, standardization, and immunogenicity in young outbred mice and clinical evaluation in adult volunteers of investigational vaccines designed to induce serum antibodies to the type 5 and type 8 capsular polysaccharides (CPs) of Staphylococcus aureus are described. Conjugates composed of the type 5 CP and a sonicated preparation of a high-molecular-weight type 8 CP bound to a nontoxic recombinant protein derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (rEPA) were synthesized. The conjugates were nontoxic and elicited serum CP antibodies after two subcutaneous injections into young outbred mice; a third injection elicited a booster response. The lower-molecular-weight type 8 CP was not immunogenic in the mice, and the high-molecular-weight type 8 CP elicited low levels of antibodies without a booster effect. In the volunteers, neither the conjugates nor the type 8 CP alone caused significant local reactions or fever. The conjugates elicited type-specific antibodies of both the immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG classes after the first injection; a second injection 6 weeks later did not stimulate a booster effect. The high-molecular-weight type 8 CP alone, injected once only, elicited levels of IgG and IgM type-specific antibodies similar to those of the conjugate. The vaccine-induced CP antibodies were mostly of the IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses and had opsonophagocytic activity. The conjugates elicited IgG antibodies to the native exotoxin A with neutralizing activity. In summary, the type 5 and type 8 conjugates were safe and elicited biologically active antibodies to both the CP and rEPA components. PMID:8432585

Fattom, A; Schneerson, R; Watson, D C; Karakawa, W W; Fitzgerald, D; Pastan, I; Li, X; Shiloach, J; Bryla, D A; Robbins, J B

1993-01-01

162

Immunochemical studies of Shigella flexneri 2a and 6, and Shigella dysenteriae type 1 O-specific polysaccharide-core fragments and their protein conjugates as vaccine candidates.  

PubMed

There is no licensed vaccine for the prevention of shigellosis. Our approach to the development of a Shigella vaccines is based on inducing serum IgG antibodies to the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of their lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We have shown that low molecular mass O-SP-core (O-SPC) fragments isolated from Shigella sonnei LPS conjugated to proteins induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice than the full length O-SP conjugates. This finding is now extended to the O-SPC of Shigella flexneri 2a and 6, and Shigella dysenteriae type 1. The structures of O-SPC, containing core plus 1-4 O-SP repeat units (RUs), were analyzed by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The first RUs attached to the cores of S. flexneri 2a and 6 LPS were different from the following RUs in their O-acetylation and/or glucosylation. Conjugates of core plus more than 1 RU were necessary to induce LPS antibodies in mice. The resulting antibody levels were comparable to those induced by the full length O-SP conjugates. In S. dysenteriae type 1, the first RU was identical to the following RUs, with the exception that the GlcNAc was bound to the core in the beta-configuration, while in all other RUs the GlcNAc was present in the alpha-configuration. In spite of this difference, conjugates of S. dysenteriae type 1 core with 1, 2, or 3 RUs induced LPS antibodies in mice with levels statistically higher than those of the full size O-SP conjugates. O-SPC conjugates are easy to prepare, characterize, and standardize, and their clinical evaluation is planned. PMID:20542498

Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Mocca, Christopher; Pozsgay, Vince; Coxon, Bruce; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel

2010-07-19

163

Immunochemical studies of Shigella flexneri 2a and 6, and Shigella dysenteriae type 1 O-specific polysaccharide-core fragments and their protein conjugates as vaccine candidates  

PubMed Central

There is no licensed vaccine for the prevention of shigellosis. Our approach to the development of Shigella vaccine is based on inducing serum IgG antibodies to the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of their lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We have shown that low molecular mass O-SP-core (O-SPC) fragments isolated from Shigella sonnei LPS conjugated to proteins induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice than the full length O-SP conjugates. This finding is now extended to the O-SPC of S. flexneri 2a and 6, and S. dysenteriae type 1. The structures of O-SPC, containing core plus 1–4 O-SP repeat units (RU), were analyzed by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The first RUs attached to the cores of S. flexneri 2a and 6 LPS were different from the following RUs in their O-acetylation and/or glucosylation. Conjugates of core plus more than 1 RUs were necessary to induce LPS antibodies in mice. The resulting antibody levels were comparable to those induced by the full length O-SP conjugates. In S. dysenteriae type 1, the first RU was identical to the following RUs, with the exception that the GlcNAc was bound to the core in the ?-configuration, while in all other RUs the GlcNAc was present in the ?-configuration. In spite of this difference, conjugates of S. dysenteriae type 1 core with 1, 2, or 3 RUs induced LPS antibodies in mice with levels statistically higher than those of the full size O-SP conjugates. O-SPC conjugates are easy to prepare, characterize, and standardize, and their clinical evaluation is planned. PMID:20542498

Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Mocca, Christopher; Pozsgay, Vince; Coxon, Bruce; Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel

2010-01-01

164

Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

165

Efficacy of nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease in The Gambia: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We undertook a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in eastern Gambia. Children age 6-51 weeks were randomly allocated three doses of either pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (n=8718) or placebo (8719), with intervals of at least 25 days between doses. Our primary outcome was first episode of radiological pneumonia. Secondary endpoints were clinical or severe clinical pneumonia, invasive pneumococcal disease, and all-cause

FT Cutts; SMA Zaman; G Enwere; S Jaffar; OS Levine; JB Okoko; C Oluwalana; A Vaughan; SK Obaro; A Leach; KP McAdam; E Biney; M Saaka; U Onwuchekwa; F Yallop; NF Pierce; BM Greenwood; RA Adegbola

2005-01-01

166

Effectiveness of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Children in South Africa: A Matched Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ?2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and -uninfected children. Methods.?IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile site) cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance. Specimens were serotyped by Quellung or polymerase chain reaction. Four controls, matched for age, HIV status, and hospital were sought for each case. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated vaccine effectiveness (VE) as 1 minus the adjusted odds ratio for vaccination. Results.?From March 2010 through November 2012, we enrolled 187 HIV-uninfected (48 [26%] vaccine serotype) and 109 HIV-infected (43 [39%] vaccine serotype) cases and 752 HIV-uninfected and 347 HIV-infected controls aged ?16 weeks. Effectiveness of ?2 PCV7 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%–91%) among HIV-uninfected and ?12% (95% CI, ?449% to 77%) among HIV-infected children. Effectiveness of ?3 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 90% (95% CI, 14%–99%) among HIV-uninfected and 57% (95% CI, ?371% to 96%) among HIV-infected children. Among HIV-exposed but -uninfected children, effectiveness of ?2 doses was 92% (95% CI, 47%–99%) against vaccine-serotype IPD. Effectiveness of ?2 doses against all-serotype multidrug-resistant IPD was 96% (95% CI, 62%–100%) among HIV-uninfected children. Conclusions.?A 2 + 1 PCV7 schedule was effective in preventing vaccine-serotype IPD in HIV-uninfected and HIV-exposed, uninfected children. This finding supports the World Health Organization recommendation for this schedule as an alternative to a 3-dose primary series among HIV-uninfected individuals. PMID:24917657

Cohen, Cheryl; von Mollendorf, Claire; de Gouveia, Linda; Naidoo, Nireshni; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; Nokeri, Vusi; Fortuin-de Smit, Melony; Malope-Kgokong, Babatyi; Moore, David; Reubenson, Gary; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Madhi, Shabir A.; Eley, Brian; Hallbauer, Ute; Kularatne, Ranmini; Conklin, Laura; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Klugman, Keith; Whitney, Cynthia G.; von Gottberg, Anne; Moore, David; Verwey, Charl; Varughese, Sheeba; Archary, Moherndran; Naby, Fathima; Dawood, Khathija; Naidoo, Ramola; Elliott, Gene; Hallbauer, Ute; Eley, Brian; Nuttall, James; Cooke, Louise; Finlayson, Heather; Rabie, Helena; Whitelaw, Andrew; Perez, Dania; Jooste, Pieter; Naidoo, Dhamiran; Kularatne, Ranmini; Reubenson, Gary; Cohen, Cheryl; de Gouveia, Linda; du Plessis, Mignon; Govender, Nevashan; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; von Mollendorf, Claire; Fortuin-de Smidt, Melony; Naidoo, Nireshni; Malope-Kgokong, Babatyi; Nokeri, Vusi; Ncha, Relebohile; Lindani, Sonwabo; von Gottberg, Anne; Spies, Barry; Sono, Lino; Maredi, Phasweni; Hamese, Ken; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Nchabeleng, Maphosane; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; van den Heever, Johann; Madhi, Shabir; Conklin, Laura; Verani, Jennifer; Whitney, Cynthia; Zell, Elizabeth; Loo, Jennifer; Nelson, George; Klugman, Keith; O'Brien, Katherine

2014-01-01

167

Double-blind study comparing the immunogenicity of a licensed DTwPHib-CRM197 conjugate vaccine (Quattvaxem) with three investigational, liquid formulations using lower doses of Hib-CRM197 conjugate.  

PubMed

We performed a double-blind clinical study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of four formulations of a DTwPHib full liquid vaccine, three of which contained fractional doses of the 10 microg-dose of CRM197-Hib conjugate vaccine. A total of 261 infants were enrolled and randomised to receive at 3, 4 and 5 months of age, in a double-blind fashion, one of the four DTwPHib vaccine formulations containing 10, 5, 2.5 or 1.25 microg of CRM197-Hib conjugate. Post-immunization reactions were similar in the four vaccine groups, they were mild, transient and resolved without sequelae. The seroconversion rates to anti-PRP titres > or = 0.15 microg/mL were 100%, 98%, 97% and 98% in the groups 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 microg, respectively. The seroconversion rates to anti-PRP titres > or =1 microg/mL were 95%, 97%, 88% and 90%, again respectively. Anti-PRP GMTs were 18, 17, 7.82 and 6.94 microg/mL, respectively. All subjects were protected against tetanus and diphtheria, and >80% seroconverted to pertussis. High, and similar, levels of anti-PRP GMTs were elicited by the formulations with 10 and 5 microg of CRM197-Hib conjugate. Although the formulations with 2.5 and 1.25 microg of CRM197-Hib elicited lower levels of anti-PRP GMTs, they were immunogenic and are possible candidates for further development. PMID:15705477

Tamm, Eda; Veronese, Alessandra; Contorni, Mario; Meriste, Sirli; Nacci, Pantaleo; Viviani, Simonetta

2005-02-25

168

Use of Prior Vaccinations for the Development of New Vaccines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently a need for vaccine development to improve the immunogenicity of protective epitopes, which themselves are often poorly immunogenic. Although the immunogenicity of these epitopes can be enhanced by linking them to highly immunogenic carriers, such carriers derived from current vaccines have not proven to be generally effective. One reason may be related to epitope-specific suppression, in which prior vaccination with a protein can inhibit the antibody response to new epitopes linked to the protein. To circumvent such inhibition, a peptide from tetanus toxoid was identified that, when linked to a B cell epitope and injected into tetanus toxoid-primed recipients, retained sequences for carrier but not suppressor function. The antibody response to the B cell epitope was enhanced. This may be a general method for taking advantage of previous vaccinations in the development of new vaccines.

Etlinger, H. M.; Gillessen, D.; Lahm, H.-W.; Matile, H.; Schonfeld, H.-J.; Trzeciak, A.

1990-07-01

169

The incidence of pediatric invasive Haemophilus influenzae and pneumococcal disease in Chiba prefecture, Japan before and after the introduction of conjugate vaccines.  

PubMed

The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in Japan in 2008 and 2010, respectively. In 2011, immunization with these two vaccines was encouraged throughout Japan through a governmental program. Children treated in Chiba prefecture for culture-proven invasive H. influenzae disease (IHiD) and invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease (IPD) were identified in a prefectural surveillance study from 2008 to 2013. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) and its confidence interval (CI) were calculated to compare the 3 years before and after governmental financial support for vaccination. The average number of IHiD and IPD cases among children <5 years of age in 2011-2013 decreased 84% (IRR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.09-0.26, p<0.0001) and 51% (IRR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.37-0.63, p<0.0001) compared with those occurring in 2008-2010. The most common non-PCV7 serotype encountered in 2011 and 2013 was 19A. After governmental subsidization of Hib and PCV7 vaccination, IHiD and IPD decreased in Chiba prefecture, Japan. Continuous surveillance is necessary to determine the effectiveness of these two vaccines and for detection of emerging invasive serotypes. PMID:25131741

Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Hishiki, Haruka; Nagasawa, Koo; Naito, Sachiko; Sato, Yasunori; Chang, Bin; Sasaki, Yuko; Kimura, Kouji; Ohnishi, Makoto; Shibayama, Keigo

2014-09-22

170

Open-label trial of immunogenicity and safety of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in adults ?50 years of age in Mexico.  

PubMed

This open-label multicenter clinical trial conducted in Mexico assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults ?50 years of age not previously vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). The PCV13 elicited a robust immune response in this study population, as reflected by the magnitude of fold rises in functional antibody levels measured by serotype-specific opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assays before and 1 month after vaccination. Although the prevaccination OPA geometric mean titers (GMTs) for the majority of the serotypes were significantly lower in the 50- to 64-year age group than those in the ?65-year age group, the postvaccination immune responses were generally similar. The overall immune responses were higher for the majority of the serotypes in the Mexican study population than those in similar adult study populations who received the PCV13 in Europe and the United States. PCV13 was well tolerated, and there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, PCV13 is safe and immunogenic when administered to adults ?50 years of age in Mexico and has the potential to protect against vaccine-type pneumococcal disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01432262.). PMID:25499011

Tinoco, Juan Carlos; Juergens, Christine; Ruiz Palacios, Guillermo M; Vazquez-Narvaez, Jorge; Enkerlin-Pauwells, Hermann Leo; Sundaraiyer, Vani; Pathirana, Sudam; Kalinina, Elena; Gruber, William C; Scott, Daniel A; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

2015-02-01

171

Prediction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Effectiveness against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Using Opsonophagocytic Activity and Antibody Concentrations Determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with 22F Adsorption ?  

PubMed Central

We compared the abilities of two serological readouts, antipolysaccharide IgG antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers, to predict the clinical effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We also assessed the accuracy of the previously established thresholds for GlaxoSmithKline's enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with 22F adsorption (22F-ELISA) (?0.2 ?g/ml) and OPA assay (titer, ?8) in predicting effectiveness. We showed that following a 3-dose 7vCRM primary vaccination, the serological response rates as determined using thresholds of ?0.2 ?g/ml IgG and an OPA titer of ?8 corresponded well with overall effectiveness against IPD. In addition, the OPA assay seemed to better predict serotype-specific effectiveness than enzyme-linked immunoassay. Finally, when applied to post-dose-2 immune responses, both thresholds also corresponded well with the overall IPD effectiveness following a 2-dose 7vCRM primary vaccination. These results support the importance of the OPA assay in evaluating immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. PMID:21994351

Schuerman, L.; Wysocki, J.; Tejedor, J. C.; Knuf, M.; Kim, K.-H.; Poolman, J.

2011-01-01

172

Capacity of serotype 19A and 15B/C Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates for experimental otitis media: implications for the conjugate vaccine  

PubMed Central

Non-vaccine Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes are increasingly associated with disease. We evaluated isolates of the same sequence type (ST199) but different serotype (15B/C, 19A) for growth in vitro, and pathogenic potential in a chinchilla otitis media model. We also developed a qPCR assay to quantitatively assess each isolate, circumventing the need for selectable markers. In vitro studies showed faster growth of serotype 19A over 15B/C. Both were equally capable of colonization and middle ear infection in this model. Serotype 19A is included in new conjugate vaccine formulations while serotype 15B/C is not. Non-capsular vaccine targets will be important in disease prevention efforts. PMID:20067753

Laufer, Alison S.; Thomas, Jonathan C.; Figueira, Marisol; Gent, Janneane F.; Pelton, Stephen I.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

2010-01-01

173

Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A) in a murine model.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F)) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G) elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q)) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A), tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q) for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:24146989

Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C; Zhang, Weiping

2013-01-01

174

Toxicity and Immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxoid Fusion 3xSTaA14Q-LTS63K/R192G/L211A in a Murine Model  

PubMed Central

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STaP13F) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LTR192G elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STaA14Q) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LTS63K/R192G/L211A, tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTaA14Q-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STaA14Q for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTaA14Q-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:24146989

Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E.; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping

2013-01-01

175

The acylated form of protein D of Haemophilus influenzae is more immunogenic than the nonacylated form and elicits an adjuvant effect when it is used as a carrier conjugated to polyribosyl ribitol phosphate.  

PubMed Central

The nonacylated form of protein D (PDm) of Haemophilus influenzae has been shown to induce the production of antibodies that are bactericidal to homologous and heterologous nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. In this study, immunization of rats with lipoprotein D (LPD) induced higher levels of anti-protein D immunoglobulin G and A serum antibodies than immunization with PDm, and the bactericidal activities of sera from LPD-immunized rats were greater than those of sera from PDm-immunized rats. Immunization with LPD or PDm did not prevent the development of acute otitis media (AOM) when rats were challenged with 10(4) CFU of an NTHi strain. However, on the eighth day of bacterial challenge, 50% (5 of 10) of LPD-immunized rats had recovered from otitis media and 30% (3 of 10) had negative middle ear cultures, whereas only 30% (3 of 10) of PDm-immunized rats had recovered, though none was culture positive. Immunization with an inactivated homologous bacterial strain elicited 70% protection (i.e., 7 of 10 rats) in the rat otitis media model. LPD and PDm were also conjugated to the H. influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide, polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP), to test protein D-conjugated PRP vaccine's potential for protection against Hib infection. When two LPD-conjugated and two PDm-conjugated PRP vaccines, each containing a different protein concentration, and a tetanus toxoid-conjugated vaccine (ACT-HIB) were tested in the experimental model of rat otitis induced with a Hib strain (Minn A), both of the LPD-conjugated and one of the PDm-conjugated vaccines induced significant protection from AOM, the level of protection being highest in animals given the vaccine with the highest LPD content. Sera from these rats also manifested the highest anti-PRP and anti-LPD antibody levels and the highest bactericidal activities against a Hib strain and an NTHi strain. PMID:9393790

Akkoyunlu, M; Melhus, A; Capiau, C; van Opstal, O; Forsgren, A

1997-01-01

176

Calibration of replacement international standard and European pharmacopoeia biological reference preparation for tetanus toxoid, adsorbed.  

PubMed

Here we report the characterisation of a preparation of tetanus toxoid, adsorbed, and its calibration by 27 laboratories in 19 countries in a joint international collaborative study co-sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Biological Standardization (ECBS) and the European Biological Standardisation Programme of European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM), Council of Europe. Calibration was in terms of the Second International Standard (I.S.) for Tetanus Toxoid, Adsorbed, by the established WHO/European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur) challenge methods. The replacement standard preparation was found to have a unitage of 469 IU/ampoule on the basis of its calibration in guinea-pigs and 496 IU/ampoule on the basis of its calibration in mice. Assessment, both within the collaborative study and as part of candidate characterisation, indicated satisfactory stability of the candidate preparation. This study also provided some information on the effect of mouse strain on potency testing of tetanus vaccines. A limited assessment of the impact of the replacement standard on testing of current production batches of vaccines was also carried out by four manufacturers. This study did not directly address the serological approaches to potency testing. However, one laboratory offered data from mouse serology assay, which gave comparable estimates to in vivo mouse bioassay. Based on the results of this study and with the agreement of participants, the candidate standard was established as the Third International Standard for Tetanus Toxoid, Adsorbed (coded 98/552) by the WHO Expert Committee of Biological Standardization (ECBS) in November 2000. The same preparation was also established as the second Ph Eur Biological Reference Preparation (Ph Eur BRP, batch no. 2) by the Steering Committee of the Biological Standardisation Programme of the EDQM and approved by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission. PMID:11846430

Sesardic, D; Winsnes, R; Rigsby, P; Tierney, R; Gaines-Das, R

2002-03-01

177

Isolation of carbohydrate-specific CD4+ T cell clones from mice after stimulation by two model glycoconjugate vaccines  

PubMed Central

Here we describe how to isolate carbohydrate-specific T cell clones (for which we propose the designation ‘Tcarbs’) after stimulation by two glycoconjugate vaccines. We describe how to prepare, purify and characterize two model glycoconjugate vaccines that can be used to generate Tcarbs. These glycoconjugate vaccines (GBSIII-OVA and GBSIII-TT) are synthesized by conjugation of type III group B streptococcal polysaccharide (GBSIII) to ovalbumin (OVA) or tetanus toxoid (TT). Upon immunization of mice with GBSIII-OVA, carbohydrate epitopes are presented to and recognized by CD4+ T cells. Subsequently, polysaccharide-recognizing CD4+ T cells are expanded in vitro by stimulating splenic CD4+ T cells with GBSIII-TT. The sequential use of two distinct glycoconjugate vaccines containing the same polysaccharide conjugated to heterologous carrier proteins selects for and expands carbohydrate-specific T cells. This protocol can readily be adapted to study the stimulation of the immune system by alternative glycoconjugate vaccines. This protocol takes 1–2 years to complete. PMID:23196974

Avci, Fikri Y; Li, Xiangming; Tsuji, Moriya; Kasper, Dennis L

2014-01-01

178

Inferior quantitative and qualitative immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants with nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae during the primary series of immunization  

PubMed Central

Background Heightened immunogenicity, measured one month after the primary series of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), in African children was previously hypothesized to be due to increased rates of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization during early infancy. Methods We analyzed the effect of selected vaccine-serotype (6B, 19F and 23F) nasopharyngeal colonization prior to the first PCV dose or when colonized for the first time prior to the second or third (2nd/3rd) PCV dose on serotype quantitative and qualitative antibody responses. Results Colonization prior to receiving the first PCV was associated with lower geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs) one month after the third dose of PCV and six months later to the colonizing-serotype. Colonized infants also had lower geometric mean titers (GMTs) on opsonophagocytosis activity assay (OPA) and a lower proportion had titers ?8 against the colonizing serotypes (19F and 23F) post vaccination. Colonization occurring only prior to the 2nd/3rd PCV dose was also associated with lower GMCs and OPA GMTs to the colonizing-serotype. The effect of colonization with serotypes 19F and 23F prior to PCV vaccination had a greater effect on a lower proportion of colonized infants having OPA titers ?8 than the effect of colonization on the lower proportion with antibody ?0.35 ?g/ml. Conclusion Infant nasopharyngeal colonization at any stage before completing the primary series of PCV vaccination was associated with inferior quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to the colonizing-serotype. PMID:21787822

Madhi, Shabir A.; Violari, Avy; Klugman, Keith P.; Lin, Gina; McIntyre, James A.; von Gottberg, Anne; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Cotton, Mark F.; Adrian, Peter

2011-01-01

179

A cross-sectional observational study of pneumococcal carriage in children, their parents, and older adults following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.  

PubMed

Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ?65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period.Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7.7% coverage added by those in PCV13. In each group, the percentage of disease due to serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.0%, 7.4% and 5.1% with a further 65.3%, 42.1%, and 61.4% attributed to those in PCV13.The prevalence of carriage is the highest in children, with direct vaccine impact exemplified by low carriage and disease prevalence of PCV7 serotypes in vaccinated children, whereas the indirect effects of herd protection are implied by similar observations in unvaccinated parents and older adults. PMID:25569650

Hamaluba, Mainga; Kandasamy, Rama; Ndimah, Susan; Morton, Richard; Caccamo, Marisa; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Field, Aimee; Norman, Lily; Plested, Emma; Thompson, Ben A V; Zafar, Azhar; Kerridge, Simon A; Lazarus, Rajeka; John, Tessa; Holmes, Jane; Fenlon, Shannon N; Gould, Katherine A; Waight, Pauline; Hinds, Jason; Crook, Derrick; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

2015-01-01

180

Safety and Immunogenicity of Neonatal Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Papua New Guinean Children: A Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 826,000 children, mostly young infants, die annually from invasive pneumococcal disease. A 6-10-14-week schedule of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is efficacious but neonatal PCV may provide earlier protection and better coverage. We conducted an open randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea to compare safety, immunogenicity and priming for memory of 7-valent PCV (PCV7) given in a 0-1-2-month (neonatal) schedule with that of the routine 1-2-3-month (infant) schedule. Methods We randomized 318 infants at birth to receive PCV7 in the neonatal or infant schedule or no PCV7. All infants received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) at age 9 months. Serotype-specific serum IgG for PCV7 (VT) serotypes and non-VT serotypes 2, 5 and 7F were measured at birth and 2, 3, 4, 9, 10 and 18 months of age. Primary outcomes were geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and proportions with concentration ?0.35 µg/ml of VT serotype-specific pneumococcal IgG at age 2 months and one month post-PPV. Results We enrolled 101, 105 and 106 infants, respectively, into neonatal, infant and control groups. Despite high background levels of maternally derived antibody, both PCV7 groups had higher GMCs than controls at age 2 months for serotypes 4 (p<0.001) and 9V (p<0.05) and at age 3 months for all VTs except 6B. GMCs for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C and 19F were significantly higher (p<0.001) at age 2 months in the neonatal (one month post-dose2 PCV7) than in the infant group (one month post-dose1 PCV7). PPV induced significantly higher VT antibody responses in PCV7-primed than unprimed infants, with neonatal and infant groups equivalent. High VT and non-VT antibody concentrations generally persisted to age 18 months. Conclusions PCV7 is well-tolerated and immunogenic in PNG neonates and young infants and induces immunologic memory to PPV booster at age 9 months with antibody levels maintained to age 18 months. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00219401NCT00219401 PMID:23451070

Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Francis, Jacinta; Jacoby, Peter; Siba, Peter M.; Alpers, Michael P.; Reeder, John C.; Holt, Patrick G.; Richmond, Peter C.; Lehmann, Deborah

2013-01-01

181

Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in American Indian Households after a Decade of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Use  

PubMed Central

Background Young children played a major role in pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, acquisition, and transmission in the era before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use. Few studies document pneumococcal household dynamics in the routine-PCV7 era. Methods We investigated age-specific acquisition, household introduction, carriage clearance, and intra-household transmission in a prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in 300 American Indian households comprising 1,072 participants between March 2006 and March 2008. Results Pneumococcal acquisition rates were 2–6 times higher in children than adults. More household introductions of new pneumococcal strains were attributable to children <9 years than adults ?17 years (p<0.001), and older children (2–8 years) than younger children (<2 years) (p<0.008). Compared to children <2 years, carriage clearance was more rapid in older children (2–4 years, HRclearance 1.53 [95% CI: 1.22, 1.91]; 5–8 years, HRclearance 1.71 [1.36, 2.15]) and adults (HRclearance 1.75 [1.16, 2.64]). Exposure to serotype-specific carriage in older children (2–8 years) most consistently increased the odds of subsequently acquiring that serotype for other household members. Conclusions In this community with a high burden of pneumococcal colonization and disease and routine PCV7 use, children (particularly older children 2–8 years) drive intra-household pneumococcal transmission: first, by acquiring, introducing, and harboring pneumococcus within the household, and then by transmitting acquired serotypes more efficiently than household members of other ages. PMID:24465365

Mosser, Jonathan F.; Grant, Lindsay R.; Millar, Eugene V.; Weatherholtz, Robert C.; Jackson, Delois M.; Beall, Bernard; Craig, Mariddie J.; Reid, Raymond; Santosham, Mathuram; O'Brien, Katherine L.

2014-01-01

182

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News  

PubMed Central

Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology PMID:24051387

Riedmann, Eva M

2013-01-01

183

Vaccinations  

MedlinePLUS

... be spread from animals to people. For example, rabies is a serious, often fatal, disease that can ... animals to people. By vaccinating your pets for rabies, you are protecting your family as well as ...

184

Injectable polymer microspheres enhance immunogenicity of a contraceptive peptide vaccine.  

PubMed

Advanced contraceptive peptide vaccines suffer from the unavailability of adjuvants capable of enhancing the antibody response with acceptable safety. We sought to overcome this limitation by employing two novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere formulations to deliver a synthetic human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) peptide antigen co-synthesized with a T-cell epitope from tetanus toxoid (TT), C-TT2-CTP35: surface-conjugated immunogen to induce phagocytosis; and encapsulated peptide to provide a depot effect, with MgCO(3) co-encapsulated in the polymer to neutralize acidity from the biodegrading PLGA polyester. A single immunization of encapsulated peptide in rabbits elicited a stronger antibody response with equivalent duration relative to a positive control--three injections of the peptide administered in a squalene-based water-in-oil emulsion. Surface-conjugated peptide was less effective but enhanced antibody levels at 1/5 the dose, relative to soluble antigen. Most remarkable and unexpected was the finding that co-encapsulation of base was essential to attain the powerful adjuvant effect of the PLGA-MgCO(3) system, as the MgCO(3)-free microspheres were completely ineffective. A promising contraceptive hCG peptide vaccine with acceptable side effects (i.e., local tissue reactions) was achieved by minimizing PLGA and MgCO(3) doses, without significantly affecting antibody response. PMID:16996662

Cui, Chengji; Stevens, Vernon C; Schwendeman, Steven P

2007-01-01

185

Protection against neonatal Escherichia coli diarrhoea in pigs by vaccination of sows with a new vaccine that contains purified enterotoxic E. coli virulence factors F4ac, F4ab, F5 and F6 fimbrial antigens and heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin (LT) toxoid.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a new vaccine against neonatal Escherichia coli diarrhoea in piglets containing purified F4ab, F4ac, F5 and F6 fimbriae and detoxified heat-labile toxin (LT) was tested in challenge experiments by the method described by the European Pharmacopoeia (3rd edn, EDQM, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France). A group of 11 young sows from a herd without E. coli problems was vaccinated 6-8 and 2-4 weeks prior to expected farrowing and another group of nine young sows were non-vaccinated controls. Escherichia coli antibody titres were determined in serum samples taken from the sows before first vaccination and before farrowing and in colostrum samples. The newborn piglets were allowed to suckle colostrum from their mother immediately after birth. The piglets were marked with individually numbered ear tags. Approximately 12 h after birth, 118 piglets from vaccinated sows and 79 piglets from non-vaccinated control sows were challenged by oral instillation of 5 ml of a freshly prepared culture of one of the challenge strains [O8:K87:F4ab (LT+) or O149:K91:F4ac (LT+) or O9:K30:F5 or O9:K103:F6 respectively]. The challenge cultures contained as a mean 6.8x10(9) CFU/ml. After challenge the piglets were observed for 7 days and mortality and morbidity were recorded. Vaccinated sows developed significant levels of antibody titres in colostrum and serum. Control sows stayed at a low/seronegative level. The protective efficacy was excellent because 66.7-87.5% of the piglets from vaccinated sows remained without clinical signs after challenge. Only 0.0-28.0% of the piglets from non-vaccinated sows remained healthy and more than 47.1% of the piglets in this group died after challenge. It is concluded that the new vaccine is very effective in protection of piglets against neonatal E. coli diarrhoea. PMID:16219094

Riising, H-J; Murmans, M; Witvliet, M

2005-08-01

186

Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Core O Polysaccharide Conjugated to H:g,m Flagellin as a Candidate Vaccine for Protection against Invasive Infection with S. Enteritidis?†  

PubMed Central

Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are a common cause of gastroenteritis but also cause invasive infections and enteric fever in certain hosts (young children in sub-Saharan Africa, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals). Salmonella O polysaccharides (OPS) and flagellar proteins are virulence factors and protective antigens. The surface polysaccharides of Salmonella are poorly immunogenic and do not confer immunologic memory, limitations overcome by covalently attaching them to carrier proteins. We conjugated core polysaccharide-OPS (COPS) of Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to flagellin protein from the homologous strain. COPS and flagellin were purified from a genetically attenuated (?guaBA) “reagent strain” (derived from an isolate from a patient with clinical bacteremia) engineered for increased flagellin production (?clpPX). Conjugates were constructed by linking flagellin monomers or polymers at random COPS hydroxyls with various polysaccharide/protein ratios by 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) or at the 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) terminus by thioether chemistry. Mice immunized on days 0, 28, and 56 with COPS-flagellin conjugates mounted higher anti-LPS IgG levels than mice receiving unconjugated COPS and exhibited high antiflagellin IgG; anti-LPS and antiflagellin IgG levels increased following booster doses. Antibodies generated by COPS-flagellin conjugates mediated opsonophagocytosis of S. Enteritidis cells into mouse macrophages. Mice immunized with flagellin alone, COPS-CRM197, or COPS-flagellin conjugates were significantly protected from lethal challenge with wild-type S. Enteritidis (80 to 100% vaccine efficacy). PMID:21807909

Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M.; Wang, Jin Y.; Schmidlein, Patrick J.; Lees, Andrew; Ernst, Robert K.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Galen, James E.; Levine, Myron M.

2011-01-01

187

Predictors to parental knowledge about childhood immunisation/EPI vaccines in two health districts in Cameroon prior to the introduction of 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV-13)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pneumonia is vaccine-preventable, but the increasing death toll resulting from the disease in Sub-Saharan Africa is alarming. Several factors account for vaccine failing to reach every child, besides incomplete vaccine coverage. Most of these include the perceptions of parents/guardians and healthcare providers. Previous studies on the introduction of new vaccines have focused on experimental trials, coverage figures and vaccine efficacy in developed countries. Little is known on the factors which may hinder the implementation process despite the huge challenges this may encounter in developing countries. This study described the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of parents/guardians on pneumonia and immunisations/EPI vaccines; identify predictive parental socio-economic/demographic characteristics that of good knowledge on pneumonia infections, routine EPI vaccines and the PCV-13. Finally, the study described health center personnel perceptions about immunisations. Methods The WHO's immunisation coverage cluster survey design was used, involving parents/guardians (n = 205) of children aged 0-59 months and health centre personnel (n = 13) directly concerned with vaccination activities between July-September 2010 in two health districts in Yaounde, Cameroon. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic models were used to analyse the parental/guardian data while the health personnel data was only analysed descriptively using SPSS version 17.0. Results Only 19% of the parents/guardians were aware of the availability of the PCV-13. Logistic modelling identified important associations between parental socio-economic/demographic factors and good knowledge on pneumonia disease burden and prevention. Conclusion According to parents/guardians a short and clear message on the dangers of pneumonia and the need for prevention provided to parents/guardians during sensitisation/out-reach campaigns and use of social network avenues would be primordial, if the PCV-13 is to reach every child. PMID:25396013

Libwea, John Njuma; Kobela, Marie; Ollgren, Jukka; Emah, Irene; Tchio, Robert; Nohynek, Hanna

2014-01-01

188

Immunogenicity in mice and non-human primates of the Group A Streptococcal J8 peptide vaccine candidate conjugated to CRM197  

PubMed Central

Vaccine development for Group A streptococcal (GAS) infection has been extensively focused on the N-terminal hypervariable or the C-terminal conserved regions of the M protein, a major virulence factor of GAS. We evaluated the immunogenicity and functional activity of the conserved C-terminal peptide vaccine candidate, J8, conjugated to CRM197, in two mouse strains: C3H (H2k) and Balb/c (H2d), and in rhesus macaques. Mice were immunized with J8-CRM197 formulated with Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate Adjuvant (AAHSA), and non-human primates were immunized with J8-CRM197 formulated with AAHSA, ISCOMATRIXTM adjuvant, or AAHSA/ISCOMATRIX adjuvant. J8-CRM197 was immunogenic in mice from both H2k and H2d backgrounds, and the antibodies generated bound to the surface of four different GAS serotypes and had functional bacterial opsonic activity. Mice immunized with J8-CRM197/AAHSA demonstrated varying degrees of protection from lethal challenge. We also demonstrated that J8-CRM197 is immunogenic in non-human primates. Our data confirm the utility of J8 as a potential GAS vaccine candidate and demonstrate that CRM197 is an acceptable protein carrier for this peptide. PMID:23249976

Caro-Aguilar, Ivette; Ottinger, Elizabeth; Hepler, Robert W.; Nahas, Deborah D.; Wu, Chengwei; Good, Michael F.; Batzloff, Michael; Joyce, Joseph G.; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Skinner, Julie M.

2013-01-01

189

Prevalence of de-O-acetylated serogroup C meningococci before the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines have been introduced in the UK to combat the rise in serogroup C meningococcal disease. Serogroup C meningococci may occur naturally expressing either O-acetylated (Oac(+)) or de-O-acetylated (Oac(-)) polysaccharide capsules. In a small study in the USA in the 1970s 15% of serogroup C meningococcal case isolates were reported to be Oac(-) though the prevalence of these Oac(-) isolates has not been recorded in the UK. This is of interest as the first MCC vaccines to be introduced are Oac(+) and the potential impact of this on Oac(-) serogroup C isolates is unclear. Serogroup C isolates submitted to the Public Health Laboratory Service Meningococcal Reference Unit in January 1998 (n=113) and January 1999 (n=162) were investigated by dot blotting using monoclonals specific for Oac(+) and Oac(-) serogroup C polysaccharides. This revealed 12% Oac(-) isolates for both January 1998 and January 1999. The proportion of fatal cases was found to similar for both Oac(-) and Oac(+), 14 and 9% for 1998 and 5 and 3% for 1999, indicating that the pathogenic potential of these Oac(-) isolates is similar to Oac(+). The acetylation status of serogroup C isolates needs to be monitored throughout and after the introduction of MCC vaccines. PMID:10865169

Borrow, R; Longworth, E; Gray, S J; Kaczmarski, E B

2000-07-01

190

Performance and potency of tetanus toxoid: implications for eliminating neonatal tetanus.  

PubMed Central

Neonatal tetanus (NT) is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, with over 400,000 deaths estimated to occur annually. WHO has adopted the goal of eliminating NT worldwide, and a major strategy for its prevention is the administration of at least two properly spaced doses of tetanus toxoid (TT) to women of childbearing age in high-risk areas to protect passively their newborns at birth. In certain countries the locally produced TT vaccine has been shown to be subpotent, while other countries have reported NT among infants born to vaccinated women. An extensive review of production and quality control procedures was carried out between 1993 and 1995 in 8 of 22 TT-producing countries that also report NT cases, with a more superficial assessment being carried out in the remaining 14 countries. Only 4 of the 22 countries have a functioning national control authority to monitor TT production and vaccine quality. A total of 80 TT lots from 21 manufacturers in 14 of the 22 NT-reporting countries were tested for potency. Of these, 15 lots from eight manufacturers in seven countries had potency values below WHO requirements. TT potency can also be compromised by improper vaccine handling. To eliminate neonatal tetanus worldwide requires assurance that all doses of TT meet WHO production and quality requirements and that the field effectiveness of TT is monitored through systematic NT case investigations and assessment of coverage. PMID:9060223

Dietz, V.; Milstien, J. B.; van Loon, F.; Cochi, S.; Bennett, J.

1996-01-01

191

Genetic fusions of heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) toxoids of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit neutralizing anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and farm animals. E. coli fimbriae, or colonization factor antigens (CFAs), and enterotoxins, including heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) and heat-stable enterotoxins (ST), are the key virulence factors in ETEC diarrhea. Unlike fimbriae or LT, STa has not often been included as an antigen in development of vaccines against ETEC diarrhea because of its poor immunogenicity. STa becomes immunogenic only after being coupled with a strongly immunogenic carrier protein. However, native or shorter STa antigens either had to retain toxic activity in order to become antigenic or elicited anti-STa antibodies that were not sufficiently protective. In this study, we genetically mutated the porcine LT (pLT) gene for a pLT(192(R-->G)) toxoid and the porcine STa (pSTa) gene for three full-length pSTa toxoids [STa(11(N-->K)), STa(12(P-->F)), and STa(13(A-->Q))] and used the full-length pLT(192) as an adjuvant to carry the pSTa toxoid for pLT(192):pSTa-toxoid fusion antigens. Rabbits immunized with pLT(192):pSTa(12) or pLT(192):pSTa(13) fusion protein developed high titers of anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies. Furthermore, rabbit antiserum and antifecal antibodies were able to neutralize purified cholera toxin (CT) and STa toxin. In addition, preliminary data suggested that suckling piglets born by a sow immunized with the pLT(192):pSTa(13) fusion antigen were protected when challenged with an STa-positive ETEC strain. This study demonstrated that pSTa toxoids are antigenic when fused with a pLT toxoid and that the elicited anti-LT and anti-STa antibodies were protective. This fusion strategy could provide instructive information to develop effective toxoid vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea in animals and humans. PMID:19858307

Zhang, Weiping; Zhang, Chengxian; Francis, David H; Fang, Ying; Knudsen, David; Nataro, James P; Robertson, Donald C

2010-01-01

192

All-Cause Pneumonia Hospitalizations in Children <2 Years Old in Sweden, 1998 to 2012: Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction  

PubMed Central

Background In late 2007, some Swedish County Councils started 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) implementation for children, and PCV7 was included in the national immunization program in 2009. By 2010, both PCV10 and PCV13 were licensed, and the selection of vaccine was subject to County Councils tenders. This study investigated the impact of the order of PCV introduction into vaccination programs on the incidence of all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations in children <2 years-old. Methods Using population-based data from the publicly available National Inpatient Registry, the incidence of inpatient pneumonia (ICD-10 J12-J18) hospitalizations by County Councils among children <2 years old was identified between 1998 and 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRR; 95% CI) were calculated during the nationwide implementation of PCV7 and then between County Councils, as based on the higher-valent vaccine chosen for a program. Results There was a lower risk of all-cause pneumonia hospitalization among <2 year-old children following the introduction of PCV7, as compared to the pre-PCV7 period (0.77; 0.63–0.93). A decreased risk of all-cause pneumonia was also observed in the County Councils that followed the order PCV7 then PCV13 (0.82; 0.66–1.01), while no trend was observed in County Councils with a program in the order PCV7 then PCV10 (1.03; 0.82–1.30). When comparing the higher-valent vaccines, there was a 21% (0.79; 0.66–0.96) lower risk for childhood pneumonia hospitalization in County Councils finally using PCV13 as compared to the experience in County Councils that ultimately adopted PCV10. Conclusions Among children <2 years-old, all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations were significantly reduced by 23% one to two years after introduction of PCV7 vaccination in Sweden. In those County Councils that next introduced PCV13, a further decline in all-cause pneumonia hospitalization was observed, in contrast to those County Councils that followed with PCV10; this 21% lower risk for childhood pneumonia hospitalization was statistically significant. PMID:25379659

Berglund, Anders; Ekelund, Mats; Fletcher, Mark A.; Nyman, Lars

2014-01-01

193

Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ? 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ?2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,295; control, n?=?10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p?=?0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization–defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28–30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,211; control, n?=?10,140) and AOM (n?=?3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: ?1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p?=?0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n?=?11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n?=?11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763

Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

2014-01-01

194

Safety and Immunogenicity of Improved Shigella O-Specific Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines in Adults in Israel  

PubMed Central

Data suggest that the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Shigella species is both an essential virulence factor and a protective antigen and that a critical level of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) to this antigen will confer immunity to shigellosis. Because covalent attachment of polysaccharides to proteins increases their immunogenicity, especially in infants and in young children, the O-SP of Shigella species were bound to medically useful proteins, and the safety and immunogenicity of the resultant conjugates were confirmed in adults and 4- to 7-year-old children. Succinylation of the carrier protein improved the immunogenicity of Shigella conjugates in mice and increased their yield. Based on these results, a clinical trial of O-SP conjugates of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a bound to succinylated mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (rEPAsucc) or native or succinylated Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin mutant (CRM9 or CRM9succ) was conducted in healthy adults. The conjugates were safe and immunogenic. S. sonnei-CRM9, S. sonnei-CRM9succ, and S. sonnei-rEPAsucc elicited significant rises of geometric mean (GM) IgG anti-LPS within 1 week of injection (P < 0.001). At 26 weeks, the GM anti-LPS levels elicited by these three conjugates were similar and higher than their prevaccination levels (P < 0.0001). GM IgG anti-LPS levels elicited by S. flexneri 2a-rEPAsucc were significantly higher than those elicited by S. flexneri 2a-rCRM9succ at all intervals after injection. At 26 weeks, the levels of IgG anti-LPS in vaccinees were higher than their prevaccination levels (P < 0.0001). The serum antibody responses were specific, as there was no significant rise of anti-LPS to the heterologous O-SP in any vaccinee. Both conjugates elicited statistically significant rises of serum antibodies to the injected carrier protein. At 6 months, these five Shigella conjugates elicited higher fold rises than similar conjugates (D. N. Taylor et al., Infect. Immun. 61:3678–3687, 1993). Based on these data, we chose S. sonnei-CRM9 and S. flexneri 2a-rEPAsucc for evaluation in children. PMID:11179298

Passwell, Justen H.; Harlev, Efrat; Ashkenazi, Shai; Chu, Chiayung; Miron, Dan; Ramon, Reut; Farzan, Naheed; Shiloach, Joseph; Bryla, Dolores A.; Majadly, Fathy; Roberson, Robin; Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel

2001-01-01

195

Naturally Acquired and Conjugate Vaccine-Induced Antibody to Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Polysaccharide in Malian Children: Serological Assessment of the Hib Immunization Program in Mali  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine for infants (6, 10, and 14 weeks of age) was introduced into the Malian Expanded Program on Immunization in July 2005, to diminish invasive Hib disease in young children. Antibodies to Hib capsular polysaccharide (PRP) were measured in infants and toddlers from an area already served by the Hib immunization program (Bamako) and in unimmunized children of the same age in a district (Kangaba) where Hib immunization had not yet begun. Among vaccinated Bamako children 6–23 months of age, 77–93% exhibited PRP titers ? 1.0 ?g/mL, indicating long-term protection, versus only 10–23% of Kangaba children of that age. High PRP antibody titers in immunized children persisted through 2 years of age. Moreover, ?50% of Bamako children exhibited anti-PRP titers ? 5.0 ?g/mL; a level that impedes Hib upper respiratory carriage, and may thereby diminish the Hib transmission to the unimmunized susceptible population (i.e., providing indirect protection). PMID:22665612

Hutter, Julia; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sanogo, Doh; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Sow, Samba O.; Levine, Myron M.

2012-01-01

196

Naturally acquired and conjugate vaccine-induced antibody to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide in Malian children: serological assessment of the Hib immunization program in Mali.  

PubMed

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine for infants (6, 10, and 14 weeks of age) was introduced into the Malian Expanded Program on Immunization in July 2005, to diminish invasive Hib disease in young children. Antibodies to Hib capsular polysaccharide (PRP) were measured in infants and toddlers from an area already served by the Hib immunization program (Bamako) and in unimmunized children of the same age in a district (Kangaba) where Hib immunization had not yet begun. Among vaccinated Bamako children 6-23 months of age, 77-93% exhibited PRP titers ? 1.0 ?g/mL, indicating long-term protection, versus only 10-23% of Kangaba children of that age. High PRP antibody titers in immunized children persisted through 2 years of age. Moreover, ?50% of Bamako children exhibited anti-PRP titers ? 5.0 ?g/mL; a level that impedes Hib upper respiratory carriage, and may thereby diminish the Hib transmission to the unimmunized susceptible population (i.e., providing indirect protection). PMID:22665612

Hutter, Julia; Pasetti, Marcela F; Sanogo, Doh; Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Levine, Myron M

2012-06-01

197

Serum IgM Antibodies Contribute to High Levels of Opsonophagocytic Activities in Toddlers Immunized with a Single Dose of the 9-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine  

PubMed Central

In immunogenicity trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), only IgG antibody concentrations to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPSs) are usually determined, along with the opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of antipneumococcal antibodies. We aimed to determine the role of both IgG and IgM in OPA in toddlers receiving one dose of 9-valent PCV (PCV9). The IgG and IgM antibody concentrations to PPSs of serotypes 6A, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by enzyme immunoassay in sera from toddlers (ages 18 to 35 months) 1 month after a single PCV9 dose. The OPA for the same serotypes was measured by multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA). Further, IgG and IgM concentrations and MOPA were measured to PPS of serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F in sera collected 12 months after vaccination. The detected MOPA titers were high in comparison to the IgG concentrations 1 month after immunization. The IgM concentrations were higher than IgG concentrations for serotypes 6A and 14 (P < 0.001) and as high as IgG for serotypes 9V, 19F, and 23F. Correlation of the IgM antibody concentrations with MOPA (r = 0.35 to 0.65) was stronger compared to that of the IgG antibodies (r = 0.07 to 0.41). The depletion of IgG antibodies in three sets of pooled sera only slightly decreased the OPA activity against serotype 14. At 12 months after immunization, 50 to 100% of serum samples still showed detectable MOPA activity against serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F. Our results suggest that IgM contributes to OPA 1 month after a single PCV9 vaccination in toddlers and that functionally active IgM and IgG antibodies persist for at least a year. PMID:22875604

Nurkka, Anu; Ekström, Nina; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Käyhty, Helena; Dagan, Ron

2012-01-01

198

The data management of a phase III efficacy trial of an 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and related satellite studies conducted in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background A large phase III placebo-controlled, randomized efficacy trial of an investigational 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against pneumonia in children less than 2 years of age was conducted in the Philippines from July 2000 to December 2004. Clinical data from 12,194 children who were given either study vaccine or placebo was collected from birth up to two years of age for the occurrence of radiologically proven pneumonia as the primary endpoint, and for clinical pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease as the secondary endpoints. Several tertiary endpoints were also explored. Along the core trial, several satellite studies on herd immunity, cost-effectiveness of the study vaccine, acute otitis media, and wheezing were conducted. Results We describe here in detail how the relevant clinical records were managed and how quality control procedures were implemented to ensure that valid data were obtained respectively for the core trial and for the satellite studies. We discuss how the task was achieved, what the challenges were and what might have been done differently. Conclusions There were several factors that made the task of data management doable and efficient. First, a pre-trial data management system was available. Secondly, local committed statisticians, programmers and support staff were available and partly familiar to clinical trials. Thirdly, the personnel had undergone training during trial and grew with the task they were supposed to do. Thus the knowledge needed to develop and operate clinical data system was fully transferred to local staff. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN62323832 PMID:22676626

2012-01-01

199

Serum IgM antibodies contribute to high levels of opsonophagocytic activities in toddlers immunized with a single dose of the 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.  

PubMed

In immunogenicity trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), only IgG antibody concentrations to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPSs) are usually determined, along with the opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of antipneumococcal antibodies. We aimed to determine the role of both IgG and IgM in OPA in toddlers receiving one dose of 9-valent PCV (PCV9). The IgG and IgM antibody concentrations to PPSs of serotypes 6A, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by enzyme immunoassay in sera from toddlers (ages 18 to 35 months) 1 month after a single PCV9 dose. The OPA for the same serotypes was measured by multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA). Further, IgG and IgM concentrations and MOPA were measured to PPS of serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F in sera collected 12 months after vaccination. The detected MOPA titers were high in comparison to the IgG concentrations 1 month after immunization. The IgM concentrations were higher than IgG concentrations for serotypes 6A and 14 (P < 0.001) and as high as IgG for serotypes 9V, 19F, and 23F. Correlation of the IgM antibody concentrations with MOPA (r = 0.35 to 0.65) was stronger compared to that of the IgG antibodies (r = 0.07 to 0.41). The depletion of IgG antibodies in three sets of pooled sera only slightly decreased the OPA activity against serotype 14. At 12 months after immunization, 50 to 100% of serum samples still showed detectable MOPA activity against serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F. Our results suggest that IgM contributes to OPA 1 month after a single PCV9 vaccination in toddlers and that functionally active IgM and IgG antibodies persist for at least a year. PMID:22875604

Simell, Birgit; Nurkka, Anu; Ekström, Nina; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Käyhty, Helena; Dagan, Ron

2012-10-01

200

Critical appraisal of a quadrivalent CRM197 conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C W-135 and Y (Menveo®) in the context of treatment and prevention of invasive disease  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, invasive meningococcal disease affects about 500,000 people annually. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10%, and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. According to the World Health Organization, the most important pathogenic serogroups are A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y. Clinical features of invasive meningococcal disease make diagnosis and management difficult. Antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis after exposure and for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease cases; however, resistant strains may be emerging. Vaccines are generally regarded as the best preventative measure for invasive meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y using protein conjugation technology have clear advantages over older plain polysaccharide formulations without a protein component. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo®) was licensed in Europe, the US, the Middle East, and Latin America. MenACWY-CRM uses cross-reactive material 197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, as the carrier protein. MenACWY-CRM offers robust immunogenicity in all age groups, with a tolerability profile similar to that of a plain polysaccharide vaccine. Given its potential for protecting persons from infancy to old age, MenACWY-CRM offers the opportunity to protect broad populations against invasive meningococcal disease. The most optimal strategy for use of the vaccine has to be assessed country by country on the basis of local epidemiology, individual health care systems, and need. PMID:21904459

Bröker, Michael; Cooper, Brian; DeTora, Lisa M; Stoddard, Jeffrey J

2011-01-01

201

Policy analysis of the use of hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b-, Streptococcus pneumoniae-conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in national immunization schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the development of national vaccine programmes to deliver six vaccines to infants, new vaccine adoption has been limited. Analysis of the health and economic implications of new vaccination options can help national policy-makers. Country specific quantitative policy analyses were conducted to estimate the impact of vaccination against hepatitis B (HB), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and

Mark A. Miller; Laura McCann

2000-01-01

202

Incidence of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in the Island of Majorca (2008-2010), an area with non-universal vaccination, and estimations of serotype & children population coverage by available conjugate vaccines  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization reported in 2007 that inclusion of PCV7 in national immunization programs should be seen as a priority, also encouraging countries to conduct appropriate surveillances for monitoring the impact of vaccination. These analyses should be conducted in specific geographical areas and should be aimed to evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), by age groups, clinical presentation, and vaccine serotypes (and non-vaccine serotypes to detect possible replacement). This study aimed to monitor the evolution of IPD incidence in children <15 years requiring hospitalization in the Island of Majorca. Methods A prospective clinical surveillance of all culture and/or PCR-confirmed IPD in children <15 years was performed in all hospitals in the Island of Majorca (approximately 900,000 inhabitants) from January 2008 to December 2010. Incidence rate (IR) was calculated as cases/100000 inhabitants using children population data. Results 66 IPDs were identified: 39 (59.1%) parapneumonic pneumococcal empyema (PPE), 16 (24.2%) bacteremic pneumonia (BP), 7 (10.6%) primary bacteremia, 3 (4.5%) meningitis, and 1 (1.5%) osteomyelitis. IRs in the three-year study period were: 64.22 for children 12-?59 months. By study year, IRs were 21.25 in 2008, 19.89 in 2009 and 9.80 in 2010. The reduction found in 2010 was significant and due to significant reductions in IRs of IPDs caused by serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13. Overall, estimated serotype coverage by conjugate vaccines was 12.1% for PCV7, 37.9% for PCV10 and 65.2% for PCV13. Of the 66 hospitalized children with IPD, 20 had received at least one dose of PCV7 (13 cases with identified serotype). None of these 13 cases was caused by PCV7 serotypes, all were caused by PCV13 serotypes and only 53.8% by PCV10 serotypes. Conclusions The results of the present study evidence the importance of expanding the number of serotypes covered by PCV, and the added value of PCV13 with respect to PCV10 and PCV7, even in an area of low prevalence of 19A as the Island of Majorca. PMID:24498901

2013-01-01

203

Microneedle-Based Transcutaneous Immunisation in Mice with N-Trimethyl Chitosan Adjuvanted Diphtheria Toxoid Formulations  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the delivery and immunogenicity of N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) adjuvanted diphtheria toxoid (DT) formulations applied transcutaneously with microneedles. Methods Mice were vaccinated with DT-loaded TMC nanoparticles, a solution of TMC and DT (TMC/DT) or DT alone. The formulations were applied onto the skin before or after microneedle treatment with two different 300-µm-long microneedle arrays and also injected intradermally (ID). As a positive control, alum-adjuvanted DT (DT-alum) was injected subcutaneously (SC). Ex vivo confocal microscopy studies were performed with rhodamine-labelled TMC. Results Independent of the microneedle array used and the sequence of microneedle treatment and vaccine application, transcutaneous immunisation with the TMC/DT mixture elicited 8-fold higher IgG titres compared to the TMC nanoparticles or DT solution. The toxin-neutralising antibody titres from this group were similar to those elicited by SC DT-alum. After ID immunisation, both TMC-containing formulations induced enhanced titres compared to a DT solution. Confocal microscopy studies revealed that transport of the TMC nanoparticles across the microneedle conduits was limited compared to a TMC solution. Conclusions In conclusion, TMC has an adjuvant function in transcutaneous immunisation with microneedles, but only if applied in a solution. Electronic Supplementary Material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11095-010-0182-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20559701

Bal, Suzanne M.; Ding, Zhi; Kersten, Gideon F. A.; Jiskoot, Wim

2010-01-01

204

Meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccines  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of invasive bacterial infections worldwide. For this reason, efforts to control the disease have been directed at optimizing meningococcal vaccines and implementing appropriate vaccination policies. In the past, plain polysaccharide vaccines containing purified capsular polysaccharides A, C, Y and W135 were developed, but failed to protect infants, who are at greatest risk. Experience with the conjugate Haemophilus vaccine suggested that this approach might well empower meningococcal vaccines. Thus, a very efficacious vaccine against serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis was optimized and has been widely used in developed nations since 1999. On the basis of epidemiological changes in the circulation of pathogenic serogroups in the United States, a quadrivalent conjugate vaccine against A, C, Y and W135 serogroups (Menactra™) has been developed and was approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in 2005. Recently, another tetravalent conjugate meningococcal vaccine (Menveo™) has been licensed and made available in the United States of America and in the European Union. Finally, in response to large epidemics caused by serogroup A meningococcus in Africa, a new, safe, immunogenic and affordable vaccine has been developed. This review highlights the evolution of conjugate meningococcal vaccines in general and discusses how this kind of vaccine can contribute to preventing meningococcal disease. PMID:21178398

Panatto, Donatella

2011-01-01

205

Antibody Persistence and Immunologic Memory after Sequential Pneumococcal Conjugate and Polysaccharide Vaccination in HIV-Infected Children on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The capacity of pneumococcal vaccination to confer memory in HIV-infected children is critical for durable protection. Methods HIV-infected children 2–<19 years administered two doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and one dose of polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) on HAART were randomized four-five years later to receive a PCV7 or PPV booster. Total and high avidity antibodies to serotypes 1 (PPV) and 6B and 14 (PCV7 and PPV) were determined by ELISA. Memory was defined as persistence of ?0.5 mcg/mL of serotype-specific antibody on day 0 or change from <0.5 mcg/mL to ?0.5 mcg/mL between day 0 and week 1, or, ?4-fold antibody rise between day 0 and week 1. Results Prior to boosting, four to five years after the previous PCV7-PCV7-PPV series, geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were 0.46 mcg/mL (serotype 1), 1.31 mcg/mL (serotype 6B), and 1.47 mcg/mL (serotype 14), with concentrations ?0.5 mcg/mL in 41% (serotype 1) to 82% (serotypes 6B and 14). Memory based on antibody concentration ?0.5 mcg/mL before or 1 week after boosting with PCV7 or PPV was demonstrated in 42–61% for serotype 1 and 87–94% for serotypes 6B and 14, with lower rates based on day 0 to week 1 ?4-fold antibody rise (serotype 1, 3–13%; serotype 6B, 13–31%; serotype 14, 29–53%). Antibody concentrations post-boosting were greater following PCV7 than PPV for serotypes 6B and 14. Ratios of highly avid to total antibody pre- and post-boosting were 0.5–0.8. Predictors of memory included higher CD4% (nadir before HAART and at P1024 and P1061s entry), CD19% (at P1024 and P1061s entry), and antibody response after the PCV7-PCV7-PPV primary series and lower viral load (at P1024 and P1061s entry) and age. Conclusions Protective antibody concentrations, high avidity, and booster responses to PCV7 or PPV indicative of memory were present four-five years after PCV7-PCV7-PPV in HIV-infected children on HAART. PMID:23954381

Abzug, Mark J.; Song, Lin Ye; Levin, Myron J.; Nachman, Sharon A.; Borkowsky, William; Pelton, Stephen I.

2013-01-01

206

The International Reference Preparations of Clostridium welchii (C. perfringens) Beta and Epsilon Toxoids*  

PubMed Central

The Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, England was requested by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization to obtain suitable materials for international standards for Clostridium welchii (C. perfringens) beta and epsilon toxoids and to arrange collaborative assays. Preparations were obtained and dispensed as freeze-dried toxoids in ampoules. The toxoids were assayed by nine laboratories in eight countries. On the basis of the results obtained, the materials have been established as the International Reference Preparations of Clostridium welchii (C. perfringens) Beta and Epsilon Toxoids. PMID:215337

Davidson, I.; Gray, A. K.; Hebert, C. N.; Lesslie, I. W.

1978-01-01

207

Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.  

PubMed

Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2015. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, other adult vaccinations are recommended for specific populations based on a person's age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ?19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ?19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ?60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 5.9%); coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic disparities in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Awareness of the need for vaccines for adults is low among the general population, and adult patients largely rely on health care provider recommendations for vaccination. The Community Preventive Services Task Force and the National Vaccine Advisory Committee have recommended that health care providers incorporate vaccination needs assessment, recommendation, and offer of vaccination into every clinical encounter with adult patients to improve vaccination rates and to narrow the widening racial/ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage. PMID:25654611

Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

2015-02-01

208

Progress in vaccine development.  

PubMed

Vaccination has a proven record as one of the most effective medical approaches to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Traditional vaccine approaches involve the administration of whole killed or weakened microorganisms to stimulate protective immune responses. Such approaches deliver many microbial components, some of which contribute to protective immunity, and assist in guiding the type of immune response that is elicited. Despite their impeccable record, these approaches have failed to yield vaccines for many important infectious organisms. This has prompted a move towards more defined vaccines ('subunit vaccines'), where individual protective components are administered. This unit provides an overview of the components that are used for the development of modern vaccines including: an introduction to different vaccine types (whole organism, protein/peptide, polysaccharide, conjugate, and DNA vaccines); techniques for identifying subunit antigens; vaccine delivery systems; and immunostimulatory agents ('adjuvants'), which are fundamental for the development of effective subunit vaccines. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25641099

Moyle, Peter Michael

2015-01-01

209

Emergence of serogroup 15 Streptococcus pneumoniae of diverse genetic backgrounds following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Serogroup 15 pneumococcal isolates from nasopharyngeal carriage of hospitalized children admitted to a teaching hospital in Hong Kong from April 2009 to September 2013 were characterized by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing, and antimicrobial non-susceptibility testing. The overall proportion of serogroup 15 isolates in the pre-PCV7 and post-PCV13 periods rose from 5.7% to 20.0%. The increase in trend for serotype 15B/C was statistically significant among children presented with pneumonia; bronchiolitis; upper respiratory tract infection; and febrile, non-respiratory diseases and for serotype 15A/F, among children with bronchiolitis and febrile, non-respiratory diseases. The predominant PFGE cluster of serotype 15B/C belonged to sequence type (ST) 199. Replacement of this more susceptible cluster (Ery and Tet non-susceptibilities of 32.2% and 25.4%) with the non-susceptible cluster, ST8859 (Ery and Tet non-susceptibilities of 91.7% and 87.5%) was noted. ST63 was the predominant serotype 15A cluster (Ery and Tet non-susceptibilities of 97.4% and 92.3%). Serogroup 15 subtypes have emerged in the post-PCV13 era, and these non-susceptible clusters warrant closer monitoring as candidates for incorporation to future pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:25445117

Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Nelson, E Anthony S; Ang, Irene; Subramanian, Reema; Ma, Helen; Ip, Margaret

2015-01-01

210

Evaluation of the Induction of Immune Memory following Infant Immunisation with Serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis Conjugate Vaccines – Exploratory Analyses within a Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Aim We measured meningococcal serogroup C (MenC)-specific memory B-cell responses in infants by Enzyme-Linked Immunospot (ELISpot) following different MenC conjugate vaccine schedules to investigate the impact of priming on immune memory. Methods Infants aged 2 months were randomised to receive 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 at 3 or 3 and 4 months, 1 dose of MenC-TT at 3 months, or no primary MenC doses. All children received a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-MenC booster at 12 months. Blood was drawn at 5, 12, 12 months +6 days and 13 months of age. Results Results were available for 110, 103, 76 and 44 children from each group respectively. Following primary immunisations, and prior to the 12-month booster, there were no significant differences between 1- or 2-dose primed children in the number of MenC memory B-cells detected. One month following the booster, children primed with 1 dose MenC-TT had more memory B-cells than children primed with either 1-dose (p?=?0.001) or 2-dose (p<0.0001) MenC-CRM197. There were no differences in MenC memory B-cells detected in children who received 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 in infancy and un-primed children. Conclusions MenC-specific memory B-cell production may be more dependent on the type of primary vaccine used than the number of doses administered. Although the mechanistic differences between MenC-CRM197 and MenC-TT priming are unclear, it is possible that structural differences, including the carrier proteins, may underlie differential interactions with B- and T-cell populations, and thus different effects on various memory B-cell subsets. A MenC-TT/Hib-MenC-TT combination for priming/boosting may offer an advantage in inducing more persistent antibody. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Register 2009-016579-31 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01129518 PMID:25020050

Khatami, Ameneh; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Amber J.; McKenna, Jennifer A.; Pace, David; Birks, Jacqueline; Snape, Matthew D.; Pollard, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

211

Maternal Supplementation with LGG Reduces Vaccine-Specific Immune Responses in Infants at High-Risk of Developing Allergic Disease  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonization at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognized as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7) vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib, and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N?=?31) compared to placebo treatment (N?=?30) but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific T regulatory in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines. PMID:24324465

Licciardi, Paul V.; Ismail, Intan H.; Balloch, Anne; Mui, Milton; Hoe, Edwin; Lamb, Karen; Tang, Mimi L. K.

2013-01-01

212

Genetic and antigenic characterization of Canadian invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) case isolates in the post-MenC conjugate vaccine era, 2009-2013.  

PubMed

We previously reported a shift in the electrophoretic type (ET) of invasive MenC in Canada from predominantly ET-15 to ET-37 in the post-MenC conjugate vaccine period. This study sought to confirm this trend by examining all culture-confirmed invasive MenC case isolates in Canada in the period from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013. Of the 50 MenC isolates, 18 belonged to ET-15, 28 belonged to ET-37 (but not ET-15), and four belonged to other clonal types. Analysis of the serotype and serosubtype antigens, porA and fetA gene sequences provided data to show that invasive MenC belonging to ET-15 and ET-37 were two very different subpopulations within the ST-11 clonal complex. Sequence analysis of the fHbp genes suggested that 12 different types of factor H-binding protein were found among the ET-15 isolates while 86?% of ET-37 isolates were found to have fHbp genes predicted to encode peptide 22. The nadA gene in 12 MenC isolates was disrupted due to IS1301 insertion and 11 of these 12 isolates belonged to ET-15. Ten per cent of the invasive MenC were found to have a frame-shift mutation in their fHbp genes that predicted no fHbp produced. Significant diversity and frame-shift mutations of fHbp genes were found in invasive MenC strains in Canada. PMID:25627205

Tsang, Raymond S W; Hoang, Linda; Tyrrell, Gregory; Horsman, Greg; Wylie, John; Jamieson, Frances B; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

2015-02-01

213

The Impact of Making Vaccines Thermostable in Niger’s Vaccine Supply Chain  

PubMed Central

Objective Determine the effects on the vaccine cold chain of making different types of World Health Organization (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunizations (EPI) vaccines thermostable. Methods Utilizing a detailed computational, discrete-event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain, we simulated the impact of making different combinations of the six current EPI vaccines thermostable. Findings Making any EPI vaccine thermostable relieved existing supply chain bottlenecks (especially at the lowest levels), increased vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines, and decreased cold storage and transport capacity utilization. By far, the most substantial impact came from making the pentavalent vaccine thermostable, increasing its own vaccine availability from 87% to 97% and the vaccine availabilities of all other remaining non-thermostable EPI vaccines to over 93%. By contrast, making each of the other vaccines thermostable had considerably less effect on the remaining vaccines, failing to increase the vaccine availabilities of other vaccines to more than 89%. Making tetanus toxoid vaccine along with the pentavalent thermostable further increased the vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines by at least 1–2%. Conclusion Our study shows the potential benefits of making any of Niger’s EPI vaccines thermostable and therefore supports further development of thermostable vaccines. Eliminating the need for refrigerators and freezers should not necessarily be the only benefit and goal of vaccine thermostability. Rather, making even a single vaccine (or some subset of the vaccines) thermostable could free up significant cold storage space for other vaccines, and thereby help alleviate supply chain bottlenecks that occur throughout the world. PMID:22789507

Lee, Bruce Y.; Cakouros, Brigid E.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Connor, Diana L.; Welling, Joel; Kone, Souleymane; Djibo, Ali; Wateska, Angela R.; Pierre, Lionel; Brown, Shawn T.

2012-01-01

214

Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal ?-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health.

Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

2013-12-01

215

Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of polysaccharide and protein-conjugated pneumococcal vaccines among the elderly aged 80 years or older in Japan: An open-labeled randomized study.  

PubMed

An open-labeled randomized study was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of polysaccharide (PPV23) or protein-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) among the elderly aged 80 years or older. A total of 105 nursing home residents were enrolled in this study. We analyzed the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the geometric mean titer (GMT) of the opsonization index (OI) for serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F. The GMCs of serotype-specific IgG and the GMTs of the OI significantly increased one month after vaccination in both groups for all seven serotypes evaluated. In the PCV7 group, study subjects with serotypes 4, 9V, 18C, and 23F exhibited statistically significant elevations in both serotype-specific IgGs and OIs compared to those of the PPV23 group. Both vaccines were tolerated without any severe adverse events, and no differences in systemic adverse events were observed between the two groups, although adverse reactions such as redness and localized swelling were more common in the PCV7 group. Our data demonstrated that the GMCs of serotype-specific IgG and the GMTs of the OI were higher in the PCV7 group compared to those in the PPV23 group. Our study also confirmed the safety of both the PCV7 and PPV23 vaccines in elderly people aged 80 years or older. PMID:25448102

Namkoong, Ho; Funatsu, Yohei; Oishi, Kazunori; Akeda, Yukihiro; Hiraoka, Rika; Takeshita, Kei; Asami, Takahiro; Yagi, Kazuma; Kimizuka, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Makoto; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Suzuki, Yukio; Iwata, Satoshi; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

2015-01-01

216

Facial recognition of heroin vaccine opiates: type 1 cross-reactivities of antibodies induced by hydrolytically stable haptenic surrogates of heroin, 6-acetylmorphine, and morphine.  

PubMed

Novel synthetic compounds similar to heroin and its major active metabolites, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine, were examined as potential surrogate haptens for the ability to interface with the immune system for a heroin vaccine. Recent studies have suggested that heroin-like haptens must degrade hydrolytically to induce independent immune responses both to heroin and to the metabolites, resulting in antisera containing mixtures of antibodies (type 2 cross-reactivity). To test this concept, two unique hydrolytically stable haptens were created based on presumed structural facial similarities to heroin or to its active metabolites. After conjugation of a heroin-like hapten (DiAmHap) to tetanus toxoid and mixing with liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A, high titers of antibodies after two injections in mice had complementary binding sites that exhibited strong type 1 ("true") specific cross-reactivity with heroin and with both of its physiologically active metabolites. Mice immunized with each surrogate hapten exhibited reduced antinociceptive effects caused by injection of heroin. This approach obviates the need to create hydrolytically unstable synthetic heroin-like compounds to induce independent immune responses to heroin and its active metabolites for vaccine development. Facial recognition of hydrolytically stable surrogate haptens by antibodies together with type 1 cross-reactivities with heroin and its metabolites can help to guide synthetic chemical strategies for efficient development of a heroin vaccine. PMID:24486371

Matyas, Gary R; Rice, Kenner C; Cheng, Kejun; Li, Fuying; Antoline, Joshua F G; Iyer, Malliga R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Mayorov, Alexander V; Beck, Zoltan; Torres, Oscar B; Alving, Carl R

2014-03-14

217

Immunogenicity and safety of a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Indian children aged 2-10 years: a phase II/III double-blind randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study compares the immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac™, Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune) against the meningococcal group A component of a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY, Mencevax ACWY(®), GSK, Belgium) 28 days after vaccination in Indian children. This double-blind, randomized, controlled study included 340 Indian children aged 2-10 years enrolled from August to October 2007; 169 children received a dose of PsA-TT while 171 children received a dose of PsACWY. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that 95.2% of children in PsA-TT group had a ?4-fold response in serum bactericidal titers (rSBA) 28 days post vaccination as compared to 78.2% in the PsACWY group. A significantly higher rSBA GMT (11,209, 95%CI 9708-12,942) was noted in the PsA-TT group when compared to PsACWY group (2838, 95%CI 2368-3401). Almost all children in both vaccine groups had a ?4-fold response in group A-specific IgG concentration but the IgG GMC was significantly greater in the PsA-TT group (89.1 ?g/ml, 95%CI 75.5-105.0) when compared to the PsACWY group (15.3 ?g/ml, 95%CI 12.3-19.2). Local and systemic reactions during the 4 days after immunization were similar for both vaccine groups except for tenderness (30.2% in PsA-TT group vs 12.3% in PsACWY group). None of the adverse events or serious adverse events was related to the study vaccines. We conclude that MenAfriVac™ is well tolerated and significantly more immunogenic when compared to a licensed polysaccharide vaccine, in 2-to-10-year-old Indian children. PMID:22898557

Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Bavdekar, Ashish; Pandit, Anand; Juvekar, Sanjay; Patil, Malini; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Tang, Yuxiao; Marchetti, Elisa; Martellet, Lionel; Findlow, Helen; Elie, Cheryl; Parulekar, Varsha; Plikaytis, Brian; Borrow, Ray; Carlone, George; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Goel, Akshay; Suresh, Karupothula; Beri, Suresh; Kapre, Subhash; Jadhav, Suresh; Preaud, Jean-Marie; Viviani, Simonetta; LaForce, F Marc

2012-10-01

218

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines PREVenar13 and SynflorIX in sequence or alone in high-risk Indigenous infants (PREV-IX_COMBO): protocol of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Otitis media (OM) starts within weeks of birth in almost all Indigenous infants living in remote areas of the Northern Territory (NT). OM and associated hearing loss persist from infancy throughout childhood and often into adulthood. Educational and social opportunities are greatly compromised. Pneumococcus and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are major OM pathogens that densely colonise the nasopharynx and infect the middle ear from very early in life. Our hypothesis is that compared to current single vaccine schedules, a combination of vaccines starting at 1?month of age, may provide earlier, broadened protection. Methods and analyses This randomised outcome assessor, blinded controlled trial will recruit 425 infants between 28 and 38?days of age and randomly allocate them (1:1:1) to one of three pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) schedules: Synflorix at 2, 4, 6?months of age, Prevenar13 at 2, 4 and 6?months of age, or an investigational schedule of Synflorix at 1, 2 and 4?months plus Prevenar13 at 6?months of age. The blinded primary outcomes at 7?months of age are immunogenicity of specific vaccine antigens (geometric mean concentration (GMC) and proportion of participants with above threshold GMC of 0.35?µg/L). Secondary outcomes at all timepoints are additional immunogenicity measures and proportion of participants with nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci and NTHi, and any OM, including any tympanic membrane perforation. Parental interviews will provide data on common risk factors for OM. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from NT Department of Health and Menzies HREC (EC00153), Central Australian HREC (EC00155) and West Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee (WAAHEC- 377-12/2011). Final trial results, data analyses, interpretation and conclusions will be presented in appropriate written and oral formats to parents and guardians, participating communities, local, national and international conferences, and published in peer-reviewed open access journals. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12610000544077 and NCT01174849. PMID:25596202

Leach, Amanda Jane; Mulholland, Edward Kim; Santosham, Mathu; Torzillo, Paul John; Brown, Ngiare Joy; McIntyre, Peter; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi; Skull, Sue; Balloch, Anne; Andrews, Ross; Carapetis, Jonathan; McDonnell, Joseph; Krause, Vicki; Morris, Peter Stanley

2015-01-01

219

Development of a recombinant toxin fragment vaccine for Clostridium difficile infection.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, a disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The disease is mostly of nosocomial origin, with elderly patients undergoing anti-microbial therapy being particularly at risk. C. difficile produces two large toxins: Toxin A (TcdA) and Toxin B (TcdB). The two toxins act synergistically to damage and impair the colonic epithelium, and are primarily responsible for the pathogenesis associated with CDI. The feasibility of toxin-based vaccination against C. difficile is being vigorously investigated. A vaccine based on formaldehyde-inactivated Toxin A and Toxin B (toxoids) was reported to be safe and immunogenic in healthy volunteers and is now undergoing evaluation in clinical efficacy trials. In order to eliminate cytotoxic effects, a chemical inactivation step must be included in the manufacturing process of this toxin-based vaccine. In addition, the large-scale production of highly toxic antigens could be a challenging and costly process. Vaccines based on non-toxic fragments of genetically engineered versions of the toxins alleviate most of these limitations. We have evaluated a vaccine assembled from two recombinant fragments of TcdB and explored their potential as components of a novel experimental vaccine against CDI. Golden Syrian hamsters vaccinated with recombinant fragments of TcdB combined with full length TcdA (Toxoid A) developed high titer IgG responses and potent neutralizing antibody titers. We also show here that the recombinant vaccine protected animals against lethal challenge with C. difficile spores, with efficacy equivalent to the toxoid vaccine. The development of a two-segment recombinant vaccine could provide several advantages over toxoid TcdA/TcdB such as improvements in manufacturability. PMID:24662701

Karczewski, Jerzy; Zorman, Julie; Wang, Su; Miezeiewski, Matthew; Xie, Jinfu; Soring, Keri; Petrescu, Ioan; Rogers, Irene; Thiriot, David S; Cook, James C; Chamberlin, Mihaela; Xoconostle, Rachel F; Nahas, Debbie D; Joyce, Joseph G; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Heinrichs, Jon H; Secore, Susan

2014-05-19

220

Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of mucosal adjuvant in situ forming gels with diphtheria toxoid.  

