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1

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. More than 60 million people in the ... brain, eyes, and other organs. You can get toxoplasmosis from Waste from an infected cat Eating contaminated ...

2

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Epidemiology & Risk Factors Who gets it and how... Biology Stages of parasite development... Disease Signs and symptoms ... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

3

Toxoplasmosis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), one of the better known and more widespread zoonotic diseases, originated in wildlife species and is now well established as a human malady. Food- and waterborne zoonoses, such as toxoplasmosis, are receiving increasing attention as components of disease emergence and resurgence. Toxoplasmosis is transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated food or water, and nearly one-third of humanity has been exposed to this parasite. The role of wildlife in this transmission process is becoming more clearly known and is outlined in this report. This zoonotic disease also causes problems in wildlife species across the globe. Future generations of humans will continue to be jeopardized by toxoplasmosis infections in addition to many of the other zoonotic diseases that have emerged during the past century. Through monitoring toxoplasmosis infection levels in wildlife populations, we will be better able to predict future human infection levels of this important zoonotic disease.

Hill, Dolores E.; Dubey, J.P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles, III; Enright, Elizabeth A.

2014-01-01

4

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... and taking extra precautions if you clean a cat box. You can take strong ARVs to keep your CD4 cell count up. This should prevent toxoplasmosis from causing health problems. If your CD4 cell count falls below ...

5

TOXOPLASMOSIS  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii, an Apicomplexan, is a pathogen that can infect the central nervous system. Infection during pregnancy can result in a congenial infection with severe neurological sequela. In immune compromised individuals reactivation of latent neurological foci can result in encephalitis. Immune competent individuals infected with T. gondii are typically asymptomatic and maintain this infection for life. However, recent studies suggest that these asymptomatic infections may have effects on behavior and other physiological processes. T. gondii infects approximately one-third of the world population, making it one of the most successful parasitic organisms. Cats and other felidae serve as the definite host producing oocysts, an environmentally resistant life cycle stage found in cat feces, which can transmit the infection when ingested orally. A wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including humans, can serve as the intermediate host in which tissue cysts (containing bradyzoites) develop. Transmission also occurs due to ingestion of the tissue cysts. There are 3 predominant clonal lineages, termed types I, II and III and an association with higher pathogenicity with the Type I strains in humans has emerged. This chapter presents a review of the biology of this infection including the life cycle, transmission, epidemiology, parasite strains, and the host immune response. The major clinical outcomes of congenital infection, chorioretinitis, and encephalitis, and the possible association of infection of toxoplasmosis with neuropsychriatric disorders such as schizophrenia, are reviewed. PMID:23829904

Halonen, Sandra K.; Weiss, Louis M.

2014-01-01

6

Toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world's population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated with oocysts shed by cats or by eating undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts. Primary infection is usually subclinical but in some patients cervical lymphadenopathy or ocular disease can be present. Infection acquired during pregnancy may cause severe damage to the fetus. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation of latent disease can cause life-threatening encephalitis. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis can be established by direct detection of the parasite or by serological techniques. The most commonly used therapeutic regimen, and probably the most effective, is the combination of pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine and folinic acid. This Seminar provides an overview and update on management of patients with acute infection, pregnant women who acquire infection during gestation, fetuses or infants who are congenitally infected, those with ocular disease, and immunocompromised individuals. Controversy about the effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention in pregnant women is discussed. Important topics of current and future research are presented. PMID:15194258

Montoya, J G; Liesenfeld, O

2004-06-12

7

Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

The objective of this investigation was to describe systems for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis implemented in European countries. In September 2004, a questionnaire, adapted from the evaluation criteria published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was sent to a panel of national correspondents in 35 countries in the European geographical area with knowledge of the epidemiological surveillance systems implemented in their countries. Where necessary, we updated the information until July 2007. Responses were received from 28 countries. Some 16 countries reported routine surveillance for toxoplasmosis. In 12 countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Scotland and Slovakia), surveillance was designed to detect only symptomatic toxoplasmosis, whether congenital or not. Four countries reported surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis, on a regional basis in Italy and on a national basis in Denmark, France and Germany. In conclusion, epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis needs to be improved in order to determine the true burden of disease and to assess the effectiveness of and the need for existing prevention programmes. PMID:18445459

Bénard, Antoine; Petersen, Eskild; Salamon, Roger; Chęne, Genevičve; Gilbert, Ruth; Salmi, Louis Rachid; for the European Toxo Prevention Study Group (EUROTOXO)

2008-01-01

8

Prospects for European labour demand.  

PubMed

The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during the 1975-85 decade. After the adjustment of the recession, European manufacturing industry is relatively more competitive and overall will experience a slower employment decline. Further, the growth of services will be limited by the effects of restrictive budgetary policies upon the development of public services. In all 5 countries, the main projected areas of employment growth are business and related services, tourism and leisure activities, and health care. Those occupations most likely to expand are the more highly qualified groups associated with the growth sectors. The main changes in the location of functions within the economic structure are likely to be the continuing contracting out of service functions within production industries to the service sector; and the growth of small relative to large enterprises. PMID:12281366

Lindley, R M

1988-07-01

9

Congenital toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a group of symptoms that occur when an unborn baby (fetus) is infected with the parasite ... Toxoplasmosis infection can be passed to a developing baby if the mother becomes infected while pregnant. The ...

10

Therapy of ocular toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a prospective multicentre study to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic strategies currently used for ocular toxoplasmosis in a large number of patients (n=106). Treatment was given for at least four weeks and consisted of three triple drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulphadiazine and corticosteroids (n=29); group 2. clindamycin, sulphadiazine and corticosteroids (n=37); and group 3. cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim and

A. Rothova; H. J. Buitenhuis; C. Meenken; G. S. Baarsma; T. N. Boen-Tan; P. T. V. M. de Jong; C. M. C. Schweitzer; Z. Timmerman; J. de Vries; M. J. W. Zaal; A. Kijlstra

1989-01-01

11

Congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Congenital toxoplasmosis results from the transplacental transmission of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii after a maternal infection acquired in pregnancy. Prevalence of congenital infection ranges from 0.1 to 0.3 per 1000 live births. The maternal-fetal transmission rate increases with gestational age at maternal seroconversion, from less than 15% at 13 weeks of gestation to over 70% at 36 weeks. Conversely, the later the maternal infection, the lower the risk of symptomatic congenital infection (infections acquired during the third trimester are most often asymptomatic at birth). Prenatal diagnosis is currently performed by PCR analysis in amniotic fluid. Antenatal management and treatment vary considerably among countries. In some European countries, maternal infections are detected through serological screening allowing a prompt treatment with spiramycin, which is expected to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. If PCR analysis in amniotic fluid is positive or if maternal infection was acquired in the third trimester of pregnancy, a combination with pyrimethamine and sulphonamide is given until delivery. Benefits of antenatal treatments remain controversial. Infected newborns are prescribed pyrimethamine and sulphonamide for 12 months. Despite antenatal and postnatal treatment, chorioretinitis can occur at any age (prevalence>20% at 10 years of age): long-term ophthalmological follow-up remains necessary. PMID:23622316

Kieffer, François; Wallon, Martine

2013-01-01

12

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Cancer.gov

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was founded at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO), in Lyon, France, and is coordinated by Dr. Elio Riboli, Head of the School of Public Health at Imperial College, London. EPIC received substantial financial support from the Europe Against Cancer Program of the European Commission.

13

Prospects for European Research and Development in Training & Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the prospects for research and development in the education and training fields offered by the European Communities. The position of the EC is explained in relation to the existing and forthcoming Framework Programmes of research and development. The 1987-91 Framework Programme has committed most of its funding to existing…

Whiting, John

2008-01-01

14

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer. Information on usual individual dietary intake was assessed using different validated dietary assessment methods

N. Slimani; R. Kaaks; P. Ferrari; C. Casagrande; F. Clavel-Chapelon; G. Lotze; A. Kroke; D. Trichopoulos; A. Trichopoulou; C. Lauria; M. Bellegotti; M. C. Ocké; P. H. M. Peeters; D. Engeset; E. Lund; A. Agudo; N. Larranaga; I. Mattisson; C. Andren; I. Johansson; G. Davey; A. A. Welch; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; W. A. van Staveren; R. Saracci; E. Riboli

2002-01-01

15

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On ... Healthy people (nonpregnant) Most healthy people recover from toxoplasmosis without treatment. Persons who are ill can be ...

16

Cerebral Aneurysm Multicenter European Onyx (CAMEO) Trial: Results of a Prospective Observational Study in 20 European Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of the Onyx liquid embolic system in treating a selected population of patients with intracranial aneurysms that presented difficulties for surgical or endovascular alternatives. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in 20 European centers enroll- ing a consecutive series of 119 patients with 123 aneurysms judged

Andrew J. Molyneux; Saruhan Cekirge; Isil Saatci; Gyula Gal

17

[Toxoplasmosis in Sfax, Tunisia].  

PubMed

Abstract The frequency of toxoplasmosis depends on life-style and environment. Our objective was to study different epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of toxoplasmosis in the Sfax area (Tunisia). This retrospective study has been performed on seria of 40,566 pregnant women in the Parasitology-Mycology Laboratory of Habib-Bourguiba Sfax hospital-Tunisia for 13 years from 1994 to 2006; 1,691 patients presenting with lymphadenopathy; 191 immunocompromised patients (78 HIV infected patients and 113 transplanted patients) and 21 patients presenting clinical signs of ocular toxoplasmosis. In pregnant women, the seroprevalence was 39.3% (15,952/40,567). Among 24,089 seronegative women, only 6,890 (28.6%) had been followed up during their pregnancy. An active toxoplasmosis possibly acquired during pregnancy was detected in 1.3% of cases. Sixteen congenital toxoplasmosis were detected. Toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 13.7% of the 169 patients with lymphadenitis. For HIV positive patients, 11.7% had cerebral toxoplasmosis. It revealed the HIV infection in four cases. Among transplant recipients, one case of active toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a renal transplant recipient who received transplant from a seronegative donor. Twenty-one patients presenting toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were treated by subconjonctival injections of clindamycin and systemic corticotherapy at a dose of 1 mg/kg per day. This clinical toxoplasmosis diversity explains the need for bioclinical confrontation to establish diagnosis. PMID:20084482

Sellami, H; Amri, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Sellami, A; Makni, F; Trabelsi, H; Trabelsi, K; Guermazi, M; Ayadi, A

2010-02-01

18

Long-term weight change and breast cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined prospectively the association between weight change during adulthood and breast cancer risk, using data on 1358 incident cases that developed during 5.8 years of follow-up among 40 429 premenopausal and 57 923 postmenopausal women from six European countries, taking part in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to calculate

P H Lahmann; M Schulz; K Hoffmann; H Boeing; A Tjřnneland; A Olsen; K Overvad; T J Key; N E Allen; K-T Khaw; S Bingham; G Berglund; E Wirfält; F Berrino; V Krogh; A Trichopoulou; P Lagiou; D Trichopoulos; R Kaaks; E Riboli

2005-01-01

19

Meat, fish and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fi sh intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. Methods: We prospectively followed 478 040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on

Teresa Norat; Sheila Bingham; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Mathieu Mazuir; Kim Overvad; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjřnneland; Francoise Clavel; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Emmanuelle Kesse; Heiner Boeing; Manuela M. Bergmann; Alexandra Nieters; Jakob Linseisen; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Yannis Tountas; Franco Berrino; Domenico Palli; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Petra H. M. Peeters; Dagrun Engeset; Eiliv Lund; Guri Skeie; Eva Ardanaz; C. Gonzalez; Carmen Navarro; J. Ramón Quirós; María-José Sanchez; Göran Berglund; Irene Mattisson; Göran Hallmans; Richard Palmqvist; Nicholas E. Day; Kay-Tee Khaw; Timothy J. Key; Miguel San Joaquin; B. Hemon; Rodolfo Saracci; Rudolf Kaaks; Elio Riboli

2005-01-01

20

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: Validity Studies on Dietary Assessment Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This supplement contains the results from studies in the eight countries participating in the European Prospect- ive Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Each collaborating centre has assessed the relative va- lidity and reproducibility of the dietary assessment method being used in their centre. One study has also looked at the relative validity of a measure of physical activity,

BARRIE M MARGETTS; PIRJO PIETINEN

21

Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were

N. E. Allen; T. J. Key; P. N. Appleby; R. C. Travis; A. W. Roddam; A. Tjonneland; N. F. Johnsen; K. Overvad; J. Linseisen; S. Rohrmann; H. Boeing; T. Pischon; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; L. Kiemeney; G. Tagliabue; D. Palli; P. Vineis; R. Tumino; A. Trichopoulou; C. Kassapa; D. Trichopoulos; E. Ardanaz; N. Larranaga; M. J. Tormo; C. A. Gonzalez; J. R. Quiros; M-J Sánchez; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; J. Manjer; G. Berglund; P. Stattin; G. Hallmans; N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; S. Rinaldi; E. Riboli

2008-01-01

22

Diet and cancer — the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet is thought to be one of the most important contributing factors to cancer risk. The contribution of diet to cancer is linked to genetic factors, and uncovering the details of this linkage requires that very large studies be carried out over long time periods, with a detailed analysis of food intake. For this reason, the European Prospective Investigation into

Elio Riboli; Sheila Bingham

2004-01-01

23

Azithromycin for ocular toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To investigate the efficacy of azithromycin in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis.?METHODS—11 immunocompetent patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were treated with azithromycin (500 mg the first day, followed by 250 mg/day for 5 weeks). Ocular and systemic examinations were performed during active retinitis episodes and all patients were followed for at least 1 year.?RESULTS—The intraocular inflammation disappeared within 4 weeks in seven patients, including two cases with progressive retinitis despite previous treatment with pyrimethamine, sulphadiazine, and folinic acid. Recurrence of retinitis occurred in three patients (27%) within the first year of follow up. No systemic side effects of azithromycin were encountered.?CONCLUSION—These results indicate that although azithromycin cannot prevent recurrent disease it may be an effective alternative for patients with ocular toxoplasmosis who cannot tolerate standard therapies.?? Keywords: azithromycin; ocular toxoplasmosis PMID:9924338

Rothova, A.; Bosch-Driessen, L.; van Loon, N. H; Treffers, W

1998-01-01

24

Otopathology in Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the temporal bone histopathology in children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Background Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. If fetal infection occurs early in gestation severe inflammation and necrosis can cause brain lesions, chorioretinitis and hearing loss. Hearing loss in congenital toxoplasmosis may be preventable with early diagnosis and treatment. Materials and Methods The temporal bones of nine subjects with congenital toxoplasmosis were removed at autopsy and studied under light microscopy. Cytocochleograms were constructed for hair cells, the stria vascularis and cochlear neuronal cells. Results Three of nine subjects (33%) were found to have parasites in the temporal bone. The organism was identified in the internal auditory canal, the spiral ligament, stria vascularis and saccular macula. The cystic form of the parasite was not associated with the inflammatory response seen in the active tachyzoite form. Conclusions We infer that the hearing loss of toxoplasmosis is likely the result of a postnatal inflammatory response to the tachyzoite form of T gondii. Our findings have implications for the early identification and management of Toxoplasmosis. PMID:23598697

Salviz, Mehti; Montoya, Jose G.; Nadol, Joseph B.; Santos, Felipe

2013-01-01

25

European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) project: A multicentre and prospective study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyse the demographics, causes and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures managed at several European departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over one year. The following data were recorded: gender, age, aetiology, site of facial fractures, facial injury severity score, timing of intervention, length of hospital stay. Data for a total of 3396 patients (2655 males and 741 females) with 4155 fractures were recorded. The mean age differed from country to country, ranging between 29.9 and 43.9 years. Overall, the most frequent cause of injury was assault, which accounted for the injuries of 1309 patients; assaults and falls alternated as the most important aetiological factor in the various centres. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible with 1743 fractures, followed by orbital-zygomatic-maxillary (OZM) fractures. Condylar fractures were the most commonly observed mandibular fracture. The results of the EURMAT collaboration confirm the changing trend in maxillofacial trauma epidemiology in Europe, with trauma cases caused by assaults and falls now outnumbering those due to road traffic accidents. The progressive ageing of the European population, in addition to strict road and work legislation may have been responsible for this change. Men are still the most frequent victims of maxillofacial injuries. PMID:25457465

Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Zavattero, Emanuele; Dediol, Emil; Ugleši?, Vedran; Kova?i?, Žiga; Vesnaver, Aleš; Konstantinovi?, Vitomir S; Petrovi?, Milan; Stephens, Jonny; Kanzaria, Amar; Bhatti, Nabeel; Holmes, Simon; Pechalova, Petia F; Bakardjiev, Angel G; Malanchuk, Vladislav A; Kopchak, Andrey V; Galteland, Pĺl; Mjřen, Even; Skjelbred, Per; Koudougou, Carine; Mouallem, Guillaume; Corre, Pierre; Lřes, Sigbjřrn; Lekven, Njĺl; Laverick, Sean; Gordon, Peter; Tamme, Tiia; Akermann, Stephanie; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Kommers, Sofie C; Forouzanfar, Tymour

2015-01-01

26

Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones. PMID:24951321

Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobi?, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica

2014-01-01

27

Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the population participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study according to food groups, nutrients and lifestyle characteristics.Methods:Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) from 33 566 subjects were used to calculate dietary GI and GL, and an ad hoc database was created as the main

M M E van Bakel; R. Kaaks; E. J. M. Feskens; S. Rohrmann; A. A. Welch; V. Pala; K. Avloniti; Y T van der Schouw; A van der A. D; H. Du; J. Halkjaer; M. J. Tormo; A E Cust; F Brighenti; J W Beulens; P Ferrari; C Biessy; M Lentjes; E A Spencer; S Panico; G Masala; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; P H M Peeters; A Trichopoulou; T Psaltopoulou; F Clavel-Chapelon; M Touvier; G Skeie; S Rinaldi; E Sonestedt; I Johansson; M Schulze; E Ardanaz; G Buckland; A Tjřnneland; K Overvad; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani

2009-01-01

28

Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres\\/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design and setting: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face interviews using the EPIC-SOFT software. These have been used to present a graphic multi-dimensional comparison of the adjusted mean consumption of 22 food

N. Slimani; M. Fahey; A. A. Welch; E. Wirfalt; C. Stripp; E. Bergstrom; J. Linseisen; M. B. Schulze; C. Bamia; Y. Chloptsios; F. Veglia; S. Panico; B. Bueno de Mesquita; M. C. Ocké; M. Brustadt; E. Lund; C. A. Gonzalez; A. Barcos; G. Berglund; A. Winkvist; A. Mulligan; P. Appleby; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; F. Clavel-Chapelon; E. Kesse; P. Ferrari; Staveren van W. A; E. Riboli

2002-01-01

29

Postmenopausal serum androgens, oestrogens and breast cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated endogenous sex steroids — notably androgens and oestrogens — promote breast tumour development. In spite of this evidence, postmenopausal androgen replacement therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)\\u000aor testosterone has been advocated for the prevention of osteoporosis and improved sexual wellbeing. Wehave conducted a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation\\u000ainto Cancer

R. Kaaks; S. Rinaldi; T. J. Key; F. Berrino; P. H. M. Peeters; C. Biessy; L. Dossus; A. Lukanova; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; N. E. Allen; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; C. H. van Gils; D. E. Grobbee; H. H. Boeing; P. H. Lahmann; G. Nagel; J. Chang-Claude; F. Clavel-Chapelon; A. Fournier; A. Thiébaut; C. A. Gonzalez; J. R. Quirós; M. J. Tormo; E. Ardanaz; P. Amiano; V. Krogh; D. Palli; S. Panico; R. Tumino; P. Vineis; A. Trichopoulou; V. Kalapothaki; D. Trichopoulos; P. Ferrari; T. Norat; R. Saracci; E. Riboli

2005-01-01

30

[Toxoplasmosis in sick persons].  

PubMed

A screening investigation was conducted designed to identify ill persons presenting with toxoplasmosis with the aid of an intracutaneous test with toxoplasmin and complement-fixing reaction with a dry toxoplasmic antigen. Toxoplasmosis was detected in those persons having lymphadenitis, therapeutical patients, women with aggravated obstetrical history having had spontaneous abortions and having given birth to sick children, patients with sluggish meningoencephalitis presenting with epileptoid and hypothalamic syndrome, polyneuritis, and patients with myopia, chorioretinitis and uveitis. Identification and treatment of toxoplasmic invasion constitutes a valid method of control of spontaneous abortions of toxoplasmic etiology. Detection in a timely fashion of toxoplasmic invasion in pregnant women and preventive treatment with two 5-day cycles of pirimetamin (0.025) twice a day and sulfodimezin (0.5) four times daily with a 10-day interval between the cycles has been found out to prevent toxoplasmosis affliction of the fetus. PMID:12669554

Netrebko, I D

2002-01-01

31

Toxoplasmosis – An update  

PubMed Central

Toxplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease affects one-third of the total world population. Transmission of the disease is mainly by ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts. Congenital toxoplasmosis occurs from the transplacental passage of the parasite from mother to fetus. In most adults it does not cause serious illness, but it can cause blindness and mental retardation in congenitally infected children, and it is a devastating disease in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis can be established by the direct detection of the parasite or by serological methods. The most commonly used and effective therapeutic regimen is the combination of pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine and folinic acid. This article provides an overview and update on transmission, diagnosis, management, and prevention of toxoplasmosis. PMID:23508064

Mittal, Veena; Ichhpujani, R L

2011-01-01

32

Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question Congenital toxoplasmosis is a dangerous fetal infection. Why is routine screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy not available for most Canadians? Answer Low prevalence of the infection, high cost associated with testing, low sensitivity of screening tests, false-positive test results, and limitations of treatment effectiveness are all cited as reasons for not routinely screening for T gondii infection in Canada. Currently, screening for the detection of T gondii is only performed in Nunavik and other parts of northern Quebec owing to the high prevalence of infection in this region. Congenital toxoplasmosis causes neurologic or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies. PMID:24733322

Chaudhry, Shahnaz Akhtar; Gad, Nanette; Koren, Gideon

2014-01-01

33

Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to

P. Boffetta; E. Couto; J. Wichmann; P. Ferrari; D. Trichopoulos; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; F. J. B. van Duijnhoven; F. L. Buchner; H. Boeing; U. Nothlings; J. Linseisen; C. A. Gonzalez; K. Overvad; M. R. S. Nielsen; A. Tjonneland; A. Olsen; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; S. Morois; P. Lagiou; A. Naska; V. Benetou; R. Kaaks; S. Rohrmann; S. Panico; S. Sieri; P. Vineis; D. Palli; C. H. van Gils; P. H. M. Peeters; E. Lund; M. Brustad; D. Engeset; J. M. Huerta; L. Rodriguez; M. J. Sanchez; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; G. Hallmans; I. Johansson; J. Manjer; E. Sonestedt; N. E. Allen; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; N. Slimani; M. Jenab; T. Mouw; T. Norat; E. Riboli; A. Trichopoulou

2010-01-01

34

Toxoplasmosis – A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of 88 Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30–50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this ‘asymptomatic infection’ may also lead to development of other human pathologies. Aims of the Study The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Methods and Findings Prevalence data published between 1995–2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (p<0.1). For several obtained significant correlations between the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. Conclusions The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research. PMID:24662942

Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovi?ková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H.

2014-01-01

35

Dietary fat and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting re- sults with respect to an association of dietary fat with breast cancer. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between fat consumption and breast cancer. Design:Weprospectivelyinvestigatedfatconsumptioninalarge(n 319 826), geographically and culturally heterogeneous cohort of European women enrolled in the European Prospective Investiga- tion into Cancer and Nutrition who completed a dietary question- naire.

Sabina Sieri; Vittorio Krogh; Pietro Ferrari; Franco Berrino; Valeria Pala; Anne CM Thiébaut; Anne Tjřnneland; Anja Olsen; Kim Overvad; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Veronique Chajes; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Rudolf Kaaks; Jakob Linseisen; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; Androniki Naska; Pagona Lagiou; Salvatore Panico; Domenico Palli; Paolo Vineis; Rosario Tumino; Eiliv Lund; Merethe Kumle; Guri Skeie; Carlos A Gonzalez; Eva Ardanaz; Pilar Amiano; María José Tormo; Carmen Martínez-García; Jose R Quiros; Göran Berglund; Bo Gullberg; Göran Hallmans; Per Lenner; Timothy J Key; Francesca L Crowe; Sheila Bingham; Kay Tee Khaw; Sabina Rinaldi; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Teresa Norat; Elio Riboli

36

Standardization of Food Composition Databases for the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): General Theoretical Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPIC is a prospective cohort study on diet and cancer involving 480 000 subjects from nine European countries. In order to establish the relationship between nutrient intakes and disease, standardized food composition databases are needed. In the absence of already existing comparable European nutrient database(s), an ad hoc approach was developed to standardize the EPIC databases. New matrices were built

Nadia Slimani; Ute Ruth Charrondičre; Wija van Staveren; Elio Riboli

2000-01-01

37

Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford)1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few prospective studies have examined cancer inci- dence among vegetarians. Objective: We report cancer incidence among vegetarians and non- vegetarians in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford (EPIC-Oxford) study. Design: This was a prospective study of 63,550 men and women recruited throughout the United Kingdom in the 1990s. Cancer in- cidence was followed through nationwide cancer registries.

