Science.gov

Sample records for toxoid conjugate vaccine

  1. Quantification of free polysaccharide in meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lei, Q P; Shannon, A G; Heller, R K; Lamb, D H

    2000-01-01

    A precipitation method using deoxycholate/HCI has been applied successfully to separate unconjugated free polysaccharide from carrier protein-bound material in meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccines. The method effectively separated free and bound polysaccharide in conjugate vaccines prepared from Neisseria meningitidis serotypes A, C, W135 and Y. Free polysaccharide remained in the supernatant after deoxycholate treatment while protein-bound polysaccharide was fully precipitated. Testing by both colorimetric assay and high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) has confirmed the selective loss of protein-bound polysaccharide in samples of conjugate vaccine or conjugate vaccine mixed with known amounts of free polysaccharide. This rapid separation method requires minimum sample handling and is specific, reproducible, and allows assessment of free polysaccharide levels in vaccines at final container concentration. PMID:11214246

  2. Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Hedari, Carine P; Khinkarly, Rima W; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses) have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines MenACWY-DT (Menactra) and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo) using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix) was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of MenACWY-TT in infants from the age of 6 weeks. PMID:24729718

  3. Meningococcal vaccine A,C,W135,Y: conjugated to tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    A meningococcal vaccine conjugated to protein CRM 197 (Menveo) is the standard vaccine for immunisation against invasive meningococcal infections caused by serogroups A, C, W135 andY, beginning at age 2 years. Nimenrix, another vaccine against meningococcal groups A, C,W135 and Y, conjugated to tetanus toxoid, was authorised for use in the European Union, starting at age 1 year. The two tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines have not been compared in head-to-head trials. Four immunogenicity studies compared the tetravalent conjugate vaccine Nimenrix with an unconjugated tetravalent meningococcal vaccine in children and adults aged 2 to 55 years. The results showed that Nimenrix was more immunogenic than the unconjugated vaccine. Two immunogenicity studies showed that Nimenrix was at least as immunogenic as monovalent (group C) meningococcal conjugate vaccines in children aged from 1 to 2 years and from 2 to 10 years. In one study, prior vaccination with an unconjugated tetravalent meningococcal vaccine had little impact on the immunogenicity of a booster dose of the conjugate vaccine Nimenrix. Concomitant administration with other vaccines does not affect the immunogenicity of Nimenrix. Nimenrix causes more frequent local and systemic adverse reactions than the unconjugated tetravalent meningococcal vaccine and monovalent group C meningococcal conjugate vaccines. In children over 2 years of age, Nimenrix has no advantages over Menveo for vaccination against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W135 andY. In contrast, between the ages of 1 and 2 years, Nimenrix is the only vaccine with established immunogenicity. In addition, it has an acceptable harm-benefit balance. PMID:24600724

  4. Structural correlates of carrier protein recognition in tetanus toxoid-conjugated bacterial polysaccharide vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lockyer, Kay; Gao, Fang; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of structure-antibody recognition relationships in nine licenced polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccines was performed. The panel of conjugates used included vaccine components to protect against disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis groups A, C, W and Y and Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 18C. Conformation and structural analysis included size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering to determine size, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching to evaluate the protein folding and exposure of Trp residues. A capture ELISA measured the recognition of TT epitopes in the conjugates, using four rat monoclonal antibodies: 2 localised to the HC domain, and 2 of which were holotoxoid conformation-dependent. The conjugates had a wide range of average molecular masses ranging from 1.8נ106g/mol to larger than 20נ106g/mol. The panel of conjugates were found to be well folded, and did not have spectral features typical of aggregated TT. A partial correlation was found between molecular mass and epitope recognition. Recognition of the epitopes either on the HC domain or the whole toxoid was not necessarily hampered by the size of the molecule. Correlation was also found between the accessibility of Trp side chains and polysaccharide loading, suggesting also that a higher level of conjugated PS does not necessarily interfere with toxoid accessibility. There were different levels of carrier protein Trp side-chain and epitope accessibility that were localised to the HC domain; these were related to the saccharide type, despite the conjugates being independently manufactured. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular basis for carrier protein recognition in TT conjugate vaccines. PMID:25640334

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1 Lipopolysaccharide-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine: Preparation, Characterization and Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Najafzadeh, Faezeh; Shapouri, Reza; Rahnema, Mehdi; Rokhsartalab Azar, Shadi; Kianmehr, Anvarsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1 infections through immunological means has been proved to be efficient and protective. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to produce a conjugate vaccine composed of detoxified lipopolysaccharide (D-LPS) P. aeruginosa and diphtheria toxoid (DT). Materials and Methods: Firstly, LPS was purified and characterized from P. aeruginosa PAO1 and then detoxified. D-LPS was covalently coupled to DT as a carrier protein via amidation method with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a spacer molecule and 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as a linker. The molar ratio of LPS to DT in the prepared conjugate was 3:1. The immunogenicity of D-LPS-DT conjugate vaccine in mice model was evaluated as well. Results: The conjugate was devoid of endotoxin activity and 0.125 U/mL of D-LPS was acceptable for immunization. D-LPS-DT conjugate was nonpyrogenic for rabbits and nontoxic for mice. Mice immunization with D-LPS-DT conjugate vaccine elicited the fourfold higher IgG antibody compared to D-LPS. Anti-LPS IgG antibody was predominantly IgG1 subclass and then IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b, respectively. Conclusions: Vaccine based on the conjugation of P. aeruginosa PAO-1 LPS with DT increased anti-LPS antibodies and had a significant potential to protect against Pseudomonas infections. PMID:26301059

  6. Synthesis, characterization and immunological properties of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 lipopolysaccharide- diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rokhsartalab-Azar, Shadi; Shapouri, Reza; Rahnema, Mehdi; Najafzadeh, Faezeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Escherichia coli O157:H7, an emerging pathogen, causes severe enteritis and the extraintestinal complication of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The goal of this study was to evaluate the conjugate of E. coli O157: H7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with diphtheria toxoid (DT) as a candidate vaccine in mice model. Material and Methods: LPS from E. coli O157:H7 was extracted by hot phenol method and then detoxified. Purified LPS was coupled to DT with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a spacer and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as a linker. The coupling molar ratio of LPS to DT was 3:1. Clinical evaluation of E. coli O157:H7 LPS-DT conjugate was also performed. Results: The conjugate was devoid of endotoxin activity and indicated 0.125 U/ml of D-LPS. Mice immunization with D-LPS DT conjugate elicited fourfold higher IgG antibody in comparison to D-LPS. Also, in vivo protection of mice with conjugate provided high protection against the LD50 of E. coli O157:H7, which indicated a good correlation with the IgG titer. Conclusion: Our results showed that the suggested vaccine composed of E. coli O157:H7 LPS and DT had a significant potential to protect against E. coli infections. PMID:26668702

  7. Physico-chemical properties of Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccines affect immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    An, So Jung; Yoon, Yeon Kyung; Kothari, Sudeep; Kothari, Neha; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Eugene; Kim, Deok Ryun; Park, Tai Hyun; Smith, Greg W; Carbis, Rodney

    2011-10-13

    In this study it was demonstrated that the immunogenicity of Vi polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugates was related to the physical and chemical structure of the conjugate. Conjugates were prepared in two steps, firstly binding adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) spacer molecules to diphtheria toxoid (DT) carrier protein then secondly binding varying amounts of this derivatized DT to a fixed amount of Vi capsular polysaccharide purified from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi. As the amount of DT bound to the Vi increased the size of the conjugate increased but also the degree of cross-linking increased. The immunogenicity of the conjugates was tested in mice and measured by ELISA for anti Vi and anti DT IgG responses, and the results revealed a trend that as the amount of DT bound to the Vi increased the anti Vi responses increased. This study establishes a correlation between physico-chemical characteristics of the conjugate and the magnitude of the anti Vi and anti DT responses. PMID:21843575

  8. Murine Immune Responses to Neisseria meningitidis Group C Capsular Polysaccharide and a Thymus-Dependent Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Leonard J.; Garca-Ojeda, Pablo A.; Michon, Francis; Jennings, Harold J.; Stein, Kathryn E.

    1998-01-01

    The polysaccharide (PS) capsules of many pathogenic bacteria are poor immunogens in infants and young children as a result of the delayed response to PS antigens during ontogeny. The development of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines for Haemophilus influenzae type b, which have proven to be efficacious in this age group, has led to active development by a number of investigators of conjugate vaccines for other diseases. We describe here the response of several mouse strains to the capsular PS of Neisseria meningitidis group C (MCPS) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MCPS-TT) and the same response in BALB/c mice as a model of the immune consequences of conjugate vaccine immunization. The use of a conjugate vaccine results in a shift in the isotype elicited in response to the MCPS, from immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG3 to primarily IgG1. A response to MCPS-TT is seen even among mouse strains which respond poorly to MCPS itself, emphasizing the importance of a strain survey when choosing a mouse model for a vaccine. The marked increase in IgG1 antibody titer was accompanied by a large increase in bactericidal activity of sera from these animals. Animals primed with the conjugate vaccine demonstrated a booster response after secondary immunization with either the MCPS or the conjugate. The ability to produce a boosted IgG1 anti-MCPS response to the MCPS can be transferred to adoptive recipients by B cells alone from mice primed with MCPS-TT but not mice primed with MCPS alone. These data indicate that in BALB/c mice a single immunization with MCPS-TT is sufficient to induce a shift to IgG1 and generate a memory B-cell population that does not require T cells for boosting. PMID:9784556

  9. Immunogenicity of a combination vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, three-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated polio virus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b when given concomitantly with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco; Kieninger, Dorothee M; Kueper, Kathrin; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Bernaola, Enrique; Diez-Domingo, Javier; Steul, Kathrin; Juergens, Christine; Gurtman, Alejandra; Giardina, Peter; Liang, John Z; Gruber, William C; Emini, Emilio A; Scott, Daniel A

    2011-08-11

    Two randomized trials of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) relative to PCV7 evaluated the immune responses of coadministered antigens comprising Infanrix() hexa/Infanrix()-IPV+Hib (diphtheria, tetanus, 3-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b). After the 3-dose infant series, immunogenic noninferiority was demonstrated for all concomitantly administered antigens between the PCV13 and PCV7 groups. All antigens elicited good booster responses after the toddler dose except pertussis toxoid; however, 99.6% subjects achieved pertussis toxoid protective antibody level ?5EU/mL in both groups. These results support the concomitant administration of PCV13 and Infanrix hexa/Infanrix-IPV+Hib as part of routine immunization schedules. PMID:21704105

  10. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13)

    MedlinePLUS

    Prevnar 13 ... get vaccinated?Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (called PCV13 or Prevnar 13) is recommended to protect infants and toddlers, ... to an earlier pneumococcal vaccine called PCV7 (or Prevnar), or to any vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid (for ...

  11. Synthesis of antifungal vaccines by conjugation of ?-1,2 trimannosides with T-cell peptides and covalent anchoring of neoglycopeptide to tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Cartmell, Jonathan; Paszkiewicz, Eugenia; Dziadek, Sebastian; Tam, Pui-Hang; Luu, Thanh; Sarkar, Susmita; Lipinski, Tomasz; Bundle, David R

    2015-02-11

    Selective strategies for the construction of novel three component glycoconjugate vaccines presenting Candida albicans cell wall glycan (?-1,2 mannoside) and polypeptide fragments on a tetanus toxoid carrier are described. The first of two conjugation strategies employed peptides bearing an N-terminal thiopropionyl residue for conjugation to a trisaccharide equipped with an acrylate linker and a C-terminal S-acetyl thioglycolyl moiety for subsequent linking of neoglycopeptide to bromoacetylated tetanus toxoid. Michael addition of acrylate trisaccharides to peptide thiol under mildly basic conditions gave a mixture of N- and C- terminal glyco-peptide thioethers. An adaptation of this strategy coordinated S-acyl protection with anticipated thioester exchange equilibria. This furnished a single chemically defined fully synthetic neoglycopeptide conjugate that could be anchored to a tetanus toxoid carrier and avoids the introduction of exogenous antigenic groups. The second strategy retained the N-terminal thiopropionyl residue but replaced the C-terminal S-acetate functionality with an azido group that allowed efficient, selective formation of neoglycopeptide thioethers and subsequent conjugation of these with propargylated tetanus toxoid, but introduced potentially antigenic triazole linkages. PMID:25126994

  12. Meningococcal groups C and Y and haemophilus B tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT; MenHibrix()): a review.

    PubMed

    Perry, Caroline M

    2013-05-01

    The meningococcal groups C and Y and Haemophilus b (Hib) tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) contains Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C and Y capsular polysaccharide antigens, and Hib capsular polysaccharide [polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP)]. The HibMenCY-TT vaccine is available in the USA for use as active immunization to prevent invasive disease caused by N. meningitidis serogroups C (MenC) and Y (MenY), and Hib in children 6weeks-18months of age. HibMenCY-TT is the first meningococcal vaccine available for use in the USA that can be administered to infants as young as 6weeks of age. In a randomized, controlled, phase III clinical trial, the HibMenCY-TT vaccine, administered to infants at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15months of age, was immunogenic against MenC and MenY, and met the prespecified criteria for immunogenicity. Anti-PRP antibodies, which have been shown to correlate with protection against Hib invasive disease, were also induced in the infants who received the HibMenCY-TT vaccine, with induced levels of this antibody noninferior to those occurring in the control group of infants who received a Hib tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine at 2, 4, and 6months and a single dose of Hib conjugated to N. meningitidis outer membrane protein at 12-15months. In several randomized, controlled clinical trials, HibMenCY-TT was coadministered with vaccines that are routinely administered to infants and toddlers in the USA. These vaccines included: diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, hepatitis B (recombinant) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined; 7-valent Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide conjugate vaccine; measles, mumps and rubella vaccine; and varicella vaccine. Coadministration of these vaccines did not interfere with the immunogenicity of the HibMenCY-TT vaccine. Similarly, immune responses to the coadministered vaccines were not affected by the HibMenCY-TT vaccine. The tolerability profile of the HibMenCY-TT vaccine in infants and toddlers in the phase III trial was considered to be clinically acceptable and comparable to that of the Hib conjugate vaccines received by the control group. PMID:23649970

  13. A cholera toxoid-insulin conjugate as an oral vaccine against spontaneous autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bergerot, I; Ploix, C; Petersen, J; Moulin, V; Rask, C; Fabien, N; Lindblad, M; Mayer, A; Czerkinsky, C; Holmgren, J; Thivolet, C

    1997-04-29

    Mucosally induced immunological tolerance is an attractive strategy for preventing or treating illnesses resulting from untoward inflammatory immune reactions against self- or non-self-antigens. Oral administration of relevant autoantigens and allergens has been reported to delay or suppress onset of clinical disease in a number of experimental autoimmune and allergic disorders. However, the approach often requires repeated feeding of large amounts of tolerogens over long periods and is only partly effective in animals already systemically sensitized to the ingested antigen such as in animals already harboring autoreactive T cells, and thus presumably also in humans with an autoimmune disease. We have recently shown that oral administration of microgram amounts of antigen coupled to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), can effectively suppress systemic T cell reactivity in naive as well as in immune animals. We now report that feeding small amounts (2-20 microg) of human insulin conjugated to CTB can effectively suppress beta cell destruction and clinical diabetes in adult nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The protective effect could be transferred by T cells from CTB-insulin-treated animals and was associated with reduced lesions of insulitis. Furthermore, adoptive co-transfer experiments involving injection of Thy-1,2 recipients with diabetogenic T cells from syngeneic mice and T cells from congenic Thy-1,1 mice fed with CTB-insulin demonstrated a selective recruitment of Thy-1,1 donor cells in the peripancreatic lymph nodes concomitant with reduced islet cell infiltration. These results suggest that protection against autoimmune diabetes can be achieved by feeding minute amounts of a pancreas islet cell autoantigen linked to CTB and appears to involve the selective migration and retention of protective T cells into lymphoid tissues draining the site of organ injury. PMID:9114038

  14. Comparison of CRM197, diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid as protein carriers for meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tontini, M; Berti, F; Romano, M R; Proietti, D; Zambonelli, C; Bottomley, M J; De Gregorio, E; Del Giudice, G; Rappuoli, R; Costantino, P; Brogioni, G; Balocchi, C; Biancucci, M; Malito, E

    2013-10-01

    Glycoconjugate vaccines are among the most effective and safest vaccines ever developed. Diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and CRM197 have been mostly used as protein carriers in licensed vaccines. We evaluated the immunogenicity of serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y meningococcal oligosaccharides conjugated to CRM197, DT and TT in nave mice. The three carriers were equally efficient in inducing an immune response against the carbohydrate moiety in immunologically nave mice. The effect of previous exposure to different dosages of the carrier protein on the anti-carbohydrate response was studied using serogroup A meningococcal (MenA) saccharide conjugates as a model. CRM197 showed a strong propensity to positively prime the anti-carbohydrate response elicited by its conjugates or those with the antigenically related carrier DT. Conversely in any of the tested conditions TT priming did not result in enhancement of the anti-carbohydrate response elicited by the corresponding conjugates. Repeated exposure of mice to TT or to CRM197 before immunization with the respective MenA conjugates resulted in a drastic suppression of the anti-carbohydrate response in the case of TT conjugate and only in a slight reduction in the case of CRM197. The effect of carrier priming on the anti-MenA response of DT-based conjugates varied depending on their carbohydrate to protein ratio. These data may have implications for human vaccination since conjugate vaccines are widely used in individuals previously immunized with DT and TT carrier proteins. PMID:23965218

  15. Elevated levels of maternal anti-tetanus toxin antibodies do not suppress the immune response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosylphosphate-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Panpitpat, C.; Thisyakorn, U.; Chotpitayasunondh, T.; Fürer, E.; Que, J. U.; Hasler, T.; Cryz, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    Reported are the effects of elevated levels of anti-tetanus antibodies on the safety and immune response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosylphosphate (PRP)-tetanus toxoid conjugate (PRP-T) vaccine. A group of Thai infants (n = 177) born to women immunized against tetanus during pregnancy were vaccinated with either a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) PRP-T vaccine or DTP and a PRP-conjugate vaccine using Neisseria meningitidis group B outer-membrane proteins as a carrier (PedVax HIB). Although most infants possessed high titres (> 1 IU/ml) of anti-tetanus antibodies, the DTP-PRP-T combined vaccine engendered an excellent antibody response to all vaccine components. In both vaccine groups > 98% of infants attained anti-PRP antibody titres > or = 0.15 microgram/ml. The geometric mean anti-PRP antibody titres were 5.41 micrograms/ml and 2.1 micrograms/ml for infants immunized with three doses of PRP-T versus two doses of PedVax HIB vaccines, respectively (P < 0.005). Similarly, the proportion of infants who achieved titres > or = 1 microgram/ml was higher in the PRP-T group (87.8%) than in the group immunized with PedVax HIB (74.2%) (P = 0.036). A subgroup analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the anti-PRP antibody response for infants exhibiting either < 1 IU of anti-tetanus antibody per millilitre or > or = 1 IU/ml at baseline. These finding indicate that pre-existing anti-carrier antibody does not diminish the immune response to the PRP moiety. All infants possessed protective levels of anti-D and anti-T antibody levels after immunization. PMID:10812736

  16. Comparison of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Novel Quadrivalent Meningococcal ACWY-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine and a Marketed Quadrivalent Meningococcal ACWY-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine in Healthy Individuals 10–25 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Scott A.; Baine, Yaela; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Aggarwal, Naresh; Simon, Michael; Langley, Joanne M.; McNeil, Shelly A.; Friedland, Leonard R.; Bianco, Veronique; Baccarini, Carmen I.; Miller, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Universal immunization of adolescents against meningococcal disease with a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY (MenACWY) conjugate vaccine is recommended in a number of countries. Methods In a randomized, controlled, observer-blinded, multicenter trial, 1016 participants, 10–25 years of age, were randomly allocated 1:1:1 to receive a single dose of 1 of 2 lots of an investigational tetanus toxoid‐conjugated MenACWY vaccine (MenACWY‐TT) or a marketed diphtheria toxoid‐conjugated MenACWY vaccine (MenACWY‐DT). The primary outcome was the noninferiority of the vaccine response after MenACWY‐TT (lot A) compared with MenACWY‐DT for all 4 serogroups. Vaccine response was defined as a postvaccination human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) titer against each of the serogroups of at least 1:8 in persons initially seronegative (<1:4) or as a 4‐fold increase in titer pre‐ to postvaccination in persons initially seropositive (≥1:4). Adverse events (AEs) after immunization were measured 4 and 31 days postvaccination. Results The mean age of participants was 16.3 years; 977 (96.6%) completed the study. The noninferiority of MenACWY‐TT (lot A) to the control vaccine in terms of the percentage of participants with hSBA vaccine response was demonstrated for each serogroup. Vaccine response rates ranged from 51.0% to 82.5% for the 4 serogroups after MenACWY‐TT (both lots) compared with 39.0%–76.3% for the 4 serogroups after MenACWY‐DT. Pain was the most common injection‐site reaction reported by 50.8%–55.4% across the 3 groups. Fatigue and headache were the most common systemic solicited AEs, reported by 27.3%–29.2% and 25.5%–26.4%, respectively. Conclusions Tetanus toxoid‐conjugated MenACWY vaccine was well tolerated and elicited an immune response that was noninferior to that of a marketed MenACWY‐DT (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01165242). PMID:24567843

  17. Efficacy, but not antibody titer or affinity, of a heroin hapten conjugate vaccine correlates with increasing hapten densities on tetanus toxoid, but not on CRM197 carriers.

    PubMed

    Jalah, Rashmi; Torres, Oscar B; Mayorov, Alexander V; Li, Fuying; Antoline, Joshua F G; Jacobson, Arthur E; Rice, Kenner C; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Beck, Zoltan; Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R

    2015-06-17

    Vaccines against drugs of abuse have induced antibodies in animals that blocked the biological effects of the drug by sequestering the drug in the blood and preventing it from crossing the blood-brain barrier. Drugs of abuse are too small to induce antibodies and, therefore, require conjugation of drug hapten analogs to a carrier protein. The efficacy of these conjugate vaccines depends on several factors including hapten design, coupling strategy, hapten density, carrier protein selection, and vaccine adjuvant. Previously, we have shown that 1 (MorHap), a heroin/morphine hapten, conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) and mixed with liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A [L(MPLA)] as adjuvant, partially blocked the antinociceptive effects of heroin in mice. Herein, we extended those findings, demonstrating greatly improved vaccine induced antinociceptive effects up to 3% mean maximal potential effect (%MPE). This was obtained by evaluating the effects of vaccine efficacy of hapten 1 vaccine conjugates with varying hapten densities using two different commonly used carrier proteins, TT and cross-reactive material 197 (CRM197). Immunization of mice with these conjugates mixed with L(MPLA) induced very high anti-1 IgG peak levels of 400-1500 ?g/mL that bound to both heroin and its metabolites, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine. Except for the lowest hapten density for each carrier, the antibody titers and affinity were independent of hapten density. The TT carrier based vaccines induced long-lived inhibition of heroin-induced antinociception that correlated with increasing hapten density. The best formulation contained TT with the highest hapten density of ?30 haptens/TT molecule and induced %MPE of approximately 3% after heroin challenge. In contrast, the best formulation using CRM197 was with intermediate 1 densities (10-15 haptens/CRM197 molecule), but the %MPE was approximately 13%. In addition, the chemical synthesis of 1, the optimization of the conjugation method, and the methods for the accurate quantification of hapten density are described. PMID:25970207

  18. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  19. Enterobacterial common antigen-tetanus toxoid conjugate as immunogen.

    PubMed Central

    Lugowski, C; Kułakowska, M; Romanowska, E

    1983-01-01

    The methods of limited periodate oxidation and reductive amination were used to obtain covalently linked enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) with tetanus toxoid. This procedure is simple and gives a good yield of the conjugate with high ECA content (molecular ratio of ECA to tetanus toxoid, 6:1). The ECA-tetanus toxoid conjugate is immunogenic in rabbits, in contrast to free ECA or a mixture of ECA with proteins. This conjugate produces high levels of ECA-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies, which can be used as a standard serum. Images PMID:6358039

  20. Effects of Prior Polysaccharide Vaccination on Magnitude, Duration, and Quality of Immune Responses to and Safety Profile of a Meningococcal Serogroup C Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccination in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Southern, Jo; Deane, Sarah; Ashton, Lindsey; Borrow, Ray; Goldblatt, David; Andrews, Nick; Balmer, Paul; Morris, Rhonwen; Kroll, J. Simon; Miller, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Extensive use of meningococcal AC polysaccharide (MACP) vaccines has raised concerns about induction of immunologic hyporesponsiveness to C polysaccharide. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of a meningococcal C-tetanus conjugate (MCC-TT) vaccine in naïve adults and prior MACP vaccinees. Laboratory staff (n = 113) were recruited; 73 were naïve to meningococcal vaccination, and 40 had previously received ≥1 dose of MACP vaccine. Blood was taken prior to MCC-TT vaccination and 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months later. At each time point, proportions of subjects with serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers of ≥8 or ≥128 were similar (P > 0.46); >94% of subjects achieved titers of ≥128 at 1 month. However, the geometric mean titer (GMT) of SBA at 1 month was higher in the naïve (1,757; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1,102 to 2,803) than in the previously vaccinated (662; 95% CI, 363 to 1,207) group (P = 0.02), and similarly at 6 months (P < 0.001). Conversely, geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of serogroup C-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) were significantly higher in the previously vaccinated group pre-MCC-TT and at 1 week; the groups were similar at 1 month, and there was some evidence that the GMC for the previously vaccinated group was higher at 6 months. Qualitative differences in antibodies between groups were demonstrated by using the SBA/IgG ratio, though avidity measures were similar for the two groups throughout the study. MCC-TT was well tolerated, with similar safety profiles in the two groups. Pain in the arm and headache were the most frequently reported events following vaccination. The study shows that MCC-TT is safe and immunogenic in naïve and previously MACP-vaccinated adults, though the magnitude and persistence of postvaccination SBA responses in the latter group were lower. PMID:15539513

  1. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after vaccination of toddlers and children between 12 months and 10 years of age with a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Forsten, Aino; Bianco, Veronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    We studied the persistence of serum bactericidal antibody using rabbit and human complement (rSBA/hSBA, cut-offs 1:8) 5 y after a single dose of meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) compared with age-appropriate control vaccines in toddlers and children (NCT00427908). Children were previously randomized (3:1) to receive either MenACWY-TT or control vaccine (MenC-CRM197 in 1-<2 y olds; MenACWY-polysaccharide vaccine [Men-PS] in 2-<11 y olds). Subjects with rSBA-MenC titers <1:8 at any time point were revaccinated with MenC conjugate vaccine and discontinued from the study. A repeated measurement statistical model assessed potential selection effects due to drop-outs. At year 5 in MenACWY-TT-vaccinated-toddlers for serogroups A, C, W, and Y respectively, percentages with rSBA titers ≥1:8 were 73.5%, 77.6%, 34.7%, and 42.9%, hSBA ≥1:8 were 35.6%, 91.7%, 82.6% and 80.0%. For MenC-CRM197 recipients, 63.6% had persisting rSBA-MenC titers ≥1:8 and 90.9% had hSBA-MenC ≥1:8 (not significantly different versus MenACWY-TT for either assay: exploratory analyses). In 2-<11 y olds rSBA titers ≥1:8 in MenACWY-TT-vaccinees were 90.8%, 90.8%, 78.6%, and 78.6% and 15.4%, 100%, 0.0%, 7.7% in Men-PS-vaccinees (significantly different for serogroups A, W and Y, exploratory analyses). Serogroups A, W and Y rSBA GMTs were ≥ 26-fold higher in MenACWY-TT-vaccinees. As expected, GMTs modeled at year 5 to assess the impact of subject drop out (mainly for revaccination), appeared lower for serogroup C. No vaccine-related SAEs were reported. Antibody persistence was observed for all serogroups up to 5 y after MenACWY-TT vaccination. PMID:26575983

  2. Randomized trial to assess the immunogenicity, safety and antibody persistence up to three years after a single dose of a tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Forstn, Aino; Boutriau, Dominique; Bianco, Vronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2012-12-01

    Effective vaccines offering broad protection to toddlers, who are at high risk for invasive meningococcal disease, are needed. Here, the immunogenicity, safety and antibody persistence of the tetravalent meningococcal ACWY tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) were evaluated in toddlers. Healthy participants aged 12 to 23 mo (n = 304) were randomized (3:1) to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT or a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MenC-CRM 197). Serum bactericidal activity was evaluated with assays using rabbit (rSBA) and human (hSBA) complement up to three years post-vaccination. MenACWY-TT was demonstrated to be non-inferior to MenC-CRM 197 in terms of immunogenicity to serogroup C, and the pre-specified immunogenicity criteria for serogroups A, W-135 and Y were met. Exploratory analyses suggested that rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs), hSBA GMTs and proportions of toddlers with rSBA titers ? 1:128 and hSBA titers ? 1:4 and ? 1:8 were higher for all serogroups at one month post-vaccination with MenACWY-TT compared with MenC-CRM 197. At three years post-vaccination, at least 90.8% and 73.6% of MenACWY-TT recipients retained rSBA titers ? 1:8 for all serogroups and hSBA titers ? 1:4 for serogroups C, W-135 and Y, respectively, but the percentages of toddlers with hSBA titers ? 1:4 for serogroup A decreased to 21.8%. In both groups, grade 3 adverse events were infrequently reported and no serious adverse events were considered causally related to vaccination. These results suggest that one single dose of MenACWY-TT induces a robust and persistent immune response and has an acceptable safety profile in toddlers. PMID:23032159

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of a meningococcal (Groups A, C, Y, W-135) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy children aged 2 to 10 years in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Rosanna; Papa, Thomas; Muoz, Alma; Ryall, Robert; Pina, Miriam; Bassily, Ehab

    2005-01-01

    Immune responses to meningococcal conjugate (Menactra; MCV-4) and plain polysaccharide (Menomune-A/C/Y/W-135; PSV-4) vaccines against serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 were assessed in 220 of 1037 Chilean children aged 2 to 10 years participating in a comparative safety trial. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Geometric mean serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers 28 days postvaccination were comparable in both groups for all four serogroups. Seroconversion was evident in > 97% of MCV-4 and > 90% of PSV-4 vaccinees who tested seronegative at baseline. Menactra safely induced broad and robust immune responses against serogroups A, C, Y and W-135 in this population. PMID:17012878

  4. Immune response, antibody persistence, and safety of a single dose of the quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in adolescents and adults: results of an open, randomised, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The best strategy to protect individuals against meningococcal disease is to immunize against multiple serogroups. Immunogenicity, antibody persistence, and safety of the EU-licensed meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) were evaluated in healthy participants aged 1155years from the Philippines and Saudi Arabia. Methods In this phase IIb, open, controlled study, 500 participants were randomised (3:1) to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT or a licensed meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Men-PS). Functional antibody responses against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y were assessed by a serum bactericidal antibody assay using rabbit complement (rSBA) at Month 0, Month 1, Year 1, Year 2, and Year 3. Vaccine response was defined as an rSBA titre ?32 at Month 1 in participants who were seronegative (rSBA titre <8) pre-vaccination and as at least a four-fold increase in titre in participants who were seropositive pre-vaccination. Solicited symptoms were recorded up to Day 4, safety outcomes up to Month 6, and serious adverse events related to vaccination up to Year 3. Results Pre-specified criteria for non-inferiority of MenACWY-TT versus Men-PS were met in terms of rSBA vaccine response and incidence of grade 3 general symptoms. At Month 1, 82.7%96.3% of MenACWY-TT and 69.7%91.7% in Men-PS recipients had a vaccine response for each serogroup. At Year 3, ?99.1% and ?92.9% of MenACWY-TT recipients retained rSBA titres ?8 and ?128, respectively, as compared to ?86.7% and ?80.0% in the Men-PS group. Both vaccines had a clinically acceptable safety profile, although injection site redness and swelling were more frequent in MenACWY-TT recipients. Conclusions These results suggest that MenACWY-TT could protect adolescents and adults against meningococcal disease up to three years post-vaccination. Trial registration This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00356369. PMID:23510357

  5. Meningococcal Polysaccharide A O-Acetylation Levels Do Not Impact the Immunogenicity of the Quadrivalent Meningococcal Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine: Results from a Randomized, Controlled Phase III Study of Healthy Adults Aged 18 to 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Sosa, Nestor; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Bianco, Vronique; Baine, Yaela; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we compared the immunogenicities of two lots of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) that differed in serogroup A polysaccharide (PS) O-acetylation levels and evaluated their immunogenicities and safety in comparison to a licensed ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (Men-PS). In this phase III, partially blinded, controlled study, 1,170 healthy subjects aged 18 to 25 years were randomized (1:1:1) to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT lot A (ACWY-A) (68% O-acetylation), MenACWY-TT lot B (ACWY-B) (92% O-acetylation), or Men-PS (82% O-acetylation). Immunogenicity was evaluated in terms of serum bactericidal activity using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit serum bactericidal activity [rSBA]). Solicited symptoms, unsolicited adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded. The immunogenicities, in terms of rSBA geometric mean titers, were comparable for both lots of MenACWY-TT. The vaccine response rates across the serogroups were 79.1 to 97.0% in the two ACWY groups and 73.7 to 94.1% in the Men-PS group. All subjects achieved rSBA titers of ?1:8 for all serogroups. All subjects in the two ACWY groups and 99.5 to 100% in the Men-PS group achieved rSBA titers of ?1:128. Pain was the most common solicited local symptom and was reported more frequently in the ACWY group (53.9 to 54.7%) than in the Men-PS group (36.8%). The most common solicited general symptoms were fatigue and headache, which were reported by 28.6 to 30.3% and 26.9 to 31.0% of subjects, respectively. Two subjects reported SAEs; one SAE was considered to be related to vaccination (blighted ovum; ACWY-B group). The level of serogroup A PS O-acetylation did not affect vaccine immunogenicity. MenACWY-TT (lot A) was not inferior to Men-PS in terms of vaccine response and was well tolerated. PMID:23885033

  6. Murine Immune Response to Neisseria meningitidis Group C Capsular Polysaccharide: Analysis of Monoclonal Antibodies Generated in Response to a Thymus-Independent Antigen and a Thymus-Dependent Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Ojeda, Pablo A.; Monser, Martha E.; Rubinstein, Leonard J.; Jennings, Harold J.; Stein, Kathryn E.

    2000-01-01

    Antibody (Ab) responses to polysaccharides (PSs) such as Neisseria meningitidis group C PS (MCPS) are characterized as being thymus independent (TI) and are restricted with regard to clonotype and isotype expression. PS conjugated to proteins, e.g., MCPS coupled to tetanus toxoid (MCPS-TT), elicits a thymus-dependent (TD) response. In order to understand the influence of the form of a vaccine (TI versus TD) on the Ab repertoire, we generated monoclonal antibody (MAb) panels from mice immunized and boosted with MCPS or MCPS-TT in different ways. The panels of MAbs were examined for isotype, fine specificity, affinity, and VH gene family usage. The use of MCPS-TT resulted in a shift in the isotype from immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG3 elicited in response to the MCPS to primarily IgG1. This isotype shift was accompanied by a change in the fine specificity of the response to the conjugate compared to that of PS. New fine specificities and increased affinity were observed in response to the TD antigen (Ag). Dot blot and Northern analyses of MCPS MAbs revealed that VH gene family usage is dominated by VHJ558, used by 23 of 39 MAbs. VH3609 was seen in three MAbs of restricted fine specificity. VHQ52, VH7183, and VHVGAM3-8 were seen in more than one MAb across these panels, while VH10 and VHX24 were detected only once in response to the TI-2 Ag. All MAbs in the panels utilized kappa light chains, and all functional J? genes were expressed. PMID:10603394

  7. Interactions of conjugate vaccines and co-administered vaccines.

    PubMed

    Findlow, H; Borrow, R

    2016-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines play an important role in the prevention of infectious diseases such as those caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) type b (Hib), Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines developed against these 3 pathogens utilize 3 main carrier proteins, non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Current pediatric immunisation schedules include the administration of several vaccines simultaneously, therefore increasing the potential for immune interference (both positively and negatively) to the antigens administered. Knowledge of vaccine interactions is principally derived from clinical trials, these are reviewed here to explore immune interference which may result of from carrier-specific T-cell helper interactions, bystander interference and carrier induced epitopic suppression. PMID:26619353

  8. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7)

    MedlinePLUS

    Prevnar ... Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is no longer available in the U.S. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) will replace this vaccine. ... Why get vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)?There are 91 ... conjugate vaccine (PCV) protects against 7 of them. These 7 strains are ...

  9. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines: characteristics, development, and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  10. Synthesis and immunogenicity evaluation of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aamir; An, So J; Cui, Changfa; Haque, Abdul; Carbis, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A) is a human restricted pathogen that can cause systemic infection (paratyphoid fever) with recently increased incidence particularly in developing countries. Currently there is no licensed vaccine for prevention of infection from S. Paratyphi A. In this study the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of S. Paratyphi A was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) with and without adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a linker. Binding of the OSP to a carrier protein was intended to convert a T-cell independent OSP response to a T-cell dependent response inducing higher levels of anti-OSP antibodies and immunological memory. These conjugates (OSP-AH-DT and OSP-DT) were evaluated for their immunogenicity in mice. The S. Paratyphi A OSP-DT conjugate induced a poor anti-OSP response less than that observed with LPS while the OSP-AH-DT conjugate induced a significantly higher antibody titer compared with LPS alone. The study also demonstrated diphtheria toxoid as a potential carrier protein for conjugate vaccine candidates using S. Paratyphi A OSP. PMID:24603090

  11. Immune responses of young mice to pneumococcal type 9V polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, C H; Lee, C J; Kind, P

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococcal type 9V polysaccharide (PS), contained in the current pneumococcal vaccine, induces only a weak antibody response in young children and therefore is not an effective vaccine for young children. To increase its immunogenicity, a conjugate of PS to a protein carrier, tetanus toxoid (TT), was prepared. To quantify the immune response, mouse anti-9V PS immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM reference standards were established. Young mice immunized at 2 weeks of age produced IgM antibody in response to 9V PS alone or 9V PS conjugated to TT. However, only the 9V PS-TT conjugate induced an IgG antibody response and an anamnestic effect. Thus, a covalent linkage between TT and 9V PS was required for isotype switching from IgM to IgG. 9V PS-TT adsorbed with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant resulted in a fivefold or greater increase in the IgG antibody level. We also studied the effect of maternal immunization on the immune response of young mice to 9V PS-TT. Maternal immunization before mating or before mating and during gestation primed 2-week-old progeny given two injections of 9V PS-TT to produce more IgM antibody than progeny from unimmunized mothers. The IgG antibody level of neonates at birth was similar to that observed in the mothers and was probably passive antibody. These results indicate that maternal immunization with an optimum dose of a PS-protein conjugate before and/or during pregnancy, followed by immunization of the offspring with the conjugate, could provide young children with an enhanced IgM antibody response to pneumococcal PSs. PMID:8005665

  12. Preparation and evaluation of immunogenic conjugates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi O-specific polysaccharides with diphtheria toxoid.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aamir; An, So Jung; Cui, Changfa; Haque, Abdul; Carbis, Rodney

    2012-02-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem particularly in developing countries. The available vaccines have certain limitations regarding their efficacy, and inability to induce an immune response especially in individuals under 2 years of age. Conjugate vaccines which consist of a bacteria-specific polysaccharide chemically bound to a carrier protein overcome these problems by inducing a T-cell dependent immune response characterized by enhanced immunogenicity in all ages. In this study, O-specific polysaccharides (OSP) of S. Typhi were conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) using adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a linker. These conjugates (OSP-AH-DT) were then evaluated for their immunogenicity using mice as a model and showed significantly higher levels of IgG ELISA titers (P = 0.0241 and 0.0245) than lipopolysaccharides alone. Different immunization schedules were compared and it was found that schedule-B (three injections with 4-weeks interval) induced higher immune responses than schedule-A (three injections with 2-weeks interval). We showed that diphtheria toxoid can be successfully employed as a carrier protein for conjugation with Salmonella OSP and play an important role in facilitating adequate immune response. PMID:22426380

  13. A clinical trial examining the effect of increased total CRM(197) carrier protein dose on the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b CRM(197) conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Usonis, Vytautas; Bakasenas, Vytautas; Lockhart, Stephen; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William; Laudat, France

    2008-08-18

    CRM(197) is a carrier protein in certain conjugate vaccines. When multiple conjugate vaccines with the same carrier protein are administered simultaneously, reduced response to vaccines and/or antigens related to the carrier protein may occur. This study examined responses of infants who, in addition to diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) received either diphtheria CRM(197)-based Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HbOC) or HbOC and a diphtheria CRM(197)-based combination 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine/meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine. Administration of conjugate vaccines with CRM(197) carrier protein load >50 microg did not reduce response to CRM(197) conjugate vaccines or immunogenicity to immunologically cross-reactive diphtheria toxoid. PMID:18577410

  14. Technical Development of a New Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, Carl E.; Kapre, Subhash V.; Lee, Che-Hung; Préaud, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background. Group A Neisseria meningitidis has been a major cause of bacterial meningitis in the sub-Saharan region of Africa in the meningitis belt. Neisseria meningitidis is an encapsulated pathogen, and antibodies against the capsular polysaccharide are protective. Polysaccharide–protein conjugate vaccines have proven to be highly effective against several different encapsulated bacterial pathogens. Purified polysaccharide vaccines have been used to control group A meningococcal (MenA) epidemics with minimal success. Methods. A monovalent MenA polysaccharide–tetanus toxoid conjugate was therefore developed. This vaccine was developed by scientists working with the Meningitis Vaccine Project, a partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization. Results. A high-efficiency conjugation method was developed in the Laboratory of Bacterial Polysaccharides in the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research and transferred to the Serum Institute of India, Ltd, which then developed methods for purification of the group A polysaccharide and used its tetanus toxoid as the carrier protein to produce the now-licensed, highly effective MenAfriVac conjugate vaccine. Conclusions. Although many years of application of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines have had minimal success in preventing meningococcal epidemics in the meningitis belt of Africa, our collaborative efforts to develop a MenA conjugate vaccine yielded a safe and highly effective vaccine. PMID:26553667

  15. Physical and chemical characterization and immunologic properties of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi capsular polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugates.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changfa; Carbis, Rodney; An, So Jung; Jang, Hyun; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Szu, Shousun C; Clemens, John D

    2010-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains a serious public health problem in developing countries, especially among young children. Recent studies showed more than 50% of typhoid cases are in children under 5 years old. Licensed vaccines, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi capsular Vi, did not confer protection against typhoid fever for this age group. Vi conjugate, prepared by binding Vi to Pseudomonas aeruginosa recombinant exoprotein A (rEPA), induces protective levels of antibody at as young as 2 years old. Because of the lack of regulatory precedent for rEPA in licensing vaccines, we employed diphtheria toxoid (DT) as the carrier protein to accommodate accessibility in developing countries. Five lots of Vi-DT conjugates were prepared using adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as the linker. All 5 lots showed consistency in their physical and chemical characteristics and final yields. These Vi-DT conjugates elicited levels of IgG anti-Vi in young mice significantly higher than those in mice injected with Vi alone and induced a booster response upon reinjection. This booster effect was absent if the Vi replaced one of the two conjugate injections. Vi-DT was stable under repeated freeze-thaw (20 cycles). We plan to perform clinical evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of Vi-DT when added to the infant combination vaccines. PMID:19889941

  16. Brazilian meningococcal C conjugate vaccine: Scaling up studies.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Renata Chagas; de Souza, Iaralice Medeiros; da Silva, Milton Neto; Silva, Flavia de Paiva; Figueira, Elza Scott; Leal, Maria de Lurdes; Jessouroun, Ellen; Junior, Jos Godinho da Silva; Medronho, Ricardo de Andrade; da Silveira, Ivna Alana Freitas Brasileiro

    2015-08-20

    Several outbreaks caused by Neisseria meningitidis group C have been occurred in different regions of Brazil. A conjugate vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis was produced by chemical linkage between periodate-oxidized meningococcal C polysaccharide and hydrazide-activated monomeric tetanus toxoid via a modified reductive amination conjugation method. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity tested in Phase I and II trials showed satisfactory results. Before starting Phase III trials, vaccine production was scaled up to obtain industrial lots under Good Manufacture Practices (GMP). Comparative analysis between data obtained from industrial and pilot scales of the meningococcal C conjugate bulk showed similar execution times in the scaling up production process without significant losses or alterations in the quality attributes of purified compounds. In conclusion, scale up was considered satisfactory and the Brazilian meningococcal conjugate vaccine production aiming to perform Phase III trials is feasible. PMID:25865466

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and clinical evaluation of conjugate vaccines composed of the O-specific polysaccharides of Shigella dysenteriae type 1, Shigella flexneri type 2a, and Shigella sonnei (Plesiomonas shigelloides) bound to bacterial toxoids.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D N; Trofa, A C; Sadoff, J; Chu, C; Bryla, D; Shiloach, J; Cohen, D; Ashkenazi, S; Lerman, Y; Egan, W

    1993-01-01

    The theoretic basis for developing conjugate vaccines, to induce immunoglobulin G (IgG) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies for the prevention of shigellosis, has been described (J. B. Robbins, C.-Y. Chu, and R. Schneerson, Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:346-361, 1992). The O-specific polysaccharides (O-SPs) of Shigella dysenteriae type 1, S. flexneri type 2a, and S. sonnei were covalently bound to carrier proteins. Alone, the O-SPs were not immunogenic in mice. Conjugates of these O-SPs, injected into young outbred mice subcutaneously as saline solutions containing 2.5 micrograms of saccharide, elicited serum IgG and IgM antibodies with booster responses; adsorption onto alum enhanced their immunogenicity. Injection of 25 micrograms of these conjugates into adult volunteers elicited mild local reactions only. Each conjugate induced a significant rise of the geometric mean serum IgG, IgM, and IgA LPS antibody levels. A second injection 6 weeks later did not elicit booster responses, and adsorption of the conjugates onto alum did not enhance their immunogenicity. Conjugate-induced levels of IgA, but not IgG or IgM, declined to preimmunization levels at day 56. The levels of postimmunization antibodies of the three immunoglobulin classes were similar to or higher than those of recruits in the Israel Defense Force following shigellosis caused by S. flexneri type 2a or S. sonnei. These data provide the basis for evaluating these conjugates to prevent shigellosis. PMID:8359890

  18. Antibody-secreting peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by immunization with a conjugate consisting of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 12F polysaccharide and diphtheria toxoid.

    PubMed Central

    Lue, C; Prince, S J; Fattom, A; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B; Mestecky, J

    1990-01-01

    Healthy adult volunteers were injected either with one of two conjugates composed of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 12F polysaccharide (Pn12F) covalently coupled to diphtheria toxoid or with Pn12F alone (as a component of Pnu-Imune, a 23-valent pneumococcus vaccine). The conjugates induced Pn12F-specific antibody-secreting cells in peripheral blood with numbers and isotype distribution similar to those induced by Pnu-Imune, with immunoglobulin A (IgA) as the predominant isotype. The conjugates also elicited high numbers of diphtheria toxoid-specific antibody-secreting cells of the IgG class. There was no distinct booster effect, since a second dose of the conjugates induced antibody-secreting cells at significantly lower numbers than after the first dose. In contrast to the cell numbers, the conjugate vaccines induced higher increases of IgA1 Pn12F antibodies in serum than did Pnu-Imune. However, neither the conjugates nor Pnu-Imune induced a secretory antibody response. Antibody levels in serum and saliva correlated poorly with the frequency of antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells. Circulating antibody-secreting cells present 7 days postimmunization were probably not responsible for the high increase of antibodies in serum but rather represented a population of in vivo-activated B cells with the ability to disseminate the humoral response from the antigen recognition site to distant locations of antibody production. PMID:2370107

  19. An investigational tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine co-administered with Infanrix hexa is immunogenic, with an acceptable safety profile in 12-23-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Knuf, Markus; Pantazi-Chatzikonstantinou, Anna; Pfletschinger, Ulrich; Tichmann-Schumann, Irmingard; Maurer, Hartwig; Maurer, Lothar; Fischbach, Thomas; Zinke, Henrike; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Bianco, Veronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2011-06-01

    Tetravalent meningococcal serogroups ACWY conjugate vaccines will provide an advantage to those at most risk of invasive meningococcal disease; namely young children. Co-administration of ACWY-TT with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib was assessed in a randomized trial in 793 children aged 12-23 months. Pre-specified criteria for non-inferiority of immunogenicity following co-administration versus separate ACWY-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib administration were reached. One month post-vaccination, ? 97.3% of ACWY-TT vaccinees had rSBA titres ? 1:8 (all serogroups). Seroprotection/seropositivity rates against DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens were ? 98.2%. The safety profile of co-administration was similar to that of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib alone. ACWY-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib co-administration during the second year would facilitate introduction of ACWY-TT into routine toddler vaccination schedules. PMID:21420417

  20. Conjugation of β-glucan markedly increase the immunogencity of meningococcal group Y polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weilin; Ji, Shaoyang; Zhao, Yubao; Hu, Tao

    2015-04-21

    Meningococcal disease is a fatal illness of sudden onset caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcal capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is a major virulence factor that generally does not induce immunological memory. Conjugation with a carrier protein can significantly increase the immunogenicity of CPS and induce immunological memory. However, it is highly desired to optimize the CPS-specific immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine. Although adjuvant has been widely used to improve the immunogenicity of antigens, co-administration and conjugation of adjuvant with the conjugate vaccine has rarely been investigated. As a stimulator of humoral and cellular immunity, β-glucan can activate macrophages and trigger intracellular processes to secrete cytokines initiating inflammatory reactions. In the present study, a conjugate vaccine (CPS-TT) was generated by conjugation of tetanus toxoid (TT) with meningococcal group Y CPS. CPS-TT was further conjugated with β-glucan to generate CPS-TT-G. Immunization with CPS-TT-G led to an 8.2-fold increase in the CPS-specific IgG titers as compared with CPS-TT. Presumably, conjugation of β-glucan ensured the two components to simultaneously reach the antigen presenting cells and stimulate the immune response. In contrast, co-administration of β-glucan suppressed the CPS-specific immunogenicity of CPS-TT. Thus, conjugation of β-glucan is an effective strategy to markedly improve the CPS-specific immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine. PMID:25728319

  1. Update on the use of meningococcal serogroup C CRM197-conjugate vaccine (Meningitec) against meningitis.

    PubMed

    Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Rashid, Harunor; Khatami, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Meningitec is a CRM197-conjugated meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) vaccine, first licensed in 1999. It has been used as a primary and booster vaccine in infants, toddlers, older children and adults, and has been shown to be immunogenic and well-tolerated in all age groups, including premature infants. Vaccine effectiveness has been demonstrated using combined data on all three licensed MenC conjugate vaccines. Evidence from clinical trials, however, suggests that the different MenC conjugate vaccines behave differently with respect to the induction and persistence of bactericidal antibody and generation of immune memory. It appears that Meningitec has a less favorable immunologic profile compared particularly to tetanus toxoid (TT) MenC conjugate vaccines. Data from comparative trials have raised interesting questions on priming of the immune system by conjugate vaccines, particularly in infants. The results from these and other studies are reviewed here with specific focus on Meningitec. PMID:26560735

  2. Different Dynamics for IgG and IgA Memory B Cells in Adolescents following a Meningococcal Serogroup C Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Booster Vaccination Nine Years after Priming: A Role for Priming Age?

    PubMed Central

    Stoof, Susanne P.; Buisman, Anne-Marie; van Rooijen, Debbie M.; Boonacker, Rianne; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibody levels wane rapidly after Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccination in young children, rendering the need for an adolescent booster dose. It is not clear whether circulating memory B cells are associated with persistence of MenC-specific antibody levels. Methods Measurement of MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells and levels of serum and salivary MenC-specific IgG and IgA in healthy 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds prior to and one month and one year after a MenCC booster vaccination. All participants had received a primary MenCC vaccination nine years earlier. Results The number of circulating MenC-specific IgG memory B cells prior to booster was low and not predictive for MenC-specific IgG responses in serum or saliva post-booster, whereas the number of MenC-specific IgA memory B cells pre-booster positively correlated with MenC-specific IgA levels in saliva post-booster (R = 0.5, P<0.05). The booster induced a clear increase in the number of MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells. The number of MenC-PS-specific IgG memory B cells at 1 month post-booster was highest in the 12-year-olds. The number of MenC-specific memory B cells at one month post-booster showed no correlation with the rate of MenC-specific antibody decay throughout the first year post-booster. Conclusions Circulating MenC-specific IgA memory B cells correlate with IgA responses in saliva, whereas circulating MenC-specific IgG memory B cells are not predictive for MenC-specific IgG responses in serum or saliva. Our results are suggestive for age-dependent differences in pre-existing memory against MenC. PMID:26458006

  3. Use of allicin as feed additive to enhance vaccination capacity of Clostridium perfringens toxoid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abu El Hammed, Waleed; Soufy, Hamdy; El-Shemy, Ahmed; Nasr, Soad M; Dessouky, Mohamed I

    2016-04-12

    The present study assessed the efficacy of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) toxoid and/or allicin - as feed additive - in rabbits for preventing or minimizing the severity of infection with locally isolated strain of C. perfringens type A. Serum biochemical, immunological and pathological investigations were also done. One hundred rabbits of 6 weeks of age were divided into five equal groups (G1-G5). G1 were kept as normal control. G2 was allocated for C. perfringens type A infection. G3 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at zero time and then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experimental period. G4 was treated with allicin 20% added to the ration (200mg/kg ration) all over the experimental period. G5 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at the zero time then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experiment period, and treated with allicin 20% from the zero time till the end of the experiment. At the 4th week, G2, G3, G4 and G5 were challenged orally (5ml) and subcutaneously (2ml) with 24h cooked meat broth containing 1×10(7)colony-forming units/ml of C. perfringens type A strain. Blood and tissue samples were collected from all groups post-vaccination then post-challenge for biochemical analysis, serum neutralization test and histopathological examinations. Results revealed that rabbits treated with both allicin and toxoid vaccine demonstrated high level of antitoxin titre post-challenge, improved liver and kidney functions, and reduced morbidity and mortality rates and the severity of histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with C. perfringens type A strain. In conclusion, vaccination of rabbits with C. perfringens toxoid combined with allicin 20% gave better protection, enhanced immune response and had no adverse effects on the general health conditions against C. perfringens type A infection compared to rabbits vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid only. PMID:26973070

  4. Novel Synthetic (Poly)Glycerolphosphate-Based Antistaphylococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Quanyi; Dintaman, Jay; Lees, Andrew; Sen, Goutam; Schwartz, David; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Park, Saeyoung; Lee, Jean C.; Mond, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcal infections are a major source of global morbidity and mortality. Currently there exists no antistaphylococcal vaccine in clinical use. Previous animal studies suggested a possible role for purified lipoteichoic acid as a vaccine target for eliciting protective IgG to several Gram-positive pathogens. Since the highly conserved (poly)glycerolphosphate backbone of lipoteichoic acid is a major antigenic target of the humoral immune system during staphylococcal infections, we developed a synthetic method for producing glycerol phosphoramidites to create a covalent 10-mer of (poly)glycerolphosphate for potential use in a conjugate vaccine. We initially demonstrated that intact Staphylococcus aureus elicits murine CD4+ T cell-dependent (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgM and IgG responses in vivo. Naive mice immunized with a covalent conjugate of (poly)glycerolphosphate and tetanus toxoid in alum plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides produced high secondary titers of serum (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgG. Sera from immunized mice enhanced opsonophagocytic killing of live Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Mice actively immunized with the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine showed rapid clearance of staphylococcal bacteremia in vivo relative to mice similarly immunized with an irrelevant conjugate vaccine. In contrast to purified, natural lipoteichoic acid, the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine itself exhibited no detectable inflammatory activity. These data suggest that a synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based conjugate vaccine will contribute to active protection against extracellular Gram-positive pathogens expressing this highly conserved backbone structure in their membrane-associated lipoteichoic acid. PMID:23649092

  5. Novel synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based antistaphylococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanyi; Dintaman, Jay; Lees, Andrew; Sen, Goutam; Schwartz, David; Shirtliff, Mark E; Park, Saeyoung; Lee, Jean C; Mond, James J; Snapper, Clifford M

    2013-07-01

    Staphylococcal infections are a major source of global morbidity and mortality. Currently there exists no antistaphylococcal vaccine in clinical use. Previous animal studies suggested a possible role for purified lipoteichoic acid as a vaccine target for eliciting protective IgG to several Gram-positive pathogens. Since the highly conserved (poly)glycerolphosphate backbone of lipoteichoic acid is a major antigenic target of the humoral immune system during staphylococcal infections, we developed a synthetic method for producing glycerol phosphoramidites to create a covalent 10-mer of (poly)glycerolphosphate for potential use in a conjugate vaccine. We initially demonstrated that intact Staphylococcus aureus elicits murine CD4(+) T cell-dependent (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgM and IgG responses in vivo. Naive mice immunized with a covalent conjugate of (poly)glycerolphosphate and tetanus toxoid in alum plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides produced high secondary titers of serum (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgG. Sera from immunized mice enhanced opsonophagocytic killing of live Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Mice actively immunized with the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine showed rapid clearance of staphylococcal bacteremia in vivo relative to mice similarly immunized with an irrelevant conjugate vaccine. In contrast to purified, natural lipoteichoic acid, the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine itself exhibited no detectable inflammatory activity. These data suggest that a synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based conjugate vaccine will contribute to active protection against extracellular Gram-positive pathogens expressing this highly conserved backbone structure in their membrane-associated lipoteichoic acid. PMID:23649092

  6. Antibody Responses to Natural Rattlesnake Envenomation and a Rattlesnake Toxoid Vaccine in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Robert C.; Holbrook, Todd C.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Ownby, Charlotte L.; McFarlane, Dianne; Payton, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Antivenom antibody titers following administration of rattlesnake venom for antivenom production in horses are well documented; however, antivenom antibody titers following natural rattlesnake envenomation in horses are not. Antibody titers produced in response to the commercially available rattlesnake venom vaccine are also not published. Our study objectives were to measure antivenom antibody titers in rattlesnake-bitten horses and compare them to titers in horses vaccinated with the rattlesnake venom vaccine. Additionally, titers were compared in pregnant versus nonpregnant horses to assess the affect of pregnancy on vaccine response and were measured pre- and postsuckle in foals of vaccinated mares to detect passive transfer of vaccine immunoglobulins. Blood samples were collected from16 rattlesnake-bitten horses. Thirty-six horses (11 pregnant mares, 12 nonpregnant mares, 13 geldings) were vaccinated using a Crotalus atrox venom toxoid vaccine. Blood was collected before administering each vaccination and 30 days following the third vaccination. Blood was collected from foals of vaccinated mares pre- and postsuckle. All serum was assayed for anti-Crotalus atrox venom antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rattlesnake-bitten horses had higher (P = 0.001) titers than vaccinated horses. There was no significant difference between titers in vaccinated pregnant versus nonpregnant horses. One mare had a positive titer at foaling, and the foals had positive postsuckle titers. Antivenom antibody titer development was variable following natural envenomation and vaccination, and vaccine-induced titers were lower than natural envenomation titers. Further studies are required to determine if natural or vaccine antivenom antibody titers reduce the effects of envenomation. PMID:23515015

  7. Prevention of edema disease in pigs by vaccination with verotoxin 2e toxoid.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, M; Andresen, L O; Jorsal, S E; Thomsen, L K; Waddell, T E; Gyles, C L

    1997-01-01

    Pigs in 2 herds with persistent problems with post weaning edema disease caused by infection with verotoxin-2e (VT2e)-producing Escherichia coli O139 were treated with a VT2e-toxoid vaccine. Treatment was performed as a randomized blind field trial with parallel treatment and non-vaccinated control groups. In 1 herd, a group of pigs was injected with adjuvant alone. Pigs were vaccinated at 1 and 3 wk of age and weaned at 4 wk of age. The effect of vaccination was measured by average daily weight gain (ADG), mortality due to edema disease within the 1st 4 wk after weaning, and weight at 3-6 mo of age. Pathological and microbiological examinations were performed on all pigs that died during the 1st 4 wk post weaning. Only pigs from which VT2e+, F18+ E. coli O139 was isolated were categorized as "death due to edema disease." The serological response to vaccination was evaluated by an indirect ELISA. Vaccination had a statistically significant effect on the level of antibodies specific for VT2e in both herds. Vaccination resulted in a statistically significant increase in ADG in the nursery period but not in the grower-finishing period. Vaccination had a statistically significant effect on mortality due to edema disease with an odds ratio of 0.039, indicating that there was almost total elimination of mortality due to the disease in the vaccine groups. PMID:9342452

  8. [Pneumococcal vaccines. New conjugate vaccines for adults].

    PubMed

    Campins Mart, Magda

    2015-11-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and are one of the 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Children under 2 years have a higher incidence rate, followed by adults over 64 years. The main risk group are individuals with immunodeficiency, and those with anatomical or functional asplenia, but can also affect immunocompetent persons with certain chronic diseases. Significant progress has been made in the last 10 years in the prevention of these infections. Until a few years ago, only the 23-valent non-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was available. Its results were controversial in terms of efficacy and effectiveness, and with serious limitations on the type of immune response induced. The current possibility of using the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in adults has led to greater expectations in improving the prevention of pneumococcal disease in these age groups. PMID:26474708

  9. Oral vaccine models: multiple delivery systems employing tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R J; Staats, H F; Xu-Amano, J; Takahashi, I; Kiyono, H; Hudson, M E; Gilley, R M; Chatfield, S N; McGhee, J R

    1994-08-15

    We have not yet directly examined the Th cell responses induced by using Salmonella/BRD 847 as a vector nor have we performed these experiments following immunization with microspheres. However, production of high serum levels of antigen-specific IgG1 may be indicative of a Th2-type response, whereas high serum levels of IgG2a may reflect a Th1-type response. An important issue in using various oral delivery systems is whether the system(s) employed affects the Th cell response to the same antigen. We therefore analyzed the serum antigen-specific IgG subclasses induced in each of the model systems we studied. Table 2 presents these results. Clearly, oral administration of soluble TT with CT as an adjuvant induced an IgG1 subclass, and encapsulation of TT within microspheres had no effect on this Th2-type response. On the other hand, oral immunization with live Salmonella expressing fragment C of tetanus toxin induced a strong IgG2a subclass response indicative of a Th1-type response. It should be noted that protection against a lethal TT challenge was afforded by elevated levels of both anti-TT IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses. We intend to examine the cytokine profiles in spleen CD4+ T cells from mice immunized with microspheres or Salmonella following in vitro antigen stimulation to confirm the T helper type responses suggested by the IgG subclass data. It will also be important to examine the cytokine patterns induced in Peyer's patch CD4+ T cells following immunization of C57BL/6 with Salmonella/BRD 847. Whereas analysis of the serum IgG subclass profile indicated a strong IgG2a response and thus a systemic Th1-type pattern, this vector also induced a good mucosal IgA response. If our current hypothesis concerning S-IgA production is correct, we would expect a predominant Th2-type profile in CD4+ T cells from Peyer's patch in these mice. Such a result would emphasize the bifurcation of T-cell responses in the systemic versus the mucosal immune environments. The data obtained to data suggest that adjuvants and various vehicle delivery systems may influence the induction of distinct T helper cell subsets to a specific antigen. The unique cytokine arrays produced by these T-cell subsets influence the immune responses in terms of systemic Ig subclasses produced, cell-mediated immune responses, and the production of mucosal S-IgA antibodies. Although additional studies are necessary, the manipulation of T-cell subsets employing adjuvants, antigen packaging, or perhaps even the addition of individual cytokines to various formulations holds significant promise for optimizing immune responses to orally administered vaccines. PMID:8080173

  10. Serum Concentrations of Antibodies Against Vaccine Toxoids in Children Exposed Perinatally to Immunotoxicants

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Carsten; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may cause immunotoxic effects, but the detailed dose–response relationship and possible vulnerable time windows of exposure are uncertain. In this study we applied serum concentrations of specific antibodies against childhood vaccines as sentinels of immunotoxicity. Objectives The main objective was to assess the possible dependence of antibody concentrations against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in children with regard to prenatal and postnatal PCB exposures. Methods From a cohort of 656 singleton births formed in the Faroe Islands during 1999–2001, children were invited for examination with assessment of serum antibody concentrations at 5 years (before and after a booster vaccination) and at 7 years of age. Total PCB concentrations were determined in serum from ages 5 and 7 years, and data were also available on PCB concentrations in maternal pregnancy serum, maternal milk, and, for a subgroup, the child’s serum at 18 months of age. Results A total of 587 children participated in the examinations at ages 5 and/or 7 years. At age 5 years, before the booster vaccination, the antidiphtheria antibody concentration was inversely associated with PCB concentrations in milk and 18-month serum. Results obtained 2 years later showed an inverse association of concentrations of antibodies against both toxoids with PCB concentrations at 18 months of age. The strongest associations suggested a decrease in the antibody concentration by about 20% for each doubling in PCB exposure. At age 5 years, the odds of an antidiphtheria antibody concentration below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/L increased by about 30% for a doubling in PCB in milk and 18-month serum. Conclusions Developmental PCB exposure is associated with immunotoxic effects on serum concentrations of specific antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations. The immune system development during the first years of life appears to be particularly vulnerable to this exposure. PMID:20562056

  11. Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve DC vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Duane A.; Batich, Kristen A.; Gunn, Michael D.; Huang, Min-Nung; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Nair, Smita K.; Congdon, Kendra L.; Reap, Elizabeth A.; Archer, Gary E.; Desjardins, Annick; Friedman, Allan H.; Friedman, Henry S.; Herndon, James E.; Coan, April; McLendon, Roger E.; Reardon, David A.; Vredenburgh, James J.; Bigner, Darell D.; Sampson, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Upon stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to induce immune responses1. As such, autologous DCs generated ex vivo have been pulsed with tumor antigens and injected back into patients as immunotherapy. While DC vaccines have shown limited promise in the treatment of patients with advanced cancers24 including glioblastoma (GBM),57 the factors dictating DC vaccine efficacy remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that pre-conditioning the vaccine site with a potent recall antigen such as tetanus/diphtheria (Td) toxoid can significantly improve the lymph node homing and efficacy of tumor antigen-specific DCs. To assess the impact of vaccine site pre-conditioning in humans, we randomized patients with GBM to pre-conditioning with mature DCs8 or Td unilaterally before bilateral vaccination with Cytomegalovirus pp65 RNA-pulsed DCs. We and other laboratories have shown that pp65 is expressed in > 90% of GBM specimens but not surrounding normal brain912, providing an unparalleled opportunity to subvert this viral protein as a tumor-specific target. Patients given Td had enhanced DC migration bilaterally and significantly improved survival. In mice, Td pre-conditioning also enhanced bilateral DC migration and suppressed tumor growth in a manner dependent on the chemokine CCL3. Our clinical studies and corroborating investigations in mice suggest that pre-conditioning with a potent recall antigen may represent a viable strategy to improve antitumor immunotherapy. PMID:25762141

  12. Simultaneous administration of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio and hepatitis B vaccines in a simplified immunization program: immune response to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis, and hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Coursaget, P; Yvonnet, B; Relyveld, E H; Barres, J L; Diop-Mar, I; Chiron, J P

    1986-01-01

    We studied the interactions of hepatitis B vaccine with other vaccines used in the World Health Organization expanded programs of immunization. Three groups of Senegalese children were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine (HB) alone, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-polio vaccine alone, or a combination of hepatitis B vaccine and DTP-polio vaccines simultaneously. The immune responses to HBsAg, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, and pertussis were measured after one and two vaccinations at 6-month intervals. The immune responses to the combination of HB vaccine and DTP-polio vaccines were similar to the immune responses observed after administration of each vaccine alone. In addition, no adverse reactions were noted. These experimental trials also demonstrated that with a DTP-polio vaccine containing 30Lf of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, two doses given at 6-month intervals are sufficient to provide a satisfactory immune response. In the case of pertussis and HB vaccines; however, a third dose is necessary. PMID:2936684

  13. Modulation of Benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    SciTech Connect

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Willieme, Stephanie; Farinelle, Sophie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J.F.