PubMed

Studies on preparation of in situ gel formulations containing diphtheria toxoid as the model active substance and their intranasal administration have been conducted in this study. The objective of mucosal vaccination is to stimulate both systemic and mucosal immune responses. In situ gel formulations were prepared by using, in different ratios, mixtures of Poloxamer 407 and Poloxamer 188 polymers, which gelate in a temperature-dependent manner, and mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose or chitosan. Following pre-formulation studies, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6 and F7 formulations, which gelate at intervals and temperatures in accordance with nasal temperatures, were subjected to more comprehensive studies. For this purpose, organoleptic characteristics of the formulations were identified, their pH and mucoadhesive potencies were measured and rheological behaviors were characterized. Calculated amounts of diphtheria toxoid were added to formulations after optimization of formulations was achieved, and assay and in vitro release studies were carried out. Formulations coded F3 and F7 were considered to be superior to other formulations given the in vitro test results. Therefore, these formulations were tested in guinea pigs to determine immune responses, which they would produce following intranasal and subcutaneous administration. Absorbance values of ELISA tests and antibody neutralization test showed that formulations coded F3 and F7 were unable to stimulate adequate systemic immune response when either of the formulations was administered alone intranasally, whereas F7 resulted in significantly increased neutralizing antibody titers with intranasal administration as a booster dose following subcutaneous administration. PMID:24559517

Ozb?lg?n, Nalan Deniz; Saka, Ongun Mehmet; Bozk?r, Asuman

2014-03-01

221

EFFICACY OF A TYPE C BOTULISM VACCINE IN GREEN-WINGED TEAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the efficacy of a single dose of Botumink toxoid for protecting wild green- winged teal (Anas crecca) during botulism epizootics caused by Clostridium botulinum type C. We challenged control and immunized ducks with four different doses of type C botulinum toxin to determine the LD50 for this species and to evaluate vaccine protection. Fewer immunized ducks were affected

Tonie E. Rocke; Michael D. Samuel; Pamela K. Swift; Gregory S. Yarris

2000-01-01

222

Immunoregulation in humans: control of antitetanus toxoid antibody production after booster immunization.  

PubMed Central

Booster immunization of normal individuals with soluble tetanus toxoid resulted in the ability of the individuals' peripheral blood lymphocytes to synthesize immunoglobulin (Ig)G antitetanus toxoid antibody in vitro when stimulated by pokeweed mitogen. The capacity for this in vitro antitetanus toxoid antibody response developed within 14 days after booster immunization, reached a peak between days 36--50, and disappeared by day 60. The inability of pokeweed mitogen to stimulate antitetanus toxoid antibody synthesis in vitro before booster immunization was not due to excess suppression by thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes but reflected insufficient numbers of functionally specific helper T lymphocytes and bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes. Antigen-specific T-lymphocyte suppression and decreased B-lymphocyte function were associated with the observed reduction of in vitro synthesis of antitetanus toxoid antibody from 20--60 days post-immunization. The in vitro kinetics of antitetanus toxoid antibody synthesis paralleled the synthesis of total IgG in that stimulation by pokeweed mitogen was required and that antibody secretion into the medium initiated by day 4 and increased through day 9. PMID:311781

Stevens, R H; Saxon, A

1978-01-01

223

Synthesis and immunologic properties in mice of vaccines composed of Staphylococcus aureus type 5 and type 8 capsular polysaccharides conjugated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological, serological and in vitro phagocytosis experiments provide evidence that the newly discovered type 5 and type 8 capsular polysaccharides (CPs) are both virulence factors and protective antigens for bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Neither type 5 nor type 8 CP elicited serum antibodies when injected into mice. These two CPs were bound to Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) to form conjugates by using the synthetic scheme devised for the CP (Vi) of Salmonella typhi and of pneumococcus type 12F (A. Fattom, W. F. Vann, S. C. Szu, A. Sutton, X. Li, D. Bryla, G. Schiffman, J. B. Robbins, and R. Schneerson, Infect. Immun. 56:2292-2298, 1988; S. C. Szu, A. L. Stone, J. D. Robbins, R. Schneerson, and J. B. Robbins, J. Exp. Med. 166:1510-1524, 1987). Both S. aureus CP-ETA conjugates elicited a rise in CP antibodies. As components of conjugates, both S. aureus CPs acquired T-cell-dependent properties, as shown by their ability to respond to carrier priming and to stimulate booster responses. The conjugate-induced antibodies facilitated type-specific opsonization of S. aureus by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The conjugates also induced ETA antibodies which neutralized the native toxin in vitro. Clinical studies of these two conjugates for active or passive immunization of patients at risk for S. aureus bacteremia are planned. Images PMID:2114365

Fattom, A; Schneerson, R; Szu, S C; Vann, W F; Shiloach, J; Karakawa, W W; Robbins, J B

1990-01-01

224

Randomized, Open-Label Study of the Impact of Age on Booster Responses to the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine in Children in India  

PubMed Central

In this phase III, open-label, multicenter, and descriptive study in India, children primed with 3 doses (at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks) of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were randomized (1:1) to receive a booster dose at 9 to 12 (early booster) or 15 to 18 months old (late booster) in order to evaluate impact of age at booster. We also evaluated a 2-dose catch-up vaccination plus an experimental booster dose in unprimed children age 12 to 18 months. The early booster, late booster, and catch-up vaccinations were administered to 74, 95, and 87 children, respectively; 66, 71, and 81 children, respectively, were included in the immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort. One month postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ?95.2% (early booster) and ?93.8% (late booster) of the children had antibody concentrations of ?0.2 ?g/ml; ?96.7% and ?93.0%, respectively, had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers of ?8. The postbooster antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were in similar ranges for early and late boosters; the OPA titers appeared to be lower for most PHiD-CV serotypes (except 6B and 19F) after the early booster. After dose 2 and postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ?88.6% and ?96.3%, respectively, of the catch-up immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort had antibody concentrations of ?0.2 ?g/ml; ?71.4% and ?90.6%, respectively, had OPA titers of ?8. At least 1 serious adverse event was reported by 2 children in the early booster (skin infection and gastroenteritis) and 1 child in the catch-up group (febrile convulsion and urinary tract infection); all were resolved, and none were considered by the investigators to be vaccine related. PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses regardless of age at booster. Booster vaccination following 2 catch-up doses induced robust immune responses indicative of effective priming and immunological memory. (These studies have been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT01030822 and NCT00814710; a protocol summary is available at www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com [study ID 112909]). PMID:25008901

Chatterjee, Sukanta; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Simon, Anna; Ravula, Sudheer; Francois, Nancy; Mehta, Shailesh; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota

2014-01-01

225

Randomized, open-label study of the impact of age on booster responses to the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine in children in India.  

PubMed

In this phase III, open-label, multicenter, and descriptive study in India, children primed with 3 doses (at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks) of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were randomized (1:1) to receive a booster dose at 9 to 12 (early booster) or 15 to 18 months old (late booster) in order to evaluate impact of age at booster. We also evaluated a 2-dose catch-up vaccination plus an experimental booster dose in unprimed children age 12 to 18 months. The early booster, late booster, and catch-up vaccinations were administered to 74, 95, and 87 children, respectively; 66, 71, and 81 children, respectively, were included in the immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort. One month postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ?95.2% (early booster) and ?93.8% (late booster) of the children had antibody concentrations of ?0.2 ?g/ml; ?96.7% and ?93.0%, respectively, had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers of ?8. The postbooster antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were in similar ranges for early and late boosters; the OPA titers appeared to be lower for most PHiD-CV serotypes (except 6B and 19F) after the early booster. After dose 2 and postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ?88.6% and ?96.3%, respectively, of the catch-up immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort had antibody concentrations of ?0.2 ?g/ml; ?71.4% and ?90.6%, respectively, had OPA titers of ?8. At least 1 serious adverse event was reported by 2 children in the early booster (skin infection and gastroenteritis) and 1 child in the catch-up group (febrile convulsion and urinary tract infection); all were resolved, and none were considered by the investigators to be vaccine related. PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses regardless of age at booster. Booster vaccination following 2 catch-up doses induced robust immune responses indicative of effective priming and immunological memory. (These studies have been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT01030822 and NCT00814710; a protocol summary is available at www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com [study ID 112909]). PMID:25008901

Lalwani, Sanjay; Chatterjee, Sukanta; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Simon, Anna; Ravula, Sudheer; Francois, Nancy; Mehta, Shailesh; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota

2014-09-01

226

Conversion of Helminthosporium sacchari Toxin to Toxoids by ?-Galactofuranosidase from Helminthosporium1  

PubMed Central

Helminthosporium sacchari produces a host-selective toxin and structurally related nontoxic compounds, here referred to as `toxoids.' Toxin and the three toxoids were each isolated to a high level of purity and were hydrolyzed under acidic conditions. The released galactose was measured by a galactose oxidase/peroxidase assay. Toxin was found to contain four units of galactose per molecule, as previously reported. Toxoids I, II, and III contained one, two, and three units of galactose, respectively. In cultures of the fungus, toxin concentration peaked at 3 weeks, followed by a rapid decline; as toxin levels fell, the total amount of toxoids increased. An enzyme with ?-galactofuranosidase activity was found in small amounts in the cultures of H. sacchari; the enzyme converted toxin to the toxoids in vitro. ?-Galactofuranosidase was previously known from very few micro-organisms; therefore, several pathogenic Helminthosporia and other fungi were tested for production. ?-Galactofuranosidase activity in culture filtrates and mycelia of H. victoriae, H. maydis, H. carbonum, and H. turcicum was much greater than in filtrates and mycelium of H. sacchari. More work is needed to determine the significance of enzyme production by these fungi. No ?-galactofuranosidase was evident from Fusarium oxysporum and Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:16663037

Livingston, Robert S.; Scheffer, Robert P.

1983-01-01

227

Cattle Vaccines  

E-print Network

Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

Faries Jr., Floron C.

2005-11-11

228

Levels of diphtheria and tetanus specific IgG of Portuguese adult women, before and after vaccination with adult type Td. Duration of immunity following vaccination  

PubMed Central

Background The need for tetanus toxoid decennial booster doses has been questioned by some experts. Several counter arguments have been presented, supporting the maintenance of decennial adult booster doses with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (adult formulation of the vaccine: Td). This study aimed to evaluate the use of Td in Portuguese adult women under routine conditions. For that purpose we selected a group of women 30+ years of age to which vaccination was recommended. We intended to know if pre-vaccination antibody concentrations were associated with factors as age at first and last vaccination, number of doses and time since last revaccination. We also intended to assess the serological efficacy of Td booster. Methods Following the Portuguese guidelines 100 women were vaccinated with Td. Antitetanus toxin IgG (ATT IgG) and antidiphtheria toxin IgG (ADT IgG) levels were measured (mIU/ml) in 100 pre-vaccination and 91 post-vaccination sera. Detailed vaccination records were available from 88 participants. Results Twenty-two women (Group A) began vaccination with DPT/DT in their early childhood and their pre-vaccination ATT IgG levels increased with the number of doses received (p = 0.022) and decreased with time since last vaccination (p = 0.016). Among the 66 women who began vaccination in adolescence and adulthood (Group B), with monovalent TT, ATT IgG levels decreased with age at first dose (p < 0.001) and with time since last vaccination (p = 0.041). In Group A, antidiphtheria toxin IgG kinetics was very similar to that observed for ATT IgG. Among women not vaccinated with diphtheria toxoid, ADT IgG levels decreased with age. Serological response to both components of Td was good but more pronounced for ATT IgG. Conclusion Our study suggests that, to protect against tetanus, there is no need to administer decennial boosters to the Portuguese adults who have complied with the childhood/adolescent schedule (6 doses of tetanus toxoid). The adult booster intervals could be wider, probably of 20 years. This also seems to apply to protection against diphtheria, but issues on the herd immunity and on the circulation of toxigenic strains need to be better understood. PMID:17565697

Gonçalves, Guilherme; Santos, Maria Augusta; Frade, João Graça; Cunha, José Saraiva

2007-01-01

229

Intranasal Immunization with Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccines with Nontoxic Mutants of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxins as Adjuvants Protects Mice against Invasive Pneumococcal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host defenses against Streptococcus pneumoniae depend largely on phagocytosis following opsonization by polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and complement. Since colonization of the respi- ratory mucosa is the first step in pneumococcal pathogenesis, mucosal immune responses may play a signif- icant role. In addition to inducing systemic immune responses, mucosal vaccination with an effective adjuvant has the advantage of inducing

HÅVARD JAKOBSEN; DOMINIQUE SCHULZ; MARIAGRAZIA PIZZA; RINO RAPPUOLI; INGILEIF JONSDOTTIR; Pasteur Merieux Connaught; Marcy l'Etoile

1999-01-01

230

Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a Plasmodium falciparum vaccine comprising a circumsporozoite protein repeat region peptide conjugated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin A.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one malaria-naive volunteers were immunized with a vaccine consisting of a 22-kDa recombinant peptide (R32LR), derived from the repeat region of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein, covalently coupled to detoxified Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin A. Nineteen volunteers received a second dose of vaccine at 8 weeks, and eighteen received a third dose at 8 to 12 months. The vaccine was well tolerated, with only one volunteer developing local discomfort and induration at the site of injection which limited function for 48 h. The geometric mean anti-CS immunoglobulin G antibody concentration 2 weeks after the second dose of vaccine was 10.6 micrograms/ml (standard deviation = 3.0 micrograms/ml). Eleven volunteers (52%) developed anti-CS antibody levels of greater than 9.8 micrograms/ml, the level measured in the one volunteer protected against P. falciparum challenge after immunization with the alum-adjuvanted recombinant protein R32tet32 in a prior study. Three separate experimental challenges were conducted with 10 volunteers 2 to 4 weeks after the third dose of vaccine. The four best responders, on the basis of antibody levels (6 to 26 micrograms/ml), were challenged with two infected-mosquito bites, but only one of four immunized volunteers and one of three malaria-naive controls became parasitemic. In a second challenge study using five infected-mosquito bites as the challenge dose, three of three malaria-naive control volunteers and two of three immunized volunteers developed malaria. The third vaccine was apparently completely protected. In the third and last challenge, three of three controls and five of five vaccinees became infected. Sera obtained on the days of challenge inhibited sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes variably in vitro (range, 45 to 90% inhibition), but the degree of inhibition did not correlate with protection. Although antibody against the CS repeat region may protect some individuals against experimental challenge, this protection cannot be predicted from antibody levels by current in vitro assays. The functionality and fine specificity of anti-CS antibody are probably critical determinants. PMID:1563771

Fries, L F; Gordon, D M; Schneider, I; Beier, J C; Long, G W; Gross, M; Que, J U; Cryz, S J; Sadoff, J C

1992-01-01

231

Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of reduced antigen content diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis vaccines as a booster in 4–7-year-old children primed with diphtheria–tetanus–whole cell pertussis vaccine before 2 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The recent introduction of acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa) offers the possibility of booster doses in older children and adults. This can be conveniently accomplished by combining acellular pertussis antigens with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. However the optimal dosage for the booster injection has not yet been determined.Objective. To compare the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis vaccines (DTPa) with

Ron Dagan; Karim Igbaria; Lolita Piglansky; Francis Van Brusteghem; Vincent Melot; Achim Kaufhold

1999-01-01

232

Next Generation Pneumococcal Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines are based on the generation of antibodies to the pneumococcal polysaccharide, of which there are more than 90 different types. While these vaccines are highly effective against the serotypes included, their high cost and limited serotype coverage limits their usefulness worldwide, particularly in low resources areas. Thus alternative or adjunctive options are being actively pursued. This review will present these various approaches, including variations of the polysaccharide-protein conjugate strategy, protein-based strategies, and an inactivated whole cell pneumococcal vaccine. The immunological basis for these different approaches is discussed as well. PMID:21514128

Moffitt, Kristin L.; Malley, Richard

2011-01-01

233

Vaccine Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... in history. CDC's Immunization Safety Office identifies possible vaccine side effects and conducts studies to determine whether a health problem is caused by a specific vaccine. About Vaccine Safety Vaccines Safety Basics Vaccines: Hib, ...

234

Ear Infection and Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... more information. Conjugate vaccines are effective against otitis media in children under the age of five because they have a polysaccharide component linked to a protein component that an infant?s immature defense system can recognize. Children older than five, whose defense ...

235

Improved immunogenicity of a core-coated tetanus toxoid delivery system.  

PubMed

A new microparticulate delivery system composed of a stabilizing gelatin/poloxamer microcore surrounded by a PLGA coat was designed to improve the stability of tetanus toxoid (TT) encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. Microcores were prepared by a spray-congealing technique and encapsulated within PLGA using an oil-in-oil (o/o) solvent evaporation technique. SEM analysis of the cross-sections of the microcapsules revealed the adequate encapsulation of the cores, showing an intimate contact between the core and the coating. This structure was responsible for an osmotic phenomenon observed in vitro, which led to the release of the encapsulated TT in a short period of time. Nevertheless, it was observed that the release was affected by the presence of the poloxamer in the core: microspheres without poloxamer in the core exhibit a faster release (2 h) than those that incorporate the surfactant (24 h). The in vivo evaluation of this system showed that the encapsulated toxoid induced a low but continuous levels of neutralizing antibodies (Nt), whereas those obtained for the control (aluminum phosphate-adsorbed toxoid) decreased after reaching the maximum level at 14 weeks. Moreover, the administration of a mixture of encapsulated and adsorbed TT led to significant higher and more prolonged Nt levels than those measured for the adsorbed toxoid. PMID:10547420

Tobío, M; Schwendeman, S P; Guo, Y; McIver, J; Langer, R; Alonso, M J

1999-11-12

236

Recombinant human antibody fragment against tetanus toxoid produced by phage display  

PubMed Central

Phage display technology is a powerful in vitro method for the identification of specific monoclonal antibodies (antibody fragments) to an antigenic target and allows the rapid generation and selection of high affinity, fully human antibodies directed toward any disease target appropriate for antibody therapy. In the present study, we exploited the phage display technology for the selection of an antigen binding fragment (Fabs) toward tetanus toxoid using human naïve phage antibody library constructed from peripheral blood lymphocytes of naïve human donors. The phages displaying Fab were subjected to three rounds of bio-panning with tetanus toxoid as antigen on a solid phase. The high affinity antibody fragments were expressed in HB2151 strain of Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The binding activity and specificity of the antibody fragment was established by its reactivity toward tetanus toxoid and non-reactivity toward other related toxins as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis. The selected Fab fragment forming the antigen-binding complexes with the toxoid in flocculation assay indicates that the Fab may have a potential neutralizing ability toward antigen. PMID:24678405

Neelakantam, B.; Sridevi, N. V.; Shukra, A. M.; Sugumar, P.; Samuel, S.

2014-01-01

237

9 CFR 113.110 - Clostridium Botulinum Type C Bacterin-Toxoid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bacterin-Toxoid shall be produced from a culture of Clostridium botulinum ...shall be tested for purity, safety, and potency as prescribed...provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Bulk or final container...serial shall be tested for safety as provided in §...

2010-01-01

238

Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Double-Blind Trial of the Correlation of Functional and Binding Antibody Responses Elicited by 13-Valent and 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines and Association with Nasopharyngeal Colonization  

PubMed Central

In a randomized double-blind trial in healthy Israeli infants in Israel who received the 13-valent or 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 or PCV7, respectively) at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months, PCV13 significantly reduced nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization of serotypes 1, 6A, 7F, 19A, cross-reacting 6C, and the common PCV7 serotype 19F, from ages 7 to 24 months. No differences were observed between the vaccine groups for serotype 3 or for the remaining common PCV7 serotypes. For serotype 5, too few events were observed to draw an inference. Generally consistent with these findings, PCV13 elicited significantly higher enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG-binding antibody responses than did PCV7 for the additional PCV13 serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, 19A, and for the common serotype 19F, with similar or lower responses for the remaining common serotypes. To further assess immunogenicity and colonization, we conducted a post hoc analysis of PCV13 functional antibody responses measured by opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assays in a randomly selected subset of subjects. The pattern of functional antibody OPA responses elicited by PCV13 relative to PCV7 was similar to that of the ELISA anticapsular IgG-binding antibody responses described above. In addition, the OPA responses generally correlated positively with IgG responses for all 13 serotypes among the PCV13 recipients and for all 7 common serotypes and the additional serotype 6A but not for 19A or the other serotypes unique to PCV13 among the PCV7 recipients. This post hoc analysis supports an association between serum OPA functional and IgG-binding antibody levels, allowing for a transfer of inferred associations between IgG responses and NP colonization to OPA responses. PMID:24990907

Juergens, Christine; Patterson, Scott; Trammel, James; Greenberg, David; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Cooper, David; Gurtman, Alejandra; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

239

Immunogenicity and safety of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.  

PubMed

The current study examined the safety and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumo23(®) [PPV23], Sanofi Pasteur) as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar(®), Pfizer). This was a randomized, observer-blinded, 2-arm, controlled, multicenter phase III study performed in Thailand to assess and describe the immunogenicity and safety of PPV23 as a booster dose in children who had received the 3 primary doses of PCV7, the pneumococcal vaccine available during the study period. Children primed with 3 doses of PCV7 were randomized 1:1 to receive a booster immunization with PPV23 or PCV7. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional antibody levels by multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay on day 30. A total of 339 children were enrolled. Geometric mean serum antibody concentrations against serotypes common to PCV7 and PPV23 (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) increased in both groups but they were higher for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C, and 19F in the PPV23 group. Opsonization indices increased in both groups for all measured serotypes (1, 6B, 14, 19A, and 23F) and were higher for serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F in the PCV7 group and for serotypes 1 and 19A in PPV23 group. Solicited reactions and unsolicited adverse events were similar in the 2 groups and generally mild and transient. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. These results confirm that boosting with PPV23 is immunogenic and well tolerated in healthy toddlers primed with PCV7. PMID:25424793

Thisyakorn, Usa; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate

2014-07-01

240

Evaluation of the protective efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in an animal model.  

PubMed Central

The infant rat model for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease was modified to test the protective efficacy of candidate vaccines. The administration of 0.4 micrograms of polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) combined with pertussis vaccine or with diphtheria toxoid-tetanus toxoid-pertussis vaccine (DTP) to infant rats at 5, 10, and 15 days of age resulted in significant (P less than 0.001) protection against Hib bacteremia after challenge at 20 days of age. A dose-response effect was demonstrated, and suppression of the protective effect was noted with high doses of PRP. The administration of pertussis vaccine alone or DTP alone did not protect against Hib bacteremia. The degree of protection against Hib bacteremia correlated (P less than 0.005) with the serum anti-PRP antibody response measured before bacterial challenge. High-molecular-weight PRP preparations administered alone or in combination with pertussis vaccine were less effective than standard PRP combined with pertussis vaccine. These data compare favorably with the antibody response in human infants receiving the same vaccines. The observations in this animal model should facilitate the development and testing of other vaccine preparations for human infants. PMID:6601621

Halsey, N A; Johansen, T L; Bowman, L C; Glode, M P

1983-01-01

241

Differential activation of CD57-defined natural killer cell subsets during recall responses to vaccine antigens  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the effector phase of vaccine-induced adaptive immune responses, secreting cytokines and releasing cytotoxic granules. The proportion of responding NK cells varies between individuals and by vaccine, suggesting that functionally discrete subsets of NK cells with different activation requirements may be involved. Here, we have used responses to individual components of the DTP vaccine [tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), whole cell inactivated pertussis] to characterize the NK cell subsets involved in interleukin-2-dependent recall responses. Culture with TT, DT or pertussis induced NK cell CD25 expression and interferon-? production in previously vaccinated individuals. Responses were the most robust against whole cell pertussis, with responses to TT being particularly low. Functional analysis of discrete NK cell subsets revealed that transition from CD56bright to CD56dim correlated with increased responsiveness to CD16 cross-linking, whereas increasing CD57 expression correlated with a loss of responsiveness to cytokines. A higher frequency of CD56dim CD57? NK cells expressed CD25 and interferon-? following stimulation with vaccine antigen compared with CD56dim CD57+ NK cells and made the largest overall contribution to this response. CD56dim CD57int NK cells represent an intermediate functional phenotype in response to vaccine-induced and receptor-mediated stimuli. These findings have implications for the ability of NK cells to contribute to the effector response after vaccination and for vaccine-induced immunity in older individuals. PMID:24843874

White, Matthew J; Nielsen, Carolyn M; McGregor, Reuben H C; Riley, Eleanor M; Goodier, Martin R

2014-01-01

242

Vaccine process technology.  

PubMed

The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory perspective, Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) are important initiatives that can be applied effectively to many types of vaccine processes. Universal demand for vaccines requires that a manufacturer plan to supply tens and sometimes hundreds of millions of doses per year at low cost. To enable broader use, there is intense interest in improving temperature stability to allow for excursions from a rigid cold chain supply, especially at the point of vaccination. Finally, there is progress in novel routes of delivery to move away from the traditional intramuscular injection by syringe approach. PMID:22407777

Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

2012-06-01

243

Additional Conjugation Methods and Immunogenicity of Bacillus anthracis Poly-?-d-Glutamic Acid-Protein Conjugates  

PubMed Central

The capsule of Bacillus anthracis, composed of poly-?-d-glutamic acid (?DPGA), is an essential virulence factor of B. anthracis. The capsule inhibits innate host defense through its antiphagocytic action. ?DPGA is a poor immunogen, but when covalently bound to a carrier protein, it elicits serum antibodies. To identify the optimal construct for clinical use, synthetic ?DPGAs of different lengths were bound to carrier proteins at different densities. The advantages of the synthetic over the natural polypeptide are the homogeneous chain length and end groups, allowing conjugates to be accurately characterized and standardized and their chemical compositions to be related to their immunogenicities. In the present study, we evaluated, in addition to methods reported by us, hydrazone, oxime, and thioether linkages between ?DPGA and several proteins, including bovine serum albumin, recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A, recombinant B. anthracis protective antigen (rPA), and tetanus toxoid (TT). The effects of the dosage and formulation on the immunogenicities of the conjugates were evaluated in mice. All conjugates were immunogenic. The optimal ?DPGA chain length of 10 to 15 amino acids and the density, an average of 15 mol ?DPGA per mol of protein, were confirmed. The thioether bond was the optimal linkage type, and TT and rPA were the best carriers. The optimal dosage was 1.2 to 2.5 ?g of ?DPGA per mouse, and adsorption of the conjugates onto aluminum hydroxide significantly increased the antibody response to the protein with a lesser effect on anti-?DPGA levels. PMID:16861662

Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Liu, Teh-Yung; Mocca, Christopher; Majadly, Fathy; Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel

2006-01-01

244

[The patterns of the corrective action of a natural immunomodulator on the secondary immunological defect caused by a corpuscular pertussis vaccine].  

PubMed

Purified staphylococcal toxoid (PST) was shown to be capable of preventing the development of secondary antigen-nonspecific immune deficiency in mice, immunized with whole-cell pertussis vaccine. The immunocorrective action of PST was manifested after its injection before (on day -1), simultaneously with and after (on day +1) the injection of whole-cell pertussis vaccine. Correction was either complete or partial, depending on the scheme of the experiment and the dose of PST. PMID:7879484

Semenova, I B; Akatov, A K

1994-01-01

245

Efficacy of a type C botulism vaccine in green-winged teal.  

PubMed

We tested the efficacy of a single dose of Botumink toxoid for protecting wild green-winged teal (Anas crecca) during botulism epizootics caused by Clostridium botulinum type C. We challenged control and immunized ducks with four different doses of type C botulinum toxin to determine the LD50 for this species and to evaluate vaccine protection. Fewer immunized ducks were affected with botulism than control ducks, indicating that a single dose of Botumink toxoid could increase the survival of ducks during epizootics. However, the frequency of immunized ducks with signs of botulism increased with the challenge dose of botulinum toxin. Even at doses of botulinum toxin approximately 2 to 4 green-winged teal LD50, about 50% of the immunized ducks were affected. We believe an improved vaccine or a better delivery system is required to justify immunization of wild birds for experimental survival studies. PMID:10941734

Rocke, T E; Samuel, M D; Swift, P K; Yarris, G S

2000-07-01

246

Conjugate DNAzymes.  

PubMed

Conjugate DNAzymes were synthesized by solid phase fragment condensation and their biological properties were characterized. They have increased affinity to target RNA, enhanced stability against DNase 1 digestion and comparable or higher RNA cleaving activity compared with native and also phosphorothioate DNA zymes. It was also demonstrated that conjugate DNAzymes could inhibit BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in cellular lysis of human leukemia cell line. Consequently DNAzymes can be expected to act effectively in cellular system and also in vivo system. PMID:14510438

Kubo, Takanori; Takamori, Kengo; Bakalova, Rumiana; Ohba, Hideki; Fujii, Masayuki

2003-01-01

247

Evaluation of serogroup A meningococcal vaccines in Africa: a demonstration project.  

PubMed

Endemic and epidemic meningococcal disease constitutes a major public-health problem in African countries of the 'meningitis belt' where incidence rates of the disease are many-fold higher (up to 25 cases per 100,000 population) than those in industrialized countries, and epidemics of meningococcal disease occur with rates as high as 1,000 cases per 100,000 people. Using the precedent established during the licensing of conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and serogroup C meningococci and components of currently-licensed meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines, new meningococcal conjugate vaccines will likely be licensed using immunological endpoints as surrogates for clinical protection. Post-licensure evaluation of vaccine effectiveness will, therefore, be of increased importance. One vaccine being developed is the serogroup A meningococcal (Men A) conjugate vaccine produced by the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP), a partnership between the World Health Organization and the Program for Applied Technology in Health. This vaccine will likely be the first meningococcal conjugate vaccine introduced on a large scale in Africa. This paper summarizes the general steps required for vaccine development, reviews the use of immunogenicity criteria as a licensing strategy for new meningococcal vaccines, and discusses plans for evaluating the impact of a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africa. Impact of this vaccine will be measured during a vaccine-demonstration project that will primarily measure the effectiveness of vaccine. Other studies will include evaluations of safety, vaccine coverage, impact on carriage and herd immunity, and prevention-effectiveness studies. PMID:15609780

Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Rosenstein, Nancy; LaForce, F Marc

2004-09-01

248

Effect on Diphtheria Immunity of Combined Tetanus and Diphtheria Booster Vaccination in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a single booster injection of an adult formulation of a combined diphtheria–tetanus vaccine (Td) on diphtheria-specific\\u000a immunity was evaluated. The booster injection, containing 2?IU diphtheria toxoid per dose, was given as part of the surgical\\u000a wound management for adults with open soft tissue injuries. Diphtheria antitoxin concentrations were determined in serum samples\\u000a from 534 patients (199 women

S. Marlovits; R. Stocker; A. Efstratiou; K. Broughton; A. Kaider; V. Vécsei; H. Kollaritsch

2000-01-01

249

Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on the Incidence of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children after Five Years of Its Introduction in Uruguay  

PubMed Central

Background Data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the most frequent serotypes demonstrated that invasive disease and pneumonia were important manifestations affecting children under 5 years of age. Therefore, pneumococcal diseases prevention became a public health priority. Uruguay was the first Latin American country to incorporate PCV7 into its National Immunization Program. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence rates for hospitalized pneumonia in children from the pre PCV introduction period and the following five years of PCVs application in Uruguay. Methods and Findings Population-based surveillance of pneumonia hospitalization rates, in children, less than 14 years of age, had been performed prior pneumococcal vaccination, and continued following PCV7 introduction and PCV13 replacement, using the same methodology. Hospitalized children with pneumonia were enrolled from January 1, 2009 through December 31st, 2012. The study was carried out in an area with a population of 238,002 inhabitants of whom 18, 055 were under five years of age. Patients with acute lower respiratory infections for whom a chest radiograph was performed on admission were eligible. Digitalized radiographs were interpreted by a reference radiologist, using WHO criteria. Pneumonia was confirmed in 2,697 patients, 1,267 with consolidated and 1,430 with non consolidated pneumonia of which incidence decrease, between 2009 and 2012, was 27.3% and 46.4% respectively. 2001–2004 and 2009–2012 comparison showed a significant difference of 20.4% for consolidated pneumonia hospitalizations. A significant incidence decline was recorded among children 6 to 35 months of age. Conclusions An overall significant reduction in pneumonia hospitalizations was observed following the introduction of PCV7 and furthermore following the change to PCV13. PMID:24905093

Hortal, María; Estevan, Miguel; Meny, Miguel; Iraola, Inés; Laurani, Hilda

2014-01-01

250

Stimulation of tetanus toxoid-specific immune responses by a traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunomodulatory properties of botanical medicinals are well-documented. In this study, the capacity for the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Rehmannia Six Formula (R6F), to stimulate anti-tetanus toxoid (TT) immunity following oral administration to mice was examined. A significant rise in serum anti-TT antibody levels were observed in R6F-treated mice immunized with a minimum immunogenic dose of 10?g TT suggesting an

John R. Underwood; Mark Chivers; Thi Thuong Dang; Paul V. Licciardi

2009-01-01

251

A Nonadjuvanted Transcutaneous Tetanus Patch Is Effective in Boosting Anti-Tetanus Toxoid Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

Dry tetanus toxoid (TTx) patches were formulated without any adjuvant, with excipients to impart antigen stabilization and to enhance skin delivery. The booster effects of the TTx patches were assessed using a guinea pig model. The study revealed significant rises in TTx IgG titers induced by the TTx patches after a low-dose subcutaneous (s.c.) prime with TTx adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The TTx patch can therefore be considered an effective alternative to a subcutaneous booster. PMID:24334688

Seid, Robert C.; Reinisch, Christoph; Schlegl, Robert; Moehlen, Michael; Meinke, Andreas

2014-01-01

252

Childhood vaccination coverage in Italy: results of a seven-region survey. The Italian Vaccine Coverage Survey Working Group.  

PubMed Central

In Italy few data exist on vaccination coverage and timeliness. We therefore carried out cluster surveys on 12-23-month-olds in nine Italian cities and regions using standard Expanded Programme on Immunization methodology. The study areas accounted for 40% of all live births in Italy in 1991. Coverage levels for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and for oral poliovirus vaccine, which are mandatory, exceeded 90% in all but one area. However, less than two-thirds of the children had completed the primary vaccine series by their first birthday. The commonest reason for failure to complete the series in time was that the child had been sick and was not brought for vaccination. For the two optional vaccines (pertussis and measles) coverage was much poorer, ranging from 8% to 71% for pertussis and from 9% to 53% for measles. The commonest reason given by the mothers for pertussis non-vaccination was that they had been advised against it, while for measles the commonest reasons were that the child was sick and that they had been advised against it. These findings suggest that although coverage for the mandatory vaccines is high, coverage for pertussis and measles is very low. Additional education of physicians and mothers is needed concerning the true contraindications for vaccination. Also, in the absence of legislation making pertussis and measles vaccines mandatory, greater efforts are needed to convince physicians and the public about the benefits of their use. PMID:7867134

1994-01-01

253

Randomized, controlled trial of the long term safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of RTS,S/AS02D malaria vaccine in infants living in a malaria-endemic region  

PubMed Central

Background The RTS,S/AS malaria candidate vaccine is being developed with the intent to be delivered, if approved, through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) of the World Health Organization. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the RTS,S/AS02D vaccine candidate when integrated into a standard EPI schedule for infants have been reported over a nine-month surveillance period. This paper describes results following 20?months of follow up. Methods This Phase IIb, single-centre, randomized controlled trial enrolled 340 infants in Tanzania to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS02D or hepatitis B vaccine at 8, 12, and 16?weeks of age. All infants also received DTPw/Hib (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, whole-cell pertussis vaccine, conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine) at the same timepoints. The study was double-blinded to month 9 and single-blinded from months 9 to 20. Results From month 0 to 20, at least one SAE was reported in 57/170 infants who received RTS,S/AS02D (33.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.5, 41.2) and 62/170 infants who received hepatitis B vaccine (36.5%; 95% CI: 29.2, 44.2). The SAE profile was similar in both vaccine groups; none were considered to be related to vaccination. At month 20, 18?months after completion of vaccination, 71.8% of recipients of RTS,S/AS02D and 3.8% of recipients of hepatitis B vaccine had seropositive titres for anti-CS antibodies; seroprotective levels of anti-HBs antibodies remained in 100% of recipients of RTS,S/AS02D and 97.7% recipients of hepatitis B vaccine. Anti-HBs antibody GMTs were higher in the RTS,S/AS02D group at all post-vaccination time points compared to control. According to protocol population, vaccine efficacy against multiple episodes of malaria disease was 50.7% (95% CI: -6.5 to 77.1, p?=?0.072) and 26.7% (95% CI: -33.1 to 59.6, p?=?0.307) over 12 and 18?months post vaccination, respectively. In the Intention to Treat population, over the 20-month follow up, vaccine efficacy against multiple episodes of malaria disease was 14.4% (95% CI: -41.9 to 48.4, p?=?0.545). Conclusions The acceptable safety profile and good tolerability of RTS,S/AS02D in combination with EPI vaccines previously reported from month 0 to 9 was confirmed over a 20?month surveillance period in this infant population. Antibodies against both CS and HBsAg in the RTS,S/AS02D group remained significantly higher compared to control for the study duration. Over 18?months follow up, RTS,S/AS02D prevented approximately a quarter of malaria cases in the study population. Clinical trials Gov identifier: NCT00289185 PMID:23297680

2013-01-01

254

Vaccine hesitancy  

PubMed Central

Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

2013-01-01

255

Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year.  

PubMed

State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children. PMID:25321068

Seither, Ranee; Masalovich, Svetlana; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Singleton, James A; Greby, Stacie M

2014-10-17

256

An Age-Structured Model for Pneumococcal Infection with Vaccination  

E-print Network

An Age-Structured Model for Pneumococcal Infection with Vaccination Karyn L. Sutton1,2,3 , H. T the young and the old. The development of an effective vaccine against these infections, especially the younger ages, has not been successful despite the licensing of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7

257

Genetic fusions of heat-labile toxoid (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb) of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit protective anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-associated diarrhea causes a substantial economic loss to swine producers worldwide. The majority of ETEC strains causing porcine diarrhea, especially postweaning diarrhea (PWD), produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb). LT is commonly used in vaccine development, but STb has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity. As a virulence factor in porcine diarrhea, STb needs to be included as an antigen for development of broad-spectrum vaccines. In this study, we used an LT toxoid (LT(R192G) [hereafter, LT(192)]) derived from porcine ETEC to carry a mature STb peptide for LT(192)-STb fusions to enhance STb immunogenicity for potential vaccine application. Anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies were detected in immunized rabbits and pigs. In addition, when challenged with an STb-positive ETEC strain, all 10 suckling piglets borne by immunized gilts remained healthy, whereas 7 out 9 piglets borne by unimmunized gilts developed moderate diarrhea. This study indicates that the LT(192)-STb fusion enhanced anti-STb immunogenicity and suggests the LT(192)-STb fusion antigen can be used in future vaccine development against porcine ETEC diarrhea. PMID:20505006

Zhang, Weiping; Francis, David H

2010-08-01

258

Vaccination and autoimmunity-'vaccinosis': a dangerous liaison?  

PubMed

The question of a connection between vaccination and autoimmune illness (or phenomena) is surrounded by controversy. A heated debate is going on regarding the causality between vaccines, such as measles and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Brain antibodies as well as clinical symptoms have been found in patients vaccinated against those diseases. Other autoimmune illnesses have been associated with vaccinations. Tetanus toxoid, influenza vaccines, polio vaccine, and others, have been related to phenomena ranging from autoantibodies production to full-blown illness (such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA)). Conflicting data exists regarding also the connection between autism and vaccination with measles vaccine. So far only one controlled study of an experimental animal model has been published, in which the possible causal relation between vaccines and autoimmune findings has been examined: in healthy puppies immunized with a variety of commonly given vaccines, a variety of autoantibodies have been documented but no frank autoimmune illness was recorded. The findings could also represent a polyclonal activation (adjuvant reaction). The mechanism (or mechanisms) of autoimmune reactions following immunization has not yet been elucidated. One of the possibilities is molecular mimicry; when a structural similarity exists between some viral antigen (or other component of the vaccine) and a self-antigen. This similarity may be the trigger to the autoimmune reaction. Other possible mechanisms are discussed. Even though the data regarding the relation between vaccination and autoimmune disease is conflicting, it seems that some autoimmune phenomena are clearly related to immunization (e.g. Guillain-Barre syndrome). The issue of the risk of vaccination remains a philosophical one, since to date the advantages of this policy have not been refuted, while the risk for autoimmune disease has not been irrevocably proved. We discuss the pros and cons of this issue (although the temporal relationship (i.e. always 2-3 months following immunization) is impressive). PMID:10648110

Shoenfeld, Y; Aron-Maor, A

2000-02-01

259

Vaccination with recombinant NetB toxin partially protects broiler chickens from necrotic enteritis  

PubMed Central

NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease. PMID:23865568

2013-01-01

260

Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines.  

PubMed

The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (ACT, AC-Hly or CyaA) is a key virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis. It targets bactericidal activities of phagocytes, such as oxidative burst and complement- or antibody-mediated opsonophagocytic killing of bacteria. Through cAMP signaling, CyaA also skews TLR-triggered maturation of dendritic cells, inhibiting proinflammatory IL-12 and TNF-? secretion and enhancing IL-10 production and Treg expansion, likely hampering induction of adaptive immune responses to Bordetella infections. Non-enzymatic CyaA toxoid is a potent protective antigen and adjuvant that boosts immunogenicity of co-administered B. pertussis antigens and improves potency of acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in mice. This makes CyaA a prime antigen candidate for inclusion into a next generation of aP vaccines. Moreover, recombinant CyaA toxoids were recently shown to be safe in humans in frame of Phase I clinical evaluation of a CyaA-based immunotherapeutic vaccine that induces Th1-polarized CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses targeting cervical tumors. PMID:25090574

Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim; Masin, Jiri

2014-10-01

261

Vaccines for Cocaine Abuse  

PubMed Central

Treatments for cocaine abuse have been disappointingly ineffective, especially in comparison with those for some other abused substances. A new approach, using vaccination to elicit specific antibodies to block the access of cocaine to the brain, has shown considerable promise in animal models, and more recently in human trials. The mechanism of action for the antibody effect on cocaine is very likely to be the straightforward and intuitive result of the binding of the drug in circulation by antibodies, thereby reducing its entry into the central nervous system and thus its pharmacological effects. The effectiveness of such antibodies on drug pharmacodynamics is a function of both the quantitative and the qualitative properties of the antibodies, and this combination will determine the success of the clinical applications of anti-cocaine vaccines in helping addicts discontinue cocaine abuse. This review will discuss these issues and present the current developmental status of cocaine conjugate vaccines. PMID:19276665

Orson, Frank M.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Singh, Rana A. K.; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

262

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine  

E-print Network

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Live, Intranasal) 2013-2014 Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See idiomas. Visite www.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease

Oklahoma, University of

263

Leptospirosis vaccines  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP) vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool. PMID:18072968

Wang, Zhijun; Jin, Li; W?grzyn, Alicja

2007-01-01

264

HPV vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 588: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2014;123:712-8. American Academy ...

265

Diversity of the Antibody Response to Tetanus Toxoid: Comparison of Hybridoma Library to Phage Display Library  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies are important tools in research and since the 1990s have been an important therapeutic class targeting a wide variety of diseases. Earlier methods of mAb production relied exclusively on the lengthy process of making hybridomas. The advent of phage display technology introduced an alternative approach for mAb production. A potential concern with this approach is its complete dependence on an in vitro selection process, which may result in selection of VH-VL pairs normally eliminated during the in vivo selection process. The diversity of VH-VL pairs selected from phage display libraries relative to an endogenous response is unknown. To address these questions, we constructed a panel of hybridomas and a phage display library using the spleen of a single tetanus toxoid-immunized mouse and compared the diversity of the immune response generated using each technique. Surprisingly, the tetanus toxoid-specific antibodies produced by the hybridoma library exhibited a higher degree of VH-VL genetic diversity than their phage display-derived counterparts. Furthermore, the overlap among the V-genes from each library was very limited. Consistent with the notion that accumulation of many small DNA changes lead to increased antigen specificity and affinity, the phage clones displayed substantial micro-heterogeneity. Contrary to previous reports, we found that antigen specificity against tetanus toxoid is encoded by both V? and VH genes. Finally, the phage-derived tetanus-specific clones had a lower binding affinity than the hybridomas, a phenomenon thought to be the result of random pairing of the V-genes. PMID:25268771

Sorouri, Mahsa; Fitzsimmons, Sean P.; Aydanian, Antonina G.; Bennett, Sonita; Shapiro, Marjorie A.

2014-01-01

266

Factors affecting the immunogenicity and potency of tetanus toxoid: implications for the elimination of neonatal and non-neonatal tetanus as public health problems.  

PubMed Central

An estimated 400,000 deaths occur annually from neonatal tetanus (NT). In 1989 WHO adopted the goal of eliminating NT as a public health problem worldwide. To achieve this, and to control non-neonatal tetanus (non-NT), WHO recommends that newborns be passively protected at birth by the antepartum administration of at least two doses of tetanus toxoid (TT) to their mothers and that all children subsequently receive at least three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. For this strategy to be effective, the TT used must be immunogenic. Potential factors that may affect TT immunogenicity need to be evaluated if NT is to be eliminated and if non-NT is to be controlled. Although data are conflicting, concurrent malarial infection may decrease the immune response to TT; however, malarial chemoprophylaxis may enhance the immune response. Malnutrition does not appear to affect immunogenicity; nevertheless, one study suggests that vitamin A deficiency is associated with an impaired immune response. Although it has been postulated that placental transfer of tetanus antibody is impaired in African women, a survey of the published literature suggests that this is not the case. Freezing TT has been shown to decrease its potency, but its impact on immunogenicity needs more evaluation. PMID:9141753

Dietz, V.; Galazka, A.; van Loon, F.; Cochi, S.

1997-01-01

267

Vaccine acceptance  

PubMed Central

The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vaccines. In this article we examine vaccine acceptability from a UK perspective, and consider the future impact this is likely to have on the introduction of rotavirus and shingles vaccine in the UK in 2013. PMID:24025731

Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

2013-01-01

268

Evaluation of synergistic effect of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles and aluminum based adjuvant for improving vaccine efficacy.  

PubMed

Aluminum based adjuvants have been used widely to induce long lasting protective immunity through vaccination. But reported incidences of toxicity and side effects of aluminum have raised concerns regarding their safety in childhood vaccines. The present study demonstrates the synergistic effect of admixture of polylactic acid-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) based biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) and aluminum phosphate as a potential adjuvant system using tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model antigen. The immunological activity of the admixture formulation was maintained up to 180 days of storage at 5 °C±3 °C. Percent adsorption/encapsulation of tetanus toxoid increased to nearly 90% in admixture formulation as compared to 55% in conventional vaccine. Admixture preparation (PLA-PEG-Al 0.2 mg-TT and PLA-Al 0.2 mg-TT) showed 80% and 50% survival respectively, even at 180 days as compared to 30% survival observed in the conventional tetanus vaccine. The present study established the feasibility to formulate a dosage form with improved efficacy and reduced aluminum concentration for vaccination. PMID:24939616

Bansal, Vivek; Kumar, Manoj; Dalela, Manu; Brahmne, H G; Singh, Harpal

2014-08-25

269

Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

2014-01-01

270

Human immune response to botulinum pentavalent (ABCDE) toxoid determined by a neutralization test and by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed Central

To determine the immune status of persons receiving botulinum pentavalent (ABCDE) toxoid and to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccine, we surveyed immunized individuals for neutralizing antibodies to type A and to type B botulinum toxins. After the primary series of three immunizations administered at 0, 2, and 12 weeks, 21 of 23 persons tested (91%) had a titer for type A that was greater than or equal to 0.08 international units (IU)/ml, and 18 (78%) had a titer for type B of greater than or equal to 0.02 IU/ml. (One international unit is defined as the amount of antibody neutralizing 10,000 mouse 50% lethal doses of type A or B botulinum toxin). Just before the first annual booster, 10 of 21 (48%) and 14 of 21 (67%) people lacked a detectable titer for type A and for type B, respectively. After the first booster, all individuals tested had a demonstrable titer to both types A and B. Of 77 persons who had previously received from one to eight boosts of the toxoid, 74 (96%) had an A titer of greater than or equal to 0.25 IU/ml and would not require an additional booster, according to the recommendations of the Centers for disease Control. However, only 44 of 77 (57%) had a B titer of greater than or equal to 0.25 IU/ml. In each group by booster number, even the group having had eight boosts, at least one person would require reimmunization on the basis of B titer. There was a wide range of antibody levels among individuals at the same point in the immunization scheme. Results from an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, with purified type A or type B neurotoxin as the capture antigen, were compared with neutralization test results on 186 serum samples for type A and 168 samples for type B. Statistically, the correlation coefficients for results from the two assays were high (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001, for type A and r = 0.77, P < 0.0001, for type B). However, due to the wide dispersion of values obtained, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results to predict neutralizing antibody levels is unwarranted. PMID:3235662

Siegel, L S

1988-01-01

271

Microneedle patches for vaccine delivery  

PubMed Central

In today's medical industry, the range of vaccines that exist for administration in humans represents an eclectic variety of forms and immunologic mechanisms. Namely, these are the live attenuated viruses, inactivated viruses, subunit proteins, and virus-like particles for treating virus-caused diseases, as well as the bacterial-based polysaccharide, protein, and conjugated vaccines. Currently, a new approach to vaccination is being investigated with the concept of DNA vaccines. As an alternative delivery route to enhance the vaccination efficacy, microneedles have been devised to target the rich network of immunologic antigen-presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis layers under the skin. Numerous studies have outlined the parameters of microneedle delivery of a wide range of vaccines, revealing comparable or higher immunogenicity to conventional intramuscular routes, overall level of stability, and dose-sparing advantages. Furthermore, recent mechanism studies have begun to successfully elucidate the biological mechanisms behind microneedle vaccination. This paper describes the current status of microneedle vaccine research. PMID:24427762

Suh, Hyemee; Shin, Juhyung

2014-01-01

272

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine  

E-print Network

, like any medicine, there is a chance of side effects. These are usually mild and go away on their ownVACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant) 2014-2015 Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See

Lien, Jyh-Ming

273

Safety and immunogenicity of a combined five-component pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus-inactivated poliomyelitis- Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine administered to infants at two, four and six months of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety, immunogenicity and lot consistency of five-component pertussis combination vaccine (CPDT-IPV\\/PRP-T) in infants were compared to that of whole cell pertussis combination vaccine (DPT-IPV\\/\\/PRP-T), as were separate and combined injections of CPDT-IPV and PRP-T. No significant differences in adverse event rates were observed between lots of CPDT-IPV\\/\\/PRP-T or between separate or combined injections of CPDT-IPV and PRP-T. Minor differences in

Elaine Mills; Ronald Gold; John Thipphawong; Luis Barreto; Roland Guasparini; William Meekison; Les Cunning; Margaret Russell; Dana Harrison; Melody Boyd; Fang Xie

1998-01-01

274

Evaluation of the immunogenicity and safety of an indigenously developed DTwP-Hib tetravalent combination vaccine (Shan 4) with Easyfour™ in Indian infants administered per EPI schedule  

PubMed Central

The study was planned to assess and compare immunogenicity and safety of an indigenous DTPw-Hib combination vaccine (Shan 4) with EasyFour, the available DTwP-Hib vaccine in India. Overall 210 healthy infants, six to eight weeks of age, were randomized to receive three doses of either Shan 4 or EasyFour at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Antibodies were analyzed prior to and four to six weeks post third vaccine dose. Solicited and unsolicited local and systemic events in the follow up period after each dose were recorded. Post vaccination 100% of the infants in Shan 4 and EasyFour groups had seroprotective concentrations of Anti PRP-T IgG antibodies, IgG anti-diphtheria toxoid antibodies and IgG anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies. Following third dose of vaccination 86.99% subjects in the Shan 4 group and 73.85% subjects in the EasyFour group seroconverted for anti-pertussis antibody titres. Two Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) were reported during the course of the study, all unrelated to the respective vaccine administered. Most commonly reported adverse events in both the groups were pain at injection site, mild fever (<103°F) and minor swelling at injection site. The study proved that Shan 4 was safe and immunogenic compared to the available licensed vaccine. PMID:20421723

Dhingra, Mandeep S; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Joshi, Rajan; Kalra, Veena; Parikh, Harish R; Rao, S. Narasimha; Sethi, G.R.; Shah, Nitin; Muzaffaruddin, M

2010-01-01

275

Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response.

Stone, John W.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Blum, David L.; Kuhn, Sam J.; Wright, David W.; Crowe, James E., Jr.

2013-07-01

276

Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, confocal microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine-induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response. PMID:23799651

Stone, John W.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Blum, David L.; Kuhn, Sam J.; Wright, David W.; Crowe, James E.

2013-01-01

277

Polio Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Polio Vaccination Pronounced [PO-lee-oh] On this Page What ... 2000, OPV was no longer recommended for routine immunization in the United States. However, OPV continues to ...

278

Pneumococcal vaccine and opsonic pneumococcal antibody.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for the majority of bacterial pneumonia cases as well as invasive pneumococcal diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Use of conjugate vaccines targeting the pneumococcal capsule has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive diseases, and there are active efforts to further improve the conjugate vaccines. However, in children new pneumococcal vaccines can no longer be tested with placebo-based clinical trials because effective vaccines are currently available. Thus, vaccine studies must depend on surrogate markers of vaccine efficacy. Although traditional antibody levels (e.g., ELISA) are useful as a surrogate marker of protection, they have limitations, and a bioassay measuring the capacity of antibodies to opsonize pneumococci has been developed. This opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA) replicates the in vivo mechanism of antibody protection and should therefore better reflect protection by vaccine-induced antibodies. Technical improvements of OPA have made this bioassay rapid, multiplexed, and practical for analyzing small samples including those from children. Strong correlations between ELISA and OPA have been observed in many studies of young children. However, poor correlations have been found in some important clinical situations (such as determination of protection by cross-reactive antibodies) and populations (such as elderly adults and immunodeficient patients). In these settings, OPA has become a useful supplementary measure of pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity. Current efforts to standardize OPA will further expand its uses. PMID:23657429

Song, Joon Young; Moseley, M Allen; Burton, Robert L; Nahm, Moon H

2013-06-01

279

Oral immunization of a live attenuated Escherichia coli strain expressing a holotoxin-structured adhesin-toxoid fusion (1FaeG-FedF-LTA?:5LTB) protected young pigs against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection.  

PubMed

ETEC strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and enterotoxins are the predominant cause of porcine post-weaning diarrhea (PWD). PWD continues causing significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. Vaccines effectively protecting against PWD are needed. Our recent study revealed that a tripartite adhesin-toxin monomer (FaeG-FedF-LT(A2-B)) elicited protective antibodies. In this study, we constructed a new adhesin-toxoid fusion, expressed it as a 1A:5B holotoxin-structured antigen (1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B)) in an avirulent Escherichia coli strain, and evaluated its vaccine potential in pig challenge studies. Piglets orally inoculated with this live strain showed no adverse effects but developed systemic and mucosal antibodies that neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence of K88 and F18 fimbriae in vitro. Moreover, the immunized piglets, when were challenged with ETEC strain 3030-2 (K88ac/LT/STb), had significant fewer bacteria colonized at small intestines and did not develop diarrhea; whereas the control piglets developed severe diarrhea and died. These results indicated the 1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B) fusion antigen induced protective antiadhesin and antitoxin immunity in pigs, and suggested a live attenuated vaccine can be potentially developed against porcine ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, presenting antigens in a holotoxin structure to target host local mucosal immunity can be used in vaccine development against other enteric diseases. PMID:23375979

Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Weiping

2013-03-01

280

Vaccination Mathematics  

E-print Network

Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic Models Douglas B. Meade Department of Mathematics University://www.math.sc.edu/~meade/ 27 May 1999 #12; May 1999 IMA Mathematical Biology Seminar 0 Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic and natural death -- no death from infection -- no vaccination Ref: Shulgin, Stone, and Agur, Bull Math Bio

Meade, Douglas B.

281

Mucosal Adjuvant Potential of Quillaja saponins and Cross-linked Dextran Microspheres, Co-administered with Liposomes Encapsulated with Tetanus Toxoid  

PubMed Central

Intranasal vaccination is particularly a striking route for mucosal immunization, due to the ease of administration and the induction of both mucosal and humoral immunity. However, soluble antigens (Ag) are not sufficiently taken up after the nasal administration and need to be co-administered with adjuvants, penetration enhancers or encapsulated in particles. So, in this study, tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model Ag was entrapped in nonionic liposomes. The effect of the co-administration of Quillaja saponin (QS) as an adjuvant and cross-linked dextran microspheres (CDM) as penetration enhancer on immune responses was also studied. TT or TT + QS loaded liposomes were prepared by dehydration-rehydration method (DRV), followed by the extrusion through 400 nm filters. Some formulations were mixed with CDM. Liposomes were first characterized for their size range, mean diameter and morphology using particle size analyzer, optical and transmission electron microscopes. The volume mean diameter of liposomes was determined as 3836 ± 179 and 624 ± 114 nm before and after the extrusion, respectively. Structural efficiency of TT extracted from liposomes was confirmed by SDS-PAGE method. Encapsulation efficiencies of TT and QS were 44 ± 8.50% and 60 ± 6.02%, respectively. Rabbits were nasally immunized with various formulations and serum IgG titers and nasal lavage sIgA titers were determined by an ELISA method. TT + QS liposomes induced higher sIgA levels in comparison with TT liposomes (p < 0.05), but the difference in serum IgG levels was not significant. Results indicated that neutral liposomes administered nasally, have a good potential for induction of mucosal immunity and co-encapsulation of QS and TT in liposomes improved the systemic and mucosal immune responses. PMID:24250499

Moghadam Ariaee, Faezeh; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

2012-01-01

282

DNA vaccines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

Gregersen, Jens-Peter

2001-12-01

283

Tumor endothelial marker 1–specific DNA vaccination targets tumor vasculature  

PubMed Central

Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1; also known as endosialin or CD248) is a protein found on tumor vasculature and in tumor stroma. Here, we tested whether TEM1 has potential as a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy by immunizing immunocompetent mice with Tem1 cDNA fused to the minimal domain of the C fragment of tetanus toxoid (referred to herein as Tem1-TT vaccine). Tem1-TT vaccination elicited CD8+ and/or CD4+ T cell responses against immunodominant TEM1 protein sequences. Prophylactic immunization of animals with Tem1-TT prevented or delayed tumor formation in several murine tumor models. Therapeutic vaccination of tumor-bearing mice reduced tumor vascularity, increased infiltration of CD3+ T cells into the tumor, and controlled progression of established tumors. Tem1-TT vaccination also elicited CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses against murine tumor-specific antigens. Effective Tem1-TT vaccination did not affect angiogenesis-dependent physiological processes, including wound healing and reproduction. Based on these data and the widespread expression of TEM1 on the vasculature of different tumor types, we conclude that targeting TEM1 has therapeutic potential in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24642465

Facciponte, John G.; Ugel, Stefano; De Sanctis, Francesco; Li, Chunsheng; Wang, Liping; Nair, Gautham; Sehgal, Sandy; Raj, Arjun; Matthaiou, Efthymia; Coukos, George; Facciabene, Andrea

2014-01-01

284

Designer vaccines to prevent infections due to group B Streptococcus.  

PubMed

Group B streptococci (GBS) are the major cause of serious infections in neonates and an important cause of infection in adults, particularly peripartum women and patients with diabetes mellitus and malignancy. Immunity to GBS in neonates is associated with naturally acquired maternal antibodies to the type-specific capsular polysaccharides of these organisms. IgG class antibodies directed to these polysaccharides are passed transplacentally and protect the child from invasive GBS disease. Phase I and II clinical trials showed that the purified polysaccharides had limited immunogenicity. However, vaccine responders passed functional IgG class antibodies to their children. A glycoconjugate vaccine has been designed so that the type-specific polysaccharides are covalently linked to a carrier protein. This secondary amine linkage is between aldehyde groups created on the eighth carbon of a selected number of periodate-oxidized sialic acid residues of the polysaccharide and epsilon-amino groups on lysine residues of tetanus toxoid. Careful epitope mapping studies had demonstrated that modification by controlled periodate oxidation could be accomplished and that an important conformational epitope on the polysaccharide would be preserved. Preclinical testing of the glycoconjugate vaccines in animal models of GBS disease demonstrated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine-induced antibodies. Phase I clinical testing of the glycoconjugate vaccine is in progress, and the early results appear promising. PMID:8608425

Kasper, D L

1995-10-01

285

DNA conjugation andDNA conjugation and reversibility onreversibility on  

E-print Network

DNA conjugation andDNA conjugation and reversibility onreversibility on chitosan surfaceschitosan surfaceschitosan surfaceschitosan surfaces Rubloff Research Group Accomplishments #12;DNA conjugation and reversibility onDNA conjugation and reversibility on chitosan surfaceschitosan surfaces Accomplishment Single

Rubloff, Gary W.

286

Panel 6: Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Objective To update progress on the effectiveness of vaccine for prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and identification of promising candidate antigens against Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Review Methods Literature searches were performed in OvidSP and PubMed restricted to articles published between June 2007 and September 2011. Search terms included otitis media, vaccines, vaccine antigens, and each of the otitis pathogens and candidate antigens identified in the ninth conference report. Conclusions The current report provides further evidence for the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in the prevention of otitis media. Observational studies demonstrate a greater decline in AOM episodes than reported in clinical efficacy trials. Unmet challenges include extending protection to additional serotypes and additional pathogens, the need to prevent early episodes, the development of correlates of protection for protein antigens, and the need to define where an otitis media vaccine strategy fits with priorities for child health. Implications for Practice Acute otitis media continues to be a burden on children and families, especially those who suffer from frequent recurrences. The 7-valent PCV (PCV7) has reduced the burden of disease as well as shifted the pneumococcal serotypes and the distribution of otopathogens currently reported in children with AOM. Antibiotic resistance remains an ongoing challenge. Multiple candidate antigens have demonstrated the necessary requirements of conservation, surface exposure, immunogenicity, and protection in animal models. Further research on the role of each antigen in pathogenesis, in the development of correlates of protection in animal models, and in new adjuvants to elicit responses in the youngest infants is likely to be productive and permit more antigens to move into human clinical trials. PMID:23536534

Pelton, Stephen I.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Godfroid, Fabrice; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Leach, Amanda; Patel, Janak; Murphy, Timothy F.; Selak, Sanja; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

2014-01-01

287

Men with Low Vitamin A Stores Respond Adequately to Primary Yellow Fever and Secondary Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current recommendations for vitamin A intake and liver stores (20 mg/g) are based on maintaining normal vision. Higher levels may be required for maintaining normal immune function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an 8 wk residential study among 36 healthy Bangladeshi men with low serum retino...

288

Vaccine allergies  

PubMed Central

Currently, the increasing numbers of vaccine administrations are associated with increased reports of adverse vaccine reactions. Whilst the general adverse reactions including allergic reactions caused by the vaccine itself or the vaccine components, are rare, they can in some circumstances be serious and even fatal. In accordance with many IgE-mediated reactions and immediate-type allergic reactions, the primary allergens are proteins. The proteins most often implicated in vaccine allergies are egg and gelatin, with perhaps rare reactions to yeast or latex. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the injectable influenza vaccine can be safely administered, although with appropriate precautions, to patients with severe egg allergy, as the current influenza vaccines contain small trace amounts of egg protein. If an allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and decision regarding re-vaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. Facilities and health care professionals should be available to treat immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) in all settings where vaccines are administered. PMID:24427763

2014-01-01

289

Nanogel antigenic protein-delivery system for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is an innovative method of freely controlling nanometre-sized materials. Recent outbreaks of mucosal infectious diseases have increased the demands for development of mucosal vaccines because they induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. Here we developed an intranasal vaccine-delivery system with a nanometre-sized hydrogel (`nanogel') consisting of a cationic type of cholesteryl-group-bearing pullulan (cCHP). A non-toxic subunit fragment of Clostridium botulinum type-A neurotoxin BoHc/A administered intranasally with cCHP nanogel (cCHP-BoHc/A) continuously adhered to the nasal epithelium and was effectively taken up by mucosal dendritic cells after its release from the cCHP nanogel. Vigorous botulinum-neurotoxin-A-neutralizing serum IgG and secretory IgA antibody responses were induced without co-administration of mucosal adjuvant. Importantly, intranasally administered cCHP-BoHc/A did not accumulate in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Moreover, intranasally immunized tetanus toxoid with cCHP nanogel induced strong tetanus-toxoid-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. These results indicate that cCHP nanogel can be used as a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccination.

Nochi, Tomonori; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Haruko; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Mejima, Mio; Kohda, Tomoko; Harada, Norihiro; Kong, Il Gyu; Sato, Ayuko; Kataoka, Nobuhiro; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kurokawa, Shiho; Takahashi, Yuko; Tsukada, Hideo; Kozaki, Shunji; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2010-07-01

290

From cholera to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine development  

PubMed Central

It was shown earlier that immune responses against cholera toxin (CT) as well as Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or whole bacterial cells (WC) were protective and that these different antibody specificities co-operated synergistically for protection against experimental cholera. Similarly, antibodies against the heat-labile toxin (LT) and major colonization factors (CFs) of enterotoxingenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) co-operated synergistically for protection against LT-producing ETEC expressing homologous CFs. Studies in humans revealed that repeated oral antigen administration was optimal in inducing intestinal immune responses. Based on these findings oral inactivated vaccines consisting of toxin antigen and whole cells, i.e. the licensed recombinant cholera B subunit (rCTB)-WC cholera vaccine Dukoral®, and candidate ETEC vaccines have been developed. In different trials the rCTB-WC cholera vaccine has provided very high (85-100%) short term protection, which was significantly higher than that induced by the WC component alone, whereas rCTB-WC and WC alone provided comparable (50-60%), long term protection. An oral ETEC vaccine consisting of rCTB and formalin-inactivated E. coli bacteria expressing major CFs was shown to be safe and immunogenic in adults and children in different countries. The vaccine also induced significant protection against non-mild ETEC diarrhoea, i.e. diarrhoea interfering with daily activity in American travellers but not against ETEC diarrhoea in young children in Egypt. Against this background, a modified ETEC vaccine consisting of recombinant E. coli strains overexpressing the major CFs and a more LT like hybrid toxoid (LCTBA) has been developed. This vaccine will be tested soon alone and together with a mucosal adjuvant, i.e. dmLT, in clinical trials. PMID:21415493

Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

2011-01-01

291

From cholera to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine development.  

PubMed

It was shown earlier that immune responses against cholera toxin (CT) as well as Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or whole bacterial cells (WC) were protective and that these different antibody specificities co-operated synergistically for protection against experimental cholera. Similarly, antibodies against the heat-labile toxin (LT) and major colonization factors (CFs) of enterotoxingenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) co-operated synergistically for protection against LT-producing ETEC expressing homologous CFs. Studies in humans revealed that repeated oral antigen administration was optimal in inducing intestinal immune responses. Based on these findings oral inactivated vaccines consisting of toxin antigen and whole cells, i.e. the licensed recombinant cholera B subunit (rCTB)-WC cholera vaccine Dukoral®, and candidate ETEC vaccines have been developed. In different trials the rCTB-WC cholera vaccine has provided very high (85-100%) short term protection, which was significantly higher than that induced by the WC component alone, whereas rCTB-WC and WC alone provided comparable (50-60%), long term protection. An oral ETEC vaccine consisting of rCTB and formalin-inactivated E. coli bacteria expressing major CFs was shown to be safe and immunogenic in adults and children in different countries. The vaccine also induced significant protection against non-mild ETEC diarrhoea, i.e. diarrhoea interfering with daily activity in American travellers but not against ETEC diarrhoea in young children in Egypt. Against this background, a modified ETEC vaccine consisting of recombinant E. coli strains overexpressing the major CFs and a more LT like hybrid toxoid (LCTBA) has been developed. This vaccine will be tested soon alone and together with a mucosal adjuvant, i.e. dmLT, in clinical trials. PMID:21415493

Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

2011-02-01

292

Antibiotics modulate vaccine-induced humoral immune response.  

PubMed

The effects of antibiotics on the antigen-specific humoral immune response are not known. Macrolides, tetracyclines, and beta-lactams are commonly prescribed antibiotics. The first two are known to have immunomodulatory activities. The effects of clarithromycin, doxycycline, and ampicillin on the primary and secondary antibody responses to tetanus toxoid, a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, a hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine, and live attenuated Salmonella typhi (Ty21a) were investigated using a mouse model. For the mice receiving the tetanus toxoid, the immunoglobulin M (IgM) level of the clarithromycin group at day 7 was significantly lower than the corresponding antibody level of the normal saline (NS) group. For the mice receiving the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, the total antibody and IgM levels of the clarithromycin group and the IgM level of the doxycycline group at day 7 were significantly lower than the corresponding antibody levels of the ampicillin and NS groups. For the mice receiving the HBsAg vaccine, the IgM level of the doxycycline group at day 7 was significantly lower than the corresponding antibody levels of the clarithromycin and NS groups, while the IgM level of the clarithromycin group at day 28 was significantly lower than the corresponding antibody levels of the doxycycline, ampicillin, and NS groups. For the mice receiving all three vaccines, there were no statistically significant differences between any of the antibody levels of the ampicillin group and the corresponding antibody levels of the NS group. For the mice receiving Ty21a, the total antibody levels of the ampicillin group at days 7 and 21 were significantly higher than the corresponding antibody levels of the NS group. Moreover, the IgM levels of the clarithromycin, doxycycline, and ampicillin groups at days 7 and 21 were significantly higher than the corresponding antibody levels of the NS group. Furthermore, the total antibody level of the ampicillin group at day 21 was significantly higher than the corresponding antibody level of the doxycycline group. For all four vaccines, there were no statistically significant differences among the serum levels of interleukin-10 and gamma interferon for the mice treated with the various antibiotics. We conclude that clarithromycin and doxycycline, but not ampicillin, suppress the antibody responses of mice to T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent antigens, whereas all three antibiotics enhance the antibody response to live attenuated mucosal bacterial vaccines. PMID:10548572

Woo, P C; Tsoi, H W; Wong, L P; Leung, H C; Yuen, K Y

1999-11-01

293

Update on available vaccines in India: report of the APPA VU 2010: I.  

PubMed

The Asia Pacific Pediatric Association Vaccinology Update 2010 was held in Mumbai on November 13-14, 2010 to discuss the latest information on burden of infectious diseases, recent developments in vaccines and their impact on immunization practices against infectious diseases occurring in Indian children. During the conference the importance of including conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and anti-rabies vaccines in routine immunization was stressed. Also, the need for giving a second dose of measles mumps rubella vaccine at school entry; and the need for a two-dose varicella vaccine regimen (first dose at 12-15 months of age and a second dose at age 4-6 years) was elucidated. Information related to vaccines which have become available in India in recent years, namely, inactivated poliovirus vaccine; diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; conjugate pneumococcal vaccine; rotavirus vaccines; H1N1 vaccines; live attenuated hepatitis A virus vaccine; oral cholera vaccine; tetanus, reduced-dose diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine; and human papillomavirus vaccines were discussed. PMID:21373831

Karande, Sunil

2011-07-01

294

Filovirus vaccines  

PubMed Central

Filoviruses can cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Although there are currently no clinically proven treatments for filovirus disease, much progress has been made in recent years in the discovery of therapeutics and vaccines against these viruses. A variety of vaccine platforms have been shown to be effective against filovirus infection. This review summarizes the literature in this field, focusing on vaccines that have been shown to protect NHPs from infection. Furthermore, the uses of rodent models in vaccine development, as well as correlates of immunity, are discussed. PMID:21519188

Bradfute, Steven B; Dye, John M

2011-01-01

295

Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Middle Ear Fluid Pathogens in Costa Rican Children With Otitis Media Before and After the Introduction of the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the National Immunization Program: Acute otitis media microbiology in Costa Rican children.  

PubMed

Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009).This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010-2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3-59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value?vaccinated (?2 PCV7 doses or ?1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value?vaccines impact should be further evaluated following broader vaccination coverage. PMID:25590837

Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Mercedes Castrejon, Maria; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K

2015-01-01

296

EVALUATION OF GNRH CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINE USING DOMESTIC SWINE AS A MODEL FOR FERAL HOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the effect of a GnRH vaccine on reproductive function of sexually mature 5-month female and male domestic swine. The vaccine, GonaConTM, developed at NWRC contains a GnRH peptide conjugated to KLH, combined with AdjuVacTM adjuvant also developed at NWRC. Four groups of ten females were given single IM immunizations either of 800µg GnRH vaccine, 1600µg GnRH vaccine, a

LOWELL MILLER; JACK RHYAN; GARY KILLIAN

297

Irradiation of the Crude Venom of Bothrops jararacussu to Obtain Toxoid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to reduce the toxicity of Bothrops jararacussu venom using gamma-rays of low-energy coming from a source of Americium-241 (E = 59.6 keV and 3.7×109 Bq of activity) in order to obtain a toxoid. The radiation dose that each sample received was controlled by exposure time of the venom to the radiation beam. Mouse nerve phrenic-diaphragm preparation was used for testing the loss of venom toxicity, since the venom causes an irreversible neuromuscular blockade. In this condition, the several samples of irradiated venom, when assayed in neuromuscular preparation showed that with a dose of 0.051 Gy the paralysis caused by the irradiated venom was of 91%, at 0.360 Gy was of 79%, at 1.662 Gy was of 50% and at 2.448 Gy was of 42%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the irradiation model was able to induce a progressive loss of the venom toxicity.

Ferreira, Camila G.; Avalloni, Tânia M.; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; de J. Oliveira, Sara; de Oliveira, José M.; Cogo, José C.

2011-08-01

298

Transcutaneous Immunization Studies in Mice Using Diphtheria Toxoid-Loaded Vesicle Formulations and a Microneedle Array  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose To determine the immunogenicity of diphtheria toxoid (DT) formulated in two types of vesicles following transcutaneous immunization (TCI) of mice onto microneedle array-treated skin. Methods DT-containing cationic liposomes or anionic surfactant-based vesicles were prepared by extrusion and sonication. The physicochemical properties were characterized in terms of size, ?-potential, vesicle elasticity and antigen association. TCI was performed by applying formulations onto intact or microneedle array-pretreated mice skin, using cholera toxin as an adjuvant. Subcutaneous and intradermal immunizations were as control. Immune responses were evaluated by IgG and neutralizing antibody titers, and the immune-stimulatory properties were assessed using cultured dendritic cells. Results Stable DT-containing cationic liposomes (?150 nm) and anionic vesicles (?100 nm) were obtained. Incorporation of Span 80 increased liposome elasticity. About 90% and 77% DT was associated with liposomes and vesicles, respectively. TCI of all formulations resulted in substantial antibody titers only if microneedle pretreatment was applied. Co-administration of cholera toxin further augmented the immune responses of TCI. However, vesicle formulations didn’t enhance the immunogenicity on either intact or microneedle-treated skin and showed low stimulatory activity on dendritic cells. Conclusions Microneedle pretreatment and cholera toxin, but not antigen association to vesicles, enhances the immunogenicity of topically applied DT. PMID:20237826

Ding, Zhi; Bal, Suzanne M.; Romeijn, Stefan; Kersten, Gideon F. A.; Jiskoot, Wim

2010-01-01

299

Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen

2002-03-01

300

DNA Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In just a few years, injection of plasmid DNA to elicit immune responses in vivo has developed from an interesting observation to a viable vaccine strategy. DNA vaccines have been shown to elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses and to be effective in a variety of preclinical bacterial, viral, and parasitic animal models. This review will discuss the current

Donna L. Montgomery; Jeffrey B. Ulmer; John J. Donnelly; Margaret A. Liu

1997-01-01

301

HPV Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... Why Is It a Problem? How Does the Vaccine Work? Side Effects Protecting Yourself Against HPV What Is HPV and ... when having sex. Side Effects Most of the side effects that people get from the HPV vaccine are minor. They may include swelling or pain ...

302

Biologic Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

2009-01-01

303

Combination Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B); and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines. PMID:21572611

Skibinski, David AG; Baudner, Barbara C; Singh, Manmohan; O’Hagan, Derek T

2011-01-01

304

Bacterially Produced Recombinant Influenza Vaccines Based on Virus-Like Particles  

PubMed Central

Although current influenza vaccines are effective in general, there is an urgent need for the development of new technologies to improve vaccine production timelines, capacities and immunogenicity. Herein, we describe the development of an influenza vaccine technology which enables recombinant production of highly efficient influenza vaccines in bacterial expression systems. The globular head domain of influenza hemagglutinin, comprising most of the protein's neutralizing epitopes, was expressed in E. coli and covalently conjugated to bacteriophage-derived virus-like particles produced independently in E.coli. Conjugate influenza vaccines produced this way were used to immunize mice and found to elicit immune sera with high antibody titers specific for the native influenza hemagglutinin protein and high hemagglutination-inhibition titers. Moreover vaccination with these vaccines induced full protection against lethal challenges with homologous and highly drifted influenza strains. PMID:24260136

Jegerlehner, Andrea; Zabel, Franziska; Langer, Alice; Dietmeier, Klaus; Jennings, Gary T.; Saudan, Philippe; Bachmann, Martin F.

2013-01-01

305

Enhanced immune response with a combination of alum and biodegradable nanoparticles containing tetanus toxoid.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine the synergistic adjuvant effect of sustained release biodegradable nanoparticles in combination with alum. Nanoparticles containing tetanus toxoid (TT) were formulated using a biodegradable polymer, polylactic polyglycolic acid co-polymer (50:50, molecular weight 100000). The immunization studies were carried out subcutaneously in rats. The results were expressed as mean serum anti-TT IgG levels. I'he nanoparticles demonstrated a TT loading of 4% w/w with mean particle diameter of 238 +/- 31 nm. The TT encapsulated in nanoparticles was released slowly under in vitro conditions, with 67.5% cumulative release occurring in 20 days. A single injection of TT-nanoparticles (TT dose = 10 Lf) mixed with TT-Alum (TT dose= 5 Lf) induced a four-fold greater mean serum anti-TT IgG response than a single injection of TT nanoparticles alone (TT dose=15Lf) (2235 +/- 310 vs. 539 +/- 49 microg/ml, mean +/- sem, p = >0.001). In addition, the mean immune response induced with the single injection of combination of nanoparticles and alum was comparable to the two injections of TT-alum alone (5 Lf each dose) given at 3 week intervals IgG = 1998 +/- 333 microg/ ml). Furthermore, the combination induced a peak immune response (IgG = 4215 +/- 546 microg/ml) as early as the first time point at 3 weeks post-immunization. In the case of a TT-alum alone, the animals showed a weaker immune response at 3 weeks and required a second dose of TT-alum to enhance the antibody response. The data thus suggest that the combination of TT-nanoparticles and TT-alum acts as a much better adjuvant than nanoparticles or alum alone. A rapid induction of immune response is useful to curb the spread of communicable diseases in the case of an outbreak. PMID:11695637

Raghuvanshi, R J; Mistra, A; Talwar, G P; Levy, R J; Labhasetwar, V

2001-01-01

306

Immune Modulation by Adjuvants Combined with Diphtheria Toxoid Administered Topically in BALB\\/c Mice After Microneedle Array Pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In this study, modulation of the immune response against diphtheria toxoid (DT) by various adjuvants in transcutaneous immunization\\u000a (TCI) with microneedle array pretreatment was investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  TCI was performed on BALB\\/c mice with or without microneedle array pretreatment using DT as a model antigen co-administrated\\u000a with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Quil A, CpG oligo deoxynucleotide (CpG) or cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant. The

Z. Ding; E. Van Riet; S. Romeijn; G. F. A. Kersten; W. Jiskoot; J. A. Bouwstra

2009-01-01

307

Vibriobactin Antibodies: A Vaccine Strategy  

PubMed Central

A new target strategy in the development of bacterial vaccines, the induction of antibodies to microbial outer membrane ferrisiderophore complexes, is explored. A vibriobactin (VIB) analogue, with a thiol tether, 1-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-5,9-bis[[(4S,5R)-2-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-4-oxazolyl]carbonyl]-14-(3-mercaptopropanoyl)-1,5,9,14-tetraazatetradecane, was synthesized and linked to ovalbumin (OVA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The antigenicity of the VIB microbial iron chelator conjugates and their iron complexes was evaluated. When mice were immunized with the resulting OVA-VIB conjugate, a selective and unequivocal antigenic response to the VIB hapten was observed; IgG monoclonal antibodies specific to the vibriobactin fragment of the BSA and OVA conjugates were isolated. The results are consistent with the idea that the isolated adducts of siderophores covalently linked to their bacterial outer membrane receptors represent a credible target for vaccine development. PMID:19492834

Bergeron, Raymond J.; Bharti, Neelam; Singh, Shailendra; McManis, James S.; Wiegand, Jan; Green, Linda G.

2010-01-01

308

Oral vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

2013-01-01

309

Pertussis Vaccine  

Cancer.gov

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop vaccines against pertussis.

310

Typhoid Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose ...

311

M cell-targeted DNA vaccination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA immunization, although attractive, is poor for inducing mucosal immunity, thus limiting its protective value against most infectious agents. To surmount this shortcoming, we devised a method for mucosal transgene vaccination by using an M cell ligand to direct the DNA vaccine to mucosal inductive tissues and the respiratory epithelium. This ligand, reovirus protein 1, when conjugated to polylysine (PL), can bind the apical surface of M cells from nasal-associated lymphoid tissues. Intranasal immunizations with protein 1-PL-DNA complexes produced antigen-specific serum IgG and prolonged mucosal IgA, as well as enhanced cell-mediated immunity, made evident by elevated pulmonary cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Therefore, targeted transgene vaccination represents an approach for enabling DNA vaccination of the mucosa.

Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Xinhai; Csencsits, Keri L.; Haddad, Asmahan; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W.

2001-07-01

312

DNA vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA vaccines use eukaryotic expression vectors to produce immunizing proteins in the vaccinated host. Popular methods of delivery are intramuscular and intradermal saline injections of DNA and gene gun bombardment of skin with DNA-coated gold beads. The method of DNA inoculation (gene gun versus intramuscular injection) and the form of the DNA-expressed antigen (cell-associated versus secreted) determine whether T-cell help

Harriet L. Robinson; Celia Aurora Tiglao Torres

1997-01-01

313

The acquisition of anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide Haemophilus influenzae type b and tetanus toxoid antibodies, with age, in the UK.  

PubMed Central

Antibody levels specific for capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and to tetanus toxoid (TT), were measured in serum samples of 750 age-stratified subjects from the UK. The study subjects comprised healthy adult volunteers and hospitalized children undergoing elective surgery, excluding those with a history of infection or under investigation for immunological or haematological disorders. These antibody levels were calibrated by comparison with serum pool obtained from healthy adult volunteers, who were immunized with Hib polyribose-phosphate vaccine (Merieux). The data are intended to provide reference ranges to assist in the interpretation of specific antibody measurements in the clinical setting. Maternal IgG pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) specific antibody levels, geometric-mean titre (GMT) 1/22, were lost by 6 months of age (GMT of 1/9). They remained low until 3-5 years (GMT of 1/20), and consisted principally of IgG1. Thereafter, IgG anti-PCP antibody titres increased steadily to adult levels (GMT of 1/275), of which 80% was IgG2. Anti-PCP antibody titres of the IgM isotype rose steadily from a GMT 1/21 (0-6 months) to 1/420 (3-5 years), a level which was maintained until adulthood. Anti-Hib antibody concentrations, determined by RABA, again demonstrated the decline in maternal antibody, from 0.18 micrograms/ml in the 0-6 month age cohort, to 0.09 microgram/ml between 6 and 12 months. Geometric-mean antibody concentrations remained below 0.2 micrograms/ml until 3-5 years, then increased with age, attaining the mean adult level of 1.02 micrograms/ml. Anti-TT antibody concentrations were measured in the same sera, by ELISA. Two peaks in anti-TT antibody levels were seen in children of 0.059 IU/ml and 0.166 IU/ml corresponding to the schedule of routine childhood immunization in the first year and at 5 years of age. PMID:8348740

Hazlewood, M; Nusrat, R; Kumararatne, D S; Goodall, M; Raykundalia, C; Wang, D G; Joyce, H J; Milford-Ward, A; Forte, M; Pahor, A

1993-01-01

314

Polymeric penetration enhancers promote humoral immune responses to mucosal vaccines.  

PubMed

Protective mucosal immune responses are thought best induced by trans-mucosal vaccination, providing greater potential to generate potent local immune responses than conventional parenteral vaccination. However, poor trans-mucosal permeability of large macromolecular antigens limits bioavailability to local inductive immune cells. This study explores the utility of polymeric penetration enhancers to promote trans-mucosal bioavailability of insulin, as a biomarker of mucosal absorption, and two vaccine candidates: recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (CN54gp140) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Responses to vaccinating antigens were assessed by measurement of serum and the vaginal humoral responses. Polyethyleneimine (PEI), Dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin (DM-?-CD) and Chitosan enhanced the bioavailability of insulin following intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL), intravaginal (I.Vag) and intrarectal (IR) administration. The same penetration enhancers also increased antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses to the model vaccine antigens in serum and vaginal secretions following IN and SL application. Co-delivery of both antigens with PEI or Chitosan showed the highest increase in systemic IgG and IgA responses following IN or SL administration. However the highest IgA titres in vaginal secretions were achieved after IN immunisations with PEI and Chitosan. None of the penetration enhancers were able to increase antibody responses to gp140 after I.Vag immunisations, while in contrast PEI and Chitosan were able to induce TT-specific systemic IgG levels following I.Vag administration. In summary, we present supporting data that suggest appropriate co-formulation of vaccine antigens with excipients known to influence mucosal barrier functions can increase the bioavailability of mucosally applied antigens promoting the induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses. PMID:24657807

Klein, Katja; Mann, Jamie F S; Rogers, Paul; Shattock, Robin J

2014-06-10

315

Synergy between lysosomotropic amines and cyclosporin A on human T cell responses to an exogenous protein antigen, tetanus toxoid.  

PubMed

Previously, it has been shown that the lysosomotropic amine, chloroquine, is effective in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using murine models. Because chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine suppress MHC class II antigen presentation, their mechanism of action is different to other immune suppressant drugs (cyclosporin A) currently used to control GVHD. It is possible that the use of cyclosporin A and chloroquine in combination may have an additive or synergistic effect on T cell responses to antigens presented in the context of MHC class II. We investigated the effects of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in combination with cyclosporin A on human T cell responses in vitro to tetanus toxoid, an exogenous protein antigen dependent on MHC class II presentation for proliferative responses. We demonstrate that similar levels of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine suppress human T cell responses to tetanus toxoid and that the use of either agent in combination with cyclosporin A results in synergistic suppression. Evaluation for a direct effect by the lysosomotropic amines on T cells, in the absence of antigen presenting cells, revealed that there was inhibition of T cell responses but only at high concentrations. No significant decrease or increase was seen in surface MHC II or invariant chain expression or in cytoplasmic invariant chain after exposure to chloroquine. Thus, lysosomotropic amines in combination with cyclosporin A are synergistic in suppression of T cell proliferation. Use of these agents in combination with cyclosporin A may improve control of graft-versus-host disease. PMID:8879628

Schultz, K R; Nelson, D; Bader, S

1996-09-01

316

Long-Term Effects of Tetanus Toxoid Inoculation on the Demography and Life Expectancy of the Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population’s age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates. PMID:25230585

KESSLER, MATTHEW J.; PACHECO, RAISA HERNÁNDEZ; RAWLINS, RICHARD G.; RUIZ-LAMBRIDES, ANGELINA; DELGADO, DIANA L.; SABAT, ALBERTO M.

2014-01-01

317

Immune Responses to pneumococcal vaccines in children and adults: Rationale for age-specific vaccination  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant human pathogen and currently available pneumococcal vaccines are designed to elicit anti-capsule antibodies. The 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine has been used in older adults for many years whereas 7-, 10-, and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have only been used commonly for young children in the last decade. In addition to their high protective efficacy among children, the use of conjugate vaccines in young children has had a number of additional effects, including production of a serotype shift and providing new herd immunity to adults. The immunogenicity of both of these types of vaccines can be determined by using an ELISA assay to measure antibody levels or an opsonophagocytosis assay to assess opsonic function. As these assays have improved over time, awareness of the analytical limitations of older studies has grown. While the 23-valent vaccine is effective among young adults, it is less effective among elderly adults. Aging-associated ineffectiveness may be due to aging-dependent changes in the antibody repertoire and/or a reduction in IgM antibody production associated with aging-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations. The immunologic basis of aging-associated immune defects thus remains an active area of research. PMID:22500271

Westerink, M.A. Julie; Schroeder, Harry W.; Nahm, Moon H.

2011-01-01

318

Localization of intravenously administered verocytotoxins (Shiga-like toxins) 1 and 2 in rabbits immunized with homologous and heterologous toxoids and toxin subunits.  

PubMed Central

Rabbits challenged intravenously with Shiga toxin or with Escherichia coli verocytotoxin 1 or 2 (VT1 or VT2) are known to develop diarrhea, paralysis, and death, which can be prevented by immunization with a toxoid. The pathological effects of VT1 in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract of unimmunized rabbits correlate with the localization of 125I-VT1 in these tissues, whereas in immunized animals, localization of 125I-VT1 in target tissues is inhibited and labeled toxin is cleared by the liver and spleen. By using the approach described above in this study, rabbits immunized with VT1 toxoid, VT2 toxoid, or with the A or B subunit of each toxin were challenged with intravenous 125I-VT1 or 125I-VT2. After 2 h, the animals were sacrificed, and selected tissues were analyzed for uptake of labeled toxin. It was found that animals immunized with either VT1 toxoid or VT2 toxoid were protected from target tissue uptake of both 125I-VT1 and 125I-VT2. Rabbits immunized with either the VT1 A or VT2 A subunit were also protected from target tissue uptake of both the homologous and heterologous 125I-labeled holotoxins. In contrast, in animals immunized with the toxin B subunits, protection extended only against challenge by the homologous toxin. These results provide evidence of VT1 and VT2 cross-neutralization in vivo in the rabbit model and indicate that the in vivo cross-neutralization is a function, mainly, of antibodies directed to the VT A subunits. This suggests that the VT1 A or VT2 A subunit may be a suitable immunogen for immunizing humans against systemic VT-mediated disease. PMID:9199412

Bielaszewska, M; Clarke, I; Karmali, M A; Petric, M

1997-01-01

319

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic vaccinia virus vaccine: Promising in liver cancer patients FDA panel endorses quadrivalent influenza vaccines Approval for the first meningitis B vaccine Stallergenes seeks FDA approval for sublingual grass-pollen allergy tablet Live-attenuated dengue vaccine promising in Phase 1 GAVI funds HPV vaccines for girls in developing countries First human trials for new superantigen bioterrorism vaccine Hexyon hexavalent pediatric vaccine recommended for approval

Riedmann, Eva M.

2013-01-01

320

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine  

E-print Network

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold that Maassab's innovative, trivalent, cold- adapted influenza vaccine, FluMist, which uses live but weakened

Shyy, Wei

321

Maintaining Vaccine Delivery Following the Introduction of the Rotavirus and Pneumococcal Vaccines in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Although the substantial burdens of rotavirus and pneumococcal disease have motivated many countries to consider introducing the rotavirus vaccine (RV) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) to their National Immunization Programs (EPIs), these new vaccines could affect the countries' vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from their manufacturers to patients). We developed detailed computational models of the Trang Province, Thailand, vaccine supply chain to simulate introducing various RV and PCV-7 vaccine presentations and their combinations. Our results showed that the volumes of these new vaccines in addition to current routine vaccines could meet and even exceed (1) the refrigerator space at the provincial district and sub-district levels and (2) the transport cold space at district and sub-district levels preventing other vaccines from being available to patients who arrive to be immunized. Besides the smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm3/dose), all other vaccine introduction scenarios required added storage capacity at the provincial level (range: 20 L–1151 L per month) for the three largest formulations, and district level (range: 1 L–124 L per month) across all introduction scenarios. Similarly, with the exception of the two smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm3/dose), added transport capacity was required at both district and sub-district levels. Added transport capacity required across introduction scenarios from the provincial to district levels ranged from 1 L–187 L, and district to sub-district levels ranged from 1 L–13 L per shipment. Finally, only the smallest RV vaccine presentation (17.1 cm3/dose) had no appreciable effect on vaccine availability at sub-districts. All other RV and PCV-7 vaccines were too large for the current supply chain to handle without modifications such as increasing storage or transport capacity. Introducing these new vaccines to Thailand could have dynamic effects on the availability of all vaccines that may not be initially apparent to decision-makers. PMID:21931805

Lee, Bruce Y.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Wateska, Angela R.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Chen, Sheng-I; Brown, Shawn T.; Welling, Joel; Norman, Bryan A.; Connor, Diana L.; Bailey, Rachel R.; Jana, Anirban; Van Panhuis, Willem G.; Burke, Donald S.

2011-01-01

322

Replicating vaccines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

323

DNA vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preclinical DNA vaccine development has continued apace during the past year, with the investigation of several new infectious and non-infectious disease targets as well as advances in our understanding of some of the basic immunologic mechanisms, such as effector cells, responsible for conferring protection. The coming year promises to be at least as exciting, as initial human clinical studies have

Jeffrey B Ulmer; Jerald C Sadoff; Margaret A Liu

1996-01-01

324

Vexing Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

Bowman, Darcia Harris

2004-01-01

325

Valuing vaccination  

PubMed Central

Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

2014-01-01

326

Efficacy of a non-updated, Matrix-C-based equine influenza subunit-tetanus vaccine following Florida sublineage clade 2 challenge  

PubMed Central

Assessing the ability of current equine influenza vaccines to provide cross-protection against emerging strains is important. Horses not vaccinated previously and seronegative for equine influenza based on haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay were assigned at random to vaccinated (n=7) or non-vaccinated (control, n=5) groups. Vaccination was performed twice four weeks apart with a 1?ml influenza subunit (A/eq/Prague/1/56, A/eq/Newmarket/1/93, A/eq/Newmarket/2/93), tetanus toxoid vaccine with Matrix-C adjuvant (EquilisPrequenza Te). All the horses were challenged individually by aerosol with A/eq/Richmond/1/07 three weeks after the second vaccination. Rectal temperature, clinical signs, serology and virus excretion were monitored for 14?days after challenge. There was no pain at the injection site or increases in rectal temperature following vaccination. Increases in rectal temperature and characteristic clinical signs were recorded in the control horses. Clinical signs were minimal in vaccinated horses. Clinical (P=0.0345) and total clinical scores (P=0.0180) were significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the control horses. Vaccination had a significant effect on indicators of viraemia – the extent (P=0.0006) and duration (P=<0.0001) of virus excretion and the total amount of virus excreted (AUC, P=0.0006). Vaccination also had a significant effect (P=0.0017) on whether a horse was positive or negative for virus excretion during the study. Further research is needed to fully understand the specific properties of this vaccine that may contribute to its cross-protective capacity. PMID:24795071

Pouwels, H. G. W.; Van de Zande, S. M. A.; Horspool, L. J. I.; Hoeijmakers, M. J. H.

2014-01-01

327

Immunology of Vaccine Adjuvants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times vaccine adjuvants, or immunopotentiators, received abundant attention in the media as critical ingredients of current and future vaccines. Indeed, vaccine adjuvants are recognized to make the difference between competing vaccines based on identical antigens. Moreover, it is recognized that vaccines designed for certain indications require a matching combination of selected antigen(s) together with a critical immunopotentiator that

C. M. S. Ribeiro; V. E. J. C. Schijns

2010-01-01

328

Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

329

Long-term effects of tetanus toxoid inoculation on the demography and life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population's age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates. Am. J. Primatol. 77:211-221, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25230585

Kessler, Matthew J; Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Ruiz-Lambrides, Angelina; Delgado, Diana L; Sabat, Alberto M

2015-02-01

330

The role of vaccination in preventing pneumococcal disease in adults.  

PubMed

Pneumococcal infections, including pneumonia and invasive disease, are major sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevention of the first acquisition of Streptococcus pneumoniae through the use of vaccines represents an effective method to reduce the burden of the disease in both children and adults. Two vaccines are currently available in adults: a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) that includes 23 purified capsular polysaccharide antigens and a pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV13) that includes capsular polysaccharide antigens covalently linked to a non-toxic protein. The PPV23 induces a humoral immune response and since it has been licensed has been the subject of debates and controversies. Numerous studies and meta-analyses have shown that PPV23 protects against invasive pneumococcal disease, although there are conflicting data regarding its efficacy for the prevention of pneumonia. Vaccination with PCV13 stimulates good antibody responses as well as mucosal immunity and suppresses colonization. A conjugate vaccine can be expected to have benefits over a polysaccharide vaccine because of the characteristics of a T-cell-dependent response in terms of affinity, maturation of antibodies with repeated exposure, induction of immunological memory and long-lasting immunity. PCV13 has demonstrated all of these characteristics in children and fundamental differences in adults are not expected. The efficacy in adults is currently being investigated and results will be available soon. PMID:24410778

Aliberti, S; Mantero, M; Mirsaeidi, M; Blasi, F

2014-05-01

331

Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines.  

PubMed

Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is ?-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with ?-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

Levitz, Stuart M; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R; Specht, Charles A

2014-11-18

332

Pneumococcal vaccination in Europe: schedule adherence.  

PubMed

Nonadherence to recommended pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) schedules may have implications for protection against pneumococcal disease. In this commentary, we have assessed adherence to the recommended dosing schedules (the completion of the primary PCV and booster series) in different European countries. We found that adherence with the PCV schedule was lower than that for diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and that higher adherence was observed in countries where PCV vaccination is recommended and funded. Adherence with the booster dose is often lower than that with the primary series completion, and it is often given after the recommended age. These data highlight the need to encourage timely vaccination of children with PCV, in line with local immunization schedules. There is no single solution to improve adherence; actions need to be tailored to the context of individual countries through initiatives at the national, regional, and local levels and should target different stakeholders. PMID:24746990

Gervaix, Alain; Ansaldi, Filippo; Brito-Avô, António; Azzari, Chiara; Knuf, Markus; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Tuerlinckx, David; Tin Htar, Myint Tin; Syrogiannopoulos, George A

2014-05-01

333

Safety and efficacy of a maternal vaccine for the passive protection of broiler chicks against necrotic enteritis.  

PubMed

Necrotic enteritis is a potentially fatal multifactorial disease of chickens, which under commercial conditions is often associated with increased levels of mortality and reduced bird performance. The safety and efficacy of a Clostridium perfringens type A alpha-toxoid (Netvax™) formulated as an oil emulsion was investigated, following maternal immunization of broiler breeder hens, housed under commercial conditions, by the intramuscular route. A total of 11,234 hens were vaccinated across two integrated poultry sites. The vaccine was safe with no systemic reactions or adverse effects on bird performance detected. Vaccination resulted in a significant increase in anti-alpha toxin antibody in the hen that was maintained throughout the study, and subsequently transferred to their progeny throughout the laying period via egg yolk. Chicks hatched from eggs produced from vaccinated hens were shown to have reduced mortality specifically related to progeny flocks where gross gut lesions associated with necrotic enteritis were observed in control chicks. Further, whilst C. perfringens was isolated from control chicks with necrotic enteritis lesions, no such isolations were made at these time points from chicks from vaccinated hens. These results indicate that, under commercial conditions, maternal vaccination with Netvax™ can help to control losses related to necrotic enteritis. PMID:21154059

Crouch, C F; Withanage, G S K; de Haas, V; Etore, F; Francis, M J

2010-12-01

334

A mucosal vaccine against diphtheria: formulation of cross reacting material (CRM(197)) of diphtheria toxin with chitosan enhances local and systemic antibody and Th2 responses following nasal delivery.  

PubMed

The development of new generation vaccines against diphtheria is dependent on the identification of antigens and routes of immunization that are capable of stimulating immune responses similar to, or greater than, those obtained with the parenterally-delivered toxoid vaccine, while reducing the adverse effects that have been associated with the traditional vaccine. In this study, we examined the cellular and humoral immune responses in mice generated after both parenteral and mucosal immunizations with cross-reacting material (CRM(197)) of diphtheria toxin. We found that both native and mildly formaldehyde-treated CRM(197) and conventional diphtheria toxoid (DT) induced mixed Th1/Th2 responses and similar levels of anti-DT serum IgG following parenteral immunization. In contrast, CRM(197) preparations were poorly immunogenic when administered intranasally in solution. However, formulation of the antigens with chitosan significantly enhanced their immunogenicity, inducing high levels of antigen-specific IgG, secretory IgA, toxin-neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses, predominately of Th2 subtype. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with CRM(197) and chitosan induced protective antibodies against the toxin in a guinea pig passive challenge model. We also found that priming parenterally with DT in alum and boosting intranasally with CRM(197) was a very effective method of immunization in mice, capable of inducing high levels of anti-DT IgG and neutralizing antibodies in the serum and secretory IgA in the respiratory tract. Our findings suggest that boosting intranasally with CRM(197) antigen may be very effective in adolescents or adults who have previously been parenterally immunized with a conventional diphtheria toxoid vaccine. PMID:11137256

McNeela, E A; O'Connor, D; Jabbal-Gill, I; Illum, L; Davis, S S; Pizza, M; Peppoloni, S; Rappuoli, R; Mills, K H

2000-12-01

335

Immunization Issues: Vaccine Misinformation  

MedlinePLUS

... were not. 2 Vaccine safety concerns and risk perception No vaccine is 100% effective; no vaccine is ... These infections are just a plane ride away. Perception of risk depends on people’s experiences and knowledge. ...

336

Vaccination Records for Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines Home For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children Vaccination Records for Kids On this Page Recording Immunizations ... teams, and summer camps or to travel. Recording Immunizations Good record- keeping begins with good record- taking. ...

337

HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks ... onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP). What is the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine provides protection against some types ...

338

Preteen and Teen Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... or Teen Vaccinated? Which Vaccines Do Preteens and Teens Need, and When? All preteens (age 11 or ... Quiz . How Can I Get My Preteen or Teen Vaccinated? Preteens and teens typically see their doctors ...

339

Vaccinations and HIV  

MedlinePLUS

... Do not measure your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied ... live” vaccination in the past 2 or 3 weeks. Still, the “MMR” vaccine against measles, mumps and ...

340

Vaccines.gov  

MedlinePLUS

... a highly contagious respiratory disease. Read more . Find Measles Vaccines Near You Measles cases are at a 20 year high. Protect yourself and your family, get vaccinated . Get help paying for vaccines Learn about coverage under the Affordable Care Act ( ...

341

RESPONSE TO CONJUGATEHAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAEB VACCINE AMONG INFANTS IN NIAMEY, NIGER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite near elimination of Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) meningitis from several industrialized coun- tries following introduction of conjugate Hib vaccines into infant immunization schedules, Hib remains a major cause of meningitis and pneumonia in resource-poor countries. In Niger, Hib causes nearly 200 cases of meningitis per 100,000 children , one year of age, and . 40% of cases are fatal.

GERARD CAMPAGNE; AMADOU GARBA; ANNE SCHUCHAT; DENIS BOULANGER; BRIAN D. PLIKAYTIS; MARIAMA OUSSEINI; JEAN-PHILIPPE CHIPPAUX

1998-01-01

342

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  

PubMed Central

Two therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates successful in phase 1 Flu shot may prevent heart attacks and stroke CDX-1401 combined with TLR agonist: Positive phase 1 results Three MRSA vaccines in early clincial trials Ovarian cancer vaccine candidate DPX-Survivac: Positive interim results from phase 1 Chinese biotech partnership brings first hepatitis E vaccine to the market Therapeutic vaccine for treatment of genital herpes enters phase 2 Visionary concept: Printable vaccines PMID:23817319

Riedmann, Eva M.

2012-01-01

343

Use of immuno assays during the development of a Hemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for technology transfer to emerging vaccine manufacturers.  

PubMed

Quality control of Hemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines is mainly dependent on physicochemical methods. Overcoming sample matrix interference when using physicochemical tests is very challenging, these tests are therefore only used to test purified samples of polysaccharide, protein, bulk conjugate, and final product. For successful development of a Hib conjugate vaccine, several ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) methods were needed as an additional tool to enable testing of in process (IP) samples. In this paper, three of the ELISA's that have been very valuable during the process development, implementation and scaling up are highlighted. The PRP-ELISA, was a very efficient tool in testing in process (IP) samples generated during the development of the cultivation and purification process of the Hib-polysaccharide. The antigenicity ELISA, was used to confirm the covalent linkage of PRP and TTd in the conjugate. The anti-PRP IgG ELISA was developed as part of the immunogenicity test, used to demonstrate the ability of the Hib conjugate vaccine to elicit a T-cell dependent immune response in mice. ELISA methods are relatively cheap and easy to implement and therefore very useful during the development of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. PMID:25483494

Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans

2014-09-01

344

Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... Children (VFC) Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project (VMBIP) Global Immunizations & Vaccinations Immunization Program Evaluation (IPE) Assessment, Feedback, ...

345

A Novel Lactococcal Vaccine Expressing a Peptide from the M2 Antigen of H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus Prolongs Survival of Vaccinated Chickens  

PubMed Central

A cost-effective and efficacious influenza vaccine for use in commercial poultry farms would help protect against avian influenza outbreaks. Current influenza vaccines for poultry are expensive and subtype specific, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop a universal avian influenza vaccine. We have constructed a live bacterial vaccine against avian influenza by expressing a conserved peptide from the ectodomain of M2 antigen (M2e) on the surface of Lactococcus lactis (LL). Chickens were vaccinated intranasally with the lactococcal vaccine (LL-M2e) or subcutaneously with keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin conjugated M2e (KLH-M2e). Vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds were challenged with high pathogenic avian influenza virus A subtype H5N2. Birds vaccinated with LL-M2e or KLH-M2e had median survival times of 5.5 and 6.0 days, respectively, which were significantly longer than non-vaccinated birds (3.5 days). Birds vaccinated subcutaneously with KLH-M2e had a lower mean viral burden than either of the other two groups. However, there was a significant correlation between the time of survival and M2e-specific serum IgG. The results of these trials show that birds in both vaccinated groups had significantly (P < 0.05) higher median survival times than non-vaccinated birds and that this protection could be due to M2e-specific serum IgG. PMID:23766929

Reese, Kaleb A.; Lupfer, Christopher; Johnson, Rudd C.; Mitev, Georgi M.; Mullen, Valerie M.; Geller, Bruce L.

2013-01-01

346

Global practices of meningococcal vaccine use and impact on invasive disease  

PubMed Central

A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in country programs across the world and their effect on the burden of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) as reflected by pre and post-vaccine incidence rates in the last 20 years. Mass campaigns using conjugated meningococcal vaccines have lead to control of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the UK, Canada, Australia, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, and Iceland. Serogroup B disease, predominant in New Zealand, has been dramatically decreased, partly due to the introduction of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine. Polysaccharide vaccines were used in high risk people in Saudi Arabia and Syria and in routine immunization in China and Egypt. The highest incidence region of the meningitis belt initiated vaccination with the serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010 and catch-up vaccination is ongoing. Overall results of this vaccine introduction are encouraging especially in countries with a moderate to high level of endemic disease. Continued surveillance is required to monitor effectiveness in countries that recently implemented these programs. PMID:24548156

Ali, Asad; Jafri, Rabab Zehra; Messonnier, Nancy; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Durrheim, David; Eskola, Juhani; Fermon, Florence; Klugman, Keith P; Ramsay, Mary; Sow, Samba; Zhujun, Shao; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abramson, Jon

2014-01-01

347

Stabilized polyacrylic saccharide protein conjugates  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to water soluble protein polymer conjugates which are stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises a protein which is linked to an acrylic polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 16 figs.

Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

1996-02-20

348

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine  

E-print Network

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information://www.immunize.org/vis What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. · In 2009, about 38,000 people became infected with hepatitis B. · Each year about 2

Leistikow, Bruce N.

349

Identification and characterization of the constituent human serum antibodies elicited by vaccination  

PubMed Central

Most vaccines confer protection via the elicitation of serum antibodies, yet more than 100 y after the discovery of antibodies, the molecular composition of the human serum antibody repertoire to an antigen remains unknown. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography tandem MS proteomic analyses of serum antibodies coupled with next-generation sequencing of the V gene repertoire in peripheral B cells, we have delineated the human serum IgG and B-cell receptor repertoires following tetanus toxoid (TT) booster vaccination. We show that the TT+ serum IgG repertoire comprises ?100 antibody clonotypes, with three clonotypes accounting for >40% of the response. All 13 recombinant IgGs examined bound to vaccine antigen with Kd ? 10?8–10?10 M. Five of 13 IgGs recognized the same linear epitope on TT, occluding the binding site used by the toxin for cell entry, suggesting a possible explanation for the mechanism of protection conferred by the vaccine. Importantly, only a small fraction (<5%) of peripheral blood plasmablast clonotypes (CD3?CD14?CD19+CD27++CD38++CD20?TT+) at the peak of the response (day 7), and an even smaller fraction of memory B cells, were found to encode antibodies that could be detected in the serological memory response 9 mo postvaccination. This suggests that only a small fraction of responding peripheral B cells give rise to the bone marrow long-lived plasma cells responsible for the production of biologically relevant amounts of vaccine-specific antibodies (near or above the Kd). Collectively, our results reveal the nature and dynamics of the serological response to vaccination with direct implications for vaccine design and evaluation. PMID:24469811

Lavinder, Jason J.; Wine, Yariv; Giesecke, Claudia; Ippolito, Gregory C.; Horton, Andrew P.; Lungu, Oana I.; Hoi, Kam Hon; DeKosky, Brandon J.; Murrin, Ellen M.; Wirth, Megan M.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Dörner, Thomas; Marcotte, Edward M.; Boutz, Daniel R.; Georgiou, George

2014-01-01

350

Conjugation in "Escherichia coli"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bacterial conjugation is a genetic transfer that involves cell-to-cell between donor and recipient cells. With the current method used to teach students in genetic courses at the undergraduate level, the transconjugants are identified using bacterial physiology and/or antibiotic resistance. Using physiology, however, is difficult for both…

Phornphisutthimas, Somkiat; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

2007-01-01

351

Robo4 vaccines induce antibodies that retard tumor growth.  

PubMed

Tumor endothelial specific expression of Robo4 in adults identifies this plasma membrane protein as an anti-cancer target for immunotherapeutic approaches, such as vaccination. In this report, we describe how vaccination against Robo4 inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. To break tolerance to the auto-antigen Robo4, mice were immunised with the extracellular domain of mouse Robo4, fused to the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin within an adjuvant. Vaccinated mice show a strong antibody response to Robo4, with no objectively detectable adverse effects on health. Robo4 vaccinated mice showed impaired fibrovascular invasion and angiogenesis in a rodent sponge implantation assay, as well as a reduced growth of implanted syngeneic Lewis lung carcinoma. The anti-tumor effect of Robo4 vaccination was present in CD8 deficient mice but absent in B cell or IgG1 knockout mice, suggesting antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity as the anti-vascular/anti-tumor mechanism. Finally, we show that an adjuvant free soluble Robo4-carrier conjugate can retard tumor growth in carrier primed mice. These results point to appropriate Robo4 conjugates as potential anti-angiogenic vaccines for cancer patients. PMID:25348086

Zhuang, Xiaodong; Ahmed, Forhad; Zhang, Yang; Ferguson, Henry J; Steele, Jane C; Steven, Neil M; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Heath, Victoria L; Toellner, Kai-Michael; Bicknell, Roy

2015-01-01

352

An enzymatic mutant of Shiga-like toxin II variant is a vaccine candidate for edema disease of swine.  

PubMed Central

Edema disease (ED) of weanling pigs is caused by an infection with Escherichia coli that produces Shiga-like toxin II variant (SLT-IIv). Pathology identical to that caused by ED can be duplicated in pigs that are injected with less than 10 ng of purified SLT-IIv per kg of body weight. Therefore, SLT-IIv was mutated to create an immunoreactive form of the toxin that was significantly reduced in enzymatic activity. Initially, purified SLT-IIv was treated with formaldehyde which abrogated cytotoxic activity. Pigs were vaccinated with the toxoid (100 micrograms) to determine whether a toxoid was a viable vaccine candidate and whether young pigs were capable of mounting an immune response. Although the pigs developed a neutralizing antibody titer (1:128 to 1:512) 28 days postinjection, they also lost weight and developed ED lesions. The deleterious effect of the toxoid appeared to result from residual enzymatic activity or a reversion to a toxic form. An alternative method, site-directed mutagenesis, was employed to consistently reduce the enzymatic activity of SLT-IIv. Glutamate at position 167 of the mature A subunit was replaced by aspartate (E167D), and arginine at position 170 was replaced by lysine (R170K). These mutations reduced cytotoxic activity 10(4)-fold and 10-fold, respectively, while the enzymatic activities were decreased 400-fold and 5-fold, respectively. The activity of a toxin that contained both mutations (SLT-IIvE167D/R170K) closely resembled that of SLT-IIvE167D. When position 167 was replaced by glutamine (E167Q), the cytotoxic activity decreased 10(6)-fold and the enzymatic activity decreased approximately 1,500-fold. Pigs that were vaccinated with purified, mutant toxin designated SLT-IIvE167Q developed a neutralizing antibody titer of 1:512 21 days postinjection, and their tissues were free of ED lesions. These data suggest that SLT-IIvE167Q may represent an effective vaccine against ED. Images PMID:1730480

Gordon, V M; Whipp, S C; Moon, H W; O'Brien, A D; Samuel, J E

1992-01-01

353

A Bivalent Vaccine to Protect against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi  

PubMed Central

Pneumococcal and Salmonella typhi infections are two major diseases for children in developing countries. For typhoid fever, licensed Vi polysaccharide vaccines are ineffective in children <2 year-old. While investigational Vi conjugate vaccines have been shown effective in clinical trials, they are currently only available to restricted areas. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are highly effective in children, but suffer from some limitations including cost and limited serotype coverage. We have previously shown that a fusion conjugate vaccine, consisting of pneumococcal fusion protein PsaA and pneumolysoid (PdT) conjugated to a polysaccharide, results in enhanced antibody and CD4+ Th17 cell responses as well as protection against pneumococcal colonization and disease in mice. Here we applied this approach to develop a bivalent vaccine against pneumococcus and S. typhi. Two species-conserved pneumococcal antigens (SP1572 or SP2070) were fused to the nonhemolytic pneumolysoid PdT. SP1572-PdT was then conjugated to Vi polysaccharide and SP2070-PdT was conjugated to the pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS; also conserved). Mice immunized with this bivalent conjugate were protected against pneumococcal colonization and sepsis challenges, and made anti-Vi antibody concentrations higher by 40 fold compared to mice that received equimolar mixtures of the antigens. An enhanced killing of Vi-bearing Salmonellae in vitro was demonstrated from plasma of mice that received the fusion conjugate but not the mixture of antigens. Our results support further evaluation of this bivalent immunogen for the prevention of pneumococcal colonization and disease, and of typhoid fever. PMID:22465750

Lu, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Fan; Sayeed, Sabina; Thompson, Claudette; Szu, Shousun; Anderson, Porter W.; Malley, Richard

2012-01-01

354

The preteen visit: an opportunity for prevention.  

PubMed

All early adolescents should visit a physician at age 11 or 12 years to receive a set of recommended vaccines. Two vaccines are recommended for boys in this age group-quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap). Three vaccines are recommended for girls--MCV4, Tdap, and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. In addition, 2 doses of varicella vaccine are now recommended before age 5 years; both boys and girls at age 11 or 12 who have received only 1 dose should be given a second. PMID:17137541

Campos-Outcalt, Doug

2006-12-01

355

Existing antiviral vaccines.  

PubMed

The innovation of vaccines has allowed for one of the greatest advancements in the history of public health. The first of the vaccines have been the antiviral vaccines, in particular the smallpox vaccine that was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796. This article will review vaccination for the following viral diseases: measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, rotavirus, rabies, monkeypox, smallpox, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever. PMID:19335723

Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Creed, Rosella; Mendoza, Natalia

2009-01-01

356

Influence of cytokine gene variations on immunization to childhood vaccines.  

PubMed

The magnitude of the immune response to vaccinations can be influenced by genetic variability. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether cytokine or cytokine receptor gene polymorphisms were associated with variations in the immune response to childhood vaccination. The study group consisted of 141 healthy infants who had been immunized with hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines according to standard childhood immunization schedules. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA using a 5' nuclease PCR assay. Post vaccination total, isotypic, and antigen-specific serum antibody levels were measured using multiplex immunoassays. Significant associations were observed between SNPs in the TNFalpha, IL-12B, IL-4Ralpha, and IL-10 genes and vaccine-specific immune responses (p<0.05). In addition, SNPs in the IL-1beta, TNFalpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-4Ralpha, and IL-12B genes were associated with variations in serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) and IgG isotypes (IgG1-IgG3) (p<0.05). These data suggest that genetic variations in cytokine genes can influence vaccine-induced immune responses in infants, which in turn may influence vaccine efficacy. PMID:19819209

Yucesoy, Berran; Johnson, Victor J; Fluharty, Kara; Kashon, Michael L; Slaven, James E; Wilson, Nevin W; Weissman, David N; Biagini, Raymond E; Germolec, Dori R; Luster, Michael I

2009-11-23

357

Evaluation of a non-viral vaccine in smallpox-vaccinated individuals and immunized HLA-transgenic mice.  

PubMed

The current poxvirus vaccine is associated with rare, but serious adverse events. Therefore, we investigated a non-replicating approach to vaccine design. Peptides encoding potential HLA-binding motifs were derived from the orthopoxvirus genes, D8L, A27L, and C12L (the IL-18-binding protein [vIL18BP105]), all of which are preserved among poxviruses that infect humans, and which may be a target of host immunity. The peptides were tested with poxvirus-vaccinated human PBMC and serum for eliciting memory responses, as well as with splenocytes and serum from peptide-immunized, human HLA-DR04 transgenic (HLA tg) mice. vIL18BP105 induced 5-fold proliferation of vaccinated-donor PBMC over non-vaccinated (P<0.001), including IL-2-producing CD8+ cells. Serum IgG recognizing vIL18BP105 was detected (P<0.002 vs non-vaccinated) by ELISA. Viral peptides were conjugated to the HLA-targeting mAb, L243, for immunization of HLA tg mice. Splenocytes from vIL18BP105-L243-immunized mice proliferated upon exposure to vIL18BP105 (P<0.001). Proliferating splenocytes were interferon-?-producing CD4(+)CD45RA(neg). vIL18BP105-L243-immunized mice generated IgG more rapidly than free-peptide-immunized mice. Peptide-specific antibody was also detected when different L243-peptide conjugates were combined. vIL18BP, by eliciting human memory responses, is a viable antigen for inclusion in a virus-free vaccine. The immunogenicity of peptides was boosted by conjugation to L243, whether administered alone or combined. PMID:22504409

Taylor, Alice P; Makabi-Panzu, Boby; Chen, Xiaochuan; Gold, David V; Goldenberg, David M

2012-06-01

358

Gold nanoparticle–M2e conjugate coformulated with CpG induces protective immunity against influenza A virus  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study aimed to develop a novel influenza A vaccine by conjugating the highly conserved extracellular region of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and to test the vaccine in a mouse influenza challenge model. Materials & methods: Citrate-reduced AuNPs (diameter: 12 nm) were synthesized, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. M2e was conjugated to AuNPs through thiol–gold interactions to form M2e–AuNP conjugates. Particle stability was confirmed by UV–visible spectra, and M2e conjugation was further characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mice were immunized with M2e–AuNPs with or without CpG (cytosine-guanine rich oligonucleotide) as an adjuvant with appropriate control groups. Sera was collected and M2e-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) was measured, and immunized mice were challenged with PR8-H1N1 influenza virus. Results: M2e-capped AuNPs could be lyophilized and stably resuspended in water. Intranasal vaccination of mice with M2e–AuNP conjugates induced M2e-specific IgG serum antibodies, which significantly increased upon addition of soluble CpG as adjuvant. Upon challenge with lethal PR8, mice vaccinated with M2e-AuNP conjugates were only partially protected, while mice that received soluble CpG as adjuvant in addition to M2e–AuNP were fully protected. Conclusion: Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of using the M2e–AuNP conjugates with CpG as an adjuvant as a platform for developing an influenza A vaccine. PMID:23829488

Tao, Wenqian; Ziemer, Katherine S; Gill, Harvinder S

2014-01-01

359

Single-dose monomeric HA subunit vaccine generates full protection from influenza challenge.  

PubMed

Recombinant subunit vaccines are an efficient strategy to meet the demands of a possible influenza pandemic, because of rapid and scalable production. However, vaccines made from recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) subunit protein are often of low potency, requiring high dose or boosting to generate a sustained immune response. We have improved the immunogenicity of a plant-made HA vaccine by chemical conjugation to the surface of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) which is non infectious in mammals. We have previously shown that TMV is taken up by mammalian dendritic cells and is a highly effective antigen carrier. In this work, we tested several TMV-HA conjugation chemistries, and compared immunogenicity in mice as measured by anti-HA IgG titers and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI). Importantly, pre-existing immunity to TMV did not reduce initial or boosted titers. Further optimization included dosing with and without alum or oil-in water adjuvants. Surprisingly, we were able to stimulate potent immunogenicity and HAI titers with a single 15 µg dose of HA as a TMV conjugate. We then evaluated the efficacy of the TMV-HA vaccine in a lethal virus challenge in mice. Our results show that a single dose of the TMV-HA conjugate vaccine is sufficient to generate 50% survival, or 100% survival with adjuvant, compared with 10% survival after vaccination with a commercially available H1N1 vaccine. TMV-HA is an effective dose-sparing influenza vaccine, using a single-step process to rapidly generate large quantities of highly effective flu vaccine from an otherwise low potency HA subunit protein. PMID:24378714

Mallajosyula, Jyothi K; Hiatt, Ernie; Hume, Steve; Johnson, Ashley; Jeevan, Trushar; Chikwamba, Rachel; Pogue, Gregory P; Bratcher, Barry; Haydon, Hugh; Webby, Richard J; McCormick, Alison A

2014-03-01

360

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... or behavior changes. Signs of a severe allergic reaction can include hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing, a fast heartbeat, dizziness, and weakness. These would start a ...

361

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine - what you need to know  

MedlinePLUS

... or behavior changes. Signs of a severe allergic reaction can include hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing, a fast heartbeat, dizziness, and weakness. These would start a ...

362

Conjugate Auroral Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conjugate studies of high-latitude geomagnetic activity are central to understanding the (truly) global magnetospheric response to external perturbations, i.e. the solar wind, and the role of the ionosphere in modulating and coupling with the magnetosphere. Interhemispheric asymmetries as manifested in auroral emissions have been observed for over 40 years. Unfortunately, the nature of the problem has limited the type and extent of studies that can be performed to either conjugate ground based observations or comparison of space based images with all-sky cameras. Recently Frank and Sigwarth (2002) published results using unique simultaneous images from Polar of the northern and southern aurora, but these are necessarily limited to the nighttime and at oblique angles. However, conjunctive images made with the cameras from the Polar and IMAGE missions contain simultaneous conjugate images of the large-scale aurora under many and varying conditions. This rich data set provides an opportunity to study interhemispheric auroral asymmetries and investigate their occurrence as a function of solar wind conditions and ionospheric parameters such as conductivity. In order to use images of different scenes from each of these cameras, knowledge of their relative response is required. To that end, this paper will present preliminary results of comparing the images with emphasis on data from the Polar UVI LBH filters and the IMAGE FUV WIC.

Spann, Jim

2003-01-01

363

[Developments in HPV vaccination].  

PubMed

Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities. PMID:23171565

de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina

2012-01-01

364

Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It?  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It? On this Page Vaccine Who ... the MMR Vaccine Information Statement and the Childhood Immunization Schedule . As an adult, do I need this ...

365

Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It?  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? On this Page Vaccine Who ... need this vaccine? Yes, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends 5 doses of diphtheria and ...

366

Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

367

Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

368

Mumps - Vaccine Q and A  

MedlinePLUS

... with an impaired immune system should not receive live attenuated vaccines (MMR vaccine). NOTE: The combination MMRV vaccine is not licensed for those over 12 years old. UPDATED July 2010 Is the vaccine effective/does ...

369

Vaccines against poverty  

PubMed Central

With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

2014-01-01

370

Vaccines against poverty.  

PubMed

With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

2014-08-26

371

Prevention of pneumococcal diseases in the post-seven valent vaccine era: A European perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in young children decreased dramatically following introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The epidemiology of S. pneumoniae now reflects infections caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. Recently introduced higher valency pneumococcal vaccines target the residual burden of invasive and non-invasive infections, including those caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. This review is based on presentations made at the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in June 2011. Discussion Surveillance data show increased circulation of the non-PCV7 vaccine serotypes 1, 3, 6A, 6C, 7?F and 19A in countries with routine vaccination. Preliminary evidence suggests that broadened serotype coverage offered by higher valency vaccines may be having an effect on invasive disease caused by some of those serotypes, including 19A, 7?F and 6C. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia remains a difficult clinical diagnosis. However, recent reports indicate that pneumococcal vaccination has reduced hospitalisations of children for vaccine serotype pneumonia. Variations in serotype circulation and occurrence of complicated and non-complicated pneumonia caused by non-PCV7 serotypes highlight the potential of higher valency vaccines to decrease the remaining burden. PCVs reduce nasopharyngeal carriage and acute otitis media (AOM) caused by vaccine serotypes. Recent investigations of the interaction between S. pneumoniae and non-typeable H. influenzae suggest that considerable reduction in severe, complicated AOM infections may be achieved by prevention of early pneumococcal carriage and AOM infections. Extension of the vaccine serotype spectrum beyond PCV7 may provide additional benefit in preventing the evolution of AOM. The direct and indirect costs associated with pneumococcal disease are high, thus herd protection and infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes both have strong effects on the cost effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination. Recent evaluations highlight the public health significance of indirect benefits, prevention of pneumonia and AOM and coverage of non-PCV7 serotypes by higher valency vaccines. Summary Routine vaccination has greatly reduced the burden of pneumococcal diseases in children. The pneumococcal serotypes present in the 7-valent vaccine have greatly diminished among disease isolates. The prevalence of some non-vaccine serotypes (e.g. 1, 7?F and 19A) has increased. Pneumococcal vaccines with broadened serotype coverage are likely to continue decreasing the burden of invasive disease, and community acquired pneumonia in children. Further reductions in pneumococcal carriage and increased prevention of early AOM infections may prevent the evolution of severe, complicated AOM. Evaluation of the public health benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines should include consideration of non-invasive pneumococcal infections, indire