Timothy J Key; Paul N Appleby; Elizabeth A Spencer; Ruth C Travis; Andrew W Roddam; Naomi E Allen

2009-01-01

38

Alcohol intake and breast cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Most epidemiologic studies have suggested an increased risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol intake. Using data from\\u000a 274,688 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), we investigated\\u000a the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) based on Cox proportional hazard models were calculated using reported intake

Anne Tjřnneland; Jane Christensen; Anja Olsen; Connie Stripp; Birthe L. Thomsen; Kim Overvad; Petra H. M. Peeters; Carla H. van Gils; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Marga C. Ocké; Anne Thiebaut; Agnčs Fournier; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Franco Berrino; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Salvatore Panico; Paolo Vineis; Antonio Agudo; Eva Ardanaz; Carmen Martinez-Garcia; Pilar Amiano; Carmen Navarro; José R. Quirós; Tim J. Key; Gillian Reeves; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila Bingham; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Androniki Naska; Gabriele Nagel; Jenny Chang-Claude; Heiner Boeing; Petra H. Lahmann; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfält; Göran Hallmans; Ingegerd Johansson; Eiliv Lund; Guri Skeie; Anette Hjartĺker; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Rudolf Kaaks; Elio Riboli

2007-01-01

39

Anthropometric factors and risk of endometrial cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the association between anthropometry and endometrial cancer, particularly by menopausal status and exogenous hormone\\u000a use subgroups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Among 223,008 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, there were 567 incident\\u000a endometrial cancer cases during 6.4 years of follow-up. The analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards modeling.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and

Christine Friedenreich; Anne Cust; Petra H. Lahmann; Karen Steindorf; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Sylvie Mesrine; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Anne Tjřnneland; Jytte Halkjćr; Kim Overvad; Michelle Mendez; M. L. Redondo; Carmen Martinez Garcia; Nerea Larrańaga; María-José Tormo; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Naomi Allen; Tim Key; Antonia Trichopoulou; Effie Vasilopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Valeria Pala; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Amalia Mattiello; Paolo Vineis; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Petra H. M. Peeters; Göran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Eva Lundin; Annekatrin Lukanova; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Rudolf Kaaks; Elio Riboli

2007-01-01

40

Cytokine regulation of immunopathology in toxoplasmosis  

E-print Network

REVIEW Cytokine regulation of immunopathology in toxoplasmosis Pamela J Gaddi and George S Yap Keywords: toxoplasmosis; immunopathology; IL-10; TGF-b; IL-27; IL-12 Toxoplasmosis is caused, hydrocephalus, as well as neurological and ocular disease of the newborn. Toxoplasmosis is also an important

Cai, Long

41

Specific floater home ranges and prospective behaviour in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many bird species, floaters are present on the breeding grounds in one or more years before they breed. There is increasing evidence that they have specific home ranges in which they search for information about current and future breeding opportunities. We investigated the role of prospecting in a migratory European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) population. Radio-tracking showed that male starling floaters use specific home range areas during the breeding period. Nest-box observations demonstrated that non-parental nest intrusion is common in the starling and that it is significantly more frequent during the nestling than during the incubation period. In addition, small groups of nest boxes were more likely to be occupied by starlings if they had been put up during the preceding breeding season. The results suggest that floaters try to acquire information about local breeding communities. One specific type of information may be the location of potential breeding sites.

Tobler, Michael; Smith, Henrik G.

42

Serum androgens and prostate cancer among 643 cases and 643 controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the hypothesis that serum concentrations of circulating androgens and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) are associated with risk for prostate cancer in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, androstanediol glucuronide and SHBG were measured in serum samples for 643 prostate cancer cases and 643 matched control

Ruth C. Travis; Timothy J. Key; Naomi E. Allen; Paul N. Appleby; Andrew W. Roddam; Sabina Rinaldi; Lars Egevad; Peter H. Gann; Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen; Tobias Pischon; Heiner Boeing; Nina Fřns Johnsen; A. Tjonneland; Kim Overvad; Lambertus Kiemeney; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Rosario Tumino; Sabina Sieri; Paolo Vineis; Domenico Palli; J. R. Quiros; Eva Ardanaz; Maria-Dolores Chirlaque; N. Larranaga; Carlos Gonzalez; Maria-José Sanchez; Antonia Trichopoulou; Chrysa Bikou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Pär Stattin; Mazda Jenab; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Elio Riboli; Rudolf Kaaks

2007-01-01

43

Body size and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that obesity is related to increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, only a few studies report on measures of central vs. peripheral adiposity. We examined the association between anthropometric measures, including waist and hip circumference and RCC risk among 348,550 men and women free of cancer at baseline from 8 countries of the European Prospective

Tobias Pischon; Petra H. Lahmann; Heiner Boeing; A. Tjonneland; J. Halkjaer; Kim Overvad; Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch; Jakob Linseisen; Nikolaus Becker; Antonia Trichopoulou; Vassiliki Benetou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Sabina Sieri; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Salvatore Panico; Evelyn Monninkhof; Petra H. M. Peeters; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; F. L. Buchner; Börje Ljungberg; Göran Hallmans; Göran Berglund; Carlos Alberto Gonzalez; Miren Dorronsoro; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Carmen Navarro; Carmen Martinez; J. Ramón Quirós; Andrew Roddam; Naomi Allen; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Rudolf Kaaks; Teresa Norat; Nadia Slimani; Elio Riboli

2006-01-01

44

Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: updated information from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer incidence was evaluated using the most recent data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), applying a refined statistical approach (calibration) to account for measurement error potentially introduced by using food frequency questionnaire data. Between 1992 and 2000, detailed information on diet and life-style of 478,590 individuals

Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Anthony B. Miller; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; F. L. Buchner; Paolo Vineis; Antonio Agudo; Inger T. Gram; Lars Janson; Vittorio Krogh; Kim Overvad; Torgny Rasmuson; Mandy Schulz; Tobias Pischon; Rudolf Kaaks; Alexandra Nieters; Naomi E. Allen; Timothy J. Key; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Pilar Amiano; Aurelio Barricarte; Carmen Martinez; Carmen Navarro; R. Quiros; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Mathilde Touvier; Petra H. M. Peeters; Göran Berglund; Göran Hallmans; Eiliv Lund; Domenico Palli; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; A. Tjonneland; Anja Olsen; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Philippe Autier; Paolo Boffetta; Nadia Slimani; Elio Riboli

2007-01-01

45

Nutrition, hormones and prostate cancer risk: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.  

PubMed

Nutritional factors may influence the risk of developing prostate cancer, but understanding of this topic is poor. This chapter discusses research on this subject, mostly from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort which includes 150,000 men recruited in the 1990s in eight European countries. So far the EPIC collaborators have published analyses of the relationship of prostate cancer risk with the intake of a range of foods and nutrients, and with blood-based markers of nutritional factors, on up to nearly 3,000 incident cases of prostate cancer. Most of the results of these analyses have been null, with no clear indication that the risk for prostate cancer is related to intakes of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, fibre, fat or alcohol or with blood levels of fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, B vitamins, vitamin D, or selenium. There is some evidence from EPIC that risk may be increased in men with a high intake of protein from dairy products, and analyses of hormone levels have shown that risk is higher in men with relatively high blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). More research is needed to better describe the relationships of prostate cancer risk with IGF-I and related hormones, and to better understand whether nutritional factors may influence risk through hormones or perhaps by other mechanisms. PMID:24531775

Key, Timothy J

2014-01-01

46

Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality: European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.  

PubMed

In this study, the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality was investigated within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000 and followed until 2010. Hazard ratios, rate advancement periods, and preventable proportions to respectively compare risk of death between quartiles of consumption, to estimate the period by which the risk of death was postponed among high consumers, and to estimate proportions of deaths that could be prevented if all participants would shift their consumption 1 quartile upward. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94), with a rate advancement period of 1.12 years (95% CI: 0.70, 1.54), and with a preventable proportion of 2.95%. This association was driven mainly by cardiovascular disease mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93). Stronger inverse associations were observed for participants with high alcohol consumption or high body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death. PMID:23599238

Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Siersema, Peter D; Ferrari, Pietro; Weikert, Cornelia; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Nailler, Laura; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H; Lund, Eiliv; Engeset, Dagrun; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Crowe, Francesca L; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J; Gallo, Valentina; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

2013-08-15

47

Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: no association among 1104 cases in a prospective study of 130544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the association between self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer incidence were available for 130544 men in 7 countries recruited into EPIC between 1993 and 1999. After an average of 4.8 years of follow-up, there were

Timothy J. Key; Naomi Allen; Paul Appleby; Kim Overvad; A. Tjonneland; Anthony Miller; Heiner Boeing; Dimitrios Karalis; Theodora Psaltopoulou; Franco Berrino; Domenico Palli; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; Lambertus Kiemeney; Petra H. M. Peeters; Carmen Martinez; Miren Dorronsoro; C. A. Gonzalez; M. D. Chirlaque; J. Ramon Quiros; Eva Ardanaz; Lars Egevad; Sheila Bingham; Nicholas Day; Peter Gann; Rudolf Kaaks; Pietro Ferrari; Elio Riboli

2004-01-01

48

Strategy for Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Evaluation of Methods Comparing Mothers and Newborns and Standard Methods for Postnatal Detection of Immunoglobulin G, M, and A Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study involving 14 laboratories supported by the European Community Biomed 2 program, we evaluated immunologic methods for the postnatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Among babies born to mothers who seroconverted to positivity for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, we analyzed 55 babies with CT on the basis of persistent anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) at 1 year of life and

J. M. Pinon; H. Dumon; C. Chemla; J. Franck; E. Petersen; M. Lebech; J. Zufferey; M.-H. Bessieres; P. Marty; R. Holliman; J. Johnson; V. Luyasu; B. Lecolier; E. Guy; D. H. M. Joynson; A. Decoster; G. Enders; H. Pelloux; E. Candolfi

2001-01-01

49

Euroroundup Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital  

E-print Network

toxoplasmosis A BĂ©nard (antoine.benard@isped.u-bordeaux2.fr)1,2,3 , E Petersen4 , R Salamon1,2,3 , G ChĂŞne1 was to describe systems for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis implemented in European received from 28 countries. Some 16 countries reported routine surveillance for toxoplasmosis. In 12

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Euro Surveill. Author manuscript Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of  

E-print Network

surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis B nardé Antoine 1 4 * , Petersen Eskild 2 , Salamon Roger 1 4 , Ch neê surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis implemented in European countries. In September 2004, a questionnaire reported routine surveillance for toxoplasmosis. In 12 countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Toxoplasmosis A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of  

E-print Network

Toxoplasmosis ­ A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden Background: Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30­50% of the world human of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search

Flegr, Jaroslav

52

The natural history of multiple system atrophy: a prospective European cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal and still poorly understood degenerative movement disorder that is characterised by autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, and parkinsonism in various combinations. Here we present the final analysis of a prospective multicentre study by the European MSA Study Group to investigate the natural history of MSA. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of MSA were recruited and followed up clinically for 2 years. Vital status was ascertained 2 years after study completion. Disease progression was assessed using the unified MSA rating scale (UMSARS), a disease-specific questionnaire that enables the semiquantitative rating of autonomic and motor impairment in patients with MSA. Additional rating methods were applied to grade global disease severity, autonomic symptoms, and quality of life. Survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier analysis and predictors were identified in a Cox regression model. Group differences were analysed by parametric tests and non-parametric tests as appropriate. Sample size estimates were calculated using a paired two-group t test. Findings 141 patients with moderately severe disease fulfilled the consensus criteria for MSA. Mean age at symptom onset was 56·2 (SD 8·4) years. Median survival from symptom onset as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 9·8 years (95% CI 8·1–11·4). The parkinsonian variant of MSA (hazard ratio [HR] 2·08, 95% CI 1·09–3·97; p=0·026) and incomplete bladder emptying (HR 2·10, 1·02–4·30; p=0·044) predicted shorter survival. 24-month progression rates of UMSARS activities of daily living, motor examination, and total scores were 49% (9·4 [SD 5·9]), 74% (12·9 [8·5]), and 57% (21·9 [11·9]), respectively, relative to baseline scores. Autonomic symptom scores progressed throughout the follow-up. Shorter symptom duration at baseline (OR 0·68, 0·5–0·9; p=0·006) and absent levodopa response (OR 3·4, 1·1–10·2; p=0·03) predicted rapid UMSARS progression. Sample size estimation showed that an interventional trial with 258 patients (129 per group) would be able to detect a 30% effect size in 1-year UMSARS motor examination decline rates at 80% power. Interpretation Our prospective dataset provides new insights into the evolution of MSA based on a follow-up period that exceeds that of previous studies. It also represents a useful resource for patient counselling and planning of multicentre trials. Funding Fifth Framework Programme of the European Union, the Oesterreichische Nationalbank, and the Austrian Science Fund. PMID:23391524

Wenning, Gregor K; Geser, Felix; Krismer, Florian; Seppi, Klaus; Duerr, Susanne; Boesch, Sylvia; Köllensperger, Martin; Goebel, Georg; Pfeiffer, Karl P; Barone, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Quinn, Niall P; Koukouni, Vasiliki; Fowler, Clare J; Schrag, Anette; Mathias, Christopher J; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya; Dupont, Erik; Ostergaard, Karen; Nilsson, Christer F; Widner, Hĺkan; Oertel, Wolfgang; Eggert, Karla Maria; Albanese, Alberto; del Sorbo, Francesca; Tolosa, Eduardo; Cardozo, Adriana; Deuschl, Günther; Hellriegel, Helge; Klockgether, Thomas; Dodel, Richard; Sampaio, Cristina; Coelho, Miguel; Djaldetti, Ruth; Melamed, Eldad; Gasser, Thomas; Kamm, Christoph; Meco, Giuseppe; Colosimo, Carlo; Rascol, Olivier; Meissner, Wassilios G; Tison, François; Poewe, Werner

2013-01-01

53

Physical activity and breast cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

There is convincing evidence for a decreased risk of breast cancer with increased physical activity. Uncertainties remain, however, about the role of different types of physical activity on breast cancer risk and the potential effect modification for these associations. We used data from 218,169 premenopausal and postmenopausal women from nine European countries, ages 20 to 80 years at study entry into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Hazard ratios (HR) from multivariate Cox regression models were calculated using metabolic equivalent value-based physical activity variables categorized in quartiles, adjusted for age, study center, education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, parity, current oral contraceptive use, and hormone replacement therapy use. The physical activity assessment included recreational, household, and occupational activities. A total physical activity index was estimated based on cross-tabulation of these separate types of activity. During 6.4 years of follow-up, 3,423 incident invasive breast cancers were identified. Overall, increasing total physical activity was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women (P(trend) = 0.06). Specifically, household activity was associated with a significantly reduced risk in postmenopausal (HR, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.93, highest versus the lowest quartile; P(trend) = 0.001) and premenopausal (HR, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.90, highest versus lowest quartile; P(trend) = 0.003) women. Occupational activity and recreational activity were not significantly related to breast cancer risk in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. This study provides additional evidence for a protective effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk. PMID:17179488

Lahmann, Petra H; Friedenreich, Christine; Schuit, A Jantine; Salvini, Simonetta; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila; Peeters, Petra H M; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Manjer, Jonas; Gonzales, Carlos A; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Quirós, José R; Navarro, Carmen; Martinez, Carmen; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Boeing, Heiner; Schulz, Mandy; Linseisen, Jakob; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chapelon, Francoise Clavel; Fournier, Agnčs; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Tjřnneland, Anne; Fřns Johnson, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio

2007-01-01

54

Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142?251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were 2727 incident cases of prostate cancer, of which 1131 were known to be localised and 541 advanced-stage disease. A high intake of dairy protein was associated with an increased risk, with a hazard ratio for the top versus the bottom fifth of intake of 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–1.41, Ptrend=0.02). After calibration to allow for measurement error, we estimated that a 35-g?day?1 increase in consumption of dairy protein was associated with an increase in the risk of prostate cancer of 32% (95% CI: 1–72%, Ptrend=0.04). Calcium from dairy products was also positively associated with risk, but not calcium from other foods. The results support the hypothesis that a high intake of protein or calcium from dairy products may increase the risk for prostate cancer. PMID:18382426

Allen, N E; Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Travis, R C; Roddam, A W; Tjřnneland, A; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; Pischon, T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kiemeney, L; Tagliabue, G; Palli, D; Vineis, P; Tumino, R; Trichopoulou, A; Kassapa, C; Trichopoulos, D; Ardanaz, E; Larrańaga, N; Tormo, M-J; González, C A; Quirós, J R; Sánchez, M-J; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Manjer, J; Berglund, G; Stattin, P; Hallmans, G; Slimani, N; Ferrari, P; Rinaldi, S; Riboli, E

2008-01-01

55

Tobacco smoke and bladder cancer--in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between smoking and the development of bladder cancer. The study population consisted of 429,906 persons participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 633 of whom developed bladder cancer during the follow-up period. An increased risk of bladder cancer was found for both current- (incidence rate ratio 3.96, 95% confidence interval: 3.07-5.09) and ex- (2.25, 1.74-2.91) smokers, compared to never-smokers. A positive association with intensity (per 5 cigarettes) was found among current-smokers (1.18, 1.09-1.28). Associations (per 5 years) were observed for duration (1.14, 1.08-1.21), later age at start (0.75, 0.66-0.85) and longer time since quitting (0.92, 0.86-0.98). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood increased the risk of bladder cancer (1.38, 1.00-1.90), whereas for ETS exposure as adult no effect was detected. The present study confirms the strong association between smoking and bladder cancer. The indication of a higher risk of bladder cancer for those who start smoking at a young age and for those exposed to ETS during childhood adds to the body of evidence suggesting that children are more sensitive to carcinogens than adults. PMID:16894557

Bjerregaard, Bine Kjřller; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sřrensen, Mette; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Christensen, Jane; Tjřnneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Chapelon, Francoise Clavel; Nagel, Gabriele; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomou, Eleni; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra Hm; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Gram, Inger Torhild; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Berglund, Göran; Allen, Naomi; Roddam, Andrew; Bingham, Sheila; Riboli, Elio

2006-11-15

56

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES AND RENAL CELL CARCINOMA: FINDINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN PROSPECTIVE INVESTIGATION INTO CANCER AND NUTRITION (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the association between fruits and vegetables and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake data and complete follow-up information on cancer incidence were available for 375,851 participants recruited in EPIC centers of 8 countries. During an average follow-up of 6.2 years, 306 incident cases of RCC were

Steffen Weikert; Heiner Boeing; K. Miller; F. Buechner; B. Ljungberg; N. Allen; T. Norat; J. Linseisen; P. H. Lahmann; A. Arvaniti; C. Kassapa; A. Trichoupoulou; S. Sieri; D. Palli; R. Tumino; P. Vineis; S. Panico; C. H. van Gils; P. H. M. Peeters; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; F. L. Buchner; G. Hallmans; G. Berglund; E. Wirfalt; G. Pera; M. Dorronsoro; A. B. Gurrea; C. Navarro; C. Martinez; J. R. Quiros; A. W. Roddam; S. Bingham; M. Jenab; N. Slimani; E. Riboli

2006-01-01

57

Total dietary carbohydrate, sugar, starch and fibre intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To describe dietary carbohydrate intakes and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects, aged between 35–74 years, were administered a standardized, 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g\\/day) of total carbohydrate, sugars, starch and fibre

A E Cust; M R Skilton; M M E van Bakel; J Halkjćr; A Olsen; C Agnoli; T Psaltopoulou; E Buurma; E Sonestedt; M D Chirlaque; S Rinaldi; A Tjřnneland; M K Jensen; F Clavel-Chapelon; M C Boutron-Ruault; R Kaaks; U Nöthlings; Y Chloptsios; D Zylis; A Mattiello; S Caini; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; G Skeie; C L Parr; E Molina-Montes; J Manjer; I Johansson; A McTaggart; T J Key; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani

2009-01-01

58

Corticosteroids for ocular toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background Ocular infestation with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. Objectives The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids for ocular toxoplasmosis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 October 2012. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Eligible trials would have enrolled participants of any age who were immunocompetent and were diagnosed with active ocular toxoplasmosis. Included trials would have compared anti-parasitic therapy plus corticosteroids versus anti-parasitic therapy alone, or different doses or times of initiation of corticosteroids. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved from the electronic searches. We retrieved full-text articles of studies categorized as ‘unsure’ or ‘include’ after review of the abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text article. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Main results The electronic searches retrieved 368 titles and abstracts. We reviewed 20 full-text articles. We identified no trials eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Authors' conclusions Although research has identified wide variation in practices regarding use of corticosteroids, our systematic review did not identify evidence from randomized controlled trials for the role of corticosteroids in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis. Several questions remain unanswered by well-conducted randomized trials in this context, including whether use of corticosteroids is more effective than use of anti-parasitic therapy alone, when corticosteroids should be initiated in the treatment regimen (early versus late course of treatment), and which dosage and duration of steroid use is best. These questions are easily amenable to research using a randomized controlled design and they are ethical due to the absence of evidence to support or discourage use of corticosteroids for this condition. The question of foremost importance, however, is whether they should be used as adjunct therapy (that is, additional) to anti-parasitic agents. PMID:23633342

Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

2014-01-01

59

[Two cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

Two cases of disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis of a pet mouse and a red panda are described. The pet mouse had a private owner; the red panda lived in a zoological garden in Saxony. At necropsy, both animals suffered from a systemic toxoplasmosis. A severe necrotizing hepatitis was the main histological feature in both animals. Parasitic cysts could be abundantly found in the liver, moderately in the brain and in a low number in other organs. With the PAS-reaction, cysts showed a weak staining in the mouse and a strong staining in the red panda. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry. PMID:22331331

Stief, B; Kiesow, C; Ellenberger, C

2012-01-01

60

Fatal acute toxoplasmosis in three golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

Fatal acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in three golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), a breeding pair and their male offspring, by histology and immunohistochemistry. The distribution and severity of lesions differed among the animals, but the small intestine and the pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes were especially affected. Protozoal organisms consistent with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, often clustered, were seen in all lesions and were specifically immunostained with a T. gondii polyclonal antibody. The infection was probably acquired orally. Several breeding groups of golden lion tamarins have succumbed to toxoplasmosis both in North American and European zoos, so this disease should be considered an important problem in this endangered species. Toxoplasma gondii can cause latent infections in New World primates and therefore could potentially induce abortions or congenital infections in wild golden lion tamarins born from latently infected reintroduced females. PMID:9638627

Juan-Sallés, C; Prats, N; Marco, A J; Ramos-Vara, J A; Borrás, D; Fernández, J

1998-03-01

61

Trends in cigarette smoking in the German centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): the influence of the educational level  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSeveral studies in Germany and other European countries have already shown smoking prevalence to be related to education. This study was aimed to investigate time trends in smoking habits in the German cohorts Heidelberg and Potsdam of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) according to sex, birth cohort, and level of education.

Sabine Rohrmann; Nikolaus Becker; Anja Kroke; Heiner Boeing

2003-01-01

62

Comparison between Two Amplification Sets for Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis by Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 15 September 2005\\/Returned for modification 11 October 2005\\/Accepted 8 December 2005 PCR is now commonly applied to the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Although several methods are available, comparative studies are few, making it difficult to compare the performance of each technique. We compared the sensitivities of two real-time PCR assays through a prospective study on fetuses, neonates, and immuno- compromised

S. Cassaing; M. H. Bessieres; A. Berry; A. Berrebi; R. Fabre; J. F. Magnaval

2006-01-01

63

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Latent toxoplasmosis reduces gray matter density in schizophrenia  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Latent toxoplasmosis reduces gray matter density in schizophrenia infection in schizophrenia we studied the influence of latent toxoplasmosis on brain morphology. Methods. Conclusions. Our study is the first to document that latent toxoplasmosis reduces GM in schizophrenia

Flegr, Jaroslav

64

Toxoplasmosis in animals and humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

T. gondii is one of the most studied parasites.It causes disease in virtually all warm blooded animals Many scientists use T. gondii to investigate problems in cell biology and genetics. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with biology. Chapter 2, which deals with toxoplasmosis...

65

Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and with complete information on diet, smoking, physical activity and body mass index, who were between 35 and 69 years old at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association of meat consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results As of June 2009, 26,344 deaths were observed. After multivariate adjustment, a high consumption of red meat was related to higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.28, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day), and the association was stronger for processed meat (HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.66, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day). After correction for measurement error, higher all-cause mortality remained significant only for processed meat (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25, per 50 g/d). We estimated that 3.3% (95% CI 1.5% to 5.0%) of deaths could be prevented if all participants had a processed meat consumption of less than 20 g/day. Significant associations with processed meat intake were observed for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and 'other causes of death'. The consumption of poultry was not related to all-cause mortality. Conclusions The results of our analysis support a moderate positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, in particular due to cardiovascular diseases, but also to cancer. PMID:23497300

2013-01-01

66

Frequent flyer programs for European low-cost airlines: Prospects, risks and implementation guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous growth of passenger numbers masks the fact that the European market for low fare air travel is radically changing. New airlines, takeovers as well as bankruptcies are reflecting strong competitive pressures within the market and from established network airlines fighting back to retain their market shares. European low-cost airlines (LCAs) operate with significant differences in unit costs and

Richard Klophaus

2005-01-01

67

[Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patient].  

PubMed

Pulmonary toxoplasmosis occurs mainly in immunosuppressed patients and its diagnosis mainly relies upon biological confirmation of the parasite. We present the case of a 47 years patient in medullar aplasia after induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia that developed pulmonary infiltrates of parasitic origin. The diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis was established after identification of the parasite in brochioloalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and peripheral blood. Serological tests are of limited utility in immunosuppressed patients. We used classical methods for the diagnosis of parasitosis but they are being replaced by molecular methods. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allows a highly specific and sensitive diagnosis on any sample but it cannot be performed in any center. PMID:23077869

Rîp?, Carmen; Cojocaru, Ingrid; Luca, Mariana; Luca, C?t?lina Mihaela; Leon, Maria; Bahnea, Roxana-Gabriela

2012-01-01

68

Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

69

Fatal automobile crash caused by cerebral toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

An unusual case of cerebral toxoplasmosis leading to a fatal vehicular crash is presented. Massive intracerebral hemorrhage, a rare complication of cerebral toxoplasmosis in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused sudden onset of increased intracranial pressure that led to loss of control of the vehicle and an ensuing fatal traffic crash. PMID:9662117

Gyori, E; Hyma, B A

1998-06-01

70

Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women  

E-print Network

199 Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women Jaroslav 44 Prague, Czech Republic; 2 National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis, National Institute toxoplasmosis, pathology, permutation test, gravidity Abstract. The latent toxoplasmosis is usually considered

Flegr, Jaroslav

71

Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, prospective data for most European countries are lacking, and epidemiologic studies on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in relation to pancreatic cancer risk are scarce. We examined the association of cigarette smoking and exposure to ETS with pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This analysis was based on 465,910 participants, including 524 first incident pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after a median follow-up of 8.9 years. Estimates of risk were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models and adjusted for weight, height, and history of diabetes mellitus. An increased risk of pancreatic cancer was found for current cigarette smokers compared with never smokers (HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.36-2.15), and risk increased with greater intensity and pack-years. Former cigarette smokers who quit for less than 5 years were at increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.23-2.56), but risk was comparable to never smokers after quitting for 5 years or more. Pancreatic cancer risk was increased among never smokers daily exposed to ETS (for many hours) during childhood (HR = 2.61, 95% CI = 0.96-7.10) and exposed to ETS at home and/or work (HR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.00-2.39). These results suggest that both active cigarette smoking, as well as exposure to ETS, is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and that risk is reduced to levels of never smokers within 5 years of quitting. PMID:19790196

Vrieling, Alina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Michaud, Dominique S; Severinsen, Marianne T; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjřnneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nöthlings, Ute; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Moutsiou, Eftihia; Dilis, Vardis; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger T; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Larrańaga, Nerea; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Manjer, Jonas; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Ye, Weimin; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Roddam, Andrew; Key, Tim; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J; Jenab, Mazda; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio

2010-05-15

72

Plasma antibodies to oral bacteria and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large European prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective Examine the relationship between antibodies to 25 oral bacteria and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Design We measured antibodies to oral bacteria in prediagnosis blood samples from 405 pancreatic cancer cases and 416 matched controls, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC). Analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression and additionally adjusted for smoking status and body mass index. Results Individuals with high levels of antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATTC 53978, a pathogenic periodontal bacteria, had a 2-fold higher risk of pancreatic cancer than individuals lower levels of these antibodies (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–4.36; >200 ng/ml vs ?200 ng/ml). To explore the association with commensal (non-pathogenic) oral bacteria, we performed a cluster analysis and identified 2 groups of individuals, based on their antibody profiles. A cluster with overall higher levels of antibodies had a 45% lower risk of pancreatic cancer than a cluster with overall lower levels of antibodies (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36–0.83). Conclusion Periodontal disease might increase the risk for pancreatic cancer. Moreover, increased levels of antibodies against specific commensal oral bacteria, which can inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria, might reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Studies are needed to determine whether oral bacteria have direct effects on pancreatic cancer pathogenesis or serve as markers of the immune response. PMID:22990306

Michaud, Dominique S.; Izard, Jacques; Wilhelm-Benartzi, Charlotte S.; You, Doo-Ho; Grote, Verena A; Tjřnneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Racine, Antoine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Foerster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Siersema, Peter; Peeters, Petra HM; Lund, Eiliv; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José-María; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J. Ramón; Duell, Eric J.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Riboli, Elio

2013-01-01

73

European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) prospective survey of candidaemia: report from one Italian region  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ECMM epidemiological prospective survey of candidaemia was performed in one Italian region (Lombardy; population: 8 924 870) by the National Society of Medical Mycology (FIMUA) from September 1997 to December 1999. In total, 569 episodes were reported with an overall rate of 0.38\\/1000 admissions, 4.4\\/100000 patient days. Predisposing factors included presence of an intravascular catheter (89%), antibiotic treatment (88%),

A. M. Tortorano; E. Biraghi; A. Astolfi; C. Ossi; M. Tejada; C. Farina; S. Perin; C. Bonaccorso; C. Cavanna; A. Raballo; A. Grossi

2002-01-01

74

Dietary intakes and food sources of phenolic acids in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.  

PubMed

Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36,037 subjects aged 35-74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265·5 and 980·7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213·2 and 158·6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84·6-95·3% of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4·6-14·4%, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0·1-0·8% and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids ? 0·1% for all regions. An increasing south-north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55·3-80·7% of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases. PMID:23507418

Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rothwell, Joseph A; Scalbert, Augustin; Knaze, Viktoria; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Touillaud, Marina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Menéndez, Virginia; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Palli, Domenico; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sieri, Sabina; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Grote, Verena; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine; Peeters, Petra H M; Tjřnneland, Anne; Halkjćr, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Ericson, Ulrika; Wallström, Peter; Johansson, Ingegerd; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Wark, Petra; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

2013-10-01

75

Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Participants 109?118 men and 254?870 women, mainly aged 37-70. Main outcome measures Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men with about 24 g alcohol, one for women with about 12 g alcohol) and the estimated total annual number of cases of alcohol attributable cancer. Results If we assume causality, among men and women, 10% (95% confidence interval 7 to 13%) and 3% (1 to 5%) of the incidence of total cancer was attributable to former and current alcohol consumption in the selected European countries. For selected cancers the figures were 44% (31 to 56%) and 25% (5 to 46%) for upper aerodigestive tract, 33% (11 to 54%) and 18% (?3 to 38%) for liver, 17% (10 to 25%) and 4% (?1 to 10%) for colorectal cancer for men and women, respectively, and 5.0% (2 to 8%) for female breast cancer. A substantial part of the alcohol attributable fraction in 2008 was associated with alcohol consumption higher than the recommended upper limit: 33?037 of 178?578 alcohol related cancer cases in men and 17?470 of 397?043 alcohol related cases in women. Conclusions In western Europe, an important proportion of cases of cancer can be attributable to alcohol consumption, especially consumption higher than the recommended upper limits. These data support current political efforts to reduce or to abstain from alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of cancer. PMID:21474525

2011-01-01

76

Toxoplasmosis lymphadenitis mimicking a parotid mass.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect birds and mammals including humans. The disease is common throughout the world, and the most common clinical form is generalized or localized lymphadenopathy. However, in the literature, toxoplasmosis manifesting as a parotid mass is extremely rare. A 37-year-old female was admitted to our department with a painless mass in the parotid region, which had been present for one month. Upon physical examination, a hard, mobile, superficially located, and painless parotid mass with a size of 2x2 cm was detected. Following the diagnosis of a parotid neoplasm, a superficial parotidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen supported a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis lymphadenitis. Specific serum immunoglobulin levels were studied and results also confirmed the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The patient was given rovamycine for three weeks, and on 12 months follow-up, the patient was still free of recurrence. PMID:20214553

Aydil, Utku; Ozçelik, Tuncay; Kutluay, Lale

2010-01-01

77

[A case of toxoplasmosis with dermatomyositis].  

PubMed

We report a case of dermatomyositis (DM) in a 15-year-old female with toxoplasmosis after ingestion of raw bovine liver. Facial erythema and cervical lymphadenopathy preceded myalgia and muscle weakness of the extremities. The diagnostic criteria of DM was fulfilled because of symmetrical and proximal dominant muscle weakness, elevation of myogenic enzyme (CPK, GOT, LDH, myoglobin, aldorase), myogenic pattern of electromyogram, skeletal muscle biopsy showing interstitial myositis with mild destruction of muscle fiber, and facial erythema. Immunological findings showed IgG anti-toxoplasma antibody to be 1340 IU/ml and IgM to be 7.0 (Cut off index 0.7), suggesting acute toxoplasmosis. Treatment with prednisolone for DM and acetylspiramycin for toxoplasmosis was successful. Toxoplasmosis should be considered as a possibility in patients with myositis. PMID:8708414

Kawakami, Y; Hayashi, J; Fujisaki, T; Tani, Y; Kashiwagi, S; Yamaga, S

1995-11-01

78

Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners  

MedlinePLUS

... are the symptoms of toxoplasmosis? Individuals with healthy immune systems: Most people who become infected with Toxoplasma do ... more. Rarely, eye disease occurs. Individuals with weakened immune systems: People with weakened immune systems may experience severe ...

79

TLR4 in Toxoplasmosis; friends or foe?  

PubMed

Toxoplasma species are obligate intracellular protozoan which are responsible for induction of several forms of Toxoplasmosis in humans. The mechanisms responsible for the progression of the prolonged forms of Toxoplasmosis and associated pathologies are yet to be identified. However, previous studies proposed that immunological and genetic parameters may play important roles in the etiology and complexity of Toxoplasmosis. Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize microbial antigens and induce immune responses against parasites, including toxoplasma species. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are PRRs which recognize toxoplasma as a pathogenic parasite and activate immune cells. It has been reported that the TLR4 is a critical innate immune cell receptor in toxoplasma detection and subsequently activates immune responses using either MYD88 or TRIF pathways. This review collates recent information regarding the role of TLR4 and its related signaling molecules with Toxoplasmosis. PMID:24685700

Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Hakimi, Hamid; Abdollahi, Seyyed Hossein; Zainodini, Nahid; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Kennedy, Derek

2014-01-01

80

Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.  

PubMed

Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia. PMID:24784937

Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

2014-07-01

81

Bulky DNA adducts, 4-aminobiphenyl-haemoglobin adducts and diet in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) prospective study.  

PubMed

In contrast to some extensively examined food mutagens, for example, aflatoxins, N-nitrosamines and heterocyclic amines, some other food contaminants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other aromatic compounds, have received less attention. Therefore, exploring the relationships between dietary habits and the levels of biomarkers related to exposure to aromatic compounds is highly relevant. We have investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort the association between dietary items (food groups and nutrients) and aromatic DNA adducts and 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts. Both types of adducts are biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and possibly of cancer risk, and were measured, respectively, in leucocytes and erythrocytes of 1086 (DNA adducts) and 190 (Hb adducts) non-smokers. An inverse, statistically significant, association has been found between DNA adduct levels and dietary fibre intake (P = 0.02), vitamin E (P = 0.04) and alcohol (P = 0.03) but not with other nutrients or food groups. Also, an inverse association between fibre and fruit intake, and BMI and 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts (P = 0.03, 0.04, and 0.03 respectively) was observed. After multivariate regression analysis these inverse correlations remained statistically significant, except for the correlation adducts v. fruit intake. The present study suggests that fibre intake in the usual range can modify the level of DNA or Hb aromatic adducts, but such role seems to be quantitatively modest. Fibres could reduce the formation of DNA adducts in different manners, by diluting potential food mutagens and carcinogens in the gastrointestinal tract, by speeding their transit through the colon and by binding carcinogenic substances. PMID:18275627

Peluso, Marco; Airoldi, Luisa; Munnia, Armelle; Colombi, Alessandro; Veglia, Fabrizio; Autrup, Herman; Dunning, Alison; Garte, Seymour; Gormally, Emmanuelle; Malaveille, Christian; Matullo, Giuseppe; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas H; Peeters, Petra H; Kumle, Merethe; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Marěa Jose; Quiros, José Ramón; Berglund, Goran; Jarvholm, Bengt; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Timothy J; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio; Bingham, Shelia; Vineis, Paolo

2008-09-01

82

Tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data regarding tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer (EC) is still inconclusive. We examined the association of tea and coffee consumption with EC risk among 442,143 men and women without cancer at baseline from 9 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Tea and coffee intakes were recorded using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationships between tea and coffee intake and EC risk. During a mean follow-up of 11.1 years, 339 participants developed EC, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 174 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the multivariable models, no significant associations between tea (mostly black tea), and coffee intake and risk of EC, EAC and ESCC were observed. In stratified analyses, among men coffee consumption was inversely related to ESCC (HR for comparison of extreme tertiles 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.88; p-trend=0.022), but not among women. In current smokers, a significant and inverse association was observed between ESCC risk and tea (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.93; p-trend=0.053) and coffee consumption (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.73; p-trend=0.011). However, no statistically significant findings were observed using the continuous variable (per 100 mL/d). These data did not show a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and EC, EAC and ESCC, although a decreased risk of ESCC among men and current smokers is suggested, but need to be confirmed in further prospective studies including more cases. PMID:24535727

Zamora-Ros, Raul; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Dik, Vincent K; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kuhn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Grioni, Sara; Palli, Domenico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Argüelles, Marcial; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Nilsson, Lena; Wallner, Bengt; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Peeters, Petra H M; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Freisling, Heinz; Stepien, Magdalena; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

2014-09-15

83

Dietary Intake of Acrylamide and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohort.  

PubMed

Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 ?g/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 ?g/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10?g/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(1); 291-7. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25300475

Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrańaga, Nerea; Huerta Castańo, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

2015-01-01

84

Glycated haemoglobin, diabetes, and mortality in men in Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC›Norfolk)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective To examine,the value of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration, a marker of blood glucose concentration, as a predictor of death from,cardiovascular,and all causes in men. Design Prospective population,study. Setting Norfolk cohort,of European,Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC›Norfolk). Subjects 4662 men,aged 45›79 years who,had had glycated haemoglobin,measured,at the baseline survey in 1995›7 who,were,followed,up to December 1999. Main outcome measures

Tee Khaw; Nicholas Wareham; Robert Luben; Sheila Bingham; Suzy Oakes; Ailsa Welch; Nicholas Day

2001-01-01

85

Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population: Multicentre, prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend?European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects. PMID:25219573

Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Jenab, Mazda; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjřnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Benetou, Vasiliki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Dik, Vincent K; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

2014-09-15

86

Selenium status is associated with colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation of cancer and nutrition cohort.  

PubMed

Suboptimal intakes of the micronutrient selenium (Se) are found in many parts of Europe. Low Se status may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We assessed Se status by measuring serum levels of Se and Selenoprotein P (SePP) and examined the association with CRC risk in a nested case-control design (966 CRC cases; 966 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Se was measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and SePP by immunoluminometric sandwich assay. Multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Respective mean Se and SePP levels were 84.0 ?g/L and 4.3 mg/L in cases and 85.6 ?g/L and 4.4 mg/L in controls. Higher Se concentrations were associated with a non-significant lower CRC risk (IRR?=?0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.03 per 25 ?g/L increase). However, sub-group analyses by sex showed a statistically significant association for women (ptrend ?=?0.032; per 25 ?g/L Se increase, IRR?=?0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97) but not for men. Higher SePP concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk (ptrend ?=?0.009; per 0.806 mg/L increase, IRR?=?0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.98) with the association more apparent in women (ptrend ?=?0.004; IRR?=?0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94 per 0.806 mg/L increase) than men (ptrend ?=?0.485; IRR?=?0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 per 0.806 mg/L increase). The findings indicate that Se status is suboptimal in many Europeans and suggest an inverse association between CRC risk and higher serum Se status, which is more evident in women. PMID:25042282

Hughes, David J; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Schomburg, Lutz; Méplan, Catherine; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Hybsier, Sandra; Becker, Niels-Peter; Czuban, Magdalena; Tjřnneland, Anne; Outzen, Malene; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Dagrun, Engeset; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Wennberg, Maria; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Vineis, Paolo; Naccarati, Alessio; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Overvad, Kim; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Cross, Amanda J; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Stepien, Magdalena; Kong, So Yeon; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Riboli, Elio; Hesketh, John E

2015-03-01

87

IgA antibody response during acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii specific IgA and IgM antibodies were quantitated by an antibody capture agglutination assay in 260 patients with acquired toxoplasmosis and from 94 fetuses suspected of congenital toxoplasmosis and 30 infected children. In acquired toxoplasmosis, IgA antibodies to T gondii were found in 95% of the cases. In congenital toxoplasmosis IgA antibodies were more frequently detected (75%) in cord

M H Bessičres; C Roques; A Berrebi; V Barre; M Cazaux; J P Séguéla

1992-01-01

88

Results of a Peripheral Cutting Balloon Prospective Multicenter European Registry in Hemodialysis Vascular Access  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To report initial experience with the Peripheral Cutting Balloon (PCB) in treatment of failing hemodialysis shunts. Methods. A total of 190 patients (95 men, 95 women; average age 64.4 {+-} 11.9 years, range 32-87 years) who were treated with the PCB for pressure-resistant stenosis, restenosis or failed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the venous limb of an arteriovenous shunt were followed in seven European centers using a simple registry. The group consisted of 109 de novo lesions (57%) and 79 restenotic lesions (43%). Results. Technical success was achieved in 88.9% of cases. Primary patency was as follows (the results for whole group and simultaneous results for de novo lesions and restenoses are presented): 1 month (140 patients followed): 94%, 98%, and 93%; 3 months (116 patients followed): 93%, 98%, and 92%; 6 months (40 patients followed): 85%, 92%, and 79%; 12 months (27 patients followed): 74%, 87%, and 48%. No complication occurred. Patients experienced an equal or lower level of pain during the procedure compared with conventional PTA. Conclusion. The PCB proved to be successful in dilating pressure-resistant stenoses. We cannot conclude whether PCB angioplasty can lower the restenosis rate in hemodialysis access lesions, but the long-term patency for de novo lesions is high. A further randomized study is advisable.

Peregrin, Jan H., E-mail: jape@medicon.cz; Rocek, Miloslav [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)

2007-04-15

89

Acute primary toxoplasmosis in travelers returning from endemic countries.  

PubMed

Fourteen cases of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent travelers who visited high prevalence countries are described. This represents the first series of toxoplasmosis in returned travelers from North America, substantiating the need to consider toxoplasmosis in returned travelers who present with non-specific symptoms, especially fever, lymphadenopathy, and fatigue. PMID:22221813

Anand, Rahul; Jones, Chris W; Ricks, Jane H; Sofarelli, Theresa A; Hale, Devon C

2012-01-01

90

Decrease of psychomotor performance in subjects with latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis  

E-print Network

515 Decrease of psychomotor performance in subjects with latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis J study showing the significantly longer reaction times of 60 subjects with latent toxoplasmosis of infection and mean reaction time suggested that slow and cumulative effects of latent toxoplasmosis rather

Flegr, Jaroslav

91

Toxoplasmosis in Rodents: Ecological Survey and First Evidences in Thailand  

E-print Network

Toxoplasmosis in Rodents: Ecological Survey and First Evidences in Thailand Sathaporn Jittapalapong, which is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. Therefore, they serve as intermediate hosts of T. gondii individuals captured tested positive, confirming the wide range of potential mammalian hosts of toxoplasmosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

There are inconsistent and limited data available to assess the relationship between fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We examined the consumption of total fat, fat sources and fat subtypes in relation to risk of EOC and its major histologic subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition which includes incident invasive (n=1095) and borderline (n=96) EOC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate models, we observed no association with consumption of total fat, animal or plant fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, or fatty fish and risk of invasive EOC. There was, however, an increased risk of invasive EOC in the highest category of intake (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1) of polyunsaturated fat (HR=1.22, 95% CI=1.02-1.48, P(trend)=0.02). We did not observe heterogeneity in the risk associations in comparisons of serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes. This study does not support an etiological role for total fat intake in relation to EOC risk; however, based on observations of a positive association between intake of polyunsaturated fat and invasive EOC risk in the current and previous studies, this fat subtype warrants further investigation to determine its potential role in EOC development. PMID:25155210

Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Dossus, Laure; Fagherazzi, Guy; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartĺker, Anette; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quirós, J Ramón; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta Castańo, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Chamosa, Saioa; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Chajes, Veronique; Gunter, Marc J

2014-10-01

93

Oral contraceptives, reproductive history and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors may initiate long-term changes to the hormonal milieu and thereby, possibly influence colorectal cancer risk. Methods: We examined the association of hormonal and reproductive factors with risk of colorectal cancer among 337?802 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, of whom 1878 developed colorectal cancer. Results: After stratification for center and age, and adjustment for body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, physical activity and alcohol consumption, ever use of oral contraceptives was marginally inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR), 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–1.02), although this association was stronger among post-menopausal women (HR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74–0.95). Duration of oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors, including age at menarche, age at menopause, type of menopause, ever having an abortion, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy and breastfeeding, were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusion: Our findings provide limited support for a potential inverse association between oral contraceptives and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:21045829

Tsilidis, K K; Allen, N E; Key, T J; Bakken, K; Lund, E; Berrino, F; Fournier, A; Olsen, A; Tjřnneland, A; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Byrnes, G; Chajes, V; Rinaldi, S; Chang-Claude, J; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Boeing, H; Koumantaki, Y; Stasinopoulou, G; Trichopoulou, A; Palli, D; Tagliabue, G; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van Duijnhoven, F J B; van Gils, C H; Peeters, P H M; Rodríguez, L; González, C A; Sánchez, M-J; Chirlaque, M-D; Barricarte, A; Dorronsoro, M; Borgquist, S; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Hallmans, G; Rodwell, S A; Khaw, K-T; Norat, T; Romaguera, D; Riboli, E

2010-01-01

94

Extraintestinal manifestations in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: results from a prospective, population-based European inception cohort.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. In chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]), symptoms from outside the gastrointestinal tract are frequently seen, and the joints, skin, eyes, and hepatobiliary area are the most usually affected sites (called extraintestinal manifestations [EIM]). The reported prevalence varies, explained by difference in study design and populations under investigation. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of EIM in a population-based inception cohort in Europe and Israel. Methods. IBD patients were incepted into a cohort that was prospectively followed from 1991 to 2004. A total of 1145 patients were followed for 10 years. Results. The cumulative prevalence of first EIM was 16.9% (193/1145 patients) over a median follow-up time of 10.1 years. Patients with CD were more likely than UC patients to have immune-mediated (arthritis, eye, skin, and liver) manifestations: 20.1% versus 10.4% (p < 0.001). Most frequently seen was arthritis which was significantly more common in CD (12.9%) than in UC (8.1%), p = 0.01. Pan-colitis compared to proctitis in UC increased the risk of EIM. Conclusion. In a European inception cohort, EIMs in IBD were consistent with that seen in comparable studies. Patients with CD are twice as likely as UC patients to experience EIM, and more extensive distribution of inflammation in UC increases the risk of EIM. PMID:25535653

Isene, Rune; Bernklev, Tomm; Hřie, Ole; Munkholm, Pia; Tsianos, Epameonondas; Stockbrügger, Reinhold; Odes, Selwyn; Palm, Řyvind; Smĺstuen, Milada; Moum, Bjřrn

2015-03-01

95

Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.  

PubMed

Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 493,179 EPIC participants, recruited between 1992 and 2000. Until December 2008, 691 RCC cases have been identified. Meat and fish consumption was assessed at baseline using country-specific dietary assessment instruments; 24-hour recalls were applied in an 8% subsample for calibration purposes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women with a high consumption of red meat (HR?=?1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.62; calibrated, per 50 g/day) and processed meat (HR?=?1.78, 95% CI 1.05-3.03; calibrated, per 50 g/day) had a higher risk of RCC, while no association existed in men. For processed meat, the association with RCC incidence was prominent in premenopausal women and was lacking in postmenopausal women (p interaction?=?0.02). Neither poultry nor fish consumption were statistically significantly associated with the risk of RCC. The results show a distinct association of red and processed meat consumption with incident RCC in women but not in men. A biological explanation for these findings remains unclear. PMID:25258006

Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Lund Würtz, Anne Mette; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Weikert, Steffen; Steffen, Annika; Kühn, Tilman; Li, Kuanrong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H M; Hjartĺker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Molina-Montes, Esther; de la Torre, Ramón Alonso; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Börje; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

2015-03-01

96

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined\\u000a this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.\\u000a Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of cancer were diagnosed in 112,430 never smokers in EPIC. Childhood ETS was self-reported\\u000a by participants at baseline, along with

Shu-Chun ChuangValentina; Valentina Gallo; Dominique Michaud; Kim Overvad; Anne Tjřnneland; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Isabelle Romieu; Kurt Straif; Domenico Palli; Valeria Pala; Rosario Tumino; Carlotta Sacerdote; Salvatore Panico; Petra H. Peeters; Eiliv Lund; Inger Torhild Gram; Jonas Manjer; Signe Borgquist; Elio Riboli; Paolo Vineis

2011-01-01

97

Phytoestrogen Exposure Correlation with Plasma Estradiol in Postmenopausal Women in European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk May Involve Diet-Gene Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional studies investigating the relationship be- tween phytoestrogens in diet, urine, or blood with plasma estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) have been inconclusive. We investigated the relationship among phytoestrogen exposure, polymorphisms in the ESR1, COMT, CYP19, and SHBG genes, and plasma estradiol and SHBG levels in 125 free-living postmenopausal women taking part in a cohort study (European Prospective

Yen-Ling Low; James I. Taylor; Philip B. Grace; Mitch Dowsett; Serena Scollen; Alison M. Dunning; Angela A. Mulligan; Ailsa A. Welch; Robert N. Luben; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nick E. Day; Nick J. Wareham; Sheila A. Bingham

98

Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed

N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajčs; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartĺker; A Tjřnneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham

2009-01-01

99

A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel, and shipyard welders.  

PubMed Central

A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies located in nine European countries has been assembled with the aim of investigating the relation of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. The observation period and the criteria for inclusion of welders varied from country to country. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort and observed numbers of deaths (and for some countries incident cancer cases) were compared with expected numbers calculated from national reference rates. Mortality and cancer incidence ratios were analysed by cause category, time since first exposure, duration of employment, and estimated cumulative dose to total fumes, chromium (Cr), Cr VI, and nickel (Ni). Overall a statistically significant excess was reported for mortality from lung cancer (116 observed v 86.81 expected deaths, SMR = 134). When analysed by type of welding an increasing pattern with time since first exposure was present for both mild steel and stainless steel welders, which was more noticeable for the subcohort of predominantly stainless steel welders. No clear relation was apparent between mortality from lung cancer and duration of exposure to or estimated cumulative dose of Ni or Cr. Whereas the patterns of lung cancer mortality in these results suggest that the risk of lung cancer is higher for stainless steel than mild steel welders the different level of risk for these two categories of welding exposure cannot be quantified with precision. The report of five deaths from pleural mesothelioma unrelated to the type of welding draws attention to the risk of exposure to asbestos in welding activities. PMID:2015204

Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Andersen, A; Anderson, K; Becker, N; Chang-Claude, J; Ferro, G; Gérin, M; Gray, C N; Hansen, K S

1991-01-01

100

Diarrhoea in a large prospective cohort of European travellers to resource-limited destinations  

PubMed Central

Background Incidence rates of travellers' diarrhoea (TD) need to be updated and risk factors are insufficiently known. Methods Between July 2006 and January 2008 adult customers of our Centre for Travel Health travelling to a resource-limited country for the duration of 1 to 8 weeks were invited to participate in a prospective cohort study. They received one questionnaire pre-travel and a second one immediately post-travel. First two-week incidence rates were calculated for TD episodes and a risk assessment was made including demographic and travel-related variables, medical history and behavioural factors. Results Among the 3100 persons recruited, 2800 could be investigated, resulting in a participation rate of 89.2%. The first two-weeks incidence for classic TD was 26.2% (95%CI 24.5-27.8). The highest rates were found for Central Africa (29.6%, 95% CI 12.4-46.8), the Indian subcontinent (26.3%, 95%CI 2.3-30.2) and West Africa (21.5%, 95%CI 14.9-28.1). Median TD duration was 2 days (range 1-90). The majority treated TD with loperamide (57.6%), while a small proportion used probiotics (23.0%) and antibiotics (6.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis on any TD to determine risk factors showed that a resolved diarrhoeal episode experienced in the 4 months pre-travel (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.59-2.54), antidepressive comedication (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.17-3.80), allergic asthma (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.10-2.54), and reporting TD-independent fever (OR 6.56, 95%CI 3.06-14.04) were the most prominent risk factors of TD. Conclusions TD remains a frequent travel disease, but there is a decreasing trend in the incidence rate. Patients with a history of allergic asthma, pre-travel diarrhoea, or of TD-independent fever were more likely to develop TD while abroad. PMID:20684768

2010-01-01

101

IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis. PMID:24864110

Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

2014-01-01

102

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis transmitted by an immunocompetent woman infected before conception. Reims Toxoplasmosis Group.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of congenital toxoplasmosis transmitted by an immunocompetent woman infected before conception. Active toxoplasmosis was suspected due to persistent lymphadenitis with specific IgM, IgA, IgE antibodies. Prenatal diagnosis based on amniocentesis and fetal blood sampling at 24 weeks' amenorrhoea was positive on amniotic fluid, and fetal infection was confirmed after termination. In our opinion such cases need the same monitoring as when seroconversion occurs during the first trimester. A pregnancy-free interval of six to nine months is recommended after proven patent toxoplasmosis seroconversion. PMID:9826901

Villena, I; Chemla, C; Quereux, C; Dupouy, D; Leroux, B; Foudrinier, F; Pinon, J M

1998-10-01

103

Consumption of Dairy Products and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents. Materials and Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed), yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables. Results During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98). Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99) and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79–1.02) in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99); this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99), with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81–1.24). Conclusions Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products considered. PMID:24023767

Murphy, Neil; Norat, Teresa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Tjřnneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Nailler, Laura; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Dik, Vincent K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Pérez, Maria José Sánchez; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Johansson, Ingegerd; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Fedirko, Veronika; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio

2013-01-01

104

Recombinant proteins in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an important human pathogen with a worldwide distribution. It is primarily of medical importance for pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. Primary infection of the former is often associated with fetal infection, which can lead to abortion or severe neonatal malformation. Immunocompromised patients are at risk of contracting the severe form of the disease that may be fatal. Thus, detection of T. gondii infection with high sensitivity and specificity is crucial in the management of the disease. Toxoplasmosis is generally diagnosed by demonstrating specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to toxoplasma antigens in the patient's serum sample. Most of the commercially available tests use T. gondii native antigens and display wide variations in test accuracy. Recombinant antigens have great potential as diagnostic reagents for use in assays to detect toxoplasmosis. Thus in this review, we address recent advances in the use of Toxoplasma recombinant proteins for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. PMID:20666734

Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Noordin, Rahmah

2010-08-01

105

Prospective European-wide multicentre study on a blood based real-time PCR for the diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Background Acute schistosomiasis constitutes a rare but serious condition in individuals experiencing their first prepatent Schistosoma infection. To circumvent costly and time-consuming diagnostics, an early and rapid diagnosis is required. So far, classic diagnostic tools such as parasite microscopy or serology lack considerable sensitivity at this early stage of Schistosoma infection. To validate the use of a blood based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for the detection of Schistosoma DNA in patients with acute schistosomiasis who acquired their infection in various endemic regions we conducted a European-wide prospective study in 11 centres specialized in travel medicine and tropical medicine. Methods Patients with a history of recent travelling to schistosomiasis endemic regions and freshwater contacts, an episode of fever (body temperature ?38.5°C) and an absolute or relative eosinophil count of ?700/?l or 10%, were eligible for participation. PCR testing with DNA extracted from serum was compared with results from serology and microscopy. Results Of the 38 patients with acute schistosomiasis included into the study, PCR detected Schistosoma DNA in 35 patients at initial presentation (sensitivity 92%). In contrast, sensitivity of serology (enzyme immunoassay and/or immunofluorescence assay) or parasite microscopy was only 70% and 24%, respectively. Conclusion For the early diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis, real-time PCR for the detection of schistosoma DNA in serum is more sensitive than classic diagnostic tools such as serology or microscopy, irrespective of the region of infection. Generalization of the results to all Schistosoma species may be difficult as in the study presented here only eggs of S. mansoni were detected by microscopy. A minimum amount of two millilitre of serum is required for sufficient diagnostic accuracy. PMID:23363565

2013-01-01

106

Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study  

PubMed Central

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested case–control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI = 1.03–1.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.16–2.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.27–2.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:23389292

Agudo, Antonio

2013-01-01

107

Multiple Miscarriages Are Associated with the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

While the risk of ovarian cancer clearly reduces with each full-term pregnancy, the effect of incomplete pregnancies is unclear. We investigated whether incomplete pregnancies (miscarriages and induced abortions) are associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. This observational study was carried out in female participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 274,442 women were followed from 1992 until 2010. The baseline questionnaire elicited information on miscarriages and induced abortions, reproductive history, and lifestyle-related factors. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 1,035 women were diagnosed with incident epithelial ovarian cancer. Despite the lack of an overall association (ever vs. never), risk of ovarian cancer was higher among women with multiple incomplete pregnancies (HR?4vs.0: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.20–2.70; number of cases in this category: n?=?23). This association was particularly evident for multiple miscarriages (HR?4vs.0: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.06–3.73; number of cases in this category: n?=?10), with no significant association for multiple induced abortions (HR?4vs.0: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.68–3.14; number of cases in this category: n?=?7). Our findings suggest that multiple miscarriages are associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, possibly through a shared cluster of etiological factors or a common underlying pathology. These findings should be interpreted with caution as this is the first study to show this association and given the small number of cases in the highest exposure categories. PMID:22623987

Braem, Marieke G. M.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Schouten, Leo J.; Kruitwagen, Roy F. P. M.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Allen, Naomi E.; Wark, Petra A.; Tjřnneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Braüner, Christina Marie; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Teucher, Birgit; Floegel, Anna; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Plada, Maria; Rinaldi, Sabina; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Pala, Valeria; Galasso, Rocco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gram, Inger Torhild; Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Lund, Eiliv; Sánchez, Maria-José; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Larrańaga, Nerea; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Quirós, Jose R.; Idahl, Annika; Ohlson, Nina; Lundin, Eva; Jirström, Karin; Butt, Salma; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra H. M.

2012-01-01

108

Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors and risk of ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background: It is well established that parity and use of oral contraceptives reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the associations with other reproductive variables are less clear. Methods: We examined the associations of oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors with ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 327?396 eligible women, 878 developed ovarian cancer over an average of 9 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models stratified by centre and age, and adjusted for smoking status, body mass index, unilateral ovariectomy, simple hysterectomy, menopausal hormone therapy, and mutually adjusted for age at menarche, age at menopause, number of full-term pregnancies and duration of oral contraceptive use. Results: Women who used oral contraceptives for 10 or more years had a significant 45% (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41–0.75) lower risk compared with users of 1 year or less (P-trend, <0.01). Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had a 29% (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59–0.87) lower risk, with an 8% reduction in risk for each additional pregnancy. A high age at menopause was associated with a higher risk of ovarian cancer (>52 vs ?45 years: HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.06–1.99; P-trend, 0.02). Age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, incomplete pregnancies and breastfeeding were not associated with risk. Conclusion: This study shows a strong protective association of oral contraceptives and parity with ovarian cancer risk, a higher risk with a late age at menopause, and no association with other reproductive factors. PMID:21915124

Tsilidis, K K; Allen, N E; Key, T J; Dossus, L; Lukanova, A; Bakken, K; Lund, E; Fournier, A; Overvad, K; Hansen, L; Tjřnneland, A; Fedirko, V; Rinaldi, S; Romieu, I; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Engel, P; Kaaks, R; Schütze, M; Steffen, A; Bamia, C; Trichopoulou, A; Zylis, D; Masala, G; Pala, V; Galasso, R; Tumino, R; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van Duijnhoven, F J B; Braem, M G M; Onland-Moret, N C; Gram, I T; Rodríguez, L; Travier, N; Sánchez, M-J; Huerta, J M; Ardanaz, E; Larrańaga, N; Jirström, K; Manjer, J; Idahl, A; Ohlson, N; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Mouw, T; Norat, T; Riboli, E

2011-01-01

109

Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.  

PubMed

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI = 1.03-1.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.16-2.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.27-2.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:23389292

Agudo, Antonio; Bonet, Catalina; Sala, Núria; Muńoz, Xavier; Aranda, Núria; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Grioni, Sara; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Allen, Naomi E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Numans, Mattijs E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudof; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Meidtner, Karina; Johansson, Mattias; Sund, Malin; Manjer, Jonas; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A; Jakszyn, Paula

2013-06-01

110

Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)(N = 520,000). We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results The proportion of lung cancers in never- and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5–7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related) particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10–20 ug/m3, whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher). Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m3 would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented, and our estimate of 5–7% is likely to be an underestimate. Overall, our prospective study draws attention to the need for strict legislation concerning the quality of air in Europe. PMID:17302981

Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Veglia, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Luisa; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Lund E, Eiliv; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Cirera, Lluis; Quiros, J Ramon; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Forsberg, Bertil; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Tim J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Saracci, Rodolfo; Riboli, Elio

2007-01-01

111

ALOX12 in human toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

ALOX12 is a gene encoding arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), a member of a nonheme lipoxygenase family of dioxygenases. ALOX12 catalyzes the addition of oxygen to arachidonic acid, producing 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which can be reduced to the eicosanoid 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). 12-HETE acts in diverse cellular processes, including catecholamine synthesis, vasoconstriction, neuronal function, and inflammation. Consistent with effects on these fundamental mechanisms, allelic variants of ALOX12 are associated with diseases including schizophrenia, atherosclerosis, and cancers, but the mechanisms have not been defined. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes morbidity and mortality and stimulates an innate and adaptive immune inflammatory reaction. Recently, it has been shown that a gene region known as Toxo1 is critical for susceptibility or resistance to T. gondii infection in rats. An orthologous gene region with ALOX12 centromeric is also present in humans. Here we report that the human ALOX12 gene has susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis (rs6502997 [P, <0.000309], rs312462 [P, <0.028499], rs6502998 [P, <0.029794], and rs434473 [P, <0.038516]). A human monocytic cell line was genetically engineered using lentivirus RNA interference to knock down ALOX12. In ALOX12 knockdown cells, ALOX12 RNA expression decreased and levels of the ALOX12 substrate, arachidonic acid, increased. ALOX12 knockdown attenuated the progression of T. gondii infection and resulted in greater parasite burdens but decreased consequent late cell death of the human monocytic cell line. These findings suggest that ALOX12 influences host responses to T. gondii infection in human cells. ALOX12 has been shown in other studies to be important in numerous diseases. Here we demonstrate the critical role ALOX12 plays in T. gondii infection in humans. PMID:24686056

Witola, William H; Liu, Susan Ruosu; Montpetit, Alexandre; Welti, Ruth; Hypolite, Magali; Roth, Mary; Zhou, Ying; Mui, Ernest; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournie, Gilbert J; Cavailles, Pierre; Bisanz, Cordelia; Boyer, Kenneth; Withers, Shawn; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Swisher, Charles N; Heydemann, Peter T; Rabiah, Peter; Muench, Stephen P; McLeod, Rima

2014-07-01

112

ALOX12 in Human Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

ALOX12 is a gene encoding arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), a member of a nonheme lipoxygenase family of dioxygenases. ALOX12 catalyzes the addition of oxygen to arachidonic acid, producing 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which can be reduced to the eicosanoid 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). 12-HETE acts in diverse cellular processes, including catecholamine synthesis, vasoconstriction, neuronal function, and inflammation. Consistent with effects on these fundamental mechanisms, allelic variants of ALOX12 are associated with diseases including schizophrenia, atherosclerosis, and cancers, but the mechanisms have not been defined. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes morbidity and mortality and stimulates an innate and adaptive immune inflammatory reaction. Recently, it has been shown that a gene region known as Toxo1 is critical for susceptibility or resistance to T. gondii infection in rats. An orthologous gene region with ALOX12 centromeric is also present in humans. Here we report that the human ALOX12 gene has susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis (rs6502997 [P, <0.000309], rs312462 [P, <0.028499], rs6502998 [P, <0.029794], and rs434473 [P, <0.038516]). A human monocytic cell line was genetically engineered using lentivirus RNA interference to knock down ALOX12. In ALOX12 knockdown cells, ALOX12 RNA expression decreased and levels of the ALOX12 substrate, arachidonic acid, increased. ALOX12 knockdown attenuated the progression of T. gondii infection and resulted in greater parasite burdens but decreased consequent late cell death of the human monocytic cell line. These findings suggest that ALOX12 influences host responses to T. gondii infection in human cells. ALOX12 has been shown in other studies to be important in numerous diseases. Here we demonstrate the critical role ALOX12 plays in T. gondii infection in humans. PMID:24686056

Witola, William H.; Liu, Susan Ruosu; Montpetit, Alexandre; Welti, Ruth; Hypolite, Magali; Roth, Mary; Zhou, Ying; Mui, Ernest; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournie, Gilbert J.; Cavailles, Pierre; Bisanz, Cordelia; Boyer, Kenneth; Withers, Shawn; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Swisher, Charles N.; Heydemann, Peter T.; Rabiah, Peter; Muench, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

113

FOLIA PARASITOLOGICA 41: 122-126, 1994 Influence of chronic toxoplasmosis on some human personality  

E-print Network

FOLIA PARASITOLOGICA 41: 122-126, 1994 Influence of chronic toxoplasmosis on some human personality, 12844 Prague, Czech Republic Key words: Toxoplasma, toxoplasmosis, behaviour, personality factors hyper- sensitivity test for Toxoplasma. A highly significant correlation between chronic toxoplasmosis

Flegr, Jaroslav

114

Discussion: 'Congenital toxoplasmosis' by Berrébi et al.  

PubMed

In the roundtable that follows, clinicians discuss a study published in this issue of the Journal in light of its methodology, relevance to practice, and implications for future research. Article discussed: Berrébi A, Assouline C, Bessičres M-H, et al. Long-term outcome of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;203:552.e1-6. PMID:21111103

Macones, George A; McNamara, Jennifer; Wallenstein, Matthew; Squires, Kate

2010-12-01

115

Waterborne Toxoplasmosis, Brazil, from Field to Gene  

PubMed Central

Water was the suspected vehicle of Toxoplasma gondii dissemination in a toxoplasmosis outbreak in Brazil. A case-control study and geographic mapping of cases were performed. T. gondii was isolated directly from the implicated water and genotyped as SAG 2 type I. PMID:16494765

de Moura, Lenildo; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia; Wada, Marcelo Y.; Jones, Jeffrey L.; Tuboi, Suely H.; Carmo, Eduardo H.; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Camargo, Natal J.; Trevisan, Ronaldo; Graça, Regina M.T.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Moura, Iaci; Dubey, J.P.; Garrett, Denise O.

2006-01-01

116

TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SAND FOX (VULPUS RUEPPELLII)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli) from United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, pancreas, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the heart. Ttachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-spe...

117

[Management of congenital toxoplasmosis in France: current data].  

PubMed

Congenital toxoplasmosis is caused by transplacental contamination of the fetus withToxoplasma gondiifollowing maternal primary infection. The risk of mother-to-child transmission depends on the term of pregnancy at the time of maternal infection. The risk is lower than 5% in the first trimester but can reach 90% in the last days of pregnancy. Inversely, however, fetal disease is more severe when contamination occurs early in pregnancy. The French prevention program officially recommends monthly serological screening of susceptible women during pregnancy and information about hygiene and dietary rules. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is based on a combination of examinations: PCR testing for the parasite in amniotic fluid, mouse inoculation, fetal ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Neonatal screening consists of PCR of the placenta, mouse inoculation, detection of specific IgM and IgA in the newborn, ocular fundus examinations by indirect ophthalmoscopy, and transfontanellar ultrasonography. As soon as maternal infection is suspected, preventive treatment with spiramycin begins; the treatment is changed to a combination of pyrimethamine-sulfonamide if fetal infection is proved. Some teams are using this combination as first-line treatment after 30 weeks of gestation, without performing amniocentesis. Recent European multicenter studies raise questions about the effectiveness of prenatal treatment on mother-to-child transmission and on the reduction in the number and severity of fetal sequelae. A randomized controlled trial is required to prove the efficacy of prenatal treatment in general and of specific drugs, in particular. As soon as infection is confirmed, infected children are treated with the pyrimethamine-sulfonamide combination for 12 to 24 months. Recent multicenter studies show that postnatal treatment does not prevent ocular lesions: 5% of treated children had choroiditis lesions at birth, 20% at 5 years, and 30% at 8 years of age. Furthermore no consensus exists about the duration of postnatal treatment (3 months in Denmark versus 12 months in France). A multicenter randomized controlled trial is necessary to assess the efficacy of postnatal treatment and determine its duration. A surveillance system was set up in 2007 by the National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis to determine the perinatal burden of this infection and to assess the national policy. PMID:19926248

Garcia-Méric, Patricia; Franck, Jacqueline; Dumon, Henri; Piarroux, Renaud

2010-05-01

118

Comparison between Two Amplification Sets for Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis by Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

PCR is now commonly applied to the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Although several methods are available, comparative studies are few, making it difficult to compare the performance of each technique. We compared the sensitivities of two real-time PCR assays through a prospective study on fetuses, neonates, and immunocompromised patients and on the ocular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The first system targeted the widely used B1 gene (GenBank accession number AF179871) while the second (RE) targeted a more recently described sequence repeated roughly 200 to 300 times (GenBank accession number AF146527). We demonstrated that molecular diagnosis requires the duplication of PCR assays, especially with the B1 system, as only one PCR was positive in 33.3% of cases. Our study showed that the RE target was more sensitive for all biological samples (amniotic fluid, placenta, aqueous humor, whole blood, and cerebrospinal and bronchoalveolar fluids) and significantly improved the performance of the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Taking into consideration all clinical samples, the mean gain in the crossing point value was 4.2 ± 1.7 cycles and was even more significant for amniotic fluid (5.8 ± 1.7 cycles). PMID:16517845

Cassaing, S.; Bessičres, M. H.; Berry, A.; Berrebi, A.; Fabre, R.; Magnaval, J. F.

2006-01-01

119

Toxoplasmosis infection associated with raw goat's milk.  

PubMed

In October 1978, a large family cluster of acute toxoplasmosis was identified in northern California. Indirect fluorescent IgM antibody tests showed that ten of 24 members of an extended family had serological evidence of acute Toxoplasma infection. The index case had retinochoroiditis; the other nine persons had asymptomatic infections. All ten seropositive persons had recently consumed raw goat's milk from the family herd as compared with no consumption of raw milk by the 14 persons with negative results. No dietary item or other risk factors were as strongly associated with positive serological test results as raw milk consumption. Although ingestion of soil-transmitted oocysts could not be ruled out unequivocally as the source of infection, the data suggest that drinking raw milk from infected goats might be another possible vehicle for the transmission of toxoplasmosis. PMID:7120593

Sacks, J J; Roberto, R R; Brooks, N F

1982-10-01

120

[Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Niamey, Niger].  

PubMed

A seroepidemiological survey of toxoplasmosis was carried out in Niamey, Niger, in 1992. Three hundred and seventy-one sera from 200 females and 171 males were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay for IgG. Using a cut-off value of 12 UI, 67 sera (18%) were positive. In this group detection of specific IgM by ELISA with immunocapture revealed 8 positive sera (11.9%). Seroprevalence of specific IgG was not correlated with ethnic origin or sex but did increase with age from 6.9% in subjects under 5 years to 34.9% in subjects 50 years and over. These findings are comparable with those from previous studies in similar climates and confirm that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis is higher in humid coastal regions than dry desert areas. PMID:8767792

Julvez, J; Magnaval, J F; Meynard, D; Perie, C; Baixench, M T

1996-01-01

121

A review of toxoplasmosis in wild birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii affects most species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. There is considerable confusion regarding the identity of T. gondii-like parasites and the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In this review, T. gondii-like infections in different species of wild birds are reviewed with particular reference to prevalences, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment. Although subclinical T. gondii infections are

J. P. Dubey

2002-01-01

122

Reconsidering the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To review recent observations regarding the sources of Toxoplasma gondii infection and rates of ocular involvement in cases of infection acquired after birth, and to reconcile them with older observations and widely held beliefs about the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis.METHOD:A review of pertinent reports from the medical literature.RESULTS:There are several potential sources and routes of infection, including inhalation of spores

Gary N. Holland

1999-01-01

123

Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months’ duration and chest pain of 1 week’s duration. Further examination revealed multiple swollen lymph nodes, palpable on the top of the right collarbone and without tenderness. The chest X-ray, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography scan confirmed squamous carcinoma of the right lung. The Wright-stained bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid cytology diagnosis was positive for T. gondii and tachyzoites were detected. All of them were of free type (ectocytic), without intracellular parasites. Serological examination revealed that the anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies were positive. Unfortunately the patient did not continue treatment and was lost to follow-up. Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with lung cancer. Prompt recognition of T. gondii infection among cancer patients with subsequent targeted treatment of toxoplasmosis could help alleviate symptoms and improve survival. PMID:25653562

Lu, Nianhong; Liu, Caihong; Wang, Jiangyuan; Ding, Ying; Ai, Qing

2015-01-01

124

Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months' duration and chest pain of 1 week's duration. Further examination revealed multiple swollen lymph nodes, palpable on the top of the right collarbone and without tenderness. The chest X-ray, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography scan confirmed squamous carcinoma of the right lung. The Wright-stained bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid cytology diagnosis was positive for T. gondii and tachyzoites were detected. All of them were of free type (ectocytic), without intracellular parasites. Serological examination revealed that the anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies were positive. Unfortunately the patient did not continue treatment and was lost to follow-up. Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with lung cancer. Prompt recognition of T. gondii infection among cancer patients with subsequent targeted treatment of toxoplasmosis could help alleviate symptoms and improve survival. PMID:25653562

Lu, Nianhong; Liu, Caihong; Wang, Jiangyuan; Ding, Ying; Ai, Qing

2015-01-01

125

Toxoplasmosis in bone marrow transplantation: a report of two cases and systematic review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma infection represents a rare but often fatal complication in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. We report two cases of toxoplasmosis: one of successfully treated cerebral toxoplasmosis after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and a fatal case of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in a BMT recipient. We have systematically reviewed the 110 published cases of toxoplasmosis following BMT. We analyzed the pre-transplant

A Mele; PJ Paterson; HG Prentice; P Leoni; CC Kibbler

2002-01-01

126

Macrophage activation syndrome triggered by primary disseminated toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a patient with disseminated toxoplasmosis who presented with cervical lymphadenopathies and pneumonia. Although the infection was successfully treated with co-trimoxazole, the patient developed reactive macrophage activation syndrome (rMAS). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rMAS triggered by toxoplasmosis in the medical literature. PMID:22803958

Arslan, Ferhat; Batirel, Ayse; Ramazan, Mehmet; Ozer, Serdar; Mert, Ali

2012-12-01

127

Acute toxoplasmosis-etiological factor for development of Hodgkin's lymphoma?  

PubMed

The case of an HIV-positive man treated for acute toxoplasmosis with no traces of malignancy is reported. A second lymph node extirpation was performed after 5 months, which identified the presence of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. This case suggests that toxoplasmosis may cause changes in the regulation of surrounding cells and induce neoplastic proliferation. PMID:23848412

Snopkova, Svatava; Pohanka, Miroslav; Polak, Pavel; Havlickova, Katerina; Jarkovsky, Ji?i; Moulis, Mojmir; Stroblova, Hana; Husa, Petr

2013-12-01

128

Severe Acquired Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Adult Patients in French Guiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common presentation of symptomatic postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients is painless cervical adenopathy. Acute visceral manifestations are associated in rare cases. We report 16 cases of severe primary toxoplasmosis diagnosed in French Guiana during a 6.5-year period. All of the subjects were immunocompetent adults hospitalized with clinical presentations consisting of a marked, non- specific infectious syndrome accompanied

B. Carme; F. Bissuel; D. Ajzenberg; R. Bouyne; C. Aznar; M. Demar; S. Bichat; D. Louvel; A. M. Bourbigot; C. Peneau; P. Neron; M. L. Darde

2002-01-01

129

Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy  

E-print Network

Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy Sa´rka Kan kova´1, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim

Flegr, Jaroslav

130

IgA antibody response during acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii specific IgA and IgM antibodies were quantitated by an antibody capture agglutination assay in 260 patients with acquired toxoplasmosis and from 94 fetuses suspected of congenital toxoplasmosis and 30 infected children. In acquired toxoplasmosis, IgA antibodies to T gondii were found in 95% of the cases. In congenital toxoplasmosis IgA antibodies were more frequently detected (75%) in cord blood than IgM antibodies (61%). They persisted after birth, in some cases for up to 24 months. IgA antibodies were also detected in fetuses whose mothers had toxoplasmosis during their pregnancy. In infected fetuses IgM and IgA antibodies were detected in fetal blood as early as week 24 of pregnancy. Detection of IgA T gondii antibodies may be useful for the diagnosis of some recently acquired infection and for the diagnosis and follow up of the infection in the fetus and neonate. PMID:1517461

Bessičres, M. H.; Roques, C.; Berrebi, A.; Barre, V.; Cazaux, M.; Séguéla, J. P.

1992-01-01

131

Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.  

PubMed

Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye. PMID:24521535

Kyrř, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Ĺman, Per; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Pischon, Tobias; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cottet, Vanessa; Kühn, Tilman; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Bakken, Toril; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Asli, Lene Angell; Sánchez, Soledad; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Slimani, Nadia; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tjřnneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard

2014-05-28

132

Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Findings from early observational studies have suggested that the intake of dietary fat might be a contributing factor in the etiology of prostate cancer. However, the results from more recent prospective studies do not support this hypothesis, and the possible association between different food sources of fat and prostate cancer risk also remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to

Francesca L Crowe; Timothy J Key; Paul N Appleby; Ruth C Travis; Kim Overvad; Marianne U Jakobsen; Nina F Johnsen; A. Tjonneland; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Antonia Trichopoulou; Pagona Lagiou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Carlotta Sacerdote; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Vitorrio Krogh; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Lambertus A Kiemeney; Maria-Dolores Chirlaque; Eva Ardanaz; Maria-José Sanchez; Nerea Larranaga; Carlos A Gonzalez; José R Quiros; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfalt; Par Stattin; Göran Hallmans; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila Bingham; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Elio Riboli

2008-01-01

133

Dietary intake of vitamin K and risk of prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg)1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anticarcinogenic activities of vitamin K have been observedinvariouscancercelllines,includingprostatecancercells. Epidemiologic studies linking dietary intake of vitamin K with the development of prostate cancer have not yet been conducted. Objective: We evaluated the association between dietary intake of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamin K2) and total and advanced prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into

Katharina Nimptsch; Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen

134

Ecological-Level Associations Between Highly Processed Food Intakes and Plasma Phospholipid Elaidic Acid Concentrations: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine

Véronique Chajčs; Carine Biessy; Graham Byrnes; Genevičve Deharveng; Mitra Saadatian-Elahi; Mazda Jenab; Petra H. M. Peeters; Marga Ocké; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Ingegerd Johansson; Göran Hallmans; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfält; Paula Jakszyn; Carlos A. González; Jose-Maria Huerta; Carmen Martinez; Pilar Amiano; Laudina Rodriguez Suárez; Eva Ardanaz; Anne Tjřnneland; Jytte Halkjaer; Kim Overvad; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Franco Berrino; Valeria Pala; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Maria Santucci de Magistris; Elisabeth A. Spencer; Francesca L. Crowe; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Ute Nöethlings; Karina Standahl Olsen; Guri Skeie; Eiliv Lund; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimosthenis Zilis; Erifili Oustoglou; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Elio Riboli; Nadia Slimani

2011-01-01

135

Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – the EPIC-InterAct study  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including 8 countries with large geographical variation. Methods Using a case-cohort design, 11,245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N=15,798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. 24-h diet recall data from a subsample (N=2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. Results Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95 % CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22), (ptrend=0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect [HR (95% CI)] using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 ?g/day dietary vitamin D. Conclusion This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type-2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person. PMID:24253760

Abbas, Sascha; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Beulens, Joline WJ; Buijsse, Brian; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Masters, Tilman Kühn; Mattiello, Amalia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Saieva, Calogero; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

2014-01-01

136

Toxoplasmosis: a serological survey in Ontario wildlife.  

PubMed

Sera from seven species of wild animals in Ontario were examined for antibody to Toxoplasma gondii using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Of 158 sera tested, 53% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 56% of the striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), 78% of the coyotes (Canis latrans), 33% of the black bears (Ursus americanus), 18% of the short tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and none of the field voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) had antibody. Antibody to T. gondii was present in sera from wild animals captured throughout southern Ontario. A positive linear correlation between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and age of fox pups was calculated (p < 0.005). PMID:16502687

Quinn, P J; Ramsden, R O; Johnston, D H

1976-10-01

137

Fruit and vegetable intake and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heart study  

PubMed Central

Aims A higher intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but there is some uncertainty about the interpretation of this association. The objective was to assess the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of mortality from IHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heart study. Methods and results After an average of 8.4 years of follow-up, there were 1636 deaths from IHD among 313 074 men and women without previous myocardial infarction or stroke from eight European countries. Participants consuming at least eight portions (80 g each) of fruits and vegetables a day had a 22% lower risk of fatal IHD [relative risk (RR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65–0.95] compared with those consuming fewer than three portions a day. After calibration of fruit and vegetable intake to account for differences in dietary assessment between the participating centres, a one portion (80 g) increment in fruit and vegetable intake was associated with a 4% lower risk of fatal IHD (RR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92–1.00, P for trend = 0.033). Conclusion Results from this large observational study suggest that a higher intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of IHD mortality. Whether this association is causal and, if so, the biological mechanism(s) by which fruits and vegetables operate to lower IHD risks remains unclear. PMID:21245490

Crowe, Francesca L.; Roddam, Andrew W.; Key, Timothy J.; Appleby, Paul N.; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Tjřnneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Misirli, Gesthimani; Lagiou, Pagona; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boer, Jolanda; van Gils, Carla H.; Beulens, Joline W.J.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rodríguez, Laudina; Larrańaga, Nerea; Sánchez, Maria-José; Tormo, María-José; Buckland, Genevieve; Lund, Eiliv; Hedblad, Bo; Melander, Olle; Jansson, Jan-Hĺkan; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Jenab, Mazda; Danesh, John; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

2011-01-01

138

Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between prediagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20-100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive ?0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-cell NHL and B-cell NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM [high level: OR = 0.40 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79)] and B-cell NHL [intermediate level: OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.53-0.88); high level: OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.86)], largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL; intermediate level: OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.30-0.80); high level: OR = 0.13 (95% CI = 0.05-0.35)] risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared with matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found. PMID:25269801

Nieters, Alexandra; ?uczy?ska, Anna; Becker, Susen; Becker, Nikolaus; Vermeulen, Roel; Overvad, Kim; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Sánchez, María-José; Sánchez, Soledad; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Melin, Beatrice; Späth, Florentin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Brennan, Paul; Kelly, Rachel S; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolf

2014-12-01

139

[Serological survey of animal toxoplasmosis in Senegal.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. We used modified direct agglutination test for the screening of the animals' sera collected in Senegal. In total, 419 animals' sera have been studied: 103 bovines, 43 sheep, 52 goats, 63 horses, 13 donkeys and 145 dogs. The collection of sera was performed in four different regions of Senegal: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou and Basse Casamance from 2011 to 2013. We have revealed antibodies in 13% of bovines, 16% of sheep, 15% of goats, 30% of horses, 23% of donkeys and 67% of dogs. Private dogs from villages were more often to have the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies compared to security society-owned dogs from Dakar. It may be explained by different meal consumed by dogs (factory-produced meal for dogs from Dakar vs. irregular sources for village dogs). Intense circulation of T. gondii in the studied zone may explain the unusually high seroprevalence among horses and donkeys. Tropical climate with high temperature and humidity is favorable for the conservation of oocysts of T. gondii. Results presented here may contribute to the evaluation of the risks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Senegal. PMID:25307881

Davoust, B; Mediannikov, O; Sambou, M; Roqueplo, C; Demoncheaux, J -P; Perret, C; Guillot, J; Blaga, R

2014-10-11

140

IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and breast cancer risk in women: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding\\u000aprotein-3 (IGFBP-3) have recently been associated with breast cancer risk, notably in women who\\u000adeveloped breast cancer at a young age. Prospective studies published so far, however, were\\u000arelatively small and odds ratio (OR) estimates imprecise. We present the results of a large\\u000aprospective case-control study nested within

S. Rinaldi; P. H. M. Peeters; F. Berrino; L. Dossus; C. Biessy; A. Olsen; A. Tjřnneland; K. Overvad; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; B. Tehard; G. Nagel; J. Linseisen; H. H. Boeing; P. H. Lahmann; A. Trichopoulou; D. Trichopoulos; M. Koliva; D. Palli; S. Panico; R. Tumino; C. Sacerdote; C. H. van Gils; P. A. H. van Noord; D. E. Grobbee; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; C. A. Gonzalez; A Agudo; M. D. Chirlaque; A. Barricarte; N. Larranaga; J. R. Quirós; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; T. J. Key; N. E. Allen; A. Lukanova; N. Slimani; R. Saracci; E. Riboli; R. Kaaks

2006-01-01

141

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a well-recognized opportunistic disease in HIV-infected individuals that is caused by the reactivation of a previous infection, primarily in the central nervous system, during profound immunodeficiency. Toxoplasmosis has been described more rarely in patients with cancer and chemotherapy. We report a case of a patient with a history of chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma who developed pain and progressive paresthesia of the right arm 6 weeks after remission. Relapsing lymphoma was suspected, and steroid and radiation treatment were initiated, but the patient died 5 days later due to multiple organ failure. Autopsy revealed disseminated toxoplasmosis. This case illustrates that toxoplasmosis should be suspected in patients with neoplastic disease, especially lymphomas, who present with unexplained neurologic, pulmonary, or febrile symptoms during or after chemotherapy. PMID:19499181

Herold, M A; Kühne, R; Vosberg, M; Ostheeren-Michaelis, S; Vogt, P; Karrer, U

2009-12-01

142

Multiple cases of acquired toxoplasmosis retinitis presenting in an outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of the study was to examine the variability in presentation and outcome of individuals presenting with acquired toxoplasmosis retinitis in the setting of an outbreak of the disease.

Andrew J Burnett; Stanley G Shortt; Judith Isaac-Renton; Arlene King; Denise Werker; William R Bowie

1998-01-01

143

Laboratory Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 40 years, the Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute (TSL-PAMFRI) has been dedicated to the laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis. TSL-PAMFRI is the \\

Infectious Diseases

2002-01-01

144

Toxoplasmosis Presenting as Hyper Viscosity Syndrome due to Polyclonal Gammopathy.  

PubMed

We are presenting a rare case of toxoplasma lymphadenopathy with hyper viscosity syndrome due to polyclonal gammopathy. A 30 year old female presented with generalized lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy findings suggestive of toxoplasmosis were confirmed on serology. Bone marrow aspiration showed 50 % plasma cells. On serum electrophoresis broad, diffuse band noted, indicative of polyclonal gammopathy. M band was absent. The patient was immunocompetent and presented with hyper viscosity syndrome masking the symptoms of underlying toxoplasmosis. PMID:24554824

Puranik, Shaila C; Rathod, Kalpana B; Kudrimoti, Jyoti K

2014-03-01

145

Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with antia??T. gondiia??specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

2002-01-01

146

Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-T. gondii-specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds. PMID:12435157

Work, Thierry M; Massey, J Gregory; Lindsay, David; Dubey, J P

2002-10-01

147

Consumption of fried foods and risk of coronary heart disease: Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the association between consumption of fried foods and risk of coronary heart disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Participants 40?757 adults aged 29-69 and free of coronary heart disease at baseline (1992-6), followed up until 2004. Main outcome measures Coronary heart disease events and vital status identified by record linkage with hospital discharge registers, population based registers of myocardial infarction, and mortality registers. Results During a median follow-up of 11 years, 606 coronary heart disease events and 1135 deaths from all causes occurred. Compared with being in the first (lowest) quarter of fried food consumption, the multivariate hazard ratio of coronary heart disease in the second quarter was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.45), in the third quarter was 1.07 (0.83 to 1.38), and in the fourth quarter was 1.08 (0.82 to 1.43; P for trend 0.74). The results did not vary between those who used olive oil for frying and those who used sunflower oil. Likewise, no association was observed between fried food consumption and all cause mortality: multivariate hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest quarter of fried food consumption was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.14; P for trend 0.98). Conclusion In Spain, a Mediterranean country where olive or sunflower oil is used for frying, the consumption of fried foods was not associated with coronary heart disease or with all cause mortality. PMID:22275385

2012-01-01

148

Pre-diagnostic Circulating Parathyroid Hormone Concentration and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been proposed to play a promoting role in carcinogenesis. However, no epidemiologic studies have yet directly investigated its role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods A case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort was conducted with 1,214 incident, sporadic CRC cases matched to 1,214 controls. Circulating pre-diagnostic PTH and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Detailed dietary and lifestyle questionnaire data were collected at baseline. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for the association between circulating PTH and CRC risk. Results In multivariate analyses (including adjustment for 25(OH)D concentration) with a priori defined cut-points, high levels of serum PTH (?65ng/L) compared to medium PTH levels of 30–65 ng/L were associated with increased CRC risk (RR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.03-1.93). In analyses by sex, the CRC risk was 1.77 (95%CI: 1.14-2.75) and 1.15 (95%CI: 0.73-1.84) in men and women, respectively (Pheterogeneity=0.01). In sub-group analyses by anatomical sub-site, the risk for colon cancer was RR=1.56, 95%CI:1.03-2.34, and for rectal cancer RR=1.20, 95%CI:0.72-2.01 (Pheterogeneity=0.21). Effect modification by various risk factors was examined. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that high serum PTH levels may be associated with incident, sporadic CRC in Western European populations, and in particular among men. Impact To our knowledge, this is the first study on PTH and CRC. The role of PTH in carcinogenesis needs to be further investigated. PMID:21378267

Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Pischon, Tobias; Norat, Teresa; Jansen, Eugčne H.J.M.; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B.; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Engel, Pierre; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Sieri, Sabina; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra HM; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Rodríguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Bonet, Catalina; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Göran; Key, Timothy J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Wark, Petra A.; Romaguera, Dora; Jenab, Mazda

2011-01-01

149

Promoting health equity in European children: Design and methodology of the prospective EPHE (Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity) evaluation study  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing health inequalities is a top priority of the public health agendas in Europe. The EPHE project aims to analyse the added value of a community-based interventional programme based on EPODE methodology, adapted for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in childhood obesity. The interventions that will be implemented by this project focus on four energy balance-related behaviours (fruit and vegetable consumption, tap water intake, physical inactivity, sleep duration) and their determinants. This article presents the design of the effect evaluation of the EPHE project. Methods/Design This is a prospective two-year follow-up evaluation study, which will collect data on the energy balance-related behaviours and potential environmental determinants of 6–8 year olds, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents. For this purpose a parental self-reported questionnaire is constructed. This assesses the socio-economic status of the parents (5 items) and the dietary (12 items), sedentary (2 items) and sleeping (4 items) behaviour of the child. Alongside potential family-environmental determinants are assessed. The EPHE parental questionnaire will be disseminated in schools of a selected medium-sized city in seven European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Portugal, Romania, The Netherlands). Discussion This study will evaluate the effects of the EPHE community-based interventional programmes. Furthermore, it will provide evidence for children’s specific energy balance-related behaviours and family environmental determinants related to socio-economic inequalities, in seven European countries. PMID:24690078

2014-01-01

150

First case of congenital toxoplasmosis from Nepal.  

PubMed

Reportedly, nearly half of the Nepalese are Toxoplasma seropositive. However, neither the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) nor the confirmed case to CT is reported from Nepal yet. In this case report, we report the first case of CT in a 53 days old full term male baby (weight: 2,600 grams) delivered by caesarean section. The baby had hepatosplenomegaly and optic nerve coloboma with large scar in the right eye. The TORCH panel test showed significantly high Toxoplasma IgM antibody level (5.77 OD Ratio) compared with IgM antibody level against other agents. The baby was diagnosed as a case of CT and treatment was started accordingly. The baby, however, did not improve with the treatment and died after six days. The immediate cause of death was cardiorespiratory failure with antecedent cause of liver failure, renal insufficiency with thrombocytopenia. PMID:21991707

Rai, S K; Sharma, A; Shrestha, R K; Pradhan, P

2011-03-01

151

Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations.  

PubMed

It has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T. gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Jank?. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T. gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations. PMID:19217908

Weiss, Louis M; Dubey, Jitender P

2009-07-01

152

Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants 100?166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 2.5-10 ?m (PMcoarse), and <10 ?m (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 ?g/m3 for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 ?g/m3 increase in PM2.5) and below 40 ?g/m3 for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 ?g/m3 increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values. PMID:24452269

2014-01-01

153

Atypical imaging appearance of toxoplasmosis in an HIV patient as a butterfly lesion.  

PubMed

In acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, differentiating toxoplasmosis and primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma remains a clinical and radiographic dilemma. The presence of butterfly lesions crossing the corpus callosum is customarily used to exclude the possibility of toxoplasmosis. We present an AIDS patient who had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -positive cerebrospinal fluid studies with a butterfly toxoplasmosis lesion confirmed by multiple methods signifying the importance of including toxoplasmosis in the differential diagnosis of butterfly lesions. PMID:19787733

Chaudhari, Vinika V; Yim, Catherine M; Hathout, Heba; Lai, Andrew; Donovan, Suzanne M

2009-10-01

154

Phytoestrogen Concentrations in Serum and Spot Urine as Biomarkers for Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake and Their Relation to Breast Cancer Risk in European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects of this study consisted of 333 women (aged 45 - 75 years) drawn from a large United Kingdom prospec- tive study of diet and cancer, the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk study. Using newly developed gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography\\/mass spectro- metry methods incorporating triply 13C-labeled stand- ards, seven phytoestrogens (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol,

Philip B. Grace; James I. Taylor; Yen-Ling Low; Robert N. Luben; Angela A. Mulligan; Nigel P. Botting; Mitch Dowsett; Ailsa A. Welch; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nick J. Wareham; Nick E. Day; Sheila A. Bingham

155

Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries  

PubMed Central

Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries. PMID:23292003

Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

2013-01-01

156

Antibiotics for human toxoplasmosis: a systematic review of randomized trials  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of different treatment regimens in clinical syndromes of toxoplasmosis were assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on the clinical entity of toxoplasmosis. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Fourteen randomized trials were included of which one was a non-comparative study. One well-designed trial showed that trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more effective than placebo for clinical recovery of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy in immunocompetent hosts. For toxoplasmic encephalopathy, efficacy of pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole were similar, whereas pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine versus pyrimathamine+clindamycin showed no difference, irrespective of the outcome. Intravitreal clindamycin+dexamethasone and conventional treatment with oral pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine had similar efficacy with regard to all outcome measures in ocular toxoplasmosis, and intravitreal therapy was found to be safe. Adverse effects seemed more common with pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine. Most trials for encephalitis and ocular manifestations had a high risk of bias and were of poor methodological quality. There were no trials evaluating drugs for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, or for congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine is an effective therapy for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis; trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole and pyrimethamine+clindamycin are possible alternatives. Treatment with either oral or intravitreal antibiotics seems reasonable for ocular toxoplasmosis. Overall, trial evidence for the efficacy of these drugs for toxoplasmosis is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed. PMID:23816507

Rajapakse, Senaka; Chrishan Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Deepika Fernando, Sumadhya

2013-01-01

157

Antibiotics for human toxoplasmosis: a systematic review of randomized trials.  

PubMed

The efficacy of different treatment regimens in clinical syndromes of toxoplasmosis were assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on the clinical entity of toxoplasmosis. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Fourteen randomized trials were included of which one was a non-comparative study. One well-designed trial showed that trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more effective than placebo for clinical recovery of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy in immunocompetent hosts. For toxoplasmic encephalopathy, efficacy of pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole were similar, whereas pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine versus pyrimathamine+clindamycin showed no difference, irrespective of the outcome. Intravitreal clindamycin+dexamethasone and conventional treatment with oral pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine had similar efficacy with regard to all outcome measures in ocular toxoplasmosis, and intravitreal therapy was found to be safe. Adverse effects seemed more common with pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine. Most trials for encephalitis and ocular manifestations had a high risk of bias and were of poor methodological quality. There were no trials evaluating drugs for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, or for congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine is an effective therapy for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis; trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole and pyrimethamine+clindamycin are possible alternatives. Treatment with either oral or intravitreal antibiotics seems reasonable for ocular toxoplasmosis. Overall, trial evidence for the efficacy of these drugs for toxoplasmosis is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed. PMID:23816507

Rajapakse, Senaka; Chrishan Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Deepika Fernando, Sumadhya

2013-06-01

158

Toxoplasmosis-Associated Difference in Intelligence and Personality in Men Depends on Their Rhesus Blood  

E-print Network

Toxoplasmosis-Associated Difference in Intelligence and Personality in Men Depends on Their Rhesus in the toxoplasmosis-associated effects between RhD- positive and RhD-negative subjects by testing 502 soldiers an important role in the strength and direction of association between latent toxoplasmosis and not only

Flegr, Jaroslav

159

Poorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes or the  

E-print Network

Poorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes for Toxoplasmosis, National Institute of Public Health, S roba´rova 48, Prague 10042, Czech Republic (Received 13 the observed impairment of learning processes was a result of acute or latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. whether

Flegr, Jaroslav

160

Author's personal copy Slower postnatal motor development in infants of mothers with latent toxoplasmosis  

E-print Network

toxoplasmosis during the first 18 months of life Sárka Kaková a, , Jan Sulc b , Romana Kivohlavá c , Ales Kubna Retardation Toxoplasmosis, a zoonosis caused by a protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, is probably the most widespread human parasitosis in developed countries. Pregnant women with latent toxoplasmosis have seemingly

Flegr, Jaroslav

161

Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans  

E-print Network

Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans J. FLEGR Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis, National Institute of Public Health, S roba´rova 48, 100 42, Prague 10, Czech toxoplasmosis and increased testosterone concentration was only postulated on the basis of indirect evidence

Flegr, Jaroslav

162

Influence of latent toxoplasmosis on the secondary sex ratio S. KAN KOVA 1  

E-print Network

Influence of latent toxoplasmosis on the secondary sex ratio in mice S. KAN KOVA´ 1 , P. KODYM2 , D Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis, National Institute of Public Health, S roba´rova 48, CZ-100 42 Prague 10, Czech cohort studies on human subjects, mice with toxoplasmosis produced a higher sex ratio than controls

Flegr, Jaroslav

163

Individual patient data meta-analysis of prenatal treatment effect for congenital toxoplasmosis.  

E-print Network

Individual patient data meta-analysis of prenatal treatment effect for congenital toxoplasmosis. The SYROCOT (Systematic Review on Congenital Toxoplasmosis) Study Group* *Membership at end of report: rodolphe.thiebaut@isped.u-bordeaux2.fr Running title: Prenatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis Word

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Biomarker patterns of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are associated with risk of colorectal cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).  

PubMed

A number of biomarkers of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are individually related to higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between biomarker patterns and CRC incidence has not been previously evaluated. Our study investigates the association of biomarker patterns with CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During median follow-up time of 7.0 (3.7-9.4) years, 1,260 incident CRC cases occurred and were matched to 1,260 controls using risk-set sampling. Pre-diagnostic measurements of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), insulin-like growth factor 1, adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were used to derive biomarker patterns from principal component analysis (PCA). The relation with CRC incidence was assessed using conditional logistic regression models. We identified four biomarker patterns 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP', 'TG/C-peptide' and 'leptin/sOB-R' to explain 60 % of the overall biomarker variance. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, the 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' patterns were associated with CRC risk [for the highest quartile vs the lowest, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51-0.93, P-trend = 0.01; IRR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.30-2.23, P-trend = 0.002; and IRR = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.58-1.07; P-trend = 0.05, respectively]. In contrast, the 'TG/C-peptide' pattern was not associated with CRC risk (IRR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00, P-trend = 0.24). After cases within the first 2 follow-up years were excluded, the 'ROM/CRP' pattern was no longer associated with CRC risk, suggesting potential influence of preclinical disease on these associations. By application of PCA, the study identified 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' as biomarker patterns representing potentially important pathways for CRC development. PMID:24791703

Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Fedirko, Veronika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Jansen, Eugene; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Murphy, Neil; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Westhpal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Halkjćr, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Duell, Eric J; Molina-Montes, Esther; Quirós, J Ramón; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

2014-04-01

165

Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. Design The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Setting 23 centres in 10 countries. Participants 380?395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6?years on average. Main outcome measures 20?453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment. Results HRs comparing extreme drinkers (?30?g/day in women and ?60?g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1–4.9?g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60?years, drinking more than 30?g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60?g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women. Conclusions In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality. PMID:24993766

Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Kragh Andersen, Per; Johansson, Mattias; Boeing, Heiner; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Sanchez, Carmen Navarro; Arriola, Larraitz; Wallström, Peter; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra; Beulens, Joline WJ; Nunes, Luciana; Gunter, Marc; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Brennan, Paul; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

2014-01-01

166

The physical capability of community-based men and women from a British cohort: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study  

PubMed Central

Background The European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a case-finding algorithm for sarcopenia, recommending muscle mass measurement in older adults with low grip strength (women <20 kg; men <30 kg) or slow walking speed (?0.8 m/s). However, the implications of adopting this algorithm into clinical practice are unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the physical capability of men and women from a British population-based cohort study. Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study, 8,623 community-based adults (48-92 years old) underwent assessment of grip strength, walking speed, timed chair stands and standing balance. The proportion of older men and women (?65 years) fulfilling EWGSOP criteria for muscle mass measurement was estimated. Additionally, cross-sectional associations of physical capability with age and sex were explored using linear and logistic regression. Results Approximately 1 in 4 older participants (28.8%) fulfilled criteria for muscle mass measurement with a greater proportion of women than men falling below threshold criteria (33.6% versus 23.6%). Even after adjustment for anthropometry, women were 12.4 kg (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 12.0, 12.7) weaker, took 12.0% (95% CI 10.0, 14.0) longer to perform five chair stands and were 1.82 (95% CI 1.48, 2.23) times more likely to be unable to hold a tandem stand for 10 seconds than men, although usual walking speed was similar. Physical capability was inversely associated with age and per year, walking speed decreased by 0.01 m/s (95% CI 0.01, 0.01) and grip strength decreased by 0.49 kg (men; 95% CI 0.46, 0.51) and 0.25 kg (women; 95% CI 0.23, 0.27). Despite this, there was still variation within age-groups and not all older people had low physical capability. Conclusions Every effort to optimise functional health in later life should be made since poor function is not inevitable. However, if the EWGSOP sarcopenia case-finding algorithm is endorsed, large proportions of older people could qualify for muscle mass measurement which is not commonly available. Considering population ageing, further discussion is needed over the utility of muscle mass measurement in clinical practice. PMID:24020915

2013-01-01

167

Concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background: Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (BPs) regulate cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and may have a role in the aetiology of various cancers. Information on their role in pancreatic cancer is limited and was examined here in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Methods: Serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 422 cases and 422 controls matched on age, sex, study centre, recruitment date, and time since last meal. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Neither circulating levels of IGF-I (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.75–1.93 for top vs bottom quartile, P-trend 0.301), IGFBP-3 (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.66–1.51, P-trend 0.79), nor the molar IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio, an indicator of free IGF-I level (OR=1.22, 95% CI 0.75–1.97, P-trend 0.27), were statistically significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In a cross-classification, however, a high concentration of IGF-I with concurrently low levels of IGFBP-3 was related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR=1.72, 95% CI 1.05–2.83; P-interaction=0.154). Conclusion: On the basis of these results, circulating levels of components of the IGF axis do not appear to be the risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, on the basis of the results of a subanalysis, it cannot be excluded that a relatively large amount of IGF-1 together with very low levels of IGFBP-3 might still be associated with an increase in pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:22315049

Rohrmann, S; Grote, V A; Becker, S; Rinaldi, S; Tjřnneland, A; Roswall, N; Grřnbćk, H; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Racine, A; Teucher, B; Boeing, H; Drogan, D; Dilis, V; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Palli, D; Tagliabue, G; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Mattiello, A; Rodríguez, L; Duell, E J; Molina-Montes, E; Dorronsoro, M; Huerta, J-M; Ardanaz, E; Jeurnink, S; Peeters, P H M; Lindkvist, B; Johansen, D; Sund, M; Ye, W; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Allen, N E; Crowe, F L; Fedirko, V; Jenab, M; Michaud, D S; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kaaks, R

2012-01-01

168

A U-shaped association between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Folate intake has shown an inverse association with pancreatic cancer; nevertheless, results from plasma measurements were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to examine the association between plasma total homocysteine, methionine, folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5?-phosphate, riboflavin, and flavin mononucleotide and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We conducted a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort, which has an average of 9.6 years of follow-up (1992–2006), using 463 incident pancreatic cancer cases. Controls were matched to each case by center, sex, age (+/?1y), date (+/?1y) and time (+/?3h) at blood collection, and fasting status. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for education, smoking status, plasma cotinine concentration, alcohol drinking, body mass index and diabetes status. We observed a U-shaped association between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk The ORs for plasma folate ?5, 5–10, 10–15 (reference), 15–20, and >20 nmol/L were 1.6 (95% CI=0.7–3.5), 1.4 (0.9–2.1), 1.0 (reference), 0.8 (0.5–1.2), and 1.3 (0.9–2.0), respectively. Methionine was associated with an increased risk in men (per quintile increment: OR=1.2 95% CI=1.0–1.4) but not in women (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.8–1.1; p for heterogeneity<0.01). Our results suggest a U-shaped association between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk in both men and women. The positive association that we observed between methionine and pancreatic cancer may be sex dependent and may differ by time of follow-up. However, the mechanisms behind the observed associations warrant further investigation. PMID:21411310

Chuang, Shu-Chun; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Ueland, Per Magne; Vollset, Stein Emil; Middtun, Řivind; Olsen, Anja; Tjřnneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Clavel-Chapelon, Fran?oise; Teucher, Brigit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Naska, Androniki; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Michaud, Dominique S.; Palli, Domenico; Sabina, Sieri; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Skeie, Guri; Duell, Eric J.; Rodriguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José Marí; Larrańaga, Nerea; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Johansen, Dorthe; Manjer, Jonas; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Peeters, Petra HM; Jeumink, Suzanne; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Crowe, Francesca; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vineis, Paolo

2012-01-01

169

The relationship between fermented food intake and mortality risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between total and subtypes of bacterial fermented food intake (dairy products, cheese, vegetables and meat) and mortality due to all causes, total cancer and CVD. From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort, 34 409 Dutch men and women, aged 20-70 years who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline, were included. Baseline intakes of total and subtypes of fermented foods were measured with a validated FFQ. Data on the incidence and causes of death were obtained from the national mortality register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse mortality in relation to the quartiles of fermented food intake. After a mean follow-up of 15 (sd 2·5) years, 2436 deaths occurred (1216 from cancer and 727 from CVD). After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, education level, hypertension, smoking habit, BMI, and intakes of fruit, vegetables and alcohol, total fermented food intake was not found to be associated with mortality due to all causes (hazard ratio upper v. lowest quartile (HRQ4 v. Q1) 1·00, 95 % CI 0·88, 1·13), cancer (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·02, 95 % CI 0·86, 1·21) or CVD (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·04, 95 % CI 0·83, 1·30). Bacterial fermented foods mainly consisted of fermented dairy foods (78 %) and cheese (16 %). None of the subtypes of fermented foods was consistently related to mortality, except for cheese which was moderately inversely associated with CVD mortality, and particularly stroke mortality (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·59, 95 % CI 0·38, 0·92, P trend= 0·046). In conclusion, the present study provides no strong evidence that intake of fermented foods, particularly fermented dairy foods, is associated with mortality. PMID:25599866

Praagman, Jaike; Dalmeijer, Geertje W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Monique Verschuren, W M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Beulens, Joline W J

2015-02-01

170

Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort.  

PubMed

Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ? 25 kg/m(2) ) with magnesium (HR(per 100 mg/day increase) = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR (per 1 mg/day increase) = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations. PMID:22438075

Molina-Montes, Esther; Wark, Petra A; Sánchez, María-José; Norat, Teresa; Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Michaud, Dominique S; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Katarachia, Helen; Skeie, Guri; Henningsen, Maria; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Vineis, Paolo; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José-María; Duell, Eric J; Quirós, José-Ramón; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Li, Kuanrong; Grote, Verena A; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Racine, Antoine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Peeters, Petra H M; Siersema, Peter D; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas

2012-10-01

171

Acute toxoplasmosis in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in Mexico.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal multisystemic disease in New World primates, with respiratory failure and multifocal necrotic lesions. Although cases and outbreaks of toxoplasmosis have been described, there are few genotyping studies and none has included parasite load quantification. In this article, we describe two cases of lethal acute toxoplasmosis in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) of Mexico city. The main pathological findings included pulmonary edema, interstitial pneumonia, hepatitis and necrotizing lymphadenitis, and structures similar to T. gondii tachyzoites observed by histopathology in these organs. Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and both end point and real time PCR. The load was between <14 and 23 parasites/mg tissue. Digestion of the SAG3 gene amplicon showed similar bands to type I reference strains. These are the first cases of toxoplasmosis in primates studied in Mexico, with clinical features similar to others reported in Israel and French Guiana, although apparently caused by a different T. gondii variant. PMID:21466920

Cedillo-Peláez, Carlos; Rico-Torres, Claudia Patricia; Salas-Garrido, Carlos Gerardo; Correa, Dolores

2011-08-25

172

[Fever and lymphadenopathy: acute toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In Switzerland about a third of the population has antibodies against this pathogen and has thus already been in contact with the parasite or has contracted the disease. Immunocompetent patients are usually asymptomatic (80-90%) during primary infection. The most common symptom is neck or occipital lymphadenopathy. Serology is the diagnostic gold standard in immunocompetent individuals. The presence of IgM antibodies is however not sufficient to make a definite diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis. Distinction between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis requires additional serological tests (IgG avidity test). If required, the most used and probably most effective treatment is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, with folinic acid. PMID:25562978

Kaparos, Nikolaos; Favrat, Bernard; D'Acremont, Valérie

2014-11-26

173

Juvenile polyarteritis nodosa associated with toxoplasmosis presenting as Kawasaki disease.  

PubMed

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis characterized by inflammatory necrosis of medium-sized arteries. Juvenile PAN and Kawasaki disease (KD) both cause vasculitis of the medium-sized arteries, and share common features. They have overlapping clinical features. Treatment should be managed according to the severity of symptoms and persistence of clinical manifestations. Herein is described the case of a 14-year-old boy first diagnosed with KD, who then fulfilled the criteria for juvenile PAN due to the development of severe myalgia, persistent fever, polyneuropathy and coronary arterial dilatation. He also had acute toxoplasmosis at the onset of vasculitis symptoms. The final diagnosis was of juvenile PAN associated with toxoplasmosis infection. Toxoplasma infection can be considered as an etiological agent for PAN and other vasculitis syndromes. Awareness of toxoplasmosis-related PAN facilitates early diagnosis, and instigation of appropriate treatment. PMID:24730628

Ba?aran, Özge; Çakar, Nilgün; Gür, Gökçe; Kocaba?, Abdullah; Gülhan, Belgin; Çayc?, Fatma ?emsa; Çelikel, Banu Acar

2014-04-01

174

Toxoplasmosis Update and Public Health Implications  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii has a coccidian life cycle in the intestine of domestic and wild felids that includes a series of asexual and sexual stages and an oocyst stage that is shed in the feces. Oocysts complete their development outside the body, eventually becoming infective for about 350 species of vertebrates including cats and man. The effects of climate on oocyst survival and the physical and biological means of oocyst dispersal are discussed. Infectivity and pathogenicity for livestock species vary. Acute disease results from rapidly multiplying tachyzoites that may be transmitted by carnivorism, transfusion, vertical transmission and other routes. Patent infections may persist for the life of a host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. Bradyzoites initiate acute infection in other hosts after carnivorism or organ transplantation or in the same host after immunosuppression. Also discussed are: (a) prevalence of T. gondii in livestock as determined by digestion and serological techniques, (b) identification in humans as accomplished by isolation, serological and skin test techniques and (c) identification in cats as accomplished primarily by fecal examinations for oocysts infective for mice. Source of human infections, major outbreaks, treatment, effects on mental health and methods for preventing toxoplasmosis in man and livestock are listed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7337909

Fayer, R.

1981-01-01

175

Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described. PMID:23718784

Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

2013-01-01

176

Space prospects. [european space programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

1980-01-01

177

Preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis in mice.  

PubMed

As one of food-borne parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis entails the risk of developing reactivation in immunocompromised patients. The synthetic dipeptide pidotimod is a potent immunostimulating agent that improves the immunodefenses in immunodepression. To investigate the efficacy of pidotimod as a preventive treatment, we used a murine model of reactivated toxoplasmosis with cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunosuppression. Pidotimod administration significantly restored the body weight and spleen organ index, increased survival time (from 70 to 90%), and decreased the parasitemia (from 80 to 35%) of CY-induced mice with reactivated toxoplasmosis. Cytokine profiles and CD4(+) T cells subpopulation analyses by Cytometric Bead Array and flow cytometry demonstrated that pidotimod treatment resulted in a significant upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-2) and Th1 cells (from 3.73 ± 0.39 to 5.88 ± 0.46%) after CY induction in infected mice. Additionally, histological findings and parasite DNA quantification revealed that mice administered with pidotimod had a remarkable reduction of parasite burden (two-log) and amelioration of histopathology in the brains. The in vitro studies showed that pidotimod significantly restored concanavalin A-induced splenocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants of splenocyte culture. It could be concluded that the administration of pidotimod in immunocompromised mice significantly increases the Th1-biased immune response, prolongs survival time, and ameliorates the load of parasites in the blood. This is the first report of the preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis. PMID:23774843

Huo, Xing-Xing; Wang, Lin; Chen, Zhao-Wu; Chen, He; Xu, Xiu-Cai; Zhang, Ai-Mei; Song, Xiao-Rong; Luo, Qing-Li; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Fu, Yu; Wang, Hua; Du, Jian; Cai, Yi-Hong; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Lu, Fang-Li; Wang, Yong; Shen, Ji-Long

2013-08-01

178

Fatal Neonatal Toxoplasmosis in a Bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently con- genitally acquired.

J. P. Dube; W. J. Quinn; D. Weinandy

179

Ocular toxoplasmosis in the United States: recent and remote infections.  

PubMed

We tested all samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis sent to the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory from June 2004 through August 2010 for serologic evidence of recent Toxoplasma gondii infection. Of 205 patients aged 10-96 years, 11.7% had recent infection. Many people develop ocular disease soon after T. gondii infection. PMID:25301214

Jones, Jeffrey L; Bonetti, Valerie; Holland, Gary N; Press, Cindy; Sanislo, Steven R; Khurana, Rahul N; Montoya, Jose G

2015-01-15

180

Fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently congenitally acquired. PMID:3586212

Dubey, J P; Quinn, W J; Weinandy, D

1987-04-01

181

Paradoxical effect of clindamycin in experimental, acute toxoplasmosis in cats.  

PubMed

Cats were experimentally inoculated parenterally with the ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii to characterize the efficacies of two different dosages of orally administered clindamycin hydrochloride in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Concentrations of clindamycin hydrochloride at levels previously suggested to be inhibitory to T. gondii replication in vitro were achieved in the serum and aqueous humor but not in the cerebrospinal fluid. Antibiotic therapy, initiated 7 days after inoculation, resulted in no significant difference in the morphometric severity of ocular posterior segment lesions compared with that in the control groups. Treatment appeared to blunt T. gondii-specific immunoglobulin M production but had no significant effect on immunoglobulin G titers. Paradoxically, clindamycin administration was associated with increased morbidity and mortality from hepatitis and interstitial pneumonia, which are characteristic of generalized toxoplasmosis. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha activity was detected at moderate levels in all groups of cats and correlated with the severity of clinical disease. The results of the study suggest that clindamycin, when administered at this specific time interval following inoculation, does not ameliorate ocular lesions and has a detrimental effect on the clinical course of acute, experimental toxoplasmosis in cats. The factors responsible for and the relevance of this detrimental effect to naturally occurring toxoplasmosis in humans and pet cats were not clear from the study but may relate to an antibiotic-associated decrease in the antitoxoplasmic activity of phagocytic cells responsible for the control of T. gondii. PMID:8726000

Davidson, M G; Lappin, M R; Rottman, J R; Tompkins, M B; English, R V; Bruce, A T; Jayawickrama, J

1996-06-01

182

Respiratory virus infections after stem cell transplantation: a prospective study from the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-acquired respiratory virus infections are a cause of mortality after stem cell transplantation (SCT). A prospective study was performed at 37 centers to determine their frequency and importance. Additional cases were also collected to allow the analysis of risk factors for severe infection. Forty episodes were collected in the prospective study and 53 additional episodes through subsequent case collection. The

P Ljungman; KN Ward; BNA Crooks; A Parker; R Martino; PJ Shaw; L Brinch; M Brune; R De La Camara; A Dekker; K Pauksen; N Russell; AP Schwarer; C Cordonnier

2001-01-01

183

Disseminated Toxoplasmosis, Resulting from Infection of Allograft, after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: Usefulness of Quantitative PCR  

PubMed Central

Disseminated toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening disease in liver transplant recipients that can result from an organ-transmitted infection. We report here a case of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis after orthotopic liver transplantation from a seropositive donor (immunoglobulin G [IgG]+ and IgM?) in a patient who was nonimmune for toxoplasmosis prior to transplantation. Quantitative PCR analyses of various clinical specimens, including serum samples, appeared retrospectively to be a valuable diagnostic tool that might guide therapeutic attitudes. PMID:11980935

Botterel, F.; Ichai, P.; Feray, C.; Bouree, P.; Saliba, F.; Tur Raspa, R.; Samuel, D.; Romand, S.

2002-01-01

184

Body Fat Distribution and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men and Women in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk Cohort A Population-Based Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Body fat distribution has been cross-sectionally associated with atherosclerotic disease risk factors, but the prospective relation with coronary heart disease remains uncertain. Methods and Results—We examined the prospective relation between fat distribution indices and coronary heart disease among 24 508 men and women 45 to 79 years of age using proportional hazards regression. During a mean 9.1 years of follow-up,

Dexter Canoy; S. Matthijs Boekholdt; Nicholas Wareham; Robert Luben; Ailsa Welch; Sheila Bingham; Iain Buchan; Kay-Tee Khaw

185

Cerebral toxoplasmosis: case review and description of a new imaging sign.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis can have catastrophic consequences in immunocompromised patients if left untreated. Accurate diagnosis is difficult, as there is substantial overlap between the imaging findings and presenting clinical syndromes of cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary central nervous system lymphoma. This paper reviews the previously described and fairly well-known post-contrast computed tomography (CT) and T1-weighted (W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) target signs seen in toxoplasmosis. In addition, it offers a new imaging sign, the T2W/FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) target sign, which is often seen in clinical practice but not well-published, as an aid to the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. PMID:19348854

Masamed, R; Meleis, A; Lee, E W; Hathout, G M

2009-05-01

186

Toxoplasmosis with hemophagocytic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation: diagnosis at autopsy.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a rare but well recognized opportunistic infection that can occur after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Besides encephalitis, other common presentations of Toxoplasma gondii infection are interstitial pneumonitis and myocarditis. Because of its non-specific clinical and biological signs and its lethal outcome, toxoplasmosis is often misdiagnosed and only revealed at autopsy. We report a case of a postmortem diagnosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis associated with hemophagocytic syndrome, which underlines the value of necropsy in cases of death after transplantation. We also discuss clinical presentations and risk factors that lead to toxoplasmosis in allo-HSCT recipients. PMID:18384483

Duband, S; Cornillon, J; Tavernier, E; Dumollard, J-M; Guyotat, D; Péoc'h, M

2008-10-01

187

Ga-67 citrate myocardial uptake in a patient with AIDS, toxoplasmosis, and myocarditis  

SciTech Connect

A 38-year-old man with AIDS presented with fever of unknown origin, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Admission laboratory data revealed a positive toxoplasmosis titer in the blood. The initial chest x-ray showed small bilateral pleural effusions, a normal cardiac silhouette, no infiltrates, and no interstitial edema. Ga-67 imaging revealed markedly abnormal uptake in the myocardium. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis myocarditis was made based on laboratory and imaging data. The patient was treated for toxoplasmosis. No myocardial uptake of tracer was demonstrated on a follow-up Ga-67 scan, performed after completion of treatment for toxoplasmosis.

Memel, D.S.; DeRogatis, A.J.; William, D.C. (St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY (USA))

1991-05-01

188

Trends, productivity losses, and associated medical conditions among toxoplasmosis deaths in the United States, 2000-2010.  

PubMed

Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000-2010. A matched case-control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. PMID:25200264

Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

2014-11-01

189

An outbreak of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in northern Québec.  

PubMed

An ongoing screening program for toxoplasmosis identified a cluster of four women from northern Québec who, over a 4-month period, seroconverted during their pregnancy. An epidemiologic investigation was carried out in an attempt to identify the source of this infection. All potential risk factors were assessed by a questionnaire administered to 22 Inuit women who had delivered babies in the previous year. Seroconversion was significantly associated with skinning of animals for fur (P = .015) and frequent consumption of caribou meat (P = .034). Compared to seronegative women, women who were seropositive were more than four times more likely to have eaten dried seal meat (P = .067), more than six times more likely to have eaten seal liver (P = .064), and more than eight times more likely to have consumed raw caribou meat more than once per week (P = .054). These observations have contributed to the development of guidelines for the prevention of toxoplasmosis in seronegative pregnant women in this arctic region. PMID:1969458

McDonald, J C; Gyorkos, T W; Alberton, B; MacLean, J D; Richer, G; Juranek, D

1990-04-01

190

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a patient with undiagnosed AIDS  

PubMed Central

Approximately 60% of deaths in patients with AIDS are a direct result of infection other than HIV. The more severe and life-threatening complications of HIV infection occur in patients with a CD4+ T cell count <200 cells/?L. In the absence of effective retroviral therapy, these infections are associated with a high mortality. We describe a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis discovered at autopsy in a patient with undiagnosed AIDS. PMID:19169394

Burton, Elizabeth C.

2009-01-01

191

Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%), jaundice (13.8%), and microcephaly (6.9%). During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein?200mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p=0.0325). Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases), developmental delay (31.0%), motor deficit (13.8%), convulsion (27.5%), and attention deficit (10.3%). All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences. PMID:24662141

Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Breganó, Regina Mitsuka; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

2014-01-01

192

Profile of toxoplasmosis in two different localities in Dakahlia Governorate.  

PubMed

The profile of toxoplasmosis was studied among the inhabitants of two different localities in Dakahlia in relation to age, sex, occupation and contact with animals and/or birds. The total percentage of seropositive Toxoplasma antibodies using Dot-ELISA was 23.8%. The seropositivity rate was higher among the inhabitants of the village particularly in those in contact with farm animals. The results are discussed. PMID:8376859

Youssef, M E

1993-08-01

193

Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).  

PubMed

A juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) died with rapidly progressive pyrexia, tachypnea, abdominal effusion, and hepatomegaly. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with acute disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of this organism was confirmed in multiple organs by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, we propose this to be the first reported case of primary acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cheetah. PMID:17939359

Lloyd, Christopher; Stidworthy, Mark F

2007-09-01

194

[Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis: perspectives].  

PubMed

In France, screening for toxoplasmosis is mandatory during pregnancy, whereas it is not performed in most other countries. The rationale for prenatal screening is to allow for several levels of intervention: primary prevention by health education; in case of seroconversion, prophylactic therapy; prenatal diagnosis using amniocentesis; the possibility of termination of pregnancy (TOP) in case of severe cerebral lesions at ultrasound; in most cases of fetal infection, antiparasitic therapy prenatally as well as postnatally. The French Health Authority (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]) called into question the screening policy, but maintained it for 5 years pending randomized clinical trials. Recent data is available to answer some of the questions, but not the place of prenatal therapy. The sensitivity of prenatal diagnosis has progressed, while the place of TOP has decreased. The incidence of toxoplasmosis in the French population has fallen. Some studies have shown evidence in favor of prenatal therapy for infected fetuses. However, studies of prophylactic therapy are disappointing. These studies are purely observational and concern mostly spiramycine. For the first time, a multicenter randomized clinical trial of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of Toxoplasma gondii is underway (the TOXOGEST study). The HAS guidelines are that any suspected toxoplasmosis seroconversion should be confirmed in a reference laboratory, and that patients should be referred to expert centers without delay. It is not recommeded to start therapy before such expert consultation. The reference centers should provide counseling and access to prenatal diagnosis and therapy options. PMID:22981973

Mandelbrot, L

2012-10-01

195

The Distribution of Toxoplasma gondii Cysts in the Brain of a Mouse with Latent Toxoplasmosis: Implications for  

E-print Network

The Distribution of Toxoplasma gondii Cysts in the Brain of a Mouse with Latent Toxoplasmosis toxoplasmosis were analyzed using standard histological techniques. Mice were infected per orally with 10 tissue with Latent Toxoplasmosis: Implications for the Behavioral Manipulation Hypothesis. PLoS ONE 6(12): e28925

Flegr, Jaroslav

196

It is not only the cat that did it: how to prevent and treat congenital toxoplasmosis Florence Robert-Gangneux  

E-print Network

- 1 - It is not only the cat that did it: how to prevent and treat congenital toxoplasmosis Florence Robert-Gangneux Keywords : Congenital toxoplasmosis, pregnancy, treatment, prevention - options and therapies used to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis are dissected in the light of recent data

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

North-south gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.  

PubMed

Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10·4 nmol/l; women, 10·7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north-south gradient. Vitamin B? concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22·2 nmol/l; women, 26·0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (P trend< 0·001). Vitamin B(6) concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77·3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70·4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (P trend< 0·001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle. PMID:23228223

Eussen, Simone J P M; Nilsen, Roy M; Midttun, Řivind; Hustad, Steinar; IJssennagger, Noortje; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ĺse; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Dossus, Laure; Perquier, Florence; Overvad, Kim; Teucher, Birgit; Grote, Verena A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Plada, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ros, Martine M; Peeters, Petra H M; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Schneede, Jörn; van Guelpen, Bethany; Wark, Petra A; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Vollset, Stein Emil

2013-07-28

198

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: A multicenter evaluation of different diagnostic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate different methods of diagnosing congenital toxoplasmosis prenatally by amniocentesis and cordocentesis. Study Design: In a retrospective multicenter study, we investigated consecutive women who had seroconversion for Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy and who underwent either amniocentesis or cordocentesis or both to obtain a prenatal diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis. Data were obtained from 122 patients recruited

Walter Foulon; Jean-Michel Pinon; Babill Stray-Pedersen; Arnold Pollak; Maija Lappalainen; Anne Decoster; Isabelle Villena; Pĺl A. Jenum; Michael Hayde; Anne Naessens

1999-01-01

199

TOXOPLASMOSIS IN WALLABIES (MACROPUS RUFOGRISEUS, MACROPUS EUGENII ): BLINDNESS, TREATMENT WITH ATOVAQUONE, AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Australasian marsupials, especially wallabies are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Three wallabies (1Tammar, Macropus eugenii no.1, and 2 Bennett’s, Macropus rufogriseus, no.2 and 3) imported from New Zealand to Pennsylvania were diagnosed to have toxoplasmosis after arrival in the US. ...

200

Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clčres, France  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clčres (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

201

Disseminated toxoplasmosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a seronegative recipient.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is increasingly diagnosed after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. In the majority of cases, reactivation of latent disease secondary to impaired cellular and humoral immunity after HSCT is believed to be the main pathogenetic mechanism. Hence, primary toxoplasmosis is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of infections after HSCT in a recipient who is seronegative for Toxoplasma gondii pre-transplant. We herein report a seronegative patient with acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed primary disseminated toxoplasmosis 5 months after HSCT from a seronegative unrelated donor. A review of all reported cases of primary toxoplasmosis after HSCT revealed significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with negative pre-transplant Toxoplasma serology should therefore be considered at risk for toxoplasmosis after allogeneic HSCT. Possible prevention and monitoring strategies for seronegative recipients are reviewed and discussed in detail. PMID:23279790

Osthoff, M; Chew, E; Bajel, A; Kelsey, G; Panek-Hudson, Y; Mason, K; Szer, J; Ritchie, D; Slavin, M

2013-02-01

202

Acquired toxoplasmosis of the buccal area with extranodular involvement: report of an unusual case.  

PubMed

Acquired toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in humans. It can be caused by ingestion of infected meat or other food that has been contaminated by the feces of infected cats. Approximately 90% of immunocompetent patients with acquired toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic and undiagnosed; in the other 10%, toxoplasmosis manifests as a nonspecific, self-limited illness that usually does not require treatment. In symptomatic cases, cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the most common clinical findings. We report the case of a 33-year-old woman who experienced unilateral facial swelling secondary to toxoplasmosis. In addition to the atypical location of her disease (i.e., the buccal area), the atypical histopathologic findings in this case (e.g., extranodular involvement) constituted a very unusual presentation of toxoplasmosis. PMID:20013663

Köyba?i, Serap; Süslü, Ahmet Emre; Yigit, Beyhan; Boran, Cetin

2009-12-01

203

Toxoplasma gondii Recombinant Antigens as Tools for Serodiagnosis of Human Toxoplasmosis: Current Status of Studies  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan which is the cause of toxoplasmosis. Although human toxoplasmosis in healthy adults is usually asymptomatic, serious disease can occur in the case of congenital infections and immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, despite the exact recognition of its etiology, it still presents a diagnostic problem. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on the results of serological tests detecting anti-T. gondii-specific antibodies in the patient's serum sample. The specificities and sensitivities of serology tests depend mostly on the diagnostic antigen(s) used. Most of the commercial serological kits currently available are based on Toxoplasma lysate antigens (TLAs). In recent years, many studies showed that recombinant antigenic proteins of T. gondii may be an alternative source of antigens which are very useful for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. This article presents a review of current studies on the application and usefulness of different T. gondii recombinant antigens in serological tests for the diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis. PMID:23784855

2013-01-01

204

Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Phytoestrogens are a group of compounds found in plants that structurally resemble the hormone oestradiol, and thus have the potential to act as oestrogen agonists or antagonists. Their potential effects may alter the risk of breast cancer, but only a limited range of phytoestrogens has been examined in prospective cohort studies. METHODS: Serum and urine samples from 237 incident

Heather Ward; Gaelle Chapelais; Gunter GC Kuhnle; Robert Luben; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila Bingham

2008-01-01

205

Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public

Martin O’Connor; Sybille van den Hove

2001-01-01

206

Clinical Trials Update from the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Vienna, 2007: PROSPECT, EVEREST, ARISE, ALOFT, FINESSE, Prague8, CARESS in MI and ACUITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clinical Trials described in this article were presented at the Hotline and Clinical Trial Update Sessions of the European\\u000a Society of Cardiology Congress held in September 2007 in Vienna, Austria. The sessions chosen for this article represent the\\u000a scope of interest of Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. The presentations should be considered preliminary, as further analyses\\u000a could alter the final

A. Recio-Mayoral; J.-C. Kaski; J. J. V. McMurray; J. Horowitz; D. J. van Veldhuisen; W. J. Remme

2007-01-01

207

Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: individual-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The aim in this study was to assess the association between individual plasma carotenoid levels (?-carotene, ?-carotene, lycopene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin) and fruit and vegetable intakes recorded by a calibrated food questionnaire (FQ) and 24-h dietary recall records (24HDR) in nine different European countries with diverse populations and widely varying intakes of plant foods.Design:A stratified random subsample of 3089 men

W. K. Al-Delaimy; P. Ferrari; N. Slimani; V. Pala; I. Johansson; S. Nilsson; I. Mattisson; E. Wirfalt; R. Galasso; D. Palli; P. Vineis; R. Tumino; M. Dorronsoro; G. Pera; M. C. Ocke; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; K. Overvad; MaD Chirlaque; A. Trichopoulou; A. Naska; A. Tjřnneland; A. Olsen; E. Lund; E H R Alsaker; A. Barricarte; E. Kesse; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; F. Clavel-Chapelon; T. J. Key; E. Spencer; S. Bingham; A. A. Welch; M. J. Sanchez-Perez; G. Nagel; J. Linseisen; J. R. Quirós; P. H. M. Peeters; C. H. van Gils; H. H. Boeing; A L van Kappel; J. P. Steghens; E. Riboli

2005-01-01

208

Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: ecological-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) and food questionnaires (FQ) to predict plasma carotenoid levels at the ecological level by assessing the relationship between mean plasma carotenoid levels and mean intake of fruit and vegetables measured by 24HDR and FQ across 16 European regions.Design:A random subsample of 3089 subjects

W. K. Al-Delaimy; N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; T. J. Key; E. Spencer; I. Johansson; G. Johansson; I. Mattisson; E. Wirfalt; S. Sieri; A. Agudo; E. Celentano; D. Palli; C. Sacerdote; R. Tumino; M. Dorronsoro; M. C. Ocke; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; K. Overvad; Ma D Chirlaque; A. Trichopoulou; A. Naska; A. Tjřnneland; A. Olsen; E. Lund; G. Skeie; E. Ardanaz; E. Kesse; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; F. Clavel-Chapelon; S. Bingham; A. A. Welch; C. Martinez-Garcia; G. Nagel; J. Linseisen; J. R. Quirós; P. H. M. Peeters; C. H. van Gils; H. H. Boeing; A L van Kappel; J. P. Steghens; E. Riboli

2005-01-01

209

A dietary pattern protective against type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)—Potsdam Study cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of this study was to identify a dietary pattern associated with diabetes-related biomarkers and to investigate whether this pattern is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes.Methods  A nested case–control study of 192 cases of incident type 2 diabetes and 382 control subjects matched for sex and age was conducted. All subjects were participants in the population-based European

C. Heidemann; K. Hoffmann; J. Spranger; K. Klipstein-Grobusch; M. Möhlig; A. F. H. Pfeiffer; H. Boeing

2005-01-01

210

Relationship of alcohol intake and sex steroid concentrations in blood in pre- and post-menopausal women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Women with a moderate intake of alcohol have higher concentrations of sex steroids in serum, and higher risk of developing\\u000a breast cancer, compared to non-drinkers. In the present study, we investigate the relationships between alcohol consumption\\u000a and serum levels of sex steroids and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in 790 pre- and 1,291 post-menopausal women, who\\u000a were part of the European

S. Rinaldi; P. H. M. Peeters; I. D. Bezemer; L. Dossus; C. Biessy; C. Sacerdote; F. Berrino; S. Panico; D. Palli; R. Tumino; K. T. Khaw; S. Bingham; N. E. Allen; M. K. Jensen; K. Overvad; A. Olsen; A. Tjonneland; P. Amiano; E. Ardanaz; A. Agudo; C. Martinez-García; J. Ramón Quirós; M. J. Tormo; G. Nagel; J. Linseisen; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; M. Schulz; D. E. Grobbee; M. Koliva; G. Kyriazi; A. Thrichopoulou; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; F. Clavel-Chapelon; P. Ferrari; N. Slimani; R. Saracci; E. Riboli; R. Kaaks

2006-01-01

211

Atovaquone ameliorate gastrointestinal Toxoplasmosis complications in a pregnancy model  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Toxoplasma is an important source of foodborne hospitalization with no safe and effective therapy against chronic or congenital Toxopalsmosis. Atovaquone is a drug of choice but not approved for use in congenital Toxoplasmosis. We hypothesized atovaquone to be safe and effective against feto-maternal Toxoplasmosis. Material/Methods Programmed pregnant mice were i.p. infected with 50–2400 Tachyzoites from Type II strain (clone PTG). Dams were treated daily with atovaquone or sham and monitored for pain, and complications. Results Dams developed pain related abdominal hypersensitivity (allodynia) to mechanical stimuli in a Tachyzoites dose dependent manner. Infected dams were anemic and exhibited ascities and severe hepatitis (score 3.6±0.01 on scale 0 – normal to 4 – severe) with influx of inflammatory and plasma cells, multinucleated dysplastic hepatocytes and necrosis. In addition, dams expressed mild to severe pancreatitis with mononuclear cell invasion, loss of islets and necrosis. This was consistent with splenomegaly (X3 Fold), and massive infiltration of epithelioid cells and loss of germinal structure. Colon became significantly shortened in length (p<0.01) with semi-normal content. Pathological manifestation included, shortening of crypts with numerous microabscess formations, infiltration of lymphocytes, and macrophages. The severe clinical complications led to abortion (50%), early birth (25%) or still birth (25%) consistent with the high dose of Tachyzoites inoculation. Atovaquone treatment partially but significantly protected the dams from the severity of hepatitis, splenomegaly, colitis, myocarditis, and pain related responses as well as fetal demise. Conclusions This is a valuable model for therapeutic evaluation of feto-maternal Toxoplasmosis and gastrointestinal complications. Atovaquone protects dams and their fetuses against some infectious/inflammatory aspects of the disease. PMID:22936182

Oz, Helieh S.; Tobin, Thomas

2012-01-01

212

Systemic toxoplasmosis in a five-month-old beaver, (Castor canadensis).  

PubMed

A 5-mo-old orphan beaver, Castor canadensis, died of severe systemic toxoplasmosis during rehabilitation. Histologic lesions included lymphohistiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, and interstitial pneumonia with multinucleated cells. Intracytoplasmic cysts containing tachyzoites and bradyzoites identified as Toxoplasma gondii by immunohisto-chemistry were present in macrophages, type-II pneumocytes, and endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal morbillivirus antibody and transmission electron microscopy of lung revealed no evidence of concurrent paramyxoviral infection, as commonly found in carnivores with toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis may affect young beavers in rehabilitation and zoological settings. PMID:15193086

Forzán, María J; Frasca, Salvatore

2004-03-01

213

Varicella-Like Cutaneous Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with Aplastic Anemia  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old patient with aplastic anemia presented with vesicular varicella-like skin lesions on her face, arms, legs, back, and abdomen. However, diagnosis for herpetic infection was negative. Findings of a skin biopsy led to a tentative histologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare finding in immunocompromised patients and might mimic other infectious diseases, and vesicular lesions associated with toxoplasmosis have not been reported previously. PMID:23390283

Zimmermann, Stefan; Hadaschik, Eva; Dalpke, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C.; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Lehners, Nicola; Kapaun, Annette

2013-01-01

214

[Risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in central Italy].  

PubMed

Between 2005 and 2007 we examined 2356 pregnant women. We interviewed the patients concerning their dietary behaviour and lifestyles during pregnancy in correlation with the possibility of contracting toxoplasmosis. Our purpose was to ascertain the importance of different risk factors in a group of Italian patients and assess the level of knowledge on this matter. The survey questions were related to: 1) eating rare/raw meat; 2) eating commercial or homemade ham or other pork derivatives such as dry sausage and salami; 3) owning a garden or a plot for fruit and vegetables; 4) owning pets, especially cats; 5) living in town or in the country; 6) eating fresh uncooked vegetables. On the basis of serological tests (Toxo IgG, IgM, IgA, avidity test) we identified three groups of women: those with primary infection, seronegative women (control), and those with inactive infections. Comparison of the first two groups showed that each risk factor significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring toxoplasmosis. Higher odds ratios were observed for those living in the country and for those consuming homemade cured meat. PMID:22212163

Thaller, R; Tammaro, F; Pentimalli, H

2011-12-01

215

Pathology of toxoplasmosis in captive new world primates.  

PubMed

Clinical information was available for 32 of 33 New World primates with fatal toxoplasmosis, all of which were subjected to a variable number of pathological observations. Death without apparent clinical signs occurred in 43.7% of cases. The most common clinical findings were malaise (40.6%), dyspnoea (18.7%), hypothermia (15.6%) and a sero-sanguinous or foamy nasal discharge (12.5%). Nutritional status was good in 71.8%, average in 18.7% and poor in 9.4%. The most common post-mortem findings were pulmonary congestion (78.8%), pulmonary oedema (75.8%), splenomegaly (57.6%) and mesenteric lymphadenitis (54.6%). The most common histopathological findings were multifocal necrotic hepatitis (97%), lymphadenitis (95.4%), interstitial pneumonia (90.3%) and necrotic splenitis (71.4%). The gross post-mortem changes in cebids were more variable than those observed in callitrichids, a fact that may complicate the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in cebids. PMID:12921726

Epiphanio, S; Sinhorini, I L; Catăo-Dias, J L

2003-01-01

216

Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ‘Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is the most endangered corvid in the world, and intensive efforts are being made to reintroduce it to its former native range in Hawaii. We diagnosed Toxoplasma gondii infection in five free-ranging ‘Alala. One ‘Alala, recaptured from the wild because it was underweight and depressed, was treated with diclazuril (10 mg/kg) orally for 10 days. Antibodies were measured before and after treatment by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using whole T. gondii tachyzoites fixed in formalin and mercaptoethanol. The MAT titer decreased four-fold from an initial titer of 1:1,600 with remarkable improvement in physical condition. Lesions of toxoplasmosis also were seen in two partially scavenged carcasses and in a third fresh intact carcass. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed immunohistochemically by using anti-T. gondii specific serum. The organism was also cultured by bioassay in mice from tissues of one of these birds and the brain of a fifth ‘Alala that did not exhibit lesions. The life cycle of the parasite was experimentally completed in cats. This is the first record of toxoplasmosis in ‘Alala, and the parasite appears to pose a significant threat and management challenge to reintroduction programs for ‘Alala in Hawaii.

Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Rideout, Bruce A.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Ledig, David B.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Dubey, J.P.

2000-01-01

217

Great efficacy of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium against acute murine toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify more effective and less toxic drugs to treat animal toxoplasmosis. Methods Efficacy of seven kinds of sulfonamides against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in an acute murine model was evaluated. The mice used throughout the study were randomly assigned to many groups (10 mice each), which either remained uninfected or were infected intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii (strains RH and CN). All groups were then treated with different sulfonamides and the optimal treatment protocol was determined candidates. Sulfadiazine-sodium (SD) was used for comparison. Results The optimal therapy involved gavaging mice twice per day with 250 mg/kg bw of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium (SPZ) for five days. Using this protocol, the average survival time and the time-point of 50% fatalities were prolonged significantly compared with SD treatment. Treatment with SPZ protected 40% of mice from death, and the heart and kidney tissue of these animals was parasite-free, as determined by nested-PCR. SPZ showed excellent therapeutic effects in the treatment of T. gondii in an acute murine model and is therefore a promising drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of T. gondii in animals. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effective drug sulfachloropyrazine may be the new therapeutic options against animal toxoplasmosis. PMID:23569838

Zeng, Yan-Bo; Zhu, Shun-Hai; Dong, Hui; Han, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Lian-Lian; Wang, Quan; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Qi-Ping; Ma, Wei-Jiao; Huang, Bing

2012-01-01

218

Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union.  

PubMed

We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone. PMID:11532360

O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S

2001-09-14

219

IMRT credentialing for prospective trials using institutional virtual phantoms: results of a joint European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer and Radiological Physics Center project  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) credentialing for a EORTC study was performed using an anthropomorphic head phantom from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC; RPCPH). Institutions were retrospectively requested to irradiate their institutional phantom (INSTPH) using the same treatment plan in the framework of a Virtual Phantom Project (VPP) for IMRT credentialing. Materials and methods CT data set of the institutional phantom and measured 2D dose matrices were requested from centers and sent to a dedicated secure EORTC uploader. Data from the RPCPH and INSTPH were thereafter centrally analyzed and inter-compared by the QA team using commercially available software (RIT; ver.5.2; Colorado Springs, USA). Results Eighteen institutions participated to the VPP. The measurements of 6 (33%) institutions could not be analyzed centrally. All other centers passed both the VPP and the RPC ±7%/4 mm credentialing criteria. At the 5%/5 mm gamma criteria (90% of pixels passing), 11(92%) as compared to 12 (100%) centers pass the credentialing process with RPCPH and INSTPH (p?=?0.29), respectively. The corresponding pass rate for the 3%/3 mm gamma criteria (90% of pixels passing) was 2 (17%) and 9 (75%; p?=?0.01), respectively. Conclusions IMRT dosimetry gamma evaluations in a single plane for a H&N prospective trial using the INSTPH measurements showed agreement at the gamma index criteria of ±5%/5 mm (90% of pixels passing) for a small number of VPP measurements. Using more stringent, criteria, the RPCPH and INSTPH comparison showed disagreement. More data is warranted and urgently required within the framework of prospective studies. PMID:24885438

2014-01-01

220

Use of the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo report a cohort of patients in whom polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on vitreous samples and to place in perspective the current role of PCR in the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis.

Jose G Montoya; Steve Parmley; Oliver Liesenfeld; Glenn J Jaffe; Jack S Remington

1999-01-01

221

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of subcutaneous toxoplasmosis: A case report.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a common opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS in whom it typically presents as encephalitis, pneumonia, lymphadenitis, and myocarditis. Skin involvement is very rare and, to our best knowledge, Toxoplasma gondii forming a subcutaneous mass has not been reported. Here, we report the findings of an interesting case of subcutaneous toxoplasmosis with the cytological appearance of an inflammatory fibrovascular lesion in a HIV-positive patient and discuss the differential diagnosis. PMID:20014129

Chen, Xiaowei; Remotti, Fabrizio; Tong, Guo-Xia; Gorczyca, Elzbieta; Hamele-Bena, Diane

2010-10-01

222

A probable case of acquired toxoplasmosis presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin in an immunocompetent individual.  

PubMed

Disseminated toxoplasmosis presenting as a prolonged febrile illness is rare in immunocompetent individuals. We report a probable case of acquired toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent woman who presented with fever of 6 months duration with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology and the presence of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites on bone marrow aspirate. The patient was successfully treated with pyrimethamine plus clindamycin. PMID:23726282

Abhilash, K P P; Roshine, M K; Vandana, K; Varghese, G M

2013-11-01

223

Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma: a reanalysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study after a longer follow-up.  

PubMed

In a previous European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) analysis, we found an inverse association between total intake of vegetables, onion and garlic, and risk of intestinal gastric cancer (GC) and between citrus fruit and risk of cardia GC. The aim of this study is to reanalyze the effect of fruit and vegetables (F&V), based on a longer follow-up and twice the number of GC cases. Subjects are 477,312 men and women mostly aged 35 to 70 years participating in the EPIC cohort, including 683 gastric adenocarcinomas with 11 years of follow-up. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. A calibration study in a subsample was used to correct for dietary measurement errors. When comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake, we found an inverse association between total intake of V&F and GC risk [hazard ratio (HR) 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.04; p for trend 0.02], between fresh fruit and risk of the diffuse type (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.36-0.97; p for trend 0.03) and an inverse association between citrus fruit and risk of cardia cancer (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38-1.00, p for trend 0.01). Although calibration revealed somewhat stronger inverse associations, none of the risks reached statistical significance. There was no association between total or specific vegetables intake and GC risk. The inverse association between fresh fruit and citrus fruits and risk of GC seems to be restricted to smokers and the Northern European countries. Fresh fruit and citrus fruit consumption may protect against diffuse and cardia GC, respectively. PMID:22473701

Gonzalez, Carlos A; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Jenab, Mazda; Duell, Eric J; Agudo, Antonio; Tjřnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Touillaud, Marina; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Roukos, Dimitrios; Karapetyan, Tina; Palli, Domenico; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Siersema, Peter D; Numans, Mattijs E; Peeters, Petra P H; Parr, Christine L; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ehrnström, Roy; Regner, Sara; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Crowe, Francesca L; Blaker, Hendrik; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio

2012-12-15

224

Case report of a neonate with ocular toxoplasmosis due to congenital infection: estimation of the percentage of ocular toxoplasmosis in Greece caused by congenital or acquired infection  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a newborn male child with congenital toxoplasmosis. During pregnancy seroconversion occurred and positive titers of antitoxoplasmic antibodies (immunoglobulin M and G) were found in the mother, in the third trimester. She received treatment with spiramycin. After birth, the neonate presented with chorioretinitis and intracranial calcifications. The neonate received treatment with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin for 1 year. In addition to using a previously described method, we report for the first time in Greece an estimation regarding the percentage of ocular toxoplasmosis caused by congenital or acquired infection. We estimate that ocular toxoplasmosis in Greece is caused in 7% of the cases by congenital infection, and in 93% of the cases by acquired infection. PMID:24293989

Asproudis, Ioannis; Koumpoulis, Ioannis; Kalogeropoulos, Chris; Sotiropoulos, Georgios; Papassava, Margarita; Aspiotis, Miltiadis

2013-01-01

225

Case report of a neonate with ocular toxoplasmosis due to congenital infection: estimation of the percentage of ocular toxoplasmosis in Greece caused by congenital or acquired infection.  

PubMed

We report a case of a newborn male child with congenital toxoplasmosis. During pregnancy seroconversion occurred and positive titers of antitoxoplasmic antibodies (immunoglobulin M and G) were found in the mother, in the third trimester. She received treatment with spiramycin. After birth, the neonate presented with chorioretinitis and intracranial calcifications. The neonate received treatment with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin for 1 year. In addition to using a previously described method, we report for the first time in Greece an estimation regarding the percentage of ocular toxoplasmosis caused by congenital or acquired infection. We estimate that ocular toxoplasmosis in Greece is caused in 7% of the cases by congenital infection, and in 93% of the cases by acquired infection. PMID:24293989

Asproudis, Ioannis; Koumpoulis, Ioannis; Kalogeropoulos, Chris; Sotiropoulos, Georgios; Papassava, Margarita; Aspiotis, Miltiadis

2013-01-01

226

Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin—an adipose tissue-derived protein—may provide?a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested case–control study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.95, P trend = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34–0.61, P trend < 0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.68–1.22, P trend = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.26–0.60, P trend < 0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.60–1.09, P trend = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22431719

Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B.; Fedirko, Veronika; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Westphal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Argüelles, Marcial; Bonet, Catalina; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, Jose-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Göran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Pischon, Tobias

2012-01-01

227

Impact of Age and Gender on the Prevalence and Prognostic Importance of the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Europeans. The MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Methods Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982–1997, 69094 men and women aged 19–78 years, without known CVD, were included. During 12.2 years of follow-up, 3.7%/2.1% of men/women died due to CVD. The corresponding percentages for fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were 8.3/3.8 and 3.1/2.5. Results The prevalence of MetS, according to modified definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P<0.0001); with a 5-fold increase in women from ages 19–39 years to 60–78 years (7.4%/7.6% to 35.4%/37.6% for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) and a 2-fold increase in men (5.3%/10.5% to 11.5%/21.8%). Using multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, the associations between MetS and all three CVD events were significant (P<0.0001). For IDF/NCEP-ATPIII in men and women, hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.60/1.62 and 1.93/2.03, for CVD mortality 1.73/1.65 and 1.77/2.06, and for stroke 1.51/1.53 and 1.58/1.77. Whereas in men the HRs for CVD events were independent of age (MetS*age, P>0.05), in women the HRs for CHD declined with age (HRs 3.23/3.98 to 1.55/1.56; MetS*age, P?=?0.01/P?=?0.001 for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) while the HRs for stroke tended to increase (HRs 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05). Conclusion In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate for a redefinition of MetS taking into account age especially in women. PMID:25244618

Vishram, Julie K. K.; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H.; Jeppesen, Jřrgen; Ibsen, Hans; Jřrgensen, Torben; Palmieri, Luigi; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kee, Frank; Mancia, Giuseppe; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Salomaa, Veikko; Sans, Susana; Ferrieres, Jean; Dallongeville, Jean; Söderberg, Stefan; Arveiler, Dominique; Wagner, Aline; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Drygas, Wojciech; Olsen, Michael H.

2014-01-01

228

Development and validation of a paediatric long-bone fracture classification. A prospective multicentre study in 13 European paediatric trauma centres  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to develop a child-specific classification system for long bone fractures and to examine its reliability and validity on the basis of a prospective multicentre study. Methods Using the sequentially developed classification system, three samples of between 30 and 185 paediatric limb fractures from a pool of 2308 fractures documented in two multicenter studies were analysed in a blinded fashion by eight orthopaedic surgeons, on a total of 5 occasions. Intra- and interobserver reliability and accuracy were calculated. Results The reliability improved with successive simplification of the classification. The final version resulted in an overall interobserver agreement of ? = 0.71 with no significant difference between experienced and less experienced raters. Conclusions In conclusion, the evaluation of the newly proposed classification system resulted in a reliable and routinely applicable system, for which training in its proper use may further improve the reliability. It can be recommended as a useful tool for clinical practice and offers the option for developing treatment recommendations and outcome predictions in the future. PMID:21548939

2011-01-01

229

Severe Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report and Strain Characterization  

PubMed Central

We report a fatal congenital toxoplasmosis case in an Iranian woman in the south of Iran. A pregnant mother had been admitted at the 15th week of her pregnancy on account of a febrile illness, symptoms of common cold, and enlargement of submandibular lymph nodes. Serological testing of the mother's serum revealed positive IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Amniotic fluid was taken and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with a direct amplification of the Toxoplasma URPT gene which was found to be positive. Sequencing and analysis of PCR product revealed that the isolate has the most similarity with type I of Toxoplasma gondii. Fetal scan showed anomaly in fetus including mild hydrocephaly. Termination of the pregnancy was suggested by the physician and pregnancy was terminated 178 days after conception.

Sarkari, Bahador; Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh

2015-01-01

230

Utility of immunoblotting for early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis seroconversion in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii occurs mainly when a mother acquires the infection for the first time during pregnancy. It was recently shown that although early treatment of the primary infection during pregnancy has little or no impact on the fetomaternal transmission rate, it does reduce the incidence of sequelae in infected infants. Seroconversion is defined by the appearance of IgG. Commercial reagents continue to vary considerably in detecting low concentrations of antibodies, as during early seroconversion. We compared two routinely used immunoassays (IA) (Platelia and Elecsys Toxo IgG) and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) with a qualitative test based on immunoblot analysis (Toxo II IgG) (IB) to assess their abilities to diagnose seroconversion at its earliest stages. This prospective study was carried out between January and November 2010. It included 39 pregnant women with monthly follow-up who seroconverted during pregnancy. On first sera that were IgM positive but IgG negative (or equivocal) as detected by IA, IB diagnosed seroconversion twice as often as IIF (26/39 [66.7%] versus 13/39 [33.3%]; P < 0.001; ?(2) test). Serum samples were retaken 2 to 5 weeks later for the other 13 cases (IgG negative by IB on first serum). Seroconversion was demonstrated as follows: IB for 5 cases where IA remained negative or equivocal, IB and IIF for 5 cases where IA remained negative or equivocal, IA for 2 cases, and no method for 1 case (a third sample was necessary). In summary, IB permitted toxoplasmosis seroconversion diagnosis before other means in 92.3% of cases (36/39) and thus earlier therapeutic intervention. PMID:21880851

Jost, C; Touafek, F; Fekkar, A; Courtin, R; Ribeiro, M; Mazier, D; Paris, L

2011-11-01

231

The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To study the spectrum of adverse ocular effects which result from maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasma infection; further, to record the long-term visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these 2 major causes of fetal infection. STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A series of 55 patients with congenital infection have been studied prospectively on a long-term basis. The study group included a cohort of 34 cases with congenital rubella syndrome demonstrated by virus isolation, and 21 cases with a clinical diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and serologic confirmation. All patients had specific disease-related ocular defects. Rubella patients were first identified during or following the last major rubella epidemic in 1963-1964, and some have been followed serially since that time. A separate study group of representative toxoplasmosis patients presented for examination and diagnosis at varying time periods between 1967 and 1991. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: This study confirms that a broad spectrum of fetal injury may result from intrauterine infection and that both persistent and delayed-onset effects may continue or occur as late as 30 years after original infection. Many factors contribute to the varied outcome of prenatal infection, the 2 most important being the presence of maternal immunity during early gestation and the stage of gestation during which fetal exposure occurs in a nonimmune mother. RUBELLA: As a criteria of inclusion, all 34 rubella patients in this study exhibited one or more ocular defects at the time of birth or in the immediate neonatal period. Cataracts were present in 29 (85%) of the 34, of which 21 (63%) were bilateral. Microphthalmia, the next most frequent defect, was present in 28 (82%) of the 34 infants and was bilateral in 22 (65%). Glaucoma was recorded in 11 cases (29%) and presented either as a transient occurrence with early cloudy cornea in microphthalmic eyes (4 patients), as the infantile type with progressive buphthalmos (1 patient), or as a later-onset, aphakic glaucoma many months or years following cataract aspiration in 11 eyes of 6 patients. Rubella retinopathy was present in the majority of patients, although an accurate estimate of its incidence or laterality was not possible because of the frequency of cataracts and nystagmus and the difficulty in obtaining adequate fundus examination. TOXOPLASMOSIS: Twenty-one patients with congenital toxoplasmosis have been examined and followed for varying time periods, 7 for 20 years or more. The major reason for initial examination was parental awareness of an ocular deviation. Twelve children (57%) presented between the ages of 3 months and 4 years with an initial diagnosis of strabismus, 9 of whom had minor complaints or were diagnosed as part of routine examinations. All cases in this study have had evidence of retinochoroiditis, the primary ocular pathology of congenital toxoplasmosis. Two patients had chronic and recurrent inflammation with progressive vitreal traction bands, retinal detachments, and bilateral blindness. Macular lesions were always associated with central vision loss; however, over a period of years visual acuity gradually improved in several patients. Individuals with more severe ocular involvement were also afflicted with the most extensive central nervous system deficits, which occurred following exposure during the earliest weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital infection due to rubella virus has been almost completely eradicated in the United States, the long-term survivors from the prevaccination period continue to experience major complications from their early ocular and cerebral defects. They may be afflicted by the persistence of virus in their affected organs and the development of late manifestations of their congenital infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be the source of major defects for 3,000 to 4,100 infants in the United States each year; the spectrum of defects is wide and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of

O'Neill, J F

1998-01-01

232

Epigenome-wide association study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Turin) identifies novel genetic loci associated with smoking.  

PubMed

A single cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) site within coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3 (F2RL3) was recently found to be hypomethylated in peripheral blood genomic DNA from smokers compared with former and non-smokers. We performed two epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) nested in a prospective healthy cohort using the Illumina 450K Methylation Beadchip. The two populations consisted of matched pairs of healthy individuals (n = 374), of which half went on to develop breast or colon cancer. The association was analysed between methylation and smoking status, as well as cancer risk. In addition to the same locus in F2RL3, we report several loci that are hypomethylated in smokers compared with former and non-smokers, including an intragenic region of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene (AHRR; cg05575921, P = 2.31 × 10(-15); effect size = 14-17%), an intergenic CpG island on 2q37.1 (cg21566642, P = 3.73 × 10(-13); effect size = 12%) and a further intergenic region at 6p21.33 (cg06126421, P = 4.96 × 10(-11), effect size = 7-8%). Bisulphite pyrosequencing validated six loci in a further independent population of healthy individuals (n = 180). Methylation levels in AHRR were also significantly decreased (P < 0.001) and expression increased (P = 0.0047) in the lung tissue of current smokers compared with non-smokers. This was further validated in a mouse model of smoke exposure. We observed an association with breast cancer risk for the 2q37.1 locus (P = 0.003, adjusted for the smoking status), but not for the other loci associated with smoking. These data show that smoking has a direct effect on the epigenome in lung tissue, which is also detectable in peripheral blood DNA and may contribute to cancer risk. PMID:23175441

Shenker, Natalie S; Polidoro, Silvia; van Veldhoven, Karin; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Birrell, Mark A; Belvisi, Maria G; Brown, Robert; Vineis, Paolo; Flanagan, James M

2013-03-01

233

Clinical Effectiveness of Hymenoptera Venom Immunotherapy: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Interest Group on Insect Venom Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment failure during venom immunotherapy (VIT) may be associated with a variety of risk factors. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentration (BTC) and of other parameters with the frequency of VIT failure during the maintenance phase. Methods In this observational prospective multicenter study, we followed 357 patients with established honey bee or vespid venom allergy after the maintenance dose of VIT had been reached. In all patients, VIT effectiveness was either verified by sting challenge (n?=?154) or patient self-reporting of the outcome of a field sting (n?=?203). Data were collected on BTC, age, gender, preventive use of anti-allergic drugs (oral antihistamines and/or corticosteroids) right after a field sting, venom dose, antihypertensive medication, type of venom, side effects during VIT, severity of index sting reaction preceding VIT, and duration of VIT. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. Results 22 patients (6.2%) developed generalized symptoms during sting challenge or after a field sting. A strong association between the frequency of VIT failure and BTC could be excluded. Due to wide confidence bands, however, weaker effects (odds ratios <3) of BTC were still possible, and were also suggested by a selective analysis of patients who had a sting challenge. The most important factor associated with VIT failure was a honey bee venom allergy. Preventive use of anti-allergic drugs may be associated with a higher protection rate. Interpretation It is unlikely that an elevated BTC has a strong negative effect on the rate of treatment failures. The magnitude of the latter, however, may depend on the method of effectiveness assessment. Failure rate is higher in patients suffering from bee venom allergy. PMID:23700415

Ruëff, Franziska; Przybilla, Bernhard; Biló, Maria Beatrice; Müller, Ulrich; Scheipl, Fabian; Seitz, Michael J.; Aberer, Werner; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Bonifazi, Floriano; Campi, Paolo; Darsow, Ulf; Haeberli, Gabrielle; Hawranek, Thomas; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Lang, Roland; Quercia, Oliviero; Reider, Norbert; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Severino, Maurizio; Sturm, Gunter Johannes; Treudler, Regina; Wüthrich, Brunello

2013-01-01

234

Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet´s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical T. gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was one of a colony of...

235

Knowledge of Toxoplasmosis among Doctors and Nurses Who Provide Prenatal Care in an Endemic Region  

PubMed Central

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a potentially severe infection and its prevention is most often based on serological screening in pregnant women. Many cases could be prevented by simple precautions during pregnancy. Aiming to assess the knowledge about toxoplasmosis among professionals working in antenatal care in a high prevalent region, a questionnaire was administered to 118 obstetric nurses and physicians attending at primary care units and hospitals. The questionnaire was self-completed and included questions on diagnosis, clinical issues, and prevention. Only 44% of total answers were corrected. Lower scores were observed among those with over 10 years of graduation, working in primary care units, and nurses. Errors were mainly observed in questions of prevention and diagnosis. As congenital toxoplasmosis is a mother-to-child (MTC) transmitted disease, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious and irreversible fetal damage. Thus, doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care must be appropriately trained on prophylactic, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis. The authors suggest that measures should be taken for continuing education regarding toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. PMID:21747644

da Silva, Laura Berriel; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes; da Silva, Marizete Pereira; Bueno, Wendy Fernandes; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; de Souza Neves, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

236

Application of assays for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in a colony of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in New World primate species. Clinical abnormalities associated with toxoplasmosis can be nonspecific, making it difficult to make a definitive antemortem diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Toxoplasmosis in New World primates can have a rapid clinical course, which may lessen the diagnostic utility of antemortem tests. However, while there are a variety of T. gondii serum antibody tests and T. gondii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays available that are not species specific, these assays have not been comparatively applied to New World primate cases. Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), a species of New World primate, are highly susceptible to fatal toxoplasmosis. Archived serum samples from 15 living and deceased woolly monkeys housed at the Louisville Zoological Garden (Louisville, Kentucky) were tested for T. gondii antibodies by a commercially available latex agglutination kit, a commercially available indirect hemagglutination kit, and the modified agglutination test. In addition, aliquots of the sera were assayed for T. gondii DNA using a PCR assay. Both woolly monkeys that died of disseminated toxoplasmosis were positive in all four assays, indicating that each could be used to aid in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in this species. We suspect that these assays have applications to other species of New World primates. PMID:17319125

Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Lappin, Michael R; Dubey, J P

2006-09-01

237

Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: A nested case-control study: Plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.  

PubMed

Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (?- and ?-carotene, lycopene, ?-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), ?- and ?-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma ?-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend?=?0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend?=?0.06) and ?-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend?=?0.08. For ?- and ?-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and ?-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of ?-carotene, zeaxanthin and ?-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted. PMID:25175624

Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjřnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castańo, José María Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As

2015-03-15

238

Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility testing according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and new vs. old Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute clinical breakpoints: a 6-year prospective candidaemia survey from the fungal infection network of Switzerland.  

PubMed

We analyzed the species distribution of Candida blood isolates (CBIs), prospectively collected between 2004 and 2009 within FUNGINOS, and compared their antifungal susceptibility according to clinical breakpoints defined by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) in 2013, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2008 (old CLSI breakpoints) and 2012 (new CLSI breakpoints). CBIs were tested for susceptiblity to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin by microtitre broth dilution (Sensititre® YeastOne™ test panel). Of 1090 CBIs, 675 (61.9%) were C. albicans, 191 (17.5%) C. glabrata, 64 (5.9%) C. tropicalis, 59 (5.4%) C. parapsilosis, 33 (3%) C. dubliniensis, 22 (2%) C. krusei and 46 (4.2%) rare Candida species. Independently of the breakpoints applied, C. albicans was almost uniformly (>98%) susceptible to all three antifungal agents. In contrast, the proportions of fluconazole- and voriconazole-susceptible C. tropicalis and F-susceptible C. parapsilosis were lower according to EUCAST/new CLSI breakpoints than to the old CLSI breakpoints. For caspofungin, non-susceptibility occurred mainly in C. krusei (63.3%) and C. glabrata (9.4%). Nine isolates (five C. tropicalis, three C. albicans and one C. parapsilosis) were cross-resistant to azoles according to EUCAST breakpoints, compared with three isolates (two C. albicans and one C. tropicalis) according to new and two (2 C. albicans) according to old CLSI breakpoints. Four species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) represented >90% of all CBIs. In vitro resistance to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin was rare among C. albicans, but an increase of non-susceptibile isolates was observed among C. tropicalis/C. parapsilosis for the azoles and C. glabrata/C. krusei for caspofungin according to EUCAST and new CLSI breakpoints compared with old CLSI breakpoints. PMID:24188136

Orasch, C; Marchetti, O; Garbino, J; Schrenzel, J; Zimmerli, S; Mühlethaler, K; Pfyffer, G; Ruef, C; Fehr, J; Zbinden, R; Calandra, T; Bille, J

2014-07-01

239

Acquired toxoplasmosis accompanied by facial nerve palsy in an immunocompetent 5-year-old child.  

PubMed

Acquired toxoplasmosis, although relatively common in children, is usually asymptomatic but can also be clinically manifested by a benign and self-limited infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome. Neurological complications are very rare in immunocompetent children. The authors report a 5-year-old boy who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy because of acquired toxoplasmosis accompanied with unilateral facial nerve paralysis. Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in blood by polymerase chain reaction, as well as elevated specific immunoglobulin M antibodies against it, established the diagnosis. Characteristic brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were absent and ophthalmologic examination revealed no inflammatory lesions in the retina and choroid. Treatment with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and folic acid resulted in a complete recovery after 2 months of therapy. Although rare, acute facial nerve paralysis of unknown origin can be caused by acquired toxoplasmosis even in the immunocompetent pediatric population. Elevated titers of specific antibodies and the presence of parasite's DNA are key findings for the correct diagnosis. PMID:21148450

Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Kyrgios, Ioannis; Giannopoulou, Eleni Z; Gourgoulia, Styliani; Maggana, Ioanna; Katechaki, Elina; Chatzidimitriou, Dimitrios; Evangeliou, Athanasios E

2010-12-01

240

Review for disease of the year: differential diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis is mainly clinical, based in the presence of focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis often associated with a preexistent chorioretinal scar, and variable involvement of the vitreous, retinal blood vessels, optic nerve, and anterior segment of the eye. Recognition of this clinical spectrum of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is crucial, but other infectious, noninfectious, and neoplastic entities should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Investigations such as serological tests, polymerase chain reaction of ocular fluids, and assessment of intraocular antibody synthesis are helpful in uncertain cases. This article provides an overview of the differential diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis, focusing on the most important entities to be considered and emphasizing distinctive features of each one of them in the clinical setting. Ocular toxoplasmosis has multiple clinical manifestations, which partially overlap with those of other entities and these should be carefully considered when making the differential diagnosis, particularly in less typical cases. PMID:21595533

Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Dodds, Emilio M; Oréfice, Fernando

2011-06-01

241

Diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis by bronchoalveolar lavage in cardiac transplant recipients.  

PubMed

We report two cases of fatal, clinically unsuspected disseminated toxoplasmosis that developed following orthotopic cardiac transplantation. Toxoplasma gondii trophozoites, pseudocysts, and cysts were best visualized on hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa-stained cytospin preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Post-mortem examination in both cases revealed disseminated toxoplasmosis with extensive involvement of the lungs and heart. The patients, who were seronegative for antibody to T. gondii prior to transplantation, received organs from donors whose serology status was unknown. Demonstration of anti-toxoplasma antibodies post-transplantation occurred in both cases. Bronchoalveolar lavage may be useful in diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis. Clinicians, pathologists, and cytopathologists must consider T. gondii in the differential diagnosis of pneumonia in the immunocompromised patient, especially cardiac transplant patients. PMID:8143538

Gordon, S M; Gal, A A; Hertzler, G L; Bryan, J A; Perlino, C; Kanter, K R

1993-12-01

242

Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon  

PubMed Central

Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials. PMID:25104952

Oz, Helieh S.

2014-01-01

243

[Toxoplasmosis--morphologic diagnosis options for the ever topical disease].  

PubMed

It has been estimated that 60 percent of people in Croatia will be infected with Toxoplasma gondii until the age of 40. The infection is most frequently asymptomatic, or presented with an lymphadenitis, acute infection during pregnancy that can cause serious damage to the fetus in 10-30 percent, depending on the gestation phase. After acute infection Toxoplasma gondii resides in the body for life, being controlled by cellular immunity. In case of the immune system compromise, reactivation of the infection and serious inflammatory changes, mostly in the central nervous system, occur. Prenatal infection and serious clinical picture in immunocompromised patients classify toxoplasmosis among ever topical infections, thus all research toward better understanding of its pathogenesis in immunocompetent patients is of utmost importance. The aim of the study was to systematically analyze the morphology and changes in cytologic smears of lymph nodes from patients acutely infