Sample records for toxoplasmosis european prospective

  1. Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    August, J R; Chase, T M

    1987-01-01

    Infection with T. gondii can have devastating effects on the development of the unborn human fetus. As veterinarians or physicians, we should be able to accurately assess the true risk of exposure of a person to meat-borne tissue cysts or to oocysts based on the age, health, roaming and feeding habits of their cats, and the occupational or recreational activities of the individual. When time precludes an in-depth discussion of preventive measures to decrease exposure to the parasite, the whole client education program can be neatly summarized in the admonition, "When pregnant, wash your hands thoroughly before eating or touching your face, and cook your meat thoroughly." In this way, the risk of exposure to toxoplasmosis and all other meat- or soil-borne diseases is greatly reduced. PMID:3551311

  2. TOXOPLASMOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Halonen, Sandra K.; Weiss, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an Apicomplexan, is a pathogen that can infect the central nervous system. Infection during pregnancy can result in a congenial infection with severe neurological sequela. In immune compromised individuals reactivation of latent neurological foci can result in encephalitis. Immune competent individuals infected with T. gondii are typically asymptomatic and maintain this infection for life. However, recent studies suggest that these asymptomatic infections may have effects on behavior and other physiological processes. T. gondii infects approximately one-third of the world population, making it one of the most successful parasitic organisms. Cats and other felidae serve as the definite host producing oocysts, an environmentally resistant life cycle stage found in cat feces, which can transmit the infection when ingested orally. A wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including humans, can serve as the intermediate host in which tissue cysts (containing bradyzoites) develop. Transmission also occurs due to ingestion of the tissue cysts. There are 3 predominant clonal lineages, termed types I, II and III and an association with higher pathogenicity with the Type I strains in humans has emerged. This chapter presents a review of the biology of this infection including the life cycle, transmission, epidemiology, parasite strains, and the host immune response. The major clinical outcomes of congenital infection, chorioretinitis, and encephalitis, and the possible association of infection of toxoplasmosis with neuropsychriatric disorders such as schizophrenia, are reviewed. PMID:23829904

  3. A prospective, randomized trial of pyrimethamine and azithromycin vs pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine for the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lotje H Bosch-Driessen; Frank D Verbraak; Maria S. A Suttorp-Schulten; Rutger L. J van Ruyven; Anne Marie Klok; Carel B Hoyng; Aniki Rothova

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of two treatment regimens, one of which included azithromycin, for the treatment of sight-threatening (near optic disk or fovea) ocular toxoplasmosisDESIGN: Prospective, randomized open-labeled multicenter study, masked in part with regard to evaluation.METHODS:PARTICIPANTS TOTAL ENROLLMENT: 46 patients with sight-threatening ocular toxoplasmosis; pyrimethamine and azithromycin group: 24 patients; pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine group: 22 patients.INTERVENTION: Patients were

  4. Congenital toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For example, toxoplasmosis infection can be passed from cats if you clean the cat box.) Call your health care provider if you ... risk for the infection. Pregnant women who have cats as house pets may be at higher risk. ...

  5. Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by AIDS , cancer , or medicines taken after organ transplants) are at special risk for severe toxoplasmosis infections. Especially in children with AIDS, toxoplasmosis can attack the brain and nervous system, causing toxoplasmic encephalitis (an inflammation ...

  6. What Prospects for a European Debt Agency ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Diev; Laurent Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The Greek and Irish crises have highlighted one of the shortcomings of Economic and Monetary Union, namely that there is no mechanism for preventing and dealing with public debt crises in the euro area (ea). In this context, we analyse the possibility of joint issuance of debt securities by euro area governments managed by a European Debt Agency (eda). The

  7. Veterinary vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Hiszczy?ska-Sawicka, El?bieta; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Grzybowski, Marcin M; D?ugo?ska, Henryka

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of mammal and bird species. Common infection leads to high economic (e.g., abortions in sheep) and human (e.g., congenital toxoplasmosis or neurotoxoplasmosis in humans) losses. With one exception (Toxovax for sheep), there are no vaccines to prevent human or animal toxoplasmosis. The paper presents the current state and challenges in the development of a vaccine against toxoplasmosis, designed for farm animals either bred for consumption or commonly kept on farms and involved in parasite transmission. So far, the trials have mostly revolved around conventional vaccines and, compared with the research using laboratory animals (mainly mice), they have not been very numerous. However, the results obtained are promising and could be a good starting point for developing an effective vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis. PMID:24805159

  8. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Slimani; R. Kaaks; P. Ferrari; C. Casagrande; F. Clavel-Chapelon; G. Lotze; A. Kroke; D. Trichopoulos; A. Trichopoulou; C. Lauria; M. Bellegotti; M. C. Ocké; P. H. M. Peeters; D. Engeset; E. Lund; A. Agudo; N. Larranaga; I. Mattisson; C. Andren; I. Johansson; G. Davey; A. A. Welch; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; W. A. van Staveren; R. Saracci; E. Riboli

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer. Information on usual individual dietary intake was assessed using different validated dietary assessment methods

  9. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobi?, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones. PMID:24951321

  10. Toxoplasmosis – A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of 88 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovi?ková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30–50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this ‘asymptomatic infection’ may also lead to development of other human pathologies. Aims of the Study The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Methods and Findings Prevalence data published between 1995–2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (p<0.1). For several obtained significant correlations between the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. Conclusions The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research. PMID:24662942

  11. Cerebral Aneurysm Multicenter European Onyx (CAMEO) Trial: Results of a Prospective Observational Study in 20 European Centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Molyneux; Saruhan Cekirge; Isil Saatci; Gyula Gal

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of the Onyx liquid embolic system in treating a selected population of patients with intracranial aneurysms that presented difficulties for surgical or endovascular alternatives. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in 20 European centers enroll- ing a consecutive series of 119 patients with 123 aneurysms judged

  12. Prospective Trends in the Socio-Economic Context of Education in European Market Economy Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, M.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to project and analyze the prospective long-term trends in the socioeconomic context of the educational systems of European market economies and to outline in global terms the probable implication for education and training in the future. Composed of three chapters, the chapter 1 focuses on projected long-term…

  13. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Allen; T. J. Key; P. N. Appleby; R. C. Travis; A. W. Roddam; A. Tjonneland; N. F. Johnsen; K. Overvad; J. Linseisen; S. Rohrmann; H. Boeing; T. Pischon; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; L. Kiemeney; G. Tagliabue; D. Palli; P. Vineis; R. Tumino; A. Trichopoulou; C. Kassapa; D. Trichopoulos; E. Ardanaz; N. Larranaga; M. J. Tormo; C. A. Gonzalez; J. R. Quiros; M-J Sánchez; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; J. Manjer; G. Berglund; P. Stattin; G. Hallmans; N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; S. Rinaldi; E. Riboli

    2008-01-01

    We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were

  14. Meat, fish and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Norat; Sheila Bingham; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Mathieu Mazuir; Kim Overvad; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjřnneland; Francoise Clavel; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Emmanuelle Kesse; Heiner Boeing; Manuela M. Bergmann; Alexandra Nieters; Jakob Linseisen; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Yannis Tountas; Franco Berrino; Domenico Palli; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Petra H. M. Peeters; Dagrun Engeset; Eiliv Lund; Guri Skeie; Eva Ardanaz; C. Gonzalez; Carmen Navarro; J. Ramón Quirós; María-José Sanchez; Göran Berglund; Irene Mattisson; Göran Hallmans; Richard Palmqvist; Nicholas E. Day; Kay-Tee Khaw; Timothy J. Key; Miguel San Joaquin; B. Hemon; Rodolfo Saracci; Rudolf Kaaks; Elio Riboli

    2005-01-01

    Background: Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fi sh intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. Methods: We prospectively followed 478 040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on

  15. International interest withholding taxation: Prospects for a common European policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Huizinga

    1994-01-01

    In 1989 the European Union member states rejected a proposal to introduce a minimum interest withholding tax of 15 percent. Some Union member states, however, remain keenly interested in bringing about some minimum level of international taxation of interest income. This suggests that member states will be asked to reconsider the issue in the near future. This paper first examines

  16. [Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients].

    PubMed

    Machala, L; Kodym, P; Malý, M; Geleneky, M; Beran, O; Jilich, D

    2015-01-01

    In humans, toxoplasmosis mostly occurs as a latent infection, but in immunocompromised individuals, the agent may reactivate and cause severe to life-threatening disease. HIV positive individuals and transplant recipients, in particular hematopoietic stem cell transplant and heart transplant recipients, are at highest risk. The disease most often affects the central nervous system but can involve any organ. Because of the alteration of the immune response in these patients, the serodiagnosis is not reliable and direct detection of the causative agent is needed - namely by microscopy and DNA PCR. If inadequately treated or left untreated, toxoplasmosis generally has a fatal prognosis in immunocompromised patients and therefore, the treatment must be started as early and energetically as possible. The gold standard both in the treatment of reactivation and secondary prophylaxis is the pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine combination while co-trimoxazole can be used in the primary prophylaxis for high-risk patients.Key words: immune disorders - infection - Toxoplasma gondii - HIV - transplantation - diagnosis - treatment. PMID:26099608

  17. Detection by PCR of Toxoplasma gondii in blood in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lamoril, J; Molina, J M; de Gouvello, A; Garin, Y J; Deybach, J C; Modaď, J; Derouin, F

    1996-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was performed prospectively in the blood of 19 patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis. The B1 gene and TGR1E sequence were used as targets and results were confirmed by hybridisation. Controls consisted of 24 HIV infected patients with tissue culture proven T gondii parasitaemia and 57 HIV infected patients without toxoplasmosis. PCR was positive with both targets in 20 of 24 samples (84%) from patients with parasitaemia. Three of 57 samples (5%) from patients without toxoplasmosis were PCR positive with either target, but none was positive with both targets. Only three of the 19 patients (16%) with cerebral toxoplasmosis had a positive PCR with both targets before the start of specific treatment. PCR performed in blood is of little diagnostic value in cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis but could be useful in patients with disseminated infection. PMID:8666697

  18. Detection by PCR of Toxoplasma gondii in blood in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Lamoril, J; Molina, J M; de Gouvello, A; Garin, Y J; Deybach, J C; Modaď, J; Derouin, F

    1996-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was performed prospectively in the blood of 19 patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis. The B1 gene and TGR1E sequence were used as targets and results were confirmed by hybridisation. Controls consisted of 24 HIV infected patients with tissue culture proven T gondii parasitaemia and 57 HIV infected patients without toxoplasmosis. PCR was positive with both targets in 20 of 24 samples (84%) from patients with parasitaemia. Three of 57 samples (5%) from patients without toxoplasmosis were PCR positive with either target, but none was positive with both targets. Only three of the 19 patients (16%) with cerebral toxoplasmosis had a positive PCR with both targets before the start of specific treatment. PCR performed in blood is of little diagnostic value in cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis but could be useful in patients with disseminated infection. Images PMID:8666697

  19. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Slimani; M. Fahey; A. A. Welch; E. Wirfalt; C. Stripp; E. Bergstrom; J. Linseisen; M. B. Schulze; C. Bamia; Y. Chloptsios; F. Veglia; S. Panico; B. Bueno de Mesquita; M. C. Ocké; M. Brustadt; E. Lund; C. A. Gonzalez; A. Barcos; G. Berglund; A. Winkvist; A. Mulligan; P. Appleby; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; F. Clavel-Chapelon; E. Kesse; P. Ferrari; Staveren van W. A; E. Riboli

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres\\/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design and setting: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face interviews using the EPIC-SOFT software. These have been used to present a graphic multi-dimensional comparison of the adjusted mean consumption of 22 food

  20. Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Duell; N. Travier; L. Lujan-Barroso; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; S. Morois; D. Palli; V. Krogh; S. Panico; R. Tumino; C. Sacerdote; J. R. Quiros; E. Sanchez-Cantalejo; C. Navarro; A. B. Gurrea; M. Dorronsoro; K. T. Khaw; N. E. Allen; T. J. Key; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; M. M. Ros; M. E. Numans; P. H. M. Peeters; A. Trichopoulou; A. Naska; V. Dilis; B. Teucher; R. Kaaks; H. Boeing; M. Schutze; S. Regner; B. Lindkvist; I. Johansson; G. Hallmans; K. Overvad; R. Egeberg; A. Tjonneland; E. Lund; E. Weiderpass; T. Braaten; I. Romieu; P. Ferrari; M. Jenab; R. Stenling; D. Aune; T. Norat; E. Riboli; C. A. Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The association between alcohol consumption and GC has been investigated in numerous epidemiologic studies with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between alcohol consumption and GC risk. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which included

  1. Standardization of Food Composition Databases for the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): General Theoretical Concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Slimani; Ute Ruth Charrondičre; Wija van Staveren; Elio Riboli

    2000-01-01

    EPIC is a prospective cohort study on diet and cancer involving 480 000 subjects from nine European countries. In order to establish the relationship between nutrient intakes and disease, standardized food composition databases are needed. In the absence of already existing comparable European nutrient database(s), an ad hoc approach was developed to standardize the EPIC databases. New matrices were built

  2. Specific floater home ranges and prospective behaviour in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Smith, Henrik G

    2004-02-01

    In many bird species, floaters are present on the breeding grounds in one or more years before they breed. There is increasing evidence that they have specific home ranges in which they search for information about current and future breeding opportunities. We investigated the role of prospecting in a migratory European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) population. Radio-tracking showed that male starling floaters use specific home range areas during the breeding period. Nest-box observations demonstrated that non-parental nest intrusion is common in the starling and that it is significantly more frequent during the nestling than during the incubation period. In addition, small groups of nest boxes were more likely to be occupied by starlings if they had been put up during the preceding breeding season. The results suggest that floaters try to acquire information about local breeding communities. One specific type of information may be the location of potential breeding sites. PMID:14991146

  3. Body size and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Pischon; Petra H. Lahmann; Heiner Boeing; A. Tjonneland; J. Halkjaer; Kim Overvad; Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch; Jakob Linseisen; Nikolaus Becker; Antonia Trichopoulou; Vassiliki Benetou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Sabina Sieri; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Salvatore Panico; Evelyn Monninkhof; Petra H. M. Peeters; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; F. L. Buchner; Börje Ljungberg; Göran Hallmans; Göran Berglund; Carlos Alberto Gonzalez; Miren Dorronsoro; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Carmen Navarro; Carmen Martinez; J. Ramón Quirós; Andrew Roddam; Naomi Allen; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Rudolf Kaaks; Teresa Norat; Nadia Slimani; Elio Riboli

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that obesity is related to increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, only a few studies report on measures of central vs. peripheral adiposity. We examined the association between anthropometric measures, including waist and hip circumference and RCC risk among 348,550 men and women free of cancer at baseline from 8 countries of the European Prospective

  4. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality: European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Siersema, Peter D; Ferrari, Pietro; Weikert, Cornelia; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Nailler, Laura; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H; Lund, Eiliv; Engeset, Dagrun; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Crowe, Francesca L; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J; Gallo, Valentina; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality was investigated within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000 and followed until 2010. Hazard ratios, rate advancement periods, and preventable proportions to respectively compare risk of death between quartiles of consumption, to estimate the period by which the risk of death was postponed among high consumers, and to estimate proportions of deaths that could be prevented if all participants would shift their consumption 1 quartile upward. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94), with a rate advancement period of 1.12 years (95% CI: 0.70, 1.54), and with a preventable proportion of 2.95%. This association was driven mainly by cardiovascular disease mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93). Stronger inverse associations were observed for participants with high alcohol consumption or high body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death. PMID:23599238

  5. Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis?

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Rima; Kieffer, Francois; Sautter, Mari; Hosten, Tiffany; Pelloux, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Evidence that prevention, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis is beneficial developed as follows: antiparasitic agents abrogate Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite growth, preventing destruction of infected, cultured, mammalian cells and cure active infections in experimental animals, including primates. They treat active infections in persons who are immune-compromised, limit destruction of retina by replicating parasites and thereby treat ocular toxoplasmosis and treat active infection in the fetus and infant. Outcomes of untreated congenital toxoplasmosis include adverse ocular and neurologic sequelae described in different countries and decades. Better outcomes are associated with treatment of infected infants throughout their first year of life. Shorter intervals between diagnosis and treatment in utero improve outcomes. A French approach for diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus and infant can prevent toxoplasmosis and limit adverse sequelae. In addition, new data demonstrate that this French approach results in favorable outcomes with some early gestation infections. A standardized approach to diagnosis and treatment during gestation has not yet been applied generally in the USA. Nonetheless, a small, similar experience confirms that this French approach is feasible, safe, and results in favorable outcomes in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study cohort. Prompt diagnosis, prevention and treatment reduce adverse sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:19430661

  6. Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Rohrmann, Sabine; Nöthlings, Ute; Arriola, Larraitz; Gunter, Marc J; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J Ramón; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Molina-Montes, Esther; Gavrila Chervase, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay T; Wareham, Nick J; Roswall, Nina; Tjřnneland, Anne; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Malm, Johan; Orho-Melander, Marju; Johansson, Mattias; Stattin, Pär; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2015-01-15

    The current epidemiologic evidence suggests that men with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be at lower risk of developing prostate cancer, but little is known about its association with stage and grade of the disease. The association between self-reported diabetes mellitus at recruitment and risk of prostate cancer was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among 139,131 eligible men, 4,531 were diagnosed with prostate cancer over an average follow-up of 12 years. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for education, smoking status, body mass index, waist circumference, and physical activity. In a subset of men without prostate cancer, the cross-sectional association between circulating concentrations of androgens and insulin-like growth factor proteins with diabetes status was also investigated using linear regression models. Compared to men with no diabetes, men with diabetes had a 26% lower risk of prostate cancer (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.86). There was no evidence that the association differed by stage (p-heterogeneity, 0.19) or grade (p-heterogeneity, 0.48) of the disease, although the numbers were small in some disease subgroups. In a subset of 626 men with hormone measurements, circulating concentrations of androstenedione, total testosterone and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-three were lower in men with diabetes compared to men without diabetes. This large European study has confirmed an inverse association between self-reported diabetes mellitus and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. PMID:24862312

  7. Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trepo, Elisabeth; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Boffetta, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Dik, Vincent K; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Hjartĺker, Anette; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro Sanchez, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Lindkvist, Björn; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2014-10-01

    Intake of dairy products has been associated with risk of some cancers, but findings are often inconsistent and information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is limited, particularly from prospective settings. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk/cheese/yogurt) and their components (calcium/vitamin D/fats/protein), with first incident HCC (N(cases) = 191) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, including a nested case-control subset (N(cases) = 122) with the assessment of hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infections status, liver damage and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels. For cohort analyses, multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For nested case-control analyses, conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% CI. A total of 477,206 participants were followed-up for an average of 11 years (person-years follow-up = 5,415,385). In the cohort study, a significant positive HCC risk association was observed for total dairy products (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.13-2.43; p(trend) = 0.012), milk (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.24; p(trend) = 0.049), and cheese (HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38; p(trend) = 0.101), but not yogurt (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.65-1.35). Dietary calcium, vitamin D, fat and protein from dairy sources were associated with increased HCC risk, whereas the same nutrients from nondairy sources showed inverse or null associations. In the nested case-control study, similar results were observed among hepatitis-free individuals. Results from this large prospective cohort study suggest that higher consumption of dairy products, particularly milk and cheese, may be associated with increased HCC risk. Validation of these findings in other populations is necessary. Potential biologic mechanisms require further exploration. PMID:24615266

  8. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are the symptoms of toxoplasmosis? Individuals with healthy immune systems: Most people who become infected with Toxoplasma do ... more. Rarely, eye disease occurs. Individuals with weakened immune systems: People with weakened immune systems may experience severe ...

  9. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; D?r?bu?, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians. PMID:24553077

  10. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Allen, N E; Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Travis, R C; Roddam, A W; Tjřnneland, A; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; Pischon, T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kiemeney, L; Tagliabue, G; Palli, D; Vineis, P; Tumino, R; Trichopoulou, A; Kassapa, C; Trichopoulos, D; Ardanaz, E; Larrańaga, N; Tormo, M-J; González, C A; Quirós, J R; Sánchez, M-J; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Manjer, J; Berglund, G; Stattin, P; Hallmans, G; Slimani, N; Ferrari, P; Rinaldi, S; Riboli, E

    2008-01-01

    We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142?251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were 2727 incident cases of prostate cancer, of which 1131 were known to be localised and 541 advanced-stage disease. A high intake of dairy protein was associated with an increased risk, with a hazard ratio for the top versus the bottom fifth of intake of 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–1.41, Ptrend=0.02). After calibration to allow for measurement error, we estimated that a 35-g?day?1 increase in consumption of dairy protein was associated with an increase in the risk of prostate cancer of 32% (95% CI: 1–72%, Ptrend=0.04). Calcium from dairy products was also positively associated with risk, but not calcium from other foods. The results support the hypothesis that a high intake of protein or calcium from dairy products may increase the risk for prostate cancer. PMID:18382426

  11. Plasma phyto-oestrogens and prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Travis, R C; Spencer, E A; Allen, N E; Appleby, P N; Roddam, A W; Overvad, K; Johnsen, N F; Olsen, A; Kaaks, R; Linseisen, J; Boeing, H; Nöthlings, U; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, M M; Sacerdote, C; Palli, D; Tumino, R; Berrino, F; Trichopoulou, A; Dilis, V; Trichopoulos, D; Chirlaque, M-D; Ardanaz, E; Larranaga, N; Gonzalez, C; Suárez, L R; Sánchez, M-J; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Hallmans, G; Stattin, P; Rinaldi, S; Slimani, N; Jenab, M; Riboli, E; Key, T J

    2009-01-01

    We examined plasma concentrations of phyto-oestrogens in relation to risk for subsequent prostate cancer in a case–control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Concentrations of isoflavones genistein, daidzein and equol, and that of lignans enterolactone and enterodiol, were measured in plasma samples for 950 prostate cancer cases and 1042 matched control participants. Relative risks (RRs) for prostate cancer in relation to plasma concentrations of these phyto-oestrogens were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Higher plasma concentrations of genistein were associated with lower risk of prostate cancer: RR among men in the highest vs the lowest fifth, 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.96, P trend=0.03). After adjustment for potential confounders this RR was 0.74 (95% CI 0.54–1.00, P trend=0.05). No statistically significant associations were observed for circulating concentrations of daidzein, equol, enterolactone or enterodiol in relation to overall risk for prostate cancer. There was no evidence of heterogeneity in these results by age at blood collection or country of recruitment, nor by cancer stage or grade. These results suggest that higher concentrations of circulating genistein may reduce the risk of prostate cancer but do not support an association with plasma lignans. PMID:19436304

  12. Smoking and the risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmann, S; Linseisen, J; Allen, N; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Johnsen, N F; Tjřnneland, A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Teucher, B; Boeing, H; Pischon, T; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Palli, D; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, R; Ricceri, F; Argüelles Suárez, M V; Agudo, A; Sánchez, M-J; Chirlaque, M-D; Barricarte, A; Larrańaga, N; Boshuizen, H; van Kranen, H J; Stattin, P; Johansson, M; Bjartell, A; Ulmert, D; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieux, I; Gunter, M J R; Riboli, Elio; Key, T J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smoking is not associated with prostate cancer incidence in most studies, but associations between smoking and fatal prostate cancer have been reported. Methods: During 1992 and 2000, lifestyle information was assessed via questionnaires and personal interview in a cohort of 145?112 European men. Until 2009, 4623 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 1517 cases of low-grade, 396 cases of high grade, 1516 cases of localised, 808 cases of advanced disease, and 432 fatal cases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking duration with the risk of incident and fatal prostate cancer. Results: Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.83–0.97), which was statistically significant for localised and low-grade disease, but not for advanced or high-grade disease. In contrast, heavy smokers (25+ cigarettes per day) and men who had smoked for a long time (40+ years) had a higher risk of prostate cancer death (RR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.11–2.93; RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01–1.87, respectively). Conclusion: The observation of an increased prostate cancer mortality among heavy smokers confirms the results of previous prospective studies. PMID:23169298

  13. [Diagnostic problems with congenital toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Karczewski, Grzegorz; Go?ab, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis results from the primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii during the pregnancy. The more advanced pregnancy the higher risk of foetus infection, however the symptoms might be mild or the infection can be asymptomatic. However, undiagnosed infection in a new born baby results in further development of the disease in early childhood reflecting in sight and hearing impairment, neurological symptoms or mental retardation. Systematic and frequent serologic tests performed during the pregnancy can lead to the early diagnosis of primary infection and help to implement the treatment which slows down the disease progression in children with intrauterine infection. It also reduces the costs of long-term medical care required for the significantly disabled patients. PMID:22184947

  14. The International Congress on Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Louis M; Kim, Kami

    2004-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in both veterinary and human medicine. Infection during pregnancy can result in fetal transmission and a congenital infection syndrome. In immune-compromised hosts reactivation of latent infection can result in encephalitis. It has been estimated that as many as one-third of the human population harbours this zoonosis. The Seventh International Congress on Toxoplasmosis, organised by Louis M. Weiss and Kami Kim (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY) was held on 23-27 May 2003 in Tarrytown, New York. At this meeting 133 investigators from 14 countries presented 102 papers on research involving this model Apicomplexan parasite. The presented research covered the epidemiology, immunology, cellular biology and molecular biology of this pathogen. PMID:15003486

  15. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and the risk of adenocarcinoma of the stomach in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. A. Crusius; F. Canzian; G. Capella; A. S. Pena; G. Pera; N. Sala; A. Agudo; F. Rico; G. Del Giudice; D. Palli; M. Plebani; H. Boeing; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; F. Carneiro; V. Pala; V. E. Save; P. Vineis; R. Tumino; S. Panico; G. Berglund; J. Manjer; R. Stenling; G. Hallmans; C. Martinez; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; C. Navarro; J. R. Quiros; N. Allen; T. J. Key; S. Binghan; C. Caldas; J. Linseisen; R. Kaaks; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; F. C. Buchner; P. H. M. Peeters; M. E. Numans; F. Clavel-Chapelon; A. Trichopoulou; E. Lund; M. Jenab; S. Rinaldi; P. Ferrari; E. Riboli; C. A. Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relative contribution to gastric cancer (GC) risk of variants in genes that determine the inflammatory response remains mostly unknown and results from genotyping studies are inconsistent. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A nested case-control study within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort was carried out, including 248 gastric adenocarcinomas and 770 matched controls. Twenty common polymorphisms

  16. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of animals and birds. The parasite lives in cats. Human infection may result from: Blood transfusions or solid organ transplants Handling cat litter Eating contaminated soil Eating raw or undercooked ...

  17. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as litter boxes. After outdoor activities, wash your hands with soap and warm water, especially before you eat or ... you do it. When you finish, wash your hands well with soap and warm water. Clean the litter box daily. ...

  18. Fruit and vegetable consumption and lymphoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Rohrmann; Nikolaus Becker; Jakob Linseisen; Alexandra Nieters; Thomas Rüdiger; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Anne Tjřnneland; Hans E. Johnsen; Kim Overvad; Rudolf Kaaks; Manuela M. Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Vasiliki Benetou; Theodora Psaltopoulou; Antonia Trichopoulou; Giovanna Masala; Amalia Mattiello; Vittorio Krogh; Rosario Tumino; Carla H. van Gils; Petra H. M. Peeters; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Martine M. Ros; Eiliv Lund; Eva Ardanaz; María-Dolores Chirlaque; Paula Jakszyn; Nerea Larrańaga; A. Losada; Carmen Martínez-García; Ĺsa Ĺgren; Göran Hallmans; Göran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Naomi E. Allen; Timothy J. Key; Sheila Bingham; Kay Tee Khaw; Nadia Slimani; Pietro Ferrari; Paolo Boffetta; Teresa Norat; Paolo Vineis; Elio Riboli

    2007-01-01

    Introduction  Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant diseases of cells of the immune system. The best-established risk factors\\u000a are related to dys-regulation of immune function, and evidence suggests that factors such as dietary or lifestyle habits may\\u000a be involved in the etiology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods  In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 849 lymphoma cases were identified in

  19. Ethanol intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen; Alina Vrieling; Paolo Boffetta; Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon; Albert B. Lowenfels; Majken K. Jensen; Kim Overvad; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjonneland; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; G. Fagherazzi; Gesthimani Misirli; Pagona Lagiou; Antonia Trichopoulou; Rudolf Kaaks; Manuela M. Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Naomi Allen; Andrew Roddam; Domenico Palli; Valeria Pala; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Petra H. M. Peeters; Anette Hjartĺker; Eiliv Lund; Ma Luisa Redondo Cornejo; Antonio Agudo; Larraitz Arriola; Maria-José Sánchez; María-José Tormo; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Björn Lindkvist; Jonas Manjer; Ingegerd Johansson; Weimin Ye; Nadia Slimani; Eric J. Duell; Mazda Jenab; Dominique S. Michaud; Traci Mouw; Elio Riboli; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita

    2009-01-01

    Objective  To examine the association of baseline and lifetime ethanol intake with cancer of the pancreas in the European Prospective\\u000a Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Included in this analysis were 478,400 subjects, of whom detailed information on the intake of alcoholic beverages at baseline\\u000a and over lifetime was collected between 1992 and 2000. During a median follow-up time of 8.9

  20. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SAND FOX (VULPUS RUEPPELLII)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli) from United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, pancreas, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the heart. Ttachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-spe...

  1. Serodiagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in macropods.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Roberts, H; Statham, P; Munday, B L

    1989-11-01

    The sera of 34 Australian macropods, the brains of which had been bioassayed for Toxoplasma gondii, were used to establish that a titre greater than 1/32 was significant for a direct agglutination test against toxoplasmosis. In addition, the concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol required to destroy the IgM fraction of macropod serum was confirmed in a modified direct agglutination test. To further validate the tests, the serological responses of three eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) dosed orally with T. gondii oocysts and one M. giganteus injected with T. gondii cysts were studied. The tests were then used to investigate a diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in four Tasmanian pademelons (Thylogale billardierii) clinically suspected of acquiring toxoplasmosis naturally. One hundred and fifty-one Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus) and 85 T. billardierii were also tested to determine the prevalence of acute toxoplasmosis of macropods in the wild. Four percent of M. r. rufogriseus and 1.2% of T. billardierii possessed T. gondii-specific IgM in their sera. PMID:2588468

  2. Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the European Union: Prospects for a Common Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Belfiore; Newark DE

    \\u000a After the experience of the 1996–1999 Demonstration Programme on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), the European Commission\\u000a has prepared a Communication to the Council and the European Parliament in which provides the justification for the implementation\\u000a of ICZM in Europe. The communication recalls that the demonstration programme and the subsequent consultation phase have called\\u000a for actions that could be taken

  3. Back pain, disability, and radiographic vertebral fracture in European women: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. O’Neill; W. Cockerill; C. Matthis; H. H. Raspe; M. Lunt; C. Cooper; D. Banzer; J. B. Cannata; M. Naves; B. Felsch; D. Felsenberg; J. Janott; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; G. Kragl; A. Lopes Vaz; G. Lyritis; P. Masaryk; G. Poor; D. M. Reid; W. Reisinger; C. Scheidt-Nave; J. J. Stepan; C. J. Todd; A. D. Woolf; J. Reeve; A. J. Silman

    2004-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability. There are, however, few prospective data looking at back pain and disability following identification of radiographic vertebral fracture. The aim of this analysis was to determine the impact of radiographically identified vertebral fracture on the subsequent occurrence of back pain and disability. Women aged 50 years and over were recruited from population

  4. Plasma antibodies to oral bacteria and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large European prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Dominique S.; Izard, Jacques; Wilhelm-Benartzi, Charlotte S.; You, Doo-Ho; Grote, Verena A; Tjřnneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Racine, Antoine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Foerster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Siersema, Peter; Peeters, Petra HM; Lund, Eiliv; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José-María; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J. Ramón; Duell, Eric J.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Riboli, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Examine the relationship between antibodies to 25 oral bacteria and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Design We measured antibodies to oral bacteria in prediagnosis blood samples from 405 pancreatic cancer cases and 416 matched controls, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC). Analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression and additionally adjusted for smoking status and body mass index. Results Individuals with high levels of antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATTC 53978, a pathogenic periodontal bacteria, had a 2-fold higher risk of pancreatic cancer than individuals lower levels of these antibodies (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–4.36; >200 ng/ml vs ?200 ng/ml). To explore the association with commensal (non-pathogenic) oral bacteria, we performed a cluster analysis and identified 2 groups of individuals, based on their antibody profiles. A cluster with overall higher levels of antibodies had a 45% lower risk of pancreatic cancer than a cluster with overall lower levels of antibodies (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36–0.83). Conclusion Periodontal disease might increase the risk for pancreatic cancer. Moreover, increased levels of antibodies against specific commensal oral bacteria, which can inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria, might reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Studies are needed to determine whether oral bacteria have direct effects on pancreatic cancer pathogenesis or serve as markers of the immune response. PMID:22990306

  5. Aromatic adducts and lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Gilberson, Tamra; Peluso, Marco E M; Munia, Armelle; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina-Montes, Esther; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Tormo, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Confortini, Massimo; Bonet, Catalina; Sala, Núria; González, Carlos A; Agudo, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    In this case-cohort study, we examined the association between bulky DNA adducts and the risk of lung cancer within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort with an average 7-year follow-up, including 98 cases of primary lung cancer and 296 subjects randomly selected from the cohort. Aromatic adducts were measured using (32)P-postlabeling in leukocyte DNA from blood samples collected at enrollment. The association between DNA adducts and the risk of lung cancer was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model with a modified partial likelihood. There was an overall significant increased risk for developing lung cancer when DNA adduct concentrations were doubled, with relative risk (RR) adjusting for all relevant confounders of 1.36 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-157. There was a significant increased risk for developing lung cancer when DNA adduct concentrations were doubled for current smokers and among subjects exposed to PAH at work; there was also a slightly higher increase among males than females. However, no statistically significant differences were observed for the effect of adduct levels across smoking status, sex or occupational exposure to PAH. A meta-analysis combined four prospective studies, including this study, resulting in a significant association among current smokers, with an overall estimate of 34% increase in the risk of lung cancer when doubling the level of aromatic DNA adducts in leukocytes. PMID:24845263

  6. Repetition of suicidal behaviour in elderly Europeans: a prospective longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. De Leo; W. Padoani; J. Lonnqvist; A. J. F. M. Kerkhof; U. Bille-Brahe; K. Michel; E. Salander-Renberg; A. Schmidtke; D. Wasserman; F. Caon; P. Scocco

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess any predictive factors for repeated attempted suicide and completed suicide in a 1-year follow-up on a sample of elderly European suicide attempters (60 years and over). From 1990 to 1993, 63 subjects completed the first interview and were recontacted after 1 year. At follow-up, eight subjects (12.7%) had taken their lives and

  7. Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy Sa´rka Kan kova´1 to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Citation: Kankova´ S, Procha´zkova´ L, Flegr J, Calda P, Springer D, et al. (2014) Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

  8. Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Woo Kyo; Joo, Byung-Euk; Seo, Ji-Hye; Mun, Jun Kyu; Kim, Juhyeon; Seo, Dae-Won

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a rare disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Though most patients with toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic, congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus can cause ocular involvement such as chorioretinitis and central nervous system disease including intracerebral calcification, nystagmus, hydrocephalus and microcephaly. Also, these brain lesions can cause seizure secondarily. Our patient was diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, based on toxoplasma-specific serologic test with typical clinical symptoms, including chorioretinitis, nystagmus, hydrocephalus and cerebral palsy. Her brain imaging findings revealed not only the multifocal encephalomalacia, but also multifocal cerebral calcification including intracerebral calcification in left perihippocampal region. Her epileptogenic zone was defined as mesial temporal lobe including hippocampus on left side by seizure semiology, electroencephalogram and neuroimaging including single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography. Her seizures were refractory to multiple anti-epileptic drugs. We report a patient with congenital toxoplasmosis who showed intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26157672

  9. Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Woo Kyo; Joo, Byung-Euk; Seo, Ji-hye; Mun, Jun Kyu; Kim, Juhyeon; Seo, Dae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a rare disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Though most patients with toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic, congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus can cause ocular involvement such as chorioretinitis and central nervous system disease including intracerebral calcification, nystagmus, hydrocephalus and microcephaly. Also, these brain lesions can cause seizure secondarily. Our patient was diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, based on toxoplasma-specific serologic test with typical clinical symptoms, including chorioretinitis, nystagmus, hydrocephalus and cerebral palsy. Her brain imaging findings revealed not only the multifocal encephalomalacia, but also multifocal cerebral calcification including intracerebral calcification in left perihippocampal region. Her epileptogenic zone was defined as mesial temporal lobe including hippocampus on left side by seizure semiology, electroencephalogram and neuroimaging including single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography. Her seizures were refractory to multiple anti-epileptic drugs. We report a patient with congenital toxoplasmosis who showed intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  10. The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to underline the future challenges for European marine research in terms of the integrated coastal zone management of these highly significant coastal zones. PMID:18061212

  11. Tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Dik, Vincent K; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kuhn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Grioni, Sara; Palli, Domenico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Argüelles, Marcial; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Nilsson, Lena; Wallner, Bengt; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Peeters, Petra H M; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Freisling, Heinz; Stepien, Magdalena; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2014-09-15

    Epidemiological data regarding tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer (EC) is still inconclusive. We examined the association of tea and coffee consumption with EC risk among 442,143 men and women without cancer at baseline from 9 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Tea and coffee intakes were recorded using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationships between tea and coffee intake and EC risk. During a mean follow-up of 11.1 years, 339 participants developed EC, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 174 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the multivariable models, no significant associations between tea (mostly black tea), and coffee intake and risk of EC, EAC and ESCC were observed. In stratified analyses, among men coffee consumption was inversely related to ESCC (HR for comparison of extreme tertiles 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.88; p-trend=0.022), but not among women. In current smokers, a significant and inverse association was observed between ESCC risk and tea (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.93; p-trend=0.053) and coffee consumption (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.73; p-trend=0.011). However, no statistically significant findings were observed using the continuous variable (per 100 mL/d). These data did not show a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and EC, EAC and ESCC, although a decreased risk of ESCC among men and current smokers is suggested, but need to be confirmed in further prospective studies including more cases. PMID:24535727

  12. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrańaga, Nerea; Huerta Castańo, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 ?g/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 ?g/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10?g/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. PMID:25300475

  13. Life Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany Study

    PubMed Central

    Feller, Silke; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prospective association between life satisfaction and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Previous studies suggested that psychosocial factors may affect the development of chronic diseases but the impact of positive attitudes, in particular life satisfaction, is yet to be determined. Methods The analysis included 50,358 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study in Potsdam and Heidelberg. Life satisfaction was assessed in a baseline interview and incident cases of chronic diseases were identified and verified during follow-up. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models that were systematically multivariable-adjusted for established risk factors and prevalent diseases. Results During an average of 8 years of follow-up 2,293 cases of cancer, 1,840 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 440 cases of stroke, and 562 cases of myocardial infarction were observed. Women who were unsatisfied with life at baseline showed in all models a significantly increased risk of cancer (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18-1.78) and stroke (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.05-2.73) as well as an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus by trend across categories (p-trend=0.04) compared to women very satisfied with life. In men, a relationship between life satisfaction and stroke was found but did not persist after consideration of lifestyle factors and prevalent diseases. No significant association was observed between life satisfaction and risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that reduced life satisfaction is related to the development of chronic diseases—particularly in women and partly mediated by established risk factors. PMID:23977388

  14. The actual development of European Aviation Safety Requirements in Aviation Medicine: Prospects of Future EASA Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-01-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990ies. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Awiation Requirement - Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them. PMID:19561781

  15. Consumption of fish and meats and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Trichopolou, A.; Bamia, C.; Duarte-Salles, T.; Trepo, E.; Aleksandrova, K.; Nöthlings, U.; Lukanova, A.; Lagiou, P.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Katzke, V. A.; Overvad, K.; Tjřnneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Fagherazzi, G.; Bastide, N.; Panico, S.; Grioni, S.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, P. H.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Parr, C. L.; Jakszyn, P.; Sánchez, M. J.; Barricarte, A.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.; Quirós, J. R.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background While higher intake of fish and lower consumption of red/processed meats have been suggested to play a protective role in the etiology of several cancers, prospective evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited, particularly in Western European populations. Methods The associations of fish and meats with HCC risk were analyzed in the EPIC cohort. Between 1992 and 2010, 191 incident HCC were identified among 477 206 participants. Baseline diet was assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for calibration. Multivariable proportional hazard regression was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In a nested case–control subset (HCC = 122), HBV/HCV status and liver function biomarkers were measured. Results HCC risk was inversely associated with intake of total fish (per 20 g/day increase, HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74–0.95 and HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69–0.97 before and after calibration, respectively). This inverse association was also suggested after adjusting for HBV/HCV status and liver function score (per 20-g/day increase, RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.66–1.11 and RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50–1.09, respectively) in a nested case–control subset. Intakes of total meats or subgroups of red/processed meats, and poultry were not associated with HCC risk. Conclusions In this large European cohort, total fish intake is associated with lower HCC risk. PMID:23670094

  16. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human. PMID:24163965

  17. Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Dossus, Laure; Fagherazzi, Guy; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartĺker, Anette; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quirós, J Ramón; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta Castańo, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Chamosa, Saioa; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Chajes, Veronique; Gunter, Marc J

    2014-10-01

    There are inconsistent and limited data available to assess the relationship between fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We examined the consumption of total fat, fat sources and fat subtypes in relation to risk of EOC and its major histologic subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition which includes incident invasive (n=1095) and borderline (n=96) EOC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate models, we observed no association with consumption of total fat, animal or plant fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, or fatty fish and risk of invasive EOC. There was, however, an increased risk of invasive EOC in the highest category of intake (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1) of polyunsaturated fat (HR=1.22, 95% CI=1.02-1.48, P(trend)=0.02). We did not observe heterogeneity in the risk associations in comparisons of serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes. This study does not support an etiological role for total fat intake in relation to EOC risk; however, based on observations of a positive association between intake of polyunsaturated fat and invasive EOC risk in the current and previous studies, this fat subtype warrants further investigation to determine its potential role in EOC development. PMID:25155210

  18. Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Lund Würtz, Anne Mette; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Weikert, Steffen; Steffen, Annika; Kühn, Tilman; Li, Kuanrong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Hjartĺker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Molina-Montes, Esther; de la Torre, Ramón Alonso; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Börje; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-03-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 493,179 EPIC participants, recruited between 1992 and 2000. Until December 2008, 691 RCC cases have been identified. Meat and fish consumption was assessed at baseline using country-specific dietary assessment instruments; 24-hour recalls were applied in an 8% subsample for calibration purposes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women with a high consumption of red meat (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.62; calibrated, per 50 g/day) and processed meat (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.05-3.03; calibrated, per 50 g/day) had a higher risk of RCC, while no association existed in men. For processed meat, the association with RCC incidence was prominent in premenopausal women and was lacking in postmenopausal women (p interaction = 0.02). Neither poultry nor fish consumption were statistically significantly associated with the risk of RCC. The results show a distinct association of red and processed meat consumption with incident RCC in women but not in men. A biological explanation for these findings remains unclear. PMID:25258006

  19. Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-Nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Jakszyn; S. Bingham; G. Pera; A. Agudo; R. Luben; A. Welch; H. Boeing; G. del Giudice; D. Palli; C. Saieva; V. Krogh; C. Sacerdote; R. Tumino; S. Panico; G. Berglund; H. Simán; G. Hallmans; M. J. Sanchez; N. Larrańaga; A. Barricarte; M. D. Chirlaque; J. R. Quirós; T. J. Key; N. Allen; E. Lund; F. Carneiro; J. Linseisen; G. Nagel; K. Overvad; A. Tjřnneland; A. Olsen; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; M. O. Ocké; P. H. M. Peeters; M. E. Numans; F. Clavel-Chapelon; A. Trichopoulou; C. Fenger; R. Stenling; P. Ferrari; M. Jenab; T. Norat; E. Riboli; C. A. Gonzalez

    2006-01-01

    The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of Nitrosodimethylamine\\u000a(NDMA) and endogenous formation of Nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in\\u000athe European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study\\u000aincluded 521,457 individuals and 314 incident cases of GC that had occurred after 6.6\\u000aaverage years of follow up. An index of endogenous NOC formation (ENOC)

  20. Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Jakszyn; Sheila A Bingham; Guillem Pera; Antonio Agudo; Robert Luben; Ailsa Welch; Heiner Boeing; Giuseppe del Giudice; Domenico Palli; Calogero Saieva; Vittorio Krogh; Carlotta Sacerdote; Rosario Tumino; Salvatore Panico; Göran Berglund; Henrik Simán; Göran Hallmans; María José Sanchez; Nerea Larrańaga; Aurelio Barricarte; María-Dolores Chirlaque; José Ramón Quirós; Timothy J Key; Naomi E Allen; Eiliv Lund; Fátima Carneiro; Jakob Linseisen; Gabriele Nagel; Kim Overvad; Anne Tjřnneland; Anja Olsen; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Marga C Ocké; Petra H M Peeters; Mattijs E Numans; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Antonia Trichopoulou; Claus Fenger; Roger Stenling; Pietro Ferrari; Mazda Jenab; Teresa Norat; Elio Riboli; Carlos Alberto González

    2007-01-01

    The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521,457 individuals and 314 incident cases of GC that had occurred after 6.6 average years of follow-up. An index of endogenous NOC (ENOC) formation was

  1. Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajčs; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartĺker; A Tjřnneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed

  2. Epidemiology and control prospects of foodborne parasitic zoonoses in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E

    2008-06-01

    In the 27 Member States of the European Union, zoonotic parasites transmitted by food are circulating with different prevalence according to the country, the environmental conditions, the human behaviour, and the socio-economic level. Foodborne parasites can be divided in two main groups according to the way of transmission to humans. These foodborne parasites reach the human beings through the consumption of raw infected food such as muscle tissues of different animal species (Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis suishominis, Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Opisthorchis felineus, Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova spp., Trichinella spp.), or vegetables (Fasciola hepatica), and contaminated food and water resources (Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., T. gondii, Echinococcus granulosus sensu latu, Echinococcus multilocularis, T. solium, Taenia multiceps). As a general role, the control strategies should be based on the education of the consumers, farmers and shepherds, the improvement of farming conditions, the improvement or the development of more sensitive methods to detect these parasites in slaughtered animals and in foodstuff, a control of sewage sludge on pastures and of drinking water resources, and the reduction of contacts between livestock and wild animals which frequently represent the most important reservoir of these pathogens. PMID:18693552

  3. Results of a Peripheral Cutting Balloon Prospective Multicenter European Registry in Hemodialysis Vascular Access

    SciTech Connect

    Peregrin, Jan H., E-mail: jape@medicon.cz; Rocek, Miloslav [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To report initial experience with the Peripheral Cutting Balloon (PCB) in treatment of failing hemodialysis shunts. Methods. A total of 190 patients (95 men, 95 women; average age 64.4 {+-} 11.9 years, range 32-87 years) who were treated with the PCB for pressure-resistant stenosis, restenosis or failed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the venous limb of an arteriovenous shunt were followed in seven European centers using a simple registry. The group consisted of 109 de novo lesions (57%) and 79 restenotic lesions (43%). Results. Technical success was achieved in 88.9% of cases. Primary patency was as follows (the results for whole group and simultaneous results for de novo lesions and restenoses are presented): 1 month (140 patients followed): 94%, 98%, and 93%; 3 months (116 patients followed): 93%, 98%, and 92%; 6 months (40 patients followed): 85%, 92%, and 79%; 12 months (27 patients followed): 74%, 87%, and 48%. No complication occurred. Patients experienced an equal or lower level of pain during the procedure compared with conventional PTA. Conclusion. The PCB proved to be successful in dilating pressure-resistant stenoses. We cannot conclude whether PCB angioplasty can lower the restenosis rate in hemodialysis access lesions, but the long-term patency for de novo lesions is high. A further randomized study is advisable.

  4. A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel, and shipyard welders.

    PubMed Central

    Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Andersen, A; Anderson, K; Becker, N; Chang-Claude, J; Ferro, G; Gérin, M; Gray, C N; Hansen, K S

    1991-01-01

    A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies located in nine European countries has been assembled with the aim of investigating the relation of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. The observation period and the criteria for inclusion of welders varied from country to country. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort and observed numbers of deaths (and for some countries incident cancer cases) were compared with expected numbers calculated from national reference rates. Mortality and cancer incidence ratios were analysed by cause category, time since first exposure, duration of employment, and estimated cumulative dose to total fumes, chromium (Cr), Cr VI, and nickel (Ni). Overall a statistically significant excess was reported for mortality from lung cancer (116 observed v 86.81 expected deaths, SMR = 134). When analysed by type of welding an increasing pattern with time since first exposure was present for both mild steel and stainless steel welders, which was more noticeable for the subcohort of predominantly stainless steel welders. No clear relation was apparent between mortality from lung cancer and duration of exposure to or estimated cumulative dose of Ni or Cr. Whereas the patterns of lung cancer mortality in these results suggest that the risk of lung cancer is higher for stainless steel than mild steel welders the different level of risk for these two categories of welding exposure cannot be quantified with precision. The report of five deaths from pleural mesothelioma unrelated to the type of welding draws attention to the risk of exposure to asbestos in welding activities. PMID:2015204

  5. [A model of congenital toxoplasmosis transmission dynamics].

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Lina M; Duarte-Gandica, Irene

    2010-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis having worldwide distribution; it infects many human and animal populations and is produced by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, this being of great importance in contagion of pregnant women since this zoonosis causes illness in the fetus through transplacental infection. A constant mother-foetus infection rate has traditionally been used. Nevertheless, there is evidence of a strong relationship between a mother's gestation week and the moment when a foetus becomes infected. This work describes congenital toxoplasmosis transmission dynamics by using an age-structured model taking a mother's gestational week into account. The model was adapted to a space-time model describing T. gondii dispersion through cats; this provided the amount of parasites in the environment depending on which a pregnant woman would become infected. Simulations were done, varying the amount of parasites and the pregnant mother-inoculum distance. Some parameters related to possible control measures were also varied. Important changes were found when comparing infected pregnant female population patterns, when a constant mother-fetus infection rate was used and when a dependent pregnancy week rate was used. This led to concluding that the gestation week in which the mothers became infected is fundamental in infection being transmitted to their fetuses. PMID:21031242

  6. Consumption of Dairy Products and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Neil; Norat, Teresa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Tjřnneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Nailler, Laura; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Dik, Vincent K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Pérez, Maria José Sánchez; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Johansson, Ingegerd; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Fedirko, Veronika; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents. Materials and Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed), yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables. Results During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98). Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99) and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79–1.02) in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99); this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99), with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81–1.24). Conclusions Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products considered. PMID:24023767

  7. Serologic evaluation of toxoplasmosis in matrimonial women in Babol, Iran.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, M R; Sefidgar, A A; Mostafazadeh, A; Omran, S Mahdavi

    2007-05-01

    To investigate anti-toxoplasmosis in matrimonial women, samples collected from who referred to Babol health center, that is the only pre-marriage laboratory guide center in Babol. This descriptive-cross sectional study has carried out on 241 matrimonial women to consider anti toxoplasmosis antibodies (IgG, IgM) by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay). In this study, 241 women between 13 to 40 years old were considered. The average age was 20.98 years. Of these cases, 47.3% were urban and 52.7% were rural. 63.9% had IgG and 12.4% had IgM anti-toxoplasmosis antibody. This study carried out to determine anti toxoplasmosis antibodies in Babol in the first half of 2004. Dispersed studies have been done to determine the prevalence oftoxoplasmosis in Iran and mostly have reported a high and different prevalence oftoxoplasmosis in different parts of country. PMID:19069975

  8. Selenium status is associated with colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation of cancer and nutrition cohort.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David J; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Schomburg, Lutz; Méplan, Catherine; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Hybsier, Sandra; Becker, Niels-Peter; Czuban, Magdalena; Tjřnneland, Anne; Outzen, Malene; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Dagrun, Engeset; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Wennberg, Maria; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Vineis, Paolo; Naccarati, Alessio; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Overvad, Kim; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Cross, Amanda J; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Stepien, Magdalena; Kong, So Yeon; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Riboli, Elio; Hesketh, John E

    2015-03-01

    Suboptimal intakes of the micronutrient selenium (Se) are found in many parts of Europe. Low Se status may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We assessed Se status by measuring serum levels of Se and Selenoprotein P (SePP) and examined the association with CRC risk in a nested case-control design (966 CRC cases; 966 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Se was measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and SePP by immunoluminometric sandwich assay. Multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Respective mean Se and SePP levels were 84.0 ?g/L and 4.3 mg/L in cases and 85.6 ?g/L and 4.4 mg/L in controls. Higher Se concentrations were associated with a non-significant lower CRC risk (IRR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.03 per 25 ?g/L increase). However, sub-group analyses by sex showed a statistically significant association for women (p(trend) = 0.032; per 25 ?g/L Se increase, IRR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97) but not for men. Higher SePP concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk (p(trend) = 0.009; per 0.806 mg/L increase, IRR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.98) with the association more apparent in women (p(trend) = 0.004; IRR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94 per 0.806 mg/L increase) than men (p(trend) = 0.485; IRR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 per 0.806 mg/L increase). The findings indicate that Se status is suboptimal in many Europeans and suggest an inverse association between CRC risk and higher serum Se status, which is more evident in women. PMID:25042282

  9. Fluid intake and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Ros, Martine M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Büchner, Frederike L; Aben, Katja K H; Kampman, Ellen; Egevad, Lars; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Steffen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Stasinopulou, Georgia; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger T; Chirlaque, Maria D; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rodríguez, Laudina; Molina, Esther; Gonzalez, Carlos; Dorronsoro, Miren; Manjer, Jonas; Ehrnström, Roy; Ljungberg, Börje; Allen, Naomi E; Roddam, Andrew W; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Boffetta, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia; Michaud, Dominique S; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Riboli, Elio

    2011-06-01

    Results from previous studies investigating the association between fluid intake and urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) are inconsistent. We evaluated this association among 233,236 subjects in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had adequate baseline information on water and total fluid intake. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 513 first primary UCC occurred. At recruitment, habitual fluid intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. When using the lowest tertile of intake as reference, total fluid intake was not associated with risk of all UCC (HR 1.12; 95%CI 0.86-1.45, p-trend = 0.42) or with risk of prognostically high-risk UCC (HR 1.28; 95%CI 0.85-1.93, p-trend = 0.27) or prognostically low-risk UCC (HR 0.93; 95%CI 0.65-1.33, p-trend = 0.74). No associations were observed between risk of UCC and intake of water, coffee, tea and herbal tea and milk and other dairy beverages. For prognostically low-risk UCC suggestions of an inverse association with alcoholic beverages and of a positive association with soft drinks were seen. Increased risks were found for all UCC and prognostically low-risk UCC with higher intake of fruit and vegetable juices. In conclusion, total usual fluid intake is not associated with UCC risk in EPIC. The relationships observed for some fluids may be due to chance, but further investigation of the role of all types of fluid is warranted. PMID:20715171

  10. Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested case–control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI = 1.03–1.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.16–2.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.27–2.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:23389292

  11. Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Antonio; Bonet, Catalina; Sala, Núria; Muńoz, Xavier; Aranda, Núria; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Grioni, Sara; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Allen, Naomi E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Numans, Mattijs E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudof; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Meidtner, Karina; Johansson, Mattias; Sund, Malin; Manjer, Jonas; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A; Jakszyn, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI = 1.03-1.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.16-2.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.27-2.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:23389292

  12. Association of Sleep Duration with Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study

    PubMed Central

    von Ruesten, Anne; Weikert, Cornelia; Fietze, Ingo; Boeing, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Background In view of the reduced number of hours devoted to sleep in modern western societies the question arises what effects might result from sleep duration on occurrence of chronic diseases. Methods Data from 23 620 middle-aged participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study, that were recruited between 1994–1998, were analyzed by using Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration at baseline and incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Results During a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years 841 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, 197 cases of myocardial infarction, 169 incident strokes, and 846 tumor cases were observed. Compared to persons sleeping 7-<8 h/day, participants with sleep duration of <6 h had a significantly increased risk of stroke (Hazard Ratio (HR)?=?2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–3.59), cancer (HR?=?1.43, 95% CI: 1.09–1.87), and overall chronic diseases (HR?=?1.31, 95% CI: 1.10–1.55) in multivariable adjusted models. Self-reported daytime sleep at baseline was not associated with incident chronic diseases in the overall study sample. However, there had been an effect modification of daytime sleep by hypertension showing that daytime sleep was inversely related to chronic disease risk among non-hypertensive participants but directly related to chronic diseases among hypertensives. Conclusion Sleep duration of less than 6 h is a risky behavior for the development of chronic diseases, particularly stroke and cancer, and should be therefore addressed in public health campaigns. PMID:22295122

  13. General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Annika; Huerta, José-Maria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, J Ramón; Ohlsson, Bodil; Johansson, Mattias; Wallner, Bengt; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjřnneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-08-01

    General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist circumference (WC), relates to these cancers remains largely unexplored. Using measured anthropometric data from 391,456 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and 11 years of follow-up, we comprehensively assessed the association of anthropometric measures with risk of EAC, GCC and GNCC using multivariable proportional hazards regression. One hundred twenty-four incident EAC, 193 GCC and 224 GNCC were accrued. After mutual adjustment, BMI was unrelated to EAC, while WC showed a strong positive association (highest vs. lowest quintile HR?=?1.19; 95% CI, 0.63-2.22 and HR?=?3.76; 1.72-8.22, respectively). Hip circumference (HC) was inversely related to EAC after controlling for WC, while WC remained positively associated (HR?=?0.35; 0.18-0.68, and HR=4.10; 1.94-8.63, respectively). BMI was not associated with GCC or GNCC. WC was related to higher risks of GCC after adjustment for BMI and more strongly after adjustment for HC (highest vs. lowest quintile HR?=?1.91; 1.09-3.37, and HR?=?2.23; 1.28-3.90, respectively). Our study demonstrates that abdominal, rather than general, obesity is an indisputable risk factor for EAC and also provides evidence for a protective effect of gluteofemoral (subcutaneous) adipose tissue in EAC. Our study further shows that general obesity is not a risk factor for GCC and GNCC, while the role of abdominal obesity in GCC needs further investigation. PMID:25598323

  14. Multiple Miscarriages Are Associated with the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Braem, Marieke G. M.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Schouten, Leo J.; Kruitwagen, Roy F. P. M.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Allen, Naomi E.; Wark, Petra A.; Tjřnneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Braüner, Christina Marie; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Teucher, Birgit; Floegel, Anna; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Plada, Maria; Rinaldi, Sabina; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Pala, Valeria; Galasso, Rocco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gram, Inger Torhild; Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Lund, Eiliv; Sánchez, Maria-José; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Larrańaga, Nerea; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Quirós, Jose R.; Idahl, Annika; Ohlson, Nina; Lundin, Eva; Jirström, Karin; Butt, Salma; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2012-01-01

    While the risk of ovarian cancer clearly reduces with each full-term pregnancy, the effect of incomplete pregnancies is unclear. We investigated whether incomplete pregnancies (miscarriages and induced abortions) are associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. This observational study was carried out in female participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 274,442 women were followed from 1992 until 2010. The baseline questionnaire elicited information on miscarriages and induced abortions, reproductive history, and lifestyle-related factors. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 1,035 women were diagnosed with incident epithelial ovarian cancer. Despite the lack of an overall association (ever vs. never), risk of ovarian cancer was higher among women with multiple incomplete pregnancies (HR?4vs.0: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.20–2.70; number of cases in this category: n?=?23). This association was particularly evident for multiple miscarriages (HR?4vs.0: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.06–3.73; number of cases in this category: n?=?10), with no significant association for multiple induced abortions (HR?4vs.0: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.68–3.14; number of cases in this category: n?=?7). Our findings suggest that multiple miscarriages are associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, possibly through a shared cluster of etiological factors or a common underlying pathology. These findings should be interpreted with caution as this is the first study to show this association and given the small number of cases in the highest exposure categories. PMID:22623987

  15. Diet and risk of kidney stones in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Turney, Benjamin W; Appleby, Paul N; Reynard, John M; Noble, Jeremy G; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E

    2014-05-01

    The lifetime prevalence of kidney stones is around 10 % and incidence rates are increasing. Diet may be an important determinant of kidney stone development. Our objective was to investigate the association between diet and kidney stone risk in a population with a wide range of diets. This association was examined among 51,336 participants in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using data from Hospital Episode Statistics in England and Scottish Morbidity Records. In the cohort, 303 participants attended hospital with a new kidney stone episode. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Compared to those with high intake of meat (>100 g/day), the HR estimates for moderate meat-eaters (50-99 g/day), low meat-eaters (<50 g/day), fish-eaters and vegetarians were 0.80 (95 % CI 0.57-1.11), 0.52 (95 % CI 0.35-0.8), 0.73 (95 % CI 0.48-1.11) and 0.69 (95 % CI 0.48-0.98), respectively. High intakes of fresh fruit, fibre from wholegrain cereals and magnesium were also associated with a lower risk of kidney stone formation. A high intake of zinc was associated with a higher risk. In conclusion, vegetarians have a lower risk of developing kidney stones compared with those who eat a high meat diet. This information may be important to advise the public about prevention of kidney stone formation. PMID:24752465

  16. Toxoplasmosis and Epilepsy — Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngoungou, Edgard B.; Bhalla, Devender; Nzoghe, Amandine; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is an important, widespread, parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The chronic infection in immunocompetent patients, usually considered as asymptomatic, is now suspected to be a risk factor for various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to estimate the risk of epilepsy due to toxoplasmosis. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted of several databases and journals to identify studies published in English or French, without date restriction, which looked at toxoplasmosis (as exposure) and epilepsy (as disease) and met certain other inclusion criteria. The search was based on keywords and suitable combinations in English and French. Fixed and random effects models were used to determine odds ratios, and statistical significance was set at 5.0%. Principal findings Six studies were identified, with an estimated total of 2888 subjects, of whom 1280 had epilepsy (477 positive for toxoplasmosis) and 1608 did not (503 positive for toxoplasmosis). The common odds ratio (calculated) by random effects model was 2.25 (95% CI 1.27–3.9), p = 0.005. Conclusions Despite the limited number of studies, and a lack of high-quality data, toxoplasmosis should continue to be regarded as an epilepsy risk factor. More and better studies are needed to determine the real impact of this parasite on the occurrence of epilepsy. PMID:25695802

  17. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma coexisting with ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Ghadimi, Hadi; Amoli, Fahimeh Asadi; Esfahani, Mohammad Riazi; Tavakoli, Vida; Fariba, Ghassemi

    2014-02-01

    A 4-year-old boy presented with unilateral endophthalmitis and echography revealed an abscess in the vitreous cavity. A pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotic injections was performed with a presumed diagnosis of endophthalmitis; however, the patient returned after 10 days with fibrin reaction in the anterior chamber, iris nodules and cataract. The vitreous sample from the vitrectomy showed Toxoplasma gondii parasite, so he was treated with intravitreal clindamycin and lensectomy. The postoperative fundus examination revealed multifocal white patches with calcified deposits and cytology proved the diagnosis of retinoblastoma. Enucleation was performed in addition to systemic chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the coexistence of retinoblastoma and ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:23504282

  18. Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies. PMID:22491772

  19. Prenatal diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction on amniotic fluid for congenital toxoplasmosis 1 1 The authors thank Dr François Kieffer for his substantial contribution in statistical analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Romand; Martine Wallon; Jacqueline Franck; Philippe Thulliez; Francois Peyron; Henri Dumon

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of a prenatal amniotic fluid (AF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.Methods: A multicenter prospective study was done on 271 women with proved primary Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy and who had amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis by PCR. Live-born infants were eligible for analysis only if a serologic follow-up

  20. Law of the Sea and the prospects for deep-seabed mining: the position of the European Community

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper outlines the relationship between the Law of the Sea Conference and internal developments within the European Community, notably in regard to fishing. The European Community has signed the Convention, and the Declaration that was made is discussed. European participation in deep seabed mining activities is described in terms of government measures, the formation of consortia, and registration procedures. A fact sheet on the consortia, legislation of EC States, and international arrangements is given.

  1. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has been improved by the emergence of molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques have been useful for the genetic characterization of T. gondii. Serotyping methods based on polymorphic polypeptides have the potential to become the choice for typing T. gondii in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize conventional non-DNA-based diagnostic methods, and the DNA-based molecular techniques for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii. These techniques have provided foundations for further development of more effective and accurate detection of T. gondii infection. These advances will contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemiology, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26017718

  2. Ocular toxoplasmosis II: clinical features, pathology and management

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Nicholas J; Furtado, Joăo M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Smith, Justine R

    2014-01-01

    The term, ocular toxoplasmosis, refers to eye disease related to infection with the parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Recurrent posterior uveitis is the typical form of this disease, characterized by unilateral, necrotizing retinitis with secondary choroiditis, occurring adjacent to a pigmented retinochoroidal scar and associated with retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Multiple atypical presentations are also described, and severe inflammation is observed in immunocompromised patients. Histopathological correlations demonstrate focal coagulative retinal necrosis, and early in the course of the disease, this inflammation is based in the inner retina. For typical ocular toxoplasmosis, a diagnosis is easily made on clinical examination. In atypical cases, ocular fluid testing to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or to determine intraocular production of specific antibody may be extremely helpful for establishing aetiology. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in most communities, serological testing for T. gondii antibodies is generally not useful. Despite a lack of published evidence for effectiveness of current therapies, most ophthalmologists elect to treat patients with ocular toxoplasmosis that reduces or threatens to impact vision. Classic therapy consists of oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, plus systemic corticosteroid. Substantial toxicity of this drug combination has spurred interest in alternative antimicrobials, as well as local forms of drug delivery. At this time, however, no therapeutic approach is curative of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:22712598

  3. Characterization of ROP18 alleles in human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Víctor; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2014-04-01

    The role of the virulent gene ROP18 polymorphisms is not known in human toxoplasmosis. A total of 320 clinical samples were analyzed. In samples positive for ROP18 gene, we determined by an allele specific PCR, if patients got the upstream insertion positive ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse avirulent strain) or the upstream insertion negative ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse virulent strain). We designed an ELISA assay for antibodies against ROP18 derived peptides from the three major clonal lineages of Toxoplasma. 20 clinical samples were of quality for ROP18 allele analysis. In patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, a higher inflammatory reaction on eye was associated to a PCR negative result for the upstream region of ROP18. 23.3%, 33% and 16.6% of serums from individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis were positive for type I, type II and type III ROP18 derived peptides, respectively but this assay was affected by cross reaction. The absence of Toxoplasma ROP18 promoter insertion sequence in ocular toxoplasmosis was correlated with severe ocular inflammatory response. Determination of antibodies against ROP18 protein was not useful for serotyping in human toxoplasmosis. PMID:24177250

  4. Endogenous Testosterone and Mortality Due to All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer in Men European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) Prospective Population Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay-Tee Khaw; Mitch Dowsett; Elizabeth Folkerd; Sheila Bingham; Nicholas Wareham; Robert Luben; Ailsa Welch

    Background—The relation between endogenous testosterone concentrations and health in men is controversial. Methods and Results—We examined the prospective relationship between endogenous testosterone concentrations and mortality due to all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in a nested case-control study based on 11 606 men aged 40 to 79 years surveyed in 1993 to 1997 and followed up to 2003. Among those

  5. Toxoplasma gondii: P30 peptides recognition pattern in human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Nestor; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Siachoque, Heber; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2009-10-01

    In this study, human sera reactivity against nine peptides derived from the Toxoplasma gondii P30 protein was assessed by ELISA in patients with different clinical forms of toxoplasmosis. Same as has been reported in mice, sera from congenital, ocular and chronic asymptomatic toxoplasmosis patients recognized more strongly peptides from the protein's carboxy-terminus, being peptide 2017 (amino acids 301-320) the one most strongly recognized by sera from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Serum samples collected from 13 patients without ocular infection, 13 with inactive chorioretinal scars, 6 with active ocular infection and 10 seronegative individuals were then screened for anti-2017 IgG. Peptide 2017 was recognized by all patients' samples but not by sera from T. gondii-seronegative individuals. No statistically significant differences were found between the absorbance levels of groups with and without lesions or with active or inactive ocular lesions, as determined by ANOVA. PMID:19567250

  6. [Fever and lymphadenopathy: acute toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Kaparos, Nikolaos; Favrat, Bernard; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2014-11-26

    Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In Switzerland about a third of the population has antibodies against this pathogen and has thus already been in contact with the parasite or has contracted the disease. Immunocompetent patients are usually asymptomatic (80-90%) during primary infection. The most common symptom is neck or occipital lymphadenopathy. Serology is the diagnostic gold standard in immunocompetent individuals. The presence of IgM antibodies is however not sufficient to make a definite diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis. Distinction between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis requires additional serological tests (IgG avidity test). If required, the most used and probably most effective treatment is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, with folinic acid. PMID:25562978

  7. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Parise, Monica E; Fiore, Anthony E

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings. PMID:24808246

  8. First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuńez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castańo, Giovanny

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

  9. Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather; Chapelais, Gaelle; Kuhnle, Gunter GC; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Phytoestrogens are a group of compounds found in plants that structurally resemble the hormone oestradiol, and thus have the potential to act as oestrogen agonists or antagonists. Their potential effects may alter the risk of breast cancer, but only a limited range of phytoestrogens has been examined in prospective cohort studies. Methods Serum and urine samples from 237 incident breast cancer cases and 952 control individuals (aged 45 to 75 years) in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort were analysed for seven phytoestrogens (daidzein, enterodiol, enterolactone, genistein, glycitein, o-desmethylangolensin, and equol) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Data on participants' diet, demographics, anthropometrics, and medical history were collected upon recruitment. All models were adjusted for weight, fat and energy intake, family history of breast cancer, social class, analytical batch, and factors related to oestrogen exposure. Results Urinary or serum phytoestrogens were not associated with protection from breast cancer in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort. Breast cancer risk was marginally increased with higher levels of total urinary isoflavones (odds ratio = 1.08 (95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 1.16), P = 0.055); among those with oestrogen receptor-positive tumours, the risk of breast cancer was increased with higher levels of urinary equol (odds ratio = 1.07 (95% confidence interval = 1.01 to 1.12), P = 0.013). Conclusion There was limited evidence of an association between phytoestrogen biomarkers and breast cancer risk in the present study. There was no indication of decreased likelihood of breast cancer with higher levels of phytoestrogen biomarkers, but the observation that some phytoestrogen biomarkers may be associated with greater risk of breast cancer warrants further study with greater statistical power. PMID:18419813

  10. Serum Vitamin D and Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Case-Control Analysis Nested Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Ruth C.; Allen, Naomi E.; Appleby, Paul N.; Roddam, Andrew W.; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Kröger, Janine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Sieri, Sabina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J. B.; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrańaga, Nerea; González, Carlos A.; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Sánchez, Maria-José; Stattin, Pär; Hallmans, Göran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Results from the majority of studies show little association between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, a finding that has not been demonstrated in a wider European population, however. The authors examined whether vitamin D concentrations were associated with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1994–2000). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in 652 prostate cancer cases matched to 752 controls from 7 European countries after a median follow-up time of 4.1 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for prostate cancer risk in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D after standardizing for month of blood collection and adjusting for covariates. No significant association was found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quintile: odds ratio?=?1.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.88; P for trend?=?0.188). Subgroup analyses showed no significant heterogeneity by cancer stage or grade, age at diagnosis, body mass index, time from blood collection to diagnosis, or calcium intake. In summary, the results of this large nested case-control study provide no evidence in support of a protective effect of circulating concentrations of vitamin D on the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:19359375

  11. Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandăo; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, Săo José do Rio Preto, Săo Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 ± 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 ± 14.7 years, P < 0.0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0.414, 95% CI 0.2231-0.7692, P = 0.007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT. PMID:23507508

  12. Fatal Neonatal Toxoplasmosis in a Bobcat (Lynx rufus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Dube; W. J. Quinn; D. Weinandy

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently con- genitally acquired.

  13. Fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Quinn, W J; Weinandy, D

    1987-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently congenitally acquired. PMID:3586212

  14. Toxoplasmosis in black-faced kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus melanops)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J P Dubey; Joslin J Ott; R W Torgerson; M J Topper; J P Sundberg

    1988-01-01

    An epizootic of toxoplasmosis among captive black-faced kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus melanops) is reported. Eight of 25 adult kangaroos had antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Serologic data indicated recent exposure to T. gondii in six kangaroos. Two kangaroos had high T. gondii antibody titers (greater than or equal to 16,384) in the modified agglutination test and their infants died when less than

  15. Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) raised in captivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. BASSO; R. EDELHOFER; W. ZENKER; K. MÖSTL; A. KÜBBER-HEISS; H. PROSL

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Manuls or Pallas' cats (Felis manul, syn. Otocolobus manul) are endangered wild cats from Central Asia kept and bred in many zoos. Despite good breeding success young cats frequently die from acute toxoplasmosis. From 1998 to 2002, a breeding pair in the Schonbrunn Zoo in Vienna, Austria, gave birth to 24 kittens ; 58 % of kittens died between

  16. Toxoplasmosis in Rodents: Ecological Survey and First Evidences in Thailand

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a serological survey with latex agglu- tination test to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Overall, 21 of 461 (4Toxoplasmosis in Rodents: Ecological Survey and First Evidences in Thailand Sathaporn Jittapalapong prevalences were reported in either forested or anthropized areas. This survey constitutes the first confirmed

  17. The global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), which results from infection of pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii. Methods The authors systematically searched 9 major databases for published and unpublished sources and established direct contact with the authors of source materials. Searches were country-specific. To be included, studies had to report on the incidence of CT, on positivity to Toxoplasma-specific IgM in infants and pregnant women (including seroconversion results) or on positivity to Toxoplasma-specific IgG in the general population. Various modelling techniques were used, depending on the country-specific data available, to estimate the CT incidence and burden in each country. These data were then synthesized into an estimate of the global incidence of CT and of the global burden of CT in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Findings The global annual incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was estimated to be 190?100 cases (95% credible interval, CI: 179?300–206?300). This was equivalent to a burden of 1.20 million DALYs (95% CI: 0.76–1.90). High burdens were seen in South America and in some Middle Eastern and low-income countries. Conclusion Congenital toxoplasmosis poses a substantial burden of poor health globally. Toxoplasmosis should be included in future updates of the global burden of disease and the corresponding data should be used to support public health interventions to reduce disease burden. PMID:23825877

  18. AGORA--IV. The Low-Skilled on the European Labour Market: Prospects and Policy Options. Towards a Minimum Learning Platform (Thessaloniki, Greece, October 29-30, 1998). CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This booklet describes the proceedings of the fourth AGORA conference in Greece conducted by a European team of the Newskills project. (The Newskills project examines the employment prospects of those with a low level of formal education in Europe, and aims to raise awareness of the importance of a minimum learning platform after consultation with…

  19. C-peptide, IGF-I, sex-steroid hormones and adiposity: a cross-sectional study in healthy women within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene D. Bezemer; Sabina Rinaldi; Laure Dossus; Carla H. van. Gils; Petra H. M. Peeters; Paulus A. H. van. Noord; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Soren Paaske Johnsen; Kim Overvad; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjřnneland; Heiner Boeing; Petra H. Lahmann; Jakob Linseisen; Gabriele Nagel; Naomi Allen; Andrew Roddam; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Emmanuelle Kesse; Bertrand Téhard; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Antonio Agudo; Eva Ardanaz; J. R. Quiros; Pilar Amiano; Martínez-Garcia C; M. J. Tormo; Valeria Pala; Salvatore Panico; Paolo Vineis; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Antonia Trichopoulou; N. Baibas; D. Zilis; Bertrand Hémon; Teresa Norat; Elio Riboli; Rudolf Kaaks

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The risk of some cancers is positively associated with body weight, which may influence circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones, insulin and IGF-I. Interrelationships between these hormones and the associations with adiposity were evaluated in healthy women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

  20. Teaching by Satellite in a European Virtual Classroom. [and] Open Universities--Their Rationale, Characteristics and Prospects. ZIFF Papiere 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond; Holmberg, Borje

    The first of two papers in this publication is "Teaching by Satellite in a European Virtual Classroom" (Desmond Keegan). It describes the first accredited university course by satellite, a 1-year certificate course in safety and health at work offered by the University College Dublin. It discusses the enrollment of 219 students at 10 sites (the…

  1. Endogenous androgens and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by tumor characteristics in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ose, Jennifer; Fortner, Renée T; Rinaldi, Sabina; Schock, Helena; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Dossus, Laure; Fournier, Agnes; Baglietto, Laura; Romieu, Isabelle; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Larrańaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Brändstedt, Jenny; Lundin, Eva; Idahl, Annika; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T; Lund, Eiliv; Kaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunther, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-01-15

    The role of endogenous androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in ovarian carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous disease and there are no prospective data on endogenous androgens and EOC risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage) or the dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis (i.e. type I vs. type II, leading to less or more aggressive tumors). We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort evaluating androgens and SHBG and invasive EOC risk by tumor characteristics. Female participants who provided a blood sample and were not using exogenous hormones at blood donation were eligible (n = 183,257). A total of 565 eligible women developed EOC; two controls (n = 1,097) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression models. We observed no association between androgens, SHBG and EOC overall. A doubling of androstenedione reduced risk of serous carcinomas by 21% (odds ratio (OR)log2 = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?[0.64-0.97]). Moreover, associations differed for low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, with positive associations for low-grade and inverse associations for high-grade carcinomas (e.g. androstenedione: low grade: ORlog2 = 1.99 [0.98-4.06]; high grade: ORlog2 = 0.75 [0.61-0.93], phet ? 0.01), similar associations were observed for type I/II tumors. This is the first prospective study to evaluate androgens, SHBG and EOC risk by tumor characteristics and type I/II status. Our findings support a possible role of androgens in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional studies exploring this association are needed. PMID:24890047

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julie A.; Allen, Naomi E.; Almquist, Martin; Franceschi, Silvia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tipper, Sarah J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Mesrine, Sylvie; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Zanetti, Roberto; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Menéndez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrańaga, Nerea; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the causes of thyroid cancer, but insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) might play an important role in its development due to its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic properties. Methods This study prospectively investigated the association between serum IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. 345 incident cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma were individually matched to 735 controls by study centre, sex, and age, date, time, and fasting status at blood collection, follow-up duration, and for women menopausal status, use of exogenous hormones, and phase of menstrual cycle at blood collection. Serum IGF-I concentrations were measured by immunoassay, and risk of differentiated thyroid cancer in relation to IGF-I concentration was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results There was a positive association between IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: the odds ratio for a doubling in IGF-I concentration was 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 – 2.08; ptrend = 0.02). The positive association with IGF-I was stable over time between blood collection and cancer diagnosis. Conclusion These findings suggest that IGF-I concentrations may be positively associated with risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Impact This study provides the first prospective evidence of a potential association between circulating IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and may prompt the further investigations needed to confirm the association. PMID:24646451

  3. Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nieters, Alexandra; ?uczy?ska, Anna; Becker, Susen; Becker, Nikolaus; Vermeulen, Roel; Overvad, Kim; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Sánchez, María-José; Sánchez, Soledad; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Melin, Beatrice; Späth, Florentin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Brennan, Paul; Kelly, Rachel S; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between prediagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20-100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive ?0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-cell NHL and B-cell NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM [high level: OR = 0.40 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79)] and B-cell NHL [intermediate level: OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.53-0.88); high level: OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.86)], largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL; intermediate level: OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.30-0.80); high level: OR = 0.13 (95% CI = 0.05-0.35)] risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared with matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found. PMID:25269801

  4. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjřnneland, Anne; Halkjćr, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeĺ and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. PMID:21679483

  5. Prevalent Vertebral Deformity Predicts Incident Hip though not distal Forearm Fracture: Results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Ismail; W. Cockerill; C. Cooper; J. D. Finn; K. Abendroth; G. Parisi; D. Banzer; L. I. Benevolenskaya; A. K. Bhalla; J. Bruges Armas; J. B. Cannata; P. D. Delmas; J. Dequeker; G. Dilsen; R. Eastell; O. Ershova; J. A. Falch; B. Felsch; S. Havelka; K. Hoszowski; I. Jajic; U. Kragl; O. Johnell; A. Lopez Vaz; R. Lorenc; G. Lyritis; F. Marchand; P. Masaryk; C. Matthis; T. Miazgowski; H. A. P. Pols; G. Poor; A. Rapado; H. H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; W. Reisinger; J. Janott; C. Scheidt-Nave; J Stepan; C. Todd; K. Weber; A. D. Woolf; G. Ambrecht; W. Gowin; D. Felsenberg; M. Lunt; J. A. Kanis; J. Reeve; A. J. Silman; T. W. O’Neill

    2001-01-01

    :   The presence of a vertebral deformity increases the risk of subsequent spinal deformities. The aim of this analysis was to\\u000a determine whether the presence of vertebral deformity predicts incident hip and other limb fractures. Six thousand three hundred\\u000a and forty-four men and 6788 women aged 50 years and over were recruited from population registers in 31 European centers and

  6. Ga-67 citrate myocardial uptake in a patient with AIDS, toxoplasmosis, and myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Memel, D.S.; DeRogatis, A.J.; William, D.C. (St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    A 38-year-old man with AIDS presented with fever of unknown origin, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Admission laboratory data revealed a positive toxoplasmosis titer in the blood. The initial chest x-ray showed small bilateral pleural effusions, a normal cardiac silhouette, no infiltrates, and no interstitial edema. Ga-67 imaging revealed markedly abnormal uptake in the myocardium. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis myocarditis was made based on laboratory and imaging data. The patient was treated for toxoplasmosis. No myocardial uptake of tracer was demonstrated on a follow-up Ga-67 scan, performed after completion of treatment for toxoplasmosis.

  7. Ocular toxoplasmosis: a very rare presentation in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Matias, Margarida; Gomes, Antonia; Marques, Tiago; Fonseca, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of red eye, photophobia, pain and decreased visual acuity of the right eye. The ophthalmological examination revealed hypertensive non-granulomatous panuveitis, retinal vasculitis with focus of retinochoroiditis with pigmented central area suggestive of ocular toxoplasmosis in the active phase. He started treatment with azithromycin, pyrimethamine, topical steroids and measures for control of intraocular pressure. Serology for Toxoplasma gondii was positive and for HIV, negative. For headache and vomiting, he was hospitalised in order to exclude cerebral toxoplasma. The cerebral CT scan, MRI and lumbar puncture were negative and treatment was changed to pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and prednisolone. For persistence of vomiting he started clindamycin with clinical and ophthalmological improvement. The patient is currently under prophylaxis with co-trimoxazol for 1 year, and maintains clinical improvement. This case illustrates the rarity of presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis, without cerebral in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:25270156

  8. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Ríos-Cadavid, Angela Cristina; Cardozo-García, Carlos Mario; Padilla, Leonardo; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2012-02-01

    There are no previous study about ocular toxoplasmosis and serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphated hormone (DHEAS). We use the chemoluminiscence automatized Immulite assay to determine the levels of DHEAS. Four groups were studied: (1) Individuals with chronic asymptomatic infection with a positive test for IgG anti-Toxoplasma and without ocular lesions (n = 16); (2) Chronic asymptomatic patients with retinal scars of retinochoroiditis by Toxoplasma (n = 19); (3) Acute symptomatic patients with active retinochoroiditis by Toxoplasma (n = 26); (4) Individuals with negative assays for IgG anti-Toxoplasma (n = 21). Comparison of DHEAS levels between groups were adjusted by age and sex and non-parametric Kruskall Wallis statistical tests were applied. No significant differences in serum levels of DHEAS were found between groups when age and sex were controlled. DHEAS levels were not significantly different in active ocular toxoplasmosis related to non active or non infected persons. PMID:22153766

  9. First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Enrique Gómez-Marin; Alejandra de-la-Torre; Edith Angel-Muller; Jorge Rubio; Jaime Arenas; Elkin Osorio; Lilian Nuńez; Lyda Pinzon; Luis Carlos Mendez-Cordoba; Agustin Bustos; Isabel de-la-Hoz; Pedro Silva; Monica Beltran; Leonor Chacon; Martha Marrugo; Cristina Manjarres; Hernando Baquero; Fabiana Lora; Elizabeth Torres; Oscar Elias Zuluaga; Monica Estrada; Lacides Moscote; Myriam Teresa Silva; Raul Rivera; Angie Molina; Shirley Najera; Antonio Sanabria; Maria Luisa Ramirez; Claudia Alarcon; Natalia Restrepo; Alejandra Falla; Tailandia Rodriguez; Giovanny Castańo

    2011-01-01

    AimsTo determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern).Materials and MethodsWe collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from

  10. Diclazuril Protects against Maternal Gastrointestinal Syndrome and Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.; Tobin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of foodborne, gastrointestinal and congenital syndrome with particularly severe or unknown health consequences. There is no safe and effective preventive or therapeutic modality against congenital toxoplasmosis or to eliminate the persistent chronic infection. Hypothesis Diclazuril to be safe in pregnancy and effective against gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Methods CD1 programmed pregnant mice were divided into groups and administered a diet containing diclazuril, or sham control. Treatments were initiated on Day 5 of pregnancy and continued until Day 16 when dams were euthanatized. On Day 8 of pregnancy dams were infected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of tachyzoites (0, 100, 300, 600) from Type II strain. Dams were monitored daily for distress, pain, and abortion and samples collected at the end of the experiments. Results Infected dams developed moderate to severe Toxoplasma related complications in tachyzoites dose dependent manner. Animals became anemic and showed hydrothorax, and ascities. Diclazuril effectively protected dams from ascities and anemia (p < 0.05). Infected dams showed splenomegaly, with massive infiltration of epithelioid cells compared with the protective effect of diclazuril in treated animals. Infected dams exhibited severe hepatitis (score 0 to 4 scale = 3.5 ± 0.01) with influx of inflammatory and plasma cells, dysplastic hepatocytes, multinucleated giant cell transformation and hepatic cells necrosis. Diclazuril treatment significantly protected dams from hepatitis, also in tachyzoites dose (100, 300, 600) dependent manner (respectively infected-treated versus infected controls, p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Colonic tissues were significantly shortened in length, with infiltration of lymphocytes, and macrophages and microabscess formations in the cryptic structures, with significant improvement in diclazuril treated animals. Additionally, the number of fetuses, fetal length and fetal weight were preserved in diclazuril treated dams. Conclusions This is the first report describing of diclazuril safety in pregnancy as well as efficacy against mild to moderate hepato-gastrointestinal syndrome in dams and fetal toxoplasmosis (Special issue, “Treatment of Liver Diseases”). PMID:24851194

  11. Toxoplasmosis in a red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus).

    PubMed

    Gerhold, Richard W; Yabsley, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    A red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), clinically exhibiting intermittent seizures, was examined by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study. Microscopically, the woodpecker had protozoal meningoencephalitis. Toxoplasma gondii was identified by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of the SAG2 locus disclosed that the T gondii detected was the Type III genotype. This is apparently the first report of clinical neural toxoplasmosis in any species in the order Piciformes. PMID:18251416

  12. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, Aize; Jongert, Erik

    2008-10-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with disappointing results of the currently available treatment options have led to a plea for more effective prevention. In this review we describe Toxoplasma as a hazard associated with the consumption of undercooked meat or meat products and provide an analysis of the various options to control the risk of human toxoplasmosis via this source. Monitoring and surveillance programs may be implemented for pre-harvest control of Toxoplasma infection of farm animals, with the reduction of environmental oocyst load as the most important milestone. Alternatively, Toxoplasma safe meat can be obtained through simple post-harvest decontamination procedures, whereby freezing the meat may currently be the best option, although new technologies using irradiation or high-pressure treatment may offer promising alternatives. Influence of culture, religion and food handling customs may predispose a certain type of meat as an important source of infection, indicating that prevention needs to be tailored according to social habits in different regions in the world. The rationale for more stringent control measures to prevent toxoplasmosis both from disease and economic points of view is emphasized. PMID:18694755

  13. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034mg/d (range: 0-8531mg/d) for men and 970mg/d (0-6695mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233mg/d (0-3248mg/d) for men and 217 (0-2712mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  14. Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tjřnneland, Anne; Fřns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramón Quirós, J; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, Maria-José; Larrańaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as); Stattin, Pär; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case–control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76–1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96–1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. What's new? High dairy protein intake has previously been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The current study was nested in EPIC, and results from this first Europe-wide study suggest that while the C/T13910 lactase polymorphism is associated with milk intake, the variant has no large effect on prostate cancer risk. The data illustrate the challenges of applying mendelian randomisation to explore the relationship between dairy product consumption and cancer risk. Very large studies with both genetic and dietary data are thus needed for investigations using genetic proxies of nutritional exposures. PMID:22965418

  15. A Pan-European and Canadian Prospective Survey to Evaluate Patient Satisfaction with the SoloSTAR Insulin Injection Device in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hancu, Nicolae; Czupryniak, Leszek; Genestin, Elisabeth; Sourij, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated patient satisfaction with SoloSTAR® (sanofi-aventis), a prefilled insulin pen device for injection of insulin glargine or insulin glulisine. Methods This was a 6–8-week multicenter (n = 652), observational, prospective Pan-European and Canadian registry study in patients with diabetes mellitus (n = 6542) who recently switched to or started treatment with insulin glargine and/or insulin glulisine using SoloSTAR or were insulin naďve. At the baseline visit, patients were asked to evaluate their satisfaction with their previous device, if applicable. After 6–8 weeks of SoloSTAR use, patients were asked to rate their satisfaction. Results Overall, 6481 patients (mean age 54 years, 48.7% male, 72% type 2 diabetes) were analyzed in this study. Of these, 4995 (77.1%) patients had used insulin before the study and 1641 (32.9%) and 3395 (68.0%) patients had previously used prefilled and/or reusable pens, respectively. During the study, SoloSTAR was used to administer insulin glargine and/or insulin glulisine by 97.3% and 36.0% of patients, respectively (both: 27.0%). Most patients rated SoloSTAR as “excellent/good” for ease of use (97.9%), learning to use (98.3%), selecting the dose (97.6%), and reading the dose (95.1%). Most patients rated ease of use (88.4%) and injecting a dose (84.5%) with SoloSTAR as “much easier/easier” versus their previous pen. Overall, 98% planned to continue using SoloSTAR. No safety concerns were reported. Conclusion This European and Canadian survey shows that SoloSTAR was well accepted in this large patient population. Most patients preferred SoloSTAR to their previous pen and planned to continue SoloSTAR use. PMID:22027323

  16. Promoting health equity in European children: Design and methodology of the prospective EPHE (Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity) evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing health inequalities is a top priority of the public health agendas in Europe. The EPHE project aims to analyse the added value of a community-based interventional programme based on EPODE methodology, adapted for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in childhood obesity. The interventions that will be implemented by this project focus on four energy balance-related behaviours (fruit and vegetable consumption, tap water intake, physical inactivity, sleep duration) and their determinants. This article presents the design of the effect evaluation of the EPHE project. Methods/Design This is a prospective two-year follow-up evaluation study, which will collect data on the energy balance-related behaviours and potential environmental determinants of 6–8 year olds, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents. For this purpose a parental self-reported questionnaire is constructed. This assesses the socio-economic status of the parents (5 items) and the dietary (12 items), sedentary (2 items) and sleeping (4 items) behaviour of the child. Alongside potential family-environmental determinants are assessed. The EPHE parental questionnaire will be disseminated in schools of a selected medium-sized city in seven European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Portugal, Romania, The Netherlands). Discussion This study will evaluate the effects of the EPHE community-based interventional programmes. Furthermore, it will provide evidence for children’s specific energy balance-related behaviours and family environmental determinants related to socio-economic inequalities, in seven European countries. PMID:24690078

  17. APPLICATION OF ASSAYS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A COLONY OF WOOLLY MONKEYS (LAGOTHRIX LAGOTRICHA).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Toxoplasma gondii infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in New World primate species. Clinical abnormalities associated with toxoplasmosis can be nonspecific making it difficult to make a definitive antemortem diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Toxoplasmosis in New W...

  18. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis. PMID:26038907

  19. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clčres, France

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clčres (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  20. Poorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes or the

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    Poorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes host. Among other changes, the infected rodents were shown to have impaired learning capability. All the observed impairment of learning processes was a result of acute or latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. whether

  1. Toxoplasmosis presented as a submental mass: a common disease, uncommon presentation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jian; Wang, Wei-Ya; Liu, Shi-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Submental mass secondary to toxoplasmosis is not common in clinical work. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is rarely considered by physicians. Here we describe a 50-year-old woman presented with a progressive, painful, submental and left neck swelling for 1 month. After having obtained an insufficient evidence from the fine-needle biopsy, the patient finally received an excisional biopsy which highly indicated the possibility of lymphadenopathy consistent with toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was finally established by a combination of the pathological criteria, together with the positive serological finding. According to review the clinical presentations, pathological characteristics, diagnostic standard and treatment of this disease, the article aims to remind otolaryngologists who are evaluating a neck mass should be aware of the infectious cause of lymphadenopathy and the possibility of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26045858

  2. Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Max; Leufkens, Anke M; Siersema, Peter D; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Vrieling, Alina; Hulshof, Paul J M; van Gils, Carla H; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Kyrř, Cecilie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagerhazzi, Guy; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Johnson, Theron; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Androulidaki, Anna; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bakker, Marije F; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Barricarte, Aurelio; María Huerta, José; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Key, Timothy J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Wark, Petra A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2014-12-15

    Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was examined in this case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids (?- and ?-carotene, canthaxanthin, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin) and vitamins A (retinol), C and E (?-, ?- and ?- and ?-tocopherol) and dietary consumption of ?-carotene and vitamins A, C and E were determined in 898 colon cancer cases, 501 rectal cancer cases and 1,399 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were performed to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). An association was observed between higher prediagnostic plasma retinol concentration and a lower risk of colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile?=?0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87, p for trend?=?0.01), most notably proximal colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile?=?0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.77, p for trend?=?0.01). Additionally, inverse associations for dietary ?-carotene and dietary vitamins C and E with (distal) colon cancer were observed. Although other associations were suggested, there seems little evidence for a role of these selected compounds in preventing CRC through their antioxidative properties. PMID:24771392

  3. Vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism as risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. P. M. Eussen; S. E. Vollset; S. Hustad; O. Midttun; K. Meyer; A. Fredriksen; P. M. Ueland; M. Jenab; N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; A. Agudo; N. Sala; G. Capella; G. Del Giudice; D. Palli; H. Boeing; C. Weikert; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; F. L. Buchner; F. Carneiro; F. Berrino; P. Vineis; R. Tumino; S. Panico; G. Berglund; J. Manjer; R. Stenling; G. Hallmans; C. Martinez; L. Arrizola; A. Barricarte; C. Navarro; L. Rodriguez; S. Bingham; J. Linseisen; R. Kaaks; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; P. H. M. Peeters; M. E. Numans; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M.-C. Boutron-Ruault; S. Morois; A. Trichopoulou; E. Lund; M. Plebani; E. Riboli; C. A. Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) are sparse and inconsistent. In this case-control study nested within the European Prospective

  4. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Olsen; J Halkjćr; C H van Gils; B Buijsse; H Verhagen; M Jenab; M C Boutron-Ruault; U Ericson; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M Touvier; M Niravong; M Waaseth; G Skeie; K T Khaw; R Travis; P Ferrari; M J Sanchez; A Agudo; K Overvad; J Linseisen; C Weikert; C Sacerdote; A Evangelista; D Zylis; K Tsiotas; J Manjer; B van Guelpen; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using

  5. Dietary intake of carbohydrates and risk of type 2 diabetes: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Luben, Robert N; Powell, Natasha; Bhaniani, Amit; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-28

    In the present study, we investigated the association between dietary intake of carbohydrates and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Incident cases of diabetes (n 749) were identified and compared with a randomly selected subcohort of 3496 participants aged 40-79 years. For dietary assessment, we used 7 d food diaries administered at baseline. We carried out modified Cox proportional hazards regression analyses and compared results obtained from the different methods of adjustment for total energy intake. Dietary intakes of total carbohydrates, starch, sucrose, lactose or maltose were not significantly related to diabetes risk after adjustment for confounders. However, in the residual method for energy adjustment, intakes of fructose and glucose were inversely related to diabetes risk. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of diabetes comparing the extreme quintiles of intake were 0·79 (95 % CI 0·59, 1·07; P for trend = 0·03) for glucose and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·83; P for trend = 0·01) for fructose. In the nutrient density method, only fructose was inversely related to diabetes risk (HR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·88). The replacement of 5 % energy intake from SFA with an isoenergetic amount of fructose was associated with a 30 % lower diabetes risk (HR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·50, 0·96). Results of the standard and energy partition methods were similar to those of the residual method. These prospective findings suggest that the intakes of starch and sucrose are not associated, but that those of fructose and glucose are inversely associated with diabetes risk. Whether the inverse associations with fructose and glucose reflect the effect of substitution of these carbohydrate subtypes with other nutrients (i.e. SFA), their net higher intake or other nutrients associated with their intake remains to be established through further investigation. PMID:23880355

  6. Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries. PMID:23292003

  7. Clinical validation of the European Panel on the Appropriateness of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (EPAGE) II criteria in an open-access unit: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, AZ Gimeno; Gonzalez, Y; Quintero, E; Nicolas-Perez, D; Adrian, Z; Romero, R; Fernandez, O Alarcon; Hernandez, M; Carrillo, M; Felipe, V; Diaz, J; Ramos, L; Moreno, M; Jimenez-Sosa, A

    2013-01-01

    Background and study aims The European Panel on the Appropriateness of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (EPAGE I) criteria were recently updated (EPAGE II), but no prospective studies have used these criteria in clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to validate the EPAGE II criteria in an open-access endoscopy unit. Patients and methods A prospective observational study was conducted in an open-access endoscopy unit at the tertiary care referral center. Consecutive outpatients (n = 1004; mean age 58.9 ± 13.1 years; 45% men) were referred for diagnostic colonoscopy between September 2009 and February 2010. The appropriateness of colonoscopy was assessed based on EPAGE II criteria, and the relationship between appropriateness and both referral doctor and detection of significant lesions was examined. The effectiveness of EPAGE II criteria in assessing appropriateness was measured by means of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for detecting significant lesions. Results Colonoscopic cecal intubation was achieved in 956 patients (95.2%). Most referral doctors were gastroenterologists (58.0%) and the most common indication was colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (35.2%). EPAGE II criteria were applicable in 968 patients (96.4%); of these patients, the indication was appropriate in 778 (80.4%), inappropriate in 102 (10.5%), and uncertain in 88 (9.1%). Patients with appropriate or uncertain indications based on EPAGE II criteria had more relevant endoscopic findings than those with inappropriate indications (38.8% vs. 24.5%; OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22–3.13; P<0.005). Sensitivity and negative predictive value of EPAGE II criteria for detecting significant lesions were 93.1% (95% CI 90%–96%) and 75.5% (95% CI 67%–84%), respectively, whereas for advanced neoplastic lesions these values were 98.0% (95% CI 95%–100%) and 98.0% (95% CI 95%–100%), respectively. Adherence to EPAGE II recommendations was an independent predictor of finding a significant lesion (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.20–3.11; P = 0.007). Conclusions EPAGE II is a simple, valid score for detecting inappropriate colonoscopies in clinical practice. PMID:22109649

  8. Real-world effectiveness of abatacept for rheumatoid arthritis treatment in European and Canadian populations: a 6-month interim analysis of the 2-year, observational, prospective ACTION study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discontinuation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment for lack or loss of initial response, tolerability issues, or development of antibodies against the therapeutic agent remains a challenge in clinical practice. Here we present a 6-month interim analysis of a 2-year prospective observational trial in Europe and Canada aiming to assess the real-world effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of intravenous abatacept for the treatment of moderate-to-severe RA. Methods ACTION (AbataCepT In rOutiNe clinical practice) is a prospective, observational study assessing effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of abatacept in patients with RA enrolled in Europe and Canada between May 2008 and January 2011. The patient population was divided into two groups: biologic naďve (‘first-line’) patients and patients who had previously failed treatment with at least one biologic agent (‘second-line’). Retention rates were calculated using Kaplan–Meier curve estimates. Effectiveness was measured using European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, the 28-item Disease Activity Score, the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and physical function, as assessed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported for all enrolled patients. Results Of 1138 consecutively enrolled patients, 1114 and 1079 patients were evaluable for retention and effectiveness, respectively. Overall, retention rates were 88.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.4, 90.4); 67.4% of patients achieved good/moderate EULAR response; 32.8% had a CDAI Low Disease Activity State (LDAS); and 44.7% a HAQ-DI response. Retention rates among first- and second-line patients were 93.0% (95% CI: 85.9, 96.6) and 88.1% (95% CI: 85.7, 90.0), respectively. The percentage of patients achieving CDAI LDAS was 40.0% (95% CI: 26.4, 53.6) for first- and 32.2% (95% CI: 28.4, 36.0) for second-line patients and the proportion achieving a HAQ-DI response was 60.3% (95% CI: 47.8, 72.9) versus 43.1% (95% CI: 39.0, 47.2), respectively. The incidence of SAEs was 4.7%. Conclusions Evidence from this 6-month interim analysis suggests that abatacept offers an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with RA, including those who have previously failed anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment. In addition, higher retention rates and effectiveness outcomes were observed when abatacept treatment was initiated earlier in the course of the disease. PMID:24410774

  9. Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Kragh Andersen, Per; Johansson, Mattias; Boeing, Heiner; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Sanchez, Carmen Navarro; Arriola, Larraitz; Wallström, Peter; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra; Beulens, Joline WJ; Nunes, Luciana; Gunter, Marc; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Brennan, Paul; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. Design The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Setting 23 centres in 10 countries. Participants 380?395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6?years on average. Main outcome measures 20?453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment. Results HRs comparing extreme drinkers (?30?g/day in women and ?60?g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1–4.9?g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60?years, drinking more than 30?g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60?g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women. Conclusions In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality. PMID:24993766

  10. Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tjřnneland, Anne; Fřns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramón Quirós, J; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, Maria-José; Larrańaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Stattin, Pär; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

    2013-04-15

    High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96-1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. PMID:22965418

  11. The impact of childhood acute rotavirus gastroenteritis on the parents’ quality of life: prospective observational study in European primary care medical practices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rotavirus (RV) is the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. A Quality of Life study was conducted in primary care in three European countries as part of a larger epidemiological study (SPRIK) to investigate the impact of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) on affected children and their parents. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was linguistically validated in Spanish, Italian and Polish. The questionnaire was included in an observational multicentre prospective study of 302 children aged <5?years presenting to a general practitioner or paediatrician for RVGE at centres in Spain, Italy or Poland. RV infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing (n?=?264). The questionnaire was validated and used to assess the emotional impact of paediatric RVGE on the parents. Results Questionnaire responses showed that acute RVGE in a child adversely affects the parents’ daily life as well as the child. Parents of children with RVGE experience worry, distress and impact on their daily activities. RVGE of greater clinical severity (assessed by the Vesikari scale) was associated with higher parental worries due to symptoms and greater changes in the child’s behaviour, and a trend to higher impact on parents’ daily activities and higher parental distress, together with a higher score on the symptom severity scale of the questionnaire. Conclusions Parents of a child with acute RVGE presenting to primary care experience worry, distress and disruptions to daily life as a result of the child’s illness. Prevention of this disease through prophylactic vaccination will improve the daily lives of parents and children. PMID:22650611

  12. ExtaviJect® 30G device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis: a prospective European study

    PubMed Central

    Boeru, Gabriel; Milanov, Ivan; De Robertis, Francesca; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lang, Michael; Rojas-Farreras, Sňnia; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The ExtaviJect® 30G autoinjector was developed to facilitate parenteral self-administration of interferon beta-1b (Extavia®), a first-line disease-modifying therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to assess patient compliance with treatment when using the autoinjector, patients’ and nurses’ experiences of using the device, its tolerability, and patient satisfaction. Methods This was a 12-week, real-world, prospective, observational, noninterventional study conducted in nine European countries. Questionnaires were used to measure patient compliance and to assess patients’ and nurses’ experiences. All adverse events were recorded by severity, including injection site reactions or pain. Patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9) and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) instruments, respectively. Results Of 582 patients enrolled, 568 (98%) received at least one injection and attended the first follow-up visit at 6 weeks, and 542 (93%) attended the second follow-up visit at 12 weeks. For the whole study, 548 of 568 (97%) patients were compliant with treatment. Among the various questions assessing whether the device was easy and quick to use accurately, without fear of the needle, 56%–98% of patients and 59%–98% of nurses were in agreement. There were nine serious adverse events (four disease-related) reported among the 227 (39%) patients reporting adverse events. Scores increased in the TSQM-9 convenience domain between weeks 6 and 12 (P=0.0009), and in the EQ-5D visual analog scale between baseline and week 12 (P<0.0001), indicating improvement in health-related quality of life. Conclusion ExtaviJect 30G was convenient to use and was associated with high levels of compliance. PMID:24255602

  13. Varicella-Like Cutaneous Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with Aplastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Stefan; Hadaschik, Eva; Dalpke, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C.; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Lehners, Nicola; Kapaun, Annette

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old patient with aplastic anemia presented with vesicular varicella-like skin lesions on her face, arms, legs, back, and abdomen. However, diagnosis for herpetic infection was negative. Findings of a skin biopsy led to a tentative histologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare finding in immunocompromised patients and might mimic other infectious diseases, and vesicular lesions associated with toxoplasmosis have not been reported previously. PMID:23390283

  14. Systemic toxoplasmosis in a five-month-old beaver, (Castor canadensis).

    PubMed

    Forzán, María J; Frasca, Salvatore

    2004-03-01

    A 5-mo-old orphan beaver, Castor canadensis, died of severe systemic toxoplasmosis during rehabilitation. Histologic lesions included lymphohistiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, and interstitial pneumonia with multinucleated cells. Intracytoplasmic cysts containing tachyzoites and bradyzoites identified as Toxoplasma gondii by immunohisto-chemistry were present in macrophages, type-II pneumocytes, and endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal morbillivirus antibody and transmission electron microscopy of lung revealed no evidence of concurrent paramyxoviral infection, as commonly found in carnivores with toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis may affect young beavers in rehabilitation and zoological settings. PMID:15193086

  15. A prospective study on a cohort of horses and ponies selected for participation in the European Eventing Championship: reasons for withdrawal and predictive value of fitness tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eventing is generally recognized as a challenging equestrian discipline and wastage figures for this discipline are relatively high. There is a need for information that provides insight into the causes of wastage and withdrawal from competition, for animal welfare and economic reasons. The aim of the present investigation was to conduct a prospective study following the entire national selection of event horses (n?=?20) and ponies (n?=?9) in the Netherlands that prepared for the European Championship in 2010 (ponies) and 2011 (horses), noting causes of withdrawal and monitoring fitness using standardized exercise tests (SETs), with heart rate (HR; beats/min), speed (V; m/s) and plasma lactate concentrations (LA; mmol/L) as measured parameters. Results In SET-I, performed at the beginning of the season, horses (n?=?17) had a mean VLA4 (V at LA 4 mmol/L) of 10.3?±?0.4 m/s with a mean V200 (V at 200 beats/min) of 11.4?±?0.8 m/s and ponies (n?=?9) a mean VLA4 of 7.8?±?0.9 m/s and V200 of 9.6?±?0.7 m/s. Before SET-II, performed six weeks before the European Championship, 16/20 horses and 6/9 ponies were withdrawn. The most common reason for withdrawal was locomotor injury (9/16 horses, 4/6 ponies; P?European Championship because of locomotor injuries. Field tests were useful in assessing the potential injury risk, as individuals with better fitness indices (good performers) were less likely to become injured than average performers. Furthermore, monitoring of training sessions showed predictive value for future injuries, as horses withdrawn because of injury later on showed already higher peak HRs during condition training than horses that stayed sound. Therefore the increase in peak HR seemed to precede visible lameness in a horse. PMID:24034152

  16. Great efficacy of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium against acute murine toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yan-Bo; Zhu, Shun-Hai; Dong, Hui; Han, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Lian-Lian; Wang, Quan; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Qi-Ping; Ma, Wei-Jiao; Huang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify more effective and less toxic drugs to treat animal toxoplasmosis. Methods Efficacy of seven kinds of sulfonamides against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in an acute murine model was evaluated. The mice used throughout the study were randomly assigned to many groups (10 mice each), which either remained uninfected or were infected intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii (strains RH and CN). All groups were then treated with different sulfonamides and the optimal treatment protocol was determined candidates. Sulfadiazine-sodium (SD) was used for comparison. Results The optimal therapy involved gavaging mice twice per day with 250 mg/kg bw of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium (SPZ) for five days. Using this protocol, the average survival time and the time-point of 50% fatalities were prolonged significantly compared with SD treatment. Treatment with SPZ protected 40% of mice from death, and the heart and kidney tissue of these animals was parasite-free, as determined by nested-PCR. SPZ showed excellent therapeutic effects in the treatment of T. gondii in an acute murine model and is therefore a promising drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of T. gondii in animals. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effective drug sulfachloropyrazine may be the new therapeutic options against animal toxoplasmosis. PMID:23569838

  17. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient on methotrexate and infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pulivarthi, Swaroopa; A Reshi, Rwoof; T McGary, Carl; Krishna Gurram, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a rare disease predominantly found in immunocompromised hosts. However, cerebral toxoplasmosis has not been frequently described in association with the use of immunosuppressive medications. We herein report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a 76-year-old Caucasian woman on methotrexate and infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis. The patient presented with right facial droop, slurred speech and difficulty walking. In addition to receiving methotrexate and infliximab and owning a cat, she had no other obvious risk factors. Imaging studies were not conclusive; however, brain biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Serology was positive for anti-toxoplasma immunoglobulin G. Cerebral toxoplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients under immunosuppressive medication who present with neurological manifestations. PMID:26028002

  18. Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans J. FLEGR hand 2D : 4D ratio and are more likely to give birth to a boy than a girl (Kankova´ et al. 2007). All

  19. Artemisone and Artemiside Control Acute and Reactivated Toxoplasmosis in a Murine Model?

    PubMed Central

    Dunay, Ildiko R.; Chan, Wing Chi; Haynes, Richard K.; Sibley, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at risk of developing toxoplasmosis, and although chemotherapy is available, standard treatments are often complicated by severe side effects. Artemisinin is a new highly potent antimalarial drug that has activity against Toxoplasma gondii in vitro. However, artemisinin derivatives have previously been ineffective in vivo using a rat model of toxoplasmosis. In the present study, the efficacy of several new artemisinin derivates was investigated for treatment of mice infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Artemiside and artemisone displayed better inhibition than either artemisinin or artesunate against the parasite in vitro. Artemiside and artemisone treatment controlled parasite replication in vivo, and mice survived the acute infection. In a murine model of reactivated toxoplasmosis, both drugs increased survival, although artemiside was more effective. These results indicate that these newer derivatives of artemisinin may have potential for treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:19635951

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors of caprine toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. A. V. Carneiro; M. Carneiro; A. M. G. Gouveia; A. S. Guimarăes; A. P. R. Marques; L. S. Vilas-Boas; R. W. A. Vitor

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to carry out a study on caprine toxoplasmosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in goats in Minas Gerais, 767 sera from goats were tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and IFAT (indirect fluorescence antibody test). The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was 43.0% and 46.0%

  1. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  2. Patterns of physical activity and ultrasound attenuation by heel bone among Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk): population based study

    PubMed Central

    Jakes, Rupert W; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila; Welch, Ailsa; Oakes, Suzy; Luben, Robert; Dalzell, Nicola; Reeve, Jonathan; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To study associations between patterns of physical activity and ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone in men and women. Design Cross sectional, population based study. Setting Norfolk. Participants 2296 men and 2914 women aged 45-74 registered with general practices participating in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC Norfolk). Results Self reported time spent in high impact physical activity was strongly and positively associated with ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone, independently of age, weight, and other confounding factors. Men who reported participating in ?2 hours/week of high impact activity had 8.44 dB/MHz (95% confidence interval 4.49 to 12.40) or 9.5%, higher ultrasound attenuation than men who reported no activity of this type. In women, the difference in ultrasound attenuation between those reporting any high impact activity and those reporting none was 2.41 dB/MHz (0.45 to 4.37) or 3.4% higher. In women this effect was similar in size to that of an age difference of four years. Moderate impact activity had no effect. However, climbing stairs was strongly independently associated with ultrasound attenuation in women (0.64 dB/MHz (0.19 to 1.09) for each additional five flights of stairs). There was a significant negative association in women between time spent watching television or video and heel bone ultrasound attenuation, which decreased by 0.08 dB/MHz (0.02 to 0.14) for each additional hour of viewing a week. Conclusions High impact physical activity is independently associated with ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone in men and women. As low ultrasound attenuation has been shown to predict increased risk of hip fracture, interventions to promote participation in high impact activities may help preserve bone density and reduce the risk of fracture. However, in older people such interventions may be inappropriate as they could increase the likelihood of falls. PMID:11159572

  3. Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Hüsing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r?=?0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r?=?0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r?=?0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r?=?0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r?=?0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r?=?0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r?=?0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r?=?0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r?=?0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r?=?0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication may be that associations of chronic disease risks with the sizes of internal body fat as measured by BMI, WC and HC may be strongly underestimated. PMID:24626110

  4. Severe Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report and Strain Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Sarkari, Bahador; Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    We report a fatal congenital toxoplasmosis case in an Iranian woman in the south of Iran. A pregnant mother had been admitted at the 15th week of her pregnancy on account of a febrile illness, symptoms of common cold, and enlargement of submandibular lymph nodes. Serological testing of the mother's serum revealed positive IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Amniotic fluid was taken and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with a direct amplification of the Toxoplasma URPT gene which was found to be positive. Sequencing and analysis of PCR product revealed that the isolate has the most similarity with type I of Toxoplasma gondii. Fetal scan showed anomaly in fetus including mild hydrocephaly. Termination of the pregnancy was suggested by the physician and pregnancy was terminated 178 days after conception. PMID:25685568

  5. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Francisco Carlos; Donatti, Rogerio Venâncio; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred Sales; Shivaprasad, H L; Vilela, Daniel Ambrózio da Rocha; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a vinaceous Amazon parrot based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The bird was prostrate on the bottom of the cage and died. Necropsy revealed edema and congestion of the lungs, cloudy air sacs, and mild hepatomegaly. Histopathology revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation associated with many cysts containing bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii scattered throughout. The heart had mild multifocal lymphocytic myocarditis and free tachyzoites in the muscle fibers, and the kidneys had mild interstitial nephritis and a few cysts containing bradyzoites of T. gondii. Immunohistochemistry was negative for Sarcocystis falcatula and Neospora caninum and confirmed the protozoa as T. gondii. This is the first description of T. gondii in an endangered species ofa Brazilian psittacine. PMID:23397856

  6. Effect of Antithymocyte Serum on Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Strannegĺrd, Örjan; Lycke, Erik

    1972-01-01

    The effect of antithymocyte serum (ATS) on mice infected with high-virulent or low-virulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii was studied. Treatment with ATS reduced the survival time of mice infected with high-virulent Toxoplasma and aggravated the disease; treatment prolonged parasitemia in animals infected with low-virulent Toxoplasma. Although ATS adversely affected the humoral antibody response, its main effect on toxoplasmosis was probably due to depression of cell-mediated immunity. ATS appeared to be able to activate chronic Toxoplasma infection, but this effect was much less pronounced than that on acquisition of immunity. The results suggest that Toxoplasma infection should be routinely looked for in patients treated with antilymphocyte serum. PMID:4539127

  7. The International Fight Against Terrorism: A Colloquium on the Prospects for Further Cooperation Between the European Union and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca H. White; C. Donald Johnson; Tony Joris; Jonathan Faull; Paul Rosenzweig; Gijs de Vries; Mark Richard; Sophie int Veld; Asa Hutchinson; Stavros Lambrinidis; Jane Horvath; Jim Marshall; Sarah Ludford; Leslie Lebl; Telmo Baltazar; Stefaan Verhulst; Gabriel M. Wilner

    2007-01-01

    Members of the European Commission, European Parliament and Council of the EU joined colleagues and counterparts from the U.S. Congress, Department of Justice and Department of Homeland Security for a colloquium focusing on a range of transcendent issues in the international fight against terrorism, including common challenges and achievements, data mining, and the conflict between freedom of the individual and

  8. Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet´s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical T. gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was one of a colony of...

  9. Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    be explained by the known risk factors. 3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child- bearing age covaries incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25 ­ 35 years. This second peak triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2 ­ 3 years earlier in men

  10. Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2014-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials. PMID:25104952

  11. Toxoplasma Serotype Is Associated With Development of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Shobab, Leila; Pleyer, Uwe; Johnsen, Joerdis; Metzner, Sylvia; James, Erick R.; Torun, N.; Fay, Michael P.; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Grigg, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Worldwide, ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the principal cause of posterior uveitis, a severe, life-altering disease. A Toxoplasma gondii enzyme-linked immunoassay that detects strain-specific antibodies present in serum was used to correlate serotype with disease. Methods.?Toxoplasma serotypes in consecutive serum samples from German uveitis patients with OT were compared with non-OT seropositive patients with noninfectious autoimmune posterior uveitis. OT patients were tested for association of parasite serotype with age, gender, location, clinical onset, size, visual acuity, or number of lesions (mean follow-up, 3.8 years) to determine association with recurrences. Results.?A novel, nonreactive (NR) serotype was detected more frequently in serum samples of OT patients (50/114, 44%) than in non-OT patients (4/56, 7%) (odds ratio, 10.0; 95% confidence interval 3.4–40.8; P < .0001). Non-OT patients were predominantly infected with Type II strains (39/56; 70%), consistent with expected frequencies in Central Europe. Among OT patients, those with NR serotypes experienced more frequent recurrences (P = .037). Polymerase chain reaction detected parasite DNA in 8/60 OT aqueous humor specimens but failed to identify Type II strain alleles. Conclusions.?Toxoplasma NR and Type II serotypes predominate in German OT patients. The NR serotype is associated with OT recurrences, underscoring the value of screening for management of disease. PMID:23878321

  12. [Clinical view of toxoplasmosis in children--personal observations].

    PubMed

    Czarnecka-Rudnik, D; Stanek-Bazylko, F

    1997-05-01

    In this work we presented our own experience with recognized and treated toxoplasmosis among children. Treated cases were observed over several years afterwards. We analyzed the frequency and character of clinical changes, evaluated the validity of serological screening and the effectiveness of treatment. The largest age group treated were children 13 months to 5 years old. 13 children had the congenital and 12 the acquired form. The most cases occurred in the nodal, ocular and ocular-cranial forms. Thus, the most common symptoms were enlarged lymphatic nodes, strabismus, febrile seizures, intracranial calcifications. In the acquired forms of the illness a distinct correlation between treatment and the decrease antibody levels, the clinical pictures showed stagnation. The fall in antibody levels occurred earlier with intermediate immunofluorescence than with ELISA method. Among 20 children associated 30-day treatment was implemented (Daraprim, Rovamycine, Biseptol), among 4 with Fansidar and Rovamycine for 2-3 weeks. Few complications occurred at the end of or after treatment and did not require treatment/intervention. Usually it was leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Long time observation allows to state that both therapeutic models prevent renewal of illness and can be recommended for further use. PMID:9377683

  13. Toxoplasmosis in military personnel involved in jungle operations.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Barrios, Patricia; Cardona, Nestor; Álvarez, Catalina; Herrera, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Tropical diseases, mainly leishmaniasis and malaria, increased among Colombian military personnel due to intensive operations in the jungle in the last ten years; as a result the Colombian army developed important preventive strategies for malaria and leishmaniasis. However, no knowledge exists about toxoplasmosis, an emergent disease in military personnel. We compared the prevalence of IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA and of parasitaemia by a real time PCR assay, in 500 professional soldiers that operated in the jungle with a group of 501 soldiers working in an urban zone (Bogotá). We found that the prevalence was significantly different between both groups of soldiers (80% in soldiers operating in jungle vs. 45% in urban soldiers, adjusted OR 11.4; CI 95%: 3.8-34; p<0.0001). All soldiers operating in the jungle drink unboiled and chlorine untreated lake or river water. In urban soldiers, these risk factors along with eating wild animal meat or eating tigrillo (little spotted cat) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence. Characteristic toxoplasmic choriorretinal lesions were found in 4 soldiers that operated in the jungle (0.8%) and in one urban soldier (0.19%). All soldiers before being deployed in jungle operations should be tested for Toxoplasma antibodies and to receive adequate health information about the routine use of personnel filters to purify their water for consumption. PMID:22178449

  14. Plasma and dietary vitamin C levels and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mazda Jenab; Elio Riboli; Pietro Ferrari; Joan Sabate; Nadia Slimani; Teresa Norat; Marlin Friesen; A. Tjonneland; Anja Olsen; Kim Overvad; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M. Touvier; H. Boeing; M. Schulz; J. Linseisen; G. Nagel; A. Trichopoulou; A. Naska; E. Oikonomou; V. Krogh; S. Panico; G. Masala; C. Sacerdote; R. Tumino; P. H. Peeters; M. E. Numans; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; F. L. Buchner; E. Lund; G. Pera; C. N. Sanchez; M. J. Sanchez; L. Arriola; A. Barricarte; J. R. Quiros; G. Hallmans; R. Stenling; G. Berglund; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; T. J. Key; N. Allen; F. Carneiro; U. Mahlke; G. Del Giudice; D. Palli; R. Kaaks; C. A. Gonzalez

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin C is an antioxidant and inhibitor of carcinogenic N-nitroso compound production in the stomach. Higher dietary vitamin C consumption is associated with decreased risk of gastric cancer (GC) in numerous case-control studies, but data from prospective studies are limited, particularly so for blood measures of vitamin C. The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma

  15. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  16. TOXOPLASMOSIS, DISTEMPER, AND HERPESVIRUS INFECTION IN A SKUNK (Mephitis mephitis) LU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD W. DITERS; SVEND W. NIELSEN

    A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) showing abnormal behavior had histopathologic lesions of toxoplasmosis and canine distemper in addition to intranuclear, eosinophilic inclusions in the reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen, liver and lung. The inclusions,on electron microscopic examination, were compatible with herpesvirus infection.

  17. FATAL TOXOPLASMOSIS AND CONCURRENT CALODIUM HEPATICUM INFECTION IN KOREAN SUIRRELS (TANIAS SIBERICUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Korean squirrels (Tanias siberius) imported in Spain from People’s Republic of China died two days after their arrivel at a pet shop. They had neurological signs associated with generalized toxoplasmosis involving brain, lungs, liver, and the heart. Toxoplasma gondii–like tachyzoites and tis...

  18. Congenital toxoplasmosis presenting as central diabetes insipidus in an infant: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital toxoplasmosis has a wide range of presentation at birth varying from severe neurological features such as hydrocephalus and chorioretinitis to a well appearing baby, who may develop complications late in infancy. While neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with congenital toxoplasmosis are uncommon, isolated central diabetes insipidus is extremely rare. Case presentation Here, we report on a female infant who presented with fever, convulsions, and polyuria. Examination revealed weight and length below the 3rd centile along with signs of severe dehydration. Fundal examination showed bilateral chorioretinitis. This infant developed hypernatremia together with increased serum osmolality and decreased both urine osmolality and specific gravity consistent with central diabetes insipidus. Serology for toxoplasma specific immunoglobulin M was high for both the mother and the baby and polymerase chain reaction for toxoplasma deoxyribonucleic acid was positive in the infant confirming congenital toxoplasmosis. Brain computerized tomography scans demonstrated ventriculomegaly associated with cerebral and cortical calcifications. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities responded to nasal vasopressin therapy. Conclusion This report highlights central diabetes inspidus as a rare presentation of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24674575

  19. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: first report of toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a v...

  20. Congenital toxoplasmosis: candidate host immune genes relevant for vertical transmission and pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L B Ortiz-Alegría; H Caballero-Ortega; I Cańedo-Solares; C P Rico-Torres; A Sahagún-Ruiz; M E Medina-Escutia; D Correa

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of vertebrate hosts, including humans. Transplacental passage of the parasite leads to congenital toxoplasmosis. A primary infection during the first weeks of gestation causes vertical transmission at low rate, although it causes major damage to the embryo. Transmission frequency increases to near 80% by the end of pregnancy, but the proportion of ill newborns is

  1. ACUTE VISCERAL TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DIK-DIK (MADOQUA GUENTHERI SMITHI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 2 captive dik-dik (Madoqua guentheri smithi) in the Houston Zoo. Both animals became ill suddenly and died in spite of supportive therapy. Toxoplasma gondii was identified in tissues of both animals immunohistochemically, and antibodies to T. gondii were found ...

  2. DISSEMINATED TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A MEDITERRANEAN PREGNANT RISSO'S DOLPHIN (GRAMPUS GRISEUS) WITH TRANSPLACENTAL FETAL INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) dam and its fetus based on pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and the structure of the parasite. The dolphin was stranded alive on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and died a few hrs later. At necropsy the ...

  3. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus).

    PubMed

    Túry, E; Costa Messias, A; Belák, K; Gimeno, E J

    2001-01-01

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), an arboreal species of the tropical rainforests of South and Central America. In view of its specialized lifestyle and ecosystem and its low metabolic rate, B. tridactylus would seem to warrant further investigation in respect of its susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:11578142

  4. Acute Disseminated Toxoplasmosis in a Captive Three-toed Sloth ( Bradypus tridactylus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Tuúry; A. Costa Messias; K. Belák; E. J. Gimeno

    2001-01-01

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), an arboreal species of the tropical rainforests of South and Central America. In view of its specialized lifestyle and ecosystem and its low metabolic rate, B. tridactylus would seem to warrant further investigation in respect of its susceptibility toToxoplasma gondii .

  5. Immunoglobulin G Avidity in Diagnosis of Toxoplasmic Lymphadenopathy and Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MALGORZATA PAUL

    1999-01-01

    Traditional serological techniques have some limitations in evaluating the duration of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women, patients with lymphadenopathy, and older children suspected of having congen- ital toxoplasmosis. In these three groups of patients, two variants of T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity tests were used: an EIA Kit (Labsystems) and a noncommercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specially elaborated in

  6. An overview of seventy years of research (1944–2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reviews toxoplasmosis research in Colombia, beginning with the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1944. Here we summarize prevalence of T. gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. g...

  7. Congenital toxoplasmosis in France in 2007: first results from a national surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Villena, I; Ancelle, T; Delmas, C; Garcia, P; Brezin, A P; Thulliez, P; Wallon, M; King, L; Goulet, V

    2010-06-24

    When immunocompetent people become infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the disease is generally asymptomatic. However, transplacental transmission of T. gondii may lead to severe congenital infection including in utero abortion, foetal death, or neurological or ocular damage of the foetus. France has had a national programme to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis since 1978. However, although estimated seroprevalence in pregnant women has fallen from 84% in the 1960s to 44% in 2003, no reliable data have been available on the annual number of cases of congenital toxoplasmosis or the severity of infection. In 2006, the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance (Institut de Veille Sanitaire) and the National Reference Centre for Toxoplasmosis recommended that a national laboratory-based surveillance system be used for the surveillance of the disease. In 2007, 31 laboratories reported at least one congenital case through the surveillance system, giving a total of 272 cases. A total of 11 terminations of pregnancy were reported (six abortions and five foetal deaths). Of the live-born cases, 206 were asymptomatic, 28 were symptomatic and seven had a severe form of the disease. As there were 818,700 births in France and French overseas departments in 2007, the overall prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis observed that year was 3.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9 to 3.7) per 10,000 live births and the incidence rate of the disease at birth was 2.9 (95% CI: 2.5 to 3.2) per 10,000 live births; the estimated incidence rate of symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.5) cases per 10,000 live births. PMID:20587361

  8. Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis: a post-infectious manifestation of ocular toxoplasmosis?

    PubMed

    Jad, Akesbi; Céline, Terrada; Bahram, Bodaghi; Phuc, LeHoang; Nathalie, Cassoux

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the development of Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis (FHC) secondary to toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis. The design is based on observational case series report. We report in this article six cases of typical FHC developing secondary to ocular toxoplasmosis. Intraocular immunoglobulin G production against Toxoplasma gondii was determined in the aqueous humor of five patients by calculation of the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (GWC). The clinical examination revealed typical FHC with no active chorioretinal scar. We report on five women and one man (aged 33-64 years old; median 44.6 years) who developed FHC over a period of time ranging from 2-13 years. A positive GWC (>3) was found in four patients; of the two remaining patients one was negative and the other did not have anterior chamber paracentesis. Four patients were treated for an active ocular toxoplasmic lesion before the development of FHC with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and corticosteroids. Two patients had negative anti-toxoplasmic therapy for FHC (one with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 3 weeks and the other with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and corticosteroids for 8 weeks). One never had any treatment. All the patients had mild anterior chamber reaction with no synechia, diffuse and characteristic white stellate keratic precipitates and vitritis; five patients had posterior subcapsular cataract and heterochromia and three had elevated intraocular pressure. The findings help us to conclude that FHC can develop over a period of time after ocular toxoplasmosis. This could be a main association to search for when a Fuchs' uveitis is found with a chorioretinal scar. Ocular inflammation does not mean reactivation of ocular toxoplasmosis. FHC could be a secondary immune reaction with a past antigenic stimulation to a previous infection, i.e., toxoplasmosis, etc. PMID:23070707

  9. Development and validation of a paediatric long-bone fracture classification. A prospective multicentre study in 13 European paediatric trauma centres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorien Schneidmüller; Christoph Röder; Ralf Kraus; Ingo Marzi; Martin Kaiser; Daniel Dietrich; Lutz von Laer

    2011-01-01

    Background  The aim of this study was to develop a child-specific classification system for long bone fractures and to examine its reliability\\u000a and validity on the basis of a prospective multicentre study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using the sequentially developed classification system, three samples of between 30 and 185 paediatric limb fractures from\\u000a a pool of 2308 fractures documented in two multicenter studies were analysed

  10. Evolving patterns in the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy: data from a prospective Central European multicenter study with proposal of a new histologic scoring system.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Schmack, Bertram; Bordel, Hartmut; Höfler, Bernd; Eherer, Andreas; Schulz, Tilman; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord

    2014-12-01

    Histologic examination of gastric biopsies is crucial for determining the cause of gastritis. This prospective multicenter study was undertaken to investigate different histologic parameters arguing in favor or against the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy and to correlate findings with patient's symptoms and endoscopic findings. A total of 1123 individuals aged 15-93 years participated in a prospective multicenter study (histoGERD trial). Diagnosis of Helicobacter gastritis was made following the Updated Sydney System. Diagnosis of reactive gastropathy was based upon Dixon's parameters of foveolar hyperplasia, smooth muscle fibers in the lamina propria and vasodilatation and congestion of mucosal capillaries. Including paucity of acute and chronic inflammatory cells in analysis, a new score with visual analog scales for the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy was developed. All three histologic parameters in favor of the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy were positively associated with the endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis (p < 0.001), yet negatively with Helicobacter infection (p < 0.001). In contrast, presence of acute and chronic inflammatory cells in lamina propria was positively associated with Helicobacter infection (p < 0.001), yet not with the endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis. Our score demonstrated strong association between histologic and endoscopic diagnoses (p < 0.001), yet not with patient's symptoms. In conclusion, our data prove foveolar hyperplasia, smooth muscle fibers and vasodilatation and congestion as key histologic parameters for the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy. The proposed score may enhance the diagnostic accuracy. It should be validated in future studies. PMID:25238940

  11. Evaluation of IgG anti-toxoplasma avidity and polymerase chain reaction in the postnatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Elizabeth; Rivera, Raul; Cardona, Nestor; Sanchez, Victor; Lora, Fabiana; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2013-06-01

    Confirmatory tests for congenital toxoplasmosis were evaluated in 23 infected and 31 uninfected newborns. Conventional polymerase chain reaction was better than real-time polymerase chain reaction, but did not identify additional cases. Avidity tests added 2 new cases that were not identified by other criteria. Overall sensitivity was 82.6%. Avidity assay, but not polymerase chain reaction, increased the sensitivity of confirmatory assays in congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23348817

  12. Multicentric Comparative Assessment of the Bio-Evolution Toxoplasma gondii Detection Kit with Eight Laboratory-Developed PCR Assays for Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Filisetti, Denis; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Yera, Hélčne; Candolfi, Ermano

    2014-01-01

    The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid is an essential tool for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and is currently essentially based on the use of PCR. Although some consensus is emerging, this molecular diagnosis suffers from a lack of standardization and an extreme diversity of laboratory-developed methods. Commercial kits for the detection of T. gondii by PCR were recently developed and offer certain advantages; however, they must be assessed in comparison with optimized reference PCR assays. The present multicentric study aimed to compare the performances of the Bio-Evolution T. gondii detection kit and laboratory-developed PCR assays set up in eight proficient centers in France. The study compared 157 amniotic fluid samples and found concordances of 99% and 100% using 76 T. gondii-infected samples and 81 uninfected samples, respectively. Moreover, taking into account the classification of the European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis, the overall diagnostic sensitivity of all assays was identical and calculated to be 86% (54/63); specificity was 100% for all assays. Finally, the relative quantification results were in good agreement between the kit and the laboratory-developed assays. The good performances of this commercial kit are probably in part linked to the use of a number of good practices: detection in multiplicate, amplification of the repetitive DNA target rep529, and the use of an internal control for the detection of PCR inhibitors. The only drawbacks noted at the time of the study were the absence of uracil-N-glycosylase and small defects in the reliability of the production of different reagents. PMID:25339393

  13. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and Latent Toxoplasmosis and Demographic Variables on Cognitive Function in Young to Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Shawn D.; Erickson, Lance D.; Brown, Bruce L.; Hedges, Dawson W.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer’s disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States’ National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis – both of which appear to be common in the general population – appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults. PMID:25590622

  14. Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B.; Fedirko, Veronika; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Westphal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Argüelles, Marcial; Bonet, Catalina; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, Jose-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Göran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Pischon, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin—an adipose tissue-derived protein—may provide?a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested case–control study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.95, P trend = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34–0.61, P trend < 0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.68–1.22, P trend = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.26–0.60, P trend < 0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.60–1.09, P trend = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22431719

  15. A prospective epidemiological study of new incident GISTs during two consecutive years in Rhône Alpes region: incidence and molecular distribution of GIST in a European region

    PubMed Central

    Cassier, P A; Ducimetičre, F; Lurkin, A; Ranchčre-Vince, D; Scoazec, J-Y; Bringuier, P-P; Decouvelaere, A-V; Méeus, P; Cellier, D; Blay, J-Y; Ray-Coquard, I

    2010-01-01

    Background: Preliminary data indicate that the molecular epidemiology of localised gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) may be different from that of advanced GIST. We sought to investigate the molecular epidemiology of sarcomas, including GIST, in the Rhone-Alpes region in France. Patients and methods: A prospective and exhaustive study in the Rhone-Alpes Region in France to assess the precise incidence of primary sarcomas with systematic centralised pathological review and molecular analysis was conducted for 2 consecutive years. Results: Among 760 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoma, 131 (17%) had a GIST. The majority of patients had gastric primaries (61%). Mutational analysis could be performed in 106 tumour samples (74%), and 71 (67%) had exon 11 mutations. PDGFRA mutations were found in 16% of cases, which is twice as high as previously reported for advanced GIST. Conclusion: Data indicate that PDGFRA mutations in localised GIST may be twice as high as what was previously reported in patients with advanced disease. This finding may have important consequences for patients offered adjuvant imatinib, although most of these tumours are in the low-risk group. PMID:20588273

  16. Evaluation of the usefulness of six commercial agglutination assays for serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Villard, Odile; Cimon, Bernard; Franck, Jacqueline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélčne; Godineau, Nadine; Houze, Sandrine; Paris, Luc; Pelloux, Hervé; Villena, Isabelle; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2012-07-01

    Six agglutination tests for detecting Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies (immunoglobulin G or M) in serum were performed and compared. In total, 599 sera were examined using direct and indirect agglutination assays. Sensitivity varied from 93.7% to 100% and specificity from 97.1% to 99.2%. In a selected population with interfering diseases, the percentage of false positives ranged from 4.3% to 10.9%. Although an overall agreement of 100% was found for chronic toxoplasmosis, sensitivity for the detection of confirmed acute toxoplasmosis ranged from 86.4% to 97.3%. Regarding the large variability in terms of the performance of the 6 assays, tests based on the hemagglutination principle were found to be better than the other agglutination tests for all the panels evaluated, meaning that they could be used as qualitative or semiquantitative low-cost screening assays. PMID:22541791

  17. Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates and Toxoplasmosis Seroprevalence in Stray Cats of ?zmir, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Can, Hüseyin; Dö?kaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H. Gökhan; Caner, Ay?e; ?z, Sultan Gülce; Dö?kaya, Aysu De?irmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Ça?da?; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçal?, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of ?zmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in ?zmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42–48% and 33.4–34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P?=?0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in ?zmir. PMID:25127360

  18. Clinical, serological and histopathological signs of toxoplasmosis in broiler chickens ( Gallus domesticus ) after experimental infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amin Derakhshanfar; GholamReza Hatam; Koorosh Sohrabi; Mohammad Mirzaei

    To identify the features of experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus), a total of 48 birds aged 25 days were randomly assigned to one of four groups of 12 birds each. Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii were injected intraperitoneally at doses of 5?×?105 (group A), 1?×?106 (group B) and 1.5?×?106 (group C), and chickens in group D were treated with an

  19. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates and toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in stray cats of ?zmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Hüseyin; Dö?kaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H Gökhan; Caner, Ay?e; ?z, Sultan Gülce; Dö?kaya, Aysu De?irmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Ça?da?; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçal?, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of ?zmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in ?zmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42-48% and 33.4-34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P?=?0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in ?zmir. PMID:25127360

  20. Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borna, Sedigheh; Shariat, Mamak; Fallahi, Mohaddese; Janani, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly. Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages. Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. We selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ?1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women. Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; and using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); and using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7). Conclusion: In Iran, screening of toxoplasma is not routinely performed yet, while the incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors. PMID:24639709

  1. [The Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; del Castillo Martín, F; Fuentes Corripio, I; Goncé Mellgren, A; Fortuny Guasch, C; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; González-Tomé, M I; Couceiro Gianzo, J A; Neth, O; Ramos Amador, J T

    2013-08-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is the result of transplacental fetal infection by Toxoplasma gondii after the primary maternal infection. The severity of the disease depends on the gestational age at transmission. First trimester infections are more severe, but less frequent, than third trimester infections. Acute maternal infection is diagnosed by seroconversion or by the detection of IgM antibodies and a low IgG avidity test. In these cases, spiramycin should be initiated to prevent transmission to the fetus. For identification of fetal infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of amniotic fluid after 18 weeks gestation should be performed. If fetal infection is confirmed, the mothers should be treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid. Most infants infected in utero are born with no obvious signs of toxoplasmosis, but up to 80% developed learning and visual disabilities later in life. Neonatal diagnosis with IgM/IgA antibodies or blood/cerebrospinal fluid PCR may be difficult because false-negative results frequently occur. In these cases diagnosis is possible by demonstrating a rise in IgG titers during follow-up or by the detection of antibodies beyond one year of age. Early treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine may improve the ophthalmologic and neurological outcome. Congenital toxoplasmosis is a preventable disease. Pre-pregnancy screening and appropriate counseling regarding prevention measures in seronegative women may prevent fetal infection. PMID:23352717

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with ovine toxoplasmosis in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Milena M Clementino; Carneiro, Mariangela; Medeiros, Andrea D; Andrade Neto, Valter; Vitor, Ricardo W A

    2013-01-01

    Serum samples of 930 sheep were tested by ELISA to assess the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to identify risk factors associated with the presence of toxoplasmosis in two regions of Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast Brazil), with different climatic conditions. The overall estimated prevalence was 22.1%, with 26.3% and 17.8% positive sheep in Leste Potiguar and Central Potiguar regions, respectively. Among the positive sheep, 18.1% had low-avidity IgG antibodies, suggesting the occurrence of recent toxoplasmosis. The risk factors for toxoplasmosis in sheep were: presence of cats (odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; confidence interval (CI) 95% = 1.11-2.16), age of the animals, with adults presenting a greater chance of infection (OR = 2.44; CI 95% = 1.58-3.75), and the use of running water (OR = 1.61; CI 95% = 1.25-2.09), characterizing the existence of transmission by sporulated oocysts of T. gondii in the environment. PMID:23707895

  3. Risk of second primary malignancies in women with breast cancer: Results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Fasanelli, Francesca; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Vagliano, Liliana; Masala, Giovanna; Quirós, J Ramón; Travier, Noemie; Sánchez, María-José; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kvaskoff, Marina; Dossus, Laure; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Adarakis, George; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc; Kadi, Mai; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2015-08-15

    Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer are at increased risk of second primary cancers, and the identification of risk factors for the latter may have clinical implications. We have followed-up for 11 years 10,045 women with invasive breast cancer from a European cohort, and identified 492 second primary cancers, including 140 contralateral breast cancers. Expected and observed cases and Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) were estimated using Aalen-Johansen Markovian methods. Information on various risk factors was obtained from detailed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the role of risk factors. Women with breast cancer had a 30% excess risk for second malignancies (95% confidence interval-CI 18-42) after excluding contralateral breast cancers. Risk was particularly elevated for colorectal cancer (SIR, 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.00), lymphoma (SIR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.40), melanoma (2.12; 1.63-2.70), endometrium (2.18; 1.75-2.70) and kidney cancers (2.40; 1.57-3.52). Risk of second malignancies was positively associated with age at first cancer, body mass index and smoking status, while it was inversely associated with education, post-menopausal status and a history of full-term pregnancy. We describe in a large cohort of women with breast cancer a 30% excess of second primaries. Among risk factors for breast cancer, a history of full-term pregnancy was inversely associated with the risk of second primary cancer. PMID:25650288

  4. Prospects for economic fusion electricity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Cook; R. L. Miller; D. J. Ward

    2002-01-01

    Extensive studies of fusion economics have been performed in the last decade within the European Union and the United States. Over the same period major advances have been made in the physics and technology of fusion. This paper summarizes the prospects for fusion making an economically attractive contribution to the future energy mix. With modest physics optimization and anticipated near-term

  5. Th1 and Th2 immune response to P30 and ROP18 peptides in human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Torres-Morales, Elizabeth; Taborda, Laura; Cardona, Nestor; De-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sepulveda-Arias, Juan Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    We determined the specific lymphocyte proliferative response and cytokine profile production regarding Toxoplasma P30 (2017 from virulent and non-virulent strain) and ROP18 protein-derived peptides (from clonal lineages I, II and III) in 19 patients having ocular toxoplasmosis, five suffering chronic asymptomatic infection, nine with congenital toxoplasmosis and eight Toxoplasma negative people. A Beckman Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used for determining antigen-specific T cells (CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood culture. IFN ? and IL10 levels were determined in culture supernatants. Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to total antigen and P30- and ROP18-derived peptides was observed in infected people. Ocular toxoplasmosis patients had a preferential Th2 response after antigenic stimulation. Non-virulent peptide 2017 was able to shift response toward Th1 in congenitally infected children and virulent peptide 2017 induced a Th2 response in chronically infected, asymptomatic people. An immune response in human toxoplasmosis after ex vivo antigenic stimulation was Th1- or Th2-skewed, depending on a patient's clinical condition. Colombian ocular toxoplasmosis patients' immune response was Th2-skewed, regardless of the nature of antigen stimulus. PMID:24816543

  6. Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs). Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs) within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs) recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF) and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i) selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii) designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii) gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i) appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator) with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii) rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii) providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos, celebrating achievements, incorporating social events and prizes within meetings, and providing a framework for exploitation of local data. Conclusions Many challenges associated with multi-country primary care research can be overcome by engendering strong, effective communication, commitment and involvement of all local researchers. The practical solutions identified and the lessons learned in implementing the GRACE-01 study may assist in establishing other international primary care clinical research platforms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00353951 PMID:21794112

  7. Urine pH is an indicator of dietary acid-base load, fruit and vegetables and meat intakes: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk population study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-06-01

    Evidence exists that a more acidic diet is detrimental to bone health. Although more precise methods exist for measurement of acid-base balance, urine pH reflects acid-base balance and is readily measurable but has not been related to habitual dietary intake in general populations. The present study investigated the relationship between urine pH and dietary acid-base load (potential renal acid load; PRAL) and its contributory food groups (fruit and vegetables, meats, cereal and dairy foods). There were 22,034 men and women aged 39-78 years living in Norfolk (UK) with casual urine samples and dietary intakes from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk FFQ. A sub-study (n 363) compared pH in casual samples and 24 h urine and intakes from a 7 d diary and the FFQ. A more alkaline diet (low PRAL), high fruit and vegetable intake and lower consumption of meat was significantly associated with a more alkaline urine pH before and after adjustment for age, BMI, physical activity and smoking habit and also after excluding for urinary protein, glucose, ketones, diagnosed high blood pressure and diuretic medication. In the sub-study the strongest relationship was found between the 24 h urine and the 7 d diary. In conclusion, a more alkaline diet, higher fruit and vegetable and lower meat intake were related to more alkaline urine with a magnitude similar to intervention studies. As urine pH relates to dietary acid-base load its use to monitor change in consumption of fruit and vegetables, in individuals, warrants further investigation. PMID:18042305

  8. TOXOPLASMOSIS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE AMONG PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN ATTENDED IN PUBLIC HEALTH UNITS IN NITERÓI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Patricia Riddell; de Moura, Fernanda Loureiro; Bastos, Otílio Machado Pereira; de Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented. PMID:25229225

  9. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma-specific antibodies in patients suspected to have active toxoplasmosis: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Jafarnezghad, Gholam-Abbas; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and distribution of anti-toxoplasma-specific IgM and IgG tantibodies in patients suspected to have toxoplasmosis and investigate for any association between IgM and IgG antibodies and some toxoplasmosis risk factors as well. Materials and Methods: In a comparative cross-sectional study, 70 patients suspected to had active toxoplasmosis and 30 control volunteers, who gave informed consent, entered the study. In each group, patient age, sex, signs of appearance, education level, residency status (urban / rural), occupation, frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, abortion history, and some risk factors (Direct cat exposure, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption) were recorded. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (EUROIMMUN®, United Kingdom) were used for the evaluation of anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies according to the manufacturer's instructions. All analyses were done using SPSS-20. Results: The frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies like: Direct cat exposures, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption were not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05). The history of previous abortions in women in the toxoplasmosis-suspected group was significantly higher than that in the controls (31.4% versus 6.7%; P = 0.009). Conclusion: The frequency of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in toxoplasmosis suspected in the toxoplasmosis and control groups was not statistically significant. PMID:25538922

  10. Assessment of laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The different laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis have variable sensitivity and specificity. There is no evidence to prove that maternal treatment reduces the risk of fetal infection. The purpose of this study was to assess methods for the confirmation of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy, and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on clinical manifestations of the disease in newborns (NB). Methods This was a community-based, cross-sectional study of acute toxoplasmosis in newborns at risk of acquiring congenital infection. Participating newborns were born in the Clinical Hospital Maternity Ward of the Federal University of Goiás. Eligible participants were divided into 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 44 newborns born to mothers treated with spiramycin during pregnancy and group 2 consisted of 24 newborns born to mothers not treated with spiramycin during pregnancy because the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was not performed. The sensitivity and specifity of PCR for T. gondii DNA in peripheral blood and serological testing for specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA, and the effects of maternal spiramycin treatment on these parameters, were determined by associating test results with clinical manifestations of disease. Results The sensitivity of the markers (T. gondii DNA detected by PCR, and the presence of specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA) for congenital toxoplasmosis was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (31.6, 68.4, 36.8% and 3.7, 25.9, 11.1% respectively). Even with a low PCR sensitivity, the group 2 results indicate the importance of developing new techniques for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns. Within group 1, 70.4% of the infected newborns were asymptomatic and, in group 2, 68.4% showed clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis. Conclusions The higher proportion of infants without clinical symptoms in group 1 (70.4%) suggests the maternal treatment with spiramycin delays fetal infection, reducing the clinical sequelae of the disease in newborns. Given the low sensitivity of the tests used, when there is suspicion of congenital transmission several serological and parasitological tests are required in order to confirm or exclude congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns. PMID:24961630

  11. Development of an indirect immunofluorescence technique for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Guadarrama, María José; Salichs, Joan; Almunia, Javier; García-Parraga, Daniel; Fernández-Gallardo, Nuhacet; Santana-Morales, María Ángeles; Pacheco, Víctor; Afonso-Lehmann, Raquel N; Déniz, Daniel; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is often complicated by the lack of specific clinical symptoms or postmortem features, in humans and other animals. The only diagnostic test described so far for the serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals is the modified agglutination test (Dubey et al., Am J Vet Res 48(8):1239-1243, 1987). The development of more sensible and specific immunological techniques requires specific antibodies, which are currently unavailable in the scientific market. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is one of the most widely used methods for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in humans (Auer et al., Parasitol Res 12:965-970, 2000). In order to develop and apply this technique to the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), immunoglobulins were firstly purified using ion-exchange chromatography. The purified immunoglobulins were then injected in New Zealand rabbits in order to obtain polyclonal antibodies. These antisera were validated by the IIF technique, using as controls serum samples of dolphins infected by Toxoplasma. The results were visualized using antirabbit IgG labeled with fluorescein. This newly developed and specific serological assay was then tested with the dolphin collection of Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain (group I), and L'Oceanogrŕfic of Valencia, Spain (group II). The obtained results in this study showed that none of the dolphins from group 1 were infected by T. gondii and two animals were positive in group 2. Furthermore, we conclude that this study has produced antibodies with high specificity against dolphin immunoglobulins and an IIF method which may be used as immunological diagnostic tools, especially for the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. PMID:24221890

  12. Triazole-based compound as a candidate to develop novel medicines to treat toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Dzitko, Katarzyna; Paneth, Agata; Plech, Tomasz; Pawe?czyk, Jakub; W?gli?ska, Lidia; Paneth, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    This article reports anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity of 3-(thiophen-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione. The compound displayed significant and reproducible antiparasitic effects at nontoxic concentrations for the host cells, with an experimentally determined 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) at least 30 times better than that of the known chemotherapeutic agent sulfadiazine. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase was defined as the probable target for anti-Toxoplasma activity of the tested compound. These results provide the foundation for future work to develop a new class of medicines to better treat toxoplasmosis. PMID:25288090

  13. Severe hepatitis resulting from toxoplasmosis in a barred owl (Strix varia) from Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mikaelian, I; Dubey, J P; Martineau, D

    1997-01-01

    A female adult barred owl (Strix varia) had been hurt by a car. Its general status declined gradually within 2 wk with anorexia and inactivity. Necropsy examination revealed marked multifocal pale areas in liver, emaciation, and mild airsacculitis and pericarditis. Histopathologic examination revealed severe acute multifocal hepatic necrosis with numerous protozoal tachyzoites within necrotic foci and in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and macrophages. These tachyzoites stained with an indirect immunohistochemistry method for Toxoplasma gondii antigens. This is the first reported case of hepatitis resulting from toxoplasmosis in a raptor. PMID:9356724

  14. Unexpected Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis by 16S and D2 Large-Subunit Ribosomal DNA PCR and Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Alexandra Y C; Kvich, Lasse; Eickhardt, Steffen; Omland, Lars H; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus

    2015-06-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes severe opportunistic infections. Here, we report an unexpected diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was diagnosed by 16S and D2 large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing of a cerebral biopsy specimen and confirmed by T. gondii-specific PCR and immunohistochemistry. The patient was later diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25854484

  15. Lymphadenopathy resulting from acute toxoplasmosis mimicking relapse of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram; Mahajan, Pravin

    2012-01-01

    We report a case documenting fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in cervical, supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes resulting from acute toxoplasmosis. A 50-year-old Indian female with history of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of left breast, postchemotherapy status, was found to have hypermetabolic right cervical, supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes on a surveillance FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan. Her previous two PET/CT scans were unremarkable with no evidence of metabolically active disease. Therefore, a differential diagnosis of relapse of NHL versus infectious/inflammatory pathology was raised in the report. Biopsy of axillary lymph node demonstrated features characteristic of toxoplasmosis. The serological test results were also compatible with acute toxoplasmosis infection. Infective and inflammatory diseases are known to accumulate FDG, resulting in false positives for malignancy. This case demonstrates lymph nodal toxoplasmosis as a potential cause of false positive FDG PET/CT findings in patients with known malignancy and highlights the importance of histopathological and laboratory correlation for the accurate interpretation of FDG PET/CT scans. PMID:22531531

  16. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including humans. It belongs to

    E-print Network

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    transplantation. People typically become infected by three principal routes of transmission. · Foodborne · AnimalToxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including point in their lives. Most infections are silent and have no ill effect on the patient. Occasionally

  17. The Unexpected Role for the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor on Susceptibility to Experimental Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Yuriko; de Dios Rosado, Juan; Vega, Libia; Elizondo, Guillermo; Estrada-Muńiz, Elizabeth; Saavedra, Rafael; Juárez, Imelda; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is part of a signaling system that is mainly triggered by xenobiotic agents. Increasing evidence suggests that AhR may regulate immunity to infections. To determine the role of AhR in the outcome of toxoplasmosis, we used AhR?/? and wild-type (WT) mice. Following an intraperitoneal infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), AhR?/? mice succumbed significantly faster than WT mice and displayed greater liver damage as well as higher serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, nitric oxide (NO), and IgE but lower IL-10 secretion. Interestingly, lower numbers of cysts were found in their brains. Increased mortality was associated with reduced expression of GATA-3, IL-10, and 5-LOX mRNA in spleen cells but higher expression of IFN-? mRNA. Additionally, peritoneal exudate cells from AhR?/? mice produced higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-? but lower TLR2 expression than WT mice. These findings suggest a role for AhR in limiting the inflammatory response during toxoplasmosis. PMID:20111744

  18. Toxoplasmosis in a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and two American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus).

    PubMed

    Bangari, Dinesh S; Mouser, Pamela; Miller, Margaret A; Stevenson, Gregory W; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Thacker, H Leon

    2007-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and 2 American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). The woodchuck was euthanized by a wildlife rescue organization in New York after progressive clinical signs of head tilt, circling, and rapid weight loss. Necropsy examination revealed acute subdural hemorrhage over the right cerebral hemisphere. Histologic lesions included meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. Protozoal cysts were present in affected and unaffected neuroparenchyma. The squirrels were found dead, emaciated, and moderately infested with fleas near a park in northern Indiana. In both squirrels, the lungs were consolidated with numerous nodules up to 2 mm in diameter. Histologically, pneumonia and encephalitis were associated with intracellular and free protozoa. Additional histologic lesions included multifocal lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa in both squirrels. The protozoa were positive with Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunohistochemistry and had ultrastructural features consistent with T. gondii in both squirrels. A real-time polymerase chain reaction test using T. gondii-specific probes demonstrated protozoal DNA in the lung, brain, and kidney of the squirrels and in the brain and heart of the woodchuck. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in woodchucks or American red squirrels. Because rodents are common near urban settlements, this finding underscores their role as important intermediate hosts for T. gondii. PMID:17998563

  19. Protective Immunity against Congenital Toxoplasmosis with Recombinant SAG1 Protein in a Guinea Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Haumont, Michčle; Delhaye, Louis; Garcia, Lida; Jurado, Margarita; Mazzu, Pasqualina; Daminet, Véronique; Verlant, Vincent; Bollen, Alex; Biemans, Ralph; Jacquet, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can induce fetal pathology and abortion in both humans and animals. The present study describes the development of an experimental model of congenital toxoplasmosis in the guinea pig. In this animal model, we evaluated the protective effect of vaccination with a recombinant form of SAG1 against maternofetal transmission of tachyzoites. The presence of parasites in fetuses was determined by nested PCRs and by an in vivo readout after fetal brain homogenate injections in mice. The absence of parasites was demonstrated in 66 to 86% of fetuses derived from adult guinea pigs immunized with SAG1 and challenged with the mildly virulent T. gondii strain C56. In contrast, more than 80% of fetuses from mock-immunized guinea pigs were infected. The protection was not correlated with titers of antibody to SAG1. Our results indicated that this experimental model constitutes a relevant model for evaluation of vaccine candidates against congenital toxoplasmosis and that SAG1 elicits significant protection against maternofetal transmission. PMID:10948109

  20. Immediate rather than delayed memory impairment in older adults with latent toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Mendy, Angelico; Vieira, Edgar R; Albatineh, Ahmed N; Gasana, Janvier

    2015-03-01

    The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects one third of the world population, but its effect on memory remains ambiguous. To examine a potential relationship of the infection with immediate and delayed memory, a population-based study was conducted in 4485 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 60years and older. Serum anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme immune assay and verbal memory was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the East Boston Memory Test. The prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis was 41%; in one way analysis of variance, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody levels significantly differed across tertiles for immediate (P=0.006) but not delayed memory scores (P=0.22). In multinomial logistic regression adjusting for covariates, Toxoplasma seropositivity was associated with lower immediate memory performance (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.97 for medium tertile and OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.98 for highest tertile in reference to the lowest tertile), especially in non-Hispanic Whites (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.88 for medium tertile and OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.87 for highest tertile in reference to the lowest tertile). However, no relationship with delayed memory was observed. In conclusion, latent toxoplasmosis is widespread in older adults and may primarily affect immediate rather than delayed memory, particularly in White Americans. PMID:25499468

  1. Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic New Zealand birds.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; Burrows, Elizabeth; Roe, Wendi

    2014-03-01

    Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic New Zealand avian species are reported. Between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), and one North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. On gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. Histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of the kiwi while the kaka and kereru showed severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In the kiwi, protozoal organisms were present within both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver and within the epithelial cells and macrophages of the interstitium of the lungs in the kaka and two kereru. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue of the liver, lungs, or both. Genotyping of up to seven markers revealed that an atypical Type II isolate of Toxoplasma gondii was present in at least three of the cases. This study provides evidence that T. gondii can cause mortality in these endemic species and suggests further research is needed to determine the full extent of morbidity and mortality caused by this parasite in New Zealand's unique avifauna. PMID:24758132

  2. Toxoplasmosis, a severe complication in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: successful treatment strategies during a 5-year single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Roemer, E; Blau, I W; Basara, N; Kiehl, M G; Bischoff, M; Günzelmann, S; Kirsten, D; Sanchez, H; Wocker, E L; Fauser, A A

    2001-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a rare but often fatal complication that occurs after patients undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. At our institution, toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 8 of 301 patients who received stem cell transplants. Disseminated toxoplasmosis with a rapid fatal course was observed in 2 patients. Six patients had cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosed on the basis of neurological signs and observation of the patients' mental confusion, seizures, and typical lesions (which were assessed by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or both). Seroconversion of antitoxoplasma immunoglobulin and a discovery of toxoplasma deoxyribonucleic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid (confirmed by use of polymerase chain reaction) were documented in all patients. Treatment consisted of clindamycin therapy (for 2 patients) and of pyrimethamine-clindamycin therapy, sulfadiazine therapy, or both (for 5 patients). Patients showed improvement after therapy, as assessed by clinical and radiological means. Three of 8 patients survive-1 without any residual neurological symptoms and 2 with minimal neurological symptoms. PMID:11118397

  3. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health. PMID:25651689

  4. Prospect Park

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Prospect Park (New York, N.Y.)

    While many readers may be aware that trees grow in Brooklyn, few may be cognizant of the fact that, yes, a forest grows in Brooklyn. This urban forest just happens to be in the boroughâ??s own lovely Prospect Park, designed by those giants of landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Often overlooked by some who are primarily concerned with that other large swath of green in the middle of Manhattan, Prospect Park contains a 90-acre meadow, a zoo, a celebrated performing arts festival, and a lake. Visitors to the Prospect Park Alliance website can learn all about these things, and also delve into the parkâ??s history. Those planning a visit may wish to look at the â??General Infoâ?ť and â??Places To Goâ?ť sections for a selection of brief descriptions and photographs. For those seeking a historical perspective the â??History & Natureâ?ť area is delightful. Here visitors can learn about the parkâ??s historical development and creation, and learn more about those individuals responsible for the parkâ??s design and aesthetic appeal. Finally, visitors should look at the online exhibit â??A Glimpse Of Prospect Parkâ?ť for a bit of visual perspective on the parkâ??s history.

  5. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  6. Congenital toxoplasmosis from a mother with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shimpei; Nishida, Masakazu; Nasu, Kaei; Narahara, Hisashi; Norose, Kazumi; Aosai, Fumie

    2014-11-01

    A 33-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was suspected of being primarily infected with Toxoplasma gondii at 12 weeks of gestation (GW). Although acetylspiramycin was started at 17 GW, the T. gondii DNA gene was detected in the amniotic fluid at 18 GW. Chemotherapy was changed to pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine from 20 GW, but was changed back to acetylspiramycin after 2 weeks because of vomiting. Acetylspiramycin was continued until her delivery. DM was controlled well during the pregnancy. An asymptomatic male baby was born by cesarean section at 37 GW, and was treated with acetylspiramycin for 4 weeks because the polymerase chain reaction results of umbilical cord blood were positive. He has developed normally until the present, that is, 6 months of age. Herein, we describe a case report in which symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis was avoided in a pregnant woman with an immunosuppressive risk due to prompt chemotherapy. PMID:25164320

  7. Müller cell activation and photoreceptor depletion in a mice model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Ibtissem; Pfaff, Alexander W; Marcellin, Luc; Sauer, Arnaud; Moussa, Adnane; Babba, Hamouda; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2014-09-01

    Müller glial cells are critically involved in retinal inflammatory processes. Here, we investigate the activation of Müller cells in a model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Four weeks after infection, retinal sections were studied immunohistochemically using the markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Müller cells showed strong up-regulation of both markers, as well as a deteriorated morphology in all infected retinas. Moreover, cell density and color intensity of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of photoreceptors were decreased. Our results indicate that the severe retinal damage and loss of vision observed in human OT may be not only directly caused by infection but rather mediated by infection induced reactive gliosis. PMID:24929147

  8. Recombinant Dense Granular Protein (GRA5) for Detection of Human Toxoplasmosis by Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Xiao Teng; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Andiappan, Hemah

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5) in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5) was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp.). PMID:24987700

  9. Recombinant dense granular protein (GRA5) for detection of human toxoplasmosis by Western blot.

    PubMed

    Ching, Xiao Teng; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Andiappan, Hemah

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5) in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5) was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp.). PMID:24987700

  10. Toxoplasmosis Infection and Cognitive Deficit after Electroconvulsive Treatment (ECT), Is There a Connection?

    PubMed Central

    E. Berg, John

    2012-01-01

    Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) has developed over 70 years to a modern, effective way of lifting depressive moods. Memory loss and visual acuity after electroconvulsive treatment is the only remaining relevant criticism of the treatment modality when considering the overall rate of remission from this treatment compared to all other treatment modalities. A depressive state impedes memory, and memory improves on several qualities of cognition after treatment. However, the comparison of a person’s memory ability from the months before depression started to the level after a course of ECT is never performed, for obvious reasons. Some infectious diseases are known to influence memory negatively through effects on the dopamine receptors. More specifically, former toxoplasmosis infection may be a factor. Preliminary data on titres of toxoplasma IgG may indicate a connection to the development of long-standing memory problems after ECT. PMID:24600630

  11. Subretinal Fluid in Eyes with Active Ocular Toxoplasmosis Observed Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qing; Heussen, Florian M.; Keane, Pearse A.; Stübiger, Nicole; Sadda, Srinivas R.; Pleyer, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical finding of subretinal fluid (SRF) in the posterior pole by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Design Retrospective case series. Participants Thirty-eight eyes from 39 patients with active OT. Methods Eyes with active OT which underwent SD-OCT were reviewed. SRFs in the posterior pole were further analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Presence of SRF; its accompanying features, e.g. retinal necrosis, cystoid macular edema (CME), choroidal neovascularization (CNV); and longitudinal changes of SRF, including maximum height and total volume before and after treatment. Results SRF presented in 45.5% (or 15/33) of eyes with typical active OT and in 51.3% (or 20/39) of eyes with active OT. The mean maximum height and total volume of SRF were 161.0 (range: 23–478) µm and 0.47 (range: 0.005–4.12) mm3, respectively. For 12 eyes with SRF related to active retinal necrosis, SRF was observed with complete absorption after conventional anti-toxoplasmosis treatment. The mean duration for observation of SRF clearance was 33.8 (range: 7–84) days. The mean rate of SRF clearance was 0.0128 (range: 0.0002–0.0665) mm3/day. Conclusions SRF (i.e., serous retinal detachment) is a common feature in patients with active OT when SD-OCT is performed. The majority of SRF was associated with retinal necrosis and reacted well to conventional therapy, regardless of total fluid volume. However, SRF accompanying with CME or CNV responded less favorably or remained refractory to conventional or combined intravitreal treatment, even when the SRF was small in size. PMID:26010656

  12. Alternative treatment approach to cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: experience from a resource poor setting.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Rama Prosad; Goswami, Rudra Prosad; Rahman, Mehebubar; Ray, Yogiraj; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2014-11-18

    The current standard treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis (pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine) often encounters problems of poor tolerability, adverse effects, frequent dropouts and non-availability of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine in some parts of India. We had to use the combination of two effective alternative agents for toxoplasmosis, cotrimoxazole and clindamycin, on compassionate ground. This retrospective observational study reports superior efficacy and better tolerability of cotrimoxazole/clindamycin compared to recommended regimen. Primary end-point (complete response) was defined as more than 50% improvement of clinical status or more than 50% decrease in the size of brain lesions after two weeks of treatment initiation. Complete response occurred more commonly in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin than in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine (80% vs. 31.25%, respectively, relative risk 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-5.43). There was a trend towards higher on-treatment mortality in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine in comparison to cotrimoxazole/clindamycin group (mortality rates 37.5% in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine vs 12% in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin, p?=?0.07, relative risk?=?3.125, 95% confidence interval: 0.91-10.75). Overall, 62.5% (10/16) patients in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine suffered drug-related adverse reactions compared to 24% (6/25) in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (p?=?0.02, relative risk?=?2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-5.76). Commonest complication in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine was severe thrombocytopenia with major bleeding (4/16, 25%). We propose that the new combination chemotherapy, which is widely available, effective and safe, can be practiced in developing countries. PMID:25411350

  13. Biofuels, Climate Policy and the European Vehicle Fleet

    E-print Network

    Rausch, Sebastian

    We examine the effect of biofuels mandates and climate policy on the European vehicle fleet, considering the prospects for diesel and gasoline vehicles. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, ...

  14. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii secretory IgA in tears of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis: immunodiagnostic validation by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Maria Isabel; Malagueńo, Elizabeth; Lynch, Luiz Felipe; Ferreira, Silvana; Stheling, Raphael; Oréfice, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes posterior uveitis and the specific diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. The presence of anti-T. gondii secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies in patients' tears has been reported and an association was found between ocular toxoplasmosis and the anti-T. gondii sIgA isotype in Brazilian patients. The purpose of this study was to provide an objective validation of the published ELISA test for determining the presence of anti-T. gondii sIgA in the tears of individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis. Tears from 156 patients with active posterior uveitis were analysed; 82 of them presented characteristics of ocular toxoplasmosis (standard lesion) and 74 patients presented uveitis due to other aetiologies. Cases of active posterior uveitis were considered standard when a new inflammatory focus satellite to old retinochoroidal scars was observed. The determination of anti-T. gondii sIgA was made using an ELISA test with crude tachyzoite antigenic extracts. Tears were collected without previous stimulation. Detection of sIgA showed 65.9% sensitivity (95% CI = 54.5-74.4), 71.6% specificity (95% CI = 59.8-81.2), a positive predictive value of 72% (95% CI = 60.3-81.5) and a negative predictive value of 65.4% (95% CI = 54.0-75.4). sIgA reactivity was higher in the tears of patients with active posterior uveitis due to T. gondii (p < 0.05). The test is useful for differentiating active posterior uveitis due to toxoplasmosis from uveitis caused by other diseases. PMID:19876553

  15. Usefulness of Stereotactic biopsy and neuroimaging in management of HIV-1 clade C associated focal brain lesions with special focus on cerebral toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Shyam Babu, C; Satishchandra, P; Mahadevan, A; Shibu Pillai, V; Ravishankar, S; Sidappa, N; Udaykumar, Ranga; Ravi, V; Shankar, SK

    2015-01-01

    Background Focal brain lesions (FBL) in HIV/AIDS frequently pose a diagnostic dilemma as the etiology varies from infective (tuberculoma, toxoplasmosis and tuberculous abscesses) to neoplastic lesions like lymphoma. For determining etiology, advanced neuroimaging techniques, serological and molecular biological tests have been evolved with varying sensitivities/specificities. Stereotactic biopsy (STB) of the lesions is reserved for lesions unresponsive to appropriate therapy. Objective & Methods In this study, the diagnostic yield of neuroimaging [Cranial CT (n=25), MRI (n=24), and Th 201/99 Tc SPECT scan (n=18)] is compared with histopathological diagnosis obtained by STB (n=21) or autopsy (n=4) in 25 HIV-1 subtype C seropositive individuals with FBL identified by neuroimaging with special reference to cerebral toxoplasmosis in an eighteen month study period (2006–2007). Results & conclusion Cerebral toxoplasmosis was the most frequent cause of FBL (21/25, 84%), followed by one case each of tuberculoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), the last two diagnosed at autopsy. Of the 21 cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, definitive diagnosis with histopathological confirmation was available in 14/21 (66.6%), with indirect evidence suggesting probable toxoplasmosis in seven, all of whom responded to antitoxoplasma therapy. CT and MRI had comparable specificities (75%), while MRI had marginally higher sensitivity (85% versus 80.9%) in detecting multiple lesions. The positive predictive value of both CT and MRI were identical (94.4%), suggesting that CT maybe a cost effective screening tool in resource restricted settings, for evaluating FBL. Sensitivity of 99Tc SPECT scan for diagnosing inflammatory lesions was 75% but failed to differentiate PCNSL from toxoplasmosis. This study is the first of its kind from India analysing FBL with specific focus on cerebral toxoplasmosis in the setting of HIV-1 subtype C. PMID:23153789

  16. Clinical validation of a western blot assay for congenital toxoplasmosis and newborn screening in a hospital in Armenia (Quindio) Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Marín, Carolina; Henao, Ana Carolina; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2006-04-01

    Congenital Toxoplasma infection can only be discovered or prevented by the appropriate serological screening and subsequent treatment of the mother and her offspring. In Colombia, there is no obligatory Toxoplasma screening for pregnant women and both the reporting and follow-up of congenital toxoplasmosis cases is limited, thereby is a public health problem that have no been addressed by health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in a public hospital from Armenia, Colombia. A total of 200 serum samples of cord blood were collected. We applied a western blot assay (ID Blot DPC Diagnostics, US) for Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies that was validated in a cohort of children with confirmed presence or absence of congenital infection. The sensitivity of western blot assay was 91 per cent and the specificity was 100 per cent. In the cord blood samples, we found one infected child that died at day 4 of life and his infection was confirmed by PCR of the B1 specific Toxoplasma gene on brain biopsy. This results show a high prevalence (0.5 per cent, IC95 per cent 0.2-0.8) of Toxoplasma infection in Colombian newborns. Thus, we recommend additional studies to determine the cost-effectiveness of a newborn screening program for congenital toxoplasmosis in other settings in Colombia. PMID:16014760

  17. Results of the National External Quality Assessment for Toxoplasmosis Serological Testing in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kuo; Wang, Lunan; Lin, Guigao; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Rui; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is typically diagnosed by serologic testing. External quality assessment (EQA) of clinical laboratories could ensure the accuracy and reliability of serological tests. We assessed the quality of toxoplasma serological assays in Chinese clinical laboratories by an EQA performed between 2004 and 2013 by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories. Methodology and Findings EQA panels were prepared and shipped at room temperature to participating laboratories that employed toxoplasma IgG and IgM serological detection. By 2013, 5,384 EQA test reports for toxoplasma-specific IgM and 2,666 reports for toxoplasma-specific IgG were collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and chemical immunofluorescent assays were the most commonly used detection methods. The overall coincidence rates of negative samples were better than those of positive samples. The overall EQA score for toxoplasma-specific IgM detection ranged between 84.3% and 99.6%. The ratio of laboratories that achieved correct IgG detection ranged from 61.1% to 99.3%. However, the inter- and intra-assay variabilities were found to be considerable. The most common problem was failure to detect low titers of antibody. Conclusion The EQA scheme showed an improvement in toxoplasma serological testing in China. However, further optimization of assay sensitivity to detect challenging samples remains a future challenge. PMID:26066047

  18. Chronic murine toxoplasmosis is defined by subtle changes in neuronal connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Parlog, Alexandru; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Weller, Marianna; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Mawrin, Christian; Korte, Martin; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies correlate chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection with behavioral changes in rodents; additionally, seropositivity in humans is reported to be associated with behavioral and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study we investigated whether the described behavioral changes in a murine model of chronic toxoplasmosis are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity and brain neuronal circuitry. In mice chronically infected with T. gondii, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data analysis displayed the presence of heterogeneous lesions scattered throughout all brain areas. However, a higher density of lesions was observed within specific regions such as the somatosensory cortex (SSC). Further histopathological examination of these brain areas indicated the presence of activated resident glia and recruited immune cells accompanied by limited alterations of neuronal viability. In vivo diffusion-tensor MRI analysis of neuronal fiber density within the infected regions revealed connectivity abnormalities in the SSC. Altered fiber density was confirmed by morphological analysis of individual, pyramidal and granule neurons, showing a reduction in dendritic arbor and spine density within the SSC, as well as in the hippocampus. Evaluation of synapse efficacy revealed diminished levels of two key synaptic proteins, PSD95 and synaptophysin, within the same brain areas, indicating deficits in functionality of the synaptic neurotransmission in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. gondii infection in a murine model results in synaptic deficits within brain structures leading to disturbances in the morphology of noninfected neurons and modified brain connectivity, suggesting a potential explanation for the behavioral and neuropsychiatric alterations. PMID:24524910

  19. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Brancal, Hugo; Dubey, Jitender P; Cardoso, Luís; Vilhena, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also at assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n?=?103) brought to a veterinary clinic in the city of Luanda were investigated. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii with a modified agglutination test (MAT) commercial kit, at serial dilutions of 1?20 to 1?160. In accordance with the established cutoff value (MAT ?20), 16 dogs [15·5%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9·2-24·0%] had antibodies to T. gondii: 10 had a titer of 20, two had a titer of 40, and four had a titer of 80. Age (?12 months) was found to be a risk factor for infection [odds ratio (OR)?=?9·23; 95% CI: 1·16-73·27). For each 1-year increase in age, the risk of a dog being found seropositive significantly increased by an OR of 1·18 (95% CI: 1·02-1·36). The present study, which represents the first serological survey of T. gondii in any animal species from Angola, reveals a 15·5% seroprevalence of infection in pet dogs in Luanda. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiology of zoonotic T. gondii infection in Luanda and also in Angola. PMID:25392293

  20. A New IgG Immunoblot Kit for Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Saghrouni, Fatma; Lakhal, Sami; Bouratbine, Aida; Ben Said, Moncef; Boukadida, Jalel

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the accurate immune status of pregnant women is crucial in order to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis. Equivocal results with conventional serological techniques are not uncommon when IgG titers are close to the cut-off value of the test, so that a confirmatory technique is needed. For this purpose, we developed a homemade immunoblot (IB) using soluble extract of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and assessed it by testing 154 positive, 100 negative, and 123 equivocal sera obtained from pregnant women. In order to select the more valuable bands in terms of sensitivity and specificity, we used the Youden Index (YI). The highest YIs were those given by the 32, 36, 98, 21, and 33 bands. The simultaneous presence on the same blot of at least 3 bands showed a much higher YI (0.964) and was adapted as the positivity criterion. The analysis of results showed that our homemade IB correlated well with the commercial LDBIO Toxo II IgG® kit recently recommended as a confirmatory test (96.7% of concordance). PMID:25352697

  1. Triclosan and triclosan-loaded liposomal nanoparticles in the treatment of acute experimental toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    El-Zawawy, Lobna A; El-Said, Doaa; Mossallam, Shereen F; Ramadan, Heba S; Younis, Salwa S

    2015-02-01

    Efficacy of triclosan (TS) and TS-loaded liposomes against the virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) was evaluated. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with 10(4) tachyzoites of RH HXGPRT(-) strain of T. gondii, then were orally treated with 150?mg/kg TS or 100?mg/kg TS liposomes twice daily for 4 days. Mice mortality, peritoneal and liver parasite burdens, viability, infectivity and ultrastructural changes of peritoneal tachyzoites of infected treated mice were studied, in comparison with those of infected non-treated controls. Drug safety was biochemically assessed by measuring liver enzymes and thyroxin. Both TS and TS liposomes induced significant reduction in mice mortality, parasite burden, viability and infectivity of tachyzoites harvested from infected treated mice. Scanning electron microscopy of treated tachyzoites showed distorted shapes, reduced sizes, irregularities, surface protrusions, erosions and peeling besides apical region distortion. Transmission electron microscopy showed that treated tachyzoites were intracellularly distorted, had cytoplasmic vacuolation, discontinuous plasma membranes, nuclear abnormalities and disrupted internal structures. Besides, in TS liposomes-treated subgroup, most tachyzoites were seen intracellularly with complete disintegration of the parasite plasma and nuclear membranes, with complete destruction of the internal structures. Biochemical safety of TS and TS liposomes was proven. Accordingly, TS can be considered as a promising alternative to the standard therapy for treating acute murine toxoplasmosis. Liposomal formulation of TS enhanced its efficacy and allowed its use in a lower dose. PMID:25499511

  2. An overview of seventy years of research (1944-2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Cańón-Franco, William Alberto; López-Orozco, Natalia; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from Colombia. Recent studies, especially in the states of Antioquia, Quindío and Cundinamarca, indicate that toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem. Approximately half of the women of child bearing age have T. gondii antibodies, and the clinical disease in congenitally infected children is more severe than in Europe. Limited studies indicate that the strains of T. gondii from Colombia are genetically and phenotypically different than in Europe and North America. However, epidemiological factors, such as the involvement of domestic and/or wild animals in transmission, the distribution of strain diversity by natural geographic regions, and the variation in risk factors between regions that are associated with human infection in Colombia, remain unknown. Areas of research for the future are outlined. This review should be of interest to biologists, veterinarians, physicians, and parasitologists. PMID:25190525

  3. Undergraduate Prospectus 2011 The UK's European university

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Emil M.

    's European university 12 International opportunities 14 Excellent job prospects 16 Our students 18 Come and centres American Studies American Studies 28 Anthropology and Conservation Anthropology 30 Biological Anthropology 44 Conservation 64 Medical Anthropology 140 Social Anthropology 162 Architecture Architecture 34

  4. Common Core History for Young Europeans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A required core contemporary history course is proposed for Europe's senior pupils, needed because of prospects for European integration. The course could be shaped by pairing three fundamental ideas with related conflicts: Reformation/30 Years War, Enlightenment/French Revolution and Napoleanic Wars, and Nationalism/World Wars I and II. (IAH)

  5. Auranofin Is Highly Efficacious against Toxoplasma gondii In Vitro and in an In Vivo Experimental Model of Acute Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Rosa M.; Chaparro, Juan D.; Capparelli, Edmund; Reed, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The mainstay of toxoplasmosis treatment targets the folate biosynthetic pathways and has not changed for the last 50 years. The activity of these chemotherapeutic agents is restricted to one lifecycle stage of Toxoplasma gondii, they have significant toxicity, and the impending threat of emerging resistance to these agents makes the discovery of new therapies a priority. We now demonstrate that auranofin, an orally administered gold containing compound that was FDA approved for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has activity against Toxoplasma gondii in vitro (IC50?=?0.28 µM) and in vivo (1 mg/kg). Methods/Principal Findings Replication within human foreskin fibroblasts of RH tachyzoites was inhibited by auranofin. At 0.4 µM, auranofin inhibited replication, as measured by percent infected fibroblasts at 24 hrs, (10.94% vs. 24.66% of controls; p?=?0.0003) with no effect on parasite invasion (16.95% vs. 12.91% p?=?0.4331). After 18 hrs, 62% of extracellular parasites treated with auranofin were non-viable compared to control using an ATP viability assay (p?=?0.0003). In vivo, a previously standardized chicken embryo model of acute toxoplasmosis was used. Fourteen day old chicken embryos were injected through the chorioallantoic vein with 1×104 tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain. The treatment group received one dose of auranofin at the time of inoculation (1 mg/kg estimated body weight). On day 5, auranofin-treated chicken embryos were 100% protected against death (p?=?0.0002) and had a significantly reduced parasite load as determined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and by the number of parasites quantified by real-time PCR. Conclusions These results reveal in vitro and in vivo activity of auranofin against T. gondii, suggesting that it may be an effective alternative treatment for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25079790

  6. Ocular toxoplasmosis past, present and new aspects of an old disease.

    PubMed

    Maenz, M; Schlüter, D; Liesenfeld, O; Schares, G; Gross, U; Pleyer, U

    2014-03-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is considered the most frequent form of infectious posterior uveitis and is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The resulting vision loss frequently incapacitates patients and places a considerable socio-economic burden on societies in particular in developing countries. Although, toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is a world-wide phenomenon stark regional differences with regard to prevalence and presumably route of infection exist. This review will discuss our current clinical understanding of OT including typical and atypical manifestations, patient characteristics which influence the course of disease and treatment options. Even though, congenital and acquired OT are not regarded as separate entities, certain differences exist, which will be assessed and evaluated in detail. A strong focus is laid on the disease causing parasite T. gondii, since solving the mystery of OT aetiology and the development of improved therapies will not be possibly with clinical science alone, but rather requires a precise understanding of parasitological and immunological pathomechanisms. Additionally, the biology and genetics of T. gondii form the foundation for novel and sophisticated diagnostic methods. Scientific advances in the recent years have shed some light on the different role of T. gondii strains with regard to OT manifestation and severity of disease. Genetic and environmental factors influencing OT will be presented and commonalities between OT and toxoplasmic encephalitis will be briefly discussed. Furthermore, the laboratory tools to study OT are crucial in our understanding of OT. In vivo and in vitro experimental approaches will be summarised and evaluated extensively. Finally, a brief outlook is given in which direction OT research should be headed in the future. PMID:24412517

  7. Evaluation of a New Protocol for Retrospective Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis by Use of Guthrie Cards

    PubMed Central

    Capretti, Maria Grazia; De Angelis, Morena; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Foschi, Claudio; Orlandi, Azzurra; Marsico, Concetta; Righetti, Francesca; Faldella, Giacomo; Cevenini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of IgM Western blotting (WB), IgA enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and DNA amplification by real-time PCR on Guthrie cards to retrospectively establish the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). To this purpose, Guthrie cards were collected from 18 infants born to mothers with primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Moreover, the analytical sensitivity of T. gondii PCR was assessed by testing mock dried blood specimens set up with several known DNA dilutions. IgM WB was demonstrated to be the most sensitive method. When the results of T. gondii DNA detection and specific IgM recovery were combined, retrospective CT diagnosis by using Guthrie cards was established in 3 out of 6 infected infants (sensitivity, 50%; 95% confidence interval, 26.8% to 73.2%). No positive PCR or serologic results were found in the group of 12 uninfected infants, demonstrating the excellent specificity of the three methods (95% confidence interval, 78.1% to 99.5%). The findings of the present study suggest that, in cases of missed diagnosis of CT at birth, analysis of Guthrie cards for children with compatible clinical findings after the perinatal period, in particular the combination of recovery of specific IgM antibodies and T. gondii DNA amplification, could be helpful. Nevertheless, since suboptimal conditions of storage of dried blood specimens can seriously affect sensitivity, negative results cannot rule out CT diagnosis. In contrast, because of the excellent specificity shown by IgM serologic testing and T. gondii DNA amplification on Guthrie cards, positive results obtained by either of the two methods should be considered diagnostic. PMID:24899036

  8. Identification of an atypical strain of Toxoplasma gondii as the cause of a waterborne outbreak of toxoplasmosis in Santa IsabeldoIvai, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified an atypical strain of Toxoplasmagondii as the causative agent of the 2001 outbreak of toxoplasmosis in Santa Isabel do Ivai, Brazil, which resulted in approximately 426 human infections. The epidemic clone was isolated from multiple water filters collected from a cistern linked ep...

  9. Cerebral toxoplasmosis after umbilical cord blood transplantation diagnosed by the detection of anti-toxoplasma specific IgM antibody in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Akiko; Koh, Hideo; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Okamura, Hiroshi; Inoue, Atsushi; Nanno, Satoru; Nakane, Takahiko; Shimono, Taro; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Hino, Masayuki

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a rare, potentially fatal, complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation. Early definitive diagnosis is very difficult and it may be associated with a poor prognosis. Herein, we describe a 60-year-old woman who developed cerebral toxoplasmosis after cord blood transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome. During treatment with tacrolimus and methylprednisolone for relapsed grade 2 acute gut GVHD, fever and disturbance of consciousness occurred on day 210. Brain MRI showed multiple ring-enhancing nodular lesions in the thalamus, basal ganglia, brainstem, and subcortical white matter. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessment revealed elevations of both anti-to-xoplasma IgM and IgG, which were also elevated in serum, but no evidence of other infections or malignancies. Notably, the IgM level was higher in the CSF than in serum. Thus, cerebral toxoplasmosis was diagnosed. Soon after administration of oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and intravenous clindamycin in combination with short-term dexamethasone for the cerebral edema, her symptoms and signs began to improve. On day 229, both IgM and IgG titers in CSF had clearly decreased but remained essentially constant in serum. She was discharged without clinically significant neurological disorders. This case suggests that CSF specific anti-toxoplasma IgM titers might be useful for early diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis after transplantation. PMID:24850458

  10. Toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recent...

  11. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN 3 SPECIES OF HAWAIIAN BIRDS, NEN GOOSE (NESOCHEN SANDKENSIS), ERCKELS FRANCOLIA (FRANCOLINUS ERCKERLII), AND RED-FOOTED BOOBY (SULA SULA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection was diagnosed in 3 species of Hawaiian birds, 2 Nene goose (Nesochen sankensis), 1 Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii), and 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii was found in sections of many organs of the...

  12. [Rudolf-Virchow Prize 1998. Award lecture. Toxoplasmosis: a model infection for studying systemic and intracerebral immune reactions].

    PubMed

    Deckert-Schlüter, M

    1998-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis has gained particular attention in the AIDS era as the most common opportunistic encephalitis in HIV-infected patients. Since there are important parallels between the human and rodent infection, experimental murine toxoplasmosis is widely used to study the immune reactions to this protozoal parasite. Oral application of low-virulent Toxoplasma (T.) gondii cysts leads to a biphasic disease characterized by an acute, generalized phase followed by a chronic stage confined to the brain, where an encephalitis with persistence of the parasite develops. Immunity to T. gondii is T cell mediated, and there is increasing evidence for a critical role of cytokines for an effective immune response. In order to address the functional role of interferon (IFN)-gamma in toxoplasmosis, we took advantage of mice lacking the IFN-gamma-receptor. Inactivation of the IFN-gamma-receptor rendered mice highly susceptible to T. gondii, and they died of a fulminant acute toxoplasmosis. Among the various organs affected, hepatitis was severe enough to cause death. In contrast to wild type animals, IFN-gamma-receptor-deficient mice were unable to activate their macrophages as evidenced by a lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen induction and the absence of an upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA transcripts, two macrophage effector molecules. These observations prompted the investigation of TNF- and TNF-receptor-mediated effects in toxoplasmosis by use of mice deficient in either the TNF-receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and/or the TNF-receptor type 2 (TNFR2). The lethal outcome of T. gondii-infected TNFR1/2- and TNFR1-deficient mice, but not of TNFR2-deficient and wild type animals, illustrated the important role of TNF-alpha and TNFR1-mediated signalling, respectively, in this infection. Histopathology attributed death of TNFR1- and TNFR1/2-deficient mice to a severe, necrotizing encephalitis. Unrestricted intracerebral parasite replication in these strains was associated with reduced numbers of iNOS+ leukocytes and a lack of iNOS mRNA induction in their brains as compared to resistant wild type and TNFR2-deficient mice. To precisely identify the cellular sources of cytokines in the brain, flow cytometry of leukocytes isolated from the brain, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis of cytokine mRNA transcripts of magnetically purified leukocyte populations were performed. These studies disclosed that both CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages recruited to the brain as well as resident cell populations of the CNS including neurons, astrocytes and microglia contributed to the intracerebral cytokine synthesis. Each population was characterized by a specific cytokine pattern. Interestingly, activation of brain cells is a hallmark of Toxoplasma encephalitis. The marked induction of a variety of immunologically important cell surface molecules as MHC class I and II antigens, cell adhesion molecules and their ligands on microglia points to a particular important role of this cell type for the immune response to T. gondii, since the expression of these molecules is a prerequisite for cellular interactions with T cells. The observation of a prominent interleukin (IL)-10 production in the T. gondii-infected brain initiated studies addressing the function of this powerful immunosuppressive mediator in chronic Toxoplasma encephalitis. Neutralization experiments revealed that IL-10 facilitates persistence of the parasite in the brain by downregulating the intracerebral immune response. On the other hand, IL-10 may exert a regulatory role and may be necessary to prevent immunopathological effects of an uncontrolled immune response. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate the important role of the cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and their receptors, respectively, for an effective control of T. gondii. In the CNS, the target organ of the parasite, a PMID:10095413

  13. Office of Research Prospecting

    E-print Network

    WORK FLOW Office of Research Boot Camps Workshops RFP Prospecting Limited Submissions Grant&V Coordination Web Presence Consultants (legal/R&D) Prospecting Corporation s Technology Coordination Patent

  14. Validation of the revised international prognostic scoring system (IPSS-R) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: a report from the prospective European LeukaemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry.

    PubMed

    de Swart, Louise; Smith, Alex; Johnston, Thomas W; Haase, Detlef; Droste, Jackie; Fenaux, Pierre; Symeonidis, Argiris; Sanz, Guillermo; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Cermák, Jaroslav; Germing, Ulrich; Stauder, Reinhard; Georgescu, Otilia; MacKenzie, Marius; Malcovati, Luca; Holm, Mette S; Almeida, Antonio M; M?dry, Krzysztof; Slama, Borhane; Guerci-Bresler, Agnes; Sanhes, Laurence; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Luńo, Elisa; Bowen, David; de Witte, Theo

    2015-08-01

    Baseline characteristics, disease-management and outcome of 1000 lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients within the European LeukaemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) Registry are described in conjunction with the validation of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). The EUMDS registry confirmed established prognostic factors, such as age, gender and World Health Organization 2001 classification. Low quality of life (EQ-5D visual analogue scale score) was significantly associated with reduced survival. A high co-morbidity index predicted poor outcome in univariate analyses. The IPSS-R identified a large group of 247 patients with Low (43%) and Very low (23%) risk score within the IPSS intermediate-1 patients. The IPSS-R also identified 32 High or Very high risk patients within the IPSS intermediate-1 patients. IPSS-R was superior to the IPSS for predicting both disease progression and survival. Seventy percent of patients received MDS-specific treatment or supportive care, including red blood cell transfusions (51%), haematopoietic growth factors (58%) and iron chelation therapy (8%), within 2 years of diagnosis; while 30% of the patients only required active monitoring. The IPSS-R proved its utility as a more refined risk stratification tool for the identification of patients with a very good or poor prognosis and in this lower-risk MDS population. PMID:25907546

  15. European Central Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

  16. European solar thermal market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Stryi-Hipp

    2001-01-01

    The first comprehensive study about the European solar thermal market came out in 1996. The European Solar Industry Federation (ESIF) had conducted it within the framework of the ALTENER program of the European Commission and published it with the title “Sun in Action.” Experts from 10 countries collated descriptions of the European and some non-European markets. The market data published

  17. Detection of anti-toxoplasma immunoglobulin A antibodies by Platelia-Toxo IgA directed against P30 and by IMx Toxo IgA for diagnosis of acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Decoster, A; Gontier, P; Dehecq, E; Demory, J L; Duhamel, M

    1995-01-01

    Platelia-Toxo IgA and IMx Toxo IgA assays were used with 260 serum samples, of which 93 were from seroconverted patients, 58 were from 21 congenitally infected children, and 109 were from uninfected patients, to detect anti-P30 immunoglobulin A antibodies. Because of its enhanced sensitivity, Platelia-Toxo IgA is more efficient in diagnosing acute or congenital toxoplasmosis. IMx Toxo IgA must not be used to diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:7559982

  18. European Space Agency European Space Exploration

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    European Space Agency Aurora European Space Exploration Programme EXECUTIVE SUMMARY #12;2 Aurora Programme EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. What is Aurora? A European Space Exploration Programme based on a road map economically and politically as a leading world power, it cannot leave space exploration to the other space

  19. European Dialogue: The Magazine for European Integration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new bimonthly magazine published by the European Commission is targeted at "decision-makers/opinion formers having an impact on European Integration" in the ten Central European and Baltic countries that have applied to join the EU. The electronic version of the first issue contains articles on humanitarian aid, membership negotiations, pensions, and economic forecasts.

  20. Diversity and evolution of methods and practices for the molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in France: a 4-year survey.

    PubMed

    Sterkers, Y; Varlet-Marie, E; Marty, P; Bastien, P

    2010-10-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is currently based upon molecular biology using a sample of amniotic fluid. The vast majority of centres globally (and all centres in France) performing this diagnosis use 'in house' or laboratory-developed PCR assays. This may be the source of considerable inter-laboratory variation in the performances of the assays, hampering any valuable comparison of data among different centres. The present study was based upon questionnaires that were sent to 21-25 centres between 2002 and 2005 enquiring about methods and practices of the PCR-based prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. An extreme diversity of PCR methods and practices was observed. Thus, in 2005, 35 PCR methods, differing in one of the main steps of the whole process, were reported as being in use for routine diagnosis, with nine centres using two or three methods. We provide comprehensive information on the extraction methods, DNA targets, primer pairs and detection methods used for this diagnosis, as well as their evolution, during the period of study. Interestingly, in this period (2002-2005), a rapid progression of the number of laboratories using real-time PCR technology, which increased from four to 19, was observed. We also studied general PCR practices concerning, for example, the number of reaction tubes used for each biological sample and the inclusion of controls. The return of information in a yearly report provided the opportunity for writing proposals aiming to improve laboratory practices for this diagnosis at the national level. The high diversity of methods and practices currently used emphasizes the need for external quality assessment of the performances of the molecular diagnostic methods. PMID:19886905

  1. On the economic prospects of nuclear fusion with tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Schmitter, K. H.

    1987-12-01

    A method of cost and construction energy estimation for tokamak fusion power stations conforming to the present stage of fusion development is described. The method is based on first-wall heat load constraints rather than Beta limitations, which, however, might eventually be the more critical of the two. It is used to discuss the economic efficiency of pure fusion, with particular reference to the European study entitled Environmental Impact and Economic Prospects of Nuclear Fusion (1986). It is shown that the claims made therein for the economic prospects of pure fusion with tokamaks, when discussed on the basis of the present-day technology, do not stand up to critical examination. A fusion-fission hybrid, however, could afford more positive prospects. Support for the stated method is derived when it is properly applied for cost estimation of advanced gas-cooled and Magnox reactors, the two examples presented by the European study to disprove it.

  2. European Freedom of Establishing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Wach

    2007-01-01

    The European Union creates new opportunities and possibilities for Polish entrepreneurs especially in the field of international entrepreneurship activities. The paper elaborates on the freedom of establishment in the European Union, which makes friendly environment for Polish enterprises to globalize and especially Europeanize their activities. The paper discuss the legal and organizational dimensions of European freedom of establishment.

  3. Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

    2014-04-01

    A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety. PMID:24680078

  4. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii by Multiplex PCR and Peptide-Based Serological Testing of Samples from Infants in Poland Diagnosed with Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska, Dorota; Colón, Iris; Remington, Jack S.; Grigg, Michael; Golab, Elzbieta; Wilczynski, J.; Sibley, L. David

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has a clonal population genetic structure with three (I, II, and III) lineages that predominate in North America and Europe. Type II strains cause most cases of symptomatic human infections in France and the United States, although few other regions have been adequately sampled. Here we determined the parasite genotype in amniotic fluid and cerebrospinal fluid samples from congenital toxoplasmosis cases in Poland. Nineteen confirmed congenital cases of toxoplasmosis were analyzed, including both severe and asymptomatic cases. The genotype of parasite strains causing congenital infection was determined by direct PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Nested multiplex PCR analysis was used to type four independent polymorphic markers. The sensitivity of multiplex nested PCR was ?25 parasites/ml in amniotic fluid and cerebral spinal fluid samples. Parasite DNA was successfully amplified in 9 of 19 samples (eight severely affected and one asymptomatic fetus). Only genotype II parasites were identified as the source of T. gondii infection based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Strains causing congenital infections were also typed indirectly based on detection of antibodies to strain-specific peptides. Serotyping indicated that 12 of 15 cases tested were caused by type II strains and these positives included both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Overall, the combined analysis indicated that 14 of the cases were caused by type II strains. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that parasite burden is associated with severity of congenital toxoplasmosis and indicate that serological testing provides a promising method for genotypic analysis of toxoplasmosis. PMID:16597866

  5. Clinical Results with ProDisc: European Experience and U.S. Investigation Device Exemption Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack E. Zigler

    Study Design. This study is based on a review of the literature related to the use of the ProDisc device and a report of the preliminary results of a prospective random- ized study. Objectives. To review European results related to the use of the ProDisc device and compare the results of this device to lumbar fusion in a prospective, randomized

  6. The Relationship between Life Goals and Fields of Study among Young European Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Gabaldon, Daniel; Mora, Jose-Gines; Vila, Luis E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships among life goals, job prospects and fields of study for a sample of young European higher education graduates. The results show that there is a characteristic pattern for each field of study with regard to the variables used. Graduates in a given field have similar life goals and job prospects, as well as a…

  7. Ocular toxoplasmosis: evaluation of lacrimal-specific secretory IgA levels in both patients with active and inactive phases of the disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Luiz Felipe; Lynch, Maria Isabel; Ferreira, Rodrigo Santana do Nascimento; Vasconcelos, Mirelle Souza Leăo; Melo, Narjara; Ferreira, Silvana; Malagueńo, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis can result in recurrent uveitis. Studies have shown that a correlation between active ocular toxoplasmosis and the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii secretory IgA (SIgA) in tears. This study compares anti-T. gondii SIgA levels in patients' tears during the acute and inactive phases of toxoplasmic uveitis. Twenty-nine positive tear specific SIgA for T. gondii patients with acute toxoplasmic uveitis were selected and were followed-up for at least two years, when the anti-T. gondii SIgA tears levels were determined. Specific SIgA for T. gondii was negative in 22 patients (75.86%) and positive in seven patients (24.13%) of whom six (85.7%) were followed over three years. Average SIgA levels during the acute phase are 1.54 and decrease significantly to 0.72 (p = 0.0001) during the inactive phase of disease. Because anti-T. gondii SIgA in the tear is negative in 75.86% of patients after the acute phase of infection, T. gondii SIgA levels may be used as a complementary diagnostic marker for active ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:21894386

  8. Molecular cloning of ribosomal P protein in Toxoplasma gondii and the availability to detect antibody against recombinant protein in toxoplasmosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hye-Jin; Kim, Sera

    2003-01-01

    Among the panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against Toxoplasma gondii, mAb of Tg621 (Tg621) clone blotted 38 kDa protein which localized in the cytoplasm of tachyzoites by immunofluorescence microscopy. The protein was not released into the parasitophorous vacuole during or after invasion. The cDNA fragment encoding the protein was obtained by screening a T. gondii cDNA expression library with Tg621. The full length cDNA sequence was completed with 5'-RACE as 1,592 bp, which contained open reading frame of 942 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of Tg621 consisted of a polypeptide of 313 amino acids, with significant homology to ribosomal P proteins (RPP) of other organisms especially high to those of apicomplexan species. The expressed and purified TgRPP was assayed in western blot with the sera of toxoplasmosis patients and normal sera, which resulted in the 74.0% of positive reactions in toxoplasmosis patients whereas 8.3% in normal group. Therefore, the antibody formation against TgRPP in toxoplasmosis patients was regarded as specific for T. gondii infection and suggested a potential autoantibody. PMID:12815319

  9. IgG avidity Western blot using Toxoplasma gondii rGRA-7 cloned from nucleotides 39-711 for serodiagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Poonam S; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Noordin, Rahmah; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Saadatnia, Geita; Golkar, Majid; Osman, Sabariah; Karim, Izzati Zahidah Abdul; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of congenital infection. The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of recombinant (r) GRA-7 cloned from nucleotides (n) 39-711 in discriminating between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. First, commercial IgM, IgG and IgG avidity ELISAs were used to determine the serological profile of the sera. Serum samples were from 20 symptomatic patients with acute infection (low IgG avidity, IgM positive), 10 with chronic infection (high IgG avidity, IgM negative) and 10 with indeterminate IgG avidity (IgM positive) which were tested for IgG avidity status with an in-house developed IgG avidity Western blot using the rGRA-7 recombinant antigen. All 20 sera from cases of probable acute infection showed bands which either faded out completely or reduced significantly in intensity after treatment with 8 M urea, whereas the band intensities of the 10 serum samples from chronic cases remained the same. Of the 10 sera with indeterminate IgG avidity status, after treatment with 8 M urea the band intensities with six sera remained the same, two sera had completely faded bands and another two sera had significantly reduced band intensities. Discrimination between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis was successfully performed by the in-house IgG avidity Western blot. PMID:23563759

  10. Assistant Director, Prospect Management Description

    E-print Network

    Portman, Douglas

    and to the Prospect Management Data Wranglers to assist their efforts in improving the quality of Prospect Management Management · Enter and monitor prospect assignments and new prospect records requests. · Monitor data quality of all functions and systems related to prospect management, including software applications, industry

  11. Prospective Validation Obtained in a Similar Group of Patients and with Similar High Throughput Biological Tests Failed to Confirm Signatures for Prediction of Response to Chemotherapy and Survival in Advanced NSCLC: A Prospective Study from the European Lung Cancer Working Party

    PubMed Central

    Berghmans, Thierry; Ameye, Lieveke; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Colinet, Benoît; Cortot, Alexis; CsToth, Ingrid; Holbrechts, Stéphane; Lecomte, Jacques; Mascaux, Céline; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Paesmans, Marianne; Richez, Michel; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Tulippe, Christian; Willems, Luc; Dernies, Tiffany; Leclercq, Nathalie; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Cisplatin doublets are standard 1st line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), without accurate predictor for response and survival, but important toxicity. Our aims were to identify predictive (for response) and prognostic (for survival) biological signatures in patients with NSCLC using messenger RNAs (mRNA) and miRNA expression. Methods: Patients with pathologically proven untreated NSCLC, receiving 1st line cisplatin–vinorelbine and with an assessable lesion were eligible. A bronchial biopsy was lysed into Tripure Isolation Reagent on ice, snap frozen, and stored at ?80°C. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarrays Agilent Technologies. miRNA expression was assessed using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (756 human miR panel, Applied Biosystems). Validation was performed by RT-PCR on the selected genes. Survival was measured from the registration date and response assessed by WHO criteria. Results: Biopsies for transcriptomic analyses were obtained from 60 consecutive patients. No statistically significant differences were observed according to the main clinical characteristics, response rate (43 vs. 41%) or survival (median 25 vs. 29?months) between derivation and validation sets. In the derivation set (n?=?38 patients), two mRNA and one miRNA predictive signatures for response were obtained. One mRNA and one miRNA prognostic signatures were derived from the first set, allowing an adequate distinction of patients with good and poor overall and progression-free survivals. None of these signatures could be validated in the validation set (n?=?22 patients). Conclusion: In this prospective study with advanced NSCLC treated with cisplatin–vinorelbine, we were able to derive with high throughput techniques predictive and prognostic signatures based on transcriptomic analyses. However, these results could not be reproduced in an independent validation set. The role of miRNA and mRNA as predictive or prognostic factors remains a research topic and the use of high throughput technology in that context questionable. The ClinicalTrials.gov study identifier is NCT00864266 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:25674536

  12. IgG4 specific to Toxoplasma gondii excretory/secretory antigens in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid support the cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosis in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Meira, Cristina S; Vidal, José E; Costa-Silva, Thais A; Motoie, Gabriela; Gava, Ricardo; Hiramoto, Roberto M; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L

    2013-09-30

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common neurological opportunistic disease manifested in HIV infected patients. Excretory/secretory antigens (ESA) are serological markers for the diagnosis of reactivation of the infection in HIV-infected patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. Immunosuppressed patients develop high antibody titers for ESA. However, little is known about the humoral response for these antigens. The present study analyzed the profile of antibody recognition against ESA in comparison with tachyzoite lysate antigen (TLA) in 265 sera and 270 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from infected patients with Toxoplasma gondii and or HIV and in sera of 50 healthy individuals. The samples of sera and CSF were organized in 8 groups. The sera sample groups were: Group I - Se/CT/AIDS (patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS) with 58 samples; Group II - Se/ONinf/AIDS/PosT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/positive toxoplasmosis) with 49 samples; Group III - Se/ONinf/AIDS/NegT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/negative toxoplasmosis) with 58 samples; Group IV - Se/PosT/NegHIV (individuals with asymptomatic toxoplasmosis/negative HIV) with 50 samples and Group V - Se/NegT/NegHIV (healthy individuals/negative toxoplasmosis and HIV) with 50 samples. The CSF sample groups were: Group VI - CSF/CT/AIDS (patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS) with 99 samples; Group VII - CSF/ONinf/AIDS/PosT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/positive toxoplasmosis) with 112 samples, and Group VIII - CSF/ONinf/AIDS/NegT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/negative toxoplasmosis) with 59 samples. Levels of IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG and subclasses were determined by ELISA against TLA and ESA antigens. IgM, IgA or IgE antibodies against ESA or TLA were not detected in sera from patients with toxoplasmosis suggesting that all patients were in chronic phase of the infection. High levels of IgG1 against TLA were found in sera samples from groups I, II and IV and in CSF samples from groups VI and VII; whereas IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were not detected in the same sera or CSF sample groups. However, patients from groups I and VI, that had tachyzoites circulating in blood and CSF respectively, produced a mix of IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against ESA. IgG2 against ESA were predominant in serum from patients with the latent (non-active) T. gondii infection/HIV negative and in CSF samples from patients with other neuroinfections and positive toxoplasmosis (groups IV and VII, respectively). IgG4 levels against ESA were found to be significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.005) higher in patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis (groups I and VI, respectively) in comparison with groups II, IV and VII. This data suggest that IgG4 can be valuable for supporting the diagnosis of focal brain lesions, caused by T. gondii infection, in HIV-infected patients. This approach might be useful, mainly when molecular investigation to detect parasites is not available. PMID:23811152

  13. Employment Policy and Deregulation in European Air Transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olive Robinson

    1994-01-01

    The air transport industry in Europe in the present decade isyfacing an increasingly competitive environment. With prolongedyrecession and the prospect of a common aviation area within theysingle market of the European Community, airlines are exposedyto levels of competition from which they have been previouslyysheltered. These changed operating circumstances have led Euro-ypean airlines to review their cost structures, and in particularylabour

  14. Prospects for Geometric Complexity Theory Prospects for Geometric Complexity Theory

    E-print Network

    Bürgisser, Peter

    Prospects for Geometric Complexity Theory Prospects for Geometric Complexity Theory Peter B¨urgisser University of Paderborn 27th IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity Porto, June 28, 2012 #12;Prospects for Geometric Complexity Theory Two major problems Two major problems #12;Prospects for Geometric Complexity

  15. However, the European Union

    E-print Network

    However, the European Union presidency Monday pointed to a new willingness by Japan to compromise talks with the European Union, which has been supporting France's bid. As a result, the Yomiuri said, China and Russia backed France. However, the European Union presidency Monday pointed to a new

  16. Why European Commissioners Matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Smith

    2003-01-01

    Discussions of the role European Commissioners play in European Union politics are shaped by three powerful implicit assumptions. These posit a causal relationship between a Commissioner's behaviour and previous career, portfolio and national origin. In addition, Commissioners are seen as exacerbating the fragmentation of the European Commission as a whole. Based on an empirical study of eight Commissioners from the

  17. ESSCIRC' 85 European Conference

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ESSCIRC' 85 European Conference on Solid State Circuits Fo reword The 11th European Conference participants from 28 countries. This Conference is the European annual meeting for presentation and discussion of the latest news in the area of integrated circuit techniques. The covered subjects in this conference are key

  18. Seroprevalence and national distribution of human toxoplasmosis in Mexico: analysis of the 2000 and 2006 National Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Ortega, Heriberto; Uribe-Salas, Felipe Javier; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Luna-Pastén, Héctor; Cańedo-Solares, Irma; Ortiz-Alegría, Luz Belinda; Correa, Dolores

    2012-11-01

    Global warming has had serious implications on dispersion of infectious diseases like toxoplasmosis. Since the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii largely depends on climatic conditions, we studied its prevalence by means of 3599 samples of the National Health Survey 2000 (NHS-2000) and 2916 of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (NHNS-2006) serum banks, obtained from 1-98 year old subjects of both genders and all states of Mexico. Anti-T.gondii IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA and confirmed by western blot. Crude, epidemiologically weighted and diagnosis-performance-adjusted prevalence values were calculated. Seroprevalence changes were compared between both surveys and among regions (north, center and coast). Also, correlations between changes in temperature or humidity and those in prevalence were measured. National crude prevalence was 60.1% and 62.6% for NHS-2000 and NHNS-2006, respectively. Weighted and adjusted values were 62.5% and 40.0% for NHS-2000, and 63.7 and 43.1% for NHNS-2006. Coastal states and children presented the largest increases between surveys, while the center of the country showed a decrease. An apparently higher prevalence of T. gondii infection was observed in both surveys compared to that performed in 1987, while a geographical re-distribution was found from 2000 to 2006, with a positive correlation between temperature and frequency deltas in 21 states where prevalence increased. PMID:22998951

  19. Neutron bomb and European defense

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  20. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  1. Conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola): focus on reproduction and reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Amstislavsky, S; Lindeberg, H; Aalto, J; Kennedy, M W

    2008-08-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is a small mammal, which belongs to the Mustelidae family (Carnivora). Earlier, the range of distribution of this species encompassed much of the European continent. During the 20th century, the numbers of European mink declined and the range of its distribution became reduced to three fragmented populations; today this species faces extinction. The urgent necessity for effective conservation efforts to protect the European mink is accepted by the governmental organizations as well as scientific communities of most European countries. In this paper, the reasons for the disappearance of European mink are reviewed and results of past conservation efforts based on captive breeding and reintroduction programmes are critically evaluated in the broad context of modern concepts of conservation genetics and reproductive biology. The data recently obtained on the reproduction and pre-implantation development of European mink and the prospects of incorporation of modern reproductive technologies into the conservation programme of this species are discussed. PMID:18179633

  2. Aphasic status epilepticus with periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges in a bilingual patient as a presenting sign of "AIDS-toxoplasmosis complex".

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Gül?en; Kurne, Asli; Unal, Serhat; O?uz, Kader Karli; Karabudak, Rana; Saygi, Serap

    2006-08-01

    We describe an HIV-infected, bilingual patient presenting with Wernicke's aphasia due to partial status epilepticus with periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges, as the first sign of AIDS-toxoplasmosis complex. The localization of the native and secondary language centers in the brain and the possible role of recurrent seizures in the fluctuating course of Wernicke's aphasia in this patient are discussed. The clinical course of this patient supports the belief that a second language area for a second language learned in the later stages of life is located in an area different from that for the native language but still in close proximity to it. PMID:16697709

  3. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    PubMed

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

  4. Comparison of nutrients in the food composition tables available in the nine European countries participating in EPIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Deharveng; UR Charrondičre; N Slimani; DAT Southgate; E Riboli

    1999-01-01

    Food composition tables were studied from nine European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. They were compared from the point view of availability, definition, analytical methods, and mode of expression of the nutrients of interest for EPIC, and it was seen that

  5. [European regulation on blood and blood components].

    PubMed

    Sandid, I

    2010-12-01

    The European regulation on blood and blood components is declined in four directives: the Directive 2002/98/EC known as "mother Directive" and three directives called "daughter Directives" 2004/33/EC, 2005/61/EC and 2005/62/EC. It constitutes a common basis of provisions of quality and safety of blood in the European Union (EU), thus guaranteeing this safety and this quality with the whole of the citizens circulating in Member States of the Union. It cannot prevent a Member State for maintaining or introducing more stringent protective measures. It encourages the anonymous, voluntary and unpaid blood donations. It envisages many provisions for the prospective blood donor eligibility, the blood collection, the testing, processing, storage, transport, distribution and issuing of blood and blood components and the haemovigilance. In the field of the haemovigilance, this European regulation widened the field of competence of the national systems to the notification of serious adverse events of the transfusion chain and the serious adverse reactions, which have occurred in the blood donors. The European directives were transposed in the French national law between 2004 and 2007 by legislative and lawful ways. PMID:21050786

  6. Diphenyl diselenide and sodium selenite associated with chemotherapy in experimental toxoplasmosis: influence on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers and cytokine modulation.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Cleber F; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; De Azevedo, Maria I; Monteiro, Danieli U; Waczuk, Emily P; Duarte, Thiago; Hermes, Carine; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda F; Faccio, Luciana; Tonin, Paula T; Wolkmer, Patricia; Leal, Marta R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Moresco, Rafael N; Lopes, Sonia T A; De La Rue, Mario L

    2014-11-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) supplemented with diphenyl diselenide and sodium selenite in experimental toxoplasmosis, on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers and cytokine levels. Eighty-four BALB/c mice were divided in seven groups: group A (negative control), and groups B to G (infected). Blood and liver samples were collected on days 4 and 20 post infection (p.i.). Levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive substances and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were assessed in liver samples. Both biomarkers were significantly increased in infected groups on day 4 p.i., while they were reduced on day 20 p.i., compared with group A. Glutathione reductase (GR) activity significantly (P<0·01) increased on day 4 p.i., in group G, compared with group A. INF-? was significantly increased (P<0·001) in both periods, day 4 (groups B, C, F and G) and 20 p.i. (groups C, F and G). IL-10 significantly reduced (P<0·001) on day 4 p.i. in group B; however, in the same period, it was increased (P<0·001) in groups C and G, compared with group A. On day 20 p.i., IL-10 increased (P<0·001) in groups F and G. Therefore, our results highlighted that these forms of selenium, associated with the chemotherapy, were able to reduce lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, providing a beneficial immunological balance between the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25111395

  7. Partial Protective Effect of Intranasal Immunization with Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry Protein 17 against Toxoplasmosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Tie-E; Yin, Li-Tian; Pang, Min; Guan, Li; Liu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Zheng, Guo-Ping; Yin, Guo-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a variety of mammals, including humans. An effective vaccine for this parasite is therefore needed. In this study, RH strain T. gondii rhoptry protein 17 was expressed in bacteria as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the recombinant proteins (rTgROP17) were purified via GST-affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were nasally immunised with rTgROP17, and induction of immune responses and protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections were investigated. The results revealed that mice immunised with rTgROP17 produced high levels of specific anti-rTgROP17 IgGs and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response of IgG2a predominance. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-?and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, and enhanced lymphoproliferation (stimulation index, SI) in the mice immunised with rTgROP17. Strong mucosal immune responses with increased secretion of TgROP17-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes were also observed in these mice. The vaccinated mice displayed apparent protection against chronic RH strain infection as evidenced by their lower liver and brain parasite burdens (59.17% and 49.08%, respectively) than those of the controls. The vaccinated mice also exhibited significant protection against lethal infection of the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%) compared to the controls. Our data demonstrate that rTgROP17 can trigger strong systemic and mucosal immune responses against T. gondii and that ROP17 is a promising candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25255141

  8. Geophysical Prospecting, 2008, 56, 655666 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2478.2008.00705.x Characterization of the shallow aquifers by high-resolution seismic data

    E-print Network

    Sailhac, Pascal

    Geophysical Prospecting, 2008, 56, 655­666 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2478.2008.00705.x Characterization, a Cenozoic compressional phase, C 2008 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers 655 #12;656 M

  9. Modified Mediterranean diet and survival: EPIC-elderly prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Trichopoulou; Philippos Orfanos; Teresa Norat; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Marga C Ocké; Petra HM Peeters; Yvonne T van der Schouw; Heiner Boeing; Kurt Hoffmann; Paolo Boffetta; Gabriele Nagel; Giovanna Masala; Vittorio Krogh; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Christina Bamia; Androniki Naska; Vassiliki Benetou; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Guillem Pera; Carmen Martinez-Garcia; Carmen Navarro; Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco; Miren Dorronsoro; Elizabeth A Spencer; Timothy J Key; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Emmanuelle Kesse; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Goran Berglund; Elisabet Wirfalt; Goran Hallmans; Ingegerd Johansson; Anne Tjonneland; Anja Olsen; Kim Overvad; Heidi H Hundborg; Elio Riboli; Dimitrios Trichopoulos

    2005-01-01

    AbstractObjective To examine whether adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, is associated with longer life expectancy among elderly Europeans.Design Multicentre, prospective cohort study.Setting Nine European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom).Participants 74 607 men and women, aged 60 or more, without coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer

  10. Toxoplasmosis-Associated Difference in Intelligence and Personality in Men Depends on Their Rhesus Blood Group but Not ABO Blood Group

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Preiss, Marek; Klose, Ji?í

    2013-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii influences the behaviour of infected animals and probably also personality of infected humans. Subjects with a Rhesus-positive blood group are protected against certain behavioural effects associated with Toxoplasma infection, including the deterioration of reaction times and personality factor shift. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we searched for differences in the toxoplasmosis-associated effects between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by testing 502 soldiers with two personality tests and two intelligence tests. The infected subjects expressed lower levels of all potentially pathognomic factors measured with the N-70 questionnaire and in neurasthenia measured with NEO-PI-R. The RhD-positive, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed lower while RhD-negative, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed higher intelligence than their Toxoplasma-free peers. The observed Toxoplasma-associated differences were always larger in RhD-negative than in RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype plays an important role in the strength and direction of association between latent toxoplasmosis and not only psychomotor performance, but also personality and intelligence. PMID:23593448

  11. Prospects for Nuclear Power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucas W. Davis

    2011-01-01

    The prospects for a revival of nuclear power were dim even before the partial reactor meltdowns at the Fukushima nuclear plant. Nuclear power has long been controversial because of concerns about nuclear accidents, proliferation risk, and the storage of spent fuel. These concerns are real and important. In addition, however, a key challenge for nuclear power has been the high

  12. Welcome Prospective Graduate Students!

    E-print Network

    Welcome Prospective Graduate Students! Inside this issue: Ken the Squirrel Killer 2 Sheldon's Balls #12;Psycho?Logical?Bulletin! Sheldon Cohen has received a lot of lucrative offers from pri- vate he claims is going to pay for his re- tirement... stress balls. That's right, Sheldon believes

  13. Towards European urinalysis guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo T Kouri; Vanya A Gant; Giovanni B Fogazzi; Walter Hofmann; Hans O Hallander; Walter G Guder

    2000-01-01

    Improved standardized performance is needed because urinalysis continues to be one of the most frequently requested laboratory tests. Since 1997, the European Confederation of Laboratory Medicine (ECLM) has been supporting an interdisciplinary project aiming to produce European urinalysis guidelines. More than seventy clinical chemists, microbiologists and ward-based clinicians, as well as representatives of manufacturers are taking part. These guidelines aim

  14. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  15. European Studies Undergraduate Studies

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    and humanities. Our 8,500 students work with internationally renowned scholars in 20 academic departments for university study. Campus life revolves around the Students' Union, which runs over 100 societies and sports clubs, and we are recognised as London's best sporting college. #12;3European Studies European Studies

  16. European Biodiesel Board

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The European Biodiesel Board (EBB), a nonprofit organization, works to promote biodiesel use in the European Union (EU). The EBB website offers downloadable articles regarding biodiesel in the EU, downloadable reports from EU member states, a list of upcoming events, an EBB email information service, and basic statistical tables representing biodiesel production by country.

  17. European logistics beyond 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tage Skjoett-Larsen

    2000-01-01

    European companies are facing new challenges in the next millennium. Seven trends in international logistics are outlined. These are supply chain management, globalisation of the supply chain, virtual enterprises, e-business, green logistics, strategic partnerships and new management principles. The implications for European companies are discussed and illustrated by examples from advanced companies. Asserts that it is employees and not the

  18. European Commission: Public Opinion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Some Scout Report readers might be wondering "How do Europeans feel about the euro?" or even "What do Europeans think about the effectiveness of different energy policies?" All of the answers to these questions (and many more) can be found on the European Commission's Public Opinion site. The site contains the results from surveys conducted with Europeans on their attitudes towards alcohol, the role of the European Union in formulating security policy, and a number of other topics. Visitors will definitely want to make their way to the Eurobarometer Interactive Search System, which allows them to choose a subject or country which is of interest to them. Visitors should also take a look at their very fine "Qualitative Studies" section, which includes reports such as "The Future of Europe" and "Integrating Gender Mainstreaming into Employment Policies". Needless to say, summaries of the reports are available in a wide range of languages, including Dutch, German, Italian, and French.

  19. CONSULTANT REPORT EUROPEAN RENEWABLE DISTRIBUTED

    E-print Network

    CONSULTANT REPORT EUROPEAN RENEWABLE DISTRIBUTED distributed electricity generation. As reflected in the California Energy Commission's previous how certain European countries integrate large quantities of intermittent distributed

  20. Building the Information Society in Candidate Countries? A Prospective Analysis on Potential Trajectories To Realise the Lisbon Goals. IPTS Experts Workshop Report, February 23-25, 2003, Sevilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanowicz, Marc; Burgelman, Jean-Claude; Centeno, Clara; Gourova, Elisavetta; Carat, Gerard

    Potential policies and strategies for building the information society (IS) in countries that are candidates for admission to the European Union were explored at a workshop attended by 39 experts from the European Commission (EC), the EC's Institute for Prospective and Technological Studies, and outside the EC. The workshop focused on the specific…

  1. The European Values Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Curious minds want to know: "What exactly do Europeans believe?" It's an important and interesting question, and the directors and researchers in charge of the European Values Study (EVS) have been looking into this subject since the early 1980s. Based in the Netherlands the EVS concerns itself with asking Europeans about religion and morality, politics, work and leisure, and relationships. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their work and view previous and current surveys. While visitors do not have access to the raw data on the site, they can look at the questionnaires and read publications based on this research.

  2. Modern-day prospecting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Locating productive oil and mineral deposits takes a combination of money, time, and luck. However, the modern-day prospector has several new tools at his disposal. Some are conventional and relatively inexpensive; others are more innovative and high-priced. Improved seismic techniques, image processing, and some other innovative prospecting methods are described. These techniques are helping oil companies improve their exploration win-loss records.

  3. Master of Business Administration in Central and Eastern Europe: Issues and Prospects of Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulejewicz, Aleksander

    1995-01-01

    Potential effects of wider adoption of graduate-level business administration degree programs in central and eastern European universities are considered, including better employment prospects for graduates, increased productivity, impact on income distribution and educational attainment patterns, and creation of an internationally mobile…

  4. Prospects for the hydrogen transition based on the network economic approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for telecommunications, railways for trains, and even the electricity grid and natural gas pipelines in the energy sectorProspects for the hydrogen transition based on the network economic approach Insights from to a new energy system based on hydrogen in the European liberalized framework. After analyzing

  5. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    E-print Network

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  6. European Space Agency (ESA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    An international organization whose task is `to provide for and to promote, for exclusively peaceful purposes, cooperation among European states in space research and technology and their space applications'....

  7. European Judicial Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    As a part of the European Commission, the European Judicial Network is primarily concerned with providing information about community law, European law, and various aspects of civil and commercial law. The homepage is well-organized, and visitors can start by clicking on the topic page sections, which cover everything from bringing a case to court to alternative dispute resolutions. On the right-side of the homepage, visitors can click on the flags of member states to learn more about each nation's legal system. The site will certainly be of interest to those with a legal background, but the main stated objective of the site is "to make life easier for people facing litigation of whatever kind where there is a transnational element." Not surprisingly, all of this information is available in the twenty official languages of the European Union.

  8. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  9. Archive of European Integration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The creation of a so-called â??common marketâ?ť and throughout the European countries has taken decades, and this valuable scholarly resource created by a team of academics will be of great interest to anyone with a penchant for this subject. The idea for this archive of European Integration was devised by Phil Wilkin (who now serves as its editor), and over the years, his efforts have been aided by a team of other dedicated individuals. Simply put, the Archive of European Integration (AEI) is â??an electronic repository and archive for research materials on the topic of European integration and unification.â?ť As such, it is primarily concerned with collecting official European Community/European Union documents and certain independently-produced research materials. First-time visitors to the site can search the archive by six different methods, view a list of the latest additions, and also register at no charge for an account that will let them submit items to the archive. All told, the archive currently contains over 4800 documents ranging from working papers on topics such as the common agricultural policy as well as cultural policy.

  10. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  11. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Relation to All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Nondiabetic European Men and Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Hu; Qing Qiao; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Beverley Balkau; Knut Borch-Johnsen; Kalevi Pyorala

    2004-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the associa- tions between the metabolic syndrome (by any defini- tion) and mortality. This study examined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortal- ity in nondiabetic European men and women. Methods: The study was based on 11 prospective European cohort studies comprising 6156 men and

  12. 852 Prospect Issue 1 

    E-print Network

    Multiple Contributors

    1998-01-01

    } ....................................... .................. 240 THE SENTINEL'S MOST WANTED LIST (BiogŁ3phicsJ By the pcrps ofissue #1.. ............. _ ...... ....................... 241 FILLER ART ANGI TOWSKI: 229 PRINT ARTIST PLAT: 13.51,159.140.24 I. A 247 PEEJ: all panthers, 42, & 43 PRICE US: $26....00 CanadalEurope: $33.00 Japan/Australia: $36.00 (Checks, Inrl Mon~y Orders or US fund~ on" MAKE CHECKS PAYABLE TO: THE PRESSES PO Box 141276 Grand Rapids,MI49514-1276 l:S,\\ Email: ThePresses(uaol.com AUTHORIZED DEALERSHIP SEAL 1 -852- PROSPECT Lo...

  13. Applied Astronomy: Asteroid Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.

    2013-09-01

    In the age of asteroid mining the ability to find promising ore-bearing bodies will be valuable. This will give rise to a new discipline- "Applied Astronomy". Just as most geologists work in industry, not in academia, the same will be true of astronomers. Just how rare or common ore-rich asteroids are likely to be, and the skills needed to assay their value, are discussed here, with an emphasis on remote - telescopic - methods. Also considered are the resources needed to conduct extensive surveys of asteroids for prospecting purposes, and the cost and timescale involved. The longer-term need for applied astronomers is also covered.

  14. Prospective bonding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

    1981-07-01

    Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

  15. European Union Scandal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Osmond, Andrew.

    This week's In the News examines the recent high-level corruption scandal in the European Union. Last Tuesday, the European Commission -- the executive body that initiates and implements EU legislation -- resigned en masse, plunging the supranational organization into unprecedented political chaos. All 20 commissioners, led by commission President Jacques Santer of Luxembourg, abdicated their positions the day after the release of a scathing report by the Committee of Independent Experts. The independent panel of experts, who were appointed by the European Parliament, had investigated allegations of bureaucratic malfeasance perpetrated by the European Commission. The committee's report collectively accused the commission of financial "fraud, mismanagement, and nepotism." In the wake of the incriminating report and subsequent resignations, EU foreign ministers are scrambling to find successors for the commissioners to placate the bewildered European citizenry and return to business as usual. This political upheaval happened at a crucial transitional time in the EU's 42-year history, undermining its credibility at a time when it plans to expand into eastern Europe. The current tumult occurred just three months after launching a new unified currency, seven weeks before the new Treaty of Amsterdam commences, and three months before the next European Parliamentary elections, which will determine the future composition of the EU's 626-member assembly. During the next two days, distracted leaders from all fifteen EU member states will meet in Berlin to discuss the reconstruction of the European Commission and formulate a seven-year budget for the entire EU, an organization with about 18,000 officials who administer nearly $100 billion annually. The eight resources discussed provide news, commentary, and analysis.

  16. Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

  17. The Epistemological Fog in Realising Learning to Learn in European Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leat, David; Thomas, Ulrike; Reid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The European Union is concerned about the economic prospects of its member states as they have to compete against newly emerging economies with lower wages and high ambitions. Part of the strategy to deal with this economic shadow is to create a knowledge economy, but in order to achieve this, a shift to a competence-based curriculum model is seen…

  18. WFPDB: European Plate Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Milcho

    2007-08-01

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) gives an inventory of all wide-field (>~ 1 sq. deg) photographic observations archived in astronomical institutions over the world. So it facilitates and stimulates their use and preservation as a valuable source of information for future investigations in astronomy. At present WFPDB manages plate-index information for 25% of all existing plates providing on-line access from Sofia (http://www.skyarchive.org/search) and in CDS, Strasbourg. Here we present the new development of WFPDB as an instrument for searching of long term brightness variations of different sky objects stressing on the European photographic plate collections (from existing 2 million wide-field plates more than 55% are in Europe: Germany, Russia, Ukraine, Italy, Czech Republic, etc.). We comment examples of digitization (with flatbed scanners) of the European plate archives in Sonneberg, Pulkovo, Asiago, Byurakan, Bamberg, etc. and virtual links of WFPDB with European AVO, ADS, IBVS.

  19. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  20. Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a revierw of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in cats and dogs. Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite of all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondi...

  1. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or sand because it might be contaminated with cat feces that contain Toxoplasma . Wash hands with soap ... else clean the litter box. (CDC Photo) Feed cats only canned or dried commercial food or well- ...

  2. Neosporosis, Toxoplasmosis, Sarcocystosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are related coccidian parasites that can cause abortion and neonatal mortality in animals. In addition, T. gondii and certain species of Sarcocystis are zoonotic. This paper reviews information on etiology, diagnosis, control and prevention...

  3. Prospect Theory and Coercive Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite many applications of prospect theory's concepts to explain political and strategic phenomena, formal analyses of strategic problems using prospect theory are rare. Using Fearon's model of bargaining, Tversky and Kahneman's value function, and an existing probability weighting function, I construct a model that demonstrates the differences…

  4. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school desegregation situation…

  5. 36 CFR 228.60 - Prospecting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prospecting permits. 228.60 Section...Methods of Disposal § 228.60 Prospecting permits. (a) Right conferred...acquired National Forest lands, prospecting permits may be issued...

  6. 36 CFR 228.60 - Prospecting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prospecting permits. 228.60 Section...Methods of Disposal § 228.60 Prospecting permits. (a) Right conferred...acquired National Forest lands, prospecting permits may be issued...

  7. Prospective Memory Development Through Childhood into Adolescence 

    E-print Network

    Bialek, Anna Katarzyna

    2009-07-03

    The present study looked at prospective memory development between 7-15 years of age (N=57). Past research has draw no coherent picture of prospective memory development due to variations in prospective memory tasks employed, motivation not being...

  8. 36 CFR 228.60 - Prospecting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prospecting permits. 228.60 Section...Methods of Disposal § 228.60 Prospecting permits. (a) Right conferred...acquired National Forest lands, prospecting permits may be issued...

  9. 36 CFR 228.60 - Prospecting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prospecting permits. 228.60 Section...Methods of Disposal § 228.60 Prospecting permits. (a) Right conferred...acquired National Forest lands, prospecting permits may be issued...

  10. 36 CFR 228.60 - Prospecting permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prospecting permits. 228.60 Section...Methods of Disposal § 228.60 Prospecting permits. (a) Right conferred...acquired National Forest lands, prospecting permits may be issued...

  11. Heart failure epidemiology: European perspective.

    PubMed

    Guha, K; McDonagh, T

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure poses an increasing problem for global healthcare systems. The epidemiological data which has been accrued over the last thirty years has predominantly been accumulated from experience within North America and Europe. Initial large cohort, prospective longitudinal studies produced the first publications; however latterly the focus has shifted onto epidemiological data governing hospitalisation and mortality. The emphasis behind this shift has been the resource implications with regards to repetitive, costly and prolonged hospitalisation. The European experience in heart failure, though similar to North America has recently demonstrated differences in hospitalisation which may underlie the differences between healthcare system configuration. Heart failure however remains an increasing global problem and the endpoint of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Allied with the fact of increasingly elderly populations and prior data demonstrating a steep rise in prevalent cases within more elderly populations, it is likely that the increasing burden of disease will continue to pose challenges for modern healthcare. Despite the predicted increase in the number of patients affected by heart failure, over the last thirty years, a clear management algorithm has evolved for the use of pharmacotherapies (neuro-hormonal antagonists), device based therapies (Implantable Cardioverting Defibrillator (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT)) and mechanical therapies including left ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplantation. Though the management of such patients has been clearly delineated in national and international guidelines, the underuse of all available and appropriate therapies remains a significant problem. When comparing various epidemiological studies from different settings and timepoints, it should be remembered that rates of prevalence and incidence may vary depending upon the definition used, methods of accumulating information (with the possibility of bias) and the chosen cut point of defining left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). PMID:23597298

  12. Microbiological oil prospecting

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales-Prevatt, V.; Munnecke, D.M.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes a method for microbiological prospecting for oil or gas. It comprises suspending a soil sample in a mineral salt solution; adding to a gas-tight tube; sealing the tube and incubating the contents of the sealed tube to allow growth of a hydrocarbon-consuming microorganism present therein; and observing color change in the tube contents to determine the presence of a hydrocarbon-consuming microorganism in the soil sample. This patent also describes a system for detecting the presence of a hydrocarbon-consuming microorganism in a soil sample comprising: a gas-tight tube having resealable means for introducing a soil sample into the tube; sealed with the tube.

  13. Institutional Report: European Union

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Institutional Report: European Union Florence Bergeaud-Blackler CRIC, University of Manchester #12-Blackler CRIC, University of Manchester Working Paper Prepared by Partner No. 4 July 2004 #12;P R E FA C E (CRIC) at the University of Manchester. The various country teams in the TRUSTINFOOD project have

  14. Eastern European Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iordanova, Dina

    1999-01-01

    Presents a structure for a course that highlights the best cinemas of Eastern European countries, in order to acquaint students with cinematic traditions of the region. Discusses course activities, coursework and evaluation, and resources. Advocates structuring the course around the film of experience of Eastern Europe, and presents and discusses…

  15. European inflation dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordi Gal??; Mark Gertler; J. David López-Salido

    2001-01-01

    We provide evidence on the fit of the New Phillips Curve (NPC) for the Euro area over the period 1970–1998, and use it as a tool to compare the characteristics of European inflation dynamics with those observed in the U.S. We also analyze the factors underlying inflation inertia by examining the cyclical behavior of marginal costs, as well as that

  16. The European Union

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali M. El-Agraa

    1990-01-01

    The European Union has established itself as a leading text that provides readers from all disciplines with a sound understanding of the economics and policies of the EU. Its wealth of information, detail and analysis has ensured that previous editions have been read by a generation of students, researchers and policy makers. It covers all major EU policy areas as

  17. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  18. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  19. European Commission Agriculture and

    E-print Network

    European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

  20. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  1. European Corporate Sustainability Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Van Marrewijk; Teun W. Hardjono

    abstract The European Corporate Sustainability Framework (ECSF) is a new generation management framework, aimed to meet increased corporate complexity and support corporate transformation towards more sustainable ways of doing business. It is a multi-layer, integral business framework with an analytical, contextual, situational and dynamic dimension. Analytically, the framework is structured according to four focus points - the constitutional, conceptual, behavioural

  2. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European

  3. [Problems and limitations of conventional and innovative methods for the diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals].

    PubMed

    Piergili Fioretti, D

    2004-06-01

    Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is useful for human and animal health. Several techniques are employed for the diagnosis in feline and canine population. Coprological tests for the detection of oocysts in cat faeces are of little significance owing to short patency (15 days). Histological examinations of biological samples show a lack of reliability when the animals are infected with few parasites; the mouse inoculation is the most reliable method even if the detection of cysts in mice brain require 40 days. However tachyzoites of virulent strains can be isolated from peritoneal exudate 3-4 days after inoculation. Samples inoculation in cell cultures (VERO, human fibroblasts) requires specialized laboratories and fails if non viable parasites are present due to tissutal autolysis. Serological tests are the most used diagnostic methods; Dye test and IFAT that require intact tachyzoites are more sensitive and specific compared to IHA, LA, ELISA because, during the infection, the first significant increase of IgM and IgG antibodies was observed against cuticolar antigens. A PCR to identify T. gondii DNA in canine and feline biological samples was developed. The B1 PCR performed on blood samples was less sensitive than when it was performed on other biological fluids requiring 100 tachyzoites, instead of 10. Aqueous humor PCR results could be negative if the infection is low grade or is restricted to the posterior segment or the animal was previously treated with anti-Toxoplasma drugs. SNC disease may be also difficult to diagnose because an high serum IgG titer may be associated with locally production or leakage from serum through a compromised blood-CSF barrier. AB1 PCR was successfully applied for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma abortion in ewes requiring only 10 parasites in placental cotyledon samples; the test compared with mouse inoculation showed similar sensitivity. Discrepancies may have been due to a low and focal distribution of parasites in the tissues or to the presence of non viable parasites if the tissues are autolysed. In regard to diagnostic methods adaptable to slaughter testing, several serological tests have been studied (IFAT, ELISA, IHA) for detection of IgG in sheep, pigs, cattle using also recombinant antigens (gene fragments H4 and H11) to lack the cross reactivity. The problem is the antibodies fall to near background levels as the infection became chronic (6-10 months p.-i.). A highly sensitive and specific method (Toxo Taq Man) has been developed to detect and quantitate T. gondii burden in animal tissue samples (0.1 pg of T. gondii genomic DNA, which is equivalent to 1 bradyzoite) using T. gondii ITS1-derived primers and a fluorogenic probe via Real-Time PCR. This assay is compatible with automation technology for potential slaughterhouse use. The diagnosis of acute infection in human pregnancy is difficult since IgM antibodies can be detected for a very long time after the acute phase; an IgA increase is of more diagnostic value because can be detected only for 6-7 months while the short kinetics of IgE can be useful only to date the infection precisely. In addition an IgG seroconversion is essential for the diagnosis. Among the most reliable tests, IgG avidity test is useful when a single serum sample, in the first months of gestation, is available, but low avidity results may persist for as long as 1 year. For this purpose a panel of serologic tests must be performed (ELISA, EIA, ISAGA, IgG avidity, IFAT, Dye test) for IgM, IgA, IgG and IgE. The serological diagnosis of prenatal infection is difficult since maternal IgG are passively transferred in utero to the foetus and caution must be exercised in interpretation of IgM or IgA results. A technique of Western blots of paired maternal and baby sera for evidencing different bands in the blots of two sera was developed for this purpose (specificity 97-100%, sensitivity 96-98%). The most reliable methods for prenatal diagnosis are PCR, mouse inoculation and cultural techniques performed on amniotic fluid, foetal blood and peripheral maternal blood in p

  4. Prospects of photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong V

    2008-12-01

    Commercially available high-resolution three-dimensional optical imaging modalities-including confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography-have fundamentally impacted biomedicine. Unfortunately, such tools cannot penetrate biological tissue deeper than the optical transport mean free path (approximately 1 mm in the skin). Photoacoustic tomography, which combines strong optical contrast and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality, has broken through this fundamental depth limitation and achieved superdepth high-resolution optical imaging. In parallel, radio frequency-or microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography is being actively developed to combine radio frequency or microwave contrast with ultrasonic resolution. In this Vision 20/20 article, the prospects of photoacoustic tomography are envisaged in the following aspects: (1) photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption emerging as a mainstream technology, (2) melanoma detection using photoacoustic microscopy, (3) photoacoustic endoscopy, (4) simultaneous functional and molecular photoacoustic tomography, (5) photoacoustic tomography of gene expression, (6) Doppler photoacoustic tomography for flow measurement, (7) photoacoustic tomography of metabolic rate of oxygen, (8) photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes, (9) multiscale photoacoustic imaging in vivo with common signal origins, (10) simultaneous photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography of the breast, (11) photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography of the brain, and (12) low-background thermoacoustic molecular imaging. PMID:19175133

  5. Prospective FORSCOM Energy Intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Wells, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Army's Forces Command (FORSCOM) has seen its energy intensity (MBtu/ksf building floor space) drop from 118.8 in 1985 to 95.9 in 2000. Executive Order 13123 requires that energy intensity be reduced by 35% relative to 1985 by 2010. Thus, FORSCOM must further reduce its energy intensity to 77.2 by the end of this decade. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential impact on FORSCOM?s energy intensity in 2010 from key planned or prospective changes to the installation energy-related infrastructure. This includes changes from the natural turnover of certain energy-related equipment, ongoing or currently planned programs, and retrofit with cost-effective energy efficiency measures. The study results indicate that the combination of currently planned infrastructure changes coupled with cost-effective energy efficiency measures would allow FORSCOM to meet its energy goals. This paper describes these infrastructure changes, documents the analytical approach, and presents the results from the study.

  6. VETERANS INFORMATION FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    VETERANS INFORMATION honor our veterans FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS VETERANS AFFAIRS be eligible for other federal funds while receiving your veterans education bene ts. Complete the Free Institutional Tutition Remission oregonstate.edu/veterans Voyager Tuition Assistance Program Yellow Ribbon

  7. ATTENTION PROSPECTIVE GRAPHIC DESIGN MAJORS

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    ATTENTION PROSPECTIVE GRAPHIC DESIGN MAJORS ENTRANCE INTO ART 3610 AND 3630 IF YOU WISH TO BE CONSIDERED FOR ADMITTANCE INTO THE FIRST YEAR GRAPHIC DESIGN SEQUENCE, DELIVER YOUR PORTFOLIO TO THE ART IN GRAPHIC DESIGN FOR FALL SEMESTER. #12;

  8. Prospective issues for error detection.

    PubMed

    Blavier, Adélaďde; Rouy, Emmanuelle; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie; de Keyser, Véronique

    2005-06-10

    From the literature on error detection, the authors select several concepts relating error detection mechanisms and prospective memory features. They emphasize the central role of intention in the classification of the errors into slips/lapses/mistakes, in the error handling process and in the usual distinction between action-based and outcome-based detection. Intention is again a core concept in their investigation of prospective memory theory, where they point out the contribution of intention retrievals, intention persistence and output monitoring in the individual's possibilities for detecting their errors. The involvement of the frontal lobes in prospective memory and in error detection is also analysed. From the chronology of a prospective memory task, the authors finally suggest a model for error detection also accounting for neural mechanisms highlighted by studies on error-related brain activity. PMID:16076736

  9. Nice European Council

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    EU members met last week in Nice, France to revise the manner in which the European Union reaches decisions in preparation for the entry of new member countries. Among the key provisions of the Treaty of Nice are a new formula for qualified majority voting (QMV), majority voting in some areas will now override individual country vetoes, and a reduction in the size of the European Commission. Background information on the meeting, progress reports, photos, speeches, and other materials are available at the official site of the Nice Council. Most of these resources are available in multiple languages. The full text of the Treaty itself is available in .pdf format from the main page.

  10. European Space Agency

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the home page of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European equivalent to NASA, formed of 16 member countries. Users can access information on ESA's activities, including such topics as Earth observation, human spaceflight, and various aspects of space science. The educational section includes exercises for high school and college students and a teachers' section with projects, classroom tools, and training information. The kids' section includes lab activities, games, and news articles written for younger students. A multimedia gallery is provided that contains imagery of Mars, Earth, and other objects in the solar system, artists' conceptions of spacecraft, and others. There is also a media center which provides press releases, information notes, and information on ESA television broadcasts. Miscellaneous services include an events calendar, list of publications, and a "frequently asked questions" section. The site can be translated into a variety of languages.

  11. European Environment Agency (EEA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The European Environment Agency (EEA) Website contains a huge selection of online environmental information, data, and reports pertaining to all fifteen EU states, as well as Iceland, Lichtenstein, and Norway. Information is organized by themes, and the site employs a powerful multilingual search feature. Themes include environmental issues, sectors and activities, information related to specific media, regions, and actions for environmental improvement. The site also contains EEA publications and reports, as well as a data service providing access to data sets covering at least all EU member states. Finally, the European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET) provides a network which "facilitates co-operation and flow of data and information between EIONET partners and with the EEA." The EEA Website is a large, research-oriented repository of information.

  12. Predicting European Takeover Targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurvinder Brar; Daniel Giamouridis; Manolis Liodakis

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThis article extends the Palepu (1986) acquisition likelihood model by incorporating measures of a technical nature, e.g. momentum, trading volume as well as a measure of market sentiment. We use the proposed model to predict takeover targets in a large sample of European and cross-border merger and acquisition deals and validate its performance on an in- and out-of-sample basis. The

  13. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  14. European Monetary Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The EMU site was created by a group of students at the King's Hospital Secondary School in Palmerston, Dublin, Ireland. Their site discusses the potential positive and negative effects of the EMU, popular opinion on the Euro, and the possible side effects for Ireland, which will join, when its neighbor Britain does not join. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.

  15. Platelia-Toxo IgA, a new kit for early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by detection of anti-P30 immunoglobulin A antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Decoster, A; Slizewicz, B; Simon, J; Bazin, C; Darcy, F; Vittu, G; Boulanger, C; Champeau, Y; Demory, J L; Duhamel, M

    1991-01-01

    With the aim of achieving earlier diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, anti-P30 immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were assayed by using a Platelia-Toxo IgA kit with samples from 72 children born to mothers who seroconverted during pregnancy. A total of 148 serum samples and 1 cerebrospinal fluid samples were from 23 congenitally infected children (2 serum samples were collected from fetuses), and 74 serum samples were from 49 uninfected children. Among the 23 infected children, anti-P30 IgA antibodies were present in all infants either at birth or in the following weeks, whereas anti-P30 IgM antibodies were present in 13 from the 23 infected children either at birth or in the following weeks. Serum samples collected in utero from two infected children were also tested. One of these samples was positive for both anti-P30 IgA and anti-P30 IgM antibodies, whereas both children were negative at birth for these antibodies. Neither anti-P30 IgA nor anti-P30 IgM antibodies were detected in 47 of 49 uninfected children. These results suggest that detection of anti-P30 IgA antibodies by the Platelia-Toxo IgA kit is a very effective method for early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasma infection. PMID:1939586

  16. Severe South American Ocular Toxoplasmosis Is Associated with Decreased Ifn-?/Il-17a and Increased Il-6/Il-13 Intraocular Levels

    PubMed Central

    de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sauer, Arnaud; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Bourcier, Tristan; Brunet, Julie; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Ballonzoli, Laurent; Villard, Odile; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Sundar, Natarajan; Grigg, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    In a cross sectional study, 19 French and 23 Colombian cases of confirmed active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) were evaluated. The objective was to compare clinical, parasitological and immunological responses and relate them to the infecting strains. A complete ocular examination was performed in each patient. The infecting strain was characterized by genotyping when intraocular Toxoplasma DNA was detectable, as well as by peptide-specific serotyping for each patient. To characterize the immune response, we assessed Toxoplasma protein recognition patterns by intraocular antibodies and the intraocular profile of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Significant differences were found for size of active lesions, unilateral macular involvement, unilateral visual impairment, vitreous inflammation, synechiae, and vasculitis, with higher values observed throughout for Colombian patients. Multilocus PCR-DNA sequence genotyping was only successful in three Colombian patients revealing one type I and two atypical strains. The Colombian OT patients possessed heterogeneous atypical serotypes whereas the French were uniformly reactive to type II strain peptides. The protein patterns recognized by intraocular antibodies and the cytokine patterns were strikingly different between the two populations. Intraocular IFN-? and IL-17 expression was lower, while higher levels of IL-13 and IL-6 were detected in aqueous humor of Colombian patients. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that South American strains may cause more severe OT due to an inhibition of the protective effect of IFN-?. PMID:24278490

  17. Severe South American ocular toxoplasmosis is associated with decreased Ifn-?/Il-17a and increased Il-6/Il-13 intraocular levels.

    PubMed

    de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sauer, Arnaud; Pfaff, Alexander W; Bourcier, Tristan; Brunet, Julie; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Ballonzoli, Laurent; Villard, Odile; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Sundar, Natarajan; Grigg, Michael E; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-11-01

    In a cross sectional study, 19 French and 23 Colombian cases of confirmed active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) were evaluated. The objective was to compare clinical, parasitological and immunological responses and relate them to the infecting strains. A complete ocular examination was performed in each patient. The infecting strain was characterized by genotyping when intraocular Toxoplasma DNA was detectable, as well as by peptide-specific serotyping for each patient. To characterize the immune response, we assessed Toxoplasma protein recognition patterns by intraocular antibodies and the intraocular profile of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Significant differences were found for size of active lesions, unilateral macular involvement, unilateral visual impairment, vitreous inflammation, synechiae, and vasculitis, with higher values observed throughout for Colombian patients. Multilocus PCR-DNA sequence genotyping was only successful in three Colombian patients revealing one type I and two atypical strains. The Colombian OT patients possessed heterogeneous atypical serotypes whereas the French were uniformly reactive to type II strain peptides. The protein patterns recognized by intraocular antibodies and the cytokine patterns were strikingly different between the two populations. Intraocular IFN-? and IL-17 expression was lower, while higher levels of IL-13 and IL-6 were detected in aqueous humor of Colombian patients. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that South American strains may cause more severe OT due to an inhibition of the protective effect of IFN-?. PMID:24278490

  18. IgG Western Blot for Confirmatory Diagnosis of Equivocal Cases of Toxoplasmosis by EIA-IgG and Fluorescent Antibody Test

    PubMed Central

    Saghrouni, Fatma; Yaacoub, Alia; Gaied Meksi, Sondoss; Ach, Hinda; Garma, Lamia; Fathallah, Akila; Ben Saďd, Moncef

    2013-01-01

    The performance values of available techniques used in serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis are satisfactory but they raise problems of equivocal and discordant results for very low IgG titers. Recently marketed, LDBio-Toxo II IgG Western blot (IB) showed an excellent correlation with the dye test. We estimated the proportion of equivocal and discordant results between the enzyme immunoassay Platelia Toxo IgG (EIA-IgG) and fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and assessed the usefulness of the IB as a confirmatory test. Out of 2,136 sera collected from pregnant women, 1,644 (77.0%) tested unequivocally positive and 407 (19.0%) were negative in both EIA-IgG and FAT. The remaining 85 (4%) sera showed equivocal or discordant results. Among them, 73 (85.9%) were positive and 12 (14.1%) were negative in IB. Forty-one (89.1%) equivocal sera in EIA-IgG and 46 (86.8%) equivocal sera in FAT were positive in IB. Reducing the cut-off values of both screening techniques improved significantly their sensitivity in detecting very low IgG titers at the expense of their specificity. In conclusion, equivocal results in routine-used techniques and their discordance in determination of the immune status in pregnancy women were not uncommon. IB test appeard to be highly useful in these situations as a confirmatory technique. PMID:24039295

  19. IgG western blot for confirmatory diagnosis of equivocal cases of toxoplasmosis by EIA-IgG and fluorescent antibody test.

    PubMed

    Khammari, Imen; Saghrouni, Fatma; Yaacoub, Alia; Gaied Meksi, Sondoss; Ach, Hinda; Garma, Lamia; Fathallah, Akila; Ben Saďd, Moncef

    2013-08-01

    The performance values of available techniques used in serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis are satisfactory but they raise problems of equivocal and discordant results for very low IgG titers. Recently marketed, LDBio-Toxo II IgG Western blot (IB) showed an excellent correlation with the dye test. We estimated the proportion of equivocal and discordant results between the enzyme immunoassay Platelia Toxo IgG (EIA-IgG) and fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and assessed the usefulness of the IB as a confirmatory test. Out of 2,136 sera collected from pregnant women, 1,644 (77.0%) tested unequivocally positive and 407 (19.0%) were negative in both EIA-IgG and FAT. The remaining 85 (4%) sera showed equivocal or discordant results. Among them, 73 (85.9%) were positive and 12 (14.1%) were negative in IB. Forty-one (89.1%) equivocal sera in EIA-IgG and 46 (86.8%) equivocal sera in FAT were positive in IB. Reducing the cut-off values of both screening techniques improved significantly their sensitivity in detecting very low IgG titers at the expense of their specificity. In conclusion, equivocal results in routine-used techniques and their discordance in determination of the immune status in pregnancy women were not uncommon. IB test appeard to be highly useful in these situations as a confirmatory technique. PMID:24039295

  20. Resolution in Electromagnetic Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) signals are commonly used in geophysical exploration of the shallow subsurface. Sensitivity to conductivity implies they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of porous media. However, low-frequency EM wavefields are diffusive, and have significantly larger wavelengths compared to seismic signals of equal frequency. The wavelength of a 30 Hz sinusoid propagating with seismic velocity 3000 m/s is 100 m, whereas an analogous EM signal diffusing through a conductive body of 0.1 S/m (clayey shale) has wavelength 1825 m. The larger wavelength has implications for resolution of the EM prospecting method. We are investigating resolving power of the EM method via theoretical and numerical experiments. Normal incidence plane wave reflection/transmission by a thin geologic bed is amenable to analytic solution. Responses are calculated for beds that are conductive or resistive relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate the classic seismic resolution/detection limit of bed thickness ~1/8 wavelength is not achieved. EM responses for point or line current sources recorded by general acquisition geometries are calculated with a 3D finite-difference algorithm. These exhibit greater variability which may allow inference of bed thickness. We also examine composite responses of two point scatterers with separation when illuminated by an incident EM field. This is analogous to the Rayleigh resolution problem of estimating angular separation between two light sources. The First Born Approximation implies that perturbations in permittivity, permeability, and conductivity have different scattering patterns, which may be indicators of EM medium properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Information for Prospective International Graduate Students Page -1 Oklahoma State University Graduate College Information for Prospective

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Information for Prospective International Graduate Students Page -1 Oklahoma State University Graduate College Information for Prospective International Graduate Students Thank you for your interest prospective students about OSU. You can find our online application at this web address: https

  2. European Union: Constraints vs. Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Kahiha, Nguvitjita

    2007-12-17

    in the late 1950s, more than 20 other European countries have applied for membership, with most applications granted. In 1973, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark entered the European alliance. Over the following thirteen years, three southern European... in private households and excludes those in collective households such as boarding houses, halls of residence and hospitals. Employed population consists of those persons who during the reference week did any work for pay or profit for at least one hour...

  3. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. (American Nuclear Insurers, Farmington, CT (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  4. Researching the European Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is the European Union's official and comprehensive guide for scholars and researchers studying its institutions. Users will find information on document access, treaties and institutions, legislation, and EU publishing operations. The site also provides overviews of official and related institutions and the legislative process in the Union. Researchers will be especially interested in the sections on Legislative Documents and Print Research Tools, Using Annual Reports and Informational Documents, and Bibliographic and Other Guides. The synoptic tables of basic documents, quick visual guides to the documents described on the site and their availability, are additional valuable tools.

  5. European Space Agency: Rosetta

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rosetta is the European Space Agency's comet exploration spacecraft. Materials presented here describe the space craft and its mission, which is to rendezvous with and orbit Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and soft-land an instrument package on the comet's nucleus. En route to the comet, it will perform fly-bys of two asteroids, Steins and Lutetia. Topics include a mission summary, background science, information on the orbiter and lander, and a mission schedule. An image gallery is also provided that contains pictures of the spacecraft, imagery taken by the spacecraft, pictures of the launch, and others.

  6. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  7. European Industrial Relations Observatory Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The European Industrial Relations Observatory Online (EIROnline) was developed by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, an autonomous body created by the European Community. The aim of the site is to "initiate, collect, store, disseminate and provide access to information and analysis on developments in industrial relations" in the 15 European Union member states and Norway. Visitors will find the latest industrial relations news and feature articles arranged by country. There is also a bimonthly publication called the EIRObserver summarizing the news and items over the past two months.

  8. WS5.1 Designing sustainable landscapes European IFSA Symposium, 4 7 July 2010, Vienna (Austria) 1994

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WS5.1 ­ Designing sustainable landscapes 9 th European IFSA Symposium, 4 7 July 2010, Vienna typology, (iii) prospective scenarios. Models and indicators were designed and used for the extrapolation of the farm fabric in the valley, environmental and landscape issues tied to the agro pastoral land uses

  9. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Functionality and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Diverse structural, functional and valuable polysaccharides are synthesized by bacteria of all taxa and secreted into the external environment. These polysaccharides are referred to as exopolysaccharides and they may either be homopolymeric or heteropolymeric in composition and of diverse high molecular weights (10 to 1000 kDa). The material properties of exopolysaccharides have revolutionized the industrial and medical sectors due to their retinue of functional applications and prospects. These applications have been extensive in areas such as pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmeceutical, herbicides and insecticides among others, while prospects includes uses as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunomodulation, anticancer and as bioflocculants. Due to the extensive applications of bacterial exopolysaccharides, this overview provides basic information on their physiologic and morphologic functions as well as their applications and prospects in the medical and industrial sectors. PMID:23203046

  10. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -leak by radiation is reduced by employing multilayer insulation wrapped around the cold mass and an actively cooled-leak by radiation is reduced by employing multilayer insulation wrapped around the cold mass and an actively cooledEUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics THERMAL

  11. A New Impetus for European Youth. European Commission White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    Despite their highly divergent situations, young people largely share the same values, ambitions, and difficulties. Despite the more complex social and economic context in which young Europeans are currently living, they are well equipped to adapt. National and European policymakers must facilitate this process of change by making young people…

  12. European drought trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    Recent climate projections suggest pronounced changes in European drought frequency. In the north, increased precipitation volumes are likely to reduce drought occurrence, whereas more frequent droughts are expected for southern Europe. To assess whether this pattern of changes in drought frequency can already be identified for the past decades, we analyse trends in a recently developed pan-European drought climatology that is based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The index is derived on multiple time scales, ranging from 1 to 36 months, which allows the assessment of trends in both short term and multi-year droughts. Trends are quantified using the Theil-Sen trend estimator combined with an extension of the Mann-Kendal test (p < 0.05) that accounts for serial correlation. Field significance is assessed on the basis of techniques that control the false discovery rate in a multiple testing setting. The trend analysis indicates that changes in drought frequency are more pronounced on time scales of one year and longer. The analysis also reveals that there has been a tendency for decreased drought frequency in northern Europe in the past decades, whereas droughts have likely become more frequent in selected southern regions.

  13. Prospective Cognition The Prospective Cognition of Food Caching and Recovery

    E-print Network

    Cook, Robert

    -Jays (Aphelocoma californica) Nicola S. Clayton, Nathan J. Emery and Anthony Dickinson University of Cambridge-mail: nsc22@cam.ac.uk Figure 1. Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica) caching food. Volume , pp -2006 The role of prospective cognition in food caching and recovery by western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma

  14. European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

  15. European Union and Racial Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    The European Community (EC) has the power to pass laws based on the Community Treaty. Since 1989, the EC's Commission for Racial Equality has called for an amendment to the European Treaty that would provide basic protection against racial discrimination throughout the EC and legal remedies for those who suffer discrimination. Tracing the history…

  16. Market forces in European soccer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Haan; Ruud H. Koning; Arjen van Witteloostuijn

    2002-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates high revenues for participating clubs. This paper studies the effects of these changes on the closeness of

  17. The European Picture Book Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottom, Penni

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the European Picture Book Collection project designed to help young children understand more about Europe. Contains preparatory stages of the project, discussing the first symposium in France (1966), the establishment of a European picture book collection, the initial evaluation of the materials in U.K. schools, the second symposium in…

  18. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    PubMed Central

    Laval, Guillaume; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Legault, Christian; Milan, Denis; Groenen, Martien AM; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Andersson, Leif; Nissen, Peter H; Jřrgensen, Claus B; Beeckmann, Petra; Geldermann, Hermann; Foulley, Jean-Louis; Chevalet, Claude; Ollivier, Louis

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27), and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity. PMID:14736401

  19. COMMUNICATION (European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COMMUNICATION ECRIN (European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network) et la structuration de la recherche clinique en Europe Mots clés : Recherche biomédicale. Europe ECRIN (European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network), a pan-european infrastructure for clinical research Key-words (Index medicus

  20. The Distribution of Toxoplasma gondii Cysts in the Brain of a Mouse with Latent Toxoplasmosis: Implications for the Behavioral Manipulation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Berenreiterová, Miroslava; Flegr, Jaroslav; Kub?na, Aleš A.; N?mec, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Background The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii reportedly manipulates rodent behavior to enhance the likelihood of transmission to its definitive cat host. The proximate mechanisms underlying this adaptive manipulation remain largely unclear, though a growing body of evidence suggests that the parasite-entrained dysregulation of dopamine metabolism plays a central role. Paradoxically, the distribution of the parasite in the brain has received only scant attention. Methodology/Principal Findings The distributions of T. gondii cysts and histopathological lesions in the brains of CD1 mice with latent toxoplasmosis were analyzed using standard histological techniques. Mice were infected per orally with 10 tissue cysts of the avirulent HIF strain of T. gondii at six months of age and examined 18 weeks later. The cysts were distributed throughout the brain and selective tropism of the parasite toward a particular functional system was not observed. Importantly, the cysts were not preferentially associated with the dopaminergic system and absent from the hypothalamic defensive system. The striking interindividual differences in the total parasite load and cyst distribution indicate a probabilistic nature of brain infestation. Still, some brain regions were consistently more infected than others. These included the olfactory bulb, the entorhinal, somatosensory, motor and orbital, frontal association and visual cortices, and, importantly, the hippocampus and the amygdala. By contrast, a consistently low incidence of tissue cysts was recorded in the cerebellum, the pontine nuclei, the caudate putamen and virtually all compact masses of myelinated axons. Numerous perivascular and leptomeningeal infiltrations of inflammatory cells were observed, but they were not associated with intracellular cysts. Conclusion/Significance The observed pattern of T. gondii distribution stems from uneven brain colonization during acute infection and explains numerous behavioral abnormalities observed in the chronically infected rodents. Thus, the parasite can effectively change behavioral phenotype of infected hosts despite the absence of well targeted tropism. PMID:22194951

  1. Prospect and refuge : shelter in Roxbury

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jane Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    This thesis attempts to use the concept of juxtaposed prospect and refuge to design shelter on a large urban site (92,000 square feet). The broad range of scales stretches the applicability of prospect and refuge as a ...

  2. Prospect Theory for Online Financial Trading

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yang-Yu

    Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and ...

  3. The European nanometrology landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard K.; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  4. The European nanometrology landscape.

    PubMed

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. PMID:21212479

  5. Job Prospects for Aerospace Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the recent trends in job opportunities for aerospace engineers. Mentions some of the political, technological, and economic factors affecting the overall employment picture. Includes a description of the job prospects created by the general upswing of the large commercial aircraft market. (TW)

  6. Prospects for daily urban mobility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Bieber

    1994-01-01

    This research was supported by a DATAR (the French organization for regional development) research grant, with the aim of defining a basis for the prospect of mobility in large conurbations. The first part of the research is devoted to cross?section comparisons between countries as regards land use and related mobility schemes. As a result of the comparisons, we suggest considering

  7. Job Prospects for Marine Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Marine engineering is one of the smaller disciplines that have grown during recent decades. Job prospects in this field, salaries, types of employers (particularly Navy shipbuilding and infrastructure work), and marine/ocean engineers involvement with environmental issues are discussed. (JN)

  8. North American tidal power prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warner W. Wayne Jr

    1981-01-01

    Prospects for North American tidal power electrical generation are reviewed. Studies by the US Army Corps of Engineers of 90 possible generation schemes in Cobscook Bay, ME, indicated that maximum power generation rather than dependable capacity was the most economic method. Construction cost estimates for 15 MW bulb units in a single effect mode from basin to the sea are

  9. Scientific knowledge and modern prospecting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuerburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Modern prospecting is the systematic search for specified and generally ill-exposed components of the Earth's crust known as ore. This prospecting depends entirely on reliable, or scientific knowledge for guidance and for recognition of the search objects. Improvement in prospecting results from additions and refinements to scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is an ordered distillation of observations too numerous and too complex in themselves for easy understanding and for effective management. The ordering of these observations is accomplished by an evolutionary hierarchy of abstractions. These abstractions employ simplified descriptions consisting of characterization by selected properties, sampling to represent much larger parts of a phenomenon, generalized mappings of patterns of geometrical and numerical relations among properties, and explanation (theory) of these patterns as functional relations among the selected properties. Each abstraction is predicated on the mode of abstraction anticipated for the next higher level, so that research is a deductive process in which the highest level, theory, is indispensible for the growth and refinement of scientific knowledge, and therefore of prospecting methodology. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Neutrosophic Logics: Prospects and Problems

    E-print Network

    Priestley, Hilary

    the basic notions of neutrosophic logic. In fuzzy logics the two-point set of classical truth values {0, 1Neutrosophic Logics: Prospects and Problems Umberto Rivieccio University of Genoa Department is neutrosophic logics, a family of many- valued systems that can be regarded as a generalization of fuzzy logics

  11. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vries de D. P; L. A. M. Dubois

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation available among current progenitors to ascertain the vitality and productivity of future cultivars

  12. Public Lecture Prospects for Solar

    E-print Network

    Public Lecture Prospects for Solar Energy Utilization 4 p.m., October 8 100 Lindquist Hall Scientific lecture O Thermodynamically Efficient Solar Energy Concentration 2 p.m., October 7 128 Jabara Hall-Merced and director of the California Advanced Solar Technologies Institute. He invented the field of non

  13. European project ISAWARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jochen; Smietanski, Guillaume; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    2001-08-01

    As air traffic is increasing, the probability of encountering 'surveillance' alerts during flight is also increasing. In order to ensure safety, new on board systems need to be developed to provide the crew with a better 'situation awareness' (SA) about its external environment and potential hazards. In addition, the means to manage the data generated by these new systems needs to be build up. Despite the tremendous amount of information, crew workload must not increase. This is where the ISAWARE project comes in with the Integrated Situation Awareness System (ISAS) concept. ISAWARE (Increasing Safety through collision Avoidance WARning intEgration) is a project partly funded by the European Community, executed by a well balanced composition of several European aerospace companies (airframers, a helicopter manufacturer, avionics suppliers, airlines), one research laboratory and one university. The overall objective of the ISAWARE project is to conduct research into the potential improvements to flight safety that can be achieved by providing the pilot with complete predictive situation awareness during all phases of the flight. The Integrated Situational Awareness System (ISAS) merges data from different safety systems concerning terrain, traffic, weather and other. The system ensures the alerts consistency, prioritises alerts and anticipates threats along a predicted trajectory earlier than current systems can provide. The second main axis of the research is the development of synthetic vision displays (PFD, ND and HUD) to enhance the Human-Machine Interface (HMI). The key focus of the project is the development of a ground-based demonstrator rig which is interfaced to a dynamic flight simulator. This rig is used for the evaluation of the ISAWARE concept by a representative range of active airline crews.

  14. B. Heltsley, CKM Status & Prospects, PIC01 1 CKM Status & Prospects

    E-print Network

    B. Heltsley, CKM Status & Prospects, PIC01 1 CKM Status & Prospects CKM Basics Experimental Status-c Prospects Brian K. Heltsley, Cornell University Physics In Collision, June 29, 2001 #12;B. Heltsley, CKM Status & Prospects, PIC01 2 Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Quark Mixing Lagrangian (weak charged current

  15. Prospective pour l'instrumentation HRA 2010-2020 Fichier : prospective_010330.doc

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Luc

    Prospective pour l'instrumentation HRA 2010-2020 Fichier : prospective_010330.doc ASHRA/Luc Arnold Page 1 06.04.01 Prospective pour l'instrumentation HRA post-VLTI - 2010 - 2020 Instruments possibles et besoins en R&D Groupe de travail Prospective ASHRA Document préparé par Luc Arnold Document du 30 mars

  16. | Prospective Student survey | v 1.0 (5/2007) Online survey of Prospective Students

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    | Prospective Student survey | v 1.0 (5/2007) Online survey of Prospective Students conducted May of prospective students who took the survey had visited OU's Web site previously. So, information about OU. If added to the Web site, prospective students would like most to see an event calendar and virtual tour

  17. EUROPEAN IDENTITY AND EUROPEAN CITIZENSHIP IN THREE "EUROCITIES" : A SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE EUROPEAN

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of quantitative research on European identity linked to official sources of data such as Eurobarometer, there has and Eurocities: Free Movement and Mobility in an Integrating Europe (Favell, 2008), as well as data from an accom. The European Union's big mistake was to try to market the many supplementary individual rights of free movement

  18. PERSPECTIVE A taxonomy of prospection: Introducing an

    E-print Network

    Spreng, R. Nathan

    PERSPECTIVE A taxonomy of prospection: Introducing an organizational framework for future- oriented, episodic simulation, and autobiograph- ical planning. In this article, we propose a taxonomy of prospection works have intimated the need for a taxonomy of prospection (11, 12), prior attempts to parse future

  19. APPROCHE PROSPECTIVE DU BESOIN GLOBAL DE SOLVABILIT

    E-print Network

    Vermet, Franck

    APPROCHE PROSPECTIVE DU BESOIN GLOBAL DE SOLVABILITÉ PROCESSUS OWN RISK AND SOLVENCY ASSESSMENT CONLUSION 11/07/2012 Approche Prospective du Besoin Global de Solvabilité 2/22 #12;Introduction Contexte Approche sur Scénarios de Stress Multi-Déterministes 4 CONLUSION 11/07/2012 Approche Prospective du Besoin

  20. SWINE PROSPECT SHOW Sunday, Dec. 7, 2014

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    BARN WARS SWINE PROSPECT SHOW Sunday, Dec. 7, 2014 Indian River County Fairgrounds 7955 58th Ave. Checks need to be made out to: Indian River County 4-H. Mail to: Indian River County 4-H Attn: Prospect to all of the rules and regulations set forth by Barn Wars Prospect Show. Exhibitor's Signature: Date

  1. Cost-Utility Analysis of Treatment with Olanzapine Compared with Other Antipsychotic Treatments in Patients with Schizophrenia in the Pan-European SOHO Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Knapp; Frank Windmeijer; Jacqueline Brown; Stathis Kontodimas; Spyridon Tzivelekis; Josep Maria Haro; Mark Ratcliffe; Jihyung Hong; Diego Novick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cost utility of treating schizophrenic patients with olanzapine compared with other antipsychotics in a naturalistic outpatient setting. Methods: The pan-European SOHO study is a 3-year, prospective, outpatient, observational study of outcomes associated with antipsychotic treatment, focusing on olanzapine, in ten European countries. For the cost-utility analysis, healthcare resource use (inpatient care, day care, outpatient psychiatric consultations

  2. Vitamin\\/mineral supplementation and cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuanrong Li; Rudolf Kaaks; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann

    Purpose  To prospectively evaluate the association of vitamin\\/mineral supplementation with cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg), which was\\u000a recruited in 1994–1998, 23,943 participants without pre-existing cancer and myocardial infarction\\/stroke at baseline were\\u000a included in the analyses. Vitamin\\/mineral supplementation was assessed at baseline and during follow-up. Cox regression models

  3. European Southern Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organization comprised of 14 member countries. Its headquarters are in Germany, but they have three observatories in Chile as well. Their website is loaded with information and visitors shouldn't miss going on the "Virtual Tours", on the far right side of the homepage. The tours are of the three observatories in Chile, and offer almost 360 degree views of beautiful, yet sparse landscapes. The tour of La Silla has two particularly beautiful views, "La Silla Moonlight" and "La Silla Sunset". Visitors interested in seeing a panning of an artist's 3D rendering of the Orion Nebula must go to the "Video" link on the left hand menu on the homepage. There are over 1400 videos to choose from, so for those not into the Orion Nebula, never fear, there are plenty of other video choices. Finally, visitors must go to the "Top 100 Images" link on the right side of the homepage to see amazing and gorgeous images taken from the ESO's various observatories.

  4. Se connecter la prospective AA L'adresse de la prospective AA est : https://extra.core-cloud.net/projets/prospectiveAA2014

    E-print Network

    Canet, Léonie

    Se connecter ŕ la prospective AA L'adresse de la prospective AA est : https://extra.core-cloud.net/projets/prospective que vous ayiez ŕ demander l'accčs ŕ la prospective. Dans ce cas, voir l'annexe A. 2) Si vous faites la prospective (annexe A). 3) Vous faites partie d'un organisme qui ne propose pas de fournisseur d

  5. European Solar Engineering School Homepage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The European Solar Engineering School (ESES) provides courses in advanced solar energy engineering for well qualified master's level engineering students. The following are offered: advanced solar thermal engineering, advanced photovoltaic engineering, applied solar energy engineering, and utilization of solar energy.

  6. Uncertainty in Mineral Prospectivity Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawalai Kraipeerapun; Chun Che Fung; Warick Brown; Kok Wai Wong; Tamás D. Gedeon

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the prediction of mineral prospectivity that provides an assessment of uncertainty. Two\\u000a feed-forward backpropagation neural networks are used for the prediction. One network is used to predict degrees of favourability\\u000a for deposit and another one is used to predict degrees of likelihood for barren, which is opposite to deposit. These two types\\u000a of values

  7. Prospects for de-automatization.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness. PMID:20356765

  8. Whither Europeanization? Concept Stretching and Substantive Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio M. Radaelli

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of Europeanization in the light of recent research on the impact of the European Union politics and policy. Conceptual analysis is preliminary to empirical analysis. Accordingly, I examine the risk of 'concept stretching', discuss extension and intension of Europeanization, and propose a taxonomy to 'unpack' the concept and organize empirical research. The explanation of Europeanization

  9. information & research skills programme European Union Resources

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    informED information & research skills programme European Union Resources © European Community and politics 4 The Budget - Financing the European Union 5 Economic and monetary policy 6 Single market. Culture 18 External Relations 19 Law EUROPA ­ Gateway to the European Union http

  10. Improved Glycemic Control through Continuous Glucose Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pump Therapy: Prospective Results from a Community and Academic Practice Patient Registry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ohad Cohen; Anna Körner; Rudolf Chlup; Christos S. Zoupas; Anton K. Ragozin; Krisztina Wudi; Dagmar Bartaskova; Aggelos Pappas; Tamás Niederland; Andriani Vazeou

    Background: Conducted by highly experienced investigators with abundant time and resources, phase III studies of continuous glucose sensing (CGS) may lack generalizability to everyday clinical practice. Method: Community or academic practices in six Central and Eastern European or Mediterranean countries prospectively established an anonymized registry of consecutive patients with type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus starting CGS-augmented insulin pump therapy with

  11. Collyriclosis in Central European hirundines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petr Heneberg; Tibor Szép; Tomasz Iciek; Ivan Literák

    Cutaneous monostome trematode Collyriclum faba (Bremser in Schmalz 1831) is a digenetic flatworm with unknown life cycle. Here, we provide the first compelling evidence\\u000a that despite low prevalence of the parasite, European hirundines are parasitized by this species. First host record for sand\\u000a martin (Riparia riparia) and first European host record for barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is provided. The birds

  12. What can I do with a degree in European and European Union Studies?

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    What can I do with a degree in European and European Union Studies? ARTS Planning your career to www.canterbury.ac.nz/liaison/best_prep.shtml What is European and European Union Studies? The European Union (EU) is New Zealand's most significant bilateral partner after Australia and is one of the world

  13. Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim associated with resveratrol for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in mice: Influence on the activity of enzymes involved in brain neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Tonin, Alexandre A; Rech, Virginia C; Nishihira, Vivian S K; Thomé, Gustavo R; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Morsch, Vera M; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda F; Tochetto, Camila; Fighera, Rafael; Machado, Gustavo; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) associated with resveratrol on the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenylate kinase (AK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and creatine kinase (CK) in the brain of mice experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii. For that, 60 mice were divided into ten groups with 6 animals each: groups A to D composed by healthy mice and groups E to J consisting of animals infected by T. gondii (VEG strain). Animals started treatment 20 days post-infection for 10 consecutive days with oral doses of 0.5 mg kg(-1) of ST (groups B and F), 100 mg kg(-1) of free resveratrol (groups C and G) and inclusion complex of resveratrol (nanoparticles containing resveratrol) (groups D and H), as well as with an association of both drugs (groups I and J). The results showed increased (P < 0.001) AChE activity on infected animals (groups E-J) when compared to not-infected (A) animals, and also uninfected animals treated with ST (group B) had increased AChE activity. AK activity decreased (P < 0.001) in the infected and untreated (group E), differently from the other groups that did not differ. PK activity did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). When comparing control groups (uninfected (A) and infected (E)), we verified a significant (P < 0.001) increase in CK activity in the brain, and it is noteworthy that the animals treated with resveratrol associated with ST (group I and J) had similar CK activity to those animals from the group A. Treatment with the combination of ST and resveratrol was able to reduce (P < 0.05) the number of parasitic cysts in the brain, thus reduced inflammatory infiltrates in the liver, and prevented the occurrence of hepatocytes lesions due to toxoplasmosis in mice. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that increased AChE and CK activities after T. gondii infection did not change with the treatment of ST-resveratrol association. In addition, decreased AK activity caused by T. gondii infection was normalized by ST-resveratrol treatment. T. gondii infection and treatment does not affect PK activity in brain. PMID:25572158

  14. Toxoplasmosis in Sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates and Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, the State of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Pas, An; Rajendran, C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Hebel, C; Hammer, S; Su, C

    2010-09-20

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid found in sand and stone deserts ranging from the north of Africa to Asia, with the Arabian Peninsula as its centre of distribution. The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recently recognized as one of the causes of this mortality. In the present study, one 18-month-old Sand cat (FM019) died of acute toxoplasmosis-associated hepatitis and pneumonitis acquired after birth; Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in histological sections which reacted with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). T. gondii DNA was found by PCR of extracted DNA from liver and lung tissues of this cat. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in serum examined in 1:1600 dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT); its 2-year-old cage mate seroconverted (MAT titer 1:3200) at the same time. Another Sand cat (FM017) was euthanized because of ill health when 3 years old; its MAT titer was >1:3200, and T. gondii tissue cysts were found in brain, heart, ocular muscles and skeletal muscle, confirmed by IHC. Viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassays in mice inoculated with tissues of another chronically infected Sand cat (FM002); T. gondii was not found in histological sections of this cat. T. gondii antibodies were found in several species of animals tested, notably in 49 of 57 wild felids at BCEAW. A 7-year-old Sand cat (3657) from Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Doha, State of Qatar died of acute visceral toxoplasmosis with demonstrable T. gondii tachyzoites by IHC, and T. gondii DNA by PCR, and a MAT titer of >3200. T. gondii antibodies were found in 21 of 27 of wild felids at AWWP. PCR-RFLP genotyping at 10 genetic loci revealed that these T. gondii isolates from Sand cat (FM002 and FM019) at BCEAW have an atypical genotype, which was previously reported in T. gondii isolates of dogs from Sri Lanka. The genotype from the cat from AWWP (3657) is a genetic Type II strain with a Type I allele at locus Apico. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Middle East. PMID:20570441

  15. German and British labour law in a European context following European Union enlargement 

    E-print Network

    Zahn, Rebecca Lisa

    2011-07-01

    This thesis examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements which are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In terms of labour ...

  16. Duponchelia fovealisDuponchelia fovealis (Zeller)(Zeller) European Pepper MothEuropean Pepper Moth

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Duponchelia fovealisDuponchelia fovealis (Zeller)(Zeller) European Pepper MothEuropean Pepper Moth Agriculture Pest Survey program). The photographs of the European pepper moth were used with permission from

  17. Lattice QCD: Status and Prospect

    SciTech Connect

    Ukawa, Akira [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2006-02-08

    A brief review is given of the current status and near-future prospect of lattice QCD studies of the Standard Model. After summarizing a bit of history, we describe current attempts toward inclusion of dynamical up, down and strange quarks. Recent results on the light hadron mass spectrum as well as those on the heavy quark quantities are described. Recent work on lattice pentaquark search is summarized. We touch upon the PACS-CS Project for building our next machine for lattice QCD, and conclude with a summary of computer situation and the physics possibilities over the next several years.

  18. Trichomoniasis and Lactoferrin: Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Alka

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan which infects the urogenital tract and requires iron as an essential nutrient. Iron is known to upregulate various adhesins required for cytoadherance and other factors involved in pathogenesis. At mucosal surfaces, iron is chelated by lactoferrin resulting in low levels of free iron. However, pathogens have evolved mechanisms for an increased uptake of iron. The present review highlights the role of iron in survival of Trichomonas during fluctuating concentrations of iron at mucosal surfaces during the menstrual cycle. Future prospects in terms of new drug and vaccine targets related to iron and its receptors have also been described. PMID:22988421

  19. The outcome of pregnancy in 689 women exposed to therapeutic doses of antidepressants. A collaborative study of the European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia R. McElhatton; Hanneke M. Garbis; Elisabeth Eléfant; Thierry Vial; Béatrice Bellemin; Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo; Judith Arnon; Elvira Rodríguez-Pinilla; Christof Schaefer; Tomas Pexieder; Paul Merlob; Sabina dal Verme

    1996-01-01

    The European Network of the Teratology Information Services (ENTIS) has collected and evaluated data on 689 pregnancies in which exposure to tricyclic and nontricyclic antidepressants occurred. Data were collected prospectively from the time of in utero exposure and all the cases were followed up to the first few weeks of postnatal life using standardized procedures. In most cases, no longer

  20. Cognitive function in a general population of men and women: A cross sectional study in the European Investigation of Cancer–Norfolk cohort (EPIC-Norfolk)

    E-print Network

    Hayat, Shabina A.; Luben, Robert; Moore, Stephanie; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Anuj, Serena; Matthews, Fiona E.; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brayne, Carol

    2014-12-19

    of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk 3) between 2006 and 2011 (including measures from the pilot phase from 2004 to 2006). This was done using a battery consisting of seven previously validated cognitive function tests...

  1. A Comparative Analysis of two Forms of Stakeholder Participation in European Aquaculture Governance: Self-regulation and Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SELINA M STEAD

    European aquaculture governance contains elements of the three main modes of governance: 1) hierarchical; 2) market; and 3) participative. This chapter focuses on the participative mode, both because it is the dominant mode, and because it offers a better prospect for the future of the aquaculture industry than either of the other two modes. There are two distinct forms of

  2. Comparison of Conventional Color Doppler Imaging and Power Doppler Imaging for the Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer: Results of a European Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Guerriero; J. L. Alcazar; S. Ajossa; M. P. Lai; T. Errasti; G. Mallarini; G. B. Melis

    2001-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional color Doppler (CCD) imaging and power Doppler (PD) imaging in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.Methods. Six hundred fifty-six consecutive women with adnexal masses scheduled for surgery in two European university departments of obstetrics and gynecology underwent preoperative transvaginal ultrasound. The scanning procedure was the same

  3. TIESProjectiscofinancedbytheEuropeanCommissionontheframeworkoftheTEMPUSProgramme. Contract:159218TEMPUS120091ESTEMPUSJPGR

    E-print Network

    TIESProjectiscofinancedbytheEuropeanCommissionontheframeworkoftheTEMPUSProgramme. Contract:159218EuropeanCommissionontheframeworkoftheTEMPUSProgramme. Contract:159218TEMPUS120091ESTEMPUSJPGR Contents · Background's #12;TIESProjectiscofinancedbytheEuropeanCommissionontheframeworkoftheTEMPUSProgramme. Contract:159218

  4. Europages: The European Business Directory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Europages is a pan-European purchaser's guide featuring a selection of 150,000 companies from 25 European countries. Published in collaboration with the major European telecom companies for 13 years, it is now available online. Europages can be searched in 5 languages, and additional languages will be available in the near future. Europages' Economic Info Service provides an economic indicators for all the industrial, commercial and service sectors driving Europe's economy. A selection of tables, maps and graphs presents the key figures and main short- and medium-term trends for each of the 18 Europages sectors can be viewed with Adobe Acrobat. (A link to Adobe is provided to download the Acrobat reader.)

  5. EIoPortal: European Integration Online Portal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Researchers in European studies will be interested to know that the Website of European Integration Online Papers (EIOP) (see the June 13, 1997 Scout Report) has become the European Integration Online Portal, offering direct links to not only the working papers of EIOP but to the European Research Papers Archive and to Euronet, a gateway to Internet sites and resources on issues of European Integration. With this grouping, the portal already constitutes a substantial outlet for scholarship on European studies, and plans are reportedly in the works for further enhancement.

  6. Proteome and phosphoproteome of Africanized and European honeybee venoms.

    PubMed

    Resende, Virgínia Maria Ferreira; Vasilj, Andrej; Santos, Keity Souza; Palma, Mario Sergio; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2013-09-01

    Honey bee venom toxins trigger immunological, physiological, and neurological responses within victims. The high occurrence of bee attacks involving potentially fatal toxic and allergic reactions in humans and the prospect of developing novel pharmaceuticals make honey bee venom an attractive target for proteomic studies. Using label-free quantification, we compared the proteome and phosphoproteome of the venom of Africanized honeybees with that of two European subspecies, namely Apis mellifera ligustica and A. m. carnica. From the total of 51 proteins, 42 were common to all three subspecies. Remarkably, the toxins melittin and icarapin were phosphorylated. In all venoms, icarapin was phosphorylated at the (205) Ser residue, which is located in close proximity to its known antigenic site. Melittin, the major toxin of honeybee venoms, was phosphorylated in all venoms at the (10) Thr and (18) Ser residues. (18) Ser phosphorylated melittin-the major of its two phosphorylated forms-was less toxic compared to the native peptide. PMID:23798553

  7. Security Economics and European Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  8. Interactions between European Citizenship and Language Learning among Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennebry, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) has created debate as to the suitability of current structures and policies for effectively engaging citizens and developing social cohesion. Education and specifically modern foreign language (MFL) teaching are argued by the literature to play a key role in equipping young people to interact and…

  9. Nucleon decay experiments: status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.S.; Beier, E.W.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Ernwein, J.; Gaisser, T.K.; Seidel, S.; Sulak, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    We survey the current status and future prospects of experiments to search for nucleon decay. Results from current experiments are summarized, and the background rejection capabilities of various techniques are described. We discuss the prospects for improved sensitivity in the new experiments that are now coming into operation, and the opportunities for the next generation of detectors. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Mexico's Petroleum Sector: Performance and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's Petroleum Sector: Performance and Prospect discusses the intricacies of the psychology and cultural mix of Mexican political and corporate roles. Contents: Structure; Size; Investments; Output; Sales; Procurement; Costs; Pemex financial management; Political management; National policy; Prospect; Mexico as an LDC; Appendix; Index.

  11. Prospective memory and chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience a number of debilitating symptoms, which impact on activities of daily living and result in poor quality of life. Prospective memory, which is defined as memory to carry out future intentions, has not been investigated in this group. However, emerging evidence suggests CHF patients have difficulties with cognitive processes related to prospective memory. Self-care, which partly relies on prospective memory, is essential in symptom management and preventing acute clinical deterioration. This study aims to measure prospective memory in CHF patients, and examine the relationship between prospective memory and CHF self-care. Methods/Design A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment will be conducted to assess a range of cognitive functions and psychopathology. The primary focus will be an assessment of prospective memory using a well-established behavioral measure; Virtual Week. Thirty CHF patients attending a nurse-led management program will be recruited from three hospital sites in Melbourne, Australia and their self-care behaviors will be assessed using the Self-care Chronic Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), a validated self-report tool. An additional 30 healthy controls, matched on age, gender, and IQ will be recruited from the general community. Discussion This is a group comparison study that will provide an evaluation of the prospective memory abilities of CHF patients. The findings of this research will provide insight into whether prospective memory may be hindering patients’ ability to perform adequate self-care. PMID:23984757

  12. Prospecting for Gold in the United States

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harold Kirkemo

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses gold prospecting in the US. The history of prospecting is covered, as well as where in the US gold can still be found and accounts of successful gold mining. Deposits of gold are also explained, including placer deposits and lode gold. Selected references for additional reading are given.

  13. Prospects & Overviews Snake venom: From fieldwork to

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Kate

    Prospects & Overviews Snake venom: From fieldwork to the clinic Recent insights into snake biology) and Nicolas Vidal6) Snake venoms are recognized here as a grossly under- explored resource in pharmacological prospecting. Discoveries in snake systematics demonstrate that former taxonomic bias in research has led

  14. About Prospect Eleven Princeton University's "DARPA Project"

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    About Prospect Eleven and Princeton University's "DARPA Project" Background: Prospect Eleven is the team name for Princeton University's entry in DARPA's Grand Challenge of 2005, a competition of truly) miles of the more than 150 mile course. As a result, DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects

  15. Prospective Teachers' Knowledge: Concept of Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Nusrat Fatima; Lawson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prospective teachers' knowledge about the concept of division. One focus of interest was whether the prospective teachers were able to represent division of fractions. The participants were introduced to an alternative model for representation of fractions based on a rate or ratio model of division…

  16. Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptions about Astronomical Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify prospective science teachers' conceptions on basic astronomical phenomena. A questionnaire consisting of nine open-ended questions was administered to 327 prospective science teachers. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive review of the literature and took into consideration the reported…

  17. Good prospects Access 10 Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    Bangerth, Wolfgang

    Good prospects Access 10 Spring 2005 #12;Oil prospecting used to rely on hunches as much as anything else. Where to explore? Luck might land you a spot where oil was seeping from the ground. Where in drilling and production. Companies can now drill horizontally and sink wells that branch in multiple direc

  18. Training Prospective Teachers in Coding Dialect Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberg, Walter J.; Tomas, Douglas A.

    Research on language attitudes and performances of prospective teachers shows the need for special training to prepare teachers to work with "linguistically different" students. An attempt was made to develop, and test the effectiveness of, such training. Twenty-six prospective teachers conducted an Informal Reading Inventory on the reading of a…

  19. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Fraction Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Jane-Jane; Luo, Fenqjen

    2012-01-01

    Prospective elementary teachers must understand fraction division deeply in order to meaningfully teach this topic to their future students. This paper explores the nature of the subject content knowledge of fraction division possessed by a group of Taiwanese prospective elementary teachers at the beginning of their mathematics methods course. The…

  20. Entre nostalgie et prospective, le temps prsent

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Entre nostalgie et prospective, le temps présent Colette Pétonnet Références de publication : 1989 pelouse qui a sévi dans les banlieues, au profil de jardin, planté, rythmé, et miniaturisé. #12;Colette a contrario nos archaďsmes, telle #12;Colette Pétonnet (1989) Entre nostalgie et prospective... 3/8 la

  1. Petroleum prospecting in the Arab world

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses about oil and gas exploration in the Arab countries. After describing the chemistry and formation of petroleum and steps involved in prospecting, the book surveys the history and results of prospecting in each country. It also provides diagrams, maps, appended reserves and production data, and English equivalent terms.

  2. 7. Oil house, view northeast, southwest front Prospect Harbor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Oil house, view northeast, southwest front - Prospect Harbor Light Station, Off State Route 195 at end of road to Prospect Harbor Point, on east side of Inner Harbor, Prospect Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  3. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  4. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment...

  5. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section 3815.2...in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in...

  6. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  7. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  8. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  9. PIBEA: Prospect Indicator Based Evolutionary Algorithm for Multiobjective Optimization Problems

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Jun

    PIBEA: Prospect Indicator Based Evolutionary Algorithm for Multiobjective Optimization Problems multiobjective optimization algorithm (EMOA) that uses a new quality indicator, called the prospect indicator, for parent selection and environmental selection operators. The prospect indicator measures the potential

  10. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment...

  11. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section 3815.2...in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in...

  12. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  13. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment...

  14. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  15. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section 3815.2...in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in...

  16. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  17. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment...

  18. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section 3815.2...in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in...

  19. Prospects for large-scale financial systems simulation

    E-print Network

    Southampton, University of

    Prospects for large-scale financial systems simulation The Future of Computer Trading in Financial Markets - Foresight Driver Review ­ DR 14 #12;Prospects for large-scale financial systems simulation Contents Prospects for large-scale financial systems simulation

  20. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment...

  1. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  2. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  3. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  4. The public visibility of Islam and European

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article The public visibility of Islam and European politics of resentment: The minarets visibility of Islam reveals new political stakes in European democracies around issues of immigration and minarets, this article explores the ways in which Islamic difference is manifested

  5. Joint Degrees & Promotion towards European Students

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    Joint Degrees & Promotion towards European Students 26 June 2014 MATTEA CAPELLI & ALESSANDRA GALLERANO INTERNATIONAL OFFICE #12;Joint Degrees and Promotion towards European students Joint degrees guidelines and template for agreements Support to student participation Promotion of Joint Degrees towards

  6. Progress and Prospects toward a Space-based Gravitational-Wave Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been much activity in the effort to produce a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. These efforts have enriched the understanding of the scientific capabilities of such an observatory leading to broad recognition of its value as an astronomical instrument. At the same time, rapidly developing events in the US and Europe have lead to a more complicated outlook than the baseline Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) project plan of a few years ago. I will discuss recent progress and developments resulting from the European eLISA study and the SGO study in the US and prospects looking forward.

  7. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  8. Adolescent Leisure across European Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August; Schaffner, Brigitta

    2003-01-01

    Examined variations in adolescent time use within Europe and their relation to culture, focusing on organization of free time, most frequent leisure activities, and resulting emotional states. Found that European adolescents spent free time in a range of activities, including electronic media, computer games, playing musical instruments, reading,…

  9. Reconstructing Indo-European Syllabification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Andrew Miles

    2010-01-01

    The chief concern of this dissertation is to investigate a fundamental, yet unsolved problem within the phonology of Proto-Indo-European (PIE): the process of syllabification. I show that by analyzing the much more easily reconstructable word-edge clusters we may predict which types of consonant clusters can occur word-medially, provided that we…

  10. Magnetic Compass of European Robins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Wiltschko; Roswitha Wiltschko

    1972-01-01

    The magnetic compass of European robins does not use the polarity of the magnetic field for detecting the north direction. The birds derive their north direction from interpreting the inclination of the axial direction of the magnetic field lines in space, and they take the direction on the magnetic north-south axis for \\

  11. Porting REAP to European Portuguese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos ´ e Lopes; Isabel Trancoso; Juan Pino; Maxine Eskenazi; Jorge Baptista; Ceu Viana

    This paper describes the early stages of porting REAP, a tu- toring system for vocabulary learning, to European Portuguese. Students learn from authentic materials, on topics of their pref- erence. A large number of linguistic resources and filtering tools have already been integrated into the ported version. We modified the current system to also target oral comprehension.

  12. Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for…

  13. The Outlook for European Aviation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Barrett

    1996-01-01

    In postwar Europe aviation markets were controlled by bilateral agreements which confined the market to one airline per country. The airlines charged the same fares and divided the markets. Economists from Adam Smith to William Baumol recommend that governments should not ban new entrants or otherwise prevent competition and the examination of the current state of European aviation in this

  14. Radiation detectors: Needs and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armantrout, G. A.

    Important applications for X and gamma ray spectroscopy are found in prospecting, materials characterization, environmental monitoring, the life sciences, and nuclear physics. The specific requirements vary for each application with varying degrees of emphasis on either spectrometer resolution, detection efficiency, or both. Since no one spectrometer is ideally suited to this wide range of needs, compromises are usually required. Gas and scintillation spectrometers have reached a level of maturity, and recent interest has concentrated on semiconductor spectrometers. Germanium detectors are showing continuing refinement and are the spectrometers of choice for high resolution applications. The new high Z semiconductors, such as CdTe and HgI2 show steady improvement but are limited in both resolution and size and will likely be used only in applications which require their unique properties.

  15. Prospecting Rovers for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Jerry B.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Farmer, Jeffery T.

    2007-01-01

    A study of lunar rover options for exploring the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar environment is presented. The potential for nearly continuous solar illumination coupled with the potential for water ice, focus exploration planner's attention on the polar regions of the moon. These regions feature craters that scientists have reason to believe may contain water ice. Water ice can be easily converted to fuel cell reactants, breathing oxygen, potable water, and rocket propellant. For these reasons, the NASA Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP) sponsored a study of potential prospecting rover concepts as one part of the RLEP-2 Pre-Phase A. Numerous vehicle configurations and power, thermal, and communication options are investigated. Rover options in the 400kg to 530kg class are developed which are capable of either confirming the presence of water ice at the poles, or conclusively demonstrating its absence.

  16. Current Research in European Vocational Education and Human Resource Development. Proceedings of the Programme Presented By the Research Network on Vocational Education and Training (VETNET) at the European Conference of Educational Research (ECER) (3rd, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 20-23, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Sabine, Ed.; Raffe, David, Ed.

    These 24 papers represent the proceedings of a program presented by the research network on vocational education and training (VET). They include "School-Arranged or Market-Governed Workplace Training?" (Ulla Arnell-Gustafsson); "Prospects for Mutual Learning and Transnational Transfer of Innovative Practice in European VET" (Alan Brown, Jens…

  17. Science policies in the European Union

    E-print Network

    Science policies in the European Union: Promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality might be made of the following information. A great deal of additional information on the European Union Union: Promoting excellence through mainstreaming gender equality A report prepared for the European

  18. Master of European and International Law

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Master of European and International Law at the China-EU School of Law in Beijing Go further. Go ProgrammeoftheChina-EUSchool of Law (CESL) in Beijing: the Master of European and International Law (LL.M.), taught in English. Our law school is a joint project initiated by the P.R. China and the European

  19. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education policy, as…

  20. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Spatial organisation of European eel

    E-print Network

    Lek, Sovan

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF Spatial organisation of European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) in a small catchment European eel (Anguilla anguilla, L.) is one of the major components of many estuarine and Żuvial aquatic sustainable management policies. The European eel dominates ®sh communities of many inland aquatic systems

  1. Taught degrees MA in Contemporary European Studies

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    internationally or higher, and 60 per cent rated as inter- nationally excellent or higher. · The Sussex European - representative politics in Europe, focusing on political parties, democracy and electoral politics - internal in Contemporary European Studies 1 year full time/2 years part time The MA has pan-European coverage, with a wide

  2. Food and Health: A European Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Venturini

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses four issues which arise from increasing concerns about overweight and obesity in European countries. First, we explore the main stylized facts of the phenomenon. We show that although Europeans are not obese like Americans, there is robust evidence that adult and childhood obesity rates tend to increase substantially in many European countries. The second part of the

  3. 5th European Conference on Neutron Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Mikula; Ji?í Hlinka; Karel Prokeš; Jan Dohnálek; Petr Šittner; Pavel Javorský

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains proceedings of ECNS 2011, held in Prague, Czech Republic, 17–22 July 2011. ECNS 2011 was the fifth Conference in a series of meetings organized in various European cities under patronage of the European Neutron Scattering Association, and was preceded by the European Neutron Scattering Conferences in Interlaken (1996), Budapest (1999), Montpellier (2003) and Lund (2007). The positive

  4. Pricing European and American Options with Extrapolation

    E-print Network

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    -normal Model for Stock Price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2.2 The Black-Scholes Model of European call (out of money). . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.8 Relative error of European call (at the money). . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.9 Relative error of European call (in the money). . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.10 Relative error

  5. European public real estate market integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Yang; James W. Kolari; Guozhong Zhu

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dynamic linkages among nine European public real estate markets, with particular attention to the impact of the recent establishment of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Forecast error variance decomposition results show that the real estate markets of larger EMU economies (Germany, France, Netherlands) became more integrated with other European markets after the establishment of the

  6. GPR prospection in ancient Ephesos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruska, Jiri; Fuchs, Gerald

    1999-03-01

    Urban area of ancient Ephesos (present Turkey) is too large to be fully excavated, so geophysical prospection and mapping can help with the investigation. Georadar is one of the most effective tools for it. Two different tasks solved by georadar are presented. The first problem was the interconnection between the city and the temple of Artemis. By historical records, it was made by two sacred procession roads, which had character of Graeco-Roman stoa, i.e., a roofed road. Only small parts of these roads were discovered in ruins or excavated. Some hundreds of metres from total length of a few kilometres became known, but the questions above were not solved. Then, the area was prospected by georadar. Series of GPR lines were scanned gradually from the last known points and evaluated right on the spot. As a result, a plan of georadar indications could be drawn. These indications created two lines tracing unknown parts of both roads joining together and then continuing till the entry of the temple. The results were confirmed by two boreholes. The second task was mapping of Hellenistic level of Tetragonos agora. At present, it is under the Roman level, and is visible only in some excavation pits. About a half the square was covered by detailed georadar survey. Numerous anomalies indicated presence of underground objects. Compared with the results of excavations, they were interpreted as ancient remains in several levels. Then plans of these indications were compiled for separated levels. Hellenistic buildings remains were mapped, forming an older agora, smaller and slightly different by its shape from the Roman building plan. Besides it, uncovered parts of Roman ruins were detected, as well as some remains of Classic and Archaic settlement levels. Some traces of even older human presence were found under them. Georadar results will serve as a guideline for future excavations.

  7. European Geosciences Union Open Access Publications of the

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    European Geosciences Union Open Access Publications of the European Geosciences Union (EGU.rousseau@lmd.ens.fr) January 2014/Montpellier Geosciences 2001-2011 #12;European Geosciences Union The European Geosciences Union · Merger of the European Geophysical Society (EGS) and the European Union of Geosciences (EUG

  8. Healthy diet indicator and mortality in Eastern European populations: prospective evidence from the HAPIEE cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, Nicole; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Simonova, Galina; Feskens, Edith J M; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Unhealthy diet has been proposed as one of the main reasons for the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU) but individual-level effects of dietary habits on health in the region are sparse. We examined the associations between the healthy diet indicator (HDI) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in three CEE/FSU populations. Subjects/Methods Dietary intakes of foods and nutrients, assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) cohort study, were used to construct the HDI which follows the WHO 2003 dietary recommendations. Among 18 559 eligible adult participants (age range: 45-69 years) without history of major chronic diseases at baseline, 1 209 deaths occurred over mean follow up of 7 years. The association between HDI and mortality was estimated by Cox regression. Results After adjusting for covariates, HDI was inversely and statistically significantly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but not with other cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the pooled sample. Hazard ratios per one standard deviation (SD) increase in HDI score were 0.95 (95%CI 0.89-1.00, p=0.068), 0.90 (0.81-0.99, p=0.030) and 0.85 (0.74-0.97, p=0.018) for all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality, respectively. Population attributable risk fractions for low HDI were 2.9% for all-cause, 14.2% for CVD and 10.7% for CHD mortality. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that unhealthy diet has played a role in the high CVD mortality in Eastern Europe. PMID:25028084

  9. Meat, Fish, and Colorectal Cancer Risk: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Lyon, France (TN, PF, NS, MJ, MM, BH, RS, RK, ER); Medical Research Council Dunn Human Nutrition Unit); German Institute of Human Nutrition, Postdam-Rehbücke, Germany (HB, MMB) and Nutrition Teresa Norat, Sheila Bingham, Pietro Ferrari, Nadia Slimani, Mazda Jenab, Mathieu Mazuir, Kim

  10. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjřnneland, Anne; Nailler, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Crowe, Francesca L; Key, Timothy J; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitirios; Leenders, Max; Peeters, Petra H M; Engeset, Dagrun; Parr, Christine L; Skeie, Guri; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José M; Redondo, M L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieux, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Norat, Teresa; Vergnaud, Anne C; Riboli, Elio; Linseisen, and J

    2013-03-07

    Abstract Background Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine...

  11. Prospects for transplanting European models of regional integration to Southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Vale

    1982-01-01

    This article suggests that the major obstacle to the harmonisation of policies and ultimate regional integration in the deeply divided region of southern Africa arises from a conflicting political matrix. By using the concepts of high” and “low” politics the author analyses the deep political schisms and parallel economic dependency which characterize relations between the states of the region, and

  12. Attracting Prospective Engineering Students in the Emerging European Space for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Martin, Antonio J.

    2010-01-01

    A set of outreach activities implemented by the College of Engineering of the Public University of Navarra, Spain, is described. They represent different initiatives aimed to improve recruitment of young engineers in the difficult context of declining interest in engineering and the educational changes Europe is facing nowadays. The initiatives…

  13. Antiaging therapy: a prospective hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bonjar, Mohammad Rashid Shahidi; Bonjar, Leyla Shahidi

    2015-01-01

    This hypothesis proposes a new prospective approach to slow the aging process in older humans. The hypothesis could lead to developing new treatments for age-related illnesses and help humans to live longer. This hypothesis has no previous documentation in scientific media and has no protocol. Scientists have presented evidence that systemic aging is influenced by peculiar molecules in the blood. Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, and Harvard University in Cambridge discovered elevated titer of aging-related molecules (ARMs) in blood, which trigger cascade of aging process in mice; they also indicated that the process can be reduced or even reversed. By inhibiting the production of ARMs, they could reduce age-related cognitive and physical declines. The present hypothesis offers a new approach to translate these findings into medical treatment: extracorporeal adjustment of ARMs would lead to slower rates of aging. A prospective "antiaging blood filtration column" (AABFC) is a nanotechnological device that would fulfill the central role in this approach. An AABFC would set a near-youth homeostatic titer of ARMs in the blood. In this regard, the AABFC immobilizes ARMs from the blood while blood passes through the column. The AABFC harbors antibodies against ARMs. ARM antibodies would be conjugated irreversibly to ARMs on contact surfaces of the reaction platforms inside the AABFC till near-youth homeostasis is attained. The treatment is performed with the aid of a blood-circulating pump. Similar to a renal dialysis machine, blood would circulate from the body to the AABFC and from there back to the body in a closed circuit until ARMs were sufficiently depleted from the blood. The optimal application criteria, such as human age for implementation, frequency of treatments, dosage, ideal homeostasis, and similar concerns, should be revealed by appropriate investigations. If AABFC technology undergoes practical evaluations and gains approval, it would hold future promises such as: 1) prolonged lifespans; 2) slowed age-related illnesses such as low bone mass, weak muscular systems, diabetes, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and impaired memory in the elderly; 3) reduced health expenses; 4) reduced cosmetic surgeries performed on the elderly; 5) healthier astronauts in extended outer space journeys; 6) reduced financial burden of advanced care for the elderly imposed upon both government and society; and 7) rejuvenating effects in healthy, non-aged individuals. PMID:25670884

  14. Prospective Tests of Earthquake Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. D.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Rong, Y.; Shen, Z.

    2001-12-01

    We use likelihood and other probabilistic tests to evaluate several recent earthquake forecasts. Here we discuss the testing methodology and applications to specific forecasts. When forecasts are made in terms of rate density (probability per unit area, magnitude, and time), it is especially easy to compare their performance against future earthquakes and against other forecasts. Here we use only prospective tests (that is, based on earthquakes that occur after the model and all parameters are fixed and announced). In 1999 we announced yearly test forecasts for earthquakes over magnitude 5.8 in the NW Pacific and SW Pacific regions (http://scec.ess.ucla.edu/ ~ykagan/predictions_index.html). The forecast model is based on smoothed seismicity determined from the Harvard CMT catalog, which begins in 1977. The forecast model assumes no time dependence, thus the forecast provides a good null hypothesis against which to test time-dependent models. Earthquakes in 1999 and 2000 were consistent with our forecasts except for the SW Pacific during 1999. Before then, we had smoothed the seismicity too much. We reduced the smoothing for the year 2000 forecast, with good results. In this presentation, we will present preliminary results for 2001. We also presented in 1999 a probability map for California based on the historic earthquake catalog back to 1850. Competing forecasts, based on geodetic strain rates, have since been proposed. All are time-independent and will provide a standard against which to test time-dependent models. We will present a comparison of the predictive ability of the various forecasts at a magnitude threshold of about 4.5. Kossobokov et al. went public in 1999 with semi-annual "M8" forecasts (http://mitp.ru/), which identified circles within which large earthquakes (magnitude 7.5 and above) are expected. Another version uses a threshold of 8.0. We will present an alternative "null hypothesis, " with earthquake rate constant in time and following a modified Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We will evaluate these hypotheses prospectively against each other. >http://scec.ess.ucla.edu/~ykagan/predictions_index.html

  15. Antiaging therapy: a prospective hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi Bonjar, Mohammad Rashid; Shahidi Bonjar, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    This hypothesis proposes a new prospective approach to slow the aging process in older humans. The hypothesis could lead to developing new treatments for age-related illnesses and help humans to live longer. This hypothesis has no previous documentation in scientific media and has no protocol. Scientists have presented evidence that systemic aging is influenced by peculiar molecules in the blood. Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, and Harvard University in Cambridge discovered elevated titer of aging-related molecules (ARMs) in blood, which trigger cascade of aging process in mice; they also indicated that the process can be reduced or even reversed. By inhibiting the production of ARMs, they could reduce age-related cognitive and physical declines. The present hypothesis offers a new approach to translate these findings into medical treatment: extracorporeal adjustment of ARMs would lead to slower rates of aging. A prospective “antiaging blood filtration column” (AABFC) is a nanotechnological device that would fulfill the central role in this approach. An AABFC would set a near-youth homeostatic titer of ARMs in the blood. In this regard, the AABFC immobilizes ARMs from the blood while blood passes through the column. The AABFC harbors antibodies against ARMs. ARM antibodies would be conjugated irreversibly to ARMs on contact surfaces of the reaction platforms inside the AABFC till near-youth homeostasis is attained. The treatment is performed with the aid of a blood-circulating pump. Similar to a renal dialysis machine, blood would circulate from the body to the AABFC and from there back to the body in a closed circuit until ARMs were sufficiently depleted from the blood. The optimal application criteria, such as human age for implementation, frequency of treatments, dosage, ideal homeostasis, and similar concerns, should be revealed by appropriate investigations. If AABFC technology undergoes practical evaluations and gains approval, it would hold future promises such as: 1) prolonged lifespans; 2) slowed age-related illnesses such as low bone mass, weak muscular systems, diabetes, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and impaired memory in the elderly; 3) reduced health expenses; 4) reduced cosmetic surgeries performed on the elderly; 5) healthier astronauts in extended outer space journeys; 6) reduced financial burden of advanced care for the elderly imposed upon both government and society; and 7) rejuvenating effects in healthy, non-aged individuals. PMID:25670884

  16. Changes in European spring phenology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ahas; A. Aasa; A. Menzel; V. G. Fedotova; H. Scheifinger

    2002-01-01

    The European phyto-phenological database of the EU 5th Framework project POSITIVE facilitated an examination of the rate and spatial pattern of changes in spring phenology across Europe. This database was collected, evaluated and composed from different national databases of Eastern and Western Europe covering the time period 1951-1998. Results show that spring phases have advanced four weeks in Western and

  17. European underground laboratories: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramonti, Lino

    2005-09-01

    Underground laboratories are complementary to those where the research in fundamental physics is made using accelerators. This report focus on the logistic and on the background features of the most relevant laboratories in Europe, stressing also on the low background facilities available. In particular the report is focus on the laboratories involved in the new Europeean project ILIAS with the aim to support the European large infrastructures operating in the astroparticle physics sector.

  18. European Association for International Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    More and more organizations are concerned with the future of higher education, and one dedicated to examining this quickly changing area is the European Association for International Education (EAIE). The primary aim of the EAIE is "the stimulation and facilitation of the internationalization of higher education in Europe and around the world." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their annual conference and also read about their latest policy statements and press releases.

  19. Update on the European database.

    PubMed

    Donawa, M

    2001-10-01

    The European medical device Directives require the establishment of a centralised database for storing regulatory information and data on medical devices. The work to establish this system is progressing and the database may be operational within 18 to 24 months. This article discusses the work that has been done to establish the database, the types of data to be stored in it, and the current status of the project. PMID:12938545

  20. Deutche Bahn European Train Timetables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deutche Bahn AG offers this site, which is sure to be useful to European train travelers. The interactive train timetable allows the user to enter the city of departure and arrival, as well as the date and time, and returns the relevant train schedules. Users can also view station schedules, detailed route itineraries, and graphical route representations (Java). Pricing information is available for selected German routes only. The site is available in English and German.

  1. International Heliophysical Year: European Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.

    2007-08-01

    The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

  2. Pharmaceutical regulation in the European Community: barriers to single market integration.

    PubMed

    Orzack, L H; Kaitin, K I; Lasagna, L

    1992-01-01

    The European Community (EC) plans to create a single market for pharmaceutical medicines, but the drug industry is closely linked to cultural and societal values concerning health; to the national regulatory agencies responsible for the evaluation of safety, quality, and efficacy of new drugs; to multinational and domestic companies competing in national and international markets; and to varied interest groups of professionals and consumers organized along national and multinational lines. We review the history of the EC's policy proposals, examine reactions from all these interested parties, and assess the prospects for integration into a single market. The contentious debate that continues among the parties over national prerogatives, industrial interests, professional mandates, and consumer concerns clouds the prospects for a system of centralized drug registration that will be acceptable to all EC member states. PMID:1299692

  3. Programmes and prospects for ovotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gosden, Roger G

    2013-12-01

    Oocytes hold enormous significance in biology, pathology and ageing, but they are exceedingly rare cells in adults. According to a theory almost universally held until recently, expansion of the germline is halted perinatally when oogonial stem cells differentiate to form to primordial follicles. Thus, there is a finite follicle store which becomes exhausted around the time of menopause because the great majority is lost by atresia instead of undergoing ovulation. While FSH treatment can rescue a few follicles that would otherwise degenerate, in-vitro growth together with in-vitro maturation can potentially yield much larger harvests of oocytes, up to the limited number of primordial follicles available. If, however, germline stem cells persist after birth, enabling new oocytes to be generated, oogenesis is no longer bound by an upper limit. Even if they disappeared, as current theory prescribes, proliferative germline cells might be created de novo either from embryonic stem cells or through induced pluripotent stem cell technology. This paper reviews the prospects for a new road map for discovery research aimed at creating technologies to overcome the shortage of oocytes, which would have a revolutionary impact on IVF treatment, egg donation, premature ovarian insufficiency and regenerative medicine. PMID:24083936

  4. Prospective isolation of human MSC.

    PubMed

    Harichandan, Abhishek; Bühring, Hans-Jörg

    2011-03-01

    Conventionally, mesenchymal/stromal stem cells (MSC) are functionally isolated from primary tissue based on their capacity to adhere to the plastic surface. This isolation procedure is hampered by the unpredictable influence of secreted molecules or interactions with co-cultured hematopoietic and other unrelated cells as well as by the arbitrarily selected removal time of non-adherent cells prior to expansion of MSC. Early removal of non-adherent cells may result in the elimination of a late adhering MSC subsets and late removal increases the influence of undesired cells on the growth and differentiation of MSC. Finally, in conventional protocols MSC are co-expanded together with macrophages, endothelial cells and other adherent cells. To circumvent these limitations, several strategies have been developed to facilitate the prospective isolation of MSC based on the selective expression or absence of surface markers. Here we summarize the most frequently used markers and introduce new targets for antibody-based isolation procedures of primary bone marrow-derived MSC. PMID:21396590

  5. Tinned Fruit Consumption and Mortality in Three Prospective Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Aasheim, Erlend T.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Appleby, Paul N.; Shipley, Martin J.; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brunner, Eric; Key, Tim J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to promote health include fresh, frozen and tinned fruit, but few studies have examined the health benefits of tinned fruit. We therefore studied the association between tinned fruit consumption and mortality. We followed up participants from three prospective cohorts in the United Kingdom: 22,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort (1993–2012), 52,625 participants from the EPIC-Oxford cohort (1993–2012), and 7440 participants from the Whitehall II cohort (1991–2012), all reporting no history of heart attack, stroke, or cancer when entering these studies. We estimated the association between frequency of tinned fruit consumption and all cause mortality (primary outcome measure) using Cox regression models within each cohort, and pooled hazard ratios across cohorts using random-effects meta-analysis. Tinned fruit consumption was assessed with validated food frequency questionnaires including specific questions about tinned fruit. During 1,305,330 person years of follow-up, 8857 deaths occurred. After adjustment for lifestyle factors and risk markers the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of all cause mortality compared with the reference group of tinned fruit consumption less often than one serving per month were: 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for one to three servings per month, 1.10 (1.03, 1.18) for one serving per week, and 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) for two or more servings per week. Analysis of cause-specific mortality showed that tinned fruit consumption was associated with mortality from cardiovascular causes and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. In a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts from the United Kingdom self-reported tinned fruit consumption in the 1990s was weakly but positively associated with mortality during long-term follow-up. These findings raise questions about the evidence underlying dietary recommendations to promote tinned fruit consumption as part of a healthy diet. PMID:25714554

  6. Future Prospects for Nuclear Power after Fukushima

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Future Prospects for Nuclear Power after Fukushima Nuclear is a highintensity energy source at the FukushimaDaiichi nuclear power plant in Japan has changed the perception of nuclear as a safe energy source

  7. 43 CFR 3505.10 - What is a prospecting permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is a prospecting permit? 3505.10 Section 3505.10...MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Prospecting Permits § 3505.10 What is a prospecting permit? (a) A prospecting...

  8. 43 CFR 3505.10 - What is a prospecting permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is a prospecting permit? 3505.10 Section 3505.10...MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Prospecting Permits § 3505.10 What is a prospecting permit? (a) A prospecting...

  9. Geochemical methods of prospecting for hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duchscherer; W. Jr

    1980-01-01

    Because the commonly used reflection-seismograph exploration technique misses many marginal low-relief structural prospects and regardless of its electronic computer sophistication, overlooks almost all stratigraphic traps, the hydrocarbon exploration industry should take a look at geochemical prospecting methods, which detect geochemical anomalies in the near-surface soils by measuring the thermal dissociation of the soil carbonates that are found overlying hydrocarbon accumulations.

  10. NOx emission trading in a European context: discussion of the economic, legal, and cultural aspects.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, C P

    2001-10-25

    Emission trading is a new instrument in environmental policy. It is an alien notion in most European countries and it is often viewed with hesitation. The paper discusses the economic, legal, and perhaps more importantly, the cultural aspects to consider when one tries to explore the prospects for trading emissions of NOx and other substances in Europe. Issues to be addressed are the present legal framework in Europe in relation to the national emission ceilings on NOx and other substances on the basis of relevant EU directives and UNECE protocols. The paper will discuss the extent to which the legal framework within the EU imposes constraints on the design of a national emission trading scheme, and what options are available to fit emission trading into that legislative structure. The NOx emission trading programme developed in the Netherlands will be used to demonstrate the various aspects in a European context. PMID:12805893

  11. The Association Between Dietary Flavonoid and Lignan Intakes and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Forouhi, Nita G.; Sharp, Stephen J.; González, Carlos A.; Buijsse, Brian; Guevara, Marcela; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Bredsdorff, Lea; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Feskens, Edith J.; Franks, Paul W.; Grioni, Sara; Katzke, Verena; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Masala, Giovanna; Mattiello, Amalia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Perquier, Florence; Quirós, J. Ramón; Romieu, Isabelle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Schulze, Matthias; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes, and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes among European populations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-InterAct case-cohort study included 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 participants from among 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up in eight European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid and lignan food composition database was developed from the Phenol-Explorer, the U.K. Food Standards Agency, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture databases. Hazard ratios (HRs) from country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression models were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS In multivariable models, a trend for an inverse association between total flavonoid intake and type 2 diabetes was observed (HR for the highest vs. the lowest quintile, 0.90 [95% CI 0.77–1.04]; P valuetrend = 0.040), but not with lignans (HR 0.88 [95% CI 0.72–1.07]; P valuetrend = 0.119). Among flavonoid subclasses, flavonols (HR 0.81 [95% CI 0.69–0.95]; P valuetrend = 0.020) and flavanols (HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.68–0.99]; P valuetrend = 0.012), including flavan-3-ol monomers (HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.57–0.93]; P valuetrend = 0.029), were associated with a significantly reduced hazard of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Prospective findings in this large European cohort demonstrate inverse associations between flavonoids, particularly flavanols and flavonols, and incident type 2 diabetes. This suggests a potential protective role of eating a diet rich in flavonoids, a dietary pattern based on plant-based foods, in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24130345

  12. A prospective treatment for sepsis.

    PubMed

    Shahidi Bonjar, Mohammad Rashid; Shahidi Bonjar, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    The present paper proposes a prospective auxiliary treatment for sepsis. There exists no record in the published media on the subject. As an auxiliary therapy, efficacious extracorporeal removal of sepsis-causing bacterial antigens and their toxins (BATs) from the blood of septic patients is discussed. The principal component to this approach is a bacterial polyvalent antibody-column (BPVAC), which selectively traps wide spectrum of BATs from blood in an extracorporeal circuit, and detoxified blood returns back to the patient's body. BPVAC treatment would be a device of targeted medicine. Detoxification is performed under supervision of trained personnel using simple blood-circulating machines in which blood circulates from the patient to BPVAC and back to the patient aseptically. BPVACs' reactive sites consist of carbon nanotubes on which a vast spectra of polyvalent BATs-antibodies are bond to. The devise acts as a biological filter that selectively immobilizes harmful BATs from intoxicated blood; however, no dialysis is involved. For effective neutralization, BPVAC provides large contact surface area with blood. BPVAC approach would have advantages of: 1) urgent neutralization of notorious BATs from blood of septic patients; 2) applicability in parallel with conventional treatments; 3) potential to minimize side effects of the malady; 4) applicability for a vast range of BATs; 5) potential to eliminate contact of BATs with internal tissues and organs; 6) tolerability by patients sensitive to antiserum injections; 7) capability for universal application; 8) affectivity when antibiotic-resistant bacteria are involved and the physician has no or limited access to appropriate antibiotics; and 10) being a single-use, disposable, and stand-alone device. Before using it for clinical trials in human beings, it should pass animal evaluations accurately; however, research works should optimize its implementation in human beings. For optimization, it needs appropriate investments, collaboration of scientists in many fields of research, and development through several interdisciplinary sciences such as medical engineering, nanotechnology, immunology, biochemistry, emergency medicine, internal, and infectious diseases. PMID:26005330

  13. Economic Interests and the European Union: A Catalyst for European Integration or a Hindrance? 

    E-print Network

    Howarth, D.; Sadeh, T.

    The influence of economic interest groups on national policy-making on European Union-level policy and European integration seems to be case specific and circumstantial. Certain economic interests (for example, pension ...

  14. ILIAS and the European Deep Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, N. J. C.; Ilias

    2008-04-01

    A brief summary is given of the status and prospects for the underground laboratories in Europe as covered by the ILIAS project. Particular emphasis is given to the possibility of expansion in relation to the likely demand for space, and specifically on the prospects for very large, megaton scale, excavations.

  15. European perspectives of food safety.

    PubMed

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. PMID:24515443

  16. Status of the European ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto; Spyromilio, Jason

    The EELT project is in Phase B (detailed design), a 3-year, 57.2 M Euro activity that is scheduled to conclude in a Proposal for Construction by end 2009 or early 2010. The starting point for the current phase was a community process leading to the convergence of earlier concepts into a single European project. The telescope baseline is for a fully steerable 42 m, segmented primary, 5 mirror design, fully adaptive system with Nasmyth and Coudé foci. This paper reports on the status of the EELT Phase B.

  17. European XFEL Progress and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinn, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The European XFEL is a multi-user X-ray laser facility. With its 1.7 km long super-conducting linear accelerator it will provide X-ray laser pulses up to 24 keV at a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz. Currently, the facility is under construction in Hamburg and Schenefeld, Germany. First lasing is expected to be possible by the end of 2016. In this presentation, an overview of the status of construction is given and plans on commissioning and user activities are presented. Technical challenges in the area of photon transport and experiments will be discussed.

  18. Fact Sheets on the European Union

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Presented by the European Parliament Directorate-General for Research, this site is a useful resource for courses on government or European studies. Fact sheets are divided into 6 categories: How the European Community works; Citizens Europe; The single market; Common policies; Economic and monetary union; and The Union's external relations. Each category contains several fact sheets on particular topics, and each fact sheet identifies the topic's legal basis, objectives, and achievements. Sample topics include: the institutions of economic and monetary union; common foreign and security policy; European Union institutions and bodies; and citizens of the Union and their rights. The site is available in both English and French.

  19. Pan European Socially Responsible Investment Policy

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    (SRI) in the Pan European Market. Schroders believes that companies have the ability to enhance responsibility and corporate governance activities and their economic impact, providing consistent information

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of respiratory cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in former smokers and never smokers in the EPIC prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Vineis; L Airoldi; F Veglia; L Olgiati; R Pastorelli; H Autrup; A Dunning; S Garte; E Gormally; P Hainaut; C Malaveille; G Matullo; M Peluso; K Overvad; A Tjonneland; F Clavel-Chapelon; H Boeing; V Krogh; D Palli; S Panico; R Tumino; B Bueno-De-Mesquita; P Peeters; G Berglund; G Hallmans; R Saracci; E Riboli

    2005-01-01

    AbstractObjectives To investigate the association between environmental tobacco smoke, plasma cotinine concentration, and respiratory cancer or death.Design Nested case-control study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).Participants 303 020 people from the EPIC cohort (total 500 000) who had never smoked or who had stopped smoking for at least 10 years, 123 479 of whom provided information