    2009-10-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also toxic for mammalian immune cells. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. We showed that high levels of antibodies against B[a]P and its metabolites modulate the redistribution of these PAHs in the blood. After immunization, increased levels of B[a]P and its metabolites were recovered in the blood. B[a]P significantly suppressed the proliferative response of both T and B cells after a sub-acute administration, an effect that was completely reversed by vaccination. In immunized mice also the immunotoxic effect of B[a]P on IFN-{gamma}, IL-12, TNF-{alpha} production and the reduced B cell activation was restored. Finally, our results showed that specific antibodies inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 by B[a]P in lymphocytes and Cyp1b1 in the liver, enzymes that are known to convert the procarcinogen B[a]P to the ultimate DNA-adduct forming metabolite, a major risk factor of chemical carcinogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that vaccination with a B[a]P conjugate vaccine based on a carrier protein used in licensed human vaccines reduces immunotoxicity and possibly other detrimental effects associated with B[a]P.

  14. Towards Rational Design of a Toxoid Vaccine against the Heat-Stable Toxin of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Taxt, Arne M; Diaz, Yuleima; Aasland, Rein; Clements, John D; Nataro, James P; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Puntervoll, Pål

    2016-04-01

    EnterotoxigenicEscherichia coli(ETEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease and death in children <5 years old. ETEC strains that express the heat-stable toxin (ST), with or without the heat-labile toxin, are among the four most important diarrhea-causing pathogens. This makes ST an attractive target for an ETEC vaccine. An ST vaccine should be nontoxic and elicit an immune response that neutralizes native ST without cross-reacting with the human endogenous guanylate cyclase C receptor ligands. To identify variants of ST with no or low toxicity, we screened a library of all 361 possible single-amino-acid mutant forms of ST by using the T84 cell assay. Moreover, we identified mutant variants with intact epitopes by screening for the ability to bind neutralizing anti-ST antibodies. ST mutant forms with no or low toxicity and intact epitopes are termed toxoid candidates, and the top 30 candidates all had mutations of residues A14, N12, and L9. The identification of nontoxic variants of L9 strongly suggests that it is a novel receptor-interacting residue, in addition to the previously identified N12, P13, and A14 residues. The screens also allowed us to map the epitopes of three neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, one of which cross-reacts with the human ligand uroguanylin. The common dominant epitope residue for all non-cross-reacting antibodies was Y19. Our results suggest that it should be possible to rationally design ST toxoids that elicit neutralizing immune responses against ST with minimal risk of immunological cross-reactivity. PMID:26883587

  15. Strategies for stabilising tetanus toxoid towards the development of a single-dose tetanus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Schwendeman, S P; Costantino, H R; Gupta, R K; Tobio, M; Chang, A C; Alonso, M J; Siber, G R; Langer, R

    1996-01-01

    The stability of tetanus toxoid (TT) has been investigated for the purpose of enhancing its immunogenicity when encapsulated in TT-polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microspheres. In this paper we describe our simulations of various potential inactivating events during microsphere processing and release of the antigen. These include: i) processing aqueous TT solutions in the presence of organic solvents, ii) exposing lyophilized TT to moisture, and iii) incubating vaccine with the degrading PLGA. At 37 degrees C, TT began to aggregate in solution a few hours after the addition of either methylene chloride or ethyl acetate to form a single oil-water interface. Similarly, exposure of the lyophilized vaccine to elevated humidity caused the antigen to lose solubility. Previous analysis of moisture-induced aggregates has revealed that formaldehyde, which is stored in labile linkages in the vaccine following its detoxification, is the precursor to the reactive species in the principal aggregation pathway [1]. Methods to inhibit this mechanism, such as blocking nucleophilic amino groups of TT with succinic anhydride, were verified. Succinylation of TT resulted in the incorporation of 10-fold greater antigenically active vaccine in PLGA microspheres relative to the unmodified TT following processing by double-emulsion/solvent evaporation with ethyl acetate, strongly suggesting the formaldehyde-mediated aggregation pathway also occurs during the deleterious conditions of microsphere processing. Incubation of solutions of TT in the presence of excess blank (unloaded) poly (D,L) lactide (mol. wt. 2000) microspheres led to a dramatic reduction in pH (approximately 3.2 units after one day at 45 degrees C) and simultaneous precipitation of TT. Stabilisation in the presence of the degrading polymer is likely to be the final obstacle before controlled-release preparations can be formulated to release antigenically active TT over extended time periods. Hence, mechanistic analyses as described here may be crucial for the development of effective single-dose vaccines. PMID:8854030

  16. Chitosan-HPMC-blended microspheres as a vaccine carrier for the delivery of tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Arthanari, Saravanakumar; Mani, Ganesh; Peng, Mei Mei; Jang, Hyun Tae

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a suitable and alternate adjuvant for the tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine that induces long term immunity after a single-dose immunization. In our study, the preformulation studies were carried out by using different ratios (7/3, 8/2, and 9/1) of chitosan-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-blended empty microspheres. Moreover, TT was stabilized with heparin (at heparin concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% w/v) and encapsulated in ideal chitosan - HPMC (CHBMS) microspheres, by the water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion method. The vaccine entrapment and the in vitro release efficiency of the CHBMS was evaluated for a period of 90 days. The release of antigens from the microspheres was determined by ELISA. Antigen integrity was investigated by SDS-PAGE. From the optimization studies, it was found that a chitosan/HPMC ratio of 8/2 produced a good yield, with microspheres that were spherical, regular and uniformly-sized. In the CHBMS, a heparin concentration of 3% w/v resulted in well-sustained antigen delivery for a period of 90 days. It was found that the characteristics of initial release could be observed in 2 days, followed by a constant release, and an almost 100% complete release in 90 days. From the in vitro release characteristics, the ideal batch of CHBMS (3% w/v heparin) was evaluated for in vivo studies by the antibody induction method. The antibody levels were measured for different combinations for the period of 9 months, and finally, with a second booster dose after 1 year. In conclusion, it was observed that CHBMS (combination-1) resulted in the antibody level of 4.5 IU/mL of guinea pig serum, and the level was 3.5 IU/mL for the Central Research Institute's alum-adsorbed tetanus toxoid (CRITT) (combination 2), after 1 year, with a second booster dose. This novel approach of using CHBMS may have potential advantages for single-step immunization with vaccines. PMID:25472756

  17. Immunogenicity in animals of a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine against type III group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, M R; Paoletti, L C; Kasper, D L; DiFabio, J L; Michon, F; Holme, K; Jennings, H J

    1990-01-01

    The native capsular polysaccharide of type III group B Streptococcus elicits a specific antibody response in only 60% of nonimmune human subjects. To enhance the immunogenicity of this polysaccharide, we coupled the type III polysaccharide to tetanus toxoid. Prior to coupling, aldehyde groups were introduced on the polysaccharide by controlled periodate oxidation, resulting in the conversion of 25% of the sialic acid residues of the polysaccharide to residues of the 8-carbon analogue of sialic acid, 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-D-galactosyloctulosonic acid. Tetanus toxoid was conjugated to the polysaccharide by reductive amination, via the free aldehyde groups present on the partially oxidized sialic acid residues. Rabbits vaccinated with the conjugate vaccine produced IgG antibodies that reacted with the native type III group B streptococcal polysaccharide (3/3 rabbits), while rabbits immunized with the unconjugated type III polysaccharide failed to respond (0/3 rabbits). Sera from animals receiving conjugate vaccine opsonized type III group B streptococci for phagocytic killing by human peripheral blood leukocytes, and protected mice against lethal challenge with live type III group B streptococci. The results suggest that this method of conjugation to a carrier protein may be a useful strategy to improve the immunogenicity of the type III group B Streptococcus polysaccharide in human subjects. PMID:2243123

  18. Mass psychogenic illness following tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed Central

    Kharabsheh, S.; Al-Otoum, H.; Clements, J.; Abbas, A.; Khuri-Bulos, N.; Belbesi, A.; Gaafar, T.; Dellepiane, N.

    2001-01-01

    In September 1998, more than 800 young people in Jordan believed they had suffered from the side-effects of tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccine administered at school; 122 of them were admitted to hospital. For the vast majority, their symptoms did not result from the vaccine but arose from mass psychogenic illness. The role played by the media, the children's parents, and the medical profession in the escalation of this mass reaction appeared, at first sight, to be unusual and even unique to the circumstances in Jordan at the time. A review of the literature showed, however, that this mass reaction was similar in many ways to previous outbreaks, even though the underlying causes varied. There are about 200 published accounts of mass responses to situations involving suspected poisoning or other events. Because such mass reactions are relatively rare and the triggers so diverse, individuals faced with responding to them are unlikely to have prior experience in how to handle them and are unlikely to take bold steps to prevent their escalation. Indeed they may be unaware that such events have been recorded before. The lessons learned from this incident in Jordan may help other immunization programme managers to handle crisis situations elsewhere. PMID:11545334

  19. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jacqueline M.; Mesaros, Narcisa; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela

    2011-01-01

    Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles. PMID:21991444

  20. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    SciTech Connect

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

  1. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See www. immunize. org/ ...

  2. Effect of Vaccination with Carrier Protein on Response to Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccines and Value of Different Immunoassays as Predictors of Protection

    PubMed Central

    Burrage, Moya; Robinson, Andrew; Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Southern, Joanna; Findlow, Jamie; Martin, Sarah; Thornton, Carol; Goldblatt, David; Corbel, Michael; Sesardic, Dorothea; Cartwight, Keith; Richmond, Peter; Miller, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    In order to plan for the wide-scale introduction of meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine for United Kingdom children up to 18 years old, phase II trials were undertaken to investigate whether there was any interaction between MCC vaccines conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or a derivative of diphtheria toxin (CRM197) and diphtheria-tetanus vaccines given for boosting at school entry or leaving. Children (n = 1,766) received a diphtheria-tetanus booster either 1 month before, 1 month after, or concurrently with one of three MCC vaccines conjugated to CRM197 or TT. All of the MCC vaccines induced high antibody responses to the serogroup C polysaccharide that were indicative of protection. The immune response to the MCC-TT vaccine was reduced as a result of prior immunization with a tetanus-containing vaccine, but antibody levels were still well above the lower threshold for protection. Prior or simultaneous administration of a diphtheria-containing vaccine did not affect the response to MCC-CRM197 vaccines. The immune responses to the carrier proteins were similar to those induced by a comparable dose of diphtheria or tetanus vaccine. The results also demonstrate that, for these conjugate vaccines in these age groups, both standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and those that measure high-avidity antibodies to meningococcal C polysaccharide correlated equally well with assays that measure serum bactericidal antibodies, the established serological correlate of protection for MCC vaccines. PMID:12183540

  3. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-09-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  4. In vivo Evaluation of Single Dose Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Formulation with Chitosan Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, R; Dhanaraj, S A; Rao, Y Udaya Bhaskara; Balasubramaniam, A; Gowrishankar, N L; Jawahar, N; Jubie, S

    2008-01-01

    Chitosan adsorbed microspheres containing tetanus toxoid were prepared in the size range of 10 mum to 75 mum, by emulsion-cross linking technique at different speeds of agitation. The amount of tetanus toxoid incorporated into chitosan microspheres were estimated by limes flocculation test and in vivo evaluation of tetanus toxoid adsorbed chitosan microspheres were determined by toxin neutralization method using albino mice. The results of in vivo release for the batches of 10 mum and 25 mum correlates with the results of in vitro in which both the batches passes the limit of IP standard (4 Lf) where as, for the batches of 50 mum and 75 mum, the in vitro release of tetanus toxoid was 2 Lf. But our in vivo studies for the batches of 50 mum and 75 mum fail to pass the limit stated in IP. The release of tetanus toxoid from the chitosan microspheres was found to be sustained for the period of 6 months. PMID:20390074

  5. Large-scale preparation of Shiga toxin 2 in Escherichia coli for toxoid vaccine antigen production.

    PubMed

    Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Shimizu, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Kentaro; Shimizu, Toshiyasu; Tsuji, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis, and in more severe cases, a serious clinical complication called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin (Stx)is one of the factors that cause HUS. Serotypes of Stx produced by EHEC include Stx1 and Stx2. Although some genetically mutated toxoids of Stx have been developed, large-scale preparation of Stx that is practical for vaccine development has not been reported. Therefore, overexpression methods for Stx2 and mutant Stx2 (mStx2) in E. coli were developed. The expression plasmid pBSK-Stx2(His) was constructed by inserting the full-length Stx2 gene, in which a six-histidine tag gene was fused at the end of the B subunit into the lacZ? fragment gene of the pBluescript II SK(+) vector. An E. coli MV1184 strain transformed with pBSK-Stx2(His) overexpressed histidine-tagged Stx2 (Stx2-His) in cells cultured in CAYE broth in the presence of lincomycin. Stx2-His was purified using TALON metal affinity resin followed by hydroxyapatite chromatography. From 1 L of culture, 68.8?mg of Stx2-His and 61.1?mg of mStx2-His, which was generated by site-directed mutagenesis, were obtained. Stx2-His had a cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells and was lethal to mice. However, the toxicity of mStx2-His was approximately 1000-fold lower than that of Stx2-His. Mice immunized with mStx2-His produced specific antibodies that neutralized the toxicity of Stx2 in HeLa cells. Moreover, these mice survived challenge with high doses of Stx2-His. Therefore, the lincomycin-inducible overexpression method is suitable for large-scale preparation of Stx2 vaccine antigens. PMID:23157558

  6. Preparation and testing of a Haemophilus influenzae Type b/Hepatitis B surface antigen conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    An, So Jung; Woo, Joo Sung; Chae, Myung Hwa; Kothari, Sudeep; Carbis, Rodney

    2015-03-24

    The majority of conjugate vaccines focus on inducing an antibody response to the polysaccharide antigen and the carrier protein is present primarily to induce a T-cell dependent response. In this study conjugates consisting of poly(ribosylribitolphosphate) (PRP) purified from Haemophilus influenzae Type b bound to Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) virus like particles were prepared with the aim of inducing an antibody response to not only the PRP but also the HBsAg. A conjugate consisting of PRP bound to HBsAg via an adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) spacer induced strong IgG antibodies to both the PRP and HBsAg. When conjugation was performed without the ADH spacer the induction of an anti-PRP response was equivalent to that seen by conjugate with the ADH spacer, however, a negligible anti-HBsAg response was induced. For comparison, PRP was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and Vi polysaccharide purified from Salmonella Typhi conjugated to HBsAg both using an ADH spacer. The PRPAH-DT conjugate induced strong anti-PRP and anti-DT responses, the Vi-AHHBsAg conjugate induced a good anti-HBsAg response but not as strong as that induced by the PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate. This study demonstrated that in mice it was possible to induce robust antibody responses to both polysaccharide and carrier protein provided the conjugate has certain physico-chemical properties. A PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate with the capacity to induce anti-PRP and anti-HBsAg responses could be incorporated into a multivalent pediatric vaccine and simplify formulation of such a vaccine. PMID:25659268

  7. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use in adults.

    PubMed

    Isturiz, Raul E; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate; Scott, Daniel A; Jodar, Luis; Webber, Chris; Sings, Heather L; Paradiso, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of illness and death in adults. A polysaccharide vaccine has been available for over 30years, but despite significant use, the public health impact of this vaccine has been limited. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration and other international regulatory authorities with the assumption that induction of a T cell-dependent immune response and noninferior immunogenicity to vaccine antigens when compared with the polysaccharide vaccine would be important to satisfy a significant unmet medical need. PCV13 efficacy against vaccine-type pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia was confirmed in a large randomized controlled trial in older adults and its use is now increasingly recommended globally. PMID:26651847

  8. Safety and immunogenicity of two doses of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine or one dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine, both administered concomitantly with routine immunization to 12- to 18-month-old children

    PubMed Central

    Noya, Francisco; McCormack, Deirdre; Reynolds, Donna L; Neame, Dion; Oster, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose series of a quadrivalent meningococcal (serogroups A, C, Y and W) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-D) administered to toddlers. METHODS: Children were randomly assigned (1:1) at study entry to receive MenACYW-D at 12 and 18 months of age (group 1; n=61) or meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MCC) at 12 months of age (group 2; n=62). All received routine childhood immunizations. A, C, Y and W antibody titres were measured in group 1 before and one month after the 18-month MenACYW-D vaccination and were measured in group 2 at one and seven months post-MCC vaccination. Antibodies elicited by diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed combined with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine coadministered at the 18-month vaccination were measured one month later. Safety data were collected. RESULTS: At 19 months of age, ?96% in group 1 achieved protective titres for the four meningococcal serogroups after dose 2; 67% in group 2 exhibited protective titres against serogroup C 28 days after MCC vaccination at 12 months of age, declining to 27% seven months later. DTaP-IPV-Hib elicited high antibody concentrations/titres in groups 1 and 2, consistent with historical values. The safety profiles after each dose generated no unexpected safety signals; no serious adverse events were related to vaccination. DISCUSSION: A two-dose series of MenACYW-D given concomitantly with a DTaP-IPV-Hib booster dose at 18 months of age demonstrated a good immunogenicity and safety profile. A two-dose series of MenACYW-D can be used as an alternative to one dose of MCC and provides protection against additional serogroups (NCT ID: NCT01359449). PMID:25285126

  9. Humoral immunity to aerosolized staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a superantigen, in monkeys vaccinated with SEB toxoid-containing microspheres.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, J; Komisar, J L; Trout, R N; Hunt, R E; Chen, J Y; Johnson, A J; Pitt, L; Ruble, D L

    1995-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) toxoid-containing microspheres were tested for efficacy in rhesus monkeys as a vaccine candidate for respiratory SEB toxicosis and toxic shock. Forty monkeys were randomly separated into 10 groups of four monkeys each: 9 groups were vaccinated with the microspheres via combinations of mucosal and nonmucosal routes, and 1 group served as nonvaccinated controls. Both vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were then challenged with a high lethal dose of SEB aerosol. Monkeys primed with an intramuscular dose of the microspheres followed by an intratracheal booster all survived the SEB challenge. Overall, monkeys with an intratracheal booster generally had the highest antibody levels, which is consistent with their high survival rate and lower rate of illness. Protective immunity was correlated with antibody levels in both the circulation and the respiratory tract. The protection was not due to the depletion or anergy of SEB-reactive T cells, since SEB-induced proliferation in cultures of circulating lymphocytes was not significantly reduced after the microsphere vaccination. It is evident that the nonsurvivors did not die of systemic anaphylaxis or hypersensitivity because the monkeys did not die immediately after SEB challenge and there were no significant differences in histamine levels between the vaccinated and control monkeys before and after SEB challenge. The antibodies seemed to neutralize the SEB that got into the airway and the circulation. PMID:7542634

  10. Role of endotoxin in alterations of hepatic drug metabolism by diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine adsorbed.

    PubMed Central

    Ansher, S; Thompson, W; Snoy, P; Habig, W

    1992-01-01

    Administration of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine adsorbed (DTP vaccine) or endotoxin (LPS) resulted in marked alterations in hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in endotoxin-responsive (R) and non-endotoxin-responsive (NR) mice. A single human dose (0.5 ml) of DTP vaccine increased hexobarbital-induced sleep times to 1.6- to 1.8-fold above those of controls in both strains of mice. This effect persisted for 7 days. In contrast, Bordetella pertussis LPS-treated mice showed an increase at 1 day (3.0-fold for R mice and 1.5-fold for NR mice), which returned to control levels by day 7. Furthermore, cytochrome P-450 levels were decreased 30 to 40% 24 h after DTP vaccine administration in both R and NR mice, while after LPS administration they were decreased 30% in R mice and less than 10% in NR mice. Both spleen and liver weights of R and NR mice were increased 7 to 14 days following DTP vaccine administration. However, LPS treatment had no apparent effect on liver weights, and spleen weights of R mice were elevated from days 3 to 7. Histopathologic tissue examination showed random, multifocal inflammation with hepatocyte necrosis after DTP vaccine administration to both R and NR mice and an absence of lesions in LPS-treated mice. Premixing LPS with polymyxin eliminated the increased sleep times, but premixing DTP vaccine with polymyxin did not affect the increased sleep times. Levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 in plasma of R mice were markedly increased after DTP and LPS treatment, while NR mice had reduced increases. These results suggest that LPS contributes to the alterations in R and NR mice seen within the first 24 h of vaccine administration but that it is not likely to contribute to the effects observed at later time points. Images PMID:1500188

  11. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid ? Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Akira; Ito, Kaori; Miwa, Yoshikatsu; Kanazawa, Yoshito; Chiba, Akiko; Iigo, Yutaka; Kashimoto, Yoshinori; Kanda, Akira; Murata, Shinji; Makino, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of brain amyloid beta (A?) peptides by anti-A? antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported that the A? peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT) induced anti-A? antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-A? antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize A?40, and A?42 compared to A? fibrils. The levels of serum anti-A? antibodies and plasma A? peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain A?40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-A? antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain A? peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of A? peptides by generated antibodies. PMID:26539559

  12. Immunogenicity of a Reduced Schedule of Meningococcal Group C Conjugate Vaccine Given Concomitantly with the Prevenar and Pediacel Vaccines in Healthy Infants in the United Kingdom?

    PubMed Central

    Southern, Jo; Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Morris, Rhonwen; Waight, Pauline; Hudson, Michael; Balmer, Paul; Findlow, Helen; Findlow, Jamie; Miller, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the use of two doses of three different meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccines when given for primary immunization with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and Pediacel, a combination product containing five acellular pertussis components, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate, and inactivated-poliovirus vaccine. The immune response after a single dose of MCC is also presented. Infants were randomized to receive two doses of one of the MCC vaccines and PCV7 at 2 and 3 months or at 2 and 4 months of age. Meningococcal group C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) geometric mean titers, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), and diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin GMCs, together with the proportions of infants achieving putative protective levels, were determined. A total of 393 infants were recruited. Following the first dose of NeisVac-C (MCC conjugated to tetanus toxoid), 97% of infants achieved protective levels (SBA titer of ?8), compared with 80% and 53%, respectively, for Menjugate and Meningitec (both of which are conjugated to CRM197). SBA responses to MCC vaccines were not significantly different when administered at 2 and 3 or 2 and 4 months of age. Following two doses of each MCC, 98 to 100% of infants achieved protective levels. Both PRP IgG and tetanus responses were significantly enhanced when Pediacel was coadministered with NeisVac-C. This study demonstrates that NeisVac-C and Menjugate generate good immunogenicity after the first dose at 2 months of age when coadministered with PCV7 and Pediacel and merit further investigation in single-dose priming strategies. PMID:19091990

  13. Immunogenicity of a reduced schedule of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine given concomitantly with the Prevenar and Pediacel vaccines in healthy infants in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Southern, Jo; Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Morris, Rhonwen; Waight, Pauline; Hudson, Michael; Balmer, Paul; Findlow, Helen; Findlow, Jamie; Miller, Elizabeth

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the use of two doses of three different meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccines when given for primary immunization with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and Pediacel, a combination product containing five acellular pertussis components, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate, and inactivated-poliovirus vaccine. The immune response after a single dose of MCC is also presented. Infants were randomized to receive two doses of one of the MCC vaccines and PCV7 at 2 and 3 months or at 2 and 4 months of age. Meningococcal group C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) geometric mean titers, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), and diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin GMCs, together with the proportions of infants achieving putative protective levels, were determined. A total of 393 infants were recruited. Following the first dose of NeisVac-C (MCC conjugated to tetanus toxoid), 97% of infants achieved protective levels (SBA titer of >or=8), compared with 80% and 53%, respectively, for Menjugate and Meningitec (both of which are conjugated to CRM(197)). SBA responses to MCC vaccines were not significantly different when administered at 2 and 3 or 2 and 4 months of age. Following two doses of each MCC, 98 to 100% of infants achieved protective levels. Both PRP IgG and tetanus responses were significantly enhanced when Pediacel was coadministered with NeisVac-C. This study demonstrates that NeisVac-C and Menjugate generate good immunogenicity after the first dose at 2 months of age when coadministered with PCV7 and Pediacel and merit further investigation in single-dose priming strategies. PMID:19091990

  14. Awareness of and factors influencing willingness to receive a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid booster vaccine among Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Pandejpong, Denla; Phisalprapa, Pochamana

    2013-11-01

    Adults who complete the diphtheria tetanus pertussis (DTP) vaccine series during childhood should receive a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) booster vaccine every 10 years. We studied awareness of and willingness to receive the Td booster vaccine as well as factors influencing these attitudes. A total of 1,284 participants were interviewed using a questionnaire at the out-patient department (OPD) of Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand from January 31 to February 28, 2011. The sample population included: OPD patients, family members accompanying patients and medical personnel other than doctors. Seven percent of the 961 general participants and 26.3% of the 320 medical personnel who completed the questionnaire were aware of the need to receive the Td booster vaccine. Eighty-six point five percent of participants stated they be willing to receive the vaccine if they were instructed by their doctors. Logistic regression analyses showed the following factors correlated with awareness of the need to receive the vaccine: born after 1978 (aOR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.59-2.97), higher income (aOR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.37-2.72), and higher general preventive awareness score (aOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02-1.14). Factors that correlated with willingness to receive the vaccine were: higher education (aOR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.54-3.05), a higher score on general knowledge of tetanus-diphtheria (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.15-3.51), a higher general preventive awareness score (aOR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.007-1.115), and previous experience with the Td booster vaccine (aOR = 2.85; 95% CI: 1.71-4.76), Under-awareness of the adult vaccination program remains a problem in Thailand especially among older generations and low-socioeconomic groups. As passive immunity wanes with time, public health authorities need to take action to educate the general population and health care workers about the importance of the Td booster vaccine. PMID:24450242

  15. Long-term protection in children with meningococcal C conjugate vaccination: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Borrow, Ray; Miller, Elizabeth

    2006-12-01

    Owing to an increase in group C disease, extensive prelicensure studies have been funded by both the UK Department of Health and vaccine manufacturers. These demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of three candidate meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccines (two conjugated to CRM(197) and one to tetanus toxoid) in the targeted age groups. Induction of immunological memory in infants and young children was also demonstrated by either a low dose of polysaccharide challenge following primary immunization with MCC or by an increase in avidity indices post-primary to pre-challenge. Immune memory after infant immunization persisted to at least 4 years of age, although antibody persistence in this age group was poor. MCC vaccine was introduced into the UK routine immunization schedule at 2, 3 and 4 months of age in 1999, with a catch-up as a single dose to all children aged 1-18 years with two doses for infants aged 5-11 months. The number of group C cases fell rapidly in the targeted age groups and early analyzes showed high vaccine effectiveness in all age groups together with significant herd immunity. However, when effectiveness was measured again more than 1 year after vaccination, there was a significant decline in all age groups, most marked in infants vaccinated in the routine infant immunization program, for whom there was no demonstrable efficacy after only 1 year and then in toddlers for whom efficacy declined to 61% (95% confidence interval: -327-94) from 88% (95% confidence interval: 65-96) in the first year. However, good disease control was maintained in the UK with only low numbers of vaccine failures. The assumption that immune memory was predictive of long-term protection is incorrect, at least after vaccination in infancy. Persistence of antibody and herd immunity may be more relevant for long-term disease control. PMID:17184222

  16. 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Johanna M C; Macdonald, Emily; Faust, Saul N; Clarke, Stuart C

    2011-10-01

    The thirteen valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13, Prevenar 13(TM)) is the broader coverage successor to the highly effective seven valent vaccine (PCV7, Prevenar(TM)) which has reduced rates of pneumococcal disease in many countries. Despite the success of PCV7, pneumococcal disease due to non-PCV7 serotypes remains a threat in many settings, in particular many developing countries with a high burden of pneumococcal disease where serotype 1 and 5 are among the most common serotypes. Disease due to certain non-PCV7 serotypes, in particular serotype 19A has also begun to increase in incidence in countries with widespread use of PCV7. PCV13 consists of thirteen pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides individually conjugated to the diphtheria-derived protein carrier CRM(197). In addition to serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F included in PCV7, PCV13 also includes serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F and 19A. PCV13 was licensed on the basis of non-inferiority trials and has proved to be at least as safe and effective as PCV7. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in the childhood immunisation schedules of the USA and UK in 2010 and is being rolled out to an increasing number of developing countries during 2011. Here we review the current literature regarding this vaccine, describing safety, efficacy, global serotype coverage and use and future directions. PMID:21941097

  17. Immunogenicity, Reactogenicity, and Immune Memory after Primary Vaccination with a Novel Haemophilus influenzae-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Heinz-J.; Maechler, Gudrun; Habermehl, Pirmin; Knuf, Markus; Saenger, Roland; Begg, Norman; Boutriau, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated two formulations of a new combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-meningococcal serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugated vaccine and two formulations of a new MenC-TT vaccine (trials 711202/001 and 711202/008; clinical trial register numbers NCT00135486 and NCT00135564 [www.ClinicalTrials.gov]). A total of 520 healthy infants were randomized to receive primary vaccination (at 2, 3, and 4 months) with either MenC-TT plus diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)/Hib, Hib-MenC-TT plus DTPa-HBV-IPV, or MenC-CRM197 plus DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (control). At 12 to 15 months, subjects received a polysaccharide challenge with meningococcal polysaccharide C plus a DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib booster. Immune responses were assessed 1 month after dose 2, 1 month after dose 3, and prior to and 1 month after the booster. After primary vaccination, there was no difference between groups in seroprotection rates as measured by titers of serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) to MenC (?1:8) or concentrations of anti-polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) antibody (?0.15 ?g/ml). Prior to the booster, there was no difference between groups in SBA seroprotection rates, whereas anti-PRP seroprotection rates were significantly higher after priming with Hib-MenC-TT. Booster doses induced large increases in SBA and anti-PRP antibodies in primed groups, indicating successful priming with induction of immune memory. Reactogenicity and safety were similar in all groups during the primary and booster phases. A novel combined Hib-MenC-TT conjugate vaccine induced MenC and Hib responses comparable to those induced by licensed monovalent vaccines. A Hib-MenC-TT conjugate vaccine provides vaccination against two major pathogens in a single injection and is a suitable candidate for use in primary or booster vaccination schedules. PMID:17287313

  18. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and immune memory after primary vaccination with a novel Haemophilus influenzae-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Heinz-J; Maechler, Gudrun; Habermehl, Pirmin; Knuf, Markus; Saenger, Roland; Begg, Norman; Boutriau, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    We evaluated two formulations of a new combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-meningococcal serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugated vaccine and two formulations of a new MenC-TT vaccine (trials 711202/001 and 711202/008; clinical trial register numbers NCT00135486 and NCT00135564 [www.ClinicalTrials.gov]). A total of 520 healthy infants were randomized to receive primary vaccination (at 2, 3, and 4 months) with either MenC-TT plus diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)/Hib, Hib-MenC-TT plus DTPa-HBV-IPV, or MenC-CRM(197) plus DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (control). At 12 to 15 months, subjects received a polysaccharide challenge with meningococcal polysaccharide C plus a DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib booster. Immune responses were assessed 1 month after dose 2, 1 month after dose 3, and prior to and 1 month after the booster. After primary vaccination, there was no difference between groups in seroprotection rates as measured by titers of serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) to MenC (> or = 1:8) or concentrations of anti-polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) antibody (> or = 0.15 microg/ml). Prior to the booster, there was no difference between groups in SBA seroprotection rates, whereas anti-PRP seroprotection rates were significantly higher after priming with Hib-MenC-TT. Booster doses induced large increases in SBA and anti-PRP antibodies in primed groups, indicating successful priming with induction of immune memory. Reactogenicity and safety were similar in all groups during the primary and booster phases. A novel combined Hib-MenC-TT conjugate vaccine induced MenC and Hib responses comparable to those induced by licensed monovalent vaccines. A Hib-MenC-TT conjugate vaccine provides vaccination against two major pathogens in a single injection and is a suitable candidate for use in primary or booster vaccination schedules. PMID:17287313

  19. Synthesis and characterization of lipooligosaccharide-based conjugate vaccines for serotype B Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengqing; Gu, Xin-Xing

    2005-05-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is an important cause of otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in the elderly. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a major surface antigen of the bacterium that elicits bactericidal antibodies. Serological studies show that three major LOS types (A, B, and C) have been identified among clinical isolates. Our previous studies demonstrated that the type A LOS-based conjugates were immunogenic in animals. In this study, LOS from type B strain 26397 was detoxified and conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or a cross-reactive mutant (CRM) of diphtheria toxin to form detoxified LOS (dLOS)-TT and dLOS-CRM, respectively, as vaccine candidates. The molar ratios of dLOS to TT and CRM in the conjugates were 43:1 and 19:1, respectively, while both weight ratios were around 0.9. The antigenicity of the conjugates was similar to that of the LOS, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a rabbit antiserum to strain 26397. Subcutaneous immunization with each conjugate elicited a 180- to 230-fold rise of serum anti-LOS immunoglobulin G in mice and >2,000-fold rise in rabbits. In addition, both mouse and rabbit antisera showed elevated complement-mediated bactericidal activity against the homologous strain, and a representative rabbit antiserum showed bactericidal activity against nine of twelve clinical isolates studied. The bactericidal activity of the rabbit antiserum can be fully inhibited by the type B LOS but not the A or C LOS. These results indicate that the type B LOS-based conjugates can be used as vaccine components for further investigation. PMID:15845482

  20. Evaluation of two carrier proteinangiotensin I conjugate vaccines to assess their future potential to control high blood pressure (hypertension) in man

    PubMed Central

    Downham, M R; Auton, T R; Rosul, A; Sharp, H L; Sjstrm, L; Rushton, A; Richards, J P; Mant, T G K; Gardiner, S M; Bennett, T; Glover, J F

    2003-01-01

    Aims We aim to modulate the reninangiotensin system (RAS) by active immunization against angiotensin I hormone (AI), potentially providing a novel conjugate vaccine treatment for hypertension in man. Methods Immunization studies in rat and human subjects compare the effectiveness of tetanus toxoid (TT) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) vaccines for immunotherapy following conjugation with an AI peptide analogue (AI). Cardiovascular responses were assessed in immunized rats and human subjects (two-dose trial only), following increasing i.v. infusions of either AI or angiotensin II hormone (AII). Results The AITT and AIKLH conjugate vaccines induced an equivalent immune response, and inhibition of the pressor effects to exogenous AI in rats. Single-dose clinical trials with both conjugate vaccines only resulted in an immune response to the KLH carrier protein. A two-dose clinical trial of AIKLH conjugate vaccine resulted in a significant immune response to AI. A shift in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) doseresponse was demonstrated following challenge with AI and AII for the study volunteer showing the largest anti-AI IgG induction. Conclusion KLH was shown to be a suitable alternative to TT as a carrier protein for AI, thus supporting continued evaluation of our AIKLH conjugate vaccine for treatment of hypertension in man. PMID:14651724

  1. Dosing Schedules for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of dosesthe schedulethat will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

  2. Non-epitope-specific suppression of the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines by preimmunization with vaccine components.

    PubMed Central

    Barington, T; Skettrup, M; Juul, L; Heilmann, C

    1993-01-01

    Recently, conjugate vaccines containing Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to protein carriers were introduced for use in infants and certain adult risk groups. Similar conjugate vaccines against other capsulated bacteria are currently under development for both children and adults. Despite its potential importance, the possible influence of preexisting immunity to the components of such conjugates on the vaccination response in humans has been addressed by few studies. To study this issue, we randomized 82 healthy adult volunteers into six groups and vaccinated them twice, with a 4-week interval between immunizations. Four groups received tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and then HibCP coupled to TT (HibCP-TT) or DT (HibCP-DT). Two groups received HibCP-TT followed by HibCP-DT or vice versa. The total antibody levels to HibCP, TT, and DT and the anti-HibCP immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 levels were measured before and 4 weeks after the immunizations. For some of the vaccinees, the number of circulating antibody-secreting cells was evaluated 7 days after immunization. Surprisingly, preimmunization with the relevant carrier protein reduced the subsequent increase in the total HibCP antibody levels (P < 0.05), affecting the IgG1 and the IgG2 subclasses equally. Also, the responses to the carrier portions of the conjugates were suppressed, as demonstrated by the lack of significant increases in the antibody levels (P > or = 0.29) and, for HibCP-TT, by reduced numbers of anticarrier antibody-secreting cells (P = 0.009). Similar non-epitope-specific suppression was seen in the groups receiving both conjugates. Thus, preimmunization with one conjugate reduced the subsequent response to the carrier portion of the other conjugate (HibCP-DT and then HibCP-TT, P = 0.00002; HibCP-TT and then HibCP-DT, P = 0.06) as well as to HibCP itself. Possible mechanisms behind this non-epitope-specific suppression and its relevance for vaccine development are discussed. PMID:7678586

  3. Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-29

    An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (P<0.001) according to MCC vaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 ?g/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 ?g/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 ?g/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 ?g/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible. PMID:25510388

  4. Vaccination of cattle with a recombinant bivalent toxoid against botulism serotypes C and D.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Carlos E P; Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Salvarani, Felipe M; Neves, Monique S; Lobato, Francisco C F; Dellagostin, Odir A; Conceio, Fabricio R

    2014-01-01

    Cattle botulism is a fatal intoxication caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D resulting in economic losses. Vaccination is the most effective way to control botulism. However, the commercially available vaccines are difficult and hazardous to produce. Neutralizing antibodies against the C-terminal fragment of the BoNT heavy chain (HC) are known to protect against lethal doses of BoNTs. We report the vaccination of cattle with a previously tested recombinant chimera consisting of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit and the HC of BoNTs C and D. Vaccinated animals produced neutralizing antibodies against serotypes C and D averaging 50 and 6.141.06IU/mL, respectively. For BoNT D, the titers were greater than those measured for the commercial vaccine, which induced titers of 50 and 2.851.35 against the respective serotypes, suggesting that this chimera is effective against cattle botulism. PMID:24252701

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and immunological properties in mice of conjugates composed of detoxified lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella paratyphi A bound to tetanus toxoid with emphasis on the role of O acetyls.

    PubMed Central

    Konadu, E; Shiloach, J; Bryla, D A; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    1996-01-01

    Salmonella paratyphi A, the second most common cause of enteric fever in Southeast Asia, is a habitant of and a pathogen for humans only. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are both essential virulence factors and protective antigens for systemic infections caused by groups A, B, C, and D nontyphoidal salmonellae. The O-specific polysaccharide of S. paratyphi A is composed of a trisaccharide, -->2-alpha-D)-Manp-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Galp -(1-->, with a branch of D-paratose from the C-3 of alpha-D-mannose, and the C-3 of beta-L-rhamnose is partially O acetylated (C. G. Hellerqvist, B. Lindberg, K. Samuelsson, and A. A. Lindberg, Acta Chem. Scand. 25:955-961, 1971). On the basis of data from our investigational vaccines for enteric bacterial pathogens, including group B salmonellae (D. C. Watson, J. B. Robbins, and S. C. Szu, Infect. Immun. 60:4679-4686, 1992), conjugates composed of the detoxified LPS of S. paratyphi A bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) were prepared by several schemes. LPS was detoxified with acetic acid or with hydrazine; the latter removed O acetyls from the O-specific polysaccharide. The detoxified polysaccharides were activated with cyanogen bromide (CNBr) or with 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetratfluoroborate (CDAP) and bound to TT with or without a spacer. Solutions of 2.5 microgram of saccharide, alone or as a conjugate, were injected subcutaneously into young mice, and LPS and TT antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assaying. A conjugate synthesized with higher-molecular-weight O-SP elicited the highest anti-LPS levels. Only conjugates with O acetyls elicited serum immunoglobulin G anti-LPS with bactericidal activity. There were no statistically significant differences between LPS antibody levels elicited by conjugates synthesized with or without a spacer. The conjugate with O-specific polysaccharide activated by CDAP and bound to TT without a spacer elicited the highest level of TT antibodies. Clinical evaluation (if S. paratyphi A conjugates is planned. PMID:8698499

  6. TLR ligand-peptide conjugate vaccines: toward clinical application.

    PubMed

    Zom, Gijs G P; Khan, Selina; Filippov, Dmitri V; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to treat cancer with therapeutic vaccination have made significant progress. In order to induce efficient antitumor immunity, a vaccine should target and activate antigen-presenting cells, such as the dendritic cell, while delivering the tumor-derived antigen of choice. Conjugates of synthetic peptides and ligands of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) combine these features and, given their synthetic nature, can be produced under GMP conditions. Therefore, conjugation of antigenic peptides to potent PRR ligands is a promising vaccination approach for the treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the different PRR families that can be exploited for the design of conjugates and explores the results obtained so far with PRR ligands conjugated to antigen. The uptake and processing of Toll-like receptor ligand-peptide conjugates are discussed in more detail, as well as future directions that may further enhance the immunogenicity of conjugates. PMID:22449782

  7. Preclinical evaluation of group B Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli K92 capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in juvenile rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Devi, S J; Zollinger, W D; Snoy, P J; Tai, J Y; Costantini, P; Norelli, F; Rappuoli, R; Frasch, C E

    1997-01-01

    We reported the first use of group B meningococcal conjugate vaccines in a nonhuman primate model (S. J. N. Devi, C. E. Frasch, W. Zollinger, and P. J. Snoy, p. 427-429, in J. S. Evans, S. E. Yost, M. C. J. Maiden, and I. M. Feavers, ed., Proceedings of the Ninth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference, 1994). Three different group B Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide (B PS)-protein conjugate vaccines and an Escherichia coli K92 capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (K92-TT) conjugate vaccine are here evaluated for safety and relative immunogenicities in juvenile rhesus monkeys with or without adjuvants. Monkeys were immunized intramuscularly with either B PS-cross-reactive material 197 conjugate, B PS-outer membrane vesicle (B-OMV) conjugate, or N-propionylated B PS-outer membrane protein 3 (N-pr. B-OMP3) conjugate vaccine with or without adjuvants at weeks 0, 6, and 14. A control group of monkeys received one injection of the purified B PS alone, and another group received three injections of B PS noncovalently complexed with OMV. Antibody responses as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay varied among individual monkeys. All vaccines except B PS and the K92-TT conjugate elicited a twofold or greater increase in total B PS antibodies after one immunization. All vaccines, including the K92-TT conjugate, elicited a rise in geometric mean B PS antibody levels of ninefold or more over the preimmune levels following the third immunization. Antibodies elicited by N-pr. B-OMP3 and B-OMV conjugates were directed to the N-propionylated or to the spacer-containing B PS antigens as well as to the native B PS complexed with methylated human serum albumin. None of the vaccines caused discernible safety-related symptoms. PMID:9038314

  8. Kinetics of Antibody Persistence following Administration of a Combination Meningococcal Serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine in Healthy Infants in the United Kingdom Primed with a Monovalent Meningococcal Serogroup C Vaccine ?

    PubMed Central

    Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Findlow, Helen; Waight, Pauline; Southern, Joanna; Crowley-Luke, Annette; Stapley, Lorraine; England, Anna; Findlow, Jamie; Miller, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of antibody persistence following the administration of a combination meningococcal serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (Menitorix) in the second year of life in children primed with two doses of one of three monovalent meningococcal serogroup C (MCC) vaccines was investigated. The study subjects were administered either Menitorix at 12 to 15 months of age, followed by the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine 4 to 6 weeks later, or all three vaccines concomitantly at 12 to 15 months of age. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 12, and 24 months after the boosting. Sera were analyzed for meningococcal serogroup C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG as well as Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP)-specific IgG. The antibody persistence data from this study were compared to those of a prior study of Southern et al. (Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 14:1328-1333, 2007) in which children were given three primary doses of a vaccine containing both the MCC and the Hib vaccines but were boosted only with a Hib conjugate vaccine. The magnitude of the meningococcal SBA geometric mean titer was higher for those subjects primed with the MCC vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (NeisVac-C) than for those primed with one of two MCC vaccines conjugated to CRM197 (Menjugate or Meningitec) up to 1 year following boosting. Two years after boosting, the percentages of subjects with putatively protective SBA titers of ?8 for children primed with NeisVac-C, Menjugate, and Meningitec were 43%, 22%, and 23%, respectively. Additional booster doses of the MCC vaccine may be required in the future to maintain good antibody levels; however, there is no immediate need for a booster during adolescence, as mathematical modeling has shown that persisting herd immunity is likely to control disease for a number of years. PMID:19906895

  9. Kinetics of antibody persistence following administration of a combination meningococcal serogroup C and haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in healthy infants in the United Kingdom primed with a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C vaccine.

    PubMed

    Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Findlow, Helen; Waight, Pauline; Southern, Joanna; Crowley-Luke, Annette; Stapley, Lorraine; England, Anna; Findlow, Jamie; Miller, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of antibody persistence following the administration of a combination meningococcal serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (Menitorix) in the second year of life in children primed with two doses of one of three monovalent meningococcal serogroup C (MCC) vaccines was investigated. The study subjects were administered either Menitorix at 12 to 15 months of age, followed by the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine 4 to 6 weeks later, or all three vaccines concomitantly at 12 to 15 months of age. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 12, and 24 months after the boosting. Sera were analyzed for meningococcal serogroup C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG as well as Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP)-specific IgG. The antibody persistence data from this study were compared to those of a prior study of Southern et al. (Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 14:1328-1333, 2007) in which children were given three primary doses of a vaccine containing both the MCC and the Hib vaccines but were boosted only with a Hib conjugate vaccine. The magnitude of the meningococcal SBA geometric mean titer was higher for those subjects primed with the MCC vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (NeisVac-C) than for those primed with one of two MCC vaccines conjugated to CRM(197) (Menjugate or Meningitec) up to 1 year following boosting. Two years after boosting, the percentages of subjects with putatively protective SBA titers of > or =8 for children primed with NeisVac-C, Menjugate, and Meningitec were 43%, 22%, and 23%, respectively. Additional booster doses of the MCC vaccine may be required in the future to maintain good antibody levels; however, there is no immediate need for a booster during adolescence, as mathematical modeling has shown that persisting herd immunity is likely to control disease for a number of years. PMID:19906895

  10. Investigation of Different Group A Immunoassays following One Dose of Meningococcal Group A Conjugate Vaccine or A/C Polysaccharide Vaccine in Adults▿

    PubMed Central

    Findlow, H.; Plikaytis, B. D.; Aase, A.; Bash, M. C.; Chadha, H.; Elie, C.; Laher, G.; Martinez, J.; Herstad, T.; Newton, E.; Viviani, S.; Papaspyridis, C.; Kulkarni, P.; Wilding, M.; Preziosi, M. P.; Marchetti, E.; Hassan-King, M.; La Force, F. M.; Carlone, G.; Borrow, R.

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, controlled phase I study to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and antibody persistence of a new group A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) in volunteers aged 18 to 35 years was previously performed. Subjects received one dose of either the PsA-TT conjugate vaccine, meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine (PsA/C), or tetanus toxoid vaccine. The conjugate vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic as demonstrated by a standardized group A-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (rSBA). This report details further analysis of the sera using four additional immunologic assays to investigate the relationship between the different immunoassays. The immunoassays used were an SBA assay that used human complement (hSBA), a group A-specific IgG multiplexed bead assay, and two opsonophagocytic antibody (OPA) assays which used two different methodologies. For each vaccine group, geometric mean concentrations or geometric mean titers were determined for all assays before and 4, 24, and 48 weeks after vaccination. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between the six assays using data from all available visits. An excellent correlation was observed between the group A-specific IgG concentrations obtained by ELISA and those obtained by the multiplexed bead assay. hSBA and rSBA titers correlated moderately, although proportions of subjects with putatively protective titers and those demonstrating a ≥4-fold rise were similar. The two OPA methods correlated weakly and achieved only a low correlation with the other immunoassays. The correlation between hSBA and group A-specific IgG was higher for the PsA-TT group than for the PsA/C group. PMID:19474264

  11. Investigation of different group A immunoassays following one dose of meningococcal group A conjugate vaccine or A/C polysaccharide vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Findlow, H; Plikaytis, B D; Aase, A; Bash, M C; Chadha, H; Elie, C; Laher, G; Martinez, J; Herstad, T; Newton, E; Viviani, S; Papaspyridis, C; Kulkarni, P; Wilding, M; Preziosi, M P; Marchetti, E; Hassan-King, M; La Force, F M; Carlone, G; Borrow, R

    2009-07-01

    A double-blind, randomized, controlled phase I study to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and antibody persistence of a new group A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) in volunteers aged 18 to 35 years was previously performed. Subjects received one dose of either the PsA-TT conjugate vaccine, meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine (PsA/C), or tetanus toxoid vaccine. The conjugate vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic as demonstrated by a standardized group A-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (rSBA). This report details further analysis of the sera using four additional immunologic assays to investigate the relationship between the different immunoassays. The immunoassays used were an SBA assay that used human complement (hSBA), a group A-specific IgG multiplexed bead assay, and two opsonophagocytic antibody (OPA) assays which used two different methodologies. For each vaccine group, geometric mean concentrations or geometric mean titers were determined for all assays before and 4, 24, and 48 weeks after vaccination. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between the six assays using data from all available visits. An excellent correlation was observed between the group A-specific IgG concentrations obtained by ELISA and those obtained by the multiplexed bead assay. hSBA and rSBA titers correlated moderately, although proportions of subjects with putatively protective titers and those demonstrating a > or = 4-fold rise were similar. The two OPA methods correlated weakly and achieved only a low correlation with the other immunoassays. The correlation between hSBA and group A-specific IgG was higher for the PsA-TT group than for the PsA/C group. PMID:19474264

  12. Persistence of serogroup C antibody responses following quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccination in United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manisha; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Broderick, Michael P; Thomas, Cynthia G; Plikaytis, Brian D; Schmidt, Daniel S; Johnson, Scott E; Milton, Andrea S; Carlone, George M; Clark, Thomas A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Cohn, Amanda C; Faix, Dennis J

    2014-06-24

    Serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease accounts for one-third of all meningococcal cases and causes meningococcal outbreaks in the U.S. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (MenACYWD) was recommended in 2005 for adolescents and high risk groups such as military recruits. We evaluated anti-MenC antibody persistence in U.S. military personnel vaccinated with either MenACYWD or meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4). Twelve hundred subjects vaccinated with MenACYWD from 2006 to 2008 or MPSV4 from 2002 to 2004 were randomly selected from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Baseline serologic responses to MenC were assessed in all subjects; 100 subjects per vaccine group were tested during one of the following six post-vaccination time-points: 5-7, 11-13, 17-19, 23-25, 29-31, or 35-37 months. Anti-MenC geometric mean titers (GMT) were measured by rabbit complement serum bactericidal assay (rSBA) and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the proportion of subjects with an rSBA titer ? 8 by chi-square. Pre-vaccination rSBA GMT was <8 for the MenACWYD group. rSBA GMT increased to 703 at 5-7 months post-vaccination and decreased by 94% to 43 at 3 years post-vaccination. GMT was significantly lower in the MenACWYD group at 5-7 months post-vaccination compared to the MPSV4 group. The percentage of MenACWYD recipients achieving an rSBA titer of ? 8 decreased from 87% at 5-7 months to 54% at 3 years. There were no significant differences between vaccine groups in the proportion of subjects with a titer of ? 8 at any time-point. GMC for the MenACWYD group was 0.14 ?g/mL at baseline, 1.07 ?g/mL at 5-7 months, and 0.66 ?g/mL at 3 years, and significantly lower than the MPSV4 group at all time-points. Anti-MenC responses wane following vaccination with MenACYWD; a booster dose is needed to maintain protective levels of circulating antibody. PMID:24837781

  13. Vaccine Failures in Patients Properly Vaccinated with 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Catalonia, a Region with Low Vaccination Coverage.

    PubMed

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando; Garcia-Garcia, Juan-Jose; Díaz-Conradi, Alvaro; Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez-Osorio, Johanna; González-Peris, Sebastià; Hernández, Sergi; de Sevilla, Mariona Fernández; Uriona, Sonia; Izquierdo, Conchita; Selva, Laura; Campins, Magda; Codina, Gemma; Batalla, Joan; Esteva, Cristina; Domínguez, Àngela; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Vaccine failures occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 3 pediatric hospitals in Barcelona (2012-2013) are described. PCV13 vaccine failure was defined as the occurrence of an invasive pneumococcal infection in children properly vaccinated by PCV13. Among 84 patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, 32 had received at least one dose of PCV13. Seventeen of them had invasive pneumococcal infection produced by a PCV13 serotype. Among those, 9 patients were considered to have a PCV13 vaccine failure. Serotype 3 was isolated in 6 patients, serotype 19A in 2 and serotype 6B in 1. PMID:26658626

  14. Safety and immunogenicity of an indigenously developed Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine through various phases of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hitt J; Multani, Amrik S; Dutta, Ashok K; Joshi, Surekha M; Malik, Sushma; Bhardwaj, Subodh; Chakravarty, Anita; Namjoshi, Gajanan S; Parekh, Sameer; Verma, Vikas

    2009-07-01

    In view of the need for a cost effective Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, a lyophilized vaccine as capsular polysaccharide (PRP) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (Sii HibPRO) was indigenously developed by Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune (SIIL). From 2004-07, this new vaccine underwent a series of clinical studies before its licensure by National Regulatory Authority (NRA). This paper discusses the results obtained during the clinical development of this vaccine. On finding the vaccine to be safe in animal toxicity studies, a Phase I single dose study was carried out to assess the safety profile of Sii HibPRO in healthy adult male volunteers. Subsequently, in Phase III pre-licensure study, immunogenicity and safety of Sii HibPRO was assessed and compared with Hib tetanus conjugate vaccine (Act-HIB) of Aventis, France. Immunogenicity was evaluated based upon serum anti-PRP IgG antibody concentrations by ELISA at prevaccination and one month each after the second and third dose. Safety was evaluated by recording details of adverse events after each dose of the vaccine. Postvaccination after the third dose, there was 100% seroprotection (anti PRP IgG titre >or= 0.15 microg/ml) in both the groups. Long term protection (>or=1 microg/ml) was achieved in 95.2% and 98.06% infants in Sii HibPRO and Act-HIB groups, respectively. At 15 months, prior to booster dose, 30 children in each group were evaluated and all were found to be seroprotected. Post booster, all of them responded with a strong boost response. Safety of Sii HibPRO was re-established in the post marketing surveillance in which 2,739 doses were administered to 1,029 infants, in 23 cities across India. PMID:19395868

  15. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broo, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemenda, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; Gonzlez, Nadezhda; Garca-Rivera, Dagmar; Valds, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vrez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 ?g of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 ?g of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173. PMID:25068497

  16. Patterns of binding of aluminum-containing adjuvants to Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines and components

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Robert B.D.; Burkin, Karena; Amir, Saba Erum; Crane, Dennis T.; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The basis of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) glycoconjugates binding to aluminum-containing adjuvants was studied. By measuring the amount of polysaccharide and protein in the non-adsorbed supernatant, the adjuvant, aluminum phosphate, AlPO4, was found to be less efficient than aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3 at binding to the conjugates, at concentrations relevant to licensed vaccine formulations and when equimolar. At neutral pH, binding of TT conjugates to AlPO4 was facilitated through the carrier protein, with only weak binding of AlPO4 to CRM197 being observed. There was slightly higher binding of either adjuvant to tetanus toxoid conjugates, than to CRM197 conjugates. This was verified in AlPO4 formulations containing DTwPHib, where the adsorption of TT-conjugated Hib was higher than CRM197-conjugated Hib. At neutral pH, the anionic Hib and MenC polysaccharides did not appreciably bind to AlPO4, but did bind to Al(OH)3, due to electrostatic interactions. Phosphate ions reduced the binding of the conjugates to the adjuvants. These patterns of adjuvant adsorption can form the basis for future formulation studies with individual and combination vaccines containing saccharide-protein conjugates. PMID:26194164

  17. Glycoconjugate vaccines and immune interactions, and implications for vaccination schedules.

    PubMed

    Borrow, Ray; Dagan, Ron; Zepp, Fred; Hallander, Hans; Poolman, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Conjugate vaccines using diphtheria toxoid variant (CRM(197)), diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid (TT) as carrier protein may induce immune interactions (interference or impairment as measured by lower antibody levels, or enhancement [higher antibody levels]) when coadministered with other vaccines. Immune enhancement occurs when two TT conjugates are coadministered. CRM(197) conjugate vaccines induce immune bystander interference when given with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines, which reduces responses to coadministered Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine conjugated to TT. These bystander effects are greater as the amount of CRM(197) administered increases. When large amounts of either TT or CRM(197) are coadministered, dose-related carrier-induced epitopic suppression may occur, affecting immune responses to meningococcal or pneumococcal polysaccharides. These observations have implications for vaccine scheduling. The range of available alternative vaccines means that specific vaccine coadministrations can avoid or reduce CRM(197)-induced interference. Potential interactions arising from new CRM(197) or TT conjugates will need to be thoroughly examined. PMID:22043960

  18. Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Richmand, Brian J

    2011-12-01

    The first conjugate vaccine was approved for use in the US in 1988 to protect infants and young children against the capsular bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Since its introduction in the US, this vaccine has been approved in most developed countries, including Denmark and Israel where the vaccine was added to their national vaccine programs in 1993 and 1994, respectively. There have been marked increases in the reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among children in the US beginning with birth cohorts in the late 1980s and in Denmark and Israel starting approximately 4-5 years later. Although these increases may partly reflect ascertainment biases, an exogenous trigger could explain a significant portion of the reported increases in ASDs. It is hypothesized here that the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the US in 1988 and its subsequent introduction in Denmark and Israel could explain a substantial portion of the initial increases in ASDs in those countries. The continuation of the trend toward increased rates of ASDs could be further explained by increased usage of the vaccine, a change in 1990 in the recommended age of vaccination in the US from 15 to 2 months, increased immunogenicity of the vaccine through changes in its carrier protein, and the subsequent introduction of the conjugate vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although conjugate vaccines have been highly effective in protecting infants and young children from the significant morbidity and mortality caused by Hib and S. pneumoniae, the potential effects of conjugate vaccines on neural development merit close examination. Conjugate vaccines fundamentally change the manner in which the immune systems of infants and young children function by deviating their immune responses to the targeted carbohydrate antigens from a state of hypo-responsiveness to a robust B2 B cell mediated response. This period of hypo-responsiveness to carbohydrate antigens coincides with the intense myelination process in infants and young children, and conjugate vaccines may have disrupted evolutionary forces that favored early brain development over the need to protect infants and young children from capsular bacteria. PMID:21993250

  19. [Evaluation of the vaccination of 3-month-old infants with Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hi b) capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus protein (PRT-T) Pediatric Group of the Lyon Region].

    PubMed

    Langue, J; Fritzell, B; Preziozi, M P; Houmeau, P

    1991-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hi b) is responsible for severe invasive infections, particularly meningitis, in children under 5 years of age, with the greatest frequency between 6 and 18 months. The antigenicity of Hib is related to its capsular polysaccharide (polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate or PRP) which is at the origin of the production of bactericide anti-PRP antibodies. Vaccine using PRP alone have been shown to be well tolerated and immunogenic, but only in children above 2 years of age. We vaccinated 365 infants starting at the age of 3 months with a vaccine using a PRP-tetanus toxoid conjugate (PRP-T), coupled with the DTP pertussis vaccine. Local and general tolerance was found to be very good. Quantitative serum antibody measurements showed excellent immunogenicity. None of the vaccinated infants presented an invasive Hib infection. It therefore appears that early systematic vaccination of infants with PRP-T vaccine should be encouraged. PMID:1667038

  20. Optimal Serotype Compositions for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination under Serotype Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Nurhonen, Markku; Auranen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination has proved highly effective in eliminating vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage and disease. However, the potential adverse effects of serotype replacement remain a major concern when implementing routine childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination programmes. Applying a concise predictive model, we present a ready-to-use quantitative tool to investigate the implications of serotype replacement on the net effectiveness of vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and to guide in the selection of optimal vaccine serotype compositions. We utilise pre-vaccination data on pneumococcal carriage and IPD and assume partial or complete elimination of vaccine-type carriage, its replacement by non-vaccine-type carriage, and stable case-to-carrier ratios (probability of IPD per carriage episode). The model predicts that the post-vaccination IPD incidences in Finland for currently available vaccine serotype compositions can eventually decrease among the target age group of children <5 years of age by 75%. However, due to replacement through herd effects, the decrease among the older population is predicted to be much less (2040%). We introduce a sequential algorithm for the search of optimal serotype compositions and assess the robustness of inferences to uncertainties in data and assumptions about carriage and IPD. The optimal serotype composition depends on the age group of interest and some serotypes may be highly beneficial vaccine types in one age category (e.g. 6B in children), while being disadvantageous in another. The net effectiveness will be improved only if the added serotype has a higher case-to-carrier ratio than the average case-to-carrier ratio of the current non-vaccine types and the degree of improvement in effectiveness depends on the carriage incidence of the serotype. The serotype compositions of currently available pneumococcal vaccines are not optimal and the effectiveness of vaccination in the population at large could be improved by including new serotypes in the vaccine (e.g. 22 and 9N). PMID:24550722

  1. Pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (13-valent, adsorbed) [prevenar 13].

    PubMed

    Duggan, Sean T

    2010-10-22

    The pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine Prevenar 13 (PCV13) comprises 13 capsular Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide serotypes that are individually conjugated to nontoxic diphtheria protein (cross-reactive material [CRM(197)]). In randomized, comparator-controlled, phase III trials in healthy infants aged 2-6 months, PCV13 elicited a strong immune response against all 13 pneumococcal serotypes in terms of the proportion of vaccinees achieving reference antibody levels with a two- or three-dose primary vaccination series. Immune responses for the seven serotypes common to PCV13 and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevenar (PCV7) were generally similar. Antibodies to all vaccine serotypes were functional. A booster dose of PCV13 administered between 11 and 15 months of age generally boosted the immune response against all 13 serotypes, regardless of whether infants had previously received PCV13 or PCV7 during the primary vaccination phase. Robust immune responses against all serotypes were achieved when PCV13 was administered as catch-up vaccination schedules in older infants and young children aged 7-72 months. Importantly, PCV13 did not interfere with the immune responses to coadministered routine paediatric vaccines. Based on data for PCV7, it is expected that PCV13 will also display protective efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease, otitis media and pneumonia. PCV13 was generally well tolerated, with an adverse event profile similar to that of PCV7 after any vaccine dose. PMID:20883054

  2. Efficacy and effectiveness of extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunju; Choi, Eun Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been shown to be highly efficacious against invasive pneumococcal diseases and effective against pneumonia and in reducing otitis media. The introduction of PCV7 has resulted in major changes in the epidemiology of pneumococcal diseases. However, pneumococcal vaccines induce serotype-specific immunity, and a relative increase in non-vaccine serotypes has been reported following the widespread use of PCV7, leading to a need for extended serotype coverage for protection. PCV10 and PCV13 have been licensed on the basis of noninferiority of immunogenicity compared to a licensed conjugate vaccine. In this article, we aimed to review important data regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of the extended-coverage PCVs published or reported thus far and to discuss future implications for pneumococcal vaccines in Korea. After the introduction of PCV10 and PCV13, within a short period of time, evidence of protection conferred by these vaccines against invasive and mucosal infections caused by most of the serotypes included in the vaccines is accumulating. The choice of vaccine should be based on the changes in the dynamics of pneumococcal serotype distribution and diseases in the region where the vaccines are to be used. Continuous surveillance is essential for the appropriate use of pneumococcal vaccines and evaluation of the impact of PCVs on pneumococcal diseases. PMID:24678328

  3. Cost-effectiveness of adult vaccination strategies using pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kenneth J; Wateska, Angela R; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Raymund, Mahlon; Nuorti, J. Pekka; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Context The cost-effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) compared with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) among US adults is unclear. Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination strategies in adults to assist vaccination policy decision-making. Design, Setting, and Population A Markov state-transition model, lifetime time horizon, societal perspective. Simulations were performed in hypothetical cohorts of US 50-year-olds. Vaccination strategies and effectiveness estimates were developed by a Delphi expert panel; indirect (herd immunity) effects resulting from childhood PCV13 vaccination were extrapolated based on observed PCV7 effects. Data sources for model parameters included CDC Active Bacterial Core surveillance, National Hospital Discharge Survey and Nationwide Inpatient Sample data, and the National Health Interview Survey. Main Outcome Measures Pneumococcal disease cases prevented and incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Results In the base case scenario, PCV13 given as a substitute for PPSV23 in current recommendations (i.e., vaccination at 65 years and at younger ages if comorbidities are present) cost $28,900/QALY gained compared with no vaccination and was more cost-effective than the currently recommended PPSV23 strategy. Routine PCV13 at ages 50 and 65 years cost $45,100/QALY compared with PCV13 substituted in current recommendations. Adding PPSV23 at age 75 to PCV13 at ages 50 and 65 years gained 0.00002 QALYs, costing $496,000/QALY gained. Results were robust in sensitivity analyses and alternative scenarios, except when low PCV13 effectiveness against nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia was assumed or when greater childhood vaccination indirect effects were modeled. In these cases, PPSV23 as currently recommended was favored. Conclusions Overall, PCV13 vaccination was favored compared to PPSV23, but the analysis is sensitive to assumptions about PCV13 effectiveness against NPP and the magnitude of potential indirect effects from childhood PCV13 on pneumococcal serotype distribution. PMID:22357831

  4. Challenges and Opportunities While Developing a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine Within a Product Development Partnership: A Manufacturer's Perspective From the Serum Institute of India

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Socquet, Muriel; Jadhav, Suresh S.; Kapre, Subhash V.; LaForce, F. Marc; Poonawalla, Cyrus S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2002, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) chose the Serum Institute of India, Ltd (SIIL), as its manufacturing partner to establish a product development partnership (PDP) with the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP). MVP was a collaboration between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop meningococcal conjugate vaccines for sub-Saharan Africa. Method. From the outset, SIIL recognized that a partnership with MVP carried some risk but also offered important opportunities for accessing new conjugate vaccine technology and know-how. Over 3 years, SIIL successfully accepted technology transfer for the group A meningococcal polysaccharide from SynCo Bio Partners and a conjugation method from the US Food and Drug Administration. Results. SIIL successfully scaled up production of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine that used SIIL tetanus toxoid as the carrier protein. Phase 1 studies began in India in 2005, followed by phase 2/3 studies in Africa and India. A regulatory dossier was submitted to the Indian authorities in April 2009 and WHO in September 2009. Export license was granted in December 2009, and WHO prequalification was obtained in June 2010. Vaccine was introduced at public scale in Burkina Faso that December. The group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was named MenAfriVac, and is the first internationally qualified vaccine developed outside of big pharma. Conclusions. The project proved to be a sound investment for SIIL and is a concrete example of the potential for PDPs to provide needed products for resource-poor countries. PMID:26553678

  5. Biochemical and biological characteristics of cross-reacting material 197 CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin: use as a conjugation protein in vaccines and other potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Brker, Michael; Costantino, Paolo; DeTora, Lisa; McIntosh, E David; Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-07-01

    The biochemical and biological characteristics of CRM(197) are reviewed. Polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccines represent an important technological advancement that allowed for protection against dangerous diseases in vulnerable populations such as infants. The first carrier proteins, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, were chosen in the context of an extensive body of information describing their immunogenicity and safety profiles in clinical use. These carriers perform well, and they require detoxification. A non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, cross-reacting material 197 (CRM(197)), is a useful carrier protein with several manufacturing and other potential advantages over toxoids. For over a decade, several important and widely used routine childhood glycoconjugate vaccines against serious illnesses, including Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal disease, have employed CRM(197) as carrier protein. Additional clinical applications of CRM(197), as in chemotherapy, also exist. PMID:21715186

  6. Immunogenicity of porcine P[6], P[7]-specific △VP8* rotavirus subunit vaccines with a tetanus toxoid universal T cell epitope.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaobo; Wei, Xiaoman; Ran, Xuhua; Ni, Hongbo; Cao, Si; Zhang, Yao

    2015-08-26

    Currently, commercial porcine rotavirus vaccines remain varied limitations. The objective of this study is to develop an alternative porcine rotavirus subunit vaccine candidate by parenteral administration, which enables to elicit robust immune responses against most prevalence porcine rotavirus strains. The bacterially-expressed porcine rotavirus P[6]- or P[7]-specific truncated VP8* (aa 64-223) recombinant protein with or without a universal tetanus toxoid CD4(+) T cell epitope P2 was generated. All the recombinant subunit proteins △VP8*s or P2-△VP8*s were of high solubility and high yields. The immunogenicity of each purified △VP8* and P2-△VP8* was evaluated in mice (10 μg/dose) or guinea pigs (20 μg/dose) immunized IM with 600 μg aluminum hydroxide three times at 2-week interval. The introduction of P2T cell epitope to P[7]-△VP8* elicited significantly higher IgG titer in mice than its absence. Comparatively, P2 epitope slightly enhanced the immunogenicity of P[6]-△VP8*. P2-P[7]△VP8* elicited high titer of neutralizing antibody against heterotypic P[7]-specific rotaviruses with varied G type combination. Our data indicated that two subunit vaccines could be plausible bivalent rotavirus vaccine candidate to provide antigenic coverage of porcine rotavirus strains of global or regional importance. PMID:26192360

  7. Tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y conjugate vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine during the second year of life: An open, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Karvonen, Aino; Bianco, Veronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline

    2011-06-01

    Co-administration of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT) with MMRV vaccine was investigated in 1000 12-23-month old children randomized (3:3:1:1) to receive co-administered ACWY-TT+MMRV, or a single dose of ACWY-TT, MMRV or MenC-CRM(197). Non-inferiority of ACWY-TT to MenC-CRM(197) and non-inferiority of ACWY-TT+MMRV to ACWY-TT and MMRV alone, and the immunogenicity of serogroups AWY were demonstrated according to pre-defined criteria. Fever reactions in ACWY+MMRV and MMRV groups were comparable. ACWY-TT can be co-administered with MMRV without affecting immunogenicity or safety profiles of either vaccine. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00474266. PMID:21443965

  8. Inclusion of a universal tetanus toxoid CD4+ T cell epitope P2 significantly enhanced the immunogenicity of recombinant rotavirus ΔVP8* subunit parenteral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaobo; Wen, Ke; Cao, Dianjun; Li, Guohua; Jones, Ronald W.; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Currently available live oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix® and RotaTeq®, are highly efficacious in developed countries. However, the immunogenicity and efficacy of such vaccines in some developing countries are low. We reported previously that bacterially-expressed rotavirus ΔVP8* subunit vaccine candidates with P[8], P[4] or P[6] specificity elicited high-titer virus neutralizing antibodies in animals immunized intramuscularly. Of note was the finding that antibodies induced with the P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine neutralized both homotypic P[8] and heterotypic P[4] rotavirus strains to high titer. To further improve its vaccine potential, a tetanus toxoid universal CD4+ T cell epitope P2 was introduced into P[8] or P[6]ΔVP8* construct. The resulting recombinant fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were of high solubility and were produced with high yield. Two doses (10 or 20μg/dose) of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine or P2-P[6]ΔVP8* vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant elicited significantly higher geometric mean homologous neutralizing antibody titers than the vaccines without P2 in intramuscularly immunized guinea pigs. Interestingly, high levels of neutralizing antibody responses induced in guinea pigs with 3 doses of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine persisted for at least 6 months. Furthermore, in the gnotobiotic piglet challenge study, three intramuscular doses (50μg/dose) of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant significantly delayed the onset of diarrhea and significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea and the cumulative diarrhea score after oral challenge with virulent human rotavirus Wa (G1P[8]) strain. The P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine induced serum virus neutralizing antibody and VP4-specific IgG antibody production prechallenge, and primed the pigs for higher antibody and intestinal and systemic virus-specific IFN-γ producing CD4+ T cell responses postchallenge. These two subunit vaccines could be used at a minimum singly or preferably in bivalent formulation to provide antigenic coverage of most of the G types of global importance. PMID:24962749

  9. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    Certiva (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Daptacel (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  10. DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine (Pentacel).

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Sohita; Keam, Susan J

    2008-01-01

    The combination vaccine diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, inactivated poliovirus and Haemophilus b conjugate (tetanus toxoid conjugate) vaccine (DTaP-IPV/Hib), which has been exclusively used in Canada for more than 10 years, is the first DTaP-based vaccine approved in the US that includes both poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) antigens. In clinical trials, the combined DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine induced high immunogenecity against all of the vaccine antigens, including Hib. Administration of the DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine as a four-dose series in infants provided high levels of seroprotection against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, and Hib polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid (PRP-T). Immune responses produced after doses 3 and 4 of DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine were noninferior to those seen with separately administered DTaP, inactivated poliovirus, and Hib vaccines, apart from those against PRP-T in one study. Seroconversion rates for the five pertussis components in DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine were noninferior to those seen in infants receiving the separately administered vaccines. A serology bridging study showed the noninferiority of four doses of DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine to three doses of a DTaP vaccine in terms of seroconversion rates for filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbriae 2 and 3, but not pertactin. There were no clinically relevant changes in the immunogenicity of DTaP-IPV/Hib when coadministered with pneumococcal-7-valent-CRM197 vaccine or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and varicella zoster vaccine at 15 months. The tolerability profile of DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine was generally similar to that of separately administered DTaP, IPV, and Hib vaccines. PMID:18998751

  11. Conjugate-like immunogens produced as protein capsular matrix vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Thanawastien, Ann; Cartee, Robert T.; Griffin, Thomas J.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides are the primary antigenic components involved in protective immunity against encapsulated bacterial pathogens. Although immunization of adolescents and adults with polysaccharide antigens has reduced pathogen disease burden, pure polysaccharide vaccines have proved ineffective at conferring protective immunity to infants and the elderly, age cohorts that are deficient in their adaptive immune responses to such antigens. However, T-cell–independent polysaccharide antigens can be converted into more potent immunogens by chemically coupling to a “carrier protein” antigen. Such “conjugate vaccines” efficiently induce antibody avidity maturation, isotype switching, and immunological memory in immunized neonates. These immune responses have been attributed to T-cell recognition of peptides derived from the coupled carrier protein. The covalent attachment of polysaccharide antigens to the carrier protein is thought to be imperative to the immunological properties of conjugate vaccines. Here we provide evidence that covalent attachment to carrier proteins is not required for conversion of T-independent antigens into T-dependent immunogens. Simple entrapment of polysaccharides or a d-amino acid polymer antigen in a cross-linked protein matrix was shown to be sufficient to produce potent immunogens that possess the key characteristics of conventional conjugate vaccines. The versatility and ease of manufacture of these antigen preparations, termed protein capsular matrix vaccines (PCMVs), will likely provide improvements in the manufacture of vaccines designed to protect against encapsulated microorganisms. This in turn could improve the availability of such vaccines to the developing world, which has shown only a limited capacity to afford the cost of conventional conjugate vaccines. PMID:25699685

  12. Transcutaneous immunization with cross-reacting material CRM(197) of diphtheria toxin boosts functional antibody levels in mice primed parenterally with adsorbed diphtheria toxoid vaccine.

    PubMed

    Stickings, Paul; Peyre, Marisa; Coombes, Laura; Muller, Sylviane; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Partidos, Charalambos D; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2008-04-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) capitalizes on the accessibility and immunocompetence of the skin, elicits protective immunity, simplifies vaccine delivery, and may be particularly advantageous when frequent boosting is required. In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice. The cross-reacting material (CRM(197)) of diphtheria toxin was used as the boosting antigen and was administered alone or together with either one of two commonly used mucosal adjuvants, cholera toxin (CT) and a partially detoxified mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTR72). We report that TCI with CRM(197) significantly boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine. In the presence of LTR72 as an adjuvant, toxin-neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those elicited by CRM(197) alone and were comparable to the functional antibody levels induced after parenteral booster immunization with the adsorbed DTxd vaccine. Time course study showed that high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 14 weeks after the transcutaneous boost. In addition, TCI resulted in a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response in all groups of mice boosted with the CRM(197) protein. These findings highlight the promising prospect of using booster administrations of CRM(197) via the transcutaneous route to establish good herd immunity against diphtheria. PMID:18227167

  13. Attributable risk of DTP (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine) injection in provoking paralytic poliomyelitis during a large outbreak in Oman.

    PubMed

    Sutter, R W; Patriarca, P A; Suleiman, A J; Brogan, S; Malankar, P G; Cochi, S L; Al-Ghassani, A A; el-Bualy, M S

    1992-03-01

    Although injections administered during the incubation period of wild poliovirus infection have been associated with an increased risk of paralytic poliomyelitis, quantitative estimates of the risk have not been established. During a poliomyelitis outbreak investigation in Oman, vaccination records were reviewed for 70 children aged 5-24 months with poliomyelitis and from 692 matched control children. A significantly higher proportion of cases received a DTP (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine) injection within 30 days before paralysis onset than did controls (42.9% vs. 28.3%; odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.2). The proportion of poliomyelitis cases that may have been provoked by DTP injections was 35% for children 5-11 months old. This study confirms that injections are an important cause of provocative poliomyelitis. Although the benefits of DTP vaccination should outweigh the risk of subsequent paralysis, these data stress the importance of avoiding unnecessary injections during outbreaks of wild poliovirus infection. PMID:1538150

  14. [A hemagglutination inhibition test for control of the quality and effectiveness of highly-purified C. chauvoei toxoid vaccine].

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Labarre, B; Schmidt-Pannenbecker, E

    1989-01-01

    To control quality and efficiency of a highly purified C. chauvoei vaccine which has been developed in Gttingen a haemagglutination-inhibition test is presented. Laboratory and field trials did demonstrate the value of the test. Vaccinated guinea pigs which presented positive HIT titers survived the challenge. Cattle, vaccinated with the vaccine in Germany, Madagascar and Mexico showed positive titers which could be boostered through repeated vaccination. PMID:2923618

  15. The fully synthetic MAG-Tn3 therapeutic vaccine containing the tetanus toxoid-derived TT830-844 universal epitope provides anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Laubreton, Daphné; Bay, Sylvie; Sedlik, Christine; Artaud, Cécile; Ganneau, Christelle; Dériaud, Edith; Viel, Sophie; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Amigorena, Sebastian; Gérard, Catherine; Lo-Man, Richard; Leclerc, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Malignant transformations are often associated with aberrant glycosylation processes that lead to the expression of new carbohydrate antigens at the surface of tumor cells. Of these carbohydrate antigens, the Tn antigen is particularly highly expressed in many carcinomas, especially in breast carcinoma. We designed MAG-Tn3, a fully synthetic vaccine based on three consecutive Tn moieties that are O-linked to a CD4(+) T cell epitope, to induce anti-Tn antibody responses that could be helpful for therapeutic vaccination against cancer. To ensure broad coverage within the human population, the tetanus toxoid-derived peptide TT830-844 was selected as a T-helper epitope because it can bind to various HLA-DRB molecules. We showed that the MAG-Tn3 vaccine, which was formulated with the GSK proprietary immunostimulant AS15 and designed for human cancer therapy, is able to induce an anti-Tn antibody response in mice of various H-2 haplotypes, and this response correlates with the ability to induce a specific T cell response against the TT830-844 peptide. The universality of the TT830-844 peptide was extended to new H-2 and HLA-DRB molecules that were capable of binding this T cell epitope. Finally, the MAG-Tn3 vaccine was able to induce anti-Tn antibody responses in cynomolgus monkeys, which targeted Tn-expressing tumor cells and mediated tumor cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MAG-Tn3 is a highly promising anticancer vaccine that is currently under evaluation in a phase I clinical trial. PMID:26847142

  16. Impact of conjugation chemistry on the immunogenicity of S. Typhimurium conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, G; Rondini, S; Lanzilao, L; Saul, A; MacLennan, C A; Micoli, F

    2014-10-21

    Salmonella Typhimurium is major cause of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in Africa. Conjugation of S. Typhimurium O-antigen to an appropriate carrier protein constitutes a possible strategy for the development of a vaccine against this disease, for which no vaccines are currently available. The conjugation chemistry used is one of the parameters that can affect the immunogenicity of glycoconjugate vaccines. Herein different glycoconjugates were synthesized to investigate the impact of this variable on the immunogenicity of S. Typhimurium conjugate vaccines in mice, all with CRM??? as carrier protein. Random derivatization along the O-antigen chain was compared with site-directed activation of the terminal KDO sugar residue of the core oligosaccharide. In particular, two different random approaches were used, based on the oxidation of the polysaccharide, which differently impact the structure and conformation of the O-antigen chain. For the selective conjugation methods, linkers of two different lengths were compared. When tested in mice, all conjugates induced anti-O-antigen IgG antibodies with serum bactericidal activity. Similar anti-O-antigen antibody levels were elicited independent of the chemistry used and a higher degree of saccharide derivatization did not impact negatively on the anti-O-antigen IgG response. Bactericidal activity of serum antibodies induced by selective conjugates was similar independent of the length of the spacer used. Random conjugates elicited antibodies with greater bactericidal activity than selective ones, and an inverse correlation was found between degree of O-antigen modification and antibody functional activity. PMID:25192974

  17. Functional Antibodies Elicited by Two Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial▿

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Nina; Väkeväinen, Merja; Verho, Jouko; Kilpi, Terhi; Käyhty, Helena

    2007-01-01

    In the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial, the now-licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccine containing polysaccharides conjugated to protein CRM197 (PncCRM) and the experimental pneumococcal polysaccharide-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex conjugate vaccine (PncOMPC), showed similar efficacy profiles against acute otitis media despite different antibody concentrations in sera. We now report the opsonophagocytic activities (OPA) in these sera. OPA, antibody concentration, and avidity for serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were determined in sera of infants who received either pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) or control vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and either the homologous or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age. OPA varied by vaccine and serotype. The majority of PCV recipients had positive OPA after the fourth dose, while OPA was undetectable in the control group. Coinciding with the efficacy data, the concentration of antibodies required for 50% killing was low for 6B and high for 19F for both PCVs. Contradictory to the efficacy data, PncOMPC induced lower functional capacity to 23F than PncCRM. OPA correlated with antibody concentration, while avidity and functional capacity of antibodies showed no correlation. The OPA data provide valuable additional information for serotype-specific differences in protection and when evaluating serotype-specific immunogenicity and should thus be considered when defining serological correlates of protection. PMID:17261612

  18. Functional antibodies elicited by two heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial.

    PubMed

    Ekstrm, Nina; Vkevinen, Merja; Verho, Jouko; Kilpi, Terhi; Kyhty, Helena

    2007-04-01

    In the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial, the now-licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccine containing polysaccharides conjugated to protein CRM(197) (PncCRM) and the experimental pneumococcal polysaccharide-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex conjugate vaccine (PncOMPC), showed similar efficacy profiles against acute otitis media despite different antibody concentrations in sera. We now report the opsonophagocytic activities (OPA) in these sera. OPA, antibody concentration, and avidity for serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were determined in sera of infants who received either pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) or control vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and either the homologous or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age. OPA varied by vaccine and serotype. The majority of PCV recipients had positive OPA after the fourth dose, while OPA was undetectable in the control group. Coinciding with the efficacy data, the concentration of antibodies required for 50% killing was low for 6B and high for 19F for both PCVs. Contradictory to the efficacy data, PncOMPC induced lower functional capacity to 23F than PncCRM. OPA correlated with antibody concentration, while avidity and functional capacity of antibodies showed no correlation. The OPA data provide valuable additional information for serotype-specific differences in protection and when evaluating serotype-specific immunogenicity and should thus be considered when defining serological correlates of protection. PMID:17261612

  19. Current knowledge regarding the investigational 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin

    2009-08-01

    The introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) into the routine childhood vaccination schedule has been shown to be effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia, otitis media and meningitis in infants and young children as determined by epidemiological surveillance studies. There has been a rise in IPD due to nonvaccine serotypes; however, this rise is small compared with the overall reduction in IPD. Non-PCV-7 serotypes and vaccine-related serotypes, such as serotypes 1, 5, 7F, 6A and 19A, have also been reported to cause IPD in some parts of the world where morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal disease are higher. An investigational 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) uses CRM(197) as a carrier, similar to the current PCV-7, and covers serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F and 19A, in addition to the serotypes of PCV-7 (serotype 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F). PCV-13 is safe and well tolerated with other pediatric vaccines in infants according to clinical trials. IgG anticapsular polysaccharide-binding concentrations and opsonophagocytic assay responses are similar and noninferior between PCV-13 and PCV-7 and, according to immunogenicity studies, PCV-13 has more potential to protect against pneumococcal diseases with the additional six serotypes. With the addition of these new serotypes, it could be possible to cover potential pneumococcal serotypes causing IPD throughout the world. The cost of the vaccine, its length of duration, optimal scheduling, combination and boosting with PCV-7 are still unresolved issues. Assessment of the vaccine's effectiveness and efficacy following potential licensure will require carefully designed cohort and case-control studies that can assess the indirect effects of PCV-13. PMID:19627181

  20. Acute Mastoiditis in the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Era

    PubMed Central

    Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Roth, Yehudah; Dalal, Ilan; Goldfarb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Following the introduction of the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, we observed an inverse relationship between the increasing rate of immunized children and the proportion of middle ear fluid cultures collected during acute mastoiditis episodes that tested positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae among a subset of children 0 to 6 years old who had initially presented with severe acute otitis media and had bacterial cultures collected during tympanocentesis or from spontaneous otorrhea. PMID:24920600

  1. Acute mastoiditis in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Roth, Yehudah; Dalal, Ilan; Goldfarb, Abraham; Marom, Tal

    2014-08-01

    Following the introduction of the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, we observed an inverse relationship between the increasing rate of immunized children and the proportion of middle ear fluid cultures collected during acute mastoiditis episodes that tested positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae among a subset of children 0 to 6 years old who had initially presented with severe acute otitis media and had bacterial cultures collected during tympanocentesis or from spontaneous otorrhea. PMID:24920600

  2. 76 FR 53480 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Conjugate Vaccines Against B. anthracis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Conjugate Vaccines... factor'' (EF). Although production of an efficient anthrax vaccine is an ultimate goal, the benefits of... therapy of B. anthracis (anthrax) infection by immunization with conjugate vaccines against anthrax...

  3. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant properties of PAA in Leishmania infection. Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in Leishmania parasites. In the study, LPG and PAA were conjugated by a multi-step procedure, and final products were analyzed with GPC and MALDI-TOF MS techniques. In cytotoxicity experiments, LPG-PAA conjugates did not indicate toxic effects on L929 and J774 murine macrophage cells. We assume that LPG-PAA conjugate can be a potential vaccine candidate, and will be immunologically characterized in further studies to prove its potential. PMID:23731716

  4. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in immunocompromised adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kenneth J.; Nowalk, M. Patricia; Raymund, Mahlon; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pneumococcal disease is a significant problem in immunocompromised persons, particularly in HIV-infected individuals. The CDC recently updated pneumococcal vaccination recommendations for immunocompromised adults, adding the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) to the previously recommended 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). This analysis estimates the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination strategies in HIV-infected individuals and in the broader immunocompromised adult group. Design Markov model-based cost-effectiveness analysis Methods The model considered immunocompromised persons aged 18–64 years and accounted for childhood PCV13 herd immunity; in a separate analysis, an HIV-infected subgroup was considered. PCV13 effectiveness was estimated by an expert panel; PPSV23 protection was modeled relative to PCV13 effectiveness. We assumed that both vaccines prevented invasive pneumococcal disease, but only PCV13 prevented nonbacteremic pneumonia. Results In all immunocompromised individuals, a single PCV13 cost $70,937 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained compared to no vaccination; current recommendations cost $136,724/QALY. In HIV patients, with a longer life expectancy (22.5 years), current recommendations cost $89,391/QALY compared to a single PCV13. Results were sensitive to variation of life expectancy and vaccine effectiveness. The prior recommendation was not favored in any scenario. Conclusions One dose of PCV13 is more cost-effective for immunocompromised individuals than previous vaccination recommendations and may be more economically reasonable than current recommendations, depending on life expectancy and vaccine effectiveness in the immunocompromised. PMID:23806240

  5. Cross Reactive Material 197 glycoconjugate vaccines contain privileged conjugation sites.

    PubMed

    Mginger, Uwe; Resemann, Anja; Martin, Christopher E; Parameswarappa, Sharavathi; Govindan, Subramanian; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian; Broecker, Felix; Suckau, Detlev; Pereira, Claney Lebev; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H; Kolarich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Production of glycoconjugate vaccines involves the chemical conjugation of glycans to an immunogenic carrier protein such as Cross-Reactive-Material-197 (CRM197). Instead of using glycans from natural sources recent vaccine development has been focusing on the use of synthetically defined minimal epitopes. While the glycan is structurally defined, the attachment sites on the protein are not. Fully characterized conjugates and batch-to-batch comparisons are the key to eventually create completely defined conjugates. A variety of glycoconjugates consisting of CRM197 and synthetic oligosaccharide epitopes was characterised using mass spectrometry techniques. The primary structure was assessed by combining intact protein MALDI-TOF-MS, LC-MALDI-TOF-MS middle-down and LC-ESI-MS bottom-up approaches. The middle-down approach on CNBr cleaved glycopeptides provided almost complete sequence coverage, facilitating rapid batch-to-batch comparisons, resolving glycan loading and identification of side products. Regions close to the N- and C-termini were most efficiently conjugated. PMID:26841683

  6. Cross Reactive Material 197 glycoconjugate vaccines contain privileged conjugation sites

    PubMed Central

    Möginger, Uwe; Resemann, Anja; Martin, Christopher E.; Parameswarappa, Sharavathi; Govindan, Subramanian; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian; Broecker, Felix; Suckau, Detlev; Pereira, Claney Lebev; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.; Kolarich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Production of glycoconjugate vaccines involves the chemical conjugation of glycans to an immunogenic carrier protein such as Cross-Reactive-Material-197 (CRM197). Instead of using glycans from natural sources recent vaccine development has been focusing on the use of synthetically defined minimal epitopes. While the glycan is structurally defined, the attachment sites on the protein are not. Fully characterized conjugates and batch-to-batch comparisons are the key to eventually create completely defined conjugates. A variety of glycoconjugates consisting of CRM197 and synthetic oligosaccharide epitopes was characterised using mass spectrometry techniques. The primary structure was assessed by combining intact protein MALDI-TOF-MS, LC-MALDI-TOF-MS middle-down and LC-ESI-MS bottom-up approaches. The middle-down approach on CNBr cleaved glycopeptides provided almost complete sequence coverage, facilitating rapid batch-to-batch comparisons, resolving glycan loading and identification of side products. Regions close to the N- and C-termini were most efficiently conjugated. PMID:26841683

  7. Preparation and testing of a Vi conjugate vaccine using pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) from Streptococcus pneumoniae as the carrier protein.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Neha; Genschmer, Kristopher R; Kothari, Sudeep; Kim, Jeong Ah; Briles, David E; Rhee, Dong Kwon; Carbis, Rodney

    2014-09-29

    In the current study pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) was conjugated to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi to make available a vaccine against typhoid fever that has the potential to also provide broad protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae. High yielding production processes were developed for the purification of PspAs from families 1 and 2. The purified PspAs were conjugated to Vi with high recovery of both Vi and PspA. The processes developed especially for PspA family 2 could readily be adapted for large scale production under cGMP conditions. Previously we have shown that conjugation of diphtheria toxoid (DT) to Vi polysaccharide improves the immune response to Vi but can also enhance the response to DT. In this study it was shown that conjugation of PspA to Vi enhanced the anti-PspA response and that PspA was a suitable carrier protein as demonstrated by the characteristics of a T-cell dependent response to the Vi. We propose that a bivalent vaccine consisting of PspA from families 1 and 2 bound to Vi polysaccharide would protect against typhoid fever and has the potential to also protect against pneumococcal disease and should be considered for use in developing countries. PMID:25171842

  8. Impacts of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Applications of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the pediatric immunization schedule have dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in both vaccinated children and unvaccinated individuals of all ages. However, increased infections caused by non-PCV7 serotypes have been reported by several groups. To overcome this problem, new vaccines covering more serotypes including the emerging serotypes have been developed. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) currently covers the 7 PCV7 serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and 6 additional serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, and 19A. After the first year of PCV13 applications in the immunization schedule in young children, global evaluation studies demonstrated that PCV13 provided a wider coverage and more effective prevention than PCV7 against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), mucosal pneumococcal diseases, and pneumococcal carriage. We reviewed the effects of PCV13 in the control of pneumococcal diseases in children based on previous studies. PMID:26351648

  9. Impacts of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Applications of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the pediatric immunization schedule have dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in both vaccinated children and unvaccinated individuals of all ages. However, increased infections caused by non-PCV7 serotypes have been reported by several groups. To overcome this problem, new vaccines covering more serotypes including the emerging serotypes have been developed. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) currently covers the 7 PCV7 serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and 6 additional serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, and 19A. After the first year of PCV13 applications in the immunization schedule in young children, global evaluation studies demonstrated that PCV13 provided a wider coverage and more effective prevention than PCV7 against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), mucosal pneumococcal diseases, and pneumococcal carriage. We reviewed the effects of PCV13 in the control of pneumococcal diseases in children based on previous studies. PMID:26351648

  10. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Conjugate Vaccine Composed of Staphylococcus aureus Poly-N-Acetyl-Glucosamine and Clumping Factor A

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt-Guzel, Cagla; O'Malley, Jennifer M.; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Pier, Gerald B.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing frequency, severity and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus infections has made the development of immunotherapies against this pathogen more urgent than ever. Previous immunization attempts using monovalent antigens resulted in at best partial levels of protection against S. aureus infection. We therefore reasoned that synthesizing a bivalent conjugate vaccine composed of two widely expressed antigens of S. aureus would result in additive/synergetic activities by antibodies to each vaccine component and/or in increased strain coverage. For this we used reductive amination, to covalently link the S. aureus antigens clumping factor A (ClfA) and deacetylated poly-N-β-(1–6)-acetyl-glucosamine (dPNAG). Mice immunized with 1, 5 or 10 µg of the dPNAG-ClfA conjugate responded in a dose-dependent manner with IgG to dPNAG and ClfA, whereas mice immunized with a mixture of ClfA and dPNAG developed significantly lower antibody titers to ClfA and no antibodies to PNAG. The dPNAG-ClfA vaccine was also highly immunogenic in rabbits, rhesus monkeys and a goat. Moreover, affinity-purified, antibodies to ClfA from dPNAG-ClfA immune serum blocked the binding of three S. aureus strains to immobilized fibrinogen. In an opsonophagocytic assay (OPKA) goat antibodies to dPNAG-ClfA vaccine, in the presence of complement and polymorphonuclear cells, killed S. aureus Newman and, to a lower extent, S. aureus Newman ΔclfA. A PNAG-negative isogenic mutant was not killed. Moreover, PNAG antigen fully inhibited the killing of S. aureus Newman by antisera to dPNAG-ClfA vaccine. Finally, mice passively vaccinated with goat antisera to dPNAG-ClfA or dPNAG-diphtheria toxoid conjugate had comparable levels of reductions of bacteria in the blood 2 h after infection with three different S. aureus strains as compared to mice given normal goat serum. In conclusion, ClfA is an immunogenic carrier protein that elicited anti-adhesive antibodies that fail to augment the OPK and protective activities of antibodies to the PNAG cell surface polysaccharide. PMID:22970144

  11. Safety experience with heptavalent pneumococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine (Prevenar) since vaccine introduction.

    PubMed

    Center, Kimberly J; Strauss, Ann

    2009-05-26

    Documentation of the safety of any vaccine is of paramount importance given the nature and scale of vaccination as a public health intervention. Prevenar was first approved for use in 2000, and includes seven pneumococcal serotypes conjugated to CRM(197), a carrier protein that has been used safely in multiple conjugate vaccines for more than 20 years. The safety profile of Prevenar was established prior to licensure in 5 clinical trials involving more than 18,000 infants and children. The largest postmarketing study of the safety of Prevenar given concomitantly with other recommended vaccines was conducted in the United States, and included more than 162,000 subjects. This analysis did not suggest any new safety consideration that would alter the risk-benefit balance of the vaccine, and demonstrated the favorable safety profile of Prevenar. To date, global surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events to the manufacturer after more than 198 million doses distributed has confirmed these findings. The WHO has recommended the priority inclusion of this vaccine in national childhood immunization programs based on both its documented efficacy and safety. We will discuss the importance of monitoring vaccine safety and the methodologies by which this may be done, using Prevenar as an illustrative example. PMID:19200818

  12. Developing better paediatric vaccines: the case of pertussis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Halperin, S A

    1999-09-01

    After 2 decades of development, acellular pertussis vaccines are becoming more widely available for use. Products that contain from 1 to 5 purified antigens of Bordetella pertussis have been assessed in safety, immunogenicity and efficacy studies and are licensed in an increasing number of countries. All acellular pertussis vaccines are associated with fewer local and systemic adverse reactions than the whole-cell pertussis vaccines that have been used for the last 50 years. The acellular pertussis vaccines elicit an antibody response that is generally equivalent to that seen with the whole-cell pertussis vaccines. The acellular pertussis vaccines are effective; using a case-definition of paroxysmal cough of 21 or more days and laboratory confirmation of pertussis, protective efficacy was variable but in excess of 70% for most products. Relative efficacy of the acellular pertussis vaccines and the whole-cell pertussis vaccines was also variable, depending on the products involved and the study design. The choice of antigen content for acellular pertussis vaccines is controversial. Although there are proponents of a monocomponent pertussis toxoid vaccine, the weight of evidence suggests that multicomponent vaccines containing pertussis toxoid and filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin are more effective than 1- or 2-component vaccines, and that the addition of fimbriae may provide additional protection against less severe disease. Acellular pertussis vaccines are all available in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids; some products also contain inactivated poliovirus vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae b-conjugate vaccine or hepatitis B vaccine. Not all acellular pertussis vaccines are available in these larger combinations because of difficulties with decreased antibody response to one or more antigens in the combined product. Future directions for research into acellular pertussis vaccines include optimisation of antigen content and administration schedule, and further development of multicomponent vaccines. PMID:18031175

  13. Preclinical evaluation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine process intended for technology transfer.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Ahd; Verdijk, Pauline; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in low- and middle-income countries has been limited by cost and availability of Hib conjugate vaccines for a long time. It was previously recognized by the Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc, originating from the former Vaccinology Unit of the National Institute of Public Health [RIVM] and the Netherlands Vaccine Institute [NVI]) that local production of a Hib conjugate vaccine would increase the affordability and sustainability of the vaccine and thereby help to speed up Hib introduction in these countries. A new affordable and a non-infringing production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine was developed, including relevant quality control tests, and the technology was transferred to a number of vaccine manufacturers in India, Indonesia, and China. As part of the Hib technology transfer project managed by Intravacc, a preclinical toxicity study was conducted in the Netherlands to test the safety and immunogenicity of this new Hib conjugate vaccine. The data generated by this study were used by the technology transfer partners to accelerate the clinical development of the new Hib conjugate vaccine. A repeated dose toxicity and local tolerance study in rats was performed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new Hib conjugate vaccine compared to a licensed vaccine. The results showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in rats, no major differences in both safety and immunogenicity in rats were found between the vaccine produced according to the production process developed by Intravacc and the licensed one. Rats may be useful to verify the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines and for preclinical evaluation. In general, nonclinical evaluation of the new Hib conjugate vaccine, including this proof of concept (safety and immunogenicity study in rats), made it possible for technology transfer partners, having implemented the original process with no changes in the manufacturing process and vaccine formulation, to start directly with phase 1 clinical trials. PMID:25483504

  14. Synthesis and some immunologic properties of an O-acetyl pectin [poly(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpA]-protein conjugate as a vaccine for typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Szu, S C; Bystricky, S; Hinojosa-Ahumada, M; Egan, W; Robbins, J B

    1994-12-01

    Pectin, a plant polysaccharide, is mostly a linear homopolymer of poly(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpA with < 5% neutral sugars: its molecular size has a broad distribution around 400 kDa, and the degree of esterification is < 5%. The structure of the capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi (Vi) differs from pectin in that it is N acetylated at C-2 and O acetylated at C-3, and has a molecular size of approximately 2 x 10(3) kDa. There is no serological cross-reaction between pectin and Vi. Pectin, when O acetylated at C-2 and C-3, is antigenically identical to Vi in double immunodiffusion. Unlike Vi, O-acetylated pectin (OAcPec) is not immunogenic in mice, probably because of its comparatively low molecular weight. After storage at 3 to 8 degrees C for 3 months, there was no change in the O-acetyl content or the M(r) of OAcPec. At 60 degrees C, the M(r) of OAcPec declined more rapidly than that of Vi. OAcPec conjugated to tetanus toxoid elicited Vi antibodies in mice, and reinjection elicited a booster response. The levels of Vi antibodies elicited by OAcPec-tetanus toxoid conjugates were lower than those elicited by Vi conjugates, but these differences were not statistically significant. OAcPec has some advantages because it can be measured by standardized colorimetric assays and because it forms more soluble conjugates with proteins than does Vi. One disadvantage is that its glycosidic bond is not as stable as that of Vi. The use of a plant polysaccharide, pectin, as an immunogen for prevention of a systemic infection caused by a capsulated pathogen (S. typhi) provides a novel approach to improve the preparation and immunogenicity of polysaccharide-based vaccines. PMID:7960137

  15. Lessons learned during the development and transfer of technology related to a new Hib conjugate vaccine to emerging vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, A; Boog, C; Jadhav, S; Kreeftenberg, H

    2014-07-16

    The incidence of Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) disease in developed countries has decreased since the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccines in their National Immunization Programs (NIP). In countries where Hib vaccination is not applied routinely, due to limited availability and high cost of the vaccines, invasive Hib disease is still a cause of mortality. Through the development of a production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine and related quality control tests and the transfer of this technology to emerging vaccine manufacturers in developing countries, a substantial contribution was made to the availability and affordability of Hib conjugate vaccines in these countries. Technology transfer is considered to be one of the fastest ways to get access to the technology needed for the production of vaccines. The first Hib conjugate vaccine based on the transferred technology was licensed in 2007, since then more Hib vaccines based on this technology were licensed. This paper describes the successful development and transfer of Hib conjugate vaccine technology to vaccine manufacturers in India, China and Indonesia. By describing the lessons learned in this process, it is hoped that other technology transfer projects can benefit from the knowledge and experience gained. PMID:24923635

  16. DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa).

    PubMed

    Curran, Monique P; Goa, Karen L

    2003-01-01

    Primary vaccination of infants with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B recombinant (adsorbed)-inactivated poliomyelitis-adsorbed conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib; Infanrix hexa)-inactivated poliomyelitis-absorbed conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) refers to Infanrix hexa trade mark.) provided high levels of seroprotection against diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, poliovirus 1, 2 and 3, pertussis antigens (pertussis toxoid, filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin), hepatitis B virus surface antigen and H. influenzae polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP) antigen. Most infants (97%) had anti-PRP levels >/=0.15 micro g/mL after a booster dose at 18 months. Primary vaccination with the DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine produced a similar immune response to that with two different pentavalent plus monovalent vaccine combinations. Coadministration of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine and a heptavalent pneumonococcal conjugate vaccine resulted in a high level of seroprotection and was well tolerated. Primary or booster vaccination with DTPa- HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine was well tolerated. Commonly reported local adverse reactions included redness, pain and swelling. Systemic symptoms were usually mild to moderate, and included fussiness, fever, restlessness and sleepiness. PMID:12656646

  17. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for potency testing of vaccines containing Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon-toxoid.

    PubMed

    Pfahler, W; Bisesti, E; Pereyra, J B; Iribarren, F

    1998-04-01

    For ethical, economic and technical reasons in vivo assays need to be replaced in routine laboratory procedures. Based on a method which is already accepted by the British authorities, an indirect ELISA has been developed and evaluated for Clostridium perfringens type D-containing vaccines. Individual and pooled sera of vaccinated rabbits were tested at a single dilution level, the results transferred into IU/ml, and compared with the conventional toxin neutralization test in mice. The ELISA was found to give reproducible estimates of antitoxin levels and showed good correlation with the conventional in vivo test in mice. PMID:9588107

  18. Pneumococcal Disease in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Inci; Shea, Kimberly M; Pelton, Stephen I

    2015-12-01

    Universal immunization of infants and toddlers with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines over the last 15years has dramatically altered the landscape of pneumococcal disease. Decreases in invasive pneumococcal disease, all-cause pneumonia, empyema, mastoiditis, acute otitis media, and complicated otitis media have been reported from multiple countries in which universal immunization has been implemented. Children with comorbid conditions have higher rates of pneumococcal disease and increased case fatality rates compared with otherwise healthy children, and protection for the most vulnerable pediatric patients will require new strategies to address the underlying host susceptibility and the expanded spectrum of serotypes observed. PMID:26610421

  19. Methodological criticisms in the evaluation of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Trucchi, C; Paganino, C; Ansaldi, F

    2015-01-01

    Globally, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), cause considerable of morbidity and mortality in adults, especially in the elderly. In addition to age, underlying medical conditions are associated with an increased risk of CAP. From an aetiological point of view, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of adult CAP throughout the world. Two types of vaccine are available for the prevention of pneumococcal diseases: the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13). An accurate understanding of the LRTIs burden and the types of subjects at risk of CAP, allow to find an appropriately targeted immunization strategy and provide baseline data to evaluate pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness. Given the high variability in available estimates of LRTIs burden and associated risk factors, the objective of the study was to discuss the methodological criticism in its evaluation, in the light of the gradual introduction of PCV13 immunization strategy targeted to elderly and risk groups in middle-high income countries. PMID:26788736

  20. Heavy-chain isotype patterns of human antibody-secreting cells induced by Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in relation to age and preimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Barington, T; Juul, L; Gyhrs, A; Heilmann, C

    1994-01-01

    The influence of preexisting immunity on the heavy-chain isotypes of circulating antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) induced by vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and by vaccination with TT or DT alone in 51 healthy adults and 9 infants was studied. In adults, the isotypes of TT and DT AbSC were dominated by immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) followed by IgG4 and IgA1. HibCP AbSC were dominated by the isotype IgA1 followed by (in decreasing order) IgG2, IgA2, IgM, and IgG1. The isotype distributions of TT and DT AbSC were independent of whether the toxoids were coupled to HibCP, and the isotypes of HibCP AbSC were not influenced by the nature of the carrier (TT or DT). Furthermore, the isotype distributions were unaffected by recent immunization with components of the conjugates, although this reduced the numbers of AbSC. The heavy-chain gene usage of HibCP AbSC in adults differed clearly from that in infants, which was restricted largely to the genes mu, gamma 1, and alpha 1, all lying upstream in the heavy-chain constant-region gene locus, while the usage in adults also, to different extents, involved the downstream genes gamma 2 and alpha 2. The ratio between the numbers of HibCP AbSC using heavy-chain genes from the downstream duplication unit (gamma 2, gamma 4, and alpha 2) and those using genes from the upstream duplication unit (gamma 3, gamma 1, and alpha 1) correlated with the preimmunization level of natural HibCP antibodies (r = 0.59; P = 0.00002). A possible role of natural exposure for Hib or cross-reactive bacteria on the mucosal surfaces in the shaping of the isotype response to HibCP conjugate vaccines is discussed. PMID:8039873

  1. Influence of prevaccination immunity on the human B-lymphocyte response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Barington, T; Kristensen, K; Henrichsen, J; Heilmann, C

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preexisting immunity to components of a polysaccharide-protein conjugate influences the B-lymphocyte response to vaccination with the conjugate. Thirty-two healthy adults were vaccinated once or twice with a conjugate (PRP-D) consisting of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (PRP) and diphtheria toxoid (DT), and the response was related to the prevaccination levels of PRP and DT antibodies. Positive correlations were found between increases in plasma PRP (median, 32.0 micrograms/ml) and DT (1.14 IU/ml) antibodies and numbers of circulating PRP and DT antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) (postvaccination days 6 to 9). The B-cell responses (antibody response and AbSC) to both PRP and DT correlated positively with prevaccination levels of anti-DT. DT AbSC appeared earlier (peak, day 7) than PRP AbSC (peak, day 8). Individuals whose PRP AbSC peaked early (day 7) had higher prevaccination anti-DT levels than those who peaked later (P less than 0.05). In contrast, the prevaccination levels of anti-PRP did not correlate significantly with the magnitude of the antibody or AbSC response and did not affect the kinetics of the AbSC. Following revaccination with PRP-D, small increases in the level of PRP antibodies (median, 2.9 micrograms/ml; n = 11) were found; no significant increase in the level of DT antibodies was seen. The numbers of PRP AbSC were lower (P = 0.04) and peaked earlier (day 7) than after the first vaccination. The isotype pattern of PRP AbSC, which was dominated by immunoglobulin A (IgA) after the first vaccination, now showed a more equal distribution between IgG and IgA AbSC. It is concluded that after immunization with PRP-D both the magnitude and the kinetics of the antipolysaccharide B-cell response are influenced by prevaccination immunity to the carrier molecule. PMID:1997409

  2. Carrier priming with CRM 197 or diphtheria toxoid has a different impact on the immunogenicity of the respective glycoconjugates: biophysical and immunochemical interpretation.

    PubMed

    Pecetta, S; Lo Surdo, P; Tontini, M; Proietti, D; Zambonelli, C; Bottomley, M J; Biagini, M; Berti, F; Costantino, P; Romano, M R

    2015-01-01

    Glycoconjugate vaccines play an enormous role in preventing infectious diseases. The main carrier proteins used in commercial conjugate vaccines are the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Modern childhood routine vaccination schedules include the administration of several vaccines simultaneously or in close sequence, increasing the concern that the repeated exposure to conjugates based on these carrier proteins might interfere with the anti-polysaccharide response. Extending previous observations we show here that priming mice with CRM197 or DT does not suppress the response to the carbohydrate moiety of CRM197 meningococcal serogroup A (MenA) conjugates, while priming with DT can suppress the response to DT-MenA conjugates. To explain these findings we made use of biophysical and immunochemical techniques applied mainly to MenA conjugates. Differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism data revealed that the CRM197 structure was altered by the chemical conjugation, while DT and the formaldehyde-treated form of CRM197 were less impacted, depending on the degree of glycosylation. Investigating the binding and avidity properties of IgGs induced in mice by non-conjugated carriers, we found that CRM197 induced low levels of anti-carrier antibodies, with decreased avidity for its MenA conjugates and poor binding to DT and respective MenA conjugates. In contrast, DT induced high antibody titers able to bind with comparable avidity both the protein and its conjugates but showing very low avidity for CRM197 and related conjugates. The low intrinsic immunogenicity of CRM197 as compared to DT, the structural modifications induced by glycoconjugation and detoxification processes, resulting in conformational changes in CRM197 and DT epitopes with consequent alteration of the antibody recognition and avidity, might explain the different behavior of CRM197 and DT in a carrier priming context. PMID:25448110

  3. Conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines do not improve initial response of the polysaccharide vaccine in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Maria; Payeras, Antoni; Cambra, Ana; Mila, Joan; Riera, Melcior

    2010-05-15

    This is a randomized trial to compare the immunoglobulin G response and the antibody avidity after two pneumococcal vaccinations, conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (CPV) and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) 4 weeks after vs. PPV alone in 202 HIV-infected adults. There were no differences in the two strategies, either in the percentage of immunoglobulin G two-fold increase for the CPV included serotypes or immunoglobulin G two-fold increase, reaching the level of 1 microg/ml except for serotype 23F (26% responded after conjugated pneumococcal vaccine + PPV vs. 14% after PPV). No avidity increases were seen in any strategy. PMID:20299956

  4. Overview of the development and current use of CRM(197) conjugate vaccines for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Shinefield, Henry R

    2010-06-17

    Glycoconjugate vaccines have been proven safe and effective against various diseases in children. Although these vaccines have a history of effectiveness, there are still many unanswered questions to be addressed, including conjugate interference when multiple vaccines are administered at one time, expansion of serotype coverage, effectiveness in special populations, and issues relating to conjugate vaccine use in the developing world. This paper focuses on the use of CRM(197) as a carrier protein, contrasting it to other carrier proteins used in single-antigen pediatric vaccines as well as identifying areas for future study. PMID:20452430

  5. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high. PMID:26488597

  6. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high. PMID:26488597

  7. The Impact of Age on the Efficacy of 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Elderly.

    PubMed

    van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; Huijts, Susanne M; Bolkenbaas, Marieke; Grobbee, Diederick E; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-12-15

    In a post hoc analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) immunization Trial in Adults the model-predicted 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy for preventing vaccine-type specific CAP and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease declined from 65% to 40% for subjects being 65 and 75 year olds at the time of vaccination, respectively. PMID:26265498

  8. Comparative immunogenicity of conjugates composed of Escherichia coli O111 O-specific polysaccharide, prepared by treatment with acetic acid or hydrazine, bound to tetanus toxoid by two synthetic schemes.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, R K; Egan, W; Bryla, D A; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli O111, of various H types and virulence factors, causes enteritis throughout the world, especially in young children. This O type is found rarely in healthy individuals. Serum antibodies to the O-specific polysaccharide of O111 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protect mice and dogs against infection with this E. coli serotype. The O111 O-specific polysaccharide is composed of a pentasaccharide repeat unit with two colitoses bound to the C-3 and C-6 of glucose in a trisaccharide backbone; this structure is identical to that of Salmonella adelaide (O35), another enteric pathogen. Nonpyrogenic O111 O-specific polysaccharide was prepared by treatment of its LPS with acetic acid (O-SP) or the organic base hydrazine (DeA-LPS). The O-SP had a reduced concentration of colitose. These products were derivatized with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) or thiolated with N-succinimidyl-3(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The four derivatives were covalently bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) by carbodiimide-mediated condensation or with SPDP to form conjugates. Immunization of BALB/c and general-purpose mice by a clinically acceptable route showed that DeA-LPS-TTADH, of the four conjugates, elicited the highest level of LPS antibodies. Possible reasons to explain this differential immunogenicity between the four conjugates are discussed. PMID:7542631

  9. Otitis media in children vaccinated during consecutive 7-valent or 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination schedules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2001 when 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced, almost all (90%) young Australian Indigenous children living in remote communities had some form of otitis media (OM), including 24% with tympanic membrane perforation (TMP). In late 2009, the Northern Territory childhood vaccination schedule replaced PCV7 with 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10). Methods We conducted regular surveillance of all forms of OM in children in remote Indigenous communities between September 2008 and December 2012. This analysis compares children less than 36 months of age who received a primary course of at least two doses of PCV7 or PHiD-CV10, and not more than one dose of another pneumococcal vaccine. Results Mean ages of 444 PCV7- and 451 PHiD-CV10-vaccinated children were 20 and 18 months, respectively. Bilaterally normal middle ears were detected in 7% and 9% respectively. OM with effusion was diagnosed in 41% and 51% (Risk Difference 10% [95% Confidence Interval 3 to 17] p?=?0.002), any suppurative OM (acute OM or any TMP) in 51% versus 39% (RD ?12% [95% CI ?19 to ?5] p?=?0.0004], and TMP in 17% versus 14% (RD ?3% [95% CI ?8 to 2] p?=?0.2), respectively. Multivariate analyses described a similar independent negative association between suppurative OM and PHiD-CV10 compared to PCV7 (Odds Ratio?=?0.6 [95% CI 0.4 to 0.8] p?=?0.001). Additional children in the household were a risk factor for OM (OR?=?2.4 [95% CI 2 to 4] p?=?0.001 for the third additional child), and older age and male gender were associated with less disease. Other measured risk factors were non-significant. Similar clinical results were found for children who had received non-mixed PCV schedules. Conclusions Otitis media remains a significant health and social issue for Australian Indigenous children despite PCV vaccination. Around 90% of young children have some form of OM. Children vaccinated in with PHiD-CV10 had less suppurative OM than children vaccinated with PCV7. Ongoing surveillance during the PCV13 era, and trials of early intervention including earlier and mixed vaccine schedules are warranted. PMID:25109288

  10. Determining trace amounts and the origin of formaldehyde impurity in Neisseria meningitidis A/C/Y/W-135-DT conjugate vaccine formulated in isotonic aqueous 1 PBS by improved C18-UPLC method.

    PubMed

    Gudlavalleti, Seshu K; Crawford, Erika N; Tran, Nhi N; Orten, Dana J; Harder, Jeffery D; Reddy, Jeeri R

    2015-03-25

    The ability to accurately measure and report trace amounts of residual formaldehyde impurity in a vaccine product is not only critical in the product release but also a regulatory requirement. In many bacterial or viral vaccine manufacturing procedures, formaldehyde is used either at a live culture inactivation step or at a protein de-toxification step or at both. Reported here is a validated and improved C18-UPLC method (developed based on previously published C-8 HPLC method) to determine the traces of formaldehyde process impurity in a liquid form Neisseria meningitidis A/C/Y/W-135-DT conjugate vaccine formulated in isotonic aqueous 1 PBS. UPLC C-18 column and the conditions described distinctly resolved the 2,4-DNPH-HCHO adduct from the un-reacted 2,4-DNPH as detected by TUV detector at 360 nm. This method was shown to be compatible with PBS formulation and extremely sensitive (with a quantitation limit of 0.05 ppm) and aided to determine formaldehyde contamination sources by evaluating the in-process materials as a track-down analysis. Final nanogram levels of formaldehyde in the formulated single dose vialed vaccine mainly originated from the diphtheria toxoid carrier protein used in the production of the conjugate vaccine, whereas relative contribution from polysaccharide API was minimal. PMID:25668795

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Lipooligosaccharide-Based Conjugates as Vaccine Candidates for Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xin-Xing; Chen, Jing; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Robbins, John B.; Tsai, Chao-Ming; Lim, David J.; Battey, James

    1998-01-01

    Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is an important cause of otitis media and sinusitis in children and of lower respiratory tract infections in adults. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a major surface antigen of the bacterium and elicits bactericidal antibodies. Treatment of the LOS from strain ATCC 25238 with anhydrous hydrazine reduced its toxicity 20,000-fold, as assayed in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. The detoxified LOS (dLOS) was coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) or high-molecular-weight proteins (HMP) from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae through a linker of adipic acid dihydrazide to form dLOS-TT or dLOS-HMP. The molar ratios of dLOS to TT and HMP conjugates were 19:1 and 31:1, respectively. The antigenicity of the two conjugates was similar to that of the LOS, as determined by double immunodiffusion. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of both conjugates elicited a 50- to 100-fold rise in the geometric mean of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the homologous LOS in mice after three injections and a 350- to 700-fold rise of anti-LOS IgG in rabbits after two injections. The immunogenicity of the conjugate was enhanced by formulation with monophosphoryl lipid A plus trehalose dimycolate. In rabbits, conjugate-induced antisera had complement-mediated bactericidal activity against the homologous strain and heterologous strains of M. catarrhalis. These results indicate that a detoxified LOS-protein conjugate is a candidate for immunization against M. catarrhalis diseases. PMID:9573066

  12. The Differential Impact of Coadministered Vaccines, Geographic Region, Vaccine Product and Other Covariates on Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antipneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antibody concentrations are used as predictors of vaccine efficacy against vaccine serotype (ST) pneumococcal disease among infants. While pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are recommended globally, factors associated with optimal PCV immune response are not well described. We aimed to systematically assess local setting factors, beyond dosing schedule, which may affect PCV antibody levels. Methods: We conducted a literature review of PCV immunogenicity, abstracting data from published reports, unpublished sources, and conference abstracts from 1994 to 2010 (and ad hoc 2011 reports). Studies included in this analysis evaluated ? 2 primary doses of PCV before 6 months of age in nonhigh-risk populations, used 7-valent or higher PCV products (excluding Aventis-Pasteur and Merck products) and provided information on geometric mean concentration (GMC) for STs 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F or 23F. Using random effects meta-regression, we assessed the impact of geographic region, coadministered vaccines and PCV product on postprimary GMC, adjusting for dosing schedule and ELISA laboratory method. Results: Of 12,980 citations reviewed, we identified 103 vaccine study arms for this analysis. Children in studies from Asia, Africa and Latin America had significantly higher GMC responses compared with those in studies from Europe and North America. Coadministration with acellular pertussis DTP compared with whole-cell DTP had no effect on PCV immunogenicity except for ST14, where GMCs were higher when coadministered with acellular pertussis DTP. Vaccine product, number of PCV doses, dosing interval, age at first dose and ELISA laboratory method also affected the GMC. Conclusions: PCV immunogenicity is associated with geographic region and vaccine product; however, the associations and magnitude varied by ST. Consideration of these factors is essential when comparing PCV immunogenicity results between groups and should be included in the evidence base when selecting optimal PCV vaccine schedules in specific settings. PMID:24336055

  13. Immunogenicity and Tolerance of a 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Nonresponders to the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Zielen, S.; Bhring, I.; Strnad, N.; Reichenbach, J.; Hofmann, D.

    2000-01-01

    There is still a lack of effective vaccination strategies for patients with a deficient antibody response to bacterial polysaccharide antigens. In an open trial, we evaluated the immunogenicity and tolerance of a new 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 22 infection-prone nonresponders to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 21 controls. In the patient group, nonresponsiveness was confirmed by repeated vaccination with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The study protocol provided two doses of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, given 4 to 6 weeks apart, for both groups. The antibody response was determined before each vaccination and on follow-up by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared to the response in a functional opsonophagocytosis assay. Patients showed a significantly lower postvaccination immune response for all serotypes than did controls. The postvaccination response was serotype dependent. A median titer of >1 ?g/ml in patients was recorded only for serotypes 4, 9V, 14, and 19F, which are known to be more immunogenic than serotypes 6B, 18C, and 23F. In the patient group, 70% responded to serotype 19F (Pnc 19F), 65% responded to Pnc 14 and 4, 60% responded to Pnc 9V, 55% responded to Pnc 18C, 50% responded to Pnc 23F, and 25% responded to Pnc 6B. In the control group >95% of individuals showed a titer of >1 ?g/ml to every serotype. The vaccine was tolerated well, and no major side effects have been reported. The new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is clearly more immunogenic in previous nonresponders than is the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Immunization with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk patients. PMID:10678957

  14. Safety and immunogenicity of meningococcal A and C polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, E L; Bowers, T; Mink, C M; Kennedy, D J; Belshe, R B; Harakeh, H; Pais, L; Holder, P; Carlone, G M

    1994-01-01

    A meningococcal vaccine containing group A and C polysaccharides conjugated to CRM197 was evaluated in 50 adults. Vaccinees were entered into one of five groups: 30 adults received a single dose of either 22, 11, or 5.5 micrograms of the conjugated A-C vaccine; 10 received an approved meningococcal vaccine; and 10 received saline injections. Local and systemic reactions to vaccines were recorded, and immune responses were determined. The experimental meningococcal vaccine was well tolerated, with the most frequent reaction being pain at the injection site. Both A and C polysaccharide components of the experimental vaccine were highly immunogenic, and total antibody concentrations 1 month postvaccination were not significantly different from the mean antibody concentrations among adults given the approved meningococcal vaccine. In addition, significant rises in immunoglobulin G, A, and M antibodies to both A and C polysaccharides occurred. Antibody concentrations measured at 6 and 12 months postvaccination had declined but remained significantly higher than prevaccination concentrations. Postvaccination meningococcal group C functional antibody activity increased more than 600-fold for both the polysaccharide and the conjugate vaccines. Further studies of this conjugated meningococcal vaccine are indicated for young children and infants. PMID:8039909

  15. Meningococcal quadrivalent (serogroups A, C, w135, and y) conjugate vaccine (Menveo): in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Emma D

    2010-10-01

    Menveo is a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine containing the four Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharides, A, C, W135, and Y, each conjugated to the mutant diphtheria toxin, known as crossreactive material 197 (CRM(197)). Administration of a single dose of the Menveo vaccine elicited a strong immune response against all four vaccine serogroups in adolescents and adults in randomized, single- or multicenter, phase II or III trials. In adolescents, Menveo was generally more immunogenic against vaccine serogroups than the polysaccharide conjugate vaccine Menactra or the unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine Menomune, in terms of seroresponse and/or seroprotection rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) 1 month post-vaccination in two phase II or III studies. In two phase III trials in adults aged 19-55 years, the immunogenicity of Menveo was generally noninferior or superior to that of Menactra against all four vaccine serogroups, with regard to seroresponse/seroprotection rates, and GMTs 1 month after vaccination. Moreover, an exploratory arm of one of these studies suggested Menveo was at least as immunogenic as Menomune in adults aged 56-65 years. Longer term, the immunogenicity of Menveo persisted for 12-22 months post-vaccination in the adolescent studies, with the vaccine generally remaining at least as immunogenic as Menactra or Menomune. Coadministration of Menveo with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine or Tdap and human papillomavirus vaccines generally did not affect the immunogenicity of these vaccines in adolescents and young adults in two additional randomized, single- or multicenter, phase III studies. The tolerability profile of Menveo was generally similar to that of the comparator vaccines Menactra or Menomune in adults and adolescents, and few Menveo recipients experienced serious adverse events within 30 days or 6 months post-vaccination. PMID:20795751

  16. Making new vaccines affordable: a comparison of financing processes used to develop and deploy new meningococcal and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Greenwood, Brian; Clift, Charles; Goel, Akshay; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Smith, Richard; Heymann, David L

    2011-11-26

    Mechanisms to increase access to health products are varied and controversial. Two innovative mechanisms have been used to accelerate the development of low-price supply lines for conjugate vaccines. The Meningitis Vaccine Project is a so-called push mechanism that facilitated technology transfer to an Indian company to establish capacity to manufacture a vaccine. The Advanced Market Commitment for pneumococcal vaccines is a so-called pull mechanism that guarantees companies a supplement paid in addition to the purchase price for vaccines for a specific period. We compare these approaches, identifying key dimensions of each and considering their potential for replication. We also discuss issues that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) face now that these new vaccines are available. Progress towards GAVI's strategic aims is needed and funding is crucial. Approaches that decrease the financial pressure on GAVI and greatly increase political and financial engagement by low-income countries should also be considered. PMID:21664678

  17. Phase 1 and phase 2 studies of Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates in adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Konadu, E Y; Lin, F Y; H, V A; Thuy, N T; Van Bay, P; Thanh, T C; Khiem, H B; Trach, D D; Karpas, A B; Li, J; Bryla, D A; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    2000-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) was activated with 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) and bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) with adipic acid dihydrazide as a linker (SPA-TT(1)) or directly (SPA-TT(2)). In mice, these two conjugates elicited high levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in serum with bactericidal activity (E. Konadu, J. Shiloach, D. A. Bryla, J. B. Robbins, and S. C. Szu, Infect. Immun. 64:2709-2715, 1996). The safety and immunogenicity of the two conjugates were then evaluated sequentially in Vietnamese adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children. None of the vaccinees experienced significant side effects, and all had preexisting LPS antibodies. At 4 weeks after injection, there were significant increases of the geometric mean IgG and IgM anti-LPS levels in the adults and teenagers: both conjugates elicited a greater than fourfold rise in the IgG anti-LPS level in serum in >/=80% of the volunteers. SPA-TT(2) elicited slightly higher, though not statistically significantly, levels of IgG anti-LPS than did SPA-TT(1) in these age groups. Accordingly, only SPA-TT(2) was evaluated in the 2- to 4-year-old children. On a random basis, one or two injections were administered 6 weeks apart to the children. No significant side effects were observed, and the levels of preexisting anti-LPS in serum were similar in children of all ages. A significant rise in the IgG anti-LPS titer was elicited by the first injection (P = 0.0001); a second injection did not elicit a booster response. Representative sera from all groups had bactericidal activity that could be adsorbed by S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A LPS. PMID:10678970

  18. Phase 1 and Phase 2 Studies of Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi A O-Specific Polysaccharide-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugates in Adults, Teenagers, and 2- to 4-Year-Old Children in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Konadu, Edward Y.; Lin, Feng-Ying C.; Hó, Vô Anh; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Van Bay, Phan; Thanh, Tran Cong; Khiem, Ha Ba; Trach, Dang Duc; Karpas, Arthur B.; Li, Jianping; Bryla, Dolores A.; Robbins, John B.; Szu, Shousun C.

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) was activated with 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) and bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) with adipic acid dihydrazide as a linker (SPA-TT1) or directly (SPA-TT2). In mice, these two conjugates elicited high levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in serum with bactericidal activity (E. Konadu, J. Shiloach, D. A. Bryla, J. B. Robbins, and S. C. Szu, Infect. Immun. 64:2709–2715, 1996). The safety and immunogenicity of the two conjugates were then evaluated sequentially in Vietnamese adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children. None of the vaccinees experienced significant side effects, and all had preexisting LPS antibodies. At 4 weeks after injection, there were significant increases of the geometric mean IgG and IgM anti-LPS levels in the adults and teenagers: both conjugates elicited a greater than fourfold rise in the IgG anti-LPS level in serum in ≥80% of the volunteers. SPA-TT2 elicited slightly higher, though not statistically significantly, levels of IgG anti-LPS than did SPA-TT1 in these age groups. Accordingly, only SPA-TT2 was evaluated in the 2- to 4-year-old children. On a random basis, one or two injections were administered 6 weeks apart to the children. No significant side effects were observed, and the levels of preexisting anti-LPS in serum were similar in children of all ages. A significant rise in the IgG anti-LPS titer was elicited by the first injection (P = 0.0001); a second injection did not elicit a booster response. Representative sera from all groups had bactericidal activity that could be adsorbed by S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A LPS. PMID:10678970

  19. Surveillance of the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Gail L; Klugman, Keith P

    2016-02-01

    Infection due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children, especially in developing countries. With the support of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, the majority of these countries have introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) into their national immunization programs and early data demonstrate a high degree of effectiveness, translating to enormous public health benefit through both direct and indirect (herd) effects. Future vaccination strategy may be focused on maintaining herd effects rather than individual protection. Evaluation of vaccine-type carriage, particularly in pneumonia cases, may be an easy, feasible way of measuring continued vaccine impact. PMID:26309055

  20. Immunogenicity of a combination vaccine containing pneumococcal conjugates and meningococcal PorA OMVs.

    PubMed

    van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M; van Dijken, Harry H; Pillai, Subramonia; van Alphen, Loek

    2007-03-22

    The pre-clinical immunogenicity of a combination vaccine containing 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate (13vPnC) vaccine (serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F conjugated to CRM197) and nine-valent meningococcal B PorA vaccine (NonaMen; serosubtypes P1.7,16; P1.5-1,2-2; P1.19,15-1; P1.5-2,10; P1.12-1,13; P1.7-2,4; P1.22,14; P1.7-1,1 and P1.18-1,3,6), and any potential immunological interference between pneumococcal and MenB components of the vaccine were evaluated. NIH mice were immunized twice subcutaneously with the vaccines combined in one syringe, or given individually. Combining 13vPnC vaccine with NonaMen vaccine in one syringe had no negative effect on the induced antibody response against any MenB serosubtypes compared to separate injection of the vaccines, and the anti-pneumococcal antibody responses were enhanced. Furthermore, co-administration of the combination vaccine with a combined diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine/Haemophilus influenzae type b-TT conjugate (DTaP/IPV-Hib) vaccine to New Zealand white rabbits at a different injection site did not affect the anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide and anti-PorA antibody titres. We conclude that no immunological interference was observed by combined administration of pneumococcal conjugate and meningococcal B vaccines in one syringe. PMID:17023098

  1. MER5101, a novel Aβ1-15:DT conjugate vaccine, generates a robust anti-Aβ antibody response and attenuates Aβ pathology and cognitive deficits in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Frost, Jeffrey L; Sun, Jing; Fu, Hongjun; Grimes, Stephen; Blackburn, Peter; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2013-04-17

    Active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is under investigation to prevent or treat early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In 2002, a Phase II clinical trial (AN1792) was halted due to meningoencephalitis in ∼6% of the AD patients, possibly caused by a T-cell-mediated immunological response. Thus, generating a vaccine that safely generates high anti-Aβ antibody levels in the elderly is required. In this study, MER5101, a novel conjugate of Aβ1-15 peptide (a B-cell epitope fragment) conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein, diphtheria toxoid (DT), and formulated in a nanoparticular emulsion-based adjuvant, was administered to 10-month-old APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (Wt) mice. High anti-Aβ antibody levels were observed in both vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg and Wt mice. Antibody isotypes were mainly IgG1 and IgG2b, suggesting a Th2-biased response. Restimulation of splenocytes with the Aβ1-15:DT conjugate resulted in a strong proliferative response, whereas proliferation was absent after restimulation with Aβ1-15 or Aβ1-40/42 peptides, indicating a cellular immune response against DT while avoiding an Aβ-specific T-cell response. Moreover, significant reductions in cerebral Aβ plaque burden, accompanied by attenuated microglial activation and increased synaptic density, were observed in MER5101-vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice compared with Tg adjuvant controls. Last, MER5101-immunized APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice showed improvement of cognitive deficits in both contextual fear conditioning and the Morris water maze. Our novel, highly immunogenic Aβ conjugate vaccine, MER5101, shows promise for improving Aβ vaccine safety and efficacy and therefore, may be useful for preventing and/or treating early AD. PMID:23595760

  2. Chemistry of a new investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine that is immunogenic at all ages.

    PubMed

    Brker, Michael; Dull, Peter M; Rappuoli, Rino; Costantino, Paolo

    2009-09-18

    Meningococcal disease is a serious medical condition that can prove fatal within hours in otherwise healthy individuals. Disease incidence is highest in infants, yet there is no broadly protective quadrivalent vaccine that covers this age group. A new investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y (MenACWY-CRM, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy), has been developed to meet this medical need. This article discusses the vaccine technology behind MenACWY-CRM, focusing on the heritage of CRM(197), the conjugation chemistry, the sizing of the oligosaccharides, and the advantages that these may confer on the vaccine. We highlight the differences between available vaccines and look at the clinical experience with vaccines against other diseases, demonstrating the importance of each component to the immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines. The specific technological approach, including conjugation of meningococcal oligosaccharides of defined length to the CRM(197) protein, has led to a vaccine that has the potential to provide broad meningococcal protection against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y for all ages. PMID:19619500

  3. Plasma and memory B-cell kinetics in infants following a primary schedule of CRM 197-conjugated serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Dominic F; Snape, Matthew D; Perrett, Kirsten P; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Lewis, Susan; Blanchard Rohner, Geraldine; Jones, Meryl; Yu, Ly-Mee; Pollard, Andrew J

    2009-05-01

    The induction of persistent protective levels of pathogen-specific antibody is an important goal of immunization against childhood infections. However, antibody persistence is poor after immunization in infancy versus later in life. Serogroup C meningococci (MenC) are an important cause of bacteraemia and meningitis in children. The use of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against MenC has been associated with a significant decline in the incidence of invasive disease. However, vaccine effectiveness is negligible by more than 1 year after a three-dose priming series in infancy and corresponds to a rapid decline in antibody following an initial immune response. The cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of persistent antibody in this age group are unclear. An essential prelude to larger studies of peripheral blood B cells is an understanding of B-cell kinetics following immunization. We measured MenC- and diphtheria-specific plasma and memory B-cell kinetics in infants receiving a CRM(197) (cross-reactive material; mutant diphtheria toxoid)-conjugated MenC vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Plasma cell responses were more delayed after the first dose when compared with the rapid appearance of plasma cells after the third dose. Memory B cells were detectable at all time-points following the third dose as opposed to the low frequency seen following a first dose. This study provides data on B-cell kinetics following a primary schedule of immunization in young infants upon which to base further studies of the underlying cellular mechanism of humoral immunity. PMID:19175802

  4. Randomized Clinical Trial To Evaluate the Immunogenicity of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate and Polysaccharide Vaccines in Adults in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A.; Haworth, Kathryn; Bowman, Jaclyn; Omar, Omar; Thompson, Amber J.; Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Yu, Ly-Mee; Snape, Matthew D.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal conjugate vaccines are today successfully deployed in universal programs for children and adolescents in different geographic regions to control meningitis and septicemia. However, in adults, the advantages of these conjugates over the older polysaccharide vaccines are less clear. In this randomized clinical trial, we demonstrated that both conjugate and polysaccharide quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines elicit protective antibody responses in adults aged 18 to 70. (This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT00901940.) PMID:24964805

  5. Determining the optimal pneumococcal vaccination strategy for adults: is there a role for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine?

    PubMed

    Metersky, Mark L; Dransfield, Mark T; Jackson, Lisa A

    2010-09-01

    On February 24, 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a 13-valent pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for use in children. Currently, the only pneumococcal vaccine approved for use in adults in the United States is the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Although PPV23 provides partial protection against invasive pneumococcal disease, it does not appear to impact the risk of pneumonia in elderly patients or younger adults with comorbidities. Experience with PCV7 in children and studies of the immunogenicity of PCV7 in high-risk adults suggest that PCV13 may be effective in adults. However, prior receipt of PPV23 may blunt the antibody response to protein conjugate vaccination; thus, receipt of PPV23 could potentially diminish the benefit of subsequent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. The approval of PCV13 for children has created a unique dilemma for physicians seeking to provide optimum protection for their high-risk adult patients. Potential options could include use of the PCV13 "off-label," perhaps followed by PPV23; withholding pneumococcal vaccination of adults while awaiting approval of PCV13; or continuing to use the PPV23. Although there are limited data on PCVs in adults, the availability of PCV13 for children will likely cause uncertainty for some physicians until there is updated official guidance regarding the optimum strategies for prevention of pneumococcal infection in adults. PMID:20576729

  6. Towards Targeted Delivery Systems: Ligand Conjugation Strategies for mRNA Nanoparticle Tumor Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kyle K. L.

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles encapsulating messenger RNA (mRNA) as a vaccine has recently attracted much attention because of encouraging results achieved in many nonviral genetic antitumor vaccination studies. Notably, in all of these studies, mRNA nanoparticles are passively targeted to dendritic cells (DCs) through careful selection of vaccination sites. Hence, DC-targeted mRNA nanoparticle vaccines may be an imminent next step forward. In this brief report, we will discuss established conjugation strategies that have been successfully applied to both polymeric and liposomal gene delivery systems. We will also briefly describe promising DC surface receptors amenable for targeting mRNA nanoparticles. Practicable conjugation strategies and receptors reviewed in this paper will provide a convenient reference to facilitate future development of targeted mRNA nanoparticle vaccine. PMID:26819957

  7. Invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with haematological malignancies before routine use of conjugate vaccines in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Vesa; Aittoniemi, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Klemets, Peter; Ollgren, Jukka; Silvennoinen, Raija; Nuorti, J Pekka; Sinisalo, Marjatta

    2016-05-01

    The baseline national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence rate, serotype distribution and serotype coverage of pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and leukaemia within 1 year after haematological diagnosis during 1995-2002, before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pneumococcal serotype distribution among these patients was different from serotypes causing IPD in the general population. The serotype coverages of PCV13 and PPSV23 were 57% and 64%, respectively, lower than in the general population. This reflects a higher predisposition to IPD in vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies and possibly less benefit of herd immunity gained with the wide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the general population. This data will be useful as a baseline for determining the future role of adult PCV vaccination in these patient groups. PMID:26635103

  8. Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial of Coadministration of RotaTeq, a Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine, and NeisVac-C, a Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vesikari, Timo; Karvonen, Aino; Borrow, Ray; Kitchin, Nick; Baudin, Martine; Thomas, Stéphane; Fiquet, Anne

    2011-01-01

    RotaTeq (Merck & Co. Inc./Sanofi Pasteur MSD) is a three-dose, oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for the immunization of infants from 6 weeks of age for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. The primary objective of the present trial was to demonstrate that RotaTeq can be coadministered with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MenCC; NeisVac-C; Baxter Healthcare) to healthy infants without impairing the protective immune responses to MenCC. This was an open-label, randomized, comparative study conducted in Finland. The study was designed to assess concomitant versus sequential administration of RotaTeq and MenCC on the immune response to both vaccines. Healthy infants (n = 247), aged 6 to 7 weeks, were recruited. Coadministration of MenCC with RotaTeq was noninferior to sequential administration for the seroprotection rate against meningococcal serogroup C (the proportion of infants with a serum bactericidal antibody titer using baby rabbit complement of ≥8 was 100% in both groups). The other responses to MenCC (titer of ≥1:128, ≥4-fold increase in titer, and geometric mean titers [GMTs]) and the responses to RotaTeq (IgA and SNA response to G1 to G4 and P1A[8], GMTs, and ≥3-fold increase in titer) were comparable between groups, including a ≥3-fold IgA increase in >96% of the infants in both groups. Concomitant administration of the first doses of MenCC, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine, and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib), and RotaTeq was associated with a higher rate of vomiting and diarrhea than concomitant administration of MenCC and DTaP-IPV-Hib, but that was not observed after the second concomitant administration. The convenience of concomitant administration of RotaTeq and MenCC may, however, outweigh the additive effect of mostly mild adverse events reported after the individual administration of each vaccine. These results support the coadministration of RotaTeq and MenCC. PMID:21389149

  9. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) - What you need to know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the CDC Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/pcv13.html CDC review ... at the highest risk. Before there was a vaccine, the United States saw: more than 700 cases ...

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aragn, J; Mrquez Pelez, S; Molina-Linde, J M; Grande-Tejada, A M

    2013-11-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines represent major progress in the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease in the paediatric population. We performed a meta-analysis, in accordance with the PRISMA statement, in order to assess the immunogenicity and safety of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in infants. A literary search was conducted using electronic databases and specialized journals were searched manually. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials with infants vaccinated with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate, compared to 7-valent vaccine. We recorded the results in terms of the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccines. The quality of the studies included was assessed using the CASP and Jadad checklists. We included nine randomized clinical trials of 258 potentially relevant references in the meta-analysis. The studies included had high-moderate quality. Both vaccines were well tolerated in all groups of infants, and most local reactions and systemic events were of mild or medium intensity and typical of any injected vaccine. All studies included in the meta-analysis showed high immunogenicity for both pneumococcal vaccines in all tested serotypes. An anti-polysaccharide antibody concentration of ?0.35 ?g/mL was achieved in at least 89% of the infants. Our results suggest that the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has a similar safety profile, and is as effective as, the 7-valent vaccine in the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by the seven common serotypes, and could provide expanded protection against the six additional serotypes. PMID:24055349

  11. A possible oligosaccharide-conjugate vaccine candidate for Clostridium difficile is antigenic and immunogenic.

    PubMed

    Oberli, Matthias A; Hecht, Marie-Lyn; Bindschdler, Pascal; Adibekian, Alexander; Adam, Thomas; Seeberger, Peter H

    2011-05-27

    Nosocomial infections with the Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium difficile pose a major risk for hospitalized patients and result in significant costs to health care systems. Here, we present the chemical synthesis of a PS-II hapten of a cell wall polysaccharide of hypervirulent ribotype 027 of C. difficile. Mice were immunized with a conjugate consisting of the synthetic hexasaccharide and the diphtheria toxoid variant CRM(197). The immunogenicity of the glycan repeating unit was demonstrated by the presence of specific IgG antibodies in the serum of immunized mice. Murine monoclonal antibodies interact with the synthetic hexasaccharide, as determined by microarray analysis. Finally, we found that specific IgA antibodies in the stool of hospital patients infected with C. difficile recognize the synthetic PS-II hexasaccharide hapten. PMID:21609839

  12. Pneumococcal Meningitis Vaccine Breakthroughs and Failures After Routine 7-Valent and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Children in France.

    PubMed

    Godot, Ccile; Levy, Corinne; Varon, Emmanuelle; Picard, Capucine; Madhi, Fouad; Cohen, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We collected cases of pneumococcal meningitis vaccine breakthrough (VBT) and vaccine failure (VF) from 2003 to 2013 after the implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in France. VBT accounted for 3.2% of the cases (PCV7 era: 24 of 943, PCV13 era: 15 of 290) and VF 0.6% (PCV7 era: 6 of 943, PCV13 era: 2 of 290). VBT and VF are rare and occur in most cases in children younger than 2 years. The serotype 19F was the most frequent cause even after the introduction of PCV13. PMID:26181894

  13. [CONTEMPORARY CONCEPTION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE ACTIVATION MECHA- NISM BY CONJUGATED POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, A V; Kozyr, A V; Schemyakin, I G; Dyatlov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination remains the most effective method of control of spread of a whole range of infections of both viral and bacterial nature. Many bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae) carry polysaccharide capsule on the surface, that is one of the elements of protection from host organism immune system. At the same time, vaccination with bacteria exopolysaccharides (EPS) ensures infection neutralization. Effectiveness of such vaccine prophylaxis is limited by age of the vaccinated, intensity and duration of the immunity, development of secondary immune response. EPS conjugation with protein antigens was known for a long time to ensure activation of T-cell immunity against EPS and formation of secondary immune response. However, detailed studies of mechanism of immunity modulation by a protein partner as part of a glycoconjugate has not been carried out. T-lymphocyte activation was traditionally thought to occur exclusively due to peptide presentation, that are products of processing of protein component of the conjugate. Recently, information, accumulated in the field of natural carbohydrate, glycolipid and glycoprotein antigen presentation to T-cells, has generated interest in studying mechanisms of cell immunity activation by conjugated vaccines. Progress in this field, as well as development of novel chemical and biochemical, including combinative technologies of synthesis and study of these molecules, opens new opportunities for detailed understanding of mechanism of action for conjugated vaccines and creation of glycoconjugates with increased effectiveness of protective action. PMID:26259279

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Vaccinating Immunocompetent ≥65 Year Olds with the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in England

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Albert Jan; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently a large clinical trial showed that the use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) among immunocompetent individuals aged 65 years and over was safe and efficacious. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating immunocompetent 65 year olds with PCV13 vaccine in England. England is a country with universal childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination programme in place (7-valent (PCV7) since 2006 and PCV13 since 2010), as well as a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPV23) vaccination programme targeting clinical risk-groups and those ≥65 years. Method A static cohort cost-effectiveness model was developed to follow a cohort of 65 year olds until death, which will be vaccinated in the autumn of 2016 with PCV13. Sensitivity analysis was performed to test the robustness of the results. Results The childhood vaccination programme with PCV7 has induced herd protection among older unvaccinated age groups, with a resultant low residual disease burden caused by PCV7 vaccine types. We show similar herd protection effects for the 6 additional serotypes included in PCV13, and project a new low post-introduction equilibrium of vaccine-type disease in 2018/19. Applying these incidence projections for both invasive disease and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and using recent measures of vaccine efficacy against these endpoints for ≥65 year olds, we estimate that vaccination of a cohort of immunocompetent 65 year olds with PCV13 would directly prevent 26 cases of IPD, 69 cases of CAP and 15 deaths. The associated cost-effectiveness ratio is £257,771 per QALY gained (using list price of £49.10 per dose and £7.51 administration costs) and is therefore considered not cost-effective. To obtain a cost-effective programme the price per dose would need to be negative. The results were sensitive to disease incidence, waning vaccine protection and case fatality rate; despite this, the overall conclusion was robust. Conclusions Vaccinating immunocompetent individuals aged ≥65 years with PCV13 is efficacious. However the absolute incidence of vaccine-type disease will likely become very low due to wider benefits of the childhood PCV13 vaccination programme, such that a specific PCV13 vaccination programme targeting the immunocompetent elderly would not be cost-effective. PMID:26914907

  15. Predicting the impact of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: serotype composition is not enough.

    PubMed

    Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard; Adegbola, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. A heptavalent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV) has proven highly effective in preventing pneumococcal disease in industrialized countries. Two higher-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are now widely available, even in the poorest countries. These differ from each other in the number of serotypes and carrier proteins used for their conjugation. Some have assumed that the only meaningful clinical difference between PCV formulations is a function of the number of serotypes each contains. A careful review of recent clinical data with these and several unlicensed PCV formulations points to important similarities but also that some key properties of each vaccine likely differ from one another. PMID:25266168

  16. Cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Huijts, Susanne M; van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; Postma, Douwe F; Atwood, Mark; van Deursen, Anna M M; van der Ende, Arie; Grobbee, Diederick E; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Sato, Reiko; Verheij, Theo J M; Vissink, Conrad E; Bonten, Marc J M; de Wit, G Ardine

    2015-11-01

    The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) demonstrated the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease in elderly subjects. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination in the Netherlands. Using a Markov-type model, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of PCV13 vaccination in different age- and risk-groups for pneumococcal disease were evaluated using a societal perspective. Estimates of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, vaccine efficacy and epidemiological data were based on the CAPiTA study and other prospective studies. The base-case was PCV13 vaccination of adults aged 65-74 years compared to no vaccination, assuming no net indirect effects in base-case due to paediatric 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Analyses for age- and risk-group specific vaccination strategies and for different levels of hypothetical herd effects from a paediatric PCV programme were also conducted. The ICER for base-case was €8650 per QALY (95% CI 5750-17,100). Vaccination of high-risk individuals aged 65-74 years was cost-saving and extension to medium-risk individuals aged 65-74 years yielded an ICER of €2900. Further extension to include medium- and high-risk individuals aged ≥18 years yielded an ICER of €3100.PCV13 vaccination is highly cost-effective in the Netherlands. The transferability of our results to other countries depends upon vaccination strategies already implemented in those countries. PMID:26160871

  17. Cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Rozenbaum, Mark H.; Huijts, Susanne M.; van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; Postma, Douwe F.; Atwood, Mark; van Deursen, Anna M.M.; van der Ende, Arie; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Sato, Reiko; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Vissink, Conrad E.; Bonten, Marc J.M.; de Wit, G. Ardine

    2015-01-01

    The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) demonstrated the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease in elderly subjects. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination in the Netherlands. Using a Markov-type model, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of PCV13 vaccination in different age- and risk-groups for pneumococcal disease were evaluated using a societal perspective. Estimates of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, vaccine efficacy and epidemiological data were based on the CAPiTA study and other prospective studies. The base-case was PCV13 vaccination of adults aged 65–74 years compared to no vaccination, assuming no net indirect effects in base-case due to paediatric 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Analyses for age- and risk-group specific vaccination strategies and for different levels of hypothetical herd effects from a paediatric PCV programme were also conducted. The ICER for base-case was €8650 per QALY (95% CI 5750–17 100). Vaccination of high-risk individuals aged 65–74 years was cost-saving and extension to medium-risk individuals aged 65–74 years yielded an ICER of €2900. Further extension to include medium- and high-risk individuals aged ≥18 years yielded an ICER of €3100. PCV13 vaccination is highly cost-effective in the Netherlands. The transferability of our results to other countries depends upon vaccination strategies already implemented in those countries. PMID:26160871

  18. Higher Tetanus Toxoid Immunity 2 Years After PsA-TT Introduction in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Basta, Nicole E.; Borrow, Ray; Berthe, Abdoulaye; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Dembélé, Awa Traoré Eps; Almond, Rachael; Frankland, Sarah; Patel, Sima; Wood, Daniel; Nascimento, Maria; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline L.; Greenwood, Brian; Sow, Samba O.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2010, mass vaccination with a then-new meningococcal A polysaccharide–tetanus toxoid protein conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, or MenAfriVac) was undertaken in 1- to 29-year-olds in Bamako, Mali. Whether vaccination with PsA-TT effectively boosts tetanus immunity in a population with heterogeneous baseline tetanus immunity is not known. We assessed the impact of PsA-TT on tetanus toxoid (TT) immunity by quantifying age- and sex-specific immunity prior to and 2 years after introduction. Methods. Using a household-based, age-stratified design, we randomly selected participants for a prevaccination serological survey in 2010 and a postvaccination survey in 2012. TT immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were quantified and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) pre- and postvaccination among all age groups targeted for vaccination were compared. The probability of TT IgG levels ≥0.1 IU/mL (indicating short-term protection) and ≥1.0 IU/mL (indicating long-term protection) by age and sex was determined using logistic regression models. Results. Analysis of 793 prevaccination and 800 postvaccination sera indicated that while GMCs were low pre–PsA-TT, significantly higher GMCs in all age–sex strata were observed 2 years after PsA-TT introduction. The percentage with short-term immunity increased from 57.1% to 88.4% (31.3-point increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 26.6–36.0;, P < .0001) and with long-term immunity increased from 20.0% to 58.5% (38.5-point increase; 95% CI, 33.7–43.3; P < .0001) pre- and postvaccination. Conclusions. Significantly higher TT immunity was observed among vaccine-targeted age groups up to 2 years after Mali's PsA-TT mass vaccination campaign. Our results, combined with evidence from clinical trials, strongly suggest that conjugate vaccines containing TT such as PsA-TT should be considered bivalent vaccines because of their ability to boost tetanus immunity. PMID:26553691

  19. Seven-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Biesbroek, Giske; Wang, Xinhui; Keijser, Bart J.F.; Eijkemans, Rene M.J.; Trzci?ski, Krzysztof; Rots, Nynke Y.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) is effective against vaccine serotype disease and carriage. Nevertheless, shifts in colonization and disease toward nonvaccine serotypes and other potential pathogens have been described. To understand the extent of these shifts, we analyzed nasopharyngeal microbial profiles of 97 PCV-7vaccinated infants and 103 control infants participating in a randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands. PCV-7 immunization resulted in a temporary shift in microbial community composition and increased bacterial diversity. Immunization also resulted in decreased presence of the pneumococcal vaccine serotype and an increase in the relative abundance and presence of nonpneumococcal streptococci and anaerobic bacteria. Furthermore, the abundance of Haemophilus and Staphylococcus bacteria in vaccinees was increased over that in controls. This study illustrates the much broader effect of vaccination with PCV-7 on the microbial community than currently assumed, and highlights the need for careful monitoring when implementing vaccines directed against common colonizers. PMID:24447437

  20. Vi-CRM 197 as a new conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi.

    PubMed

    Micoli, F; Rondini, S; Pisoni, I; Proietti, D; Berti, F; Costantino, P; Rappuoli, R; Szu, S; Saul, A; Martin, L B

    2011-01-17

    An efficacious, low cost vaccine against typhoid fever, especially for young children, would make a major impact on disease burden in developing countries. The virulence capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi (Vi) coupled to recombinant mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A (Vi-rEPA) has been shown to be highly efficacious. We investigated the use of carrier proteins included in infant vaccines, standardized the conjugation process and developed key assays required for routine lot release at production scale. Vi from a BSL1 organism, Citrobacter freundii, strain WR7011, was used as an alternative to Vi from S. Typhi. We showed that Vi conjugated to CRM(197), a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, widely used in commercial vaccines, was produced at high yield. Vi-CRM(197) proved immunogenic in animal studies, even without adjuvant. Thus, Vi-CRM(197) appears to be a suitable candidate for the development of a commercially viable, effective typhoid vaccine for developing countries. PMID:21115057

  1. Self-adjuvanting polymer-peptide conjugates as therapeutic vaccine candidates against cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Yu; Hussein, Waleed M; Jia, Zhongfan; Ziora, Zyta M; McMillan, Nigel A J; Monteiro, Michael J; Toth, Istvan; Skwarczynski, Mariusz

    2013-08-12

    Dendrimers are structurally well-defined, synthetic polymers with sizes and physicochemical properties often resembling those of biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins). As a result, they are promising candidates for peptide-based vaccine delivery platforms. Herein, we established a synthetic pathway to conjugate a human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 protein-derived peptide antigen to a star-polymer to create a macromolecular vaccine candidate to treat HPV-related cancers. These conjugates were able to reduce tumor growth and eradicate E7-expressing TC-1 tumors in mice after a single immunization, without the help of any external adjuvant. PMID:23837675

  2. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine booster dose coadministered with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Alfonso; Miranda, Mariano; Barrio, Francisco; De Vicente, Ana; Mares, Josep; Muoz, Eulalia; Diez-Delgado, Javier; Alonso, Angeles; Gimnez-Snchez, Francisco; Merino, Jos; Garca-Corbeira, Pilar; Maechler, Gudrun; Boutriau, Dominique

    2010-03-01

    A booster dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C conjugate (Hib-MenC-TT) vaccine simultaneously administered with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine in 13- to 14-month-old Spanish toddlers, primed with 3 doses of a combined Diphteria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertusis DTPa-Hib-containing vaccine and a MenC-CRM197 conjugate vaccine, had a good reactogenicity profile and induced similar Hib and MenC booster responses and MMR seropositivity rates as the vaccines given alone. PMID:19952860

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of coadministering a combined meningococcal serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2011-03-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all three vaccines concomitantly. Immunogenicity endpoints were MCC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers of ?8, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) IgG antibody concentrations of ?0.15 ?g/ml, PCV serotype-specific IgG concentrations of ?0.35 ?g/ml, measles and mumps IgG concentrations of >120 arbitrary units (AU)/ml, and rubella IgG concentrations of ?11 AU/ml. For safety assessment, the proportions of children with erythema, swelling, or tenderness at site of injection or fever or other systemic symptoms for 7 days after immunization were compared between regimens. No adverse consequences for either safety or immunogenicity were demonstrated when MCC/Hib vaccine was given concomitantly with PCV and MMR vaccine at 12 months of age or separately at 12 and 13 months of age. Any small differences in immunogenicity were largely in the direction of a higher response when all three vaccines were given concomitantly. For systemic symptoms, there was no evidence of an additive effect; rather, any differences between schedules showed benefit from the concomitant administration of all three vaccines, such as lower overall proportions with postvaccination fevers. The United Kingdom infant immunization schedule now recommends that these three vaccines may be offered at one visit at between 12 and 13 months of age. PMID:21191076

  4. Physicochemical and immunochemical assays for monitoring consistent production of tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Metz, Bernard; Tilstra, Wichard; van der Put, Robert; Spruit, Nanda; van den Ijssel, Jan; Robert, Jolanda; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Kersten, Gideon

    2013-07-01

    The detoxification of tetanus toxin by formaldehyde is a crucial step in the production of tetanus toxoid. The inactivation results in chemically modified proteins and it determines largely the ultimate efficacy and safety of the vaccine. Currently, the quality of tetanus toxoid lots is evaluated in potency and safety tests performed in animals. As a possible alternative, this article describes a panel of in vitro methods, which provides detailed information about the quality of tetanus toxoid. Ten experimental lots of tetanus toxoid were prepared using increasing concentrations of formaldehyde and glycine to obtain tetanus toxoids having differences in antigenicity, immunogenicity, residual toxicity and protein structure. The structural properties of each individual toxoid were determined using immunochemical and physicochemical methods, including biosensor analysis, ELISA, circular dichroism, TNBS assay, differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence and SDS-PAGE. The quality of a tetanus toxoid lot can be assessed by these set of analytical techniques. Based on antigenicity, immunogenicity and residual toxicity data, criteria are formulated that tetanus toxoids lot have to meet in order to have a high quality. The in vitro methods are a valuable selection of techniques for monitoring consistency of production of tetanus toxoid, especially for the detoxification process of tetanus toxin. PMID:23726755

  5. Human Infant Memory B Cell and CD4+ T Cell Responses to HibMenCY-TT Glyco-Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Fuery, Angela; Richmond, Peter C.; Currie, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Carrier-specific T cell and polysaccharide-specific B cell memory responses are not well characterised in infants following glyco-conjugate vaccination. We aimed to determine if the number of Meningococcal (Men) C- and Y- specific memory B cells and; number and quality of Tetanus Toxoid (TT) carrier-specific memory CD4+ T cells are associated with polysaccharide-specific IgG post HibMenCY-TT vaccination. Healthy infants received HibMenCY-TT vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months with a booster at 12 months. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and polysaccharide-specific memory B cells enumerated using ELISpot. TT-specific memory CD4+ T cells were detected and phenotyped based on CD154 expression and intracellular TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ expression following stimulation. Functional polysaccharide-specific IgG titres were measured using the serum bactericidal activity (SBA) assay. Polysaccharide-specific Men C- but not Men Y- specific memory B cell frequencies pre-boost (12 months) were significantly associated with post-boost (13 months) SBA titres. Regression analysis showed no association between memory B cell frequencies post-priming (at 6 or 7 months) and SBA at 12 months or 13 months. TT-specific CD4+ T cells were detected at frequencies between 0.001 and 0.112 as a percentage of CD3+ T cells, but their numbers were not associated with SBA titres. There were significant negative associations between SBA titres at M13 and cytokine expression at M7 and M12. Conclusion: Induction of persistent polysaccharide-specific memory B cells prior to boosting is an important determinant of secondary IgG responses in infants. However, polysaccharide-specific functional IgG responses appear to be independent of the number and quality of circulating carrier-specific CD4+ T cells after priming. PMID:26191794

  6. Pneumococcal Antibody Concentrations of Subjects in Communities Fully or Partially Vaccinated with a Seven-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Martin O. C.; Roca, Anna; Bottomley, Christian; Hill, Philip C.; Egere, Uzochukwu; Greenwood, Brian; Adegbola, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent trial with PCV-7 in a rural Gambian community showed reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage in fully vaccinated compared with control communities. We measured pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody concentrations in this trial to understand further the mechanisms underlying the observed changes. Methods A single-blind, cluster-randomized (by village) trial was conducted in 21 Gambian villages. In 11 villages, all residents received PCV-7 (Vaccine group); in 10 control villages only children <30 months old or those born during the study received PCV-7. Subjects over the age of 30 months resident in vaccine villages received a single dose of PCV-7 whilst those in control villages received a single dose of a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Serum antibody concentrations against specific pneumococcal polysaccharides were measured in approximately 200 age-stratified subjects before, 46, 12 and 24 months following vaccination. Results Baseline pneumococcal antibody concentrations were generally high and increased with age up to 10 years. One dose of PCV-7 increased geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMC) in vaccinated versus control villages for vaccine serotypes 6B and 18C, and 4 and 18C, in the young (under 5 years) and older age groups (5+ years) respectively. There were significantly higher proportions of subjects in the vaccinated than in the control communities with an antibody concentration believed to protect against carriage (>5.0 g/mL) for all but serotype 9V of the PCV-7 serotypes in the older group, but not in the younger age group. Conclusion Higher antibodies in vaccinated communities provide an explanation for the lower pneumococcal carriage rates in fully vaccinated compared to control communities. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN51695599 51695599. PMID:22916192

  7. Spotlight on DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib Vaccine (Infanrix hexa).

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Sohita

    2010-10-01

    Infanrix hexa, administered intramuscularly, is a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B (HBV), inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants. Infanrix hexa should be administered as a two- or three-dose primary vaccination course in infants aged < or =6 months, followed by booster vaccination between 11 and 18 months of age, with an interval of at least 6 months between the last dose of primary vaccination and the booster dose. This spotlight reviews the immunogenicity and protective effectiveness, as well as the reactogenicity and safety of Infanrix hexa. Infanrix hexa as primary and booster vaccination was safe and highly immunogenic for all its component toxoids/antigens in infants aged <2 years, regardless of vaccination schedules. Its immunogenicity and safety profiles were generally similar to those of currently available vaccines, the diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis-based pentavalent vaccines plus monovalent HBV or Hib vaccines. In large clinical studies, Infanrix hexa elicited a strong immune response against vaccine toxoids/antigens, as indicated by high seroprotection/seropositivity/vaccine response rates and geometric mean titers. Moreover, antibodies against vaccine toxoids/antigens persisted for up to a mean of approximately 6 years after booster vaccination, and the vaccine induced long-term immune memory against hepatitis B surface antigen and Hib antigen. A strong immune response against Infanrix hexa toxoids/antigens after primary vaccination was also induced in infants who had received a dose of HBV vaccine at birth and in pre-term infants, although the response in the latter group was somewhat lower than that in full-term infants. In addition, when coadministered with other childhood vaccines, the immunogenicity of Infanrix hexa or that of the concomitantly administered vaccine was generally not altered. Hexavalent vaccines, including Infanrix hexa, were protective against invasive Hib disease; Infanrix hexa is also expected to be protective against pertussis. Most solicited local and general symptoms with Infanrix hexa were mild to moderate in intensity and the vaccine was associated with few unsolicited adverse events. Available clinical data from more than 10 years' experience with the vaccine suggest that Infanrix hexa as primary and booster vaccination is a safe and useful option for providing protection against the common childhood diseases of diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, hepatitis B and invasive Hib disease. PMID:20795752

  8. Preparation and Evaluation of a New Lipopolysaccharide-based Conjugate as a Vaccine Candidate for Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Siadat, Seyed Davar; Vaziri, Farzam; Eftekhary, Mamak; Karbasian, Maryam; Moshiri, Arfa; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad R.; Ardestani, Mehdi S.; Alitappeh, Meghdad Abdollahpour; Arsang, Amin; Fateh, Abolfazl; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Bahrmand, Ahmad R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Development of an efficacious vaccine against brucellosis has been a challenge for scientists for many years. At present, there is no licensed vaccine against human brucellosis. To overcome this problem, currently, antigenic determinants of Brucella cell wall such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are considered as potential candidates to develop subunit vaccines. Methods In this study, Brucella abortus LPS was used for conjugation to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B outer membrane vesicle (OMV) as carrier protein using carbodiimide and adipic acid–mediated coupling and linking, respectively. Groups of eight BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with 10 μg LPS alone, combined LPS + OMV and conjugated LPS–OMV on 0 days, 14 days, 28 days and 42 days. Anti-LPS IgG was measured in serum. Results The yield of LPS to OMV in LPS–OMV conjugate was 46.55%, on the basis of carbohydrate content. The ratio for LPS to OMV was 4.07. The LPS–OMV conjugate was the most immunogenic compound that stimulated following the first injection with increased IgG titer of ∼5-fold and ∼1.3-fold higher than that produced against LPS and LPS in noncovalent complex to OMV (LPS + OMV), respectively. The highest anti-LPS IgG titer was detected 2 weeks after the third injection (Day 42) of LPS–OMV conjugate. The conjugated compound elicited higher titers of IgG than LPS + OMV, that showed a 100–120-fold rise of anti-LPS IgG in mice. Conclusion These results indicate that our conjugated LPS–OMV can be used as a brucellosis vaccine, but further investigation is required. PMID:25737825

  9. Assessment of the stability and immunogenicity of meningococcal oligosaccharide C-CRM197 conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ho, M M; Bolgiano, B; Corbel, M J

    2000-11-22

    In this stability study, meningococcal C-CRM(197) conjugate vaccines from two different manufacturers that differ in oligosaccharide chain length, number of conjugation sites, conjugation chemistry, manufacturing process and formulation were used. Both the bulk concentrated and final fill preparations were incubated at -20, 4, 23, 37 or 55 degrees C for 5 weeks or subjected to ten cycles of freeze-thawing. The structural stability, hydrodynamic size and integrity of the treated vaccines were monitored by size exclusion chromatography (FPLC-SEC), high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The data showed that the structural stability of the oligosaccharide chains and of the protein carrier varied between the two conjugates. The experimental immunogenicity was not severely affected by repeated freeze-thawing, incubation at -20 or 4 degrees C, but one developed conformational changes in the protein carrier when incubated at 23 degrees C or above, although the integrity of the oligosaccharide structure was maintained. This was not associated with any reduction in primary IgG or IgM antibody responses to meningococcal C polysaccharide. In the other conjugate vaccine, exposure to 55 degrees C resulted in the release of a substantial proportion of free saccharide that was accompanied by significant reduction in both IgG and IgM antibody responses to immunisation in the model system. In conclusion, the two meningococcal C-CRM(197) conjugate vaccines were stable when stored at the recommended temperatures, although their structural stability and subsequent immunogenicity were influenced by their conjugation chemistry and formulation. PMID:11115692

  10. DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib Vaccine (Infanrix hexa): A Review of its Use as Primary and Booster Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Sohita

    2010-05-28

    Infanrix hexa, administered intramuscularly, is a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B (HBV), inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants. Infanrix hexa should be administered as a two- or three-dose primary vaccination course in infants aged vaccination between 11 and 18 months of age, with an interval of at least 6 months between the last dose of primary vaccination and the booster dose. This article reviews the immunogenicity and protective effectiveness, as well as the reactogenicity and safety of Infanrix hexa. Infanrix hexa as primary and booster vaccination was safe and highly immunogenic for all its component toxoids/antigens in infants aged <2 years, regardless of vaccination schedules. Its immunogenicity and safety profiles were generally similar to those of currently available vaccines, the diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis-based pentavalent vaccines plus monovalent HBV or Hib vaccines. In large clinical studies, Infanrix hexa elicited a strong immune response against vaccine toxoids/antigens, as indicated by high seroprotection/seropositivity/vaccine response rates and geometric mean titres. Moreover, antibodies against vaccine toxoids/antigens persisted for up to a mean of approximately 6 years after booster vaccination, and the vaccine induced long-term immune memory against hepatitis B surface antigen and Hib antigen. A strong immune response against Infanrix hexa toxoids/antigens after primary vaccination was also induced in infants who had received a dose of HBV vaccine at birth and in pre-term infants, although the response in the latter group was somewhat lower than that in full-term infants. In addition, when coadministered with other childhood vaccines, the immunogenicity of Infanrix hexa or that of the concomitantly administered vaccine was generally not altered. Hexavalent vaccines, including Infanrix hexa, were protective against invasive Hib disease; Infanrix hexa is also expected to be protective against pertussis. Most solicited local and general symptoms with Infanrix hexa were mild to moderate in intensity and the vaccine was associated with few unsolicited adverse events. Available clinical data from more than 10 years' experience with the vaccine suggest that Infanrix hexa as primary and booster vaccination is a safe and useful option for providing protection against the common childhood diseases of diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, hepatitis B and invasive Hib disease. PMID:20481658

  11. The impact of protein-conjugate polysaccharide vaccines: an endgame for meningitis?

    PubMed Central

    Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of conjugate polysaccharide vaccines against invasive bacterial diseases, specifically those caused by the encapsulated bacteria Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, has been one of the most effective public health innovations of the last 25 years. These vaccines have resulted in significant reductions in childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, with their effectiveness due in large part to their ability to induce long-lasting immunity in a range of age groups. At the population level this immunity reduces carriage and interrupts transmission resulting in herd immunity; however, these beneficial effects can be counterbalanced by the selection pressures that immunity against carriage can impose, potentially promoting the emergence and spread of virulent vaccine escape variants. Studies following the implementation of meningococcal serogroup C vaccines improved our understanding of these effects in relation to the biology of accidental pathogens such as the meningococcus. This understanding has enabled the refinement of the implementation of conjugate polysaccharide vaccines against meningitis-associated bacteria, and will be crucial in maintaining and improving vaccine control of these infections. To date there is little evidence for the spread of virulent vaccine escape variants of the meningococcus and H. influenzae, although this has been reported in pneumococci. PMID:23798695

  12. Risk of Guillain-Barr syndrome following serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    De Wals, Philippe; Deceuninck, Genevive; Boucher, Rene-Myriam; Ouakki, Manale

    2008-04-15

    To assess the risk of Guillain-Barr syndrome (GBS) following administration of meningococcal serogroup C-CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, provincial immunization records were linked with hospital discharge records, and medical charts were reviewed. In the cohort of 1.9 million individuals (age, 2 months to 20 years), observed postvaccination frequencies of GBS were not higher than expected. PMID:18444843

  13. Purification and characterization of a Shigella conjugate vaccine, produced by glycoengineering Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Neil; Haeuptle, Micha A; Kowarik, Michael; Fernandez, Fabiana S; Carranza, Paula; Brunner, Andreas; Steffen, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Keller, Sacha; Ruch, Corina; Wacker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis remains a major cause of diarrheal disease in developing countries and causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children. Glycoconjugate vaccines consisting of bacterial surface polysaccharides conjugated to carrier proteins are the most effective vaccines for controlling invasive bacterial infections. Nevertheless, the development of a multivalent conjugate vaccine to prevent Shigellosis has been hampered by the complex manufacturing process as the surface polysaccharide for each strain requires extraction, hydrolysis, chemical activation and conjugation to a carrier protein. The use of an innovative biosynthetic Escherichia coli glycosylation system substantially simplifies the production of glycoconjugates. Herein, the Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1) O-polysaccharide is expressed and its functional assembly on an E. coli glycosyl carrier lipid is demonstrated by HPLC analysis and mass spectrometry. The polysaccharide is enzymatically conjugated to specific asparagine residues of the carrier protein by co-expression of the PglB oligosaccharyltransferase and the carrier protein exotoxin A (EPA) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extraction and purification of the Shigella glycoconjugate (Sd1-EPA) and its detailed characterization by the use of physicochemical methods including NMR and mass spectrometry is described. The report shows for the first time that bioconjugation provides a newly developed and improved approach to produce an Sd1 glycoconjugate that can be characterized using state-of-the-art techniques. In addition, this generic process together with the analytical methods is ideally suited for the production of additional Shigella serotypes, allowing the development of a multivalent Shigella vaccine. PMID:26353918

  14. Economic evaluation of vaccination programme of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to the birth cohort in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Shu-ling; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro

    2012-05-01

    Aiming to introduce 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PVC-7) into routine vaccination schedule, the government of Japan gives a temporary budget to encourage municipalities in launching public vaccination programme which started on November 26, 2010 and ends on March 31, 2012. This study aims to appraise the 'value for money' of PCV-7 vaccination programme from the societal perspective and the budget impact from the perspective of municipalities, which is responsible for providing routine vaccination. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov modelling and calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) value of launching such programme with two levels of co-payment, 1000 (US$13) or 0, and two scenarios of the uptake of vaccine (vaccinated-alone or co-vaccinated with other vaccines). We found that when vaccinated-alone, ICERs in QALY were 7,441,000 (US$93,013) or 9,065,000 (US$113,313), and when co-vaccinated 7,441,000 (US$93,013) or 5,489,000 (US$68,613), without or with productivity loss, respectively, regardless of co-payment level of the programme. Co-vaccinated programmes had lower ICER than vaccinated-alone programmes due to the savings in productivity loss. By adopting WHO's classification that an intervention is 'cost-effective' if ICER (in QALY) is between 1 and 3 times of GDP as a criterion, PCV-7 vaccination programme in Japan is concluded as "cost-effective" from the perspective of society. The introduction of either no co-payment or 1000 (US$13) co-payment vaccination programme appears to be not budget saving for the first 6 years, whereas the level of budget impact are less than 11,000,000 (US$137,500) or 8,500,000 (US$106,250), respectively, for a municipality with 1000 birth cohort in the 1st year and 2nd to 5th year birth cohort proportional to the birth cohort population of estimated future population. PMID:22386745

  15. Distance to health services affects local-level vaccine efficacy for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) among rural Filipino children.

    PubMed

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Anthamatten, Peter; Thomas, Deborah S K; Tallo, Veronica; Tanskanen, Antti; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Puumalainen, Taneli; Lupisan, Socorro P; Ruutu, Petri; Ladesma, Erma; Williams, Gail M; Riley, Ian; Simes, Eric A F

    2014-03-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have demonstrated efficacy against childhood pneumococcal disease in several regions globally. We demonstrate how spatial epidemiological analysis of a PCV trial can assist in developing vaccination strategies that target specific geographic subpopulations at greater risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent PCV among children less than 2 y of age in Bohol, Philippines. Trial data were linked to the residential location of each participant using a geographic information system. We use spatial interpolation methods to create smoothed surface maps of vaccination rates and local-level vaccine efficacy across the study area. We then measure the relationship between distance to the main study hospital and local-level vaccine efficacy, controlling for ecological factors, using spatial autoregressive models with spatial autoregressive disturbances. We find a significant amount of spatial variation in vaccination rates across the study area. For the primary study endpoint vaccine efficacy increased with distance from the main study hospital from -14% for children living less than 1.5 km from Bohol Regional Hospital (BRH) to 55% for children living greater than 8.5 km from BRH. Spatial regression models indicated that after adjustment for ecological factors, distance to the main study hospital was positively related to vaccine efficacy, increasing at a rate of 4.5% per kilometer distance. Because areas with poor access to care have significantly higher VE, targeted vaccination of children in these areas might allow for a more effective implementation of global programs. PMID:24550454

  16. Distance to health services affects local-level vaccine efficacy for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) among rural Filipino children

    PubMed Central

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Anthamatten, Peter; Thomas, Deborah S. K.; Tallo, Veronica; Tanskanen, Antti; Quiambao, Beatriz P.; Puumalainen, Taneli; Lupisan, Socorro P.; Ruutu, Petri; Ladesma, Erma; Williams, Gail M.; Riley, Ian; Simões, Eric A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have demonstrated efficacy against childhood pneumococcal disease in several regions globally. We demonstrate how spatial epidemiological analysis of a PCV trial can assist in developing vaccination strategies that target specific geographic subpopulations at greater risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent PCV among children less than 2 y of age in Bohol, Philippines. Trial data were linked to the residential location of each participant using a geographic information system. We use spatial interpolation methods to create smoothed surface maps of vaccination rates and local-level vaccine efficacy across the study area. We then measure the relationship between distance to the main study hospital and local-level vaccine efficacy, controlling for ecological factors, using spatial autoregressive models with spatial autoregressive disturbances. We find a significant amount of spatial variation in vaccination rates across the study area. For the primary study endpoint vaccine efficacy increased with distance from the main study hospital from −14% for children living less than 1.5 km from Bohol Regional Hospital (BRH) to 55% for children living greater than 8.5 km from BRH. Spatial regression models indicated that after adjustment for ecological factors, distance to the main study hospital was positively related to vaccine efficacy, increasing at a rate of 4.5% per kilometer distance. Because areas with poor access to care have significantly higher VE, targeted vaccination of children in these areas might allow for a more effective implementation of global programs. PMID:24550454

  17. Immunological evaluation of an alginate-based conjugate as a vaccine candidate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Farjah, Ali; Owlia, Parviz; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mohammadpour, Hashem Khorsand

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections, is usually resistant to antimicrobial agents, and is the leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa produce a virulence factor known as alginate. Developing a strategy to raise opsonic antibodies against alginate could be promising for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients. Conjugation of alginate to a carrier protein is a good method for increasing the immunogenicity of alginate. We conjugated alginate to the outer membrane vesicle (OMV) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, which is a safe carrier protein, and evaluated its efficacy in mice. To evaluate the immune response, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b titers were analyzed. Immunization of mice with the alginate-OMV conjugate raised the levels of opsonic antibodies, and the vaccinated mice were protected when challenged intranasally with P. aeruginosa. Further studies showed that the conjugated vaccine could eliminate P. aeruginosa from the lungs of infected mice. This study supports the proposal that immunization of mice with an alginate-OMV conjugate vaccine could be safe and protective against P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:25470757

  18. Aetiology of paediatric pneumonia after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Elemraid, Mohamed A.; Sails, Andrew D.; Eltringham, Gary J.A.; Perry, John D.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Spencer, David A.; Thomas, Matthew F.; Eastham, Katherine M.; Hampton, Fiona; Gennery, Andrew R.; Clark, Julia E.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) programme in 2006. Prospective studies were conducted in 20012002 (pre-vaccine) and 20092011 (post-vaccine) of children aged 016 years with radiologically confirmed pneumonia seen in hospital. Investigations included culture, serology, immunofluorescence antibody and urine antigen testing, with an increased use of PCR assays and expanded panels of pathogens in the post-vaccine study. 241 and 160 children were enrolled in the pre- and post-vaccine studies, respectively (73% aged <5 years). Identification of a causative pathogen was higher post-vaccination (61%) than pre-vaccination (48.5%) (p=0.019). Rates of bacterial infections were not different between post- and pre-vaccine studies (17.5% versus 24%, p=0.258). Viral (31%) and mixed (12.5%) infections were found more often post-vaccination (19.5%, p=0.021) than pre-vaccination (5%, p=0.015). Rates of identified pneumococcal infections were comparable between pre- and post-vaccine studies (14.7% versus 17.4%, p=0.557). Diagnosis of pneumococcal infection post-vaccination improved when PCR was used compared to culture (21.6% versus 6%, p=0.0004). Serotypes included in PCV13 but not PCV7 were identified in 75% (18 out of 24) post-vaccination. Infection with nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes continues to be a significant cause of pneumonia in children in the UK. PMID:23598951

  19. Effectiveness of Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine in Salvador, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Cristiane Wanderley; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa; Reis, Mitermayer Galvo; Flannery, Brendan; Reis, Joice Neves

    2015-01-01

    Background During a citywide epidemic of serogroup C meningococcal disease in Salvador in 2010, Brazil, the state government initiated mass vaccination targeting two age groups with high attack rates: individuals aged <5 years and 1024 years. More than 600,000 doses of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines were administered. We performed a case-control study to evaluate vaccine uptake, document vaccine effectiveness and identify reasons for non-vaccination. Methods and Findings Population-based surveillance identified patients with laboratory-confirmed invasive meningococcal C (MenC) disease during 2010. Information on MenC vaccination was obtained from case patients and age-matched individuals from the same neighborhoods. MenC vaccine effectiveness was estimated based on the exact odds ratios obtained by conditional logistic regression analysis. Of 51 laboratory-confirmed cases of serogroup C meningococcal disease among patients <5 and 1024 years of age 50 were included in the study and matched with 240 controls. Overall case-fatality was 25%. MenC vaccine coverage among controls increased from 7.1% to 70.2% after initiation of the vaccination campaign. None of the 50 case patients but 70 (29.2%) of the 240 control individuals, including 59 (70.2%) of 84 matched with cases from the period after MenC vaccination, had received at least one MenC vaccine dose. Overall effectiveness of MenC was 98% with a lower 95% exact confidence limit of 89%. Conclusions MenC vaccines administered during the meningococcal epidemic were highly effective, suggesting that rapid vaccine uptake through campaigns contributed to control of meningococcal disease. PMID:25874777

  20. Single priming dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine (NeisVac-C) in infants.

    PubMed

    Poellabauer, Eva-Maria; Pavlova, Borislava G; Fritsch, Sandor; Singer, Julia; Neubauer, Christian; Doralt, Jennifer; Valenta-Singer, Barbara; Ehrlich, Hartmut J

    2013-08-01

    Since the introduction of the meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in the pediatric population in 1999, numerous clinical studies have confirmed the immunogenicity and safety of the NeisVac-C() vaccine, and several have observed a strong immune response after a single priming dose, which could be successfully boosted. Maximizing protection of infants with as few vaccine doses as possible would increase the general acceptability of the immunization strategies and support broader coverage without increasing vaccination costs. This was a randomized feasibility study of a single priming NeisVac-C() vaccine dose administered at 4 or 6 months of age, compared to the currently licensed two dose priming at 2 and 4 months of age, followed by a booster vaccination at 12-13 months of age. High seroprotection rates and serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titers were observed in all study groups, whether a single or two dose priming vaccination was administered, at all time points investigated: one month after the priming vaccination(s) (>99% of subjects rSBA?8), prior to booster vaccination (>65% of subjects with rSBA?8, with the lowest titers and GMTs seen in the two dose priming group), as well as after booster vaccination administration (99% with rSBA?128 in all three study groups, with the highest GMT of 2472 seen in the 4 month single dose group). This study confirmed trends seen in previous reports that a single-dose priming vaccination at 4 or 6 months of age can be considered a valuable alternative to the currently licensed two-dose priming vaccination schedule. PMID:23672977

  1. Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine is immunogenic in infancy and primes for memory.

    PubMed

    Richmond, P; Borrow, R; Miller, E; Clark, S; Sadler, F; Fox, A; Begg, N; Morris, R; Cartwright, K

    1999-06-01

    The safety, immunogenicity, and immunologic priming of 2 dosages (2 microgram or 10 microgram) of a meningococcal C oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine was evaluated in 114 infants vaccinated at ages 2, 3, and 4 months. Antibody persistence and response to boosting with 10 microgram of meningococcal C polysaccharide were assessed. The meningococcal conjugate vaccine produced fewer local reactions than concurrent routine immunizations. Total serogroup C-specific immunoglobulin geometric mean concentration (GMC) increased from 0.3 microgram/mL before vaccination to 13.1 microgram/mL at age 5 months. Serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) geometric mean titers (GMTs) rose from <1:4 to 1:1057 at 5 months and fell by 14 months to 1:19. Following boosting, anti-C-specific immunoglobulin GMC rose to 15.9 microgram/mL and SBA GMT to 1:495. Antibody responses in the 10-microgram dose cohort were significantly higher at 5 months (P<.01) than in the 2-microgram dose cohort but were lower after polysaccharide boosting (P=.02). This meningococcal conjugate vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic and induced immunologic memory in infants. PMID:10228085

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent in older adults in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays, there are two vaccination strategies in Colombia to prevent pneumococcal diseases in people over 50 years. Our aim is to estimate cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) versus pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23-valent (PPSV23) to prevent pneumococcal diseases and their related mortality in people over 50 years old in Colombia. Methods A Markov model was developed with national data, including pneumococcal serotypes distribution in Colombia between 2005 and 2010. Vaccination of a cohort was simulated and a five year time horizon was assumed. Analysis was done from a perspective of a third party payer. Direct costs were provided by a national insurance company; sensitive univariate and probabilistic analysis were done for epidemiological and clinical effectiveness parameters and costs. Results PCV13 avoids 3 560 deaths by pneumococcal infections versus PPSV23 and 4 255 deaths versus no vaccine. PCV13 prevents 79 633 cases by all-cause pneumonia versus PPSV23 and 81 468 cases versus no vaccine. Total costs (healthcare and vaccines costs) with PCV13 would be U.S. $ 97,587,113 cheaper than PPSV23 and it would save U.S. $ 145,196,578 versus no vaccine. Conclusion PCV13 would be a cost-saving strategy in the context of a mass vaccination program in Colombia to people over 50years old because it would reduce burden of disease and specific mortality by pneumococcal diseases, besides, it saves money versus PPSV23. PMID:24679135

  3. Phase I clinical trial of O-Acetylated pectin conjugate, a plant polysaccharide based typhoid vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Szu, Shousun C.; Lin, Kimi F-Y; Hunt, Steven; Chu, Chiayung; Thinh, Nguyen Duc

    2014-01-01

    Background Typhoid fever remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Vi capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccine demonstrated safety and efficacy in young children in high endemic regions. A novel typhoid conjugate vaccine based on plant polysaccharide pectin was studied in a phase I trial. Methods Fruit pectin, having the same carbohydrate backbone structure as Vi, was purified from citrus peel and used as the polysaccharide source to prepare a semi-synthetic typhoid conjugate vaccine. Pectin was chemically O-acetylated (OAcPec) to antigenically resemble Vi and conjugated to carrier protein rEPA, a recombinant exoprotein A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 25 healthy volunteers, 18–45 years old, were injected once with OAcPec-rEPA. Safety and IgG antibodies reactive with Vi and pectin were analyzed. Results No vaccine associated serious adverse reaction was reported. Six weeks after the injection of OAcPec-rEPA, 64% of the volunteers elicited >4 fold rise of anti-Vi IgG. At 26 weeks the level declined, but the difference between the levels at 6 and 26 weeks are not statistically significant. There is a direct correlation between the level of anti-Vi IgG before and after the injection (R2 = 0.96). The anti-Vi IgG can be absorbed by Vi, but not by pectin. There was no corresponding increase of anti-pectin after the injection, indicating the antibody response to OAcPec-rEPA was specific to Vi. There is no Vi-rEPA data in US adults for comparison of immune responses. The OAcPec-rEPA elicited significantly less IgG anti-Vi in US adults than those by Vi-rEPA in Vietnamese adults. Conclusion The O-acetylated pectin conjugate, a plant based typhoid vaccine, is safe and immunogenic in adult volunteers. PMID:24657719

  4. Preclinical immunogenicity and functional activity studies of an A+W meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine and comparisons with existing meningococcal conjugate- and polysaccharide vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tunheim, G; Arnemo, M; Næss, L M; Fjeldheim, Å K; Nome, L; Bolstad, K; Aase, A; Mandiarote, A; González, H; González, D; García, L; Cardoso, D; Norheim, G; Rosenqvist, E

    2013-12-01

    Meningococci of serogroups A and W (MenA and MenW) are the main causes of epidemic bacterial meningitis outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we prepared a detergent extracted outer membrane vesicle (dOMV) vaccine from representative African MenA and MenW strains, and compared the immunogenicity of this vaccine with existing meningococcal conjugate and polysaccharide (PS) vaccines in mice. NMRI mice were immunized with preclinical batches of the A+W dOMV vaccine, or with commercially available vaccines; a MenA conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac(®), Serum Institute of India), ACYW conjugate vaccine (Menveo(®), Novartis) or ACYW PS vaccine (Mencevax(®), GlaxoSmithKline). The mice received 2 doses of 1/10 or 1/50 of a human dose with a three week interval. Immune responses were tested in ELISA, serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assays. High levels of IgG antibodies against both A and W dOMV were detected in mice receiving the A+W dOMV vaccine. High SBA titers against both MenA and MenW vaccine strains were detected after only one dose of the A+W dOMV vaccine, and the titers were further increased after the second dose. The SBA and OPA titers in mice immunized with dOMV vaccine were significantly higher than in mice immunized with the ACYW-conjugate vaccine or the PS vaccine. Furthermore, the A+W dOMV vaccine was shown to induce SBA and OPA titers against MenA of the same magnitude as the titers induced by the A-conjugate vaccine. In conclusion, the A+W dOMV vaccine induced high levels of functional antibodies to both MenA and MenW strains, levels that were shown to be higher or equal to the levels induced by licensed meningococcal vaccines. Thus, an A+W dOMV vaccine could potentially serve as an alternative or a supplement to existing conjugate and PS vaccines in the African meningitis belt. PMID:24120679

  5. Preparation and immunogenicity-evaluation of typhoid O-specific polysaccharides bio-conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zhehui, Peng; Chao, Pan; Peng, Sun; Erling, Feng; Jun, Wu; Li, Zhu; Qingzhong, Peng; Hengliang, Wang

    2015-05-01

    Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi is still a major public health problem in developing countries. In this study, we constructed a genetically modified Salmonella Typhi strain expressing O-specific polysaccharides (OPS) antigen conjugated to a carrier, recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A(rEPA N29). The conjugates (OPS-rEPA N29) were further purified and evaluated for their immunogenicity. The results of ELISA showed that the conjugates evoked higher titers of IgG than OPS, suggesting that rEPAN29 increased immunogenicity of OPS significantly as a carrier. Moreover, three injections with 3-week interval evoked slightly higher titers of IgG than three injections with 2-week interval. However, injection of excess conjugates could not evoke higher titers of IgG against lipid polysaccharide (LPS). In summary, our study provides a new strategy for preparing polysaccharides-protein conjugate vaccines as well as similar bio-conjugate vaccines of other Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:25998436

  6. Is a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine sufficient for protection? experience from the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The first meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate vaccine was licensed in 1999 and introduced in the United Kingdom. Countries that have implemented the MenC vaccine since then in their national immunisation programmes use different schedules. Nevertheless, all involved countries seem to experience substantial declines in the incidence of MenC disease. Discussion Since 2001, the MenC conjugate vaccine has been implemented in the Netherlands by offering a single dose to all children aged 14 months. Prior to the introduction of the vaccine into the national immunisation programme, a catch-up vaccination campaign was initiated in which a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine was offered to all children aged from 14 months up to and including 18 years. Since then, there has been no report of any case of MenC disease among immunocompetent vaccinees. Administration of a single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine after infancy could be beneficial considering the already complex immunisation schedules with large numbers of vaccinations in the first year of life. The present paper deals with the advantages and critical aspects of a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine. Summary A single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine at the age of 14 months in combination with a catch up vaccine campaign appeared to be a successful strategy to prevent MenC disease in the Netherlands, thereby confirming that a single dose of the vaccine could sufficiently protect against disease. Nevertheless, this approach can only be justified in countries with a relatively low incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the first year of life. Furthermore, a good surveillance programme is recommended for timely detection of vaccine breakthroughs and outbreaks among non-vaccinees, since long-term protection after a single dose in the second year of life cannot currently be guaranteed. PMID:22316426

  7. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and otitis media: an appraisal of the clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark A; Fritzell, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant otitis media pathogen and its prevention through effective vaccination could diminish childhood illness and antibiotic use. This paper reviews 5 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) trials that used otitis media as an endpoint: Northern California Kaiser Permanente (NCKP; vaccine, 7-valent PCV [PCV7]-CRM); Finnish Otitis Media (FinOM; vaccines, PCV7-CRM or PCV7-OMPC); Native American Trial (vaccine, PCV7-CRM); Pneumococcal Otitis Efficacy Trial (POET; vaccine, 11-valent PCV [PCV11]-PD). For the microbiological endpoint, vaccine efficacy against vaccine-serotype pneumococcal otitis media was about 60% across trials. Against the clinical endpoint of all episodes, vaccine efficacy was 7% (PCV7-CRM/NCKP), 6% (PCV7-CRM/FinOM), -1% (PCV7-OMPC/FinOM), and -0.4% (PCV7-CRM/Native American Trial); 34% against first episodes of ear, nose, and throat specialist-referral cases (PCV11-PD/POET). Both follow-up through 2 years of age, for the 5 trials, and long-term follow-up, for PCV7-CRM/NCKP and PCV7-CRM/FinOM, demonstrated greater vaccine efficacy against recurrent AOM and tympanostomy-tube placement, suggesting that vaccination against early episodes of AOM may prevent subsequent episodes of complicated otitis media. Although study designs varied by primary endpoint measured, age at follow-up, source of middle-ear fluid for culture, case ascertainment, and type of randomization, each clinical trial demonstrated vaccine efficacy against microbiological and/or clinical otitis media. PMID:22701486

  8. Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Carriage in the Conjugate Vaccine Era with a Focus on Pneumococci

    PubMed Central

    Devine, V. T.; Jefferies, J. M.; Clarke, S. C.; Faust, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was included in the UK national immunisation program in 2006, and this was replaced by thirteen-valent PCV in 2010. During this time, the carriage of vaccine-type Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased but pneumococcal carriage remained stable due to increases in non-vaccine-type S. pneumoniae. Carriage studies have been undertaken in various countries to monitor vaccine-type replacement and to help predict the serotypes, which may cause invasive disease. There has been less focus on how conjugate vaccines indirectly affect colonization of other nasopharyngeal bacteria. If the nasopharynx is treated as a niche, then bacterial dynamics are accepted to occur. Alterations in these dynamics have been shown due to seasonal changes, antibiotic use, and sibling/day care interaction. It has been shown that, following PCV7 introduction, an eradication of pneumococcal vaccine types has resulted in increases in the abundance of other respiratory pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. These changes are difficult to attribute to PCV7 introduction alone and these studies do not account for further changes due to PCV13 implementation. This review aims to describe nasopharyngeal cocarriage of respiratory pathogens in the PCV era. PMID:26351646

  9. Risk Assessment and Meningococcal A Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in Africa: The District Prioritization Tool

    PubMed Central

    Cibrelus, Laurence; Lingani, Clment; Fernandez, Katya; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Perea, William A.; Hugonnet, Stphane

    2015-01-01

    Background.?A group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine has progressively been introduced in the African meningitis belt since 2010. A country-wide risk assessment tool, the District Prioritization Tool (DPT), was developed to help national stakeholders combine existing data and local expertise to define priority geographical areas where mass vaccination campaigns should be conducted. Methods.?DPT uses an Excel-supported offline tool that was made available to the countries proposed for immunization campaigns. It used quantitativequalitative methods, relying predominantly on evidence-based risk scores complemented by expert opinion. Results.?DPT was used by most of the countries that introduced the group A conjugate vaccine. Surveillance data enabled the computation of severity scores for meningitis at the district level (magnitude, intensity, and frequency). District data were scaled regionally to facilitate phasing decisions. DPT also assessed the country's potential to conduct efficient preventive immunization campaigns while paying close attention to the scope of the geographic extension of the campaigns. The tool generated meningitis district profiles that estimated the number of vaccine doses needed. In each assessment, local meningitis experts contributed their knowledge of local risk factors for meningitis epidemics to refine the final prioritization decisions. Conclusions.?DPT proved to be a useful and flexible tool that codified information and streamlined discussion among stakeholders while facilitating vaccine distribution decisions after 2011. DPT methodology may be tailored to prioritize vaccine interventions for other diseases. PMID:26553673

  10. Pediatricians' perspectives on pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: An exploratory study in the private sector.

    PubMed

    Zodpey, Sanjay; Farooqui, Habib Hasan; Chokshi, Maulik; Kumar, Balu Ravi; Thacker, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of information on supply-side determinants, their utilization, and the access to pneumococcal vaccination in India. The objective of this exploratory study was to document the perceptions and perspectives of practicing pediatricians with regard to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in selected metropolitan areas of India. A qualitative study was conducted to generate evidence on the perspective of pediatricians practicing in the private sector regarding pneumococcal vaccination. The pediatricians were identified from 11 metropolitan areas on the basis of PCV vaccine sales in India through multilevel stratified sampling method. Relevant information was collected through in-depth personal interviews. Finally, qualitative data analysis was carried out through standard techniques such as the identification of key domains, words, phrases, and concepts from the respondents. We observed that the majority (67.7%) of the pediatricians recommended pneumococcal vaccination to their clients, whereas 32.2% recommended it to only those who could afford it. More than half (62.9%) of the pediatricians had no preference for any brand and recommended both a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and a 13-valent PCV (PCV13), whereas 8.0% recommended none. An overwhelming majority (97.3%) of the pediatricians reported that the main reason for a patient not following the pediatrician's advice for pneumococcal vaccination was the price of PCV. To reduce childhood pneumonia-related burden and mortality, pediatricians should use every opportunity to increase awareness about vaccine-preventable diseases, especially vaccine-preventable childhood pneumonia among their patients. PMID:26354401

  11. Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Knight, Miguel A.; Nduati, Eunice; Hassan, Amin S.; Gambo, Faith; Odera, Dennis; Etyang, Timothy J.; Hajj, Nassim J.; Berkley, James Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy and T-cell immunity in this vulnerable population is warranted. PMID:26569505

  12. SAFETY OF A CRM197-CONJUGATED HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE IN KOREAN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyoyoung; Bock, Hans; Guadagno, Alana; Costantini, Marco; Baehner, Frank; Kim, Yeon Ho; Ahn, Seung In; Son, Ki Hyuk; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a major cause of meningitis and pneumonia with high morbidity and mortality rates in young children. The introduction of effective and well-tolerated conjugate Hib vaccines, has nearly eradicated this disease in many countries. We investigated the safety of the Hib PRP-CRM197 vaccine in a multi-center post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study. Korean children (N = 764) aged 1-33 months were enrolled when receiving a routine primary immunization or a booster vaccine with Hib PRP-CRM197 and solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded using a diary card for 7 and 28 days after each vaccination, respectively. In this study, AEs were reported by 66% of subjects but were generally mild, with 42% of subjects reporting solicited AEs and 46% reporting unsolicited AEs. Among the unsolicited AEs, 98% were determined to be unrelated to the study vaccine. The studied Hib PRP-CRM197 vaccine was well tolerated by the study group and found to have a similar safety profile to that reported in other clinical studies. This vaccine is suitable for routine immunization against Hib disease among Korean children. AEs due to this vaccine will continue to be monitored. PMID:26867395

  13. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G; Morris, Gordon A; Almutairi, Fahad M; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution. PMID:26915577

  14. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G.; Morris, Gordon A.; Almutairi, Fahad M.; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 106 g.mol−1) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 106 g.mol−1). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 106 g.mol−1), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution. PMID:26915577

  15. DTaP-IPV-Hep B-Hib vaccine (Hexaxim) : a review of its use in primary and booster vaccination.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Hexaxim() (DTaP-IPV-Hep B-Hib) is a new, thiomersal-free, fully liquid, hexavalent combination pediatric vaccine containing diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen produced in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, and Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate) conjugated to tetanus toxoid. It is currently registered in markets outside of the EU for primary vaccination of infants from 6 weeks of age and for booster vaccination up to 24 months of age. In randomized controlled trials, primary vaccination of infants with Hexaxim() using various immunization schedules was highly immunogenic for all vaccine component antigens regardless of the administration schedule, producing high levels of seroprotection or seroconversion for each antigen. Hexaxim() was as immunogenic as the comparator DTwP- or DTaP-based vaccines in these studies. The serological responses were generally sustained at high levels over a follow-up of ?1 year, and booster vaccination at 15-18 months further enhanced the immune response. Hexaxim() was less reactogenic than a DTwP-based combination vaccine, and displayed a tolerability profile similar to those of the comparator DTaP-based combination vaccines. Thus, Hexaxim() provides effective seroprotection or seroconversion against six major childhood diseases simultaneously, both as primary and booster vaccination, and offers the benefits and convenience of a fully liquid, ready-to-use vaccine. PMID:23338932

  16. Advances in pneumococcal disease prevention: 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for infants and children.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Peter R

    2011-05-01

    A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), developed with the same chemistry used for the 7-valent PCV vaccine (PCV7) and with the goal of expanding serotype coverage, was clinically evaluated in the United States and Europe and found to induce capsular-specific antibody responses comparable to those of PCV7 for the common serotypes, with robust responses to the 6 additional serotypes. In addition, PCV13 has a similar safety profile to PCV7 and can be given routinely to infants and children, ideally as a 3-dose primary series in the first year of life, with a booster dose in the second year. Children who have initiated their vaccination program with PCV7 can transition to PCV13 at any point in the schedule. Children aged ?15 months who have been completely vaccinated with PCV7 can receive a single dose of PCV13 to induce immunity to the 6 additional serotypes. PMID:21507921

  17. Ten years of experience with the pneumococcal conjugate 7-valent vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Weil Olivier, C

    2013-08-01

    In children, pneumococcus became the predominant infectious agent, after the routine use of the Hib conjugate vaccine dramatically decreased Haemophilus Influenzae type b prevalence. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI) and of non-invasive infections due to vaccine serotypes (VS) decreased by 80% in Europe along with a 30-40% decrease in the global incidence of IPI in this age group, after the implementation of Prevenar 7(®) routine immunization in children below 2 years of age. The decrease of IPI due to VS in other age groups was an indirect benefit. The moderate increase of non-vaccinal serotype IPI incidence did not impede the benefit of the overall program. Serotype 19A was the most frequent and carried resistance to antibiotics. Prevenar 13(®), a second-generation vaccine with six new serotypes, replaced Prevenar 7(®) in most countries after 2010, with available evidence of its effectiveness (United Kingdom, US, France). PMID:23845250

  18. Opsonic and Protective Properties of Antibodies Raised to Conjugate Vaccines Targeting Six Staphylococcus aureus Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Clarissa; Wilk, Katarzyna; Lee, Jean C.; Gening, Marina; Nifantiev, Nikolay; Pier, Gerald B.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections for which a vaccine is greatly desired. Antigens found on the S. aureus outer surface include the capsular polysaccharides (CP) of serotype 5 (CP5) or 8 (CP8) and/or a second antigen, a β-(1→6)-polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PNAG). Antibodies specific for either CP or PNAG antigens have excellent in vitro opsonic killing activity (OPKA), but when mixed together have potent interference in OPKA and murine protection. To ascertain if this interference could be abrogated by using a synthetic non-acetylated oligosaccharide fragment of PNAG, 9GlcNH2, in place of chemically partially deacetylated PNAG, three conjugate vaccines consisting of 9GlcNH2 conjugated to a non-toxic mutant of alpha-hemolysin (Hla H35L), CP5 conjugated to clumping factor B (ClfB), or CP8 conjugated to iron-surface determinant B (IsdB) were used separately to immunize rabbits. Opsonic antibodies mediating killing of multiple S. aureus strains were elicited for all three vaccines and showed carbohydrate antigen-specific reductions in the tissue bacterial burdens in animal models of S. aureus skin abscesses, pneumonia, and nasal colonization. Carrier-protein specific immunity was also shown to be effective in reducing bacterial levels in infected lungs and in nasal colonization. However, use of synthetic 9GlcNH2 to induce antibody to PNAG did not overcome the interference in OPKA engendered when these were combined with antibody to either CP5 or CP8. Whereas each individual vaccine showed efficacy, combining antisera to CP antigens and PNAG still abrogated individual OPKA activities, indicating difficulty in achieving a multi-valent vaccine targeting both the CP and PNAG antigens. PMID:23077517

  19. 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: A Review of Its Use in Adults.

    PubMed

    Plosker, Greg L

    2015-09-01

    The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevenar 13(), Prevnar 13()) [PCV13] consists of 13 serotype-specific polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), each covalently conjugated to a non-toxic immunogenic carrier protein. PCV13 has a well established immunogenicity and tolerability profile in adults, particularly those ?50 years of age. Results of CAPiTA, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in >84,000 older adults aged ?65 years, showed that PCV13 was effective in preventing vaccine-type pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), vaccine-type pneumococcal nonbacteraemic (noninvasive) CAP and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). These findings, along with changes in pneumococcal serotype distribution and epidemiology of pneumococcal disease, prompted the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to recommend PCV13 in series with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPVS23) for all adults aged ?65 years. PCV13 also has a role in preventing pneumococcal disease (pneumonia and IPD) in younger adults with immunocompromising conditions and potentially in those with other underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of pneumococcal disease. PMID:26242768

  20. A Conjugate Vaccine Attenuates Morphine- and Heroin-Induced Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian-Qian; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Xue, Yan-Xue; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Chen, Na; Deng, Jia-Hui; Zhai, Hai-Feng; Kosten, Thomas R.; Shi, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently approved medications for opioid addiction have shown clinical efficacy, but undesired side effects, dependence induced by the medications themselves, and low treatment compliance necessitate the need for novel therapies. Methods: A novel morphine-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccine was synthesized with 6-glutarylmorphine as the hapten and a lengthened linker of 6 carbon atoms. The titer and specificity of the triggered antibody were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of the vaccine on the morphine-induced elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of the vaccine on morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and heroin-primed reinstatement of heroin self-administration were also assessed. Results: After subcutaneous administration in rats, the vaccine triggered a high antibody titer, with comparable specificity for morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, and heroin, but no interaction with dissimilar therapeutic opioid compounds, including buprenorphine, naloxone, and nalorphine, was observed. The vaccine significantly prevented the elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens induced by a single morphine challenge. Moreover, the vaccine prevented the expression of morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and heroin-primed reinstatement of heroin seeking, suggesting its potential for preventing relapse. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that active immunization with the present vaccine induces a robust morphine/heroin-specific antibody response in rats and attenuates the behavioral effects of morphine and heroin. PMID:25522425

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected individuals naive to pneumococcal vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bhorat, As’ad E.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Laudat, France; Sundaraiyer, Vani; Gurtman, Alejandra; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Scott, Daniel A.; Emini, Emilio A.; Gruber, William C.; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Immunocompromised individuals are at an increased risk of pneumococcal disease. Vaccination is recommended as an important strategy to reduce risk of pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected individuals. This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of three 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) doses followed by one dose of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) at 1-month intervals in pneumococcal vaccine-naive, HIV-infected individuals. Design: This was a phase 3, open-label, single-arm study. Methods: Pneumococcal vaccine-naive, HIV-infected individuals at least 6 years of age with CD4+ T-cell count at least 200 cells/μl and viral load less than 50 000 copies/ml received three doses of PCV13 followed by one dose of PPSV23 at 1-month intervals. Serotype-specific antipneumococcal immune responses were assessed by IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assay geometric mean titres (GMTs) after each dose. Local reactions at the PCV13 injection site, systemic and other adverse events were collected. Results: Three hundred and one individuals were enrolled and vaccinated; 279 completed the study. Statistically significant increases in IgG GMCs and OPA GMTs were observed for all serotypes after dose 1 of PCV13 compared with prevaccine levels. GMCs and GMTs were comparable or only modestly increased for all serotypes after PCV13 doses 2 and 3 and after PPSV23. The majority of local reactions and systemic events were mild to moderate in severity. Conclusion: A three-dose regimen of PCV13 was well tolerated in pneumococcal vaccine-naive, HIV-infected individuals. Significant immune responses to all serotypes were observed following the first dose of PCV13, with only modest increases in antibody titres following subsequent PCV13 or PPSV23 administration. PMID:25888646

  2. Production of a conjugate vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from Citrobacter Vi.

    PubMed

    Micoli, F; Rondini, S; Pisoni, I; Giannelli, C; Di Cioccio, V; Costantino, P; Saul, A; Martin, L B

    2012-01-20

    A conjugate vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was produced by chemically linking Vi, purified from Citrobacter, to the non-toxic mutant diphtheria toxin CRM(197) via an adipic dihydrazide spacer using N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide coupling chemistry. The polysaccharide purification process was developed based on Vi precipitation from culture supernatant with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), solubilization of the CTA-polysaccharide salt with ethanol followed by exchange of the CTA(+) counter ion with Na(+). The purified Vi polysaccharide was fully O-acetylated and with high purity. The conjugation process was optimized to obtain a scalable process that has been used for GMP production at pilot scale of vaccine currently in clinical trials. PMID:22172503

  3. Effectively introducing a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Africa: the Burkina Faso experience.

    PubMed

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Barry, Rodrigue; Bonkoungou, Mete; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre; Sebgo, Rene; Kandolo, Denis; Lingani, Clement; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Zuber, Patrick L F; Perea, William; Hugonnet, Stphane; Dellepiane de Rey Tolve, Nora; Tevi-Benissan, Carole; Clark, Thomas A; Mayer, Leonard W; Novak, Ryan; Messonier, Nancy E; Berlier, Monique; Toboe, Desire; Nshimirimana, Deo; Mihigo, Richard; Aguado, Teresa; Diomand, Fabien; Kristiansen, Paul A; Caugant, Dominique A; Laforce, F Marc

    2012-05-30

    A new Group A meningococcal (Men A) conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. Because Burkina Faso has repeatedly suffered meningitis epidemics due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis special efforts were made to conduct a country-wide campaign with the new vaccine in late 2010 and before the onset of the next epidemic meningococcal disease season beginning in January 2011. In the ensuing five months (July-November 2010) the following challenges were successfully managed: (1) doing a large safety study and registering the new vaccine in Burkina Faso; (2) developing a comprehensive communication plan; (3) strengthening the surveillance system with particular attention to improving the capacity for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of spinal fluid specimens; (4) improving cold chain capacity and waste disposal; (5) developing and funding a sound campaign strategy; and (6) ensuring effective collaboration across all partners. Each of these issues required specific strategies that were managed through a WHO-led consortium that included all major partners (Ministry of Health/Burkina Faso, Serum Institute of India Ltd., UNICEF, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, Meningitis Vaccine Project, CDC/Atlanta, and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health/Oslo). Biweekly teleconferences that were led by WHO ensured that problems were identified in a timely fashion. The new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine was introduced on December 6, 2010, in a national ceremony led by His Excellency Blaise Compaore, the President of Burkina Faso. The ensuing 10-day national campaign was hugely successful, and over 11.4 million Burkinabes between the ages of 1 and 29 years (100% of target population) were vaccinated. African national immunization programs are capable of achieving very high coverage for a vaccine desired by the public, introduced in a well-organized campaign, and supported at the highest political level. The Burkina Faso success augurs well for further rollout of the Men A conjugate vaccine in meningitis belt countries. PMID:22607898

  4. How to compare the efficacy of conjugate vaccines to prevent acute otitis media?

    PubMed

    De Wals, Philippe; Erickson, Lonny; Poirier, Batrice; Ppin, Jacques; Pichichero, Michael E

    2009-05-11

    Although the currently available 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7-CRM(197)) has been primarily designed for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease, it has also demonstrated the potential to prevent acute otitis media (AOM) and its associated complications. A candidate 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV11-HiD), which utilizes Haemophilus influenzae (Hi)-derived protein D as a carrier has demonstrated the ability to prevent AOM caused by not only vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), but also those caused by Hi. The methodological, clinical, and epidemiological factors influencing results of vaccine trials for AOM prevention were reviewed and a model-based approach was developed, in order to assess the relative efficacy of different vaccine formulations. Six randomized trials having AOM as a measured outcome were identified. Vaccine efficacy (VE) ranged from -1% to 34% for all-cause AOM and between 56% and 64% for AOM caused by vaccine-type Sp. Using otopathogen-specific VE rates from the FinOM and POET trials and otopathogen distributions observed in three relatively unbiased studies, VE against all-cause AOM episodes under different scenarios was modeled. The most important factor explaining variation in VE estimates was bacterial replacement, which was present in the PCV7-CRM(197) FinOM study but not in the PCV11-HiD POET study. Another contributing factor was increased protection conferred against Hi AOM by protein D. Geographical variation in the distribution of otopathogens was a third factor explaining differences between trials. More studies on the current aetiology of AOM need to be performed to accurately predict the marginal benefit of a switch from PCV7-CRM(197) to the newly licensed PCV10-HiD-DiT or to the future PCV13-CRM(197). PMID:19366579

  5. Impaired antibody response to conjugated meningococcal serogroup C vaccine in asplenic patients.

    PubMed

    Meerveld-Eggink, A; de Weerdt, O; de Voer, R M; Berbers, G A M; van Velzen-Blad, H; Vlaminckx, B J; Biesma, D H; Rijkers, G T

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quantity and quality of antibodies against the meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugated vaccine in asplenic patients. In 116 asplenic patients, antibody concentrations (IgG) were measured against meningococcal serogroup C before and after immunisation. Of MenC-specific IgG, both antibody avidity and subclasses of IgG1 and IgG2 were determined. The mean MenC IgG concentration rose from 0.16 ?g/mL prior to vaccination to 3.69 ?g/mL 3 weeks post-vaccination, with 67% of patients reaching the threshold of ? 2.0 ?g/mL. The mean IgG concentration at 35 weeks post-vaccination was 3.10 ?g/mL. IgG2 concentrations increased more than IgG1. Marginal avidity maturation was seen. Hypo-responders to the first MenC vaccine (IgG anti-MenC???2.0 ?g/mL) were offered a booster dose. After revaccination, 59% reached the chosen IgG threshold. The IgG concentration rose from 0.29 to 1.12 ?g/mL, with an increase in the IgG1/IgG2 ratio. Avidity indices remained below 33%. In asplenic patients, the quantity and quality of antibodies produced after one dose of conjugated MenC vaccination is lower than that observed in previous studies in healthy adults. Booster vaccination does, indeed, lead to a rise in IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), but does not lead to higher avidity of antibodies. PMID:21184126

  6. Safety of immunization during pregnancy: a review of the evidence of selected inactivated and live attenuated vaccines.

    PubMed

    Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Englund, Janet A; Kang, Gagandeep; Mangtani, Punam; Neuzil, Kathleen; Nohynek, Hanna; Pless, Robert; Lambach, Philipp; Zuber, Patrick

    2014-12-12

    Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are responsible for significant maternal, neonatal, and young infant morbidity and mortality. While there is emerging scientific evidence, as well as theoretical considerations, indicating that certain vaccines are safe for pregnant women and fetuses, policy formulation is challenging because of perceived potential risks to the fetus. This report presents an overview of available evidence on pregnant women vaccination safety monitoring in pregnant women, from both published literature and ongoing surveillance programs. Safety data were reviewed for vaccines against diseases which increase morbidity in pregnant women, their fetus or infant as well as vaccines which are used in mass vaccination campaigns against diseases. They include inactivated seasonal and pandemic influenza, mono- and combined meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugated vaccines, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis combination vaccines, as well as monovalent or combined rubella, oral poliomyelitis virus and yellow fever vaccines. No evidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been identified from immunization of pregnant women with these vaccines. PMID:25285883

  7. A bicomponent Plasmodium falciparum investigational vaccine composed of protein-peptide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Majadly, Fathy; Biesova, Zuzana; Mocca, Christopher P; Guo, Chunyan; Nussenzweig, Ruth; Nussenzweig, Victor; Mishra, Satish; Wu, Yimin; Miller, Louis H; Keith, Jerry M; Liu, Teh-Yung; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel

    2010-01-19

    There is yet no licensed vaccine against malaria, a serious human disease affecting mostly children, with an annual death rate of about one million. Plasmodia, the malaria-causing parasites, have two obligatory hosts: mammals or birds, in which they multiply asexually, and mosquitoes with sexual multiplication. The most common and serious type of malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major surface antigen of sporozoites, is a protective antigen. A unique feature of P. falciparum CSP is its large central domain composed of over 30 tetrapeptide repeats of Asn-Ala-Asn-Pro (NANP). Several NANP peptide-protein conjugates were tested clinically but elicited a low level of CSP antibodies for a short duration. To provide a CSP-based candidate vaccine, we investigated recombinant CSP and NANP conjugates of various peptide lengths, with different N-terminal amino acids, bound at different ratios to various carrier proteins. Injected into mice, CSP alone and CSP or NANP conjugates induced antibodies with booster responses and were positive by the sporozoite immunofluorescent assay. The use of the mosquito stage P. falciparum ookinete surface protein, Pfs25, cross-linked onto itself as a carrier for NANP, induced in mice high levels of uniquely long-lasting antibodies to both vaccine components with secondary biological activities, that will provide immunity to liver infection by sporozoites and block transmission by mosquitoes. PMID:20080619

  8. Modeling of Cost Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination Strategies in U.S. Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kenneth J.; Wateska, Angela R.; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Raymund, Mahlon; Lee, Bruce Y.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for adults, but its role in older adults is unclear. Purpose To compare PCV13 strategies to currently recommended vaccination strategies in adults aged ≥65 years. Methods Using a Markov model, the cost effectiveness of PCV13 and the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), alone or in combination, was estimated, in adults aged either 65 years or 75 years. No prior vaccination, prior vaccination, and vaccine hyporesponsiveness scenarios were examined. Pneumococcal disease rates, indirect childhood PCV13 effects, and costs were estimated using CDC Active Bacterial Core surveillance data and U.S. national databases. An expert panel estimated vaccine-related protection. A societal perspective was taken and outcomes were discounted 3% per year. Results In those aged 65 years, single-dose PCV13 cost $11,300 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained compared to no vaccination; at ages 65 and 80 years, PCV13 cost $83,000/QALY. In those aged 75 years, single-dose PCV13 cost $62,800/QALY gained. PPSV23 cost more and was less effective than PCV13. Results were sensitive to varying vaccine effectiveness and indirect effect estimates. In hyporesponsiveness scenarios, cost-effectiveness ratios increased by 37%–78% for single-dose strategies and 29%–35% for multiple-dose strategies. Conclusions Single-dose PCV13 strategies are likely to be economically reasonable in older adults. PMID:23498103

  9. Opposite effects of actively and passively acquired immunity to the carrier on responses of human infants to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Barington, T; Gyhrs, A; Kristensen, K; Heilmann, C

    1994-01-01

    Vaccination of infants with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to carrier proteins has proven protective against invasive Hib diseases in several trials. However, insufficient immunogenicity has been noted in certain populations. Therefore, studies analyzing factors influencing the antibody response to conjugate vaccines are needed. In this study, the response to HibCP coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) was examined in relation to (i) priming with or coadministration of the carrier protein and (ii) the levels of passively acquired maternal TT antibodies. One hundred forty-four infants were vaccinated with HibCP-TT at 5 and 6 months. They were randomized into three groups that received TT as part of a diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine at either 6 and 7 months (group A), 5 and 6 months (group B), or 4 and 5 months (group C). Maternally acquired TT antibodies inhibited the anti-HibCP response to the first HibCP-TT dose in groups A and B (r = -0.5 and -0.4, respectively; P < 0.005). In these groups, infants with prevaccination anti-TT levels above the median failed to reach the defined long-term protective level of HibCP antibodies (1 microgram/ml) more often than infants with low prevaccination levels after the first (P = 0.0001) and the second (P = 0.01) doses of HibCP-TT. In contrast, active priming with TT at 4 months resulted in a threefold-higher median level of anti-HibCP (group C; 1.34 micrograms/ml) than in the unprimed group (group A; 0.40 microgram/ml) after the first dose of HibCP-TT (P = 0.01). Coadministration of TT had no enhancing effect (group B; 0.58 microgram/ml). No significant differences between the median anti-HibCP levels were seen after the second HibCP-TT dose (6.72, 9.63, and 11.44 micrograms/ml in groups A, B, and C, respectively; P = 0.25). PMID:8262653

  10. Effects of Vaccination with 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenza Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) on the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome of Kenyan Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Feazel, Leah M.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Robertson, Charles E.; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines reduce the prevalence of vaccine serotypes carried in the nasopharynx. Because this could alter carriage of other potential pathogens, we assessed the nasopharyngeal microbiome of children who had been vaccinated with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). Methods Profiles of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of 60 children aged 12-59 months, who had been randomized to receive 2 doses of PHiD-CV (n=30) or Hepatitis A vaccine (n=30) 60 days apart, were constructed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of swab specimens collected before vaccination and 180 days after dose 1. Results Prior to vaccination, Moraxella catarrhalis (median of 12.3% of sequences/subject), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.4%) and Corynebacterium spp. (5.6%) were the most abundant nasopharyngeal bacterial species. Vaccination with PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the species composition, abundance, or prevalence of known pathogens. Distinct microbiomes were identified based on the abundances of Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Haemophilus species. These microbiomes shifted in composition over the study period and were independent of age, sex, school attendance, antibiotic exposure, and vaccination. Conclusions Vaccination of children with two doses of PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome. This suggests limited replacement carriage with pathogens other than non-vaccine strains of S. pneumoniae. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01028326 PMID:26083474

  11. Mutant Native Outer Membrane Vesicles Combined with a Serogroup A Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine for Prevention of Meningococcal Epidemics in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pajon, Rolando; Fergus, Andrew M.; Granoff, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The meningococcal serogroup A (MenA) polysaccharide conjugate vaccine used in Sub-Saharan Africa does not prevent disease caused by MenW or MenX strains, which also cause epidemics in the region. We investigated the vaccine-potential of native outer membrane vesicles with over-expressed factor H-binding protein (NOMV-fHbp), which targeted antigens in African meningococcal strains, and was combined with a MenA polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings The NOMV-fHbp vaccine was prepared from a mutant African MenW strain with PorA P1.5,2, attenuated endotoxin (?LpxL1), deleted capsular genes, and over-expressed fHbp in variant group 1. The NOMV-fHbp was adsorbed with Al(OH)3 and used to reconstitute a lyophilized MenA conjugate vaccine, which normally is reconstituted with liquid MenC, Y and W conjugates in a meningococcal quadrivalent conjugate vaccine (MCV4-CRM, Novartis). Mice immunized with the NOMV-fHbp vaccine alone developed serum bactericidal (human complement) activity against 13 of 15 African MenA strains tested; 10 of 10 African MenX strains, 7 of 7 African MenW strains, and 6 of 6 genetically diverse MenB strains with fHbp variant group 1 (including 1 strain from The Gambia). The combination NOMV-fHbp/MenA conjugate vaccine elicited high serum bactericidal titers against the two MenA strains tested that were resistant to bactericidal antibodies elicited by the NOMV-fHbp alone; the combination elicited higher titers against the MenA and MenW strains than those elicited by a control MCV4-CRM vaccine (P<0.05); and high titers against MenX and MenB strains. For most strains, the titers elicited by a control NOMV-fHbp knock out vaccine were <1?10 except when the strain PorA matched the vaccine (titers >1?000). Conclusion/Significance The NOMV-fHbp/MenA conjugate vaccine provided similar or higher coverage against MenA and MenW strains than a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, and extended protection against MenX strains responsible for epidemics in Africa, and MenB strains with fHbp in variant group 1. PMID:23805230

  12. The multifaceted impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in children in France between 2001 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robert; Biscardi, Sandra; Levy, Corinne

    2016-02-01

    In 2003, France was the first European country to recommend 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) for a large proportion of healthy children. With complicated recommendations, the vaccine coverage during the first 4 y of implementation was low, then progressively increased to reach 90% in 2008. The aim of this review was to describe the particular impact of PCVs in a country where the vaccine coverage was initially suboptimal. After PCV7 implementation, the PCV7 serotypes nearly disappeared among pneumococci isolated from meningitis (-73%), other invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD; -90%) and pneumococcal carriage (-97%). Consequently, the rates of penicillin-resistant strains declined. However, because of important serotype replacement, the global effect on the incidence of meningitis (-31%) or other IPD (-14%) was modest and observed only in young children < 2 y old. After PCV13 transition, with immediate high vaccine coverage, the vaccine had an important impact on all pneumococcal disease: reduction of -20% for pneumococcal meningitis, -36% for non-meningitis IPD, -32% for community acquired pneumonia and -15% for S. pneumoniae carriage. These findings underline the complexity of pneumococcal epidemiology and the importance of high and fast vaccination coverage to obtain the optimal effect of PCVs. PMID:26905678

  13. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a protein-conjugated pneumococcal oligosaccharide vaccine in older adults.

    PubMed

    Powers, D C; Anderson, E L; Lottenbach, K; Mink, C M

    1996-04-01

    Healthy adults > or = 50 years old were immunized with either pentavalent Corynebacterium diphtheriae C7 (beta197) cross-reactive material (CRM197) protein-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (CV) containing 10 microgram each of capsular oligosaccharides from serotypes 6B, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F or with licensed (23-valent, 25 microgram/serotype) pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PV). Adverse reactions, predominantly local in nature, occurred in 20 of 23 CV recipients versus 13 of 23 PV recipients (P<.05). Compared with mean postvaccination antibody concentrations in PV recipients, those induced by CV were not significantly different for serotypes 6B, 14, 18C, and 23F and were lower for 19F (P<.05). Six months later, reimmunization with PV of subjects who had initially received CV elicited a slight boost in antibody concentrations to levels that were not significantly higher than those achieved after the primary vaccination or than those in persons given a single dose of PV. Pneumococcal vaccines containing protein-conjugated oligosaccharides may offer no advantage over currently licensed preparations containing unconjugated polysaccharides for immunization of healthy older adults. PMID:8603942

  14. Combatting Synthetic Designer Opioids: A Conjugate Vaccine Ablates Lethal Doses of Fentanyl Class Drugs.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Paul T; Kimishima, Atsushi; Schlosburg, Joel E; Zhou, Bin; Collins, Karen C; Janda, Kim D

    2016-03-01

    Fentanyl is an addictive prescription opioid that is over 80 times more potent than morphine. The synthetic nature of fentanyl has enabled the creation of dangerous "designer drug" analogues that escape toxicology screening, yet display comparable potency to the parent drug. Alarmingly, a large number of fatalities have been linked to overdose of fentanyl derivatives. Herein, we report an effective immunotherapy for reducing the psychoactive effects of fentanyl class drugs. A single conjugate vaccine was created that elicited high levels of antibodies with cross-reactivity for a wide panel of fentanyl analogues. Moreover, vaccinated mice gained significant protection from lethal fentanyl doses. Lastly, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based technique was established enabling drug-specificity profiling of antibodies derived directly from serum. Our newly developed fentanyl vaccine and analytical methods may assist in the battle against synthetic opioid abuse. PMID:26879590

  15. Anti-Group B Streptococcus Glycan-Conjugate Vaccines Using Pilus Protein GBS80 As Carrier and Antigen: Comparing Lysine and Tyrosine-directed Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Nilo, Alberto; Morelli, Laura; Passalacqua, Irene; Brogioni, Barbara; Allan, Martin; Carboni, Filippo; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Zerbini, Francesca; Maione, Domenico; Fabbrini, Monica; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Hu, Qi-Ying; Margarit, Immaculada; Berti, Francesco; Adamo, Roberto

    2015-07-17

    Gram-positive Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive infections in pregnant women, newborns, and elderly people. Vaccination of pregnant women represents the best strategy for prevention of neonatal disease, and GBS polysaccharide-based conjugate vaccines are currently under clinical testing. The potential of GBS pilus proteins selected by genome-based reverse vaccinology as protective antigens for anti-streptococcal vaccines has also been demonstrated. Dressing pilus proteins with surface glycan antigens could be an attractive approach to extend vaccine coverage. We have recently developed an efficient method for tyrosine-directed ligation of large glycans to proteins via copper-free azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition. This method enables targeting of predetermined sites of the protein, ensuring that protein epitopes are preserved prior to glycan coupling and a higher consistency in glycoconjugate batches. Herein, we compared conjugates of the GBS type II polysaccharide (PSII) and the GBS80 pilus protein obtained by classic lysine random conjugation and by the recently developed tyrosine-directed ligation. PSII conjugated to CRM197, a carrier protein used for vaccines in the market, was used as a control. We found that the constructs made from PSII and GBS80 were able to elicit murine antibodies recognizing individually the glycan and protein epitopes on the bacterial surface. The generated antibodies were efficacious in mediating opsonophagocytic killing of strains expressing exclusively PSII or GBS80 proteins. The two glycoconjugates were also effective in protecting newborn mice against GBS infection following vaccination of the dams. Altogether, these results demonstrated that polysaccharide-conjugated GBS80 pilus protein functions as a carrier comparably to CRM197, while maintaining its properties of protective protein antigen. Glycoconjugation and reverse vaccinology can, therefore, be combined to design vaccines with broad coverage. This approach opens a path to a new generation of vaccines. Tyrosine-ligation allows creation of more homogeneous vaccines, correlation of the immune response to defined connectivity points, and fine-tuning of the conjugation site in glycan-protein conjugates. PMID:25906283

  16. Clinical Studies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Conjugate Vaccines in Adults and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Szu, Shousun Chen; Ahmed, Amina

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric immunization has been the most effective measure to prevent and reduce the burden of infectious diseases in children. The recent inclusion of pneumococcal and meningococcal polysaccharide conjugates in infant immunization further reinforces their importance. Currently there is no human vaccine against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. This review focuses on the human EHEC vaccine that has been studied clinically, in particular, the polysaccharide conjugate against E. coli O157. The surface polysaccharide antigen, O-specific polysaccharide, was linked to rEPA, recombinant exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In adults and children 2 to 5 years old, O157-rEPA conjugates, shown to be safe, induced high levels of antilipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin G with bactericidal activities against E. coli O157, a functional bioassay that mimics the killing of inoculum in vivo. A similar construct using the B subunit of Shiga toxin (Stx) 1 as the carrier protein elicited both bactericidal and toxin-neutralizing antibodies in mice. So far there is no clinical study of Stx-based human vaccine. Passive immunization of Stx-specific antibodies with humanized, chimeric, or human monoclonal antibodies, produced in transgenic mice, showed promising data in animal models and offered high prospects. Demonstrations of their safety and effectiveness in treating hemolytic-uremic syndrome or patients with EHEC infections are under way, and results are much anticipated. For future development, other virulence factors such as the nontoxic Stx B subunit or intimin should be included, either as carrier protein in conjugates or as independent components. The additional antigens from O157 may provide broader coverage to non-O157 Stx-producing E. coli and facilitate both preventive and therapeutic treatment. PMID:26104443

  17. Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Uruguay, a Middle-Income Country

    PubMed Central

    García Gabarrot, Gabriela; López Vega, Mariana; Pérez Giffoni, Gabriel; Hernández, Silvia; Cardinal, Pablo; Félix, Viviana; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Camou, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the routine childhood immunization program in Uruguay, with a 2+1 schedule. In 2010, PCV13 replaced PCV7, and the same 2+1 schedule was used. The effect of these pneumococcal vaccines on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) and on serotype distribution was analyzed retrospectively, based on passive national laboratory surveillance. Methods Data from 1,887 IPD isolates from 5 years before and 5 years after PCV7 introduction (7 before and 3 after PCV13 introduction) was examined to assess the incidence rate per 100,000 age-specific population of all IPD, PCV7-serotypes, and PCV13-serotypes associated IPD among children <2 years and 2 to 4 years old, and patients ≥5 years old. Trends of frequency for each serotype were also analyzed. Results Comparison of pre-vaccination (2003–2007) and post-vaccination (2008–2012) periods showed a significant decrease in IPD incidence among children <2 years old (IR 68.7 to IR 29.6, p<0.001) and children 2 to 4 years (p<0.04). IPD caused by serotypes in PCV7 was reduced by 95.6% and IPD caused by 6 serotypes added in PCV13 was reduced by 83.9% in children <5 years old. Indirect effects of both conjugate vaccines were observed among patients ≥5 years old one year after the introduction of each vaccine, in 2010 for PCV7 and in 2012 for PCV13. Nevertheless, for reasons that still need to be explained, perhaps due to ascertainment bias, total IPD in this group increased after 2007. In 2012, the relative frequency of vaccine serotypes among vaccinated and unvaccinated population declined, except for serotype 3. Non vaccine serotypes with increasing frequency were identified, in rank order: 12F, 8, 24F, 22F, 24A, 15C, 9N, 10A and 33. Conclusion Consecutive immunization with PCV7 and PCV13 has significantly reduced IPD in children <5 years of age in Uruguay. PMID:25375647

  18. 75 FR 48707 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... these materials is included in a December 17, 1999 Federal Register notice (64 FR 70914). Proposed... Vaccine: What You Need to Know 1. Pneumococcal Disease Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae...

  19. High invasiveness of pneumococcal serotypes included in the new generation of conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    del Amo, E; Brotons, P; Monsonis, M; Trivio, M; Iigo, M; Selva, L; Sa-Leo, R; Muoz-Almagro, C

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV7, has resulted in significant changes in the pneumococcal population being carried and causing disease. We aimed to determine the invasive disease potential of serotypes causing invasive paediatric disease in the era of conjugate vaccines in Catalonia, Spain, and their potential coverage by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV13. As a secondary objective, we evaluated whether implementation of PCV7 had resulted in significant changes in the invasive disease potential of the most frequent serotypes circulating in the area. Two pneumococcal collections obtained from children admitted to the University Hospital Sant Joan de Du (Barcelona, Spain) between 2007 and 2011 were compared: a first set of 159 invasive disease isolates, and a second set of 209 nasopharyngeal isolates recovered from healthy children admitted for minor surgery. The most common invasive serotypes were 1 (24.5%, n = 39), 19A (21.2%, n = 34), 5 (8.8%, n = 14), 7F (8.8%, n = 14) and 3 (5%, n = 8). The most common serotypes in carriage were 19A (10%, n = 21), 6C (9%, n = 19), 23B (8.1%, n = 17), 6A (7.6%, n = 16) and 19F (6.2%, n = 13). A significantly higher propensity to cause invasive disease was observed for serotypes 1, 3, 5, 7F and 19A, all of which are included in PCV13. After false-discovery-rate correction, the results were robust for serotypes 1, 5, 7F and 19A. Non-PCV13 serotypes had a low invasive disease potential. Our data reinforce the need for continuous surveillance and should encourage efforts to introduce universal vaccination with PCV13 in children in our region. PMID:24467648

  20. Modeling the impact of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Chinese infants: an economic analysis of a compulsory vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare, from a Chinese societal perspective, the projected health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of adding pneumococcal conjugate heptavalent vaccine (PCV-7) to the routine compulsory child immunization schedule. Methods A decision-tree model, with data and assumptions adapted for relevance to China, was developed to project the health outcomes of PCV-7 vaccination (compared with no vaccination) over a 5-year period as well as a lifetime. The vaccinated birth cohort included 16,000,000 children in China. A 2?+?1 dose schedule at US$136.51 per vaccine dose was used in the base-case analysis. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. The impact of a net indirect effect (herd immunity) was evaluated. Outcomes are presented in terms of the saved disease burden, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Results In a Chinese birth cohort, a PCV-7 vaccination program would reduce the number of pneumococcus-related infections by at least 32% and would prevent 2,682 deaths in the first 5years of life, saving $1,190 million in total costs and gaining an additional 9,895 QALYs (discounted by 3%). The incremental cost per QALY was estimated to be $530,354. When herd immunity was taken into account, the cost per QALY was estimated to be $95,319. The robustness of the model was influenced mainly by the PCV-7 cost per dose, effectiveness herd immunity and incidence of pneumococcal diseases. With and without herd immunity, the break-even costs in China were $29.05 and $25.87, respectively. Conclusions Compulsory routine infant vaccination with PCV-7 is projected to substantially reduce pneumococcal disease morbidity, mortality, and related costs in China. However, a universal vaccination program with PCV-7 is not cost-effective at the willingness-to-pay threshold that is currently recommended for China by the World Health Organization. PMID:24507480

  1. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Vaccine-type Nasopharyngeal Carriage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine type (VT) pneumococci, an important driver of vaccine programs overall benefits. The dosing schedule that best reduces carriage is unclear. Methods: We performed a systematic review of English language publications from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) reporting PCV effects on VT carriage to assess variability in effect by dosing schedule. Results: We identified 32 relevant studies (36 citations) from 12,980 citations reviewed. Twenty-one (66%) evaluated PCV7; none used PCV10 or PCV13. Five studies evaluated 2 primary doses and 13 three primary doses. After the first year of life, 14 evaluated 3-dose primary series with PCV booster (3+1), seven 3 doses plus 23-valent polysaccharide booster 3+1PPV23, five 3+0, four 2+1, three 2+1PPV23 and two 2+0. Four studies directly compared schedules. From these, 3 primary doses reduced VT carriage more than 2 doses at 17 months following the series (1 study significant; 2 borderline). In a study, the 2+1 schedule reduced VT carriage more than 2+0 at 18, but not at 24 months of age. One study of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine booster showed no effect. All 16 clinical trials with unvaccinated controls and 11 observational studies with before-after designs showed reduction in VT carriage. Conclusions: The available literature demonstrates VT-carriage reduction for 2+0, 2+1, 3+0 and 3+1 PCV schedules, but not for 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine booster. Comparisons between schedules show that 3 primary doses and a 2+1 schedule may reduce carriage more than 2 primary doses and a 2+0 schedule, respectively. PMID:24336057

  2. Salivary antibodies induced by the seven-valent PncOMPC conjugate vaccine in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nurkka, Anu; Lahdenkari, Mika; Palmu, Arto AI; Kyhty, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Background Mucosal antibodies have been suggested to have a role in defence against pneumococcal infections. We investigated here the ability of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PncOMPC, to induce mucosal immune response. Methods Healthy Finnish children (n = 111), a subcohort of the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial, were recruited and 56 of them were immunised with the PncOMPC at the age of 2, 4, and 6 months. At 12 months of age, 49 of them received the PncOMPC and 7 were vaccinated with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PncPS) as a booster. The control group of 55 children received a hepatitis B vaccine at the same ages. Salivary anti-Pnc IgG, IgA, IgA1, and IgA2 antibodies to serotypes 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured in both groups at the age of 7 and 13 months. Results Salivary anti-Pnc IgG and IgA were detected more often in the PncOMPC than in the control group. However, the difference between groups was significant only for 19F and 23F IgA concentrations at the age of 7 months. At the age of 13 months, antibody concentrations did not differ between PncOMPC and control groups. The rises in IgA concentrations between 7 and 13 months of age were mainly of subclass IgA1. Further, there is a clear trend that PncPS booster induces higher salivary anti-Pnc PS antibody concentrations than the PncOMPC. Conclusion We found that PncOMPC can induce a mucosal IgA response. However, the actual impact of mucosal antibodies in protection against pneumococcal infections is not clear. PMID:15921511

  3. Pneumococcal serotypes before and after introduction of conjugate vaccines, United States, 1999-2011(1.).

    PubMed

    Richter, Sandra S; Heilmann, Kristopher P; Dohrn, Cassie L; Riahi, Fathollah; Diekema, Daniel J; Doern, Gary V

    2013-07-01

    Serotyping data for pneumococci causing invasive and noninvasive disease in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 from >43 US centers were compared with data from preconjugate vaccine (1999-2000) and postconjugate vaccine (2004-2005) periods. Prevalence of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes decreased from 64% of invasive and 50% of noninvasive isolates in 1999-2000 to 3.8% and 4.2%, respectively, in 2010-2011. Increases in serotype 19A stopped after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in 2010. Prevalences of other predominant serotypes included in or related to PCV13 (3, 6C, 7F) also remained similar for 2008-2009 and 2010-2011. The only major serotype that increased from 2008-2009 to 2010-2011 was nonvaccine serotype 35B. These data show that introduction of the 7-valent vaccine has dramatically decreased prevalence of its serotypes and that addition of serotypes in PCV13 could provide coverage of 39% of isolates that continue to cause disease. PMID:23763847

  4. Synthesis of a conjugate vaccine composed of pneumococcus type 14 capsular polysaccharide bound to pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneerson, R; Levi, L; Robbins, J B; Bryla, D M; Schiffman, G; Lagergard, T

    1992-01-01

    Type 14 is one of the common types isolated from patients of all ages with infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Its capsular polysaccharide (Pn14) is composed of a neutrally charged tetrasaccharide repeat unit. Pn14 does not elicit protective levels of antibodies in infants and children and is a less than optimal immunogen of the 23-valent vaccine for adults. Pertussis toxin (PT) is both a virulence factor and protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis: it is not soluble at neutral pH and forms insoluble complexes with acidic polysaccharides. Both Pn14 and PT are potential components of vaccines for infants and children. Accordingly, a synthetic scheme was devised to prepare a conjugate of Pn14 and PT. An adipic acid hydrazide derivative of Pn14 was bound to PT at pH 3.9 by carbodiimide-mediated condensation. The conjugation procedure inactivated the PT as assayed by CHO cell and histamine-sensitizing activity. The Pn14-PT conjugate elicited antibodies in mice to Pn14 at levels estimated to be protective in humans and elicited neutralizing antibodies to PT. We plan to evaluate Pn14-PT clinically. PMID:1500160

  5. Impact of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine introduction in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    von Gottberg, A.; de Gouveia, L.; Madhi, S. A.; du Plessis, M.; Quan, V.; Soma, K.; Huebner, R.; Flannery, B.; Schuchat, A.; Klugman, Kp

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in reported invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in South Africa within the first five years of introduction of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the routine child immunization schedule. METHODS: We used national laboratory-based surveillance data to identify cases of invasive H. influenzae disease between July 1999 and June 2004, and submitted isolates for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. FINDINGS: The absolute number of Hib cases (reported to the national surveillance system) among children below one year of age decreased by 65%, from 55 cases in 1999-2000 to 19 cases in 2003-04. Enhanced surveillance initiated in 2003, identified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and incomplete vaccination as contributing factors for Hib transmission. The total number of laboratory-confirmed cases of H. influenzae remained unchanged because non-type b disease was being increasingly reported to the surveillance system concomitant with system enhancements. Children with non-typable disease were more likely to be HIV-positive (32 of 34, 94%) than children with Hib disease (10 of 14, 71%), P = 0.051. Recent Hib isolates were more likely to be multidrug resistant (2% in 1999-2000 versus 19% in 2003-04, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Data from a newly established national laboratory-based surveillance system showed a decrease in Hib disease burden among South African children following conjugate vaccine introduction and identified cases of non-typable disease associated with HIV infection. PMID:17128361

  6. Two or three primary dose regime for Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Thumburu, Kiran K.; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Jaiswal, Nishant; Agarwal, Amit; Kumar, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important cause of meningitis and pneumonia in children. Despite the availability of Hib conjugate vaccine, many countries are still to implement it in their immunization schedule. Before introducing the vaccine in routine immunization programs, it is important to know not only the cumulative efficacy but also the efficacy of each vaccine dose. The primary objective of this review is to find whether two primary dose schedule of Hib vaccine is equally efficacious as the standard three primary dose schedule. A highly sensitive online search was run using the terms Haemophilus Vaccines or Haemophilus influenzae type b and conjugate vaccine, and Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and Scopus were explored for prospective randomized controlled studies. Data were extracted in a predesigned proforma and analyzed using RevMan software. Nine randomized studies were included in the analysis. Pooled vaccine efficacy using a fixed effects model against confirmed invasive Hib disease following the 3, 2 and 1 primary dose schedule were 82% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73-87], 79% (95% CI 5490) and 65% (95% CI 2384), respectively, and the overall efficacy was 80% (95% CI 7285). To conclude, we found that Hib conjugate vaccine is highly efficacious and that the two dose regime is as good as the three dose regime. [The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013004490)]. PMID:25984342

  7. Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Régnier, Marie; Metz, Bernard; Tilstra, Wichard; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Jiskoot, Wim; Norde, Willem; Kersten, Gideon

    2012-11-01

    Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide particles based on a high adsorption degree, adsorption rate and adsorptive capacity. The conformation and stability of diphtheria toxoid in solution and adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant were characterized using five physicochemical techniques: intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Diphtheria toxoid adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide resulted in a minimal shift of the tryptophan fluorescence spectrum, whereas a large increase in the emission of the Bis-ANS probe was observed, indicating that hydrophobic sites of the protein became accessible due to adsorption. In addition, circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy revealed that adsorption to aluminium hydroxide caused an increase of β-sheet content and a decrease of α-helix content in diphtheria toxoid. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated a major decrease in the enthalpy of denaturation upon adsorption. In conclusion, the adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant leads to substantial conformational changes in the antigen. Since physicochemical methods can be used to monitor these conformational changes, these analytical methods might offer a tool in regulatory required vaccine quality control by demonstrating consistency in production. PMID:23000120

  8. Evaluation of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Immunoassays Using a 22F Adsorption Step with Serum Samples from Infants Vaccinated with Conjugate Vaccines?

    PubMed Central

    Poolman, Jan T.; Frasch, Carl E.; Kyhty, Helena; Lestrate, Pascal; Madhi, Shabir A.; Henckaerts, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The history of the pneumococcal polysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is characterized by a continuous search for increased specificity. A third-generation ELISA that uses 22F polysaccharide inhibition has increased the specificity of the assay, particularly at low antibody concentrations. The present work compared various 22F ELISAs and non-22F ELISAs. The comparisons involved three different laboratories, including a WHO reference laboratory, and included sera from subjects from different geographic areas immunized with different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, including the licensed 7-valent Prevenar vaccine and the 10-valent Synflorix vaccine. All comparisons led to the same conclusion that the threshold defined as 0.35 ?g/ml for the WHO non-22F ELISA is lower when any 22F ELISA is used. The use of highly purified polysaccharides for coating further improved the specificity of the assay. In conclusion, we confirm that the 22F ELISA can be recommended as a reference method for the determination of antibodies against pneumococcal polysaccharides. PMID:19889940

  9. Priming of Immunological Memory by Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children Unresponsive to 23-Valent Polysaccharide Pneumococcal Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Markus A.; Schubert, Ralf; Strnad, Nicola; Zielen, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is of limited immunogenicity in infants and immunocompromised patients. Our prospective randomized controlled trial investigated whether priming with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) induced specific immunological memory in previously nonresponders to PPV. Of a total of 33 children (2 to 18 years) with polysaccharide-specific immunodeficiency (PSI), group A (n = 16) received two doses of 7-valent PCV in a 4- to 6-week interval, and a booster dose of 23-valent PPV after one year. Group B (n = 17) received two doses of PPV in a 1-year interval exclusively. Specific antibody concentrations for serotypes 4, 5, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F were determined (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) before and at 7 and 28 days after administration of the PPV booster and compared to an opsonophagocytosis assay. Of group A, 64 to 100% had antibody concentrations of ?1 ?g/ml on day 28 after the booster versus 25 to 94% of group B. Group A had significantly higher antibody concentrations for all PCV-containing serotypes already on day 7, indicating early memory response. Antibody concentrations were in accordance with functional opsonic activity, although opsonic titers varied among individuals. Pneumococcal vaccination was well tolerated. The incidence of airway infections was reduced after priming with PCV (10/year for group A versus 15/year for group B). Following a PPV booster, even patients primarily not responding to PPV showed a rapid and more pronounced memory response after priming with PCV. PMID:16210486

  10. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination of adults: phase III comparison of an investigational conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with the licensed vaccine, Menactra.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Keith S; Baxter, Roger; Block, Stanley L; Shah, Jina; Bedell, Lisa; Dull, Peter M

    2009-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States, with the highest case fatality rates reported for individuals > or = 15 years of age. This study compares the safety and immunogenicity of the Novartis Vaccines investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, to those of the licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra, when administered to healthy adults. In this phase III multicenter study, 1,359 adults 19 to 55 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four groups (1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive a single dose of one of three lots of MenACWY-CRM or a single dose of Menactra. Serum samples obtained at baseline and 1 month postvaccination were tested for serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA). The hSBA titers following vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and Menactra were compared in noninferiority and prespecified superiority analyses. Reactogenicity was similar in the MenACWY-CRM and Menactra groups, and neither vaccine was associated with a serious adverse event. When compared with Menactra, MenACWY-CRM met the superiority criteria for the proportions of recipients achieving a seroresponse against serogroups C, W-135, and Y and the proportion of subjects achieving postvaccination titers of > or = 1:8 for serogroups C and Y. MenACWY-CRM's immunogenicity was statistically noninferior (the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was more than -10%) to that of Menactra for all four serogroups, with the postvaccination hSBA geometric mean titers being consistently higher for MenACWY-CRM than for Menactra. MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated in adults 19 to 55 years of age, with immune responses to each of the serogroups noninferior and, in some cases, statistically superior to those to Menactra. PMID:19812260

  11. Kinetics of antibody responses after primary immunization with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine or secondary immunization with either conjugate or polysaccharide vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    de Voer, Richarda M; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Engels, Carla W A M; Schepp, Rutger M; van de Kassteele, Jan; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Rijkers, Ger T; Berbers, Guy A M

    2009-11-23

    In the Netherlands the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccine is administered as a single dose at 14 months. We evaluated the kinetics of isotype-specific antibodies in adults (n=21) after primary immunization with MenCC or secondary immunization with MenCC or plain MenC polysaccharide vaccine. Blood samples were collected prior to immunization and at 6 additional time points, from 3 to 25 days post-immunization. Secondary immunization resulted in 5-10-fold higher IgG titers compared to the primary immunization group, 25 days post-immunization. Prior to the secondary immunization, but 5 years after the first immunization, protective bactericidal antibodies and levels of MenC-specific IgG and IgM were still present. Furthermore, IgG antibodies present before secondary immunization were of higher avidity compared to antibodies produced one month after primary immunization. In addition, secondary immunization with nonconjugated MenC polysaccharide seemed to induce a higher IgG2 response compared to MenCC immunization. The kinetics of the observed secondary immune responses were not really faster than the observed primary responses. However, the rate of increase in antibodies seemed faster than the primary responses, representing a booster response. As the course of infection by Neisseria meningitidis can be very rapid, these data support the idea that sustainment of high antibody levels induced by MenCC are important for immediate protection. PMID:19800445

  12. Reduction of Antibody Response to an 11-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine Coadministered with a Vaccine Containing Acellular Pertussis Components

    PubMed Central

    Dagan, Ron; Goldblatt, David; Maleckar, James R.; Yach, Mansour; Eskola, Juhani

    2004-01-01

    In pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), polysaccharide antigens are often conjugated to protein carriers related to other common vaccines. It is therefore important to test PCV interaction with other pediatric vaccines when administered simultaneously. We assessed the immune response to an 11-valent PCV conjugated to diphtheria and tetanus carriers (PncD/T11), administered concomitantly, but in separate sites, with a combined vaccine containing epitopes related antigenically to the carriers: polyribosylribitol phosphate-tetanus tox oid (PRP-T), diphtheria toxoid (DT), and tetanus toxoid (TT). In addition, these combinations contained inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and either whole-cell pertussis (wP) or acellular pertussis (aP) components. After coadministration of PncD/T11 with the combined vaccine containing wP (DTwP/IPV/PRP-T), the responses to all polysaccharides in the PncD/T11 were satisfactory. In contrast, when coadministered with an aP-containing combination (DTaP/IPV/PRP-T), the response to all seven pneumococcal conjugates to TT was significantly reduced after primary and booster immunization. The pneumococcal conjugates to DT were not significantly reduced after the primary series, but were somewhat reduced after booster. It is likely that some suppression of the tetanus-mediated response occurred even when the PncD/T11 was coadministered with wP, but this suppression was masked by the adjuvant effect of wP. By replacing wP with aP, this adjuvant effect was removed, unmasking the suppression of the tetanus-mediated response. With the increasing use of multiple aP-containing vaccines in infancy, novel approaches to adjuvants and carrier protein technology are likely to be required. PMID:15322036

  13. 75 FR 7281 - Pediatric Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... (rotavirus vaccine, live, oral), Kinrix (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine), Pentacel [Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus and Haemophilus b Conjugate (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) Vaccine], and...

  14. Noninvasive pneumococcal clones associated with antimicrobial nonsusceptibility isolated from children in the era of conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    McElligott, Martha; Vickers, Imelda; Meehan, Mary; Cafferkey, Mary; Cunney, Robert; Humphreys, Hilary

    2015-09-01

    Carriage and noninvasive pneumococcal isolates frequently have a higher prevalence of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility than invasive isolates. From 2009 to 2014, we determined the associated clones in 169 pediatric noninvasive nonsusceptible pneumococci from a total of 506 isolates collected after 7- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine introduction (PCV7/13) to the Irish childhood immunization schedule in 2008 and 2010, respectively. We compared our results to those from 25 noninvasive pediatric pneumococcal isolates collected in 2007, the year before introduction of conjugate vaccines. In 2007, England(14)-9 and Spain(9V)-3 accounted for 12% and 32% of nonsusceptible clones, respectively, but in 2009 to 2014, their prevalence fell to 0% and 2.4%. Furthermore, there was a significant decline in Spain(6B)-2 and its variants from 2009 to 2014 (P = 0.0024). Fluctuations occurred in clonal complex 320 associated with serotype 19A. The prevalence of Sweden(15A)-25 and its variants and ST558 (a single-locus variant of Utah(35B)-24) associated with nonvaccine serotypes (NVT) 15A and 35B increased from 0% and 8% in 2007 to 19% and 16% in 2013 to 2014, respectively. Pilus locus 1 (PI-1) is associated with the spread of some nonsusceptible pneumococcal clones. PI-1 was more frequently associated with PCV7/13 serotypes than NVT (P = 0.0020). Our data highlight the value of surveillance of noninvasive pneumococci following conjugate vaccine introduction. Importantly, emerging clones associated with NVT may limit the effectiveness of PCV7/13 in reducing the high rate of nonsusceptibility among pediatric noninvasive pneumococci, with implications for empirical treatment strategies. PMID:26169397

  15. Long-term impact of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage in children previously vaccinated with various pneumococcal conjugate vaccine regimes.

    PubMed

    Boelsen, Laura K; Dunne, Eileen M; Lamb, Karen E; Bright, Kathryn; Cheung, Yin Bun; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, E Kim; Licciardi, Paul V; Satzke, Catherine

    2015-10-13

    Previously, the Fiji Pneumococcal Project (FiPP) evaluated reduced dose immunization schedules that incorporated pneumococcal protein conjugate and/or polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7 and 23vPPV, respectively). Immune hyporesponsiveness was observed in children vaccinated with 23vPPV at 12 months of age compared with children who did not receive 23vPPV. Here we assess the long-term impact of 23vPPV vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage rates and densities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal swabs (n=194) were obtained from healthy children who participated in FiPP (now aged 5-7 years). S. pneumoniae were isolated and identified by standard culture-based methods, and serotyped using latex agglutination and the Quellung reaction. Carriage rates and densities of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus and M. catarrhalis were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. There were no differences in the rate or density of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis carriage by PCV7 dose or 23vPPV vaccination in the vaccinated participants overall. However, differences were observed between the two main ethnic groups: Fijian children of Indian descent (Indo-Fijian) were less likely to carry S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and there was evidence of a higher carriage rate of S. aureus compared with indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) children. Polysaccharide vaccination appeared to have effects that varied between ethnic groups, with 23vPPV vaccination associated with a higher carriage rate of S. aureus in iTaukei children, while there was a lower carriage rate of S. pneumoniae associated with 23vPPV vaccination in Indo-Fijian children. Overall, polysaccharide vaccination had no long-term impact on pneumococcal carriage, but may have impacted on S. aureus carriage and have varying effects in ethnic groups, suggesting current WHO vaccine schedule recommendations against the use of 23vPPV in children under two years of age are appropriate. PMID:26232540

  16. Synthetic Teichoic Acid Conjugate Vaccine against Nosocomial Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Laverde, Diana; Wobser, Dominique; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Hogendorf, Wouter; van der Marel, Gijsbert; Berthold, Martin; Kropec, Andrea; Codee, Jeroen; Huebner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are amphiphilic polymers that are important constituents of the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria. The chemical structures of LTA vary among organisms, albeit in the majority of Gram-positive bacteria the LTAs feature a common poly-1,3-(glycerolphosphate) backbone. Previously, the specificity of opsonic antibodies for this backbone present in some Gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated, suggesting that this minimal structure may be sufficient for vaccine development. In the present work, we studied a well-defined synthetic LTA-fragment, which is able to inhibit opsonic killing of polyclonal rabbit sera raised against native LTA from Enterococcus faecalis 12030. This promising compound was conjugated with BSA and used to raise rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the opsonic activity of this serum was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay and specificity was confirmed by an opsonophagocytic inhibition assay. The conjugated LTA-fragment was able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediate killing of the clinical strains E. faecalis 12030, Enterococcus faecium E1162, and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2 (USA400). Prophylactic immunization with the teichoic acid conjugate and with the rabbit serum raised against this compound was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies in mice, and in an enterococcal endocarditis rat model. In all animal models, a statistically significant reduction of colony counts was observed indicating that the novel synthetic LTA-fragment conjugate is a promising vaccine candidate for active or passive immunotherapy against E. faecalis and other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25333799

  17. Hyporesponsiveness to the infecting serotype after vaccination of children with seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine following invasive pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kazuyo; Matsubara, Kousaku; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Nishi, Junichiro; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Suga, Shigeru; Ihara, Toshiaki; Chang, Bin; Akeda, Yukihiro; Oishi, Kazunori

    2014-03-14

    Antibody responses to the infecting serotype in children who are vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) after having invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) have not been fully investigated. Of 56 children diagnosed with IPD between October 2009 and April 2013 in whom the infecting serotype was confirmed, 17 who were vaccinated with PCV7 following IPD were tested to determine the geometric mean concentration of serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the geometric mean titers of opsonization indices (OIs) using paired sera obtained at the onset of IPD and after PCV doses following the resolution of IPD. The geometric mean concentrations of serotype-specific IgG for all PCV7 serotypes other than serotype 6B were significantly increased after the last PCV7 dose compared with those at the time of IPD onset (P<0.01), as were the geometric mean titers of OIs for all PCV7 serotypes. In 14 children with IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes for whom both IgG and OI results were available, the OIs for the infecting serotype at the time of IPD onset were <8, although the IgG levels varied between from <0.2 to >5.0?g/ml. After the last PCV7 dose, the OIs for the infecting serotype remained <8 for six (43%) of 14 children. In these six children, hyporesponsiveness to PCV7 was specific for the infecting serotype. Hyporesponsiveness was found for serotypes 6B (n=5) and 23F (n=1). No difference was found between the responders (n=8) and the hyporesponders (n=6) with regard to any clinical characteristics. Our data suggest that hyporesponsiveness to the infecting serotype may occur in children vaccinated with PCV7 following IPD. PMID:24486367

  18. Randomized, Controlled Trial of a 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administered Concomitantly with an Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gurtman, Alejandra; Rubino, John; Smith, William; van Cleeff, Martin; Jayawardene, Deepthi; Giardina, Peter C.; Emini, Emilio A.; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.; Schmöle-Thoma, Beate

    2012-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) coadministered with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in pneumococcal vaccine-naive adults. Participants ages 50 to 59 years (n = 1,116) received TIV with PCV13 (group 1) or placebo (group 2) (1:1 randomization); 1 month later, group 1 received placebo and group 2 received PCV13. A hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay for TIV and a standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for pneumococcal serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers (assessed post hoc) were measured at baseline and 1 and 2 months postvaccination. The rises in HAI assay geometric mean titer (GMT) and percentage of participants in groups 1 and 2 with ≥4-fold increases in HAI responses (A/H1N1, 84.0% and 81.2%, respectively; A/H3N2, 71.1% and 69.5%, respectively; and B, 60.6% and 60.3%, respectively) were similar. In group 1, all serotypes met the predefined IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratio noninferiority criterion relative to group 2, but GMCs were lower in group 1 than group 2. When comparing group 1 with group 2, 5 serotypes did not meet the OPA GMT ratio noninferiority criterion, and OPA GMTs were significantly lower for 10 serotypes. PCV13 injection site reactions were similar and mostly mild in both groups. Systemic events were more frequent in group 1 (86.2%) than group 2 (76.7%; P < 0.001); no vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. Coadministration of PCV13 and TIV was well tolerated but associated with lower PCV13 antibody responses and is of unknown clinical significance. Given the positive immunologic attributes of PCV13, concomitant administration with TIV should be dictated by clinical circumstances. PMID:22739693

  19. Interim results of an ecological experiment - Conjugate vaccination against the pneumococcus and serotype replacement.

    PubMed

    Hausdorff, William P; Hanage, William P

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae has more than 95 serotypes, each of which presumably can cause sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, and acute otitis media. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) targeted against a limited number of serotypes have nonetheless revealed an impressive impact on each manifestation of pneumococcal disease. At the same time, growing evidence of significant non-vaccine type (NVT) replacement disease following implementation of infant PCV programs has raised questions about the long-term viability of PCV immunization strategies and how to optimize PCV formulations. We discuss here theoretical and practical considerations regarding serotype replacement, and provide a snapshot of the most important NVT types seen to date after implementation of the 2 higher-valent PCVs. PMID:26905681

  20. Using the tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine in the prevention of meningococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Sanford R

    2008-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease occurs worldwide causing an estimated 50,000135,000 deaths each year in addition to significant sequelae. In developed countries the disease is usually sporadic but outbreaks and epidemics, usually due to serogroups B and C, have occurred. In the US, an increasing number of cases are due to serogroup Y. In developing nations, epidemics due to serogroups A and more recently W-135, are common. The tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine to serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 (MCV4) has been demonstrated to be highly immunogenic and promote immune memory. This article will describe the rationale for the vaccine and its potential role to significantly decrease mortality and morbidity of meningococcal disease in those areas and populations at greatest risk from these serogroups. PMID:19209256

  1. Potential Impact of Conjugate Vaccine on the Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Stuart C.; Jefferies, Johanna M.; Smith, Andrew J.; McMenamin, Jim; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Edwards, Giles F. S.

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine the potential impact of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children in Scotland. Invasive pneumococci from blood and cerebrospinal fluid, isolated between 2000 and 2004 from all children aged less than 5 years in Scotland, were characterized by serotyping. Using reported efficacy data of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) along with likely coverage rates, we made an estimation of the potential impact on the incidence of IPD among children in Scotland. A total of 217 pneumococci were characterized into 22 different serogroups/types, the most common, in rank order, being 14, 19F, 6B, 18C, 23F, 9V, 4, 1, 19A, and 6A. Estimated serotype coverage for PCV7 was 76.5% in those aged less than 5 years of age but increased to 88.9% for those aged 1 year. By using serotype coverage and estimates of vaccine efficacy and uptake, the potential impact of the vaccine for those greater than 2 months of age, but less than 5 years, was estimated as 67.3%, leading to an average of 29 preventable cases per year. The introduction of PCV7 into the childhood immunization schedule would reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in children, and the incidence would be particularly reduced in those children aged 1 year. Additional benefits may be gained in adults through herd protection. Continued surveillance of IPD is required before, during, and after the introduction of PCV7. PMID:16597842

  2. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Pediatric Tympanostomy Tube Insertion in Partial Immunized Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mao-Che; Wang, Ying-Piao; Chu, Chia-Huei; Shiao, An-Suey; Chou, Pesus

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the impact of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population. Study Design. Retrospective ecological study. Methods. This study used Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 20002009. Every child under 17 years old who received tubes during this 10-year period was identified and analyzed. The tube insertion rates in different age groups and the risk to receive tubes in different birth cohorts before and after the release of the vaccine in 2005 were compared. Results. The tube insertion rates for children under 17 years of age ranged from 21.6 to 31.9 for 100,000 persons/year. The tube insertion rate of children under 2 years old decreased significantly after 2005 in period effect analysis (? = ?0.074, P < 0.05, and the negative ? value means a downward trend) and increased in children 2 to 9 years old throughout the study period (positive ? values which mean upward trends, P < 0.05). The rate of tube insertion was lower in 2004-2005 and 2006-2007 birth cohorts than that of 2002-2003 birth cohort (RR = 0.90 and 0.21, 95% CI 0.830.97 and 0.190.23, resp.). Conclusion. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may reduce the risk of tube insertion for children of later birth cohorts. The vaccine may have the protective effect on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population. PMID:25839052

  3. Maternal immunization with pneumococcal 9-valent conjugate vaccine and early infant otitis media.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kathleen A; Scott Giebink, G; Lindgren, Bruce R; Knox, JoAnn; Haggerty, Betty Jo; Nordin, James; Goetz, Sarah; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    A randomized trial of an investigational 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-9) or placebo given to pregnant women during the last trimester to prevent early infant otitis media (OM) was conducted. All infants received Prevnar() at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. Clinic and adverse event records were reviewed to identify OM. Variables significantly related to acute OM by age 6 months (p<0.05) were: vaccine group (9 valent or placebo), sibling history of tympanostomy tubes, upper respiratory infection, and number of clinic visits by 6 months. Infant OM rates were similar between 6 and 12 months (58% and 56%). Results suggested that immunizing pregnant women with PCV-9 increased infants' risk of acute OM in the first 6 months of life, and this correlated with decreased infant antibody responses to their infant Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine serotypes, but did not influence antibody responses to 3 other serotypes two of which were in maternal vaccine (types 1 and 5) and one was a control (type 7F). Explanations for these results include dampening of infant antibody production by high levels of passively acquired maternal pneumococcal antibodies and/or altered B lymphocyte immune responses in infants exposed to these specific polysaccharide antigens in utero. PMID:25444821

  4. Maternal Immunization with Pneumococcal 9-valent Conjugate Vaccine and Early Infant Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kathleen A.; Giebink, G. Scott; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Knox, JoAnn; Haggerty, Betty Jo; Nordin, James; Goetz, Sarah; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    A randomized trial of an investigational 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-9) or placebo given to pregnant women during the last trimester to prevent early infant otitis media (OM) was conducted. All infants received Prevnar® at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. Clinic and adverse event records were reviewed to identify OM. Variables significantly related to acute OM by age 6 months (p <0.05) were: vaccine group (9 valent or placebo), sibling history of tympanostomy tubes, upper respiratory infection, and number of clinic visits by 6 months. Infant OM rates were similar between 6 and 12 months (58% and 56%). Results suggested that immunizing pregnant women with PCV-9 increased infants’ risk of acute OM in the first 6 months of life, and this correlated with decreased infant antibody responses to their infant Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine serotypes, but did not influence antibody responses to 3 other serotypes two of which were in maternal vaccine (types 1 and 5) and one was a control (type 7F). Explanations for these results include dampening of infant antibody production by high levels of passively acquired maternal pneumococcal antibodies and/or altered B lymphocyte immune responses in infants exposed to these specific polysaccharide antigens in utero. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00617682. PMID:25444821

  5. Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Fully Liquid Combination DiphtheriaTetanus ToxoidFive-Component Acellular Pertussis (DTaP5), Inactivated Poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine Compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib Vaccine Administered at 3, 5, and 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheriatetanus toxoidfive-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP5-IPV-Hib) and DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP5-IPV-Hib to DTaP3-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP5-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.) PMID:23966556

  6. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility analysis of three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children of Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical and economic burden associated with invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) diseases is substantial in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where pneumococcal vaccines have only been introduced to a few countries. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness and cost utility of three different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) for Peru. Methods A Markov model that simulated the disease processes in a birth cohort over a lifetime, within 1,128monthcycles was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 7- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV-7 and PCV-13). Expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost-savings and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Results Without vaccination, pneumonia was associated with the greatest health economic burden (90% of QALYs lost and 63% of lifetime direct medical costs); while acute otitis media (AOM) was responsible for 1% of QALYs lost and 25% of direct medical costs. All vaccines were predicted to be cost-effective for Peru, with PHiD-CV being most cost-effective. PHiD-CV was predicted to generate 50 more QALYs gained and required a reduced investment (?US$ 3.4 million) versus PCV-13 (discounted data), and was therefore dominant and cost saving. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV generated more QALYs gained at a reduced cost than PCV-13 in 84% of the simulations and less QALYs gains at a reduced cost in 16%. Additional scenarios using different assumptions on vaccine efficacies based on previous evidence were explored, but no significant change in the overall cost-effective results were observed. Conclusions The results of this modeling study predict that PCVs are likely to be a cost-effective strategy to help relieve the epidemiological and economic burden associated with pediatric pneumococcal and NTHi diseases for Peru. PHiD-CV is likely to be a dominant (better health gains at a reduced net cost) intervention compared to PCV-13 or PCV-7. The most significant drivers for these results are the better health and economic profile of PHiD-CV against AOM and its reduced cost per dose available through the PAHO Revolving Fund in the LAC region. PMID:24171921

  7. Sustained high-titer antibody responses induced by conjugating a malarial vaccine candidate to outer-membrane protein complex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yimin; Przysiecki, Craig; Flanagan, Elizabeth; Bello-Irizarry, Sheila N; Ionescu, Roxana; Muratova, Olga; Dobrescu, Gelu; Lambert, Lynn; Keister, David; Rippeon, Yvette; Long, Carole A; Shi, Li; Caulfield, Michael; Shaw, Alan; Saul, Allan; Shiver, John; Miller, Louis H

    2006-11-28

    The development of protein subunit vaccines to combat some of the world's deadliest pathogens such as a malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is stalled, due in part to the inability to induce and sustain high-titer antibody responses. Here, we show the induction of persistent, high-titer antibody responses to recombinant Pfs25H, a human malarial transmission-blocking protein vaccine candidate, after chemical conjugation to the outer-membrane protein complex (OMPC) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and adsorption to aluminum hydroxyphosphate. In mice, the Pfs25H-OMPC conjugate vaccine was >1,000 times more potent in generating anti-Pfs25H ELISA reactivity than a similar 0.5-microg dose of Pfs25H alone in Montanide ISA720, a water-in-oil adjuvant. The immune enhancement requires covalent conjugation between Pfs25H and the OMPC, given that physically mixed Pfs25H and OMPC on aluminum hydroxyphosphate failed to induce greater activity than the nonconjugated Pfs25H on aluminum hydroxyphosphate. The conjugate vaccine Pfs25H-OMPC also was highly immunogenic in rabbits and rhesus monkeys. In rhesus monkeys, the antibody responses were sustained over 18 months, at which time another vaccination with nonconjugated Pfs25H induced strong anamnestic responses. The vaccine-induced anti-Pfs25-specific antibodies in all animal species blocked the transmission of parasites to mosquitoes. Protein antigen conjugation to OMPC or other protein carrier may have general application to a spectrum of protein subunit vaccines to increase immunogenicity without the need for potentially reactogenic adjuvants. PMID:17110440

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (diphtheria CRM(197) protein conjugate; Prevenar ) in Korean infants: differences that are found in Asian children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Hee; Lee, Jina; Lee, Sang Jeong; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Park, Su-Eun; Lee, Hoan-Jong

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the immunogenicity and safety of a 7-valent CRM197 protein conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in Korean infants immunized at 2, 4 and 6 months. A total of 202 infants were enrolled and 146 and 141 infants were, respectively, included in post-2nd dose and post-3rd dose immunogenicity evaluations conducted on a per protocol basis. After two and three PCV7 vaccinations, 63.0-98.0 and 97.2-100% of infants achieved an antibody level of >or=0.35microg/mL, respectively, with a lowest against serotype 6B. No vaccination-related serious adverse reactions were observed. Thus, PCV7 appears safe and highly immunogenic in Korean infants, and adopting two doses for a primary series could be a feasible option for facilitating vaccine coverage rate. PMID:17931753

  9. Safety and Immunogenicity of a 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Compared to Those of a 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Given as a Three-Dose Series with Routine Vaccines in Healthy Infants and Toddlers ?

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Tansey, Susan; Thompson, Allison; Razmpour, Ahmad; Liang, John; Jones, Thomas R.; Ferrera, Giuseppe; Maida, Alessandro; Bona, Gianni; Sabatini, Caterina; Pugni, Lorenza; Emini, Emilio A.; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.; Principi, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been developed to improve protection against pneumococcal disease beyond that possible with the licensed 7-valent vaccine (PCV7). This study compared the safety and immunogenicity of PCV13 with those of PCV7 when given as part of the pediatric vaccination schedule recommended in Italy. A total of 606 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either PCV13 or PCV7 at 3, 5, and 11 months of age; all subjects concomitantly received diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine. Vaccine reactions were monitored. Antibody responses to DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens, serotype-specific anticapsular polysaccharide IgG responses, and antipneumococcal opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) activity were measured 1 month after the two-dose primary series and 1 month after the toddler dose. Overall, the safety profile of PCV13 was similar to that of PCV7. The response to DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens was substantially the same with both PCV13 and PCV7. PCV13 elicited antipneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies to all 13 vaccine serotypes, with notable increases in concentrations seen after the toddler dose. Despite a lower immunogenicity for serotypes 6B and 23F after the primary series of PCV13, responses to the seven common serotypes were comparable between the PCV13 and PCV7 groups when measured after the toddler dose. PCV13 also elicited substantial levels of OPA activity against all 13 serotypes following both the infant series and the toddler dose. In conclusion, PCV13 appeared comparable to PCV7 in safety profile and immunogenicity for common serotypes, demonstrated functional OPA responses for all 13 serotypes, and did not interfere with immune responses to concomitantly administered DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. PMID:20427630

  10. Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits similar antibody response as standard 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine in adult patients with RA treated with immunomodulating drugs.

    PubMed

    Kapetanovic, Meliha Crnkic; Roseman, Carmen; Jönsson, Göran; Truedsson, Lennart

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare antibody response in immunosuppressed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to that of RA patients and healthy controls vaccinated with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and to study the impact of disease and/or treatment characteristics and type of vaccine on antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with RA. In total, 253 RA patients treated with methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNF blockers as monotherapy or anti-TNF + MTX were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PCV7. In addition, 149 RA patients receiving corresponding treatments and 47 healthy controls were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PPV23. Serotype-specific IgG to 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and 4-6 weeks after vaccination using ELISA. Antibody response ratio (ARR), i.e. ratio between post-/prevaccination antibody levels, was compared between corresponding treatment groups. Differences in ARR were analysed using analysis of variance. Positive antibody response (posAR) was defined as equal to or greater than twofold increase in prevaccination antibody levels. Possible predictors of posAR were analysed using logistic regression model. Corresponding RA treatment groups showed similar ARR and posAR for both serotypes regardless of vaccine type. Higher age at vaccination and concomitant MTX were identified as predictors of impaired posAR for both serotypes tested, whereas type of vaccine did not influence posAR significantly. PCV7 elicits similar antibody response as PPV23 in patients with RA receiving immunosuppressive treatment. In RA patients, higher age and MTX treatment but not type of vaccine predicted impaired posAR. PMID:21956234

  11. HEPTAVALENT PNEUMOCOCCAL CONJUGATE VACCINE IMMUNOGENICITY IN VERY-LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT, PREMATURE INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    DAngio, Carl T.; Heyne, Roy J.; OShea, T. Michael; Schelonka, Robert L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Duara, Shahnaz; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Vohr, Betty R.; Das, Abhik; Li, Lei; Burton, Robert L.; Hastings, Betty; Phelps, Dale L.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Stevenson, David K.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The heptavalent pneumococcal-CRM197 conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) has been incompletely studied in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, ?1500 grams) infants. Objective To assess PCV-7 immunogenicity in VLBW, premature infants. We hypothesized that the frequency of post-vaccine antibody concentrations ?0.15 g/mL would vary directly with birth weight. Methods This was a multi-center observational study. Infants 4011500 grams birth weight and <32 0/7 weeks gestation, stratified by birth weight, were enrolled from 9 NICHD Neonatal Research Network centers. Infants received PCV-7 at 2, 4 and 6 months after birth and had blood drawn 46 weeks following the third dose. Antibodies against the 7 vaccine serotypes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Of 369 enrolled infants, 244 completed their primary vaccine series by 8 months and had serum obtained. Subjects were 27.8 2.2 (mean standard deviation) weeks gestation and 1008 282 grams birth weight. Twenty-six percent had bronchopulmonary dysplasia and 16% had received postnatal glucocorticoids. Infants 10011500 grams birth weight were more likely than those 4011000 grams to achieve antibody concentrations ?0.15 g/mL against the least two immunogenic serotypes (6B: 96% v. 85%, P = 0.003 and 23F: 97% v. 88%, P = 0.009). In multiple logistic regression analysis, lower birth weight, postnatal glucocorticoid use, lower weight at blood draw and Caucasian race were each independently associated with antibody concentrations <0.35 g/mL against serotypes 6B and/or 23F. Conclusion When compared with larger premature infants, infants weighing ?1000 grams at birth have similar antibody responses to most, but not all, PCV-7 vaccine serotypes. PMID:20234331

  12. Poor memory B cell generation contributes to non-protective responses to DTaP vaccine antigens in otitis-prone children.

    PubMed

    Basha, S; Pichichero, M E

    2015-12-01

    We recently identified a cohort of children with recurrent episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) who fail to generate protective antibody titres to otopathogens and several vaccine antigens. In this study we determined the antibody levels against DTaP vaccine antigens, diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and acellular pertussis toxoid (PT) in sera from 15 stringently defined otitis-prone (sOP) children and 20 non-otitis-prone (NOP) children. We found significantly lower concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies against vaccine antigens in the serum of sOP children compared to age-matched NOP children. To elucidate immunological cellular responses to the vaccines in these children, we investigated memory B cell responses to DTaP vaccination. We used fluorescently conjugated vaccine antigens to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells and examined the frequency of antigen-specific CD19(+) CD27(+) memory B cells in the peripheral blood. sOP children showed a significantly lower percentage of antigen-specific CD19(+) CD27(+) memory B cells than NOP children. We also found a linear correlation between the frequencies of memory B cells and circulating IgG titres for DT, TT and PT proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show significant differences in memory B cell responses to DTaP vaccine antigens and their correlation with the circulating antibodies in young children with recurrent AOM. PMID:26138025

  13. Genetic conjugation of components in two pneumococcal fusion protein vaccines enhances paediatric mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pope, Caroline; Oliver, Elizabeth H; Ma, Jiangtao; Langton Hewer, Claire; Mitchell, Tim J; Finn, Adam

    2015-03-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonises the upper respiratory tract and can cause pneumonia, meningitis and otitis media. Existing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are expensive to produce and only protect against 13 of the 90+ pneumococcal serotypes; hence there is an urgent need for the development of new vaccines. We have shown previously in mice that pneumolysin (Ply) and a non-toxic variant (?6Ply) enhance antibody responses when genetically fused to pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA), a potentially valuable effect for future vaccines. We investigated this adjuvanticity in human paediatric mucosal primary immune cell cultures. Adenoidal mononuclear cells (AMNC) from children aged 0-15 years (n=46) were stimulated with conjugated, admixed or individual proteins, cell viability and CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses were assessed using flow cytometry and cytokine secretion was measured using multiplex technology. Proliferation of CD4+ T-cells in response to PsaAPly, was significantly higher than responses to individual or admixed proteins (p=0.002). In contrast, an enhanced response to PsaA?6Ply compared to individual or admixed proteins only occurred at higher concentrations (p<0.01). Evaluation of cytotoxicity suggested that responses occurred when Ply-induced cytolysis was inhibited, either by fusion or mutation, but importantly an additional toxicity independent immune enhancing effect was also apparent as a result of fusion. Responses were MHC class II dependent and had a Th1/Th17 profile. Genetic fusion of ?6Ply to PsaA significantly modulates and enhances pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cell responses without the cytolytic effects of some other pneumolysoids. Membrane binding activity of such proteins may confer valuable adjuvant properties as fusion may assist ?6Ply to deliver PsaA to the APC surface effectively, contributing to the initiation of anti-pneumococcal CD4+ T-cell immunity. PMID:25698489

  14. Cost-effectiveness of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Turkey: a decision analytical model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, which place a considerable burden on healthcare resources, can be reduced in a cost-effective manner using a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7). We compare the cost effectiveness of a 13-valent PCV (PCV-13) and a 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) with that of PCV-7 in Turkey. Methods A cost-utility analysis was conducted and a decision analytical model was used to estimate the proportion of the Turkish population <10 years old that would experience 10 mutually exclusive outcomes over the course of 1 year from a perspective of a healthcare system. Model outcomes were adjusted according to the population demographics and region-specific serotype distribution in Turkey. Health outcomes and direct healthcare costs were simulated for PCV-7, PCV-13 and PHiD-CV. Results PCV-13 and PHiD-CV are projected to have a substantial impact on pneumococcal disease in Turkey versus PCV-7, with 2,223 and 3,156 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and 2,146 and 2,081 life years, respectively, being saved under a 3+1 schedule. Projections of direct medical costs showed that a PHiD-CV vaccination programme would provide the greatest cost savings, offering additional savings of US$11,718,813 versus PCV-7 and US$8,235,010 versus PCV-13. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV dominated PCV-13 in terms of QALYs gained and cost savings in 58.3% of simulations. Conclusion Under the modeled conditions, PHiD-CV would provide the most cost-effective intervention for reducing pneumococcal disease in Turkish children. PMID:23137037

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of a CRM-conjugated meningococcal ACWY vaccine administered concomitantly with routine vaccines starting at 2 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Terry M; Nissen, Michael D; Naz, Aftab; Shepard, Julie; Bedell, Lisa; Hohenboken, Matthew; Odrljin, Tatjana; Dull, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infants are at the highest risk for meningococcal disease and a broadly protective and safe vaccine is an unmet need in this youngest population. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 4-dose infant/toddler regimen of MenACWY-CRM given at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age concomitantly with pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Hemophilus influenzae type b-inactivated poliovirus-combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV/Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), 7- or 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV), and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). Results: Four doses of MenACWY-CRM induced hSBA titers ?8 in 89%, 95%, 97%, and 96% of participants against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y, respectively. hSBA titers ?8 were present in 7698% of participants after the first 3 doses. A categorical linear analysis incorporating vaccine group and study center showed responses to routine vaccines administered with MenACWY-CRM were non-inferior to routine vaccines alone, except for seroresponse to the pertussis antigen fimbriae. The reactogenicity profile was not affected when MenACWY-CRM was administered concomitantly with routine vaccines. Conclusion: MenACWY-CRM administered with routine concomitant vaccinations in young infants was well tolerated and induced highly immunogenic responses against each of the serogroups without significant interference with the immune responses to routine infant vaccinations. Methods: Healthy 2 month old infants were randomized to receive MenACWY-CRM with routine vaccines (n = 258) or routine vaccines alone (n = 271). Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA). Medically attended adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs) and AEs leading to study withdrawal were collected throughout the study period. PMID:24220326

  16. Respiratory infection and otitis media visits in relation to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Khuc, Ngoc-Hang; Tan, Ben; Tuchscherer, Rosalie; Rawson, Nigel SB; De Wals, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Saskatchewan, pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) was offered to high-risk children in 2002 and to all infants in 2005. OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in the frequency of medical visits for lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) and otitis media (OM) in relation to PCV use during the period 1990 to 2008. METHODS: Statistics regarding the number of children covered by the health insurance plan, PCV administration, and medical visits with a diagnostic code associated with LRI and OM were provided by Saskatchewan Health. Monthly rates were analyzed using dynamic state space models. RESULTS: In all series, there was a marked seasonal cycle and some higher-than-expected winter peak values, possibly associated with epidemics of specific respiratory viruses. Three abrupt decreases in baseline rate were observed for LRI and the final one, in February 2007, could be related to the increased proportion of children vaccinated with PCV. There was no statistical correlation between PCV use and OM visit frequency. CONCLUSION: Many environmental, biological and administrative factors may influence health services use, and an effect of low magnitude of a particular vaccine pertaining to nonspecific outcomes could be obscured in time-series analyses. PMID:24489558

  17. Piliation of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in the Era before Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Katherine; Kamng'ona, Arox; Cornick, Jennifer; Bentley, Stephen D.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Everett, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    The pneumococcal pilus has been shown to be an important determinant of adhesion and virulence in mouse models of colonization, pneumonia, and bacteremia. A pilus is capable of inducing protective immunity, supporting its inclusion in next-generation pneumococcal protein vaccine formulations. Whether this vaccine target is common among pneumococci in sub-Saharan Africa is uncertain. To define the prevalence and genetic diversity of type I and II pili among invasive pneumococci in Malawi prior to the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) into routine childhood immunization, we examined 188 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected between 2002 and 2008 (17% serotype 1). In this region of high disease burden, we found a low frequency of invasive piliated pneumococci (14%) and pilus gene sequence diversity similar to that seen previously in multiple global pneumococcal lineages. All common serotypes with pilus were covered by PCV13 and so we predict that pilus prevalence will be reduced in the Malawian pneumococcal population after PCV13 introduction. PMID:24027261

  18. Development and clinical evaluation of Prevnar 13, a 13-valent pneumocococcal CRM197 conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gruber, William C; Scott, Daniel A; Emini, Emilio A

    2012-08-01

    Pneumococcus is the leading cause of bacterial illness in children worldwide. The development, clinical evaluation, and postlicensure impact of the pneumococcal CRM(197) protein conjugate vaccine, PCV13, (Prevnar 13) builds upon the excellent safety and substantial effectiveness of PCV7 (Prevnar) in preventing pneumococcal disease in children. PCV13 adds pneumococcal serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, and 19A to serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F in PCV7 to provide comprehensive coverage for over 85% of epidemiologically important pneumococcal serotypes in the United States and throughout the world. PCV13 development required demonstration of immunologic responses to the 13 serotypes contained in the vaccine that were noninferior to the responses elicited by PCV7, and demonstration of a satisfactory safety profile. Studies were also performed to demonstrate compatibility with other childhood vaccines. Now licensed in many countries worldwide, PCV13 shows significant promise for expanded protection against pneumococcal disease in children. PMID:22830997

  19. Capsule polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against diarrheal disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Mario A; Baqar, Shahida; Hall, Eric R; Chen, Yu-Han; Porter, Chad K; Bentzel, David E; Applebee, Lisa; Guerry, Patricia

    2009-03-01

    The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Campylobacter jejuni is one of the few identified virulence determinants of this important human pathogen. Since CPS conjugate vaccines have been so effective against other mucosal pathogens, we evaluated this approach using CPSs from two strains of C. jejuni, 81-176 (HS23 and HS36 serotype complex) and CG8486 (HS4 serotype complex). The CPSs of 81-176 and CG8486 were independently linked to the carrier protein CRM(197) by reductive amination between an aldehyde(s), strategically created at the nonreducing end of each CPS, and accessible amines of CRM(197). In both cases, the CPS:CRM(197) ratio used was 2:1 by weight. Mass spectrometry and gel electrophoresis showed that on average, each glycoconjugate preparation contained, at least in part, two to five CPSs attached to one CRM(197). When administered subcutaneously to mice, these vaccines elicited robust immune responses and significantly reduced the disease following intranasal challenge with the homologous strains of C. jejuni. The CPS(81-176)-CRM(197) vaccine also provided 100% protection against diarrhea in the New World monkey Aotus nancymaae following orogastric challenge with C. jejuni 81-176. PMID:19114545

  20. Clonal replacement among 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae in Massachusetts, prior to 13 valent conjugate vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C. J.; Lee, G. M.; Lipsitch, M.; Stevenson, A; Rifas-Shiman, S. L.; Pelton, S. I.; Huang, S. S.; Finkelstein, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study of the response of the Streptococcus pneumoniae population to conjugate vaccination, we applied multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to 291 isolates sampled from nasopharyngeal carriage in Massachusetts children. We found 94 distinct sequence types (STs), including 19 that had not been previously recorded, and a xpt allele containing a large insertion. Comparison with a similar sample collected in 2007 revealed no significant overall difference in the ST composition (p=0.51) suggesting that the population has reached a new equilibrium following the introduction of 7 valent vaccination in 2000. Within serotypes, a large and statistically significant increase (p=0.014 Fishers Exact test) was noted in the prevalence of the major multiresistant clone ST 320, which is apparently outcompeting ST 199 among serotype 19A strains. This sample will be used as a baseline to study the future evolution of the pneumococcal population in Massachusetts following introduction of vaccines with higher valency. PMID:21964059

  1. A Poly-N-Acetylglucosamine−Shiga Toxin Broad-Spectrum Conjugate Vaccine for Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; Skurnik, David; Pozzi, Clarissa; Roux, Damien; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Ritchie, Jennifer M.; Munera, Diana; Gening, Marina L.; Tsvetkov, Yury E.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.; Waldor, Matthew K.; Pier, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many pathogens produce the β-(1−6)-linked poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) surface polysaccharide that is being developed as a broadly protective antimicrobial vaccine. However, it is unknown whether systemically injected PNAG vaccines or antibodies would provide protective immunity against pathogens confined to the gastrointestinal tract such as Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), an important group of gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens for which effective immunotherapeutics are lacking. To ascertain whether systemic IgG antibody to PNAG impacts this infectious situation, a vaccine consisting of a synthetic nonamer of nonacetylated PNAG, 9GlcNH2, conjugated to the Shiga toxin 1b subunit (9GlcNH2-Stx1b) was produced. Rabbit antibodies raised to the conjugate vaccine were tested for bacterial killing and toxin neutralization in vitro and protection against infection in infant mice. Cell surface PNAG was detected on all 9 STEC isolates tested, representing 6 STEC serogroups, including E. coli O157:H7. Antibody to the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate neutralized Stx1 potently and Stx2 modestly. For O157:H7 and O104:H4 STEC strains, antibodies elicited by the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate possessed opsonic killing and bactericidal activity. Following intraperitoneal injection, antibodies to both PNAG and Stx were needed for infant mouse protection against O157 STEC. These antibodies also mediated protection against the Stx2-producing O104:H4 strain that was the cause of a recent outbreak in Germany, although sufficient doses of antibody to PNAG alone were protective against this strain in infant mice. Our observations suggest that vaccination against both PNAG and Stx, using a construct such as the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate vaccine, would be protective against a broad range of STEC serogroups. PMID:24667709

  2. Effects of Infant Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype Distribution in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children and Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Imhl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in 2006 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults in Germany with a focus on the dynamics of serotype distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups. Over a period of 22 years (19922014), microbiological diagnostic laboratories from all over Germany have been sending isolates of IPD cases to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci on a voluntary basis. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped using Neufelds Quellung method. Among children <16 years, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes among isolates from IPD cases decreased from 61.8% before vaccination (19972006) to 23.5% in the early vaccination period (20072010; p = 1.30E-72) and sank further to 5.2% in the late vaccination period (20102014; p = 4.59E-25). Similar reductions were seen for the separate age groups <2 years, 2-4 years and 5-15 years. Among adults, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes decreased from 43.4% in the pre-vaccination period (19922006) to 24.7% (p = 3.78E-88) in the early vaccination period and 8.2% (p = 5.97E-161) in the late vaccination period. Both among children and among adults, the non-PCV7 serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A significantly increased in the early vaccination period. After the switch from PCV7 to PVC10/PCV13 for infant vaccination in 2010, serotypes 1, 6A and 7F significantly decreased. A decrease in serotype 19A was only observed in 20132014, as compared to 20102011 (children p = 4.16E-04, adults p = 6.98E-06). Among adults, serotype 3, which strongly increased in the early vaccination period (p = 4.44E-15), remained at a constant proportion in the late vaccination period. The proportion of non-PCV13 vaccine serotypes increased over the whole vaccination period, with serotypes 10A, 12F, 23B, 24F and 38 most significantly increasing among children and serotypes 6C, 12F, 15A, 22F and 23B increasing among adults. Eight years of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination have had a strong effect on the pneumococcal population in Germany, both among the target group for vaccination as well as among older children and adults. PMID:26132078

  3. Clinical Safety and Immunogenicity of Tumor-Targeted, Plant-Made Id-KLH Conjugate Vaccines for Follicular Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tus, Daniel; Ku, Nora; Bendandi, Maurizio; Becerra, Carlos; Collins, Robert; Langford, Nyla; Sancho, Susana Inogs; Lpez-Daz de Cerio, Ascensin; Pastor, Fernando; Kandzia, Romy; Thieme, Frank; Jarczowski, Franziska; Krause, Dieter; Ma, Julian K-C; Pandya, Shan; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri; Butler-Ransohoff, John E

    2015-01-01

    We report the first evaluation of plant-made conjugate vaccines for targeted treatment of B-cell follicular lymphoma (FL) in a Phase I safety and immunogenicity clinical study. Each recombinant personalized immunogen consisted of a tumor-derived, plant-produced idiotypic antibody (Ab) hybrid comprising the hypervariable regions of the tumor-associated light and heavy Ab chains, genetically grafted onto a common human IgG1 scaffold. Each immunogen was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using twin magnICON vectors expressing the light and heavy chains of the idiotypic Ab. Each purified Ab was chemically linked to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) to form a conjugate vaccine. The vaccines were administered to FL patients over a series of ?6 subcutaneous injections in conjunction with the adjuvant Leukine (GM-CSF). The 27 patients enrolled in the study had previously received non-anti-CD20 cytoreductive therapy followed by ?4 months of immune recovery prior to first vaccination. Of 11 patients who became evaluable at study conclusion, 82% (9/11) displayed a vaccine-induced, idiotype-specific cellular and/or humoral immune response. No patients showed serious adverse events (SAE) related to vaccination. The fully scalable plant-based manufacturing process yields safe and immunogenic personalized FL vaccines that can be produced within weeks of obtaining patient biopsies. PMID:26425548

  4. Clinical Safety and Immunogenicity of Tumor-Targeted, Plant-Made Id-KLH Conjugate Vaccines for Follicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tus, Daniel; Ku, Nora; Bendandi, Maurizio; Becerra, Carlos; Collins, Robert; Langford, Nyla; Sancho, Susana Inogs; Lpez-Daz de Cerio, Ascensin; Pastor, Fernando; Kandzia, Romy; Thieme, Frank; Jarczowski, Franziska; Krause, Dieter; Ma, Julian K.-C.; Pandya, Shan; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri; Butler-Ransohoff, John E.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first evaluation of plant-made conjugate vaccines for targeted treatment of B-cell follicular lymphoma (FL) in a Phase I safety and immunogenicity clinical study. Each recombinant personalized immunogen consisted of a tumor-derived, plant-produced idiotypic antibody (Ab) hybrid comprising the hypervariable regions of the tumor-associated light and heavy Ab chains, genetically grafted onto a common human IgG1 scaffold. Each immunogen was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using twin magnICON vectors expressing the light and heavy chains of the idiotypic Ab. Each purified Ab was chemically linked to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) to form a conjugate vaccine. The vaccines were administered to FL patients over a series of ?6 subcutaneous injections in conjunction with the adjuvant Leukine (GM-CSF). The 27 patients enrolled in the study had previously received non-anti-CD20 cytoreductive therapy followed by ?4 months of immune recovery prior to first vaccination. Of 11 patients who became evaluable at study conclusion, 82% (9/11) displayed a vaccine-induced, idiotype-specific cellular and/or humoral immune response. No patients showed serious adverse events (SAE) related to vaccination. The fully scalable plant-based manufacturing process yields safe and immunogenic personalized FL vaccines that can be produced within weeks of obtaining patient biopsies. PMID:26425548

  5. "BINACLE" assay for in vitro detection of active tetanus neurotoxin in toxoids.

    PubMed

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, Heike A; Weisser, Karin; Krmer, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) consists of two protein chains connected by a disulfide linkage: The heavy chain mediates the toxin binding and uptake by neurons, whereas the light chain cleaves synaptobrevin and thus blocks neurotransmitter release.Chemically inactivated TeNT (tetanus toxoid) is utilized for the production of tetanus vaccines. For safety reasons, each toxoid bulk has to be tested for the "absence of toxin and irreversibility of toxoid". To date, these mandatory tests are performed as toxicity tests in guinea pigs. A replacement by an animal-free method for the detection of TeNT would be desirable. The BINACLE (BINding And CLEavage) assay takes into account the receptor-binding as well as the proteolytic characteristics of TeNT: The toxin is bound to immobilized receptor molecules, the light chains are then released by reduction and transferred to a microplate containing synaptobrevin, and the fragment resulting from TeNT-induced cleavage is finally detected. This assay offers a higher specificity for discriminating between toxic TeNT and inactivated toxoid molecules than other published assays. Validation studies have shown that the BINACLE assay allows the sensitive and robust detection of TeNT in toxoids, and thus may indeed represent a suitable alternative to the prescribed animal safety tests for toxoids from several European vaccine manufacturers. Product-specific validations (and possibly adaptations) of the assay protocol will be required. A European collaborative study is currently being initiated to further examine the applicability of the method for toxoid testing. The final aim is the inclusion of the method into the European Pharmacopoeia. PMID:25769344

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of a meningococcal serogroup A, C, Y and W glycoconjugate vaccine, ACWY-TT.

    PubMed

    Findlow, Helen; Borrow, Ray

    2013-05-01

    A quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine (ACWY), utilising tetanus toxoid (TT) as its carrier protein (ACWY-TT; Nimenrix, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium) has been demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic when administered to young children from 12 months of age, older children, adolescents, and adults. Administration of a single dose of ACWY-TT induces protective serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups as well as good antibody persistence. Coadministration studies have demonstrated that ACWY-TT can be administered with diphtheria, tetanus, three-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated polio virus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP3-IPV-HBV/Hib, Infanrix hexa; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); measles, mumps, rubella, varicella vaccine (Priorix-Tetra; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Synflorix(); GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); hepatitis A and B vaccine (Twinrix(); GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium); and seasonal influenza vaccine (Fluarix; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium). Studies in young infants from 2 months of age have now commenced but immunisation with a single dose of ACWY-TT from 12 months of age is a safe and immunogenic option in the prevention of meningococcal disease. PMID:23712402

  7. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Carolina Regis; Azevedo, Jailton; Galvo, Vivian Santos; Moreno-Carvalho, Otvio; Reis, Joice Neves; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3-42); 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n=64, 78.1%), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n=12, 14.6%) and bacteraemia (n=6, 7.3%) were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n=12, 14.6%) was the most common, followed by 23F (n=10, 12.2%), 12F (n=8, 9.8%), 18C (n=5, 6.1%) and 6B (n=5, 6.1%). Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6%) of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease. PMID:26706019

  8. The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type B and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood meningitis mortality: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two of the most prevalent causes of severe bacterial meningitis in children, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are preventable by existing vaccines increasingly available in developing countries. Our objective was to estimate the dose-specific effect of Hib and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) on childhood meningitis mortality in low-income countries for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods We systematically searched and reviewed published vaccine efficacy trials and observational studies reporting the effect of Hib or PCV vaccines on organism-specific meningitis, bacterial meningitis and all-cause meningitis incidence and mortality among children less than five years old in low- and middle-income countries. Data collection and quality assessments were performed using standardized guidelines. For outcomes available across multiple studies (≥2) and approximating meningitis mortality, we pooled estimates reporting dose-specific effects using random effects meta-analytic methods, then combined these with meningitis etiology data to determine the preventable fraction of childhood meningitis mortality for inclusion in LiST. Results We identified 18 studies of Hib conjugate vaccines reporting relevant meningitis morbidity and mortality outcomes (2 randomized controlled trials [RCTs], 16 observational studies) but few provided dose-specific effects. A meta-analysis of four case-control studies examined the dose-specific effect of Hib conjugate vaccines on Hib meningitis morbidity (1 dose: RR=0.64, 95% CI 0.38-1.06; 2 doses: RR=0.09, 95% CI 0.03-0.27; 3 doses: RR=0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.22), consistent with results from single RCTs. Pooled estimates of two RCTs provided evidence for the effect of three doses of PCV on vaccine-serotype meningitis morbidity (RR=0.16, 95% CI 0.02-1.20). We considered these outcomes of severe disease as proxy estimates for meningitis mortality and combined the estimates of protective effects with meningitis etiology data to provide an estimate of the preventable fraction of childhood meningitis mortality with three doses of Hib (38-43%) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (28-35%) for use in LiST. Conclusions Few RCTs or vaccine effectiveness studies evaluated the dose-specific impact of Hib and PCV vaccines on childhood meningitis mortality, necessitating use of proxy measures to estimate population impact in LiST. Our analysis indicates that approximately three-quarters of meningitis deaths are preventable with existing Hib and PCV vaccines. PMID:24564188

  9. Impact of Ten-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Finnish Children A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Jukka; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Siira, Lotta; Palmu, Arto A.; Virtanen, Mikko J.; Nohynek, Hanna; Virolainen-Julkunen, Anni; Toropainen, Maija; Nuorti, J. Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ?5 years of age during the first three years after NVP introduction. Methods We conducted a population-based, observational follow-up study. The cohort of vaccine-eligible children (all children born June 1, 2010 or later) was followed from 3 months of age until the end of 2013. For the indirect effect, another cohort of older children ineligible for PCV10 vaccination was followed from 2011 through 2013. Both cohorts were compared with season- and age-matched reference cohorts before NVP introduction. National, population-based laboratory surveillance data were used to compare culture-confirmed serotype-specific IPD rates in the vaccine target and reference cohorts by using Poisson regression models. Results The overall IPD rate among vaccine-eligible children was reduced by 80% (95%CI 72 to 85); the reduction in vaccine-type IPD was 92% (95%CI 86 to 95). However, a non-significant increase in non-vaccine type IPD was observed. During 20122013, we also observed a 48% (95%CI 18 to 69) reduction in IPD among unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age, which was mostly attributable to the ten vaccine serotypes. Conclusions This is the first population-based study investigating the impact of PCV10 introduction without prior PCV7 use. A substantial decrease in IPD rates among vaccine-eligible children was observed. A smaller and temporally delayed reduction among older, unvaccinated children suggests that PCV10 also provides indirect protection against vaccine-type IPD. Changes in serotype distribution warrant continuous monitoring of potential increases in non-vaccine serotypes. PMID:25781031

  10. Can the success of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for the prevention of pneumococcal diseases in children be extrapolated to adults?

    PubMed

    Weil-Olivier, Catherine; Gaillat, Jacques

    2014-04-11

    Before conjugate pneumococcal vaccines (PCVs) were introduced it was estimated that Streptococcus pneumoniae caused 500,000 cases of pneumonia, 50,000 cases of bacteremia and 3000 cases of meningitis annually in the United States in both children and adults. After 10 years of routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) the incidence of vaccine-type pneumococcal diseases (PDs) had significantly decreased in vaccinated children (direct effect) and unvaccinated subjects of all ages (indirect effect). Second generation, higher-valent PCVs, especially 13-valent (PCV13), routinely implemented since 2010, have reduced the incidence of PDs caused by the six additional non-PCV7 serotypes, in both vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects. The licence for this vaccine has recently been extended to include adults aged 18 to 49 in Europe. Although PCV13 has an indirect effect on IPD in adults, this will probably not achieve the same level of disease control in adults and the elderly (especially those at high risk) as that obtained in vaccinated children. As highlighted in this paper, differences exist between children and adults for PD manifestations (incidence, morbidity and mortality) and serotypes isolated in nasopharyngeal carriage and diseases, so benefits from adult vaccination must be considered in this light. PCV13 induces an immune response in adults that is non-inferior for all serotypes common with the 23-valent plain polysaccharide vaccine that is currently recommended for adults and even superior for many serotypes. Although there is no evidence that this immune response translates to clinical efficacy in adults as seen in children, the results from a randomised trial in The Netherlands, expected in 2014, should provide the missing evidence. This evidence and efficient surveillance systems should provide the necessary data, essential for policy makers in their decisions on adult pneumococcal vaccination policies. PMID:24565755

  11. [Impact of a conjugated anti meningococcal A vaccine on notification of bacterial meningitis in West Burkina Faso (2009-2012)].

    PubMed

    Ouangraoua, S; Schlumberger, M; Yaro, S; Oudraogo, A S; Sanou, S; Drabo, A; Yamogo, T M; Ouedraogo, R

    2014-02-01

    Burkina Faso is a sub-saharan African country completely included in the meningococcal meningitis belt. The western part of the country suffered from many meningococcal A epidemics, in spite of reactive collective campaigns with polysaccharide A vaccine. On 6th December 2010, Burkina Faso was the first African country to conduct a collective vaccination campaign of all the 1-29 years old population with a new conjugated meningococcal Avaccine (MenAfriVac). Before this campaign, in Western Burkina (4,064,928 inhabitants, 27.5% of total population), a rehearsal of the staff of all peripheral medical laboratories has been conducted, with delivery of laboratory equipment, reactants, and possibility to transfer CSF specimens at the central level to confirm bacteriologic species in cause by latex, culture and PCR analysis. For this campaign, an administrative coverage of 100.3% was reached. A nearly complete disappearance of meningitis due to meningococcus A was recorded, but an increase of cases due to meningococcus X, W135. With the increase of quality of surveillance, and MenAfriVac vaccination showed its beneficial effect on meningococcus A meningitis. If we want however to impact on the number of recorded acute bacteriological meningitis, we will have to use multi-antigenic, if possible conjugated, meningococcal vaccines against locally circulating meningococcal species, the number of pneumococcal meningitis being contained by the recent inclusion in EPI of a 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:24390976

  12. Artificial Salmonella vaccines: O-antigenic oligosaccharide-protein conjugates induce protection against infection with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Svenson, S B; Nurminen, M; Lindberg, A A

    1979-01-01

    Outbred mice were vaccinated with various artificial Salmonella vaccines and subsequently challenged intraperitoneally with graded doses of virulent Salmonella typhimurium. The Salmonella vaccines used were: (i) octasaccharide, obtained by hydrolysis of the O-antigenic polysaccharide chain of S. typhimurium strain SH 4809 with phage P22-associated endo-rhamnosidase and covalently linked to either diphtheria toxin or edestine; (ii) purified outer membrane proteins (porins) from S. typhimurium; and (iii) octasaccharide covalently linked to porins. All vaccines induced significant protection against experimental infection of mice with S. typhimurium. However, vaccination with the octasaccharide-porin conjugate resulted in better protection than that obtained by vaccination with octasaccharide or porin vaccines separately. Rabbit antibodies raised against the different vaccines were also passively administered intravenously to mice. Such mice were protected against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium by antibodies specific for the S. typhimurium O-antigen or for the porins. Thus, active immunization with more than one surface component of Salmonella bacteria improved the efficacy of the vaccine. The data from the passive immunization experiments also emphasized the role of humoral immunity for protection against S. typhimurium infection. Images PMID:387597

  13. Carbohydrate-Monophosphoryl Lipid A Conjugates Are Fully Synthetic Self-Adjuvanting Cancer Vaccines Eliciting Robust Immune Responses in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianli; Zhou, Zhifang; Tang, Shouchu; Guo, Zhongwu

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are useful targets in the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines. However, a serious problem with them is the poor immunogenicity. To overcome the problem, a monophosphorylated derivative of Neisseria meningitidis lipid A was explored as a potential carrier molecule and built-in adjuvant for the construction of structurally defined fully synthetic glycoconjugate vaccines. Some paradigm-shifting discoveries about the monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA)-TACA conjugates were that they elicited robust IgG antibody responses, indicating T cell-mediated immunity, without an external adjuvant and that an external adjuvant, e.g., Titermax Gold, actually reduced, instead of promoting, the immunological activity of the conjugates. The induced antibodies were proved to bind selectively to target tumor cells. MPLA was therefore demonstrated to be a powerful built-in immunostimulant and adjuvant for an all new design of fully synthetic glycoconjugate cancer vaccines. PMID:22013921

  14. Immunogenicity of reduced dose priming schedules of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine followed by booster at 12 months in infants: open label randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Ameneh; McKenna, Jennifer; Campbell, Danielle; Attard-Montalto, Simon; Birks, Jacqueline; Voysey, Merryn; White, Catherine; Finn, Adam; Macloed, Emma; Faust, Saul N; Kent, Alison Louise; Heath, Paul T; Borrow, Ray; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the immunogenicity of a single dose infant priming schedule of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) conjugate vaccine is non-inferior to a two dose priming schedule when followed by a booster dose at age 12 months. Design Phase IV open label randomised controlled trial carried out from July 2010 until August 2013 Setting Four centres in the United Kingdom and one centre in Malta. Participants Healthy infants aged 6-12 weeks followed up until age 24 months. Interventions In the priming phase of the trial 509 infants were randomised in a 10:10:7:4 ratio into four groups to receive either a single MenC-cross reacting material 197 (CRM) dose at 3 months; two doses of MenC-CRM at 3 and 4 months; a single MenC-polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (TT) dose at 3 months; or no MenC doses, respectively. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-MenC-TT vaccine was administered to all infants at 12 months of age. All infants also received the nationally routinely recommended vaccines. Blood samples were taken at age 5, 12, 13, and 24 months. Main outcome measure MenC serum bactericidal antibody assay with rabbit complement (rSBA) one month after the Hib-MenC-TT vaccine. Non-inferiority was met if the lower 95% confidence limit of the difference in the mean log10 MenC rSBA between the single dose MenC-CRM and the two dose MenC-CRM groups was >−0.35. Results The primary objective was met: after a Hib-MenC-TT booster dose at 12 months of age the MenC rSBA geometric mean titres induced in infants primed with a single MenC-CRM dose were not inferior to those induced in participants primed with two MenC-CRM doses in infancy (660 (95% confidence interval 498 to 876) v 295 (220 to 398)) with a corresponding difference in the mean log10 MenC rSBA of 0.35 (0.17 to 0.53) that showed superiority of the single over the two dose schedule). Exploration of differences between the priming schedules showed that one month after Hib-MenC-TT vaccination, MenC rSBA ≥1:8 was observed in >96% of participants previously primed with any of the MenC vaccine schedules in infancy and in 83% of those who were not vaccinated against MenC in infancy. The MenC rSBA geometric mean titres induced by the Hib-MenC-TT boost were significantly higher in children who were primed with one rather than two MenC-CRM doses in infancy. Only priming with MenC-TT, however, induced robust MenC bactericidal antibody after the Hib-MenC-TT booster that persisted until 24 months of age. Conclusions MenC vaccination programmes with two MenC infant priming doses could be reduced to a single priming dose without reducing post-boost antibody titres. When followed by a Hib-MenC-TT booster dose, infant priming with a single MenC-TT vaccine dose induces a more robust antibody response than one or two infant doses of MenC-CRM. Bactericidal antibody induced by a single Hib-MenC-TT conjugate vaccine dose at 12 months of age (that is, a toddler only schedule), without infant priming, is not well sustained at 24 months. Because of rapid waning of MenC antibody, programmes using toddler only schedules will still need to rely on herd protection to protect infants and young children. Trial registration Eudract No: 2009-016579-31; NCT01129518; study ID: 2008_06 (http://clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:25832102

  15. Mucosal Immune Responses to Meningococcal Group C Conjugate and Group A and C Polysaccharide Vaccines in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q.; Choo, S.; Everard, J.; Jennings, R.; Finn, A.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies in children have shown that Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide conjugate vaccines can reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of H. influenzae and provide herd immunity and suggest that this effect is mediated through mucosal antibodies. As this phenomenon may operate in other invasive bacterial infections which are propagated by nasopharyngeal carriage, mucosal antibody responses to meningococcal C conjugate and A/C polysaccharide vaccines were investigated. A total of 106 school children aged 11 to 17 years were randomized to receive a single dose of either conjugate or polysaccharide vaccine in an observer-blind study. Before and at 1, 6, and 12 months after immunization, samples of unstimulated saliva were collected and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for group C polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgA1, IgA2 and secretory component, IgG antibodies, and total IgG and IgA. A subset of serum samples were also assayed for specific IgA and IgG antibodies. The concentrations of specific IgA and IgG in saliva were expressed both as nanograms per milliliter and as nanograms per microgram of total IgA or IgG. One month after immunization, significant increases in antibody titers (both IgA and IgG) were observed in saliva in both groups. There were significant subsequent falls in antibody titers by 6 months. Anti-meningococcal C-specific secretory component and IgA antibody titers were closely correlated (r = 0.85, P < 0.001), but there was no significant correlation between salivary and serum IgA titers, suggesting that IgA antibodies are locally produced. Significant correlation was found between salivary and serum IgG titers (r = 0.52, P < 0.01), suggesting that salivary IgG may be serum derived. Compared with polysaccharide vaccine, the conjugate vaccine induced significantly higher salivary IgG responses (P < 0.05), although there were no significant differences between salivary IgA responses to the two vaccines. The conjugate vaccine induced greater salivary IgG responses than a polysaccharide vaccine. Both vaccines induced significant salivary IgA antibodies. Further studies are needed to establish the functional significance of these mucosal responses. PMID:10768961

  16. Meningococcal Serogroup A, C, W135 and Y Conjugated Vaccine: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van der Ende, Arie; Westra, Tjalke A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC) was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W135,Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was licensed for use in subjects of 12 months of age and above. Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of meningococcal vaccination at 14 months and an additional vaccination at the age of 12 years, both with the MenACWY vaccine. Methods A decision analysis cohort model, with 185,000 Dutch newborns, was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different immunization strategies. For strategies including a vaccination at 12 years of age, an additional cohort with adolescents aged 12 years was followed. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated for the current disease incidence and for a scenario when herd immunity is lost. Results Vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months is cost-saving. Vaccinating with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would prevent 7 additional cases of meningococcal serogroup A,C,W135,Y disease in the birth cohort and adolescent cohort followed for 99 years compared to the current vaccine schedule of a single vaccination with MenC at 14 months. With the current incidence, this strategy resulted in an ICER of 635,334 per quality adjusted life year. When serogroup C disease incidence returns to pre-vaccination levels due to a loss of vaccine-induced herd-immunity, vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would be cost-saving. Conclusions Routine vaccination with MenACWY is cost-saving. With the current epidemiology, a booster-dose with MenACWY is not likely cost-effective. When herd immunity is lost, a booster-dose has the potential of being cost-effective. A dynamic model should be developed for more precise estimation of the cost-effectiveness of the prevention of disappearance of herd immunity. PMID:23741448

  17. Childhood meningitis in the conjugate vaccine era: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sadarangani, Manish; Willis, Louise; Kadambari, Seilesh; Gormley, Stuart; Young, Zoe; Beckley, Rebecca; Gantlett, Katherine; Orf, Katharine; Blakey, Sarah; Martin, Natalie G; Kelly, Dominic F; Heath, Paul T; Nadel, Simon; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial conjugate vaccines have dramatically changed the epidemiology of childhood meningitis; viral causes are increasingly predominant, but the current UK epidemiology is unknown. This prospective study recruited children under 16?years of age admitted to 3 UK hospitals with suspected meningitis. 70/388 children had meningitis-13 bacterial, 26 viral and 29 with no pathogen identified. Group B Streptococcus was the most common bacterial pathogen. Infants under 3?months of age with bacterial meningitis were more likely to have a reduced Glasgow Coma Score and respiratory distress than those with viral meningitis or other infections. There were no discriminatory clinical features in older children. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count and plasma C-reactive protein at all ages, and CSF protein in infants <3?months of age, distinguished between bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis or other infections. Improved diagnosis of non-bacterial meningitis is urgently needed to reduce antibiotic use and hospital stay. PMID:25256088

  18. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Multiple Pertussis Toxins and Toxoids

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Yulanda M.; Moura, Hercules; Schieltz, David; Rees, Jon; Woolfitt, Adrian R.; Pirkle, James L.; Sampson, Jacquelyn S.; Tondella, Maria L.; Ades, Edwin; Carlone, George; Barr, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis (Bp) is the causative agent of pertussis, a vaccine preventable disease occurring primarily in children. In recent years, there has been increased reporting of pertussis. Current pertussis vaccines are acellular and consist of Bp proteins including the major virulence factor pertussis toxin (Ptx), a 5-subunit exotoxin. Variation in Ptx subunit amino acid (AA) sequence could possibly affect the immune response. A blind comparative mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of commercially available Ptx as well as the chemically modified toxoid (Ptxd) from licensed vaccines was performed to assess peptide sequence and AA coverage variability as well as relative amounts of Ptx subunits. Qualitatively, there are similarities among the various sources based on AA percent coverages and MS/MS fragmentation profiles. Additionally, based on a label-free mass spectrometry-based quantification method there is differential relative abundance of the subunits among the sources. PMID:20508854

  19. Non- Protective Responses to Pediatric Vaccines Occur in Children Who are Otitis Prone

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E.; Casey, Janet R.; Almudevar, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Objective We recently found that children who experience recurrent otitis media despite individualized care (stringently-defined otitis prone, sOP) do not develop an antibody response to several vaccine candidate protein antigens expressed by Streptococcus pneumonia (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hi). Here we sought to determine if these same children also failed to develop antibody to routine pediatric vaccinations. Study Design 140 sera collected from children age 624 months were analyzed. sOP (n=34) and age-matched non-sOP (n=34) children were assessed for IgG concentrations to diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT), pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN) (DTaP), polio, hepatitis B, Hi type b capsule (PRP) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. Results IgG protective titers to DT (p=0.006), TT (p<0.0001), PT (p<0.0001), FHA (p=0.001), PRN (p=0.005), hepatitis B (p<0.0001), polio 3 (p= 0.03) and Spn 23F (p=0.01) but not polio 1,2, PRP or Spn 6B, and 14 were decreased in sOP versus non-sOP children using generalized estimating equations. A high percentage of sOP children had non-protective antibody values that persisted until 24 months of age despite routine boosters. Conclusion sOP children may fail to achieve protective antibody concentrations after several routine vaccinations. PMID:24141796

  20. 9 CFR 113.114 - Tetanus Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Bacterial Products § 113.114 Tetanus Toxoid. Tetanus Toxoid shall be produced from a culture of Clostridium... the applicable requirements in § 113.100 and shall be tested for purity, safety, and potency as... shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Bulk or...

  1. 9 CFR 113.114 - Tetanus Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Bacterial Products § 113.114 Tetanus Toxoid. Tetanus Toxoid shall be produced from a culture of Clostridium... the applicable requirements in § 113.100 and shall be tested for purity, safety, and potency as... shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Bulk or...

  2. 9 CFR 113.114 - Tetanus Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Bacterial Products § 113.114 Tetanus Toxoid. Tetanus Toxoid shall be produced from a culture of Clostridium... the applicable requirements in § 113.100 and shall be tested for purity, safety, and potency as... shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b) Safety test. Bulk or...

  3. High Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Non-Vaccine Serotypes in Western Australian Aboriginal People Following 10 Years of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Jacinta; Jones, Jade; Stemberger, Natalie A.; Richmond, Peter C.; Leach, Amanda J.; Lehmann, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA) since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program. Methods We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children <5 years of age, and 34.6%, 22.4% and 27.2% of people ?5 years. Of 43 pneumococcal serotypes identified, the most common were 19A, 16F and 6C in children <5 years, and 15B, 34 and 22F in older people. 7vPCV serotypes accounted for 14.5% of all serotypeable isolates, 13vPCV for 32.4% and 23vPPV for 49.9%, with little variation across all age groups. Serotypes 1 and 12F were rarely identified, despite causing recent IPD outbreaks in WA. Complete penicillin resistance (MIC ?2g/ml) was found in 1.6% of serotype 19A (5.2%), 19F (4.9%) and 16F (3.2%) isolates and reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC ?0.125g/ml) in 24.9% of isolates, particularly 19F (92.7%), 19A (41.3%), 16F (29.0%). Multi-resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin was found in 83.0% of 23F isolates. Among non-serotypeable isolates 76.0% had reduced susceptibility and 4.0% showed complete resistance to penicillin. Conclusions Ten years after introduction of 7vPCV for Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried pneumococci. A large proportion of circulating serotypes are not covered by any currently licensed vaccine. PMID:24349245

  4. Insight Into Resistance Phenotypes of Emergent Non 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Type Pneumococci Isolated From Invasive Disease After 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Implementation in France

    PubMed Central

    Janoir, Claire; Lepoutre, Agnès; Gutmann, Laurent; Varon, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. In 2010, the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 6 additional serotypes including the multidrug-resistant 19A, replaced the PCV7 in France. This study aimed at analyzing trends in antibiotic resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates in France after PCV13 introduction. Methods. A total of 5243 pneumococci isolated from IPD in 2008–2009 (late PCV7 era) and 2011–2012 (PCV13 era) were studied according to their serotype and antibiotic resistance profile. Multilocus sequence typing analysis was performed on strains of the predominant serotypes (12F and 24F) isolated from young children. Results. Overall, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance decreased in France (−21.5% for penicillin from 2008–2009 to 2011–2012), mainly driven by the decline of the 19A serotype. Among non-PCV13 serotypes that concomitantly emerged, serotypes 12F, 24F, 15A, and 35B were consistently associated with resistance to 1 or more antibiotics. In children under 2 years, serotypes 15A, 35B, and 24F accounted together for 37.8% and 31.9% of penicillin-nonsusceptible and erythromycin-resistant isolates, respectively. Chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole resistance were mainly associated with serotypes 12F and 24F, respectively. Genetic analysis showed that although emergence of serotype 12F pneumococci resulted from the expansion of various pre-existing lineages, increase in serotype 24F was related to the clonal expansion of the ST162 penicillin-susceptible cotrimoxazole-resistant lineage. Conclusions. We showed that decline of PCV13-related IPD was associated with a decline in antibiotic resistance in France, but that it likely favored the spread of several resistant nonvaccine serotypes. However, antibiotic resistance does not seem to be the only element that may drive this phenomenon. PMID:26955644

  5. Insight Into Resistance Phenotypes of Emergent Non 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Type Pneumococci Isolated From Invasive Disease After 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Implementation in France.

    PubMed

    Janoir, Claire; Lepoutre, Agnès; Gutmann, Laurent; Varon, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Background.  In 2010, the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 6 additional serotypes including the multidrug-resistant 19A, replaced the PCV7 in France. This study aimed at analyzing trends in antibiotic resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates in France after PCV13 introduction. Methods.  A total of 5243 pneumococci isolated from IPD in 2008-2009 (late PCV7 era) and 2011-2012 (PCV13 era) were studied according to their serotype and antibiotic resistance profile. Multilocus sequence typing analysis was performed on strains of the predominant serotypes (12F and 24F) isolated from young children. Results.  Overall, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance decreased in France (-21.5% for penicillin from 2008-2009 to 2011-2012), mainly driven by the decline of the 19A serotype. Among non-PCV13 serotypes that concomitantly emerged, serotypes 12F, 24F, 15A, and 35B were consistently associated with resistance to 1 or more antibiotics. In children under 2 years, serotypes 15A, 35B, and 24F accounted together for 37.8% and 31.9% of penicillin-nonsusceptible and erythromycin-resistant isolates, respectively. Chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole resistance were mainly associated with serotypes 12F and 24F, respectively. Genetic analysis showed that although emergence of serotype 12F pneumococci resulted from the expansion of various pre-existing lineages, increase in serotype 24F was related to the clonal expansion of the ST162 penicillin-susceptible cotrimoxazole-resistant lineage. Conclusions.  We showed that decline of PCV13-related IPD was associated with a decline in antibiotic resistance in France, but that it likely favored the spread of several resistant nonvaccine serotypes. However, antibiotic resistance does not seem to be the only element that may drive this phenomenon. PMID:26955644

  6. Safety and tolerability of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Durando, Paolo; Rosselli, Roberto; Cremonesi, Ilaria; Orsi, Andrea; Albanese, Erika; Barberis, Ilaria; Paganino, Chiara; Trucchi, Cecilia; Martini, Mariano; Marensi, Lorenzo; Turello, Valter; Study Group, the Ligurian Pneumococcal; Bregante, Alessandro; Cacciani, Roberto; Iudici, Rocco; La Marca, Diego; Pedano, Leonardo; Petrucci, Amadio Franco; Santolini, Maria; Sbis, Valentina; Zacconi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background In September 2011 the European Medical Agency authorized the use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults aged ?50 years. The same occurred in the US in December 2011 when the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of PCV13 in the same target age-group with indication for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal diseases and community acquired pneumonia sustained by the serotypes contained in the vaccine. The Liguria Region, in Italy, implemented in 2013 an active and free of charge immunization strategy with PCV13 among adults affected by specific risk conditions and the elderly aged ?70 years. Methods An observational study was performed in order to assess the safety and tolerability of PCV13 among elderly dwelling in the metropolitan area of Genoa, the capital city of Liguria Region. Eligible subjects, who received PCV13 following the public health immunization campaign at the Local Health Unit 3 of Genoa, provided a written informed consent to take part in the study. Eight-hundred-seventy-one subjects were enrolled between October 2013 and May 2014: all were monitored by qualified healthcare personnel for at least 30 min after vaccination at the outpatient clinics, in order to assess any possible sudden reaction. The occurrence of a series of local and systemic solicited reactions and of any unsolicited Adverse Events (AEs) was monitored using a self-administered clinical diary and by regular phone contacts up to 14 and 21 d following immunization, respectively. Moreover, a 6-months follow-up following vaccination was planned in order to monitor Severe Adverse Events (SAEs). Results No sudden reaction occurred in vaccinees at the outpatient clinics. Pain (27.4%) was the most frequent reaction reported by subjects at the injection site, while new muscle pain (13.6%), fatigue (10.7%), and headache (9.9%) resulted the most common systemic reactions. Rates of the main reactions reported in this on-field study resulted generally lower than those registered in clinical trials performed in the elderly. The incidence of fever (2.2%) following vaccination was low at values superimposable to that reported in previous studies. Conclusion This observational study showed a good safety and tolerability of PCV13 among the elderly in routine clinical practice further confirming the evidence coming from clinical trials in the same age-group. PMID:25483531

  7. Impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis in children.

    PubMed

    Chapoutot, A G; Dessein, R; Guilluy, O; Lagrée, M; Wallet, F; Varon, E; Martinot, A; Dubos, F

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis (PM) in children is unknown. To determine this impact, a descriptive multicentre retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2008 to 2013 in northern France. All laboratory-confirmed PM in children aged <18 years in all hospitals of the area with paediatric units were included. Two independent databases were used for exhaustive identification of cases: medical plus laboratory records at each hospital and discharge codes. The corrected incidence of PM was determined by a capture-recapture analysis using these two databases. Sixty-two cases were found over the 6-year period. A decrease of the PM corrected incidence was observed in the global population (P = 0·07), significant only for children aged <2 years, from 11·9/100 000 in 2008 in 1·9/100 000 in 2013 [6·4 fold-decrease, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4-41, P = 0·01] between years 2008 and 2013. When comparing the pre- and post-PCV13 periods, this decrease was still statistically significant for children aged <2 years [7·32/100 000 (95% CI 4·39-10·25) to 2·78/100 000 (95% CI 0·96-4·60), P = 0·01]. Only three (5%) cases of PM caused by vaccine serotypes could have been prevented. After the introduction of the PCV13 vaccine, a decrease in the incidence of PM cases in children in northern France was observed. PMID:26234410

  8. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Prevention of Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age globally. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are known to provide protection against vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia; uncertainty exists regarding the optimum PCV dosing schedule. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) documenting the effect of PCV dosing schedules on clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema among children of ages targeted to receive vaccine. Data on 2- and 3-dose schedules were included. Percent change of pneumonia incidence rates from baseline to most recent year post-PCV introduction was calculated. Results: We identified 42 primary citations that evaluated PCV schedules and pneumonia. Thirty-seven (88%) were from North America, Europe or Australia; 37 (88%) evaluated PCV7 and 1 (2%) PCV10. Two studies (both observational) compared multiple schedules within the study. We found evidence of reduced clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia incidence for all schedules, including 2+1 (1 nonrandomized trial, 5 observational studies), 3+0 (5 randomized trials, 2 observational studies) and 3+1 (5 clinical trials, 24 observational studies) schedules. The magnitude of disease impact did not differ among schedules. Evidence for impact on pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema varied. Conclusions: All schedules (2+1, 3+0 and 3+1) reduced clinical and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Quantifying differences in pneumonia disease impact between schedules was difficult due to heterogeneity among studies in design, case definition and population. These findings support World Health Organization recommendations for 3-dose schedules administered as either 3+0 or 2+1 regimens. Pneumonia impact data are still needed on expanded serotype PCV products, developing country settings and the role for a booster dose. PMID:24336056

  9. Impact of infant 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on serotypes in adult pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Chamira; Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; Mckeever, Tricia M; Trotter, Caroline L; Slack, Mary; George, Robert; Lim, Wei Shen

    2015-06-01

    Infant 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV13) was introduced to the UK in 2010. Its impact on serotypes implicated in adult non-bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia is not known. Beginning in 2008, a 5-year prospective cohort study of adults admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was conducted. Pneumococcal serotype was established using a validated multiplex immunoassay (Bio-Plex; Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). The overall incidence for hospitalised CAP and pneumococcal CAP was 79.9 (95% CI 76.6-83.3) and 23.4 (95% CI 21.6-25.3) per 100,000 population, respectively. A decline in CAP (incidence rate ratio (IRR) per year 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99; p=0.016) and pneumococcal CAP (IRR per year 0.84, 95% CI 0.80-0.89; p<0.001) was observed over the 5-year period of the study. Between the pre- and post-PCV13 periods of the study, the incidence of CAP due to serotypes included in the PCV7 declined by 88% (IRR 0.12, 95% CI 0.08-0.20; p<0.001), and CAP due to the additional 6 serotypes in PCV13 declined by 30% (IRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.96; p=0.024). Incidence of adult pneumococcal pneumonia declined over the last 5?years, with serotypes included in PCV13 declining post-PCV13 introduction, indicating early herd protection effects from PCV13 infant vaccination on adult non-bacteraemic disease. These effects may accrue over the coming years with implications for national pneumococcal vaccination policies in adults. PMID:25792633

  10. Baseline Meningococcal Carriage in Burkina Faso before the Introduction of a Meningococcal Serogroup A Conjugate Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Paul A.; Diomand, Fabien; Wei, Stanley C.; Oudraogo, Rasmata; Sangar, Lassana; Sanou, Idrissa; Kandolo, Denis; Kabor, Pascal; Clark, Thomas A.; Oudraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Absatou, Ki Ba; Oudraogo, Charles D.; Hassan-King, Musa; Thomas, Jennifer Dolan; Hatcher, Cynthia; Djingarey, Mamoudou; Messonnier, Nancy; Prziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, Marc; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2011-01-01

    The serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine MenAfriVac has the potential to confer herd immunity by reducing carriage prevalence of epidemic strains. To better understand this phenomenon, we initiated a meningococcal carriage study to determine the baseline carriage rate and serogroup distribution before vaccine introduction in the 1- to 29-year old population in Burkina Faso, the group chosen for the first introduction of the vaccine. A multiple cross-sectional carriage study was conducted in one urban and two rural districts in Burkina Faso in 2009. Every 3 months, oropharyngeal samples were collected from >5,000 randomly selected individuals within a 4-week period. Isolation and identification of the meningococci from 20,326 samples were performed by national laboratories in Burkina Faso. Confirmation and further strain characterization, including genogrouping, multilocus sequence typing, and porA-fetA sequencing, were performed in Norway. The overall carriage prevalence for meningococci was 3.98%; the highest prevalence was among the 15- to 19-year-olds for males and among the 10- to 14-year-olds for females. Serogroup Y dominated (2.28%), followed by serogroups X (0.44%), A (0.39%), and W135 (0.34%). Carriage prevalence was the highest in the rural districts and in the dry season, but serogroup distribution also varied by district. A total of 29 sequence types (STs) and 51 porA-fetA combinations were identified. The dominant clone was serogroup Y, ST-4375, P1.5-1,2-2/F5-8, belonging to the ST-23 complex (47%). All serogroup A isolates were ST-2859 of the ST-5 complex with P1.20,9/F3-1. This study forms a solid basis for evaluating the impact of MenAfriVac introduction on serogroup A carriage. PMID:21228139

  11. Combined Administration of Meningococcal Serogroup B Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine and Conjugated Serogroup C Vaccine Indicated for Prevention of Meningococcal Disease Is Safe and Immunogenic

    PubMed Central

    Aaberge, Ingeborg S.; Oster, Philipp; Helland, Oddveig S.; Kristoffersen, Anne-Cathrine; Ypma, Ellen; Hiby, E. Arne; Feiring, Berit; Nkleby, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    MenBvac and Menjugate are safe and efficacious vaccines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of the combination (MenB/C) of the lyophilized active components of the conjugated group C vaccine Menjugate when reconstituted with the full liquid group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine MenBvac compared to MenBvac and Menjugate given separately. At 6-week intervals, healthy adults were given one dose of MenB/C followed by two doses of MenBvac (MenB/C group), three doses of MenBvac (MenB group), or one dose of Menjugate and two doses of placebo (MenC group). Injection site reactions were frequent in all groups. However, most reactions were short lasting and mild or moderate in intensity, and the vaccines were found to be well tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. MenB/C was immunogenic with regard to both serogroup B and C meningococci. Both the serum bactericidal assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses showed that the immune responses of the combination vaccine were similar to the immune responses of its separate components MenBvac and Menjugate for both serogroup B and C. In conclusion, the combined MenB/C vaccine is safe and immunogenic. The two vaccines do not interact negatively with each other and can easily be administered in the same syringe. The induced immune responses suggest that the combined vaccine is likely to confer protection against systemic group B disease caused by the vaccine strain as well as against group C meningococcal disease. PMID:15879021

  12. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administration in Pediatric Older Age Groups in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Kimberly; Welch, Emily; Elder, Kate; Cohn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is included in the World Health Organizations routine immunization schedule and is recommended by WHO for vaccination in high-risk children up to 60 months. However, many countries do not recommend vaccination in older age groups, nor have donors committed to supporting extended age group vaccination. To better inform decision-making, this systematic review examines the direct impact of extended age group vaccination in children over 12 months in low and middle income countries. Methods An a priori protocol was used. Using pre-specified terms, a search was conducted using PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, clinicaltrials.gov and the International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases abstracts. The primary outcome was disease incidence, with antibody titers and nasopharyngeal carriage included as secondary outcomes. Results Eighteen studies reported on disease incidence, immune response, and nasopharyngeal carriage. PCV administered after 12 months of age led to significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease. Immune response to vaccine type serotypes was significantly higher for those vaccinated at older ages than the unimmunized at the established 0.2ug/ml and 0.35ug/ml thresholds. Vaccination administered after one year of age significantly reduced VT carriage with odds ratios ranging from 0.213 to 0.69 over four years. A GRADE analysis indicated that the studies were of high quality. Discussion PCV administration in children over 12 months leads to significant protection. The direct impact of PCV administration, coupled with the large cohort of children missed in first year vaccination, indicates that countries should initiate or expand PCV immunization for extended age group vaccinations. Donors should support implementation of PCV as part of delayed or interrupted immunization for older children. For countries to effectively implement extended age vaccinations, access to affordably-priced PCV is critical. PMID:26332848

  13. Evaluation and Optimization of an ELISA Procedure to Quantify Antibodies Against Pneumococcal Polysaccharides Included in the 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Belmonti, Simone; Lombardi, Francesca; Morandi, Matteo; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Tordini, Giacinta; Cauda, Roberto; De Luca, Andrea; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Montagnani, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) is recommended for HIV-infected people, although its effectiveness in this population remains under evaluation. In this study, we describe the development, optimization, and analytical validation of an ELISA procedure to measure specific antibodies for the pneumococcal polysaccharide serotypes included in PCV13 vaccine, testing sera obtained from HIV-infected outpatients (n = 30) who received the vaccine. The protocol followed the last version of WHO guidelines, based on the new standard 007sp, with the modification of employing Statens Serum Institut (SSI) antigens. We supplied the assay performance validation in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility, precision and accuracy. In addition we detailed optimal antigen-coating concentrations and ELISA conditions common to all 13 serotypes, suitable for laboratories performing these assays in order to standardize the method. Our procedure showed reproducibility and reliability, making it a valid alternative for evaluating the response to pneumococcal serotypes included in PCV13 vaccine. PMID:26506438

  14. Characterization and optimization of heroin hapten-BSA conjugates: method development for the synthesis of reproducible hapten-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Torres, Oscar B; Jalah, Rashmi; Rice, Kenner C; Li, Fuying; Antoline, Joshua F G; Iyer, Malliga R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Boutaghou, Mohamed Nazim; Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R

    2014-09-01

    A potential new treatment for drug addiction is immunization with vaccines that induce antibodies that can abrogate the addictive effects of the drug of abuse. One of the challenges in the development of a vaccine against drugs of abuse is the availability of an optimum procedure that gives reproducible and high yielding hapten-protein conjugates. In this study, a heroin/morphine surrogate hapten (MorHap) was coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using maleimide-thiol chemistry. MorHap-BSA conjugates with 3, 5, 10, 15, 22, 28, and 34 haptens were obtained using different linker and hapten ratios. Using this optimized procedure, MorHap-BSA conjugates were synthesized with highly reproducible results and in high yields. The number of haptens attached to BSA was compared by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) assay, modified Ellman's test and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Among the three methods, MALDI-TOF MS discriminated subtle differences in hapten density. The effect of hapten density on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performance was evaluated with seven MorHap-BSA conjugates of varying hapten densities, which were used as coating antigens. The highest antibody binding was obtained with MorHap-BSA conjugates containing 3-5 haptens. This is the first report that rigorously analyzes, optimizes and characterizes the conjugation of haptens to proteins that can be used for vaccines against drugs of abuse. The effect of hapten density on the ELISA detection of antibodies against haptens demonstrates the importance of careful characterization of the hapten density by the analytical techniques described. PMID:25084736

  15. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in <5-year-old children decreased by 29.1% in 2011 and by 25.2% in 2012 compared to the mean rate performed in the 3 years prior to the introduction of public funding. A total of 895 myringotomies were performed for 1-year-old infants. The rate of myringotomies per child-year performed for acute otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (p<0.000001). Our results suggest a benefit of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for acute otitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants. PMID:26348230

  16. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in <5-year-old children decreased by 29.1% in 2011 and by 25.2% in 2012 compared to the mean rate performed in the 3 years prior to the introduction of public funding. A total of 895 myringotomies were performed for 1-year-old infants. The rate of myringotomies per child-year performed for acute otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (p<0.000001). Our results suggest a benefit of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for acute otitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants. PMID:26348230

  17. Safety and tolerability of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese adults, children and infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengcai; Hu, Yuemei; Liang, Qi; Young, Mariano; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Zhangjing; Liang, John Z.; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Pneumococcal disease is a global problem, including in China. The objective of this study was to provide safety data for single-dose 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Chinese subjects, needed to begin a phase III safety and immunogenicity study in Chinese infants. Methods: Healthy Chinese adults (18?55 years), children (3?5 years), and infants (4298 days) received a single dose of PCV13 in this open-label safety study. Local reactions and systemic events were collected for 7 days via an electronic diary; adverse events were recorded for 1 month after vaccination. Results: All 72 (24 per group) screened subjects (58.3% males; mean standard deviation [SD] age: 43.3 9.1 years [adults], 4.5 0.7 years [children], and 79.6 15.2 days [infants]) were enrolled, received vaccine, and completed the study. The most frequently reported local reactions per group were pain at the injection site (n = 23 adults [95.8%]), tenderness (n = 18 children [75%]), and swelling (n = 6 infants [25%]), none of which were severe. The mean duration of each local reaction was ?2.0 days in infants and ?2.4 days in children but in adults was 3.3 days for pain at the injection site and 9 days each for redness and swelling. Systemic events in adults were muscle pain (n = 5), fatigue (n = 3), and headache and joint pain (n = 1 each). One child and seven infants had disturbed sleep (increased or decreased). One adult and one child had mild fever (37.738.5C, as per China Food and Drug Administration guidelines). No subject used antipyretic medication. One adverse event (bronchopneumonia in an infant) was reported, which was serious, severe, and unrelated to vaccination. There were no deaths. Conclusions: A single dose of PCV13 was safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese adults, children, and infants. This study provided the safety data to enable a phase III safety and immunogenicity registration trial in Chinese infants to proceed. PMID:26668712

  18. Regulatory Pathways That Facilitated Timely Registration of a New Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Africa's Meningitis Belt Countries

    PubMed Central

    Dellepiane, Nora; Akanmori, Bartholomew Dicky; Gairola, Sunil; Jadhav, Suresh S.; Parker, Cathy; Rodriguez, Carmen; Srivastava, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background. Through its normative and public health leadership roles, the World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in the availability of vaccine products in low-and middle-income countries. The recent introduction of a new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), in Africa exemplifies this process. WHO requires that any new vaccine to be introduced in countries for public health reasons and supplied through United Nations centralized mechanisms be licensed by the national regulatory agency (NRA) in the producing country, then prequalified and given a marketing authorization in the user countries. Methods. PsA-TT was manufactured by the Serum Institute of India, Ltd (SIIL), which submitted a license application in April 2009 to the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI), the Indian NRA responsible for licensing vaccines. WHO encouraged the DCGI to establish a collaboration with Health Canada's Centre for Vaccine Evaluation for the review. Through this collaborative effort, registration was facilitated and in December 2009 an export license was granted to SIIL, which subsequently submitted an application for WHO prequalification. Results. Given the importance of the vaccine, WHO “fast tracked” the prequalification review, and after a detailed review and site visit, WHO prequalification was granted to PsA-TT in June 2010. Country use of the new vaccine could not occur until the vaccine was a registered product in each country seeking its use. WHO facilitated country reviews by conducting regulatory training exercises (in French and English) for country NRA staff, which used the PsA-TT registration as a case study. Conclusions. PsA-TT was gradually registered in African countries as vaccine introduction proceeded. The regulatory pathway for this new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine proved to be a useful training opportunity both in India and Africa, because the availability of the vaccine was a high African public health priority, as well as for WHO as a case study to facilitate registration of vaccines based on reliance on other regulatory bodies. PMID:26553671

  19. Kinetics and Avidity of Antibodies Evoked by Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines PncCRM and PncOMPC in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Nina; Åhman, Heidi; Verho, Jouko; Jokinen, Jukka; Väkeväinen, Merja; Kilpi, Terhi; Käyhty, Helena

    2005-01-01

    The licensure of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) relies on immunogenicity data. When defining correlates of protection, vaccine efficacy data must be included. In the FinOM Vaccine Efficacy Trial, the PncOMPC vaccine showed an efficacy profile similar to that of the licensed PncCRM vaccine despite different antibody responses after primary and booster vaccinations. We determined antibody kinetics and avidities in a subgroup of infants participating in the FinOM trial. A total of 166 infants in three vaccine groups were immunized at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age with 7-valent PCV, PncCRM or PncOMPC, or hepatitis B vaccine. Concentrations of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides were determined at 2, 4, 6, 7, 12, 13, and 24 months of age, and the avidity index (AI) to serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were determined at 7, 12, 13, and 24 months of age by enzyme immunoassay. Both PCVs were highly immunogenic, but they demonstrated different kinetics of antibody response; the concentration of IgG against serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F declined faster after the third and fourth doses of vaccine in the PncCRM group than in the PncOMPC group. For both PCVs, the mean AI of anti-6B and -23F, but not of anti-19F, increased during the follow-up, which is in line with serotype-specific protection in the FinOM trial. Our data suggest that the kinetics and avidities of antibodies should be considered, in addition to antibody responses, when defining correlates of protection. PMID:15618174

  20. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination at birth in a high-risk setting: no evidence for neonatal T-cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Pomat, William; Bosco, Anthony; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Devitt, Catherine J; Nadal-Sims, Marie A; Siba, Peter M; Richmond, Peter C; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G

    2011-07-26

    Concerns about the risk of inducing immune deviation-associated "neonatal tolerance" as described in mice have restricted the widespread adoption of neonatal vaccination. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the immunological feasibility of neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) which could potentially protect high-risk infants in resource poor countries against severe pneumococcal disease and mortality in the early critical period of life. Papua New Guinean infants were randomized to be vaccinated with the 7-valent PCV (7vPCV) at birth, 1 and 2 months (neonatal group, n=104) or at 1, 2 and 3 months of age (infant group, n=105), or to not receive 7vPCV at all (control group, n=109). Analysis of vaccine responses at 3 and 9 months of age demonstrated persistently higher type-1 (IFN-?) and type-2 (IL-5 and IL-13) T-cell responses to the protein carrier CRM(197) and IgG antibody titres to 7vPCV serotypes in children vaccinated with 7vPCV according to either schedule as compared to unvaccinated children. In a comprehensive immuno-phenotypic analysis at 9 months of age, no differences in the quantity or quality of vaccine-specific T cell memory responses were found between neonatal vaccinations versus children given their first PCV dose at one month. Hospitalization rates in the first month of life did not differ between children vaccinated with PCV at birth or not. These findings demonstrate that neonatal 7vPCV vaccination is safe and not associated with immunological tolerance. Neonatal immunisation schedules should therefore be considered in high-risk areas where this may result in improved vaccine coverage and the earliest possible protection against pneumococcal disease and death. PMID:21645573

  1. Vaccines against human diarrheal pathogens: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Böhles, Nathalie; Böhles, Nathalie; Busch, Kim; Busch, Kim; Hensel, Michael; Hensel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.7 billion people per year contract diarrheal infectious diseases (DID) and almost 760 000 of infections are fatal. DID are a major problem in developing countries where poor sanitation prevails and food and water may become contaminated by fecal shedding. Diarrhea is caused by pathogens such as bacteria, protozoans and viruses. Important diarrheal pathogens are Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp. and rotavirus, which can be prevented with vaccines for several years. The focus of this review is on currently available vaccines against these three pathogens, and on development of new vaccines. Currently, various types of vaccines based on traditional (killed, live attenuated, toxoid or conjugate vaccines) and reverse vaccinology (DNA/mRNA, vector, recombinant subunit, plant vaccines) are in development or already available. Development of new vaccines demands high levels of knowledge, experience, budget, and time, yet promising new vaccines often fail in preclinical and clinical studies. Efficacy of vaccination also depends on the route of delivery, and mucosal immunization in particular is of special interest for preventing DID. Furthermore, adjuvants, delivery systems and other vaccine components are essential for an adequate immune response. These aspects will be discussed in relation to the improvement of existing and development of new vaccines against DID. PMID:24861668

  2. A Poly-N-acetylglucosamine-Shiga toxin broad-spectrum conjugate vaccine for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Skurnik, David; Pozzi, Clarissa; Roux, Damien; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Munera, Diana; Gening, Marina L; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Waldor, Matthew K; Pier, Gerald B

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens produce the ?-(1-6)-linked poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) surface polysaccharide that is being developed as a broadly protective antimicrobial vaccine. However, it is unknown whether systemically injected PNAG vaccines or antibodies would provide protective immunity against pathogens confined to the gastrointestinal tract such as Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), an important group of gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens for which effective immunotherapeutics are lacking. To ascertain whether systemic IgG antibody to PNAG impacts this infectious situation, a vaccine consisting of a synthetic nonamer of nonacetylated PNAG, 9GlcNH2, conjugated to the Shiga toxin 1b subunit (9GlcNH2-Stx1b) was produced. Rabbit antibodies raised to the conjugate vaccine were tested for bacterial killing and toxin neutralization in vitro and protection against infection in infant mice. Cell surface PNAG was detected on all 9 STEC isolates tested, representing 6 STEC serogroups, including E. coli O157:H7. Antibody to the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate neutralized Stx1 potently and Stx2 modestly. For O157:H7 and O104:H4 STEC strains, antibodies elicited by the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate possessed opsonic killing and bactericidal activity. Following intraperitoneal injection, antibodies to both PNAG and Stx were needed for infant mouse protection against O157 STEC. These antibodies also mediated protection against the Stx2-producing O104:H4 strain that was the cause of a recent outbreak in Germany, although sufficient doses of antibody to PNAG alone were protective against this strain in infant mice. Our observations suggest that vaccination against both PNAG and Stx, using a construct such as the 9GlcNH2-Stx1b conjugate vaccine, would be protective against a broad range of STEC serogroups. IMPORTANCE The presence of poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) on many pathogens presents an opportunity to target this one structure with a multispecies vaccine. Whether antibodies to PNAG can protect against pathogens confined to the gastrointestinal tract is not known. As Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are serious causes of infection whose virulence is dependent on elaboration of Stx, we prepared a vaccine containing a synthetic nonamer of PNAG (9GlcNH2) conjugated to Shiga toxin 1b subunit (9GlcNH2-Stx1b) to evaluate bacterial killing, toxin neutralization, and protective efficacy in infant mice. All nine (100%) clinical strains of STEC from different serogroups expressed PNAG. Vaccine-induced antibody mediated in vitro killing of STEC and neutralization of both Stx1 and Stx2. Passive administration of antibody to the conjugate showed protection requiring immunity to both PNAG and Stx for O157 strains, although for an O104 strain, antibody to PNAG alone was protective. Immunity to PNAG may contribute to protection against STEC infections. PMID:24667709

  3. Humoral immune response of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: capsular polysaccharide serotype 14-Lysine modified PspA.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Raquel; Goulart, Cibelly; Perciani, Catia T; Barazzone, Giovana C; Carvalho, Rimenys; Gonçalves, Viviane M; Leite, Luciana C C; Tanizaki, Martha M

    2011-11-01

    Polysaccharide-protein conjugates are so far the current antigens used for pneumococcal vaccines for children under 2 years of age. In this study, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) was used as a carrier protein for pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide serotype 14 as an alternative to broaden the vaccine coverage. PspA was modified by reductive amination with formaldehyde in order to improve the specificity of the reaction between protein and polysaccharide, inhibiting polymerization and the gel formation reaction. In the synthesis process, the currently used activator, 1-[3-(dimethylamine)propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC) was substituted for 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM). BALB/c mice were immunized with either the PS14-mPspA conjugate or the co-administered components in a three dose regimen and sera from the immunized animals were assayed for immunity induced against both antigens: PS14 and mPspA. Modification of more than 70% of lysine residues from PspA (mPspA) did not interfere in the immune response as evaluated by the anti-PspA titer and C3 complement deposition assay. Sera of mice immunized with conjugated PS14-mPspA showed similar IgG titers, avidity and isotype profile as compared to controls immunized with PspA or mPspA alone. The complement deposition was higher in the sera of mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine and the opsonophagocytic activity was similar for both sera. Conjugation improved the immune response against PS14. The anti PS14 IgG titer was higher in sera of mice immunized with the conjugate than with co-administered antigens and presented an increased avidity index, induction of a predominant IgG1 isotype and increased complement deposition on a bacteria with a surface serotype 14. These results strongly support the use of PspA as carrier in a conjugate vaccine where both components act as antigens. PMID:21906649

  4. Pneumococcal Conjugate and Plain Polysaccharide Vaccines Have Divergent Effects on Antigen-Specific B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Ly-Mee; Bowman, Jaclyn; Bateman, Elizabeth A. L.; Diggle, Linda; Angus, Brian; Peto, Tim E.; Beverley, Peter C.; Mant, David; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?A 23-valent unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vP), routinely administered at the age of 65, has limited effectiveness, and revaccination induces attenuated antibody responses. It is not known whether pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugated vaccines (PCV), although highly effective in infants, offer any immunological advantages over 23vP in adults. Methods.?We immunized adults with schedules combining both PCV and 23vP and investigated B-cell responses to establish whether PCV7 (a 7-valent PCV) induced T-dependent responses in adults, to assess the role of memory B cells in 23vP-induced antibody hyporesponsiveness, and to identify the B-cell subtypes involved. Results.?A single dose of PCV7 induced significant increases in serotype-specific memory B-cell populations in peripheral blood indicating a T-dependent response. Conversely, immunization with 23vP resulted in a decrease in memory B-cell frequency. Furthermore, memory B-cell responses to subsequent immunization with PCV7, when given after 23vP, were attenuated. Notably, B1b cells, a subset important in protecting mice against pneumococci, were also depleted following immunization with 23vP in humans. Conclusions.?This study indicates that PCV7 may have an immunological advantage over 23vP in adults and that 23vP-induced depletion of memory and B1b-cell subsets may provide a basis for antibody hyporesponsiveness and the limited effectiveness of 23vP. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN: 78768849. PMID:22457293

  5. Methods of effective conjugation of antigens to nanoparticles as non-inflammatory vaccine carriers.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Sue D; Wilson, Kirsty; Day, Stephanie; Fuchsberger, Martina; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    It has recently become clear that nanoparticle size is a major determinant for how antigen presenting cells (APCs), and specifically dendritic cells (DC) recognize and handle particles, and hence a critical parameter for the formulation of particulate vaccines that aim to induce immunity by targeting DC. Our previous studies in mice and sheep have shown polystyrene nanoparticles of 40-50 nm (PSNPs) with covalently bound antigen offer a new class of vaccines, which contain only 2 elements, antigen and particle, and no added inflammatory stimuli, but evoke very potent combined CD8 T cell and antibody responses. Herein we have optimized the methods for antigen conjugation to PSNPs to controllably promote a single antigen (protein or peptide) layer coating on the nanoparticle. Surprisingly, these nanovaccines not only continued to induce high levels of CD8 T cells in vivo, but were further more potent antibody inducers than nanoparticles containing multiple antigen layers. Addressing the issue of antigen loading on PSNPs, we found an optimal range, above or below which immunogenicity is changed either for antibodies or CD8 T cells. The mechanism behind the induction of high levels of CD8 T cells was further explored by assessing the DC subset that takes up the PSNPs in vivo, and these were found to be preferentially CD8(+) CD11c(+) DC in the lymph node draining the injection site. Since the levels of induced antibodies were highly elevated, and CD8(+) DC do not traditionally induce antibodies, we further sought to find if, despite no detectable inflammation at the injection site, the PSNPs may perhaps induce inflammatory cytokines locally in the lymph node after injection, or systemically in sera, resulting in an adjuvant effect. The initial findings presented herein show no detectable induction of the key inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1 or IL-6, suggesting a novel "non-inflammatory" adjuvant mechanism. PMID:23643867

  6. DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib vaccine (Pediacel).

    PubMed

    Frampton, James E

    2011-12-01

    Pediacel is a fully liquid formulation of a diphtheria, tetanus, five-component acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b combination vaccine, which does not require reconstitution. Both vial and prefilled syringe presentations of Pediacel are available for use in the EU. In active-controlled clinical trials, primary and/or booster vaccination with Pediacel was highly immunogenic, eliciting strong and sustained serologic responses against all its component toxoids/antigens when administered according to a variety of different schedules. In particular, pivotal studies showed that Pediacel was generally similar and/or noninferior to reconstituted pentavalent and hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-based combination vaccines in terms of the seroprotection rates elicited against the diphtheria, tetanus, poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b components that these products have in common, as well as in terms of the seroresponse/booster response rates elicited against the acellular pertussis components that these products have in common. Differences in immune responses between Pediacel and these vaccines were considered unlikely to be clinically significant. There was no clear evidence of clinically relevant changes in the immunogenicity of Pediacel (or the coadministered vaccine) when given concomitantly with meningococcal group C conjugate, pneumococcal conjugate, or hepatitis B vaccines in clinical studies. Pediacel was generally well tolerated and demonstrated low reactogenicity in clinical trials. It had an adverse event profile generally similar to that of other combination vaccines based on diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine, including Infanrix-IPV+Hib and Infanrix hexa. PMID:21999652

  7. GM2-KLH conjugate vaccine: increased immunogenicity in melanoma patients after administration with immunological adjuvant QS-21.

    PubMed

    Helling, F; Zhang, S; Shang, A; Adluri, S; Calves, M; Koganty, R; Longenecker, B M; Yao, T J; Oettgen, H F; Livingston, P O

    1995-07-01

    The cell surface gangliosides GM2, GD2, and GD3 are often overexpressed in malignant melanoma. We have shown previously that immunization of melanoma patients with GM2 and Bacillus Calmette-Gurin induced an IgM antibody response in most patients and that patients with high titer GM2 antibodies showed increased survival. As is commonly seen with carbohydrate antigens (which are T independent), the IgM response was short lived, and an IgG response was rarely observed. To increase immunogenicity, we conjugated GM2 covalently with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). GM2-KLH vaccine was given to melanoma patients alone or with one of the three adjuvants: Bacillus Calmette-Gurin, DETOX, or QS-21. The most effective vaccine was GM2-KLH with QS-21. It induced a much higher titer, a longer-lasting IgM GM2 antibody response, and a consistent IgG response (isotype IgG1 and IgG3). It also induced the highest titer anti-KLH response. The results suggest that the conjugate GM2-KLH plus QS-21 vaccine elicited significant T-cell help. Because there was no serious toxicity, this vaccine approach is attractive for augmenting the immunogenicity of other gangliosides, such as GD2 and GD3, and to determine the effects of ganglioside antibodies on the course of melanoma. In addition, the finding that QS-21 significantly increased the immunogenicity of GM2-KLH suggests that it may do the same for other conjugate vaccines, many of which are currently used without adjuvant. PMID:7796403

  8. Prompt effect of replacing the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with the 13-valent vaccine on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Norway.

    PubMed

    Steens, Anneke; Bergsaker, Marianne A Riise; Aaberge, Ingeborg S; Rnning, Karin; Vestrheim, Didrik F

    2013-12-16

    The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the childhood immunisation programme in Norway in 2006 substantially decreased the incidence of vaccine-type (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in all age groups. Additionally, a slight increase in the non-vaccine (NVT) serotype IPD incidence (serotype replacement) was observed. After replacing PCV7 with PCV13 in 2011, a further decrease in IPD incidence is expected. However, the protection by the six additional serotypes opens new nasopharyngeal niches for colonisation, which favours conditions for serotype replacement. Close monitoring of IPD therefore remains important in order to quickly detect changes. In this observational retrospective population-based cohort study we used data notified nationally between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2012 to determine the VT- and NVT-IPD incidences. The diversity in serotype distribution per year was analysed using the Simpson's index of diversity. Immunisation history of young children was obtained from the Norwegian Vaccination Registry to determine vaccine failure. The incidence of VT-IPD decreased in the targeted (<5 years) and non-targeted (?5) age groups since PCV7 introduction and further decreased after the replacement with PCV13. Only two cases of vaccine failure were identified. This indicates very high effectiveness of the 2+1 schedules with PCV7 or PCV13 and suggests that non-vaccinated individuals profit through indirect protection. The decrease in incidence of PCV7-IPD in non-targeted age groups became larger in later years, indicating a lag phase for the indirect effects, and suggests that the indirect protection of PCV13 will increase in coming years. The incidence of some NVT, specifically serotypes 23B and 15A, increased after PCV13 introduction. This coincided with an increased Simpson's index of diversity in the targeted age group. As this suggests that serotype replacement is again occurring, continues monitoring of IPD is important so that adaptations to vaccine recommendations can be promptly issued. PMID:24176490

  9. Protein Antigens Increase the Protective Efficacy of a Capsule-Based Vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus in a Rat Model of Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Lattar, Santiago M.; Noto Llana, Maringeles; Denol, Philippe; Germain, Sophie; Buzzola, Fernanda R.; Lee, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an invasive bacterial pathogen, and antibiotic resistance has impeded adequate control of infections caused by this microbe. Moreover, efforts to prevent human infections with single-component S. aureus vaccines have failed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy in rats of vaccines containing both S. aureus capsular polysaccharides (CPs) and proteins. The serotypes 5 CP (CP5) and 8 CP (CP8) were conjugated to tetanus toxoid and administered to rats alone or together with domain A of clumping factor A (ClfA) or genetically detoxified alpha-toxin (dHla). The vaccines were delivered according to a preventive or a therapeutic regimen, and their protective efficacy was evaluated in a rat model of osteomyelitis. Addition of dHla (but not ClfA) to the CP5 or CP8 vaccine induced reductions in bacterial load and bone morphological changes compared with immunization with either conjugate vaccine alone. Both the prophylactic and therapeutic regimens were protective. Immunization with dHla together with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine used as a control did not reduce staphylococcal osteomyelitis. The emergence of unencapsulated or small-colony variants during infection was negligible and similar for all of the vaccine groups. In conclusion, addition of dHla to a CP5 or CP8 conjugate vaccine enhanced its efficacy against S. aureus osteomyelitis, indicating that the inclusion of multiple antigens will likely enhance the efficacy of vaccines against both chronic and acute forms of staphylococcal disease. PMID:24126523

  10. The potential impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Africa: Considerations and early lessons learned from the South African experience.

    PubMed

    Madhi, Shabir A; Nunes, Marta C

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into the South African public immunization program since 2009 adopted a novel vaccination schedule of 3 doses at 6, 14 and 40 weeks of age. Over the past 5 y it has been shown that infant PCV immunization in South Africa is effective in reducing the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children. Furthermore, indirect protection of unvaccinated age-groups (including high risk groups such as HIV-infected adults) against IPD was demonstrated despite the absence of any substantial catch-up campaign of older children. This indirect effect against IPD is corroborated by the temporal reduction in vaccine-serotype colonization among age-groups targeted for PCV immunization as well as unvaccinated HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults, which was evident within 2 y of PCV introduction into the immunization program. Vaccine effectiveness has also been demonstrated in children against presumed bacterial pneumonia. The evaluation of the impact of PCV in South Africa, however, remains incomplete. The knowledge gaps remaining include the evaluation of PCV on the incidence of all-cause pneumonia hospitalization among vaccinated and unvaccinated age-groups. Furthermore, ongoing surveillance is required to determine whether there is ongoing replacement disease by non-vaccine serotypes, which could offset the early gains associated with the immunization program in the country. PMID:26317537

  11. Pneumococcal pneumonia prevention among adults: is the herd effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in children as good a way as the active immunization of the elderly?

    PubMed

    Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico

    2016-03-01

    The indirect protection of adults as a result of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants has been discussed from different epidemiological points of view. In some countries, including Italy, even after pediatric vaccination, vaccine serotypes are still responsible for most pneumonia and invasive diseases in the elderly. Although the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA) produced encouraging results, it has not showed the efficacy of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia regardless of the number of episodes and serotype. Addressing these points by monitoring the direct impact of adult vaccination in real life distinguished from the effects of herd immunity will assist public health decision-making on the most effective adult pneumococcal vaccination strategies. PMID:26652736

  12. Pediatric osteoarticular infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae before and after the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, C; Ferroni, A; Doit, C; Vu-Thien, H; Glorion, C; Raymond, J; Mary, P; Wicart, P; Bingen, E; Ilharreborde, B; Lorrot, M

    2012-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an uncommon cause of osteoarticular infections (OAI) in children. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of pneumococcal OAI before and after the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Data were retrospectively collected from children aged <16 years who were hospitalized for pneumococcal OAI between 1997 and 2007 in four Parisian teaching hospitals. Forty-three children were included (32 with arthritis and 11 with osteomyelitis) and the median age of these children was 12.5 months (range 3 months to 14 years). Serotypes were available for 19/43 strains (44 %) from 1997 onwards and for 12/13 strains (92 %) from 2005 onwards. Seven unvaccinated children were infected with vaccine serotypes and we observed only one vaccine failure. After the introduction of PCV7, we noted an increase in short-term complications and the emergence of serotype 19A, which was penicillin-intermediate in 86 % of cases. After PCV7 introduction, serotype 19A was the most frequent serotype implicated in pediatric pneumococcal OAI. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduced in France in June 2010 should cover the emerging serotype. PMID:22569646

  13. Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among adults aged ?65 years: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Sara; Bennett, Nancy M; Stoecker, Charles; Gierke, Ryan; Moore, Matthew R; Whitney, Cynthia G; Hadler, Stephen; Pilishvili, Tamara

    2014-09-19

    On August 13, 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 [Prevnar 13, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.]) among adults aged ?65 years. PCV13 should be administered in series with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23 [Pneumovax23, Merck & Co., Inc.]), the vaccine currently recommended for adults aged ?65 years. PCV13 was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in late 2011 for use among adults aged ?50 years. In June 2014, the results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating efficacy of PCV13 for preventing community-acquired pneumonia among approximately 85,000 adults aged ?65 years with no prior pneumococcal vaccination history (CAPiTA trial) became available and were presented to ACIP. The evidence supporting PCV13 vaccination of adults was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework and determined to be type 2 (moderate level of evidence); the recommendation was categorized as a Category A recommendation. This report outlines the new recommendations for PCV13 use, provides guidance for use of PCV13 and PPSV23 among adults aged ?65 years, and summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP to make this recommendation. PMID:25233284

  14. Molecular epidemiology of meningococcal disease in England and Wales 1975-1995, before the introduction of serogroup C conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Russell, Joanne E; Urwin, Rachel; Gray, Stephen J; Fox, Andrew J; Feavers, Ian M; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-04-01

    A comprehensive meningococcal vaccine is yet to be developed. In the absence of a vaccine that immunizes against the serogroup B capsular polysaccharide, this can only be achieved by targeting subcapsular antigens, and a number of outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) are under consideration as candidates. A major obstacle to the development of such a vaccine is the antigenic diversity of these OMPs, and obtaining population data that accurately identify and catalogue these variants is an important component of vaccine design. The recently proposed meningococcal molecular strain-typing scheme indexes the diversity of two OMPs, PorA and FetA, that are vaccine candidates, as well as the capsule and multilocus sequence type. This scheme was employed to survey 323 meningococci isolated from invasive disease in England and Wales from 1975 to 1995, before the introduction of meningococcal conjugated serogroup C polysaccharide vaccines in 1999. The eight-locus typing scheme provided high typeability (99.4 %) and discrimination (Simpson's diversity index 0.94-0.99). The data showed cycling of meningococcal genotypes and antigenic types in the absence of planned interventions. Notwithstanding high genetic and antigenic diversity, most of the isolates belonged to one of seven clonal complexes, with 11 predominant strain types. Combinations of PorA and FetA, chosen on the basis of their prevalence over time, generated vaccine recipes that included protein variants found in 80 % or more of the disease isolates for this time period. If adequate immune responses can be generated, these results suggest that control of meningococcal disease with relatively simple protein component vaccines may be possible. PMID:18375809

  15. 9 CFR 113.112 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.112 Section 113.112 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 9 CFR 113.111 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.111 Section 113.111 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS...

  17. 9 CFR 113.111 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.111 Section 113.111 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS...

  18. An Oxycodone Conjugate Vaccine Elicits Drug-Specific Antibodies that Reduce Oxycodone Distribution to Brain and Hot-Plate Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Le Naour, M.; Harmon, T. M.; Tucker, A. M.; Portoghese, P. S.; Pentel, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Opioid conjugate vaccines have shown promise in attenuating the behavioral effects of heroin or morphine in animals. The goal of this study was to extend this approach to oxycodone (OXY), a commonly abused prescription opioid. Haptens were generated by adding tetraglycine (Gly)4 or hemisuccinate (HS) linkers at the 6-position of OXY. Immunization of rats with OXY(Gly)4 conjugated to the carrier proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) produced high-titer antibodies to OXY and its metabolite oxymorphone with substantially lower affinities for other structurally related opioid agonists and antagonists. There was no measurable binding of antibody by the (Gly)4 linker alone or off-target opioids methadone and buprenorphine. OXY(HS) conjugates were less immunogenic despite achieving protein haptenation ratios comparable to OXY(Gly)4-BSA. In rats given a single intravenous dose of OXY, immunization with OXY(Gly)4-KLH increased OXY protein binding and retention in serum while decreasing its unbound (free) concentration in plasma and distribution to brain. Vaccine efficacy correlated with serum antibody titers, and it was greatest in rats given the lowest OXY dose (0.05 mg/kg) but was significant even after a larger OXY dose (0.5 mg/kg), equivalent to the high end of the therapeutic range in humans. These effects of OXY(Gly)4-KLH on drug disposition were comparable to those of nicotine or cocaine vaccines that are in clinical trials as addiction treatments. Immunization with OXY(Gly)4-KLH also reduced OXY analgesia in a thermal nociception test. These data support further study of vaccination with the OXY(Gly)4-KLH immunogen as a potential treatment option for OXY abuse or addiction. PMID:22262924

  19. Response of MUTZ-3 dendritic cells to the different components of the Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccine: towards an in vitro assay for vaccine immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagel, Marcel H N; Vermeulen, Jolanda P; Scheper, Rik J; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2011-07-18

    Potency testing is mandatory for vaccine registration and batch release. Due to various limitations to in vivo potency testing, there is need for relevant in vitro alternatives. These alternative tests should preferably comprise cells from the target (human) species. The whole suite of immune responses to vaccination that occur in vivo in humans cannot be tested in vitro using a single cell type. Even so, dendritic cells (DC) form an important candidate cell type since they are pivotal in inducing and orchestrating immune responses. Cell lines are preferred over ex vivo cells for reasons of safety, accessibility, and reproducibility. In this first feasibility study we used the human cell line MUTZ-3, because it most closely resembles ex vivo human DC, and compared its response to monocyte-derived DC (moDC). Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB) vaccine was chosen because its components exert different effects in vivo: while the HiB antigen, polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) fails to induce sufficient protection in children below 2 years of age, conjugation of this polysaccharide antigen to outer membrane protein (OMP) of Neisseria meningitides, results in sufficient protection. Effects of PRP, OMP, conjugated PRP-OMP, and adjuvanted vaccine (PedVax HiB), on cytokine production and surface marker expression were established. PRP induced no effects on cytokine production and the effect on surface marker expression was limited to a minor decrease in CD209 (DC-SIGN). In both MUTZ-3 and moDC, OMP induced the strongest response both in cytokine production and surface marker expression. Compared to OMP alone conjugated PRP-OMP generally induced a weaker response in cytokine production and surface marker expression. The effects of PedVax HiB were comparable to conjugated PRP-OMP. While moDC showed a larger dynamic range than MUTZ-3 DC, these cells also showed considerable variability between donors, with MUTZ-3 DC showing a consistent response between the replicate assays. In our view, this makes MUTZ-3 DC the cells of choice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the MUTZ-3 DC assay allows discrimination between compounds with different immunogenicity. The potential of this cell line as (part of) an in vitro immunogenicity assay should be further explored. PMID:21624423

  20. Safety and immunogenicity of meningococcal ACWY CRM197-conjugate vaccine in children, adolescents and adults in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ilyina, Natalia; Kharit, Susanna; Namazova-Baranova, Leila; Asatryan, Asmik; Benashvili, Mayya; Tkhostova, Elmira; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial invasive infections in people aged <15 years in the Russian Federation. The aim of this phase III, multicenter, open-label study was to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine MenACWY when administered to healthy Russian subjects aged 2 years and above. A total of 197 subjects were immunized with a single dose of the vaccine, and serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity was measured pre and 1-month post-vaccination with human complement (hSBA) serum titers. Regardless of baseline serostatus, 1 month after a single dose of MenACWY-CRM197 85% (95%CI, 79-90%) of subjects showed serologic response against serogroup A, 74% (67-80%) against serogroup C, 60% (53-67%) against serogroup W, and 83% (77-88%) against serogroup Y. The percentage of subjects with hSBA titers ? 1:8 1 month after vaccination was 89% (83-93%) against serogroup A, 84% (78-89%) against serogroup C, 97% (93-99%) against serogroup W, and 88% (82-92%) against serogroup Y. Comparable results were obtained across all subjects: children (2 to 10 years), adolescents (11 to 17 years), and adults (?18 years). The MenACWY-CRM197 vaccine showed an acceptable safety profile and was well tolerated across all age groups, with no serious adverse events or deaths reported during the study. In conclusion, a single dose of meningococcal MenACWY-CRM197 vaccine is immunogenic and has an acceptable safety profile, provides a broad protection against the most frequent epidemic serogroups, and is a suitable alternative to currently available unconjugated monovalent or bivalent polysaccharide vaccines in Russia. PMID:25424958

  1. Differential B-Cell Memory Around the 11-Month Booster in Children Vaccinated With a 10- or 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    van Westen, Els; Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke J.; van Dijken, Harry H.; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A. M.; Kuipers, Betsy; Knol, Mirjam J.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Rots, Nynke Y.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Both the 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) induce immunological memory against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections caused by vaccine serotypes. In addition to comparing serum antibody levels, we investigated frequencies of serotype-specific plasma cells (PCs) and memory B-cells (Bmems) as potential predictors of long-term immunity around the booster vaccination at 11 months of age. Methods. Infants were immunized with PCV10 or PCV13 at 2, 3, 4, and 11 months of age. Blood was collected before the 11-month booster or 7–9 days afterward. Serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were determined in serum samples by multiplex immunoassay. Circulating specific PCs and Bmems against shared serotypes 1, 6B, 7F, and 19F and against PCV13 serotypes 6A and 19A were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Results. No major differences in IgG levels and PC frequencies between groups were found for the 4 shared serotypes. Notably, PCV13 vaccination resulted in higher frequencies of Bmems than PCV10 vaccination, both before and after the booster dose, for all 4 shared serotypes except for serotype 1 postbooster. For PCV13-specific serotypes 6A and 19A, the IgG levels and frequencies of PCs and Bmems were higher in the PCV13 group, pre- and postbooster, except for PC frequencies prebooster. Conclusions. Both PCVs are immunogenic and induce measurable IgG, PC, and Bmem booster responses at 11 months. Compared to PCV10, vaccination with PCV13 was associated with overall similar IgG levels and PC frequencies but with higher Bmem frequencies before and after the 11-month booster. The clinical implications of these results need further follow-up. Clinical Trials Registration. NTR3069. PMID:25838290

  2. Active Surveillance for Adverse Events After a Mass Vaccination Campaign With a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Vannice, Kirsten S.; Keita, Modibo; Sow, Samba O.; Durbin, Anna P.; Omer, Saad B.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Yamogo, Tn M.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Sacko, Massambou; Diomand, Fabien V. K.; Halsey, Neal A.

    2015-01-01

    Background.?The monovalent meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was developed for use in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa. Mali was 1 of 3 countries selected for early introduction. As this is a new vaccine, postlicensure surveillance is particularly important to identify and characterize possible safety issues. Methods.?The national vaccination campaign was phased from September 2010 to November 2011. We conducted postlicensure safety surveillance for PsA-TT in 40 government clinics from southern Mali serving approximately 400 000 people 129 years of age. We conducted analyses with individual-level data and population-level data, and we calculated rates of adverse events using the conditional exact test, a modified vaccine cohort risk interval method, and a modified self-controlled case series method for each outcome of interest, including 18 prespecified adverse events and 18 syndromic categories. Results.?An increased rate of clinic visits for fever within 3 days after vaccination was found using multiple methods for all age groups. Although other signals were found with some methods, complete assessment of all other prespecified outcomes and syndromic categories did not reveal that PsA-TT was consistently associated with any other health problem. Conclusions.?No new safety concerns were identified in this study. These results are consistent with prelicensure data and other studies indicating that PsA-TT is safe. The approach presented could serve as a model for future active postlicensure vaccine safety monitoring associated with large-scale immunization campaigns in low-income countries. PMID:26553680

  3. A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Immunogenicity of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Compared to 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Frail, Hospitalized Elderly

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, C. Raina; Ridda, Iman; Gao, Zhanhai; Moa, Aye M.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Sullivan, John S.; Jones, Thomas R.; Hayen, Andrew; Lindley, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elderly people do not mount strong immune responses to vaccines. We compared 23-valent capsular polysaccharide (23vPPV) alone versus 7-valent conjugate (PCV7) vaccine followed by 23vPPV 6 months later in hospitalized elderly. Methods Participants were randomized to receive 23vPPV or PCV7-23vPPV. Antibodies against serotypes 3, 4, 6A, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and opsonophagocytic (OPA) assays at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Of 312 recruited, between 40% and 72% of subjects had undetectable OPA titres at baseline. After one dose, PCV7 recipients had significantly higher responses to serotypes 9V (both assays) and 23F (OPA only), and 23vPPV recipients had significantly higher responses to serotype 3 (ELISA), 19F and 19A (OPA only). In subjects with undetectable OPA titres at baseline, a proportionately greater rise in OPA titre (P<0.01) was seen for all serotypes after both vaccines. The GMT ratio of OPA was significantly higher at 12 months in the PCV7-23vPPV group for serotypes 6A, 9V, 18C and 23F. OPA titre levels for these serotypes increased moderately after 6 months, whereas immunity waned in the 23vPPV only arm. Conclusion We did not show overwhelming benefit of one vaccine over the other. Low baseline immunity does not preclude a robust immune response, reiterating the importance of vaccinating the frail elderly. A schedule of PCV7-23vPPV prevents waning of antibody, suggesting that both vaccines could be useful in the elderly. Follow up studies are needed to determine persistence of immunity. Trial Registration The Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12607000387426 PMID:24760002

  4. Enhanced immunogenicity of multivalent MUC1 glycopeptide antitumour vaccines based on hyperbranched polymers.

    PubMed

    Glaffig, M; Palitzsch, B; Stergiou, N; Schll, C; Strassburger, D; Schmitt, E; Frey, H; Kunz, H

    2015-10-28

    Enhancing the immunogenicity of an antitumour vaccine still poses a major challenge. It depends upon the selected antigen and the mode of its presentation. We here describe a fully synthetic antitumour vaccine, which addresses both aspects. For the antigen, a tumour-associated MUC1 glycopeptide as B-cell epitope was synthesised and linked to the immunostimulating T-cell epitope P2 derived from tetanus toxoid. The MUC1-P2 conjugate is presented multivalently on a hyperbranched polyglycerol to the immune system. In comparison to a related vaccine of lower multivalency, this vaccine exposing more antigen structures on the hyperbranched polymer induced significantly stronger immune responses in mice and elicited IgG antibodies of distinctly higher affinity to epithelial tumour cells. PMID:26299280

  5. Antibody and Plasmablast Response to 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients – Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Pasiarski, Marcin; Rolinski, Jacek; Grywalska, Ewelina; Stelmach-Goldys, Agnieszka; Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Gozdz, Stanislaw; Hus, Iwona; Malm, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) leads to significant immune system dysfunction. The predominant clinical presentation in 50% of patients involves recurrent, often severe, infections. Infections are also the most common (60–80%) cause of deaths in CLL patients. The scope of infections varies with the clinical stage of the disease. Treatment-naive patients typically present with respiratory tract infections caused by encapsulated bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Since 2012, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been recommended in the United States and some EU countries for pneumococcal infection prevention in patients with CLL (besides the long-standing standard, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, PPV23). The aim of this study was to compare the immune response to PCV13 in 24 previously untreated CLL patients and healthy subjects. Methods Both groups were evaluated for: the levels of specific pneumococcal antibodies, the levels of IgG and IgG subclasses and selected peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations including the frequency of plasmablasts before and after immunization. Results Adequate response to vaccination, defined as an at least two-fold increase in specific pneumococcal antibody titers versus pre-vaccination baseline titers, was found in 58.3% of CLL patients and 100% of healthy subjects. Both the CLL group and the control group demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the IgG2 subclass levels following vaccination (P = 0.0301). After vaccination, the frequency of plasmablasts was significantly lower (P<0.0001) in CLL patients in comparison to that in controls. Patients who responded to vaccination had lower clinical stage of CLL as well as higher total IgG, and IgG2 subclass levels. No significant vaccine-related side effects were observed. Conclusions PCV13 vaccination in CLL patients is safe and induces an effective immune response in a considerable proportion of patients. To achieve an optimal vaccination response, the administration of PCV13 is recommended as soon as possible following CLL diagnosis. PMID:25506837

  6. A randomized comparison of three bivalent Streptococcus pneumoniae glycoprotein conjugate vaccines in young children: effect of polysaccharide size and linkage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, M C; Edwards, K; Keyserling, H; Thoms, M L; Johnson, C; Madore, D; Hogerman, D

    1994-05-01

    Because most childhood invasive pneumococcal disease occurs before the age of 2 years, the development of a pneumococcal vaccine that is immunogenic in infants is a priority. We assessed the safety and serum antibody responses to two dose levels of three bivalent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-protein conjugate vaccines incorporating the poorly immunogenic serotypes 6A and 23F. The conjugate vaccines differed in CPS size and chemical linkage, but all used a nontoxic cross-reactive mutant diphtheria toxin (CRM197) as the protein carrier. 118 young children 18 to 30 months of age received a single immunization with one of the three glycoconjugates or with licensed pneumococcal vaccine. Sera were obtained before and 1 month after immunization and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serotype-specific antibody titers. The 23F CPS was more immunogenic than the 6A CPS in all vaccine formats. The most immunogenic 23F conjugate vaccine consisted of native CPS directly linked to the carrier protein; smaller CPS or the use of a six-carbon linker did not appear to enhance immunogenicity in these young children. Conjugation of two pneumococcal CPSs is associated with an increase in immunogenicity, and the characteristics of the CPS and of the CPS-protein linkage appear to influence the antibody response. PMID:8072818

  7. Anti-IgE Qb-VLP Conjugate Vaccine Self-Adjuvants through Activation of TLR7.

    PubMed

    Akache, Bassel; Weeratna, Risini D; Deora, Aparna; Thorn, Jennifer M; Champion, Brian; Merson, James R; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Qb bacteriophage virus-like particles (Qb-VLP) are utilized as carriers to enhance immune responses to weakly or non-immunogenic antigens such as peptides and haptens. Qb-VLPs are formed through the self-assembly of multiple Qb capsid protein monomers, a process which traps a large amount of bacterial RNA in the core of the VLP. Bacterial RNA is known to activate the innate immune system via TLR 7 and 8 found within the endosomes of certain immune cells and has been shown to contribute to the immunogenicity of Qb-VLP vaccines. Herein, we evaluated an anti-IgE vaccine comprised of two IgE peptides (Y and P) conjugated to Qb-VLP (Qb-Y and Qb-P, respectively) for in vitro stimulation of human PBMCs and in vivo immunogenicity in mice. The in vitro secretion of IFN-α from human PBMCs exposed to Qb-Y is consistent with TLR7 activation. Immunization of mice with the IgE peptide Qb-VLP conjugates induced high titers of anti-IgE antibodies in wild-type mice, but significantly lower titers in TLR7 knockout mice, supporting the self-adjuvanting role of the RNA. Inclusion of alum and alum/CpG as adjuvants partially or completely compensated for the lack of TLR7 activation in TLR7-deficient mice. Our study demonstrates the key role that TLR7 plays in the immunogenicity of the IgE peptide Qb-VLP conjugate vaccine. PMID:26805897

  8. Immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines consisting of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide types 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F and a meningococcal outer membrane protein complex.

    PubMed Central

    Vella, P P; Marburg, S; Staub, J M; Kniskern, P J; Miller, W; Hagopian, A; Ip, C; Tolman, R L; Rusk, C M; Chupak, L S

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to prepare pneumococcal (Pn) capsular polysaccharide (Ps) vaccines that would be immunogenic in infants, covalent conjugates were prepared for Pn types 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F. Each Ps type was covalently bound to an outer membrane protein complex from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and evaluated for immunogenicity in mice and infant monkeys. The conjugates induced specific anti-Ps antibody responses in mice and in infant rhesus and African green monkeys; a conjugate of 6B and outer membrane protein complex was immunogenic at Ps doses as low as 20 ng. Although low levels of the Pn group-common cell wall polysaccharide were present in all type-specific Ps preparations, anti-cell wall polysaccharide responses induced by covalent conjugates were < 1% of the total anti-Ps response after two doses of vaccine. In contrast, the anti-cell wall polysaccharide response of a noncovalent conjugate represented 41% of the anti-Ps response after two doses. Relative T-cell dependence, a requirement for the human target population of infants less than 18 months old, was demonstrated for all four Pn Ps conjugates in an athymic mouse model. Therefore, these Pn Ps-outer membrane protein complex conjugate vaccines are excellent candidates for evaluation in human infants. PMID:1452327

  9. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2months, 4months and 6months) and a booster dose (at 13months) (3?+?1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy to improve infant population health in the region. PMID:24004943

  10. Increased Genetic Diversity of Neisseria meningitidis Isolates after the Introduction of Meningococcal Serogroup C Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Diggle, Mathew A.; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, the incidence of meningococcal disease was high in the United Kingdom. This was due primarily to an increase in serogroup C disease, particularly that within the ET-37/ST-11 genetic lineage. Serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines were introduced in the United Kingdom in 1999, but the sequence types of meningococci causing disease since that time have not yet been reported. We have used serogrouping and multilocus sequence typing to characterize meningococci from patients with invasive disease over a 4-year period and show that there is a significant increase in genetic diversity but no genetic evidence of capsule switching. PMID:16145121

  11. Comparison of a Classical Phagocytosis Assay and a Flow Cytometry Assay for Assessment of the Phagocytic Capacity of Sera from Adults Vaccinated with a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Wouter T. M.; Vkevinen-Anttila, Merja; Kyhty, Helena; Nahm, Moon; Bakker, N.; Verhoef, Jan; Snippe, Harm; Verheul, Andr F. M.

    2001-01-01

    Antibody- and complement-mediated phagocytosis is the main defense mechanism against Streptococcus pneumoniae. A standardized, easy to perform phagocytosis assay for pneumococci would be a great asset for the evaluation of the potential efficacy of (experimental) pneumococcal vaccines. Such an assay could replace the laborious phagocytosis assay of viable pneumococci (classical killing assay). Therefore, a newly developed phagocytosis assay based on flow cytometry (flow assay) was compared with the conventional killing assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using sera obtained from adults pre- and postvaccination with either a bivalent conjugate, a tetravalent conjugate, or the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. Highly significant correlations were observed between flow assay phagocytosis titers, killing assay phagocytosis titers, and ELISA antibody titers for serotype 6B and 23F as well. For serotype 19F, strong correlations were only observed between killing assay and ELISA titers. A potential drawback of the flow assay might be the low sensitivity compared with that of the killing assay. The choice of what assay to use, however, will depend on the objectives of the assay. When speed, easy performance, sample throughput, improved worker safety, absence of influence of antibiotics, and absence of false positives are the major criteria, the flow assay is the method of choice. When higher sensitivity is the major requirement, the classical killing assay should be used. PMID:11238203

  12. Vaccination Coverage and Compliance with Three Recommended Schedules of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine during the First Year of Its Introduction in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced to Brazil’s National Immunization Program (NIP) in 2010. During the first year of vaccine introduction three schedules were used to deal with age at initiation of PCV for catch-up purposes: 3 primary doses + 1 booster (for children aged ≤6 months), a catch-up schedule of 2 doses + 1 booster (7-11 months), and a catch-up schedule of a single dose (12-15 months). The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude and associated risk factors for under-vaccination or lack of on time vaccination six to eight months after PCV10 introduction. A household survey was conducted in the municipality of Goiania with 1,237 children, who were retroactively classified into one of three age groups, as a factor of the child’s age relatively to 30 days after PCV10 introduction. Socioeconomic characteristics and vaccination dates were obtained during home interviews. Vaccination coverage was defined as the percentage of children who completed the recommended number of doses. Compliance with recommended schedules was defined as the percentage of children who received all valid doses at the NIP recommended time interval. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of variables independently associated with coverage and compliance were estimated by log binomial regression. Coverage of DTP-Hib was used for comparison purposes. Overall, vaccination coverage was 54.6% (95% CI 52.1-57.7%), lower than DTP-Hib coverage (93.0%; 95% CI 91.5-94.3%). Compliance with recommended schedules was 16.8% (95% CI: 14.7-18.6%). Children 7-11 months old had lower coverage (40.7%) and compliance (6.3%) compared to children aged 12-15 months (coverage: 88.8%; compliance: 35.6%) and ≤6 months old (coverage: 54%; compliance: 18.8%). Having private health insurance was associated with higher PCV10 coverage (PR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.06-1.47, p=0.007), and compliance (PR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.16, p=0.015). Although PCV10 coverage rapidly increased shortly after vaccination introduction, it was not matched by compliance with recommended schedules. Public initiatives should target compliance of PCV10 because of the burden of pneumococcal diseases on childhood morbidity and mortality. PMID:26061276

  13. Serological response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, Alasdair; Kelleher, Peter; Lyall, Hermione; Haston, Mitch; Zancolli, Marta; Goldblatt, David; Kampmann, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with perinatally acquired HIV (paHIV) remain at an increased risk of pneumococcal infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Beyond infancy, responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) remain under-investigated. There are currently no published data on serological response to 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in the HIV-infected populations. Methods: We measured pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG in 48 paHIV-infected child patients (CP), 27 young adult healthy controls (AHC) and 30 child healthy controls (CHC). Opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) titres for three PCV13-exclusive serotypes were measured in a subset of children. Serotype-specific IgG was repeated 1 and 6 months following PCV13 vaccination of CP and AHC groups. OPA titres for four serotypes were measured at the 1-month time-point. Results: The majority of CP, CHC and AHC had serotype-specific IgG above 0.35??g/ml at baseline, although OPA activity was undetectable for two of the three serotypes studied. Baseline IgG concentrations were significantly lower in CP than AHC for a proportion of serotypes and were strongly predictive of responses to vaccine. After adjusting for baseline, postvaccination IgG concentrations were comparable, although responses to some serotypes were impaired for CP. OPA correlated well with IgG after vaccination. Detectable HIV viral load was associated with significantly lower IgG concentration and OPA titre. Conclusion: Children with paHIV mount a robust serological response to PCV13 for most but not all vaccine serotypes. Viral load suppression with HAART and higher baseline IgG concentration are associated with higher postvaccination antibody levels. This has implications for HAART treatment and vaccination practices. PMID:25222526

  14. Effect of the 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae — Alaska, 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, Prabhu P.; Bruce, Michael G.; Bruden, Dana JT.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Rudolph, Karen; Hurlburt, Debby A.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Wenger, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced a 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) that contained all PCV7 serotypes plus 6 additional serotypes (PCV6+). We conducted annual surveys from 2008–2012 to determine the effect of PCV13 on colonization by pneumococcal serotypes. Methods We obtained nasopharyngeal swabs for pneumococcal identification and serotyping from residents of all ages at 8 rural villages and children age <60 months at 2 urban clinics. We conducted interviews/medical records review for all participants. Results A total of 18,207 nasopharyngeal swabs (rural=16,098; urban=2,109) were collected. From 2008–2012, 84% of rural and 90% of urban children age <5 years were age-appropriately vaccinated with a PCV. Overall pneumococcal colonization prevalence remained stable among rural (66%) and urban (35%) children age <5 years, and adults age ≥18 years (14%). Colonization by PCV6+ serotypes declined significantly among rural children age <5 years, urban children age <5, and adults age ≥18 over the course of the study (25%–5%, 22%–9%, 22%–6%, respectively). Conclusions PCV13 was rapidly introduced into the Alaska childhood immunization schedule and reduced colonization by PCV6+ serotypes among children. Unvaccinated adults also experienced comparable reductions in vaccine serotype colonization indicating substantial indirect protection from PCV13. PMID:24273178

  15. The early kinetics of circulating pneumococcal-specific memory B cells following pneumococcal conjugate and plain polysaccharide vaccines in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Helen E; Keating, Sheila M; Johnson, Marina; Southern, Jo; Miller, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David

    2010-07-01

    In young children, polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been shown to offer advantage over plain polysaccharide vaccines (PPVs) in both immunogenicity and priming for memory responses. In the elderly, the potential benefit of conjugate vaccines is unclear. Here, we explore the early kinetics of serum antibody and circulating plasma and memory B cell responses to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS) in older adults (n=37) immunised a PPV vaccine, Pneumovax or a PCV: Prevenar. All individuals had serum evidence of pre-existing serotype-specific immunity. Following immunisation, a day 7 rise in circulating PPS-specific plasma and memory antibody secreting cells (AbSCs) was detected in both vaccine groups and this was sustained to day 28 in some PCV recipients. There was no difference between vaccine groups in serum antibody responses or the kinetics of the early PBMC-derived B cell responses. Although our sample cohort was small, these data are different from profiles in younger individuals at early time points post-immunisation and suggest that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines may not quantitatively enhance the generation of memory responses in the elderly. PMID:20471437

  16. Vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningococcal protein conjugate vaccine reduces oropharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b among American Indian children.

    PubMed

    Takala, A K; Santosham, M; Almeido-Hill, J; Wolff, M; Newcomer, W; Reid, R; Kyhty, H; Esko, E; Mkel, P H

    1993-07-01

    The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningococcal protein conjugate vaccine (Hib-OMPC; Merck, Sharp & Dohme) on oropharyngeal (OP) carriage of Hib was evaluated in Navajo and Apache Indian children, who are known to be at high risk for invasive Hib disease. We obtained 1423 OP swabs at well child visits from 1321 children 3 months to 4 years of age: 293 of the swabs were obtained from children before the administration of any Hib-OMPC; 1119 were taken after the primary vaccination series; and 11 after the booster dose. Swabs were tested for the presence of Hib capsular polysaccharide antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty of 1423 swabs were positive for Hib. Among the 40 positive swabs 5 (13%) were obtained from children who had received Hib-OMPC vaccine appropriate for age at swabbing, compared with 500 of 1383 (36%) of negative swabs. Children who were OP carriers of Hib were older than noncarriers (mean age, 13 and 9 months, respectively) and a greater proportion of carriers (48%) had symptoms of respiratory infection at the time of swabbing than noncarriers (30%). These variables were significantly related to increased risk of OP carriage of Hib when incorporated jointly in a logistic regression model: not vaccinated according to age (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.05); increase of age in months (odds ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.10); and respiratory infection symptoms present (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.06-3.77). Thus besides preventing invasive Hib disease, appropriate vaccination with Hib-OMPC appears to reduce OP carriage of Hib. PMID:8346004

  17. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the breadth of studies demonstrating benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), uncertainty remains regarding the optimal PCV dosing schedule in infants. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of PCV immunogenicity published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011). Studies included for analysis evaluated ?2 doses of 7-valent or higher product (excluding Aventis-Pasteur PCV11) administered to nonhigh-risk infants ?6 months of age. Impact of PCV schedule on geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) and proportion of subjects over 0.35 mcg/mL were assessed at various time points; the GMC 1 month postdose 3 (for various dosing regimens) for serotypes 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F was assessed in detail using random effects linear regression, adjusted for product, acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/whole-cell diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis coadministration, laboratory method, age at first dose and geographic region. Results: From 61 studies, we evaluated 13 two-dose (2+0) and 65 three-dose primary schedules (3+0) without a booster dose, 11 2+1 (2 primary plus booster) and 42 3+1 schedules. The GMC after the primary series was higher following 3-dose schedules compared with 2-dose schedules for all serotypes except for serotype 1. Pre- and postbooster GMCs were generally similar regardless of whether 2 or 3 primary doses were given. GMCs were significantly higher for all serotypes when dose 3 was administered in the second year (2+1) compared with ?6 months of age (3+0). Conclusions: While giving the third dose in the second year of life produces a higher antibody response than when given as part of the primary series in the first 6 months, the lower GMC between the 2-dose primary series and booster may result in less disease protection for infants in that interval than those who completed the 3-dose primary series. Theoretical advantages of higher antibodies induced by giving the third dose in the second year of life, such as increased protection against serotype 1 disease, longer duration of protection or more rapid induction of herd effects, need to be evaluated in practice. PMID:24336054

  18. Primary and Booster Mucosal Immune Responses to Meningococcal Group A and C Conjugate and Polysaccharide Vaccines Administered to University Students in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q.; Lakshman, R.; Burkinshaw, R.; Choo, S.; Everard, J.; Akhtar, S.; Finn, A.

    2001-01-01

    Meningococcal group A+C capsular polysaccharide (PS) conjugate vaccines may prime for serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) memory responses to meningococcal capsular PS. It is not known whether these vaccines induce immunological memory at the mucosal level, which may be important in reducing nasopharyngeal carriage. Mucosal immune responses to meningococcal conjugate and PS vaccines in young adults were investigated. Healthy university students were randomized to receive either a groups A+C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MACconj, n = 100) or a group A+C meningococcal PS vaccine (MACPS, n = 95). One year after the primary immunization, both groups were randomized again to receive a MACconj or a MACPS booster vaccination. Saliva samples were collected before and 1 month after the primary and booster vaccinations. Anti-meningococcal A (MenA) and C (MenC) PS IgA and IgG antibody levels were measured by a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After the primary vaccination, salivary MenA and MenC IgG and MenA IgA concentrations were significantly increased after immunization with both MACconj and MACPS vaccines, but the salivary Men C IgA level was increased only after MACPS vaccine (P < 0.01). IgA responses to both serogroups were greater for MACPS than MACconj vaccine (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were seen for IgG responses. MenA IgG titers were higher after the MACPS booster in MACconj-primed subjects than after the MACPS primary vaccination, suggesting the presence of IgG memory. Antibody responses to a dose of either MACPS or MACconj were not significantly reduced in those previously given MACPS compared to the primary responses to those vaccines. Meningococcal A+C conjugate and PS vaccines induce significant mucosal responses in young adults. MACconj priming may induce IgG memory at the mucosal level, which is likely to be a reflection of an anamnestic serum IgG response. No evidence of mucosal hyporesponsiveness was observed after MACPS priming in this study. PMID:11401971

  19. A bivalent conjugate vaccine containing PspA families 1 and 2 has the potential to protect against a wide range of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains and Salmonella Typhi.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Neha; Kothari, Sudeep; Choi, Young Joo; Dey, Ayan; Briles, David E; Rhee, Dong Kwon; Carbis, Rodney

    2015-02-01

    Previously we showed that conjugation of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi enhanced the anti-PspA response without the need to add adjuvant. In the current study conjugates consisting of the ? helical regions of PspA families 1 or 2 bound to Vi were used to vaccinate mice to test their ability to protect against a lethal intravenous challenge of a range of various strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conjugate vaccine containing PspA family 1 provided good protection from PspA family 1 challenge strains but offered very little protection against PspA family 2 challenge strains. Similarly, PspA family 2 conjugates provided good protection from PspA family 2 challenge strains and poor protection against PspA family 1 challenge strains. This observation was supported by the low levels of cross-reactivity of PspA antibodies seen in ELISA plates coated with the heterologous PspA family. Cytokine profiles showed a mixed Th1/Th2 response to Vi and the Vi-PspA conjugates. IgG subclass analysis of the anti-Vi response showed a shift from predominantly IgG2a/3 to IgG1 after conjugation to PspA was consistent with other polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. The results demonstrate that conjugation of the ? helical region of PspA to Vi enhances its capacity to induce a protective immune response and that a vaccine based on the ? helical region of PspA should contain PspA from both families 1 and 2 to achieve broad cross-protection. PMID:25545593

  20. Safety and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine in Vietnamese infants: a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal infections are major causes of child mortality and morbidity worldwide and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major concern, especially in Asian countries. The present study was designed to evaluate the reactogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) when co-administered with the licensed diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B virus, inactivated poliovirus and H. influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) in a 3-dose primary vaccination course in Vietnamese infants. Methods This phase III, open, randomised study was conducted in one centre in Ho Chi Minh City between February and July 2011. Healthy infants (N=300) were randomised (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib alone (Control group) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. Results Within 31 days post-vaccination, 8.2% of overall doses in the PHiD-CV group and 3.0% of overall doses in the Control group were followed by at least one solicited and/or unsolicited, local and/or general adverse event of grade 3 intensity. Pain at injection site was the most common grade 3 solicited symptom, which was reported following 6.5% and 1.0% of overall doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups, respectively. Within 4 days post-vaccination, the most common solicited local and general symptoms reported with any intensity were pain (48.9% and 31.0% of doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups) and irritability (58.0% and 40.4% of doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups). Within 31 days post-vaccination, the incidence of unsolicited symptoms was comparable in both groups (following 12.3% and 14.8% of doses in the PHiD-CV and Control groups, respectively). Throughout the study, 13 serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 9 infants in the PHiD-CV group and 11 SAEs in 6 infants in the Control group. None of them were fatal or considered causally related to vaccination. Conclusions PHiD-CV had a clinically acceptable safety profile when co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in Vietnamese infants. The reactogenicity of PHiD-CV was comparable to that observed in other South-East Asian populations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01153841 PMID:23432812

  1. Synthesis of Mercapto (+) methamphetamine Haptens and Their Use for Obtaining Improved Epitope Density on (+) Methamphetamine Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, F. Ivy; Blough, Bruce E.; Pidaparthi, Ramakrishna R.; Abraham, Philip; Gong, Paul K.; Deng, Liu; Huang, Xiaodong; Gunnell, Melinda; Lay, Jackson O.; Peterson, Eric C.; Owens, S. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the synthesis of the mercapto hapten (S)-N-(2-(mercaptoethyl)-6-(3-(2-(methylamino)propyl)phenoxy)hexanamide [3, (+)-METH HSMO9] and its use to prepare METH-conjugated vaccines (MCV) from maleimide activated proteins. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of the MCV synthesized using 3 showed there was a high and controllable epitope density on two different carrier proteins. In addition, the MCV produced a substantially greater immunological response in mice than previous METH haptens, and a monoclonal antibody generated from this MCV in mice showed a very high affinity for (+)-METH (KD = 6.8 nM). The efficient covalent coupling of (+)-METH HSMO9 to the activated carrier proteins suggests this approach could be cost effective for large-scale production of MCV. In addition, the general methods described for the synthesis of (+) METH HSMO9 (3) and its use to synthesize MCV will be applicable for conjugated vaccines of small molecules and other substances of abuse such as morphine, nicotine, and cocaine. PMID:21682289

  2. Synthesis of mercapto-(+)-methamphetamine haptens and their use for obtaining improved epitope density on (+)-methamphetamine conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Carroll, F Ivy; Blough, Bruce E; Pidaparthi, Ramakrishna R; Abraham, Philip; Gong, Paul K; Deng, Liu; Huang, Xiaodong; Gunnell, Melinda; Lay, Jackson O; Peterson, Eric C; Owens, S Michael

    2011-07-28

    This study reports the synthesis of the mercapto-hapten (S)-N-(2-(mercaptoethyl)-6-(3-(2-(methylamino)propyl)phenoxy)hexanamide [3, (+)-METH HSMO9] and its use to prepare METH-conjugated vaccines (MCV) from maleimide-activated proteins. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of the MCV synthesized using 3 showed there was a high and controllable epitope density on two different carrier proteins. In addition, the MCV produced a substantially greater immunological response in mice than previous METH haptens, and a monoclonal antibody generated from this MCV in mice showed a very high affinity for (+)-METH (K(D) = 6.8 nM). The efficient covalent coupling of (+)-METH HSMO9 to the activated carrier proteins suggests that this approach could be cost-effective for large-scale production of MCV. In addition, the general methods described for the synthesis of (+)-METH HSMO9 (3) and its use to synthesize MCV will be applicable for conjugated vaccines of small molecules and other substances of abuse such as morphine, nicotine, and cocaine. PMID:21682289

  3. Development of approaches to a third-generation carbohydrate-conjugate vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae: the search for optimal oligosaccharide ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gening, M. L.; Kurbatova, E. A.; Tsvetkov, Yu E.; Nifantiev, N. E.

    2015-11-01

    The review addresses the application of synthetic oligosaccharides related to fragments of capsular polysaccharides from different serotypes of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae for the design of third-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Special focus is given to characteristic features of the chemical structures of oligosaccharides required for the induction of the protective immune response when using synthetic glycoconjugate vaccines based on oligosaccharide ligands and carrier proteins. The bibliography includes 101 references.

  4. Impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children attending group daycare in southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Dunais, Brigitte; Bruno, Pascale; Touboul, Pia; Degand, Nicolas; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Fontas, Eric; Haas, Herv; Girard-Pipau, Fernand; Ruimy, Raymond; Pradier, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Regular surveys of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage have been conducted among children attending daycare centers in Southeastern France from 1999 to 2012. We compared carriage rate, susceptibility patterns and serotype distribution in 2012, following implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, with findings from 5 previous surveys. Carriage rate was stable, antibiotic susceptibility improved and only serotype 19A persisted among vaccine-types. PMID:25742079

  5. Notes from the Field: Administration Error Involving a Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine - United States, March 1, 2010-September 22, 2015.

    PubMed

    Su, John R; Miller, Elaine R; Duffy, Jonathan; Baer, Bethany M; Cano, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Menveo (GlaxoSmithKline, previously Novartis AG) is a conjugate vaccine that was recommended in October 2010 for routine use in adolescents (preferably aged 11 or 12 years, with a booster at 16 years), and among persons aged 2 through 54 years with certain immunosuppressive conditions, to prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 (1). These recommendations have since been updated (2). Menveo is supplied in two vials that must be combined before administration. The MenA lyophilized (freeze-dried) component must be reconstituted with the MenCYW-135 liquid component (Figure). To administer the vaccine, the liquid component is drawn into a syringe, and used to reconstitute the lyophilized component. The resulting solution is administered by intramuscular injection. Failure to prepare Menveo as directed by the manufacturer's instructions can lead to lack of protection against the intended pathogens (N. meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and/or W-135) (3). Recently, an immunization provider administered only the lyophilized component of Menveo, subsequently administered a properly prepared dose of Menveo to the same patient, and asked CDC if this practice was safe. This question prompted CDC to search the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database for reports during March 1, 2010-September 22, 2015, of only one component of Menveo being administered. Additionally, to more broadly identify disproportional reporting of adverse events in general following Menveo immunization compared with other vaccines in VAERS (including errors in vaccine preparation and administration), the Food and Drug Administration performed data mining with empiric Bayesian methods (4). PMID:26890604

  6. Specificity of the Antibody Response to the Pneumococcal Polysaccharide and Conjugate Vaccines in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Elie, Cheryl M.; Goetz, Matthew B.; Lennox, Jeffrey L.; Carlone, George M.; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Holder, Patricia F.; O'Brien, William A.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Butler, Jay C.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Nonspecific antibodies, which are thought to be nonprotective, have been shown to contribute a substantial proportion of the measured concentration in the standardized immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for pneumococcal polysaccharide capsular antibodies. The presence of such antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons has not been evaluated. The amount of nonspecific antibodies is proportional to the reduction in IgG antibody concentration that occurs with serum absorption with the heterologous polysaccharide 22F. We measured the amount of nonspecific antibodies before and after vaccination with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV; n = 33) or the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV; n = 34) in HIV-infected adults with CD4 counts of ≥200 cells/mm3. Blood was drawn before and 2 months after vaccination. For prevaccination sera, we found a substantial amount of nonspecific antibodies for serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 23F (23 to 47% of measured IgG concentration), but not for serotype 14. There tended to be proportionately less nonspecific antibodies in postvaccine sera than prevaccine sera for PCV, but not for PPV. Subjects with a low HIV viral load (≤400 copies/ml) had proportionately more nonspecific antibodies than those with higher viral load before and after both vaccines. After 22F absorption, the geometric mean concentrations of antibodies were significantly higher post-PCV than post-PPV for the high viral load group for all five serotypes, but for no serotypes in the low viral load group. These findings confirm that absorption with a heterologous pneumococcal polysaccharide (e.g., 22F) is necessary to remove nonspecific antibodies in a standardized IgG ELISA for pneumococcal capsular antibodies in HIV-infected adults. PMID:14715560

  7. Stabilization of Tetanus Toxoid Encapsulated in PLGA Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenlei; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of vaccine antigens from controlled-release poly(lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres is a novel approach to reduce the number of antigen doses required for protection against infection. A major impediment to developing single-shot vaccines is encapsulated antigen instability during months of exposure to physiological conditions. For example, efforts to control neonatal tetanus in developing countries with a single-dose TT vaccine have been plagued by poor stability of the 150 kDa formaldehyde-detoxified protein antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT) in PLGA microspheres. We examined the denatured states of PLGA-encapsulated TT, revealing two primary TT instability mechanisms: 1) protein aggregation mediated by formaldehyde and 2) acid-induced protein unfolding and epitope damage. Further, we systemically identified excipients which can efficiently inhibit TT aggregation and retain TT antigenicity under simulated deleterious conditions, i.e., elevated temperature and humidity. By employing these novel additives in the PLGA system, we report the slow and continuous release of high doses of TT for one month with retained antigen stability during bioerosion of PLGA. PMID:18710256

  8. The Serotype Distribution among Healthy Carriers before Vaccination Is Essential for Predicting the Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Invasive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Flasche, Stefan; Le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; OBrien, Katherine L.; Edmunds, W. John

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have substantially reduced morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal disease. The impact of the 7-valent PCV on all-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children was reported to vary between high-income countries. We investigate the ability to predict this heterogeneity from pre-vaccination data. We propose a parsimonious model that predicts the impact of PCVs from the odds of vaccine serotype (VT) among carriers and IPD cases in the pre-PCV period, assuming that VT are eliminated in a mature PCV programme, that full serotype replacement occurs in carriage and that invasiveness of the NVT group is unchanged. We test model performance against the reported impact of PCV7 on childhood IPD in high-income countries from a recent meta-analysis. The odds of pre-PCV7 VT IPD, PCV schedule, PCV coverage and whether a catch up campaign was used for introduction was gathered from the same analysis. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis to obtain the odds of pre-PCV7 VT carriage in the respective settings. The model predicted the reported impact on childhood IPD of mature PCV programmes; the ratio of predicted and observed incidence risk ratios was close to 1 in all settings. In the high income settings studied differences in schedule, coverage, and catch up campaigns were not associated with the observed heterogeneity in impact of PCV7 on childhood all-serotype IPD. The pre-PCV7 proportion of VT IPD alone also had limited predictive value. The pre-PCV7 proportion of VT carriage and IPD are the main determinants for the impact of PCV7 on childhood IPD and can be combined in a simple model to provide predictions of the vaccine preventable burden of IPD. PMID:25879748

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility rates of invasive pneumococci before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany.

    PubMed

    Imhl, Matthias; Reinert, Ralf Ren; van der Linden, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Continuous nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was conducted in Germany. A total of 22,208 isolates from invasive pneumococcal disease were collected between July 1, 1992 and June 30, 2013. The present study was conducted to analyze changes in antimicrobial susceptibility and pneumococcal vaccine coverage after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany. Most of the isolates originated from adults ?16 years (82.5%), while 17.5% were obtained from children <16 years. Penicillin resistance was observed in 7.2% of meningitis cases both among children and adults during the entire study period. In the post-PCV13 period, the resistance rate was 11.3% in children and 10.0% in adults, which is higher than in the pre-PCV7 and post-PCV7 periods. In the non-meningitis group, an overall penicillin nonsusceptibility rate (intermediate resistance and resistance) of 0.5% was detected both among children and adults. Nonsusceptibility rates among children were 6.3% (pre-PCV7), 7.6% (post-PCV7) and 9.0% (post-PCV13). The corresponding nonsusceptibility rates among adults were 4.4%, 6.0% and 7.9%, respectively. Concerning cefotaxime, in meningitis cases 0.8% of all isolates were intermediate and 0.5% resistant among children, while among adults, 0.9% were intermediate and 0.2% resistant. In non meningitis cases, cefotaxime nonsusceptibility rates were 0.5% in children and 0.3% in adults. Macrolide nonsusceptibility rates were lower in the post-PCV13 period (children 8.2%; adults 8.8%) than in the post-PCV7 period (children 17.3%; adults 13.0%) and the pre-PCV7 period (children 24.8%; adults 13.3%). In the pre-PCV7 period, macrolide resistance was mainly caused by M-phenotype clones carrying the mefA gene. In the post-PCV7/13 period, ermB (MLSb-phenotype) was the dominant resistance marker. Overall nonsusceptibility rates were 5.5% for clindamycin (intermediate 0.3%, resistant 5.2%), 0.7% for levofloxacin (intermediate 0.4%, resistant 0.3%), 8.5% for tetracycline (intermediate 0.6%, resistant 7.9%) and 11.0% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (intermediate 5.7%, resistant 5.3%). In summary, childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination has had a strong effect on the pneumococcal population in Germany, both among vaccinated children as well as among non-vaccinated children and adults. Serotypes included in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have strongly diminished, while some non-vaccine serotypes have gained importance, particularly with respect to antibiotic resistance. However, concerning antibiotic non-susceptibility the most outstanding change over the years is the decline in macrolide resistance, especially among children. PMID:26324014

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine when administered to healthy Japanese adults aged ?50 years

    PubMed Central

    Shiramoto, Masanari; Irie, Shin; Juergens, Christine; Yamaji, Masako; Tamai, Satoshi; Aizawa, Masakazu; Belanger, Todd; Gruber, William C; Scott, Daniel A; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2014-01-01

    This open-label study was designed to assess immunogenicity and safety of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) when administered to Japanese adults aged ?50 years not previously vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and to compare this Japanese study population with similar study populations in the United States (US; 5064 years age group) and European Union (EU; ?65 years age group). Functional antibody immune responses were measured by opsonophagocytic activity assays. Immune responses in both Japanese age groups showed significant pre/postvaccination fold rises for each serotype. In the Japanese 5064 years age group, immune responses for the majority of serotypes were significantly lower than in the ?65 years Japanese age group and generally lower than in the 5064 years age group in the US study. Immune responses in the Japanese ?65 years age group were significantly higher for the majority of serotypes compared with the ?65 years age group in the EU study. The safety profiles across age groups and studies were generally similar. In conclusion, PCV13 elicited robust immune responses in the Japanese study population. The unanticipated higher immune responses observed in the older age group in the Japanese study are of interest and of potential benefit given the higher incidence of pneumococcal disease in older adults. PCV13 was well tolerated and safe. PMID:25424792

  11. Serum Opsonic Activity in Infants with Sickle-Cell Disease Immunized with Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Protein Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Winkelstein, Jerry A.; Swift, Andrea J.; Lederman, Howard M.

    2000-01-01

    Pneumococcal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children with sickle-cell disease (SCD). Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are immunogenic in healthy infants <2 years of age but have not been evaluated in young children with SCD. Infants with SCD were immunized with a 7-valent PCV (Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines & Pediatrics) at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. A booster dose of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV; Pnu-Immune) was administered at 24 months of age. Antipneumococcal type 6B and 14 serum opsonic activity was measured to assess the biologic function of the antibody. Following the administration of three doses of PCV, opsonic activity against serotype 6B increased from 4.8% at 2 months to 33.5% at 7 months, with a subsequent decline to 8.1% at 12 months and 7.5% at 24 months and with an increase to 30.7% at 25 months after administration of a booster dose of PPV. Similar trends were seen with serotype 14 (opsonic activities were 9.4% at 2 months, 24.9% at 7 months, 16.5% at 12 months, and 12.6% at 24 months, and the opsonic activity was 27.3% 1 month after the administration of PPV). Serum opsonic activity correlated with antibody levels for both serotypes. PCV induces serum opsonic activity in infants with SCD. Antipneumococcal serum opsonic activity correlates with antibody levels. PMID:10973456

  12. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of meningococcal lipooligosaccharide-derived oligosaccharide-protein conjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, X X; Tsai, C M

    1993-01-01

    A method was developed for coupling carboxylic acid-containing oligosaccharides (OS) to proteins. An OS was isolated from Neisseria meningitidis group A strain A1 lipooligosaccharide (LOS). This LOS has no human glycolipid-like lacto-N-neotetraose structure and contains multiple immunotypes, including L8, found in group B and C strains. The carboxylic acid at 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid of the OS was linked through adipic acid dihydrazide to tetanus toxoid. The molar ratio of the OS to tetanus toxoid in three conjugates ranged from 11:1 to 19:1. The antigenicity of the OS was conserved in these conjugates, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an inhibition ELISA with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to A1 LOS. These conjugates induced immunoglobulin G antibodies to A1 LOS in mice and rabbits. The immunogenicity of the conjugates in rabbits was enhanced by use of monophosphoryl lipid A plus trehalose dimycolate as an adjuvant. The resulting rabbit antisera cross-reacted with most of 12 prototype LOSs and with LOSs from two group B disease strains, 44/76 and BB431, in an ELISA and in Western blotting (immunoblotting), which revealed a 3.6-kDa reactive band in these LOSs. The rabbit antisera showed bactericidal activity against homologous strain A1 and heterologous strains 44/76 and BB431. These results indicate that conjugates derived from A1 LOS can induce antibodies against many LOS immunotypes from different organism serogroups, including group B. OS-protein conjugates derived from meningococcal LOSs may therefore be candidate vaccines to prevent meningitis caused by meningococci. Images PMID:8478076

  13. Real time and accelerated stability studies of Tetanus toxoid manufactured in public sector facilities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Ghazala; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz; Begum, Anwar; Mahmood, Sidra; Raza, Naeem

    2013-11-01

    Tetanus is an acute illness represented by comprehensive increased inflexibility and spastic spasms of skeletal muscles. The poor quality tetanus toxoid vaccine can raise the prevalence of neonatal tetanus. WHO has taken numerous steps to assist national regulatory authorities and vaccine manufacturers to ensure its quality and efficacy. It has formulated international principles for stability evaluation of each vaccine, which are available in the form of recommendations and guidelines. The aim of present study was to ensure the stability of tetanus vaccines produced by National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan by employing standardized methods to ensure constancy of tetanus toxoid at elevated temperature, if during storage/transportation cold chain may not be maintained in hot weather. A total of three batches filled during full-scale production were tested. All Stability studies determination were performed on final products stored at 2-8C and elevated temperatures in conformance with the ICH Guideline of Stability Testing of Biological Products. These studies gave comparison between real time shelf-life stability and accelerated stability studies. The findings indicate long?term thermo stability and prove that this tetanus vaccine can remain efficient under setting of routine use when suggested measures for storage and handling are followed in true spirit. PMID:24191338

  14. Introduction and Rollout of a New Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA-TT) in African Meningitis Belt Countries, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Barry, Rodrigue; Kandolo, Denis; Shirehwa, Florence; Lingani, Clement; Novak, Ryan T.; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Perea, William; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) was developed specifically for the African “meningitis belt” and was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2010. The vaccine was first used widely in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010 with great success. The remaining 23 meningitis belt countries wished to use this new vaccine. Methods. With the help of African countries, WHO developed a prioritization scheme and used or adapted existing immunization guidelines to mount PsA-TT vaccination campaigns. Vaccine requirements were harmonized with the Serum Institute of India, Ltd. Results. Burkina Faso was the first country to fully immunize its 1- to 29-year-old population in December 2010. Over the next 4 years, vaccine coverage was extended to 217 million Africans living in 15 meningitis belt countries. Conclusions. The new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was well received, with country coverage rates ranging from 85% to 95%. The rollout proceeded smoothly because countries at highest risk were immunized first while attention was paid to geographic contiguity to maximize herd protection. Community participation was exemplary. PMID:26553672

  15. Prevention of adult pneumococcal pneumonia with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: CAPiTA, the community-acquired pneumonia immunization trial in adults

    PubMed Central

    Isturiz, Raul; Webber, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the world population is expected to be accompanied by increased pneumococcal pneumonia in older adults. To address this, the Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA), a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted to assess the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults ?65years, found statistically significant vaccine efficacy for first episodes of vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia (VT-CAP; 46%), nonbacteremic/noninvasive VT-CAP (45%), and VT invasive pneumococcal disease (75%), along with an acceptable safety profile. Study results were presented to the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in June 2014, which subsequently recommended sequential PCV13 and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination for adults ?65years. Thus, appropriate protection of adults at risk for pneumococcal CAP will include vaccination with PCV13. PMID:26076136

  16. Levels and functionality of antibodies after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in schedules with different timing of the booster dose.

    PubMed

    van Westen, Els; Rodenburg, Gerwin D; van Gils, Elske J M; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Cowell, Lucy; Goldblatt, David; Rots, Nynke Y; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M

    2013-12-01

    The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been introduced in most high-income countries, although with differences in age, timing and number of primary doses before 6 months of age and presence and timing of a booster vaccination. The objective was to determine and compare the IgG antibody levels and functionality of IgG responses (avidity and opsonophagocytoses) at 1 and 2 years of age following 2 primary doses with a booster at 11 or 24 months of age. Children received PCV7 at 2 and 4 months (2-dose group), or at 2, 4 and 11 months (2+1-dose group), or no PCV7 (controls) before 1 year of age. All children received a PCV7 dose at 24 months of age. At the age of 12 months, the 2+1-dose group had higher IgG levels and functional antibody levels, compared to the 2-dose group for all serotypes, but at 25 months the difference between the 2-dose and 2+1-dose groups had disappeared for most serotypes. The kinetics of opsonophagocytic antibodies were in line with the specific IgG antibody levels for most serotypes, although differences between the 2-dose and the 2+1-dose group were more pronounced in OPA activity as compared to the IgG levels especially at the age of 24 months. Delaying the booster dose from 11 months to 24 months after 2 primary doses resulted in significantly higher OPA GMTs one month after the booster dose. This must, however, be balanced against the risk of leaving children unboosted between the age of 11 and 24 months at a time when disease risk is still high. Local decisions about the timing of a booster dose should also take into account vaccine coverage and the indirect herd effect in a well vaccinated population. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00189020. PMID:24120678

  17. Depressive symptoms and immune response to meningococcal conjugate vaccine in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Moynihan, Jan A; Wyman, Peter A; Carnahan, Jennifer; Lofthus, Gerry; Quataert, Sally A; Bowman, Melissa; Caserta, Mary T

    2014-11-01

    Research findings in psychoneuroimmunology document reliable, bidirectional linkages among psychological processes, the nervous system, and the immune system. However, available data are based almost entirely on animal and adult human studies; the application to children and adolescents is uncertain. We capitalized on the experimental leverage provided by a routine vaccination to examine the link between mood symptoms and the immune response to a vaccine challenge in early adolescence. One hundred twenty-six 11-year-olds for whom vaccine response data were available were assessed at prevaccination and 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months following vaccination; self-report ratings of depression and anxiety as well as measures of psychosocial and somatic risk were assessed prior to vaccine response. Analyses indicated that children's internalizing mood symptoms were associated with elevated and persistently higher antibody responses, with evidence extending to two of the four serogroups. The associations remained after controlling for multiple possible confounders (social class, body mass index, sleep, psychosocial risk, and pubertal status). The observed enhanced vaccine response associated with depressive and anxious symptoms in early adolescence may reflect an important developmental difference in immune system-brain interplay between adults and children, and it underscores the need for further developmental studies of psychoneuroimmunology. PMID:25422979

  18. Salivary Immune Responses to the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the First 2 Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Gerwin D.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Zborowski, Tomasz; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P. J. M.; Bloem, Andries C.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Bogaert, Debby

    2012-01-01

    Background The CRM197-conjugated 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) is protective against vaccine serotype disease and nasopharyngeal carriage. Data on PCV7-induced mucosal antibodies in relation to systemic or natural anticapsular antibodies are scarce. Methods In a randomized controlled setting, children received PCV7 at age 2 and 4 months (2-dose group), at age 2, 4 and 11 months (2+1-dose group) or no PCV7 (control group). From 188 children paired saliva samples were collected at 12 and 24 months of age. From a subgroup of 15 immunized children also serum samples were collected. IgG and IgA antibody-levels were measured by multiplex immunoassay. Results At 12 months, both vaccine groups showed higher serum and saliva IgG-levels against vaccine serotypes compared with controls which sustained until 24 months for most serotypes. Salivary IgG-levels were 1020-fold lower compared to serum IgG, however, serum and saliva IgG-levels were highly correlated. Serum and salivary IgA-levels were higher in both vaccine groups at 12 months compared with controls, except for serotype 19F. Higher salivary IgA levels remained present for most serotypes in the 2+1-dose group until 24 months, but not in the 2-dose group. Salivary IgA more than IgG, increased after documented carriage of serotypes 6B, 19F and 23F In contrast to IgG, salivary IgA-levels were comparable with serum, suggesting local IgA-production. Conclusions PCV7 vaccination results in significant increases in salivary IgG and IgA-levels, which are more pronounced for IgG when compared to controls. In contrast, salivary anticapsular IgA-levels seemed to respond more to natural boosting. Salivary IgG and IgA-levels correlate well with systemic antibodies, suggesting saliva might be useful as potential future surveillance tool. PMID:23077532

  19. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Vaccine-type Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Among Young Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are being implemented globally using a variety of different schedules. The optimal schedule to maximize protection of vaccinated children against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) is not known. Methods: To assess the relative benefit of various PCV dosing schedules, we conducted a systematic review of studies published in English from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) on PCV effectiveness against VT-IPD among children targeted to receive vaccine. Data on 2-dose and 3-dose primary series, both with and without a booster (2+0, 2+1, 3+0 and 3+1), were included. For observational studies using surveillance data or case counts, we calculated percentage reduction in VT-IPD before and after PCV introduction. Results: Of 4 randomized controlled trials and 31 observational studies reporting VT-IPD among young children, none evaluated a 2+0 complete series, 7 (19%) evaluated 2+1, 4 (11%) 3+0 and 27 (75%) 3+1. Most (86%) studies were from North America or Europe. Only 1 study (observational) directly compared 2 schedules (3+0 vs. 3+1); results supported the use of a booster dose. In clinical trials, vaccine efficacy ranged from 65% to 71% with 3+0 and 83% to 94% with 3+1. Surveillance data and case counts demonstrate reductions in VT-IPD of up to 100% with 2+1 (6 studies) or 3+1 (17 studies) schedules and up to 90% with 3+0 (2 studies). Reductions were observed as early as 1 year after PCV introduction. Conclusions: These data support the use of 2+1, 3+0 and 3+1 schedules, although most data of PCV impact on VT-IPD among young children are from high-income countries using 3+1. Differences between schedules for impact on VT-IPD are difficult to discern based on available data. PMID:24336053

  20. Targeted delivery of vaccine to dendritic cells by chitosan nanoparticles conjugated with a targeting peptide ligand selected by phage display technique.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Na; Kang, Sang-Kee; Yeo, Guen-Hye; Li, Hai-Ying; Jiang, Tao; Nah, Jae-Woon; Bok, Jin-Duck; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a novel dendritic cells (DC)-targeting peptide, TPAFRYS (TP) identified by phage display technique and conjugated to chitosan in order to develop an efficient DC-targeting vaccine delivery carrier. TP-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (TPC-NPs) were prepared with ovalbumin (OVA) as a model vaccine by ionic gelation. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry studies demonstrated the higher targeting ability of TPC-NPs to DCs in compared to chitosan NPs. Moreover, TPC-NPs exhibited higher targeting specificity in DCs than macrophage and myoblasts. Furthermore, immunization of mice with OVA-loaded TPC-NPs enhanced OVA-specific serum IgG and IgG isotype antibodies production. Thus, DC-targeting strategy demonstrates a potential approach to enhance the effectiveness of vaccines. PMID:25393207

  1. Modulation of immune response to group C meningococcal conjugate vaccine given intranasally to mice together with the LTK63 mucosal adjuvant and the trimethyl chitosan delivery system.

    PubMed

    Baudner, Barbara C; Morandi, Maurizio; Giuliani, Marzia M; Verhoef, J Coos; Junginger, Hans E; Costantino, Paolo; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2004-03-01

    Previous work had shown that the immunogenicity of conjugate vaccine against group C meningococci (CRM-MenC) is enhanced when it is delivered intranasally (inl) with mucosal adjuvants, such as mutants of the Escherichia coli enterotoxin (LT), and with delivery systems such as chitosan derivatives. We show, in mice, that the concomitant use of limiting doses of the fully nontoxic LTK63 mutant as a mucosal adjuvant and of the trimethyl derivative of chitosan as a delivery system allows the reduction of each of the components for the induction of antibody and bactericidal responses to CRM-MenC conjugate vaccine delivered inl at titers similar to or higher than those induced by parenteral immunization. These data could affect the design of efficacious mucosal vaccines and their safety. PMID:14976599

  2. The Diversity of Meningococcal Carriage Across the African Meningitis Belt and the Impact of Vaccination With a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background.?Study of meningococcal carriage is essential to understanding the epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis infection. Methods.?Twenty cross-sectional carriage surveys were conducted in 7 countries in the African meningitis belt; 5 surveys were conducted after introduction of a new serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac). Pharyngeal swab specimens were collected, and Neisseria species were identified by microbiological and molecular techniques. Results.?A total of 1687 of 48 490 participants (3.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2%3.6%) carried meningococci. Carriage was more frequent in individuals aged 514 years, relative to those aged 1529 years (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.251.60); in males, relative to females (adjusted OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.101.24); in individuals in rural areas, relative to those in urban areas (adjusted OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.281.63); and in the dry season, relative to the rainy season (adjusted OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.371.75). Forty-eight percent of isolates had genes encoding disease-associated polysaccharide capsules; genogroup W predominated, and genogroup A was rare. Strain diversity was lower in countries in the center of the meningitis belt than in Senegal or Ethiopia. The prevalence of genogroup A fell from 0.7% to 0.02% in Chad following mass vaccination with MenAfriVac. Conclusions.?The prevalence of meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt is lower than in industrialized countries and is very diverse and dynamic, even in the absence of vaccination. PMID:25858956

  3. Polysaccharide Responsiveness Is Not Biased by Prior Pneumococcal-Conjugate Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bernth-Jensen, Jens Magnus; Sgaard, Ole Schmeltz

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharide responsiveness is tested by measuring antibody responses to polysaccharide vaccines to diagnose for humoral immunodeficiency. A common assumption is that this responsiveness is biased by any previous exposure to the polysaccharides in the form of protein-coupled polysaccharide vaccines, such as those used in many childhood vaccination programmes. To examine this assumption, we investigated the effect of protein-coupled polysaccharide vaccination on subsequent polysaccharide responsiveness. HIV-infected adults (n?=?47) were vaccinated twice with protein-coupled polysaccharides and six months later with pure polysaccharides. We measured immunoglobulin G responses against three polysaccharides present in only the polysaccharide vaccine (non-memory polysaccharides) and seven recurring polysaccharides (memory polysaccharides). Responsiveness was evaluated according to the consensus guidelines published by the American immunology societies. Impaired responsiveness to non-memory polysaccharides was more frequent than to memory polysaccharides (51% versus 28%, P?=?0.015), but the individual polysaccharides did not differ in triggering sufficient responses (74% versus 77%, P?=?0.53). Closer analysis revealed important shortcomings of the current evaluation guidelines. The interpreted response? number and their specificities influenced the likelihood of impaired responsiveness in a complex manor. This influence was propelled by the dichotomous approaches inherent to the American guidelines. We therefore define a novel more robust polysaccharide responsiveness measure, the Z-score, which condenses multiple, uniformly weighted responses into one continuous variable. Using the Z-score, responsiveness to non-memory polysaccharides and memory-polysaccharides were found to correlate (R2?=?0.59, P<0.0001). We found that polysaccharide responsiveness was not biased by prior protein-coupled polysaccharide vaccination in HIV-infected adults. Studies in additional populations are warranted. PMID:24146796

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Escherichia coli O18 O-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Cryz, S J; Cross, A S; Sadoff, J C; Fürer, E

    1990-01-01

    Nontoxic, serologically reactive O polysaccharide was derived from Escherichia coli O18 lipopolysaccharide by acid hydrolysis, extraction with organic solvents, and gel filtration chromatography. Oxidized O polysaccharide was covalently coupled to either Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin A or cholera toxin by using adipic acid dihydrazide as a spacer molecule in the presence of carbodiimide. The resulting conjugates were composed of approximately equal amounts of O polysaccharide and protein and were nontoxic and nonpyrogenic. Both conjugates engendered an immunoglobulin G antibody response in rabbits that recognized native O18 lipopolysaccharide. Such antibody was able to promote the uptake and killing of an E. coli O18 strain bearing the K1 capsule by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Immunoglobulin G isolated from the sera of rabbits immunized with either conjugate afforded protection against an E. coli O18 challenge when passively transferred to mice. PMID:2105272

  5. The impact of new technologies on vaccines.

    PubMed

    Talwar, G P; Diwan, M; Razvi, F; Malhotra, R

    1999-01-01

    Vast changes are taking place in vaccinology consequent to the introduction of new technologies. Amongst the vaccines included in the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI), the pertussis vaccine has been replaced by acellular purified fractions devoid of side-effects. Non-pathogenic but immunogenic mutants of tetanus and diptheria toxins are likely to replace the toxoids. An effective vaccine against hepatitis B prepared by recombinant technology is in large-scale use. Conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae b, S. pneumococcus and meningococcus are now available, as also vaccines against mumps, rubella and measles. Combination vaccines have been devised to limit the number of injections. Vaccine delivery systems have been developed to deliver multiple doses of the vaccine at a single contact point. A genetically-engineered oral vaccine for typhoid imparts better and longer duration of immunity. Oral vaccines for cholera and other enteric infections are under clinical trials. The nose as a route for immunization is showing promise for mucosal immunity and for anti-inflammatory experimental vaccines against multiple sclerosis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The range of vaccines has expanded to include pathogens resident in the body such as Helicobacter pylori (duodenal ulcer), S. mutans (dental caries), and human papilloma virus (carcinoma of the cervix). An important progress is the recognition that DNA alone can constitute the vaccines, inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A large number of DNA vaccines have been made and shown interesting results in experimental animals. Live recombinant vaccines against rabies and rinderpest have proven to be highly effective for controlling these infections in the field, and those for AIDS are under clinical trial. Potent adjuvants have added to the efficacy of the vaccines. New technologies have emerged to 'humanize' mouse monoclonals by genetic engineering and express these efficiently in plants. These recombinant antibodies are opening out an era of highly specific and safe therapeutic interventions. Human recombinant antibodies would be invaluable for treating patients with terminal tetanus and rabies. Antibodies are already in use for treatment of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and allergies. An advantage of preformed antibodies directed at a defined target and given in adequate amounts is the certainty of efficacy in every recipient, in contrast to vaccines, where the quality and quantum of immune response varies from individual to individual. PMID:10732430

  6. Cost-effectiveness of a 3-dose pneumococcal conjugate vaccine program in the province of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Batrice; De Wals, Philippe; Petit, Genevive; Erickson, Lonny J; Ppin, Jacques

    2009-11-23

    In the province of Quebec, Canada, the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was licensed in 2001 and a publicly funded program was implemented in 2004, recommending 3 doses for healthy children. An economic analysis was performed both from a health care and societal perspective. Outcomes possibly prevented by PCV-7 and observed in 2006-2007 were compared to expected frequencies based on rates measured before PCV-7 use. Annual program costs were close to $21M for the health system and $23M for society. Approximately 20,000 infections were prevented annually and estimated economic benefits were $5M for the health system and $23M for society, using a 3% per annum discounting rate. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $18,000 per QALY gained for the health system and the program was close to the break-even threshold in a societal perspective. PMID:19786137

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of booster immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liakou, Christina D; Askiti, Varvara; Mitsioni, Andromachi; Stefanidis, Constantinos J; Theodoridou, Maria C; Spoulou, Vana I

    2014-03-10

    Safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were evaluated in 29 patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), who had been primed 12 months earlier with one dose of PCV7. PCV7 was not associated with increased risk of INS relapse (RR=0.77, p=0.8) and serotype-specific antibodies increased in all subjects at 1 month (p<0.01). The quantitative characteristics of immune response and the effect of treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and/or cyclosporine A following booster PCV7 were similar with primary response. Additional PCV7 doses could be safely given in children with INS to increase circulating antibodies above the protective threshold. PMID:24486348

  8. Pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein CRM197 conjugate vaccines, 7- or 9-valent, in the 2 + 1 schedule.

    PubMed

    Fritzell, Bernard; Fletcher, Mark A

    2011-03-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein (CRM(197)) conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was licensed based on clinical efficacy trials using the four-dose schedule of three infant doses and a booster dose in the second year of life (3 + 1). An assessment of PCV-7 immunogenicity in studies evaluating two infant doses with a booster (2 + 1) showed similar immunogenicity for the 2 + 1 and 3 + 1 schedules, with the exception of lower post-dose two responses for serotypes 6B and 23F, compared with a three-dose primary series. The 2 + 1 PCV-7 schedule has been shown to be effective in controlling pneumococcal disease in several countries, as used in national immunization programs that are marked in particular by good uptake, compliance with the booster dose and application of a catch-up program. PMID:21434795

  9. Bacterial Meningitis after Cochlear Implantation among Children without Polyvalent Conjugate Vaccine: A Brief Report of an Iranian Cohort Study on 371 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Amirsalari, Susan; Ajalloueyan, Mohammad; Saburi, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Regarding risk of bacterial meningitis (BM) after Cochlear implantation (CI), it was suggested to receive polyvalent conjugate vaccine. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of BM post CI in child recipients who do not receive polyvalent vaccine. Methods: We enrolled 371 children who had received cochlear implants from 2007 to 2010. None of them received pre or post implantation polyvalent conjugate vaccine for BM. We followed all of them for BM for 2 years after implantation. Results: We detected only one female case of BM (0.3% of patients) with the age of 24 months. The mean age of noninfected children was 36.7 23.2 months. The education level of parents was college level or higher in less than half of them, and about 65% of patients were products of consanguineous marriage. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the incidence of BM was not higher in our cochlear implanted children who did not receive immunization than patients from countries in which routine vaccination is done. We suggest that although proper immunization is recommended before surgery, this procedure could be performed without vaccination, especially in developing countries that face financial problems for preparing vaccines. PMID:25489459

  10. Immunogenicity of anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b CRM197 conjugate following mucosal vaccination with oligodeoxynucleotide containing immunostimulatory sequences as adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Sabrina; Teloni, Raffaela; von Hunolstein, Christina; Romagnoli, Giulia; Orefici, Graziella; Nisini, Roberto

    2002-05-22

    Most vaccines are delivered by injection. Mucosal vaccination would increase compliance and decrease the risk of spread of infectious diseases due to a reduction of mucosal colonization and of contaminated syringes. However, most vaccines are unable to induce immune responses when administered mucosally, and require the use of strong adjuvant or effective delivery systems. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG immunostimulatory sequences (ISS) have been shown to act as potent adjuvants of type-1 immune responses also when mucosally co-administered with protein or peptide vaccines. We have shown that ISS can increase the anti-polysaccharide polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) antibody titres and anti-diphtheria toxin neutralizing antibody, if used as adjuvant of anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) PRP vaccine conjugated with cross-reacting material (CRM) of diphtheria toxin in mice. Here, we show that ISS have the potential to increase host local and systemic antibody response against both the PRP and the protein component of a conjugated vaccine when mucosally administered in mice. Mucosal administration of Hib-CRM vaccine induced anti-PRP and neutralizing anti-diphtheria toxin antibodies of all the IgG subclasses, with a predominance of type-1 immune response-associated IgG2a and IgG3. At odds with systemic administration, the mucosal delivery of Hib-CRM induced anti-PRP and anti-diphtheria toxin mucosal IgA. These data envisage the feasibility of a mucosal vaccination with an already licensed Hib-CRM vaccine to achieve both an anti-H. influenzae and -diphtheria effective protection. PMID:12009277

  11. Population Genetic Structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Kilifi, Kenya, Prior to the Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Brueggemann, Angela B.; Muroki, Beth Mbesu; Kulohoma, Benard W.; Karani, Angela; Wanjiru, Eva; Morpeth, Susan; Kamau, Tatu; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in Kenya in 2011. Introduction of any PCV will perturb the existing pneumococcal population structure, thus the aim was to genotype pneumococci collected in Kilifi before PCV10. Methods and Findings Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), we genotyped >1100 invasive and carriage pneumococci from children, the largest collection genotyped from a single resource-poor country and reported to date. Serotype 1 was the most common serotype causing invasive disease and was rarely detected in carriage; all serotype 1 isolates were members of clonal complex (CC) 217. There were temporal fluctuations in the major circulating sequence types (STs); and although 1-3 major serotype 1, 14 or 23F STs co-circulated annually, the two major serotype 5 STs mainly circulated independently. Major STs/CCs also included isolates of serotypes 3, 12F, 18C and 19A and each shared ?2 MLST alleles with STs that circulate widely elsewhere. Major CCs associated with non-PCV10 serotypes were predominantly represented by carriage isolates, although serotype 19A and 12F CCs were largely invasive and a serotype 10A CC was equally represented by invasive and carriage isolates. Conclusions Understanding the pre-PCV10 population genetic structure in Kilifi will allow for the detection of changes in prevalence of the circulating genotypes and evidence for capsular switching post-vaccine implementation. PMID:24282605

  12. Blood stream infection is associated with altered heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immune responses in very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, James L.; Li, Lei; Cotten, C. Michael; Phelps, Dale L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Van Meurs, Krisa; Das, Abhik; Vohr, Betty R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Stoll, Barbara J; DAngio, Carl T

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sepsis in older children and adults modifies immune system function. We compared serotype-specific antibody responses to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in very low birth weight infants (<1500g,VLBW) with and without blood stream infection (BSI) during their birth hospitalization. Patients and Methods Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data for the Neonatal Research Network study of PCV7 responses among VLBWs. Infants received PCV7 at 2, 4, and 6 months after birth with blood drawn 46 weeks after 3rd dose. Serotype antibodies were compared between infants with or without a history of BSI. Regression models were constructed with birth-weight groups and other confounding factors identified in the primary study. Results 244 infants completed the vaccine series and had serum antibody available; 82 had BSI. After adjustment, BSI was not associated with reduced odds of serum antibody ?0.35?g/mL. Conclusions BSI was not associated with reduced odds of WHO-defined protective PCV7 responses in VLBWs. PMID:23370608

  13. Rapid decrease of 7-valent conjugate vaccine coverage for invasive pneumococcal diseases in pediatric patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Naoko; Morozumi, Miyuki; Shouji, Michi; Wajima, Takeaki; Iwata, Satoshi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2013-08-01

    In Japan, the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been introduced on a voluntary basis since February 2010, and official financial support for children under 5 years started in November 2010. The impact of PCV7 on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children is unknown. There are 340 medical institutions that actively participated in our surveillance project throughout Japan. We collected 252 strains from patients with IPD in 2006 (pre-PCV7), 280 strains in 2010 (under 10% immunization achieved), and 128 strains in 2011 (50% to 60% immunization). Serotypes and penicillin-resistance genotypes (g) were compared between these years. Multilocus sequence typing was also carried out on these strains. Due to the official promotion, IPD significantly decreased in 2011 (p<0.001). In particular, meningitis and sepsis caused by vaccine type (VT) strains declined (p=0.033, p<0.001). In less than 2 years, among nonvaccine types (NVT), 15A and 22F increased in 2011 (p=0.015, p=0.015). Coverage by PCV7 decreased from 71.8% in 2006 to 51.6% in 2011. Sequence-type diversities accompanied by evolution to gPRSP occurred in both VT and NVT strains. Reduction of IPD caused by VT strains was accomplished, but a rapid increase of NVT raises concern about a future decrease in the efficacy of PCV7. PMID:23480525

  14. Nasopharyngeal flora in children with acute otitis media before and after implementation of 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in France

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have investigated the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal (Sp) and staphylococcal (Sa) nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage. Few have investigated the impact on Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) carriage. We aimed to compare the NP carriage rates in young children with acute otitis media (AOM) before and after PCV7 implementation in France. Methods Prior to PCV7 implementation, we performed 4 successive randomized trials with NP samples. These studies compared several antibiotic regimens for treating AOM in young children (6 to 30 months). After PCV7 implementation, to assess the impact of the vaccination program on NP flora, young children with AOM were enrolled in a prospective surveillance study. In each study, we obtained an NP sample to analyze the carriage rates of Sp, Hi, Mc and Sa and the factors influencing the carriage. Standardized history and physical examination findings were recorded; the methods used for NP swabs (sampling and cultures) were the same in all studies. Results We enrolled 4,405 children (mean age 13.9 months, median 12.8). Among the 2,598 children enrolled after PCV7 implementation, 98.3% were vaccinated with PCV7. In comparing the pre- and post-PCV7 periods, we found a slight but non-significant decrease in carriage rates of pneumococcus (AOR = 0.85 [0.69;1.05]), H. influenzae (AOR = 0.89 [0.73;1.09]) and S. aureus (AOR = 0.92 [0.70;1.19]). By contrast, the carriage rate of M. catarrhalis increased slightly but not significantly between the 2 periods (AOR = 1.08 [0.95;1.2]). Among Sp carriers, the proportion of PCV7 vaccine types decreased from 66.6% to 10.7% (P < 0.001), penicillin intermediate-resistant strains increased from 30.3% to 43.4% (P < 0.001), and penicillin-resistant strains decreased greatly from 22.8% to 3.8% (P < 0.001). The proportion of Hi -lactamase-producing strains decreased from 38.6% to 17.1% (P < 0.001). Conclusion The carriage rates of otopathogen species (Sp, Hi, Mc) and Sa did not significantly change in children with AOM after PCV7 implementation in France. However, we observed significant changes in carriage rates of PCV7 vaccine serotypes and penicillin non-susceptible Sp. PMID:22397629

  15. Optimising Assessments of the Epidemiological Impact in the Netherlands of Paediatric Immunisation with 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Using Dynamic Transmission Modelling

    PubMed Central

    De Cao, Elisabetta; Melegaro, Alessia; Klok, Rogier; Postma, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to quantify the overall effects of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) vaccination programme in the Dutch population taking into account all the direct and indirect effects of the vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease. Using available Dutch data, a dynamic transmission model for the spread of pneumococci and potential subsequent invasive pneumococcal disease has been adapted to the Dutch setting. Overall, invasive pneumococcal disease cases in the Netherlands are predicted to decrease from a pre-vaccination level of 2623 cases annually to 2475, 2289, 2185, 2179, and 2178 cases annually 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-years, respectively, post-vaccination. Therefore, vaccination with PCV13 in the Netherlands is predicted to lower invasive pneumococcal disease cases per year by up to 445 cases in the medium- to long-term. The results are quite robust for the sensitivity analyses performed on the parameters that regulate herd immunity and competition between vaccine and non-vaccine types. PMID:24694656

  16. Invasive and Noninvasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule and Surface Protein Diversity following the Use of a Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Croney, Christina M.; Nahm, Moon H.; Juhn, Steven K.; Briles, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in the United States in 2010 for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and otitis media. While many studies have reported its potential efficacy for IPD, not much is known about the epidemiology of noninvasive disease following its introduction. We characterized the capsular types and surface protein genes of noninvasive pediatric pneumococcal isolates collected between 2002 and 2010 (n = 1,058) at Children's of Alabama following the introduction of PCV7 and tested a subset of noninvasive and previously characterized IPD isolates for the presence of the pspA, pspC, and rrgC genes, which encode protection-eliciting proteins. PCV7 serotypes had dramatically decreased by 2010 (P < 0.0001), and only 50% of all noninvasive infections were caused by the PCV13 capsular serotypes. Serotype 19A accounted for 32% of the noninvasive isolates, followed by serotypes 35B (9%), 19F (7%), and 6C (6%). After 7 years of PCV7 usage, there were no changes in the frequencies of the pspA or pspC genes; 96% of the strains were positive for family 1 or 2 pspA genes, and 81% were also positive for pspC. Unexpectedly, more noninvasive than invasive strains were positive for rrgC (P < 0.0001), and the proportion of rrgC-positive strains in 2008 to 2010 was greater than that in 2002 to 2008 (IPD, P < 0.02; noninvasive, P < 0.001). Serotypes 19F, 19A, and 35B were more frequently rrgC positive (P < 0.005) than other serotypes. A vaccine containing antigens, such as PspA, PspC, and/or RrgC, can provide coverage against most non-PCV13-type pneumococci. Continued surveillance is critical for optimal future vaccine development. PMID:24006139

  17. Non-invasive pneumococcal serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities in a paediatric hospital in the era of conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    McElligott, Martha; Vickers, Imelda; Cafferkey, Mary; Cunney, Robert; Humphreys, Hilary

    2014-06-12

    To evaluate the effects of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction to the routine childhood immunisation schedule in 2008 and its replacement by PCV13 in 2010 in Ireland, we surveyed the serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of 339 pneumococci associated with carriage and non-invasive infection (NII) in a Dublin paediatric hospital from 2009 to 2012. Furthermore, we compared the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes collected from 2009 to 2012 to 105 NII pneumococci isolated in 2007, the year before conjugate vaccine introduction. PCV7 serotypes declined from 2007 to 2012 as follows: carriage, 67-23% (p=0.0004); conjunctivitis, 58-0% (p<0.0001); non-bacteraemic lower respiratory tract infection, 50-19% (p=0.0363) and otitis media 54-27%. Notably, antimicrobial resistant (AMR) PCV7 serotypes showed a significant decrease by the end of the study period (i.e. 2012) (p<0.0001). Compared with 2007 the overall occurrence of serotype 19A increased from 1.9 to 10% in 2010 (p=0.0132) and to 15% in 2011 (p=0.0005). Importantly, serotype 19A declined significantly from 2011 levels to an overall prevalence of 4.8% in 2012 (p=0.0243). Most striking was the significant reduction of AMR 19A (p=0.0195). Conversely, increases were observed in non-vaccine type (NVT) pneumococci in 2009-2012, of which serotypes 11A (n=30), 15B/C (n=17), 22F (n=14), 35Bn=13), non-typeable pneumococci (n=13) and 23A (n=12) were the most prevalent. Moreover, an increase in NVT non-susceptible to at least one antimicrobial in 2009-2012 was noted, attributable to serotypes 35B (n=10) and 15A (n=7). In summary, this study has shown that PCV7 and PCV13 introduction has had a positive impact on their target serotypes and antimicrobial resistance amongst pneumococci within a paediatric hospital within a short time period. However, the increase in NVT prevalence highlights the need for continued surveillance. PMID:24795223

  18. Impact of meningococcal C conjugate vaccination campaign in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Di Gregori, Valentina; Frasca, Gabriella; Rucci, Paola; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Moschella, Laura; Borrini, Bianca Maria; Cavrini, Francesca; Liguori, Giovanna; Sambri, Vittorio; Bonanni, Paolo; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of reported meningococcal disease in Italy is among the lowest in Europe. The trend of the disease was increasing up to 2005 and then declined after the gradual introduction of a universal Men C vaccination program in 17/21 Italian regions. Since 2006, in Emilia-Romagna region vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C was actively offered free of charge in a single dose to the age groups 1215 months and 1415 years, in addition to people with defined epidemiological risk. Our aim was to measure the impact of vaccination on the incidence of meningococcal disease caused by different serogroups among the population of Emilia Romagna Region, Northern Italy (approximately 4.5 million inhabitants) subdivided by age. Using surveillance data, we computed the incidence rates of Neisseria meninigitidis related invasive disease per 100.000 inhabitants for the years 2000 to 2012. In addition, the percentage change in incidence and the mortality rates were calculated. Results indicate a 70.1% decrease in the incidence of meningococcus C-related invasive disease after the introduction of MenC universal vaccination. No case of serogroup C related infection was observed since 2006 in children aged 14 years. These findings suggest that the single-dose vaccination strategy against serogroup C N.meningitidis targeted to the age groups 1215 months and 1415 years was effective in the Emilia-Romagna population. However, the occurrence of two cases of meningiditis in a 5-month child and in a 9-years child suggests caution and careful consideration in surveillance for the next years. PMID:24384537

  19. Neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization primes T cells for preferential Th2 cytokine expression: a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Richmond, Peter C; Pomat, William S; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nadal-Sims, Marie A; Devitt, Catherine J; Siba, Peter M; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G

    2009-02-25

    The effects of neonatal immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) on development of T-cell memory and general immune maturation were studied in a cohort of Papua New Guinean newborns. Neonatal 7vPCV priming (followed by a dose at 1 and 2 months of age) was associated with enhanced Th2, but not Th1, cytokine responses to CRM(197) compared to 7vPCV at 1 and 2 months of age only. T cell responses to non-7vPCV vaccine antigens were similar in all groups, but TLR-mediated IL-6 and IL-10 responses were enhanced in 7vPCV vaccinated compared to controls. Neonatal 7vPCV vaccination primes T cell responses with a polarization towards Th2 with no bystander effects on other T cell responses. PMID:19150378

  20. Water Accessibility, Aggregation, and Motional Features of Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Francesco; Costantino, Paolo; Fragai, Marco; Luchinat, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    A relaxometric investigation of a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin and of its conjugates with capsular polysaccharides of different groups of Neisseria meningitidis was performed. The insertion of polysaccharides chains alters dramatically the hydrodynamic properties of the protein. The model-free analysis of the 1H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion profiles of their water solutions shows: i), a reduced protein hydration with respect to the carrier protein alone; ii), a much larger flexibility of the conjugates with respect to a compact macromolecule of the same molecular weight; and iii), a strong tendency to aggregate. The above findings are largely independent on the nature of the polysaccharide and thus provide a fairly general picture of the dynamic properties of glycoconjugate proteins. PMID:14695244

  1. Stimulation of immune systems by conjugated polymers and their potential as an alternative vaccine adjuvant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hua; Xiang, Jian; Xu, Ligeng; Song, Xuejiao; Dong, Ziliang; Peng, Rui; Liu, Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    Recently, conjugated polymers have been widely explored in the field of nanomedicine. Careful evaluations of their biological effects are thus urgently needed. Hereby, we systematically evaluated the biological effects of different types of conjugated polymers on macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), which play critical roles in the innate and adaptive immune systems, respectively. While naked poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) exhibits a high level of cytotoxicity, polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT:PSS-PEG) shows greatly reduced toxicity to various types of cells. To our surprise, PEGylation of PEDOT:PSS could obviously enhance the cellular uptake of these nanoparticles, leading to subsequent immune stimulations of both macrophages and DCs. In contrast, another type of conjugated polymer, polypyrrole (PPy), is found to be an inert material with neither significant cytotoxicity nor noticeable immune-stimulation activity. Interestingly, utilizing ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, it is further uncovered in our ex vivo experiment that PEDOT:PSS-PEG may serve as an adjuvant to greatly enhance the immunogenicity of OVA upon simple mixing. Our study on the one hand suggests the promise of developing novel nano-adjuvants based on conjugated polymers, and on the other hand highlights the importance of careful evaluations of the impacts of any new nanomaterials developed for nanomedicine on the immune systems.Recently, conjugated polymers have been widely explored in the field of nanomedicine. Careful evaluations of their biological effects are thus urgently needed. Hereby, we systematically evaluated the biological effects of different types of conjugated polymers on macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), which play critical roles in the innate and adaptive immune systems, respectively. While naked poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) exhibits a high level of cytotoxicity, polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT:PSS-PEG) shows greatly reduced toxicity to various types of cells. To our surprise, PEGylation of PEDOT:PSS could obviously enhance the cellular uptake of these nanoparticles, leading to subsequent immune stimulations of both macrophages and DCs. In contrast, another type of conjugated polymer, polypyrrole (PPy), is found to be an inert material with neither significant cytotoxicity nor noticeable immune-stimulation activity. Interestingly, utilizing ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, it is further uncovered in our ex vivo experiment that PEDOT:PSS-PEG may serve as an adjuvant to greatly enhance the immunogenicity of OVA upon simple mixing. Our study on the one hand suggests the promise of developing novel nano-adjuvants based on conjugated polymers, and on the other hand highlights the importance of careful evaluations of the impacts of any new nanomaterials developed for nanomedicine on the immune systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06081h

  2. Nanoparticle and polysaccharide conjugate: a potential candidate vaccine to improve immunological stimuli.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Sanjana P; Sahoo, Banalata; Behera, Birendra; Maiti, Tapas K

    2015-01-01

    Active polysaccharides isolated from various fungal sources have been implicated to stimulate immune response against various pathogens as well as self anomalies such as cancer. Therefore, the nuanced approach presented in our work was to blend polysaccharides derived from Pleurotus ostreatus with biocompatible ferrite nanoparticles and thereafter investigate the enhanced immune functionality of the polysaccharide-nanoparticle composite. A Schiff base reductive amination reaction occurred between the aldehyde group of the polysaccharide and the amine group of the nanoparticles in the presence of a strong reducing agent such as sodium cyanoborohydride to form a stable amide bond between the two conjugating molecules. The multifaceted conjugate was characterized by physiochemical techniques such as electron microscopy, FTIR, VSM and DLS measurements. This particulate form of the polysaccharide showed a marked escalation in the production of free radicals such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in murine macrophages as compared to the soluble form. Animal based experiments demonstrated a reduction in tumor volume and augmentation in the proliferation of splenocytes in particulate or conjugated polysaccharide treated mice. Furthermore, molecular signaling studies showed a high upregulation in p-p38 and p-MEK molecules in particulate polysaccharide treated RAW264.7 cells suggesting a cellular downstream mechanistic regulation behind the immunostimulative response. PMID:25450832

  3. Vaccinations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  4. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and biological activity of the Citrobacter freundii Vi-CRM197 conjugate as a vaccine for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    PubMed

    Rondini, Simona; Micoli, Francesca; Lanzilao, Luisa; Hale, Christine; Saul, Allan J; Martin, Laura B

    2011-03-01

    Typhoid fever remains a major health problem in developing countries. Young children are at high risk, and a vaccine effective for this age group is urgently needed. Purified capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Vi) is licensed as a vaccine, providing 50 to 70% protection in individuals older than 5 years. However, this vaccine is ineffective in infants. Vi conjugated to a carrier protein (i.e., an exoprotein A mutant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa [rEPA]) is highly immunogenic, provides long-term protection, and shows more than 90% protective efficacy in children 2 to 5 years old. Here, we describe an alternative glycoconjugate vaccine for S. Typhi, Vi-CRM(197), where Vi was obtained from Citrobacter freundii WR7011 and CRM(197), the mutant diphtheria toxin protein, was used as the carrier. We investigated the optimization of growth conditions for Vi production from C. freundii WR7011 and the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM(197) conjugates in mice. The optimal saccharide/protein ratio of the glycoconjugates was identified for the best antibody production. We also demonstrated the ability of this new vaccine to protect mice against challenge with Vi-positive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:21248155

  5. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Cozza, Vanessa; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.084.6%) in children <5 years. This study aims at corroborating the estimation of both the effectiveness (VE) of PCVs and its impact in reducing pneumococcal diseases. A 1?:?3 matched-case-control study was conducted among children <5 years old hospitalized for IPD or pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) between 2006 and 2012 in the Puglia region. Moreover, hospitalizations for pneumococcal outcomes in the pre- and postvaccination period and the hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs) with 95% CIs were computed in Italy and in the first eight regions that introduced PCVs in 2006. The overall effectiveness of PCVs was 75% (95% CI: 61%84%); it was 69% (95% CI: 30%88%) against IPD and 77% (95% CI: 61%87%) against PP. PCVs showed a significant impact on IPD and acute otitis media either at a national level or in those regions with a longer vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage. PMID:26351644

  6. Safety Monitoring in Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine Trials: Description, Challenges, and Lessons

    PubMed Central

    Enwere, Godwin C.; Paranjape, Gandhali; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Ginde, Manisha; Hartmann, Katharina; Viviani, Simonetta; Chaumont, Julie; Martellet, Lionel; Makadi, Marie-Francoise; Ivinson, Karen; Marchetti, Elisa; Herve, Jacques; Kertson, Kim; LaForce, F. Marc; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background. The determination of the safety profile of any vaccine is critical to its widespread use in any population. In addition, the application of international guidelines to fit local context could be a challenging but important step toward obtaining quality safety data. Methods. In clinical studies of PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), safety was monitored immediately after vaccination, at 4–7 days for postimmunization local and systemic reactions, within 28 days for adverse events, and throughout the duration of study for serious adverse events. Initial and ongoing training of sites' staff were undertaken during the studies, and a data and safety monitoring board reviewed all the data during and after the studies. Results. The safety of PsA-TT was evaluated according to international standards despite obvious challenges in remote areas where these studies were conducted. These challenges included the need for uniformity of methods, timely reporting in the context of frequent communication problems, occurrence of seasonal diseases such as malaria and rotavirus diarrhea, and healthcare systems that required improvement. Conclusions. The trials of PsA-TT highlighted the value of a robust vaccine development plan and design so that lessons learned in initial studies were incorporated into the subsequent ones, initial training and periodic retraining, strict monitoring of all procedures, and continuous channel of communication with all stakeholders that enabled the application of international requirements to local settings, with high quality of data. PMID:26553681

  7. Serotype-Specific Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: A Pooled Analysis of Multiple Surveillance Sites

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Kagucia, Eunice W.; Loo, Jennifer D.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Puhan, Milo A.; Cherian, Thomas; Levine, Orin S.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; OBrien, Katherine L.; Moore, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. Methods and Findings Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ?2 years before and ?1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs) using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 055, 95% CI 046065) and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 049, 95% CI 035068). Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 003, 95% CI 001010), while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 281, 95% CI 212371). Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (1849 year-olds [RR 052, 95% CI 029091], 5064 year-olds [RR 084, 95% CI 077093], and ?65 year-olds [RR 074, 95% CI 058095]). Conclusions Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude. These findings may not represent the experience in low-income countries or the effects after introduction of higher valency PCVs. High-quality, population-based surveillance of serotype-specific IPD rates is needed to monitor vaccine impact as more countries, including low-income countries, introduce PCVs and as higher valency PCVs are used. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24086113

  8. Early trends in invasive pneumococcal disease in children following the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: results from eight years of active surveillance in a Mexican hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Landeros, R.M.; Volker-Soberanes, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In May 2012, universal vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) was introduced for all children in the Tijuana region of Mexico, with a coverage of 80%. Method: Between October 2005 and September 2013 active surveillance was undertaken for all invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) in children admitted to the Tijuana General Hospital. Results: Following PCV-13 implementation, there was a 75% reduction in overall IPD, and no cases of serotype 19A, pneumococcal meningitis, and pneumococcal-associated deaths. Conclusions: These results are the first to show the effectiveness of PCV-13 in Mexico. PMID:25364508

  9. Characteristics of Memory B Cells Elicited by a Highly Efficacious HPV Vaccine in Subjects with No Pre-existing Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Erin M.; Smith, Robin A.; Simonich, Cassandra A.; Niyonzima, Nixon; Carter, Joseph J.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide near complete protection against the types of HPV that most commonly cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (HPV 16 and 18) when administered to individuals naive to these types. These vaccines, like most other prophylactic vaccines, appear to protect by generating antibodies. However, almost nothing is known about the immunological memory that forms following HPV vaccination, which is required for long-term immunity. Here, we have identified and isolated HPV 16-specific memory B cells from female adolescents and young women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the absence of pre-existing immunity, using fluorescently conjugated HPV 16 pseudoviruses to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells. Antibodies cloned and expressed from these singly sorted HPV 16-pseudovirus labeled memory B cells were predominantly IgG (>IgA>IgM), utilized diverse variable genes, and potently neutralized HPV 16 pseudoviruses in vitro despite possessing only average levels of somatic mutation. These findings suggest that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides an excellent model for studying the development of B cell memory; and, in the context of what is known about memory B cells elicited by influenza vaccination/infection, HIV-1 infection, or tetanus toxoid vaccination, indicates that extensive somatic hypermutation is not required to achieve potent vaccine-specific neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:25330199

  10. Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from children with invasive pneumococcal disease in Turkey: baseline evaluation of the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine nationwide.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Gurler, Nezahat; Yaman, Akgun; Ozturk, Candan; Oksuz, Lutfiye; Ozkan, Sengul; Keser, Melike; Salman, Nuran; Alhan, Emre; Esel, Duygu; Gultekin, Meral; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Gul, Mustafa; Sorguc, Yelda; Aydemir, Sohret; Gunaydin, Murat; Yakupogullari, Yusuf; Kizirgil, Ahmet

    2011-06-01

    Before use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV7 became widespread in Turkey, 202 invasive pneumococcus isolates were analyzed. The most common serotypes were 19F and 6B. In children ?2 years of age, the potential coverage rate of PCV7 was 69.5%. The most frequent non-PCV7 serotypes were 19A, 3, 1, 6A, and 8. PMID:21508171

  11. Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Children with Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Turkey: Baseline Evaluation of the Introduction of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Nationwide ? ?

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Gurler, Nezahat; Yaman, Akgun; Ozturk, Candan; Oksuz, Lutfiye; Ozkan, Sengul; Keser, Melike; Salman, Nuran; Alhan, Emre; Esel, Duygu; Gultekin, Meral; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Gul, Mustafa; Sorguc, Yelda; Aydemir, Sohret; Gunaydin, Murat; Yakupogullari, Yusuf; Kizirgil, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Before use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV7 became widespread in Turkey, 202 invasive pneumococcus isolates were analyzed. The most common serotypes were 19F and 6B. In children ?2 years of age, the potential coverage rate of PCV7 was 69.5%. The most frequent non-PCV7 serotypes were 19A, 3, 1, 6A, and 8. PMID:21508171

  12. Changes in molecular epidemiology of streptococcus pneumoniae causing meningitis following introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Bruno; Ladhani, Shamez N; Slack, Mary P E; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline A; Miller, Elizabeth; George, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in September 2006 has markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) including meningitis in England and Wales. This study examined changes in the molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal isolates causing meningitis from July 2004 to June 2009. The Health Protection Agency conducts enhanced pneumococcal surveillance in England and Wales. In addition to serotyping, pneumococcal isolates causing meningitis were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 1,030 isolates were both serotyped and genotyped over the 5-year period. Fifty-two serotypes, 238 sequence types (STs), and 87 clonal complexes were identified, with no significant difference in the yearly Simpson's diversity index values (range, 0.974 to 0.984). STs commonly associated with PCV7 serotypes declined following PCV implementation, with a proportionally greater decline in ST124 (commonly associated with serotype 14). No other ST showed significant changes in distribution, even within individual serotypes. Replacement disease following PCV7 introduction was mainly due to serotypes 1, 3, 7F, 19A, 22F, and 33F through clonal expansion. A single instance of possible capsule switching was identified where one ST4327 clone expressed a serotype 14 capsule in 2005 and a serotype 28A capsule in 2009. In 2008 to 2009, ST191 (7F) became the most prevalent clone causing meningitis (10.3%). Case fatality (145 fatalities/1,030 cases; 14.1%) was high across all age groups and serotype groups. Thus, the introduction of PCV7 resulted in an increase in non-PCV7 serotypes, including some not covered by the 13-valent vaccine, such as serotypes 22F and 33F, emphasizing the importance of long-term epidemiological and molecular surveillance. PMID:23269742

  13. Declines in pneumonia hospitalizations of children aged <2 years associated with the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines - Tennessee, 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Marie R; Mitchel, Edward; Moore, Matthew R; Whitney, Cynthia G; Grijalva, Carlos G

    2014-11-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was added to the U.S. infant immunization schedule in the year 2000. By 2009, PCV7 introduction was associated with a 43% decline in all-cause pneumonia among U.S. children aged <2 years. In 2010, a new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the infant immunization schedule, expanding protection from seven to 13 pneumococcal serotypes. To examine changes in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children aged <2 years after the switch to PCV13, Tennessee hospital discharge data for 1998-2012 were analyzed. By 2012, all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations in children aged <2 years had declined an additional 27%, relative to the PCV7 years. Pneumonia hospitalizations were estimated to be 4.1 per 1,000 population in 2012, a historically low rate that represents a 72% decline from the rate before PCV7 introduction. Tennessee children aged <2 years experienced about 1,300 fewer pneumonia hospitalizations annually in 2011 and 2012 than in the years before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use. These data attest to the powerful impact of the PCV program on pneumonia in Tennessee children. The observed trend likely represents a major decline in pneumococcal pneumonia, which should stimulate a reassessment of current causes and appropriate management of pneumonia in children. PMID:25375070

  14. Effectiveness of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Children in South Africa: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Cheryl; von Mollendorf, Claire; de Gouveia, Linda; Naidoo, Nireshni; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; Nokeri, Vusi; Fortuin-de Smit, Melony; Malope-Kgokong, Babatyi; Moore, David; Reubenson, Gary; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Madhi, Shabir A.; Eley, Brian; Hallbauer, Ute; Kularatne, Ranmini; Conklin, Laura; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Klugman, Keith; Whitney, Cynthia G.; von Gottberg, Anne; Moore, David; Verwey, Charl; Varughese, Sheeba; Archary, Moherndran; Naby, Fathima; Dawood, Khathija; Naidoo, Ramola; Elliott, Gene; Hallbauer, Ute; Eley, Brian; Nuttall, James; Cooke, Louise; Finlayson, Heather; Rabie, Helena; Whitelaw, Andrew; Perez, Dania; Jooste, Pieter; Naidoo, Dhamiran; Kularatne, Ranmini; Reubenson, Gary; Cohen, Cheryl; de Gouveia, Linda; du Plessis, Mignon; Govender, Nevashan; Meiring, Susan; Quan, Vanessa; von Mollendorf, Claire; Fortuin-de Smidt, Melony; Naidoo, Nireshni; Malope-Kgokong, Babatyi; Nokeri, Vusi; Ncha, Relebohile; Lindani, Sonwabo; von Gottberg, Anne; Spies, Barry; Sono, Lino; Maredi, Phasweni; Hamese, Ken; Moshe, Mamokgethi; Nchabeleng, Maphosane; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; van den Heever, Johann; Madhi, Shabir; Conklin, Laura; Verani, Jennifer; Whitney, Cynthia; Zell, Elizabeth; Loo, Jennifer; Nelson, George; Klugman, Keith; O'Brien, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Background.?South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ?2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infected and -uninfected children. Methods.?IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile site) cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance. Specimens were serotyped by Quellung or polymerase chain reaction. Four controls, matched for age, HIV status, and hospital were sought for each case. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated vaccine effectiveness (VE) as 1 minus the adjusted odds ratio for vaccination. Results.?From March 2010 through November 2012, we enrolled 187 HIV-uninfected (48 [26%] vaccine serotype) and 109 HIV-infected (43 [39%] vaccine serotype) cases and 752 HIV-uninfected and 347 HIV-infected controls aged ?16 weeks. Effectiveness of ?2 PCV7 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%91%) among HIV-uninfected and ?12% (95% CI, ?449% to 77%) among HIV-infected children. Effectiveness of ?3 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 90% (95% CI, 14%99%) among HIV-uninfected and 57% (95% CI, ?371% to 96%) among HIV-infected children. Among HIV-exposed but -uninfected children, effectiveness of ?2 doses was 92% (95% CI, 47%99%) against vaccine-serotype IPD. Effectiveness of ?2 doses against all-serotype multidrug-resistant IPD was 96% (95% CI, 62%100%) among HIV-uninfected children. Conclusions.?A 2 + 1 PCV7 schedule was effective in preventing vaccine-serotype IPD in HIV-uninfected and HIV-exposed, uninfected children. This finding supports the World Health Organization recommendation for this schedule as an alternative to a 3-dose primary series among HIV-uninfected individuals. PMID:24917657

  15. The impact of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of childhood community-acquired pneumonia and bacteriologically confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Naito, S; Tanaka, J; Nagashima, K; Chang, B; Hishiki, H; Takahashi, Y; Oikawa, J; Nagasawa, K; Shimojo, N; Ishiwada, N

    2016-02-01

    Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to Japan in 2010. We investigated the impact of PCV7 on childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP). Children aged <5 years living in Chiba city, Japan, who were admitted to hospitals were enrolled to estimate the incidence of CAP based on the mid-year population. PP was determined by the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in cultured blood and/or sputum samples of CAP patients. The incidence of CAP and S. pneumoniae isolated from PP patients was compared before (April 2008-March 2009) and after (April 2012-March 2013) the introduction of PCV7 immunization. The annual incidence of CAP was reduced [incidence rate ratio 081, 95% confidence interval (CI) 073-090]. When comparing post-vaccine with pre-vaccine periods, the odds ratio for PP incidence was 060 (95% CI 039-093, P = 0024). PCV7-covered serotypes markedly decreased (666% in pre-vaccine vs. 156% in post-vaccine, P < 001), and serotypes 6C, 15A, 15C and 19A increased. Multidrug-resistant international clones in the pre-vaccine period (Spain6B-2/ST90, Taiwan19F-14/ST236) decreased, while Sweden15A-25/ST63 was the dominant clone in the post-vaccine period. A significant reduction in the incidence of both CAP hospitalizations and culture-confirmed PP of vaccine serotypes was observed at 2 years after PCV7 vaccination. PMID:26122538

  16. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria in the 7th year after implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Astrid A T M; van Houten, Marlies A; Bruin, Jacob P; Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke J; Trzci?ski, Krzysztof; Bogaert, Debby; Rots, Nynke Y; Sanders, Elisabeth A M

    2016-01-20

    After introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the infant national immunization program (NIP) in the Netherlands in 2006, Streptococcus pneumoniae strains of the non-vaccine serotype 19A emerged and became the dominant serotype in carriage in children and their parents. Similar patterns were observed in other European countries and the United States. Increases in carriage rates of Staphylococcus aureus and non-typeable (NT) Haemophilus influenzae were also observed. After switching of PCV7 to 10-valent vaccine (PCV10) in 2011, a new carriage surveillance study was performed in the winter of 2012/2013. Nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus, and Moraxella catarrhalis was determined by conventional culture in 330 PCV10-vaccinated 11-month-old children, 330 PCV7-vaccinated 24-month-old children, and their parents. Carriage prevalence was compared with similar carriage studies conducted in 2005, 2009, and 2010/2011. Although serotype 19A remained the most frequently carried pneumococcal serotype in children, prevalence of 19A significantly declined in PCV7-vaccinated 24-month-old children (14% to 8%, p=0.01), but less in PCV10-vaccinated 11-month-old children (12% to 9%, p=0.31). Carriage of H. influenzae remained stable at an elevated level (65% in 11-month-olds and 69% in 24-month-olds), while the carriage of S. aureus returned to pre-PCV7 levels in 11-month-old children (14% in 2010/2011 to 7% in 2012/2013), but not in 24-month-olds (remained at 7%). Our results might indicate a new balance between replacing non-vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and other potential pathogenic bacteria in nasopharyngeal carriage. Carriage studies are valuable tools in assessing vaccine effects on pathogens circulating in the population, for evaluation of PCV impact, and in predicting changes in respiratory and invasive disease. PMID:26667610

  17. Serological Basis for Use of Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccines in the United Kingdom: Reevaluation of Correlates of Protection

    PubMed Central

    Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    The antibody data supporting the use of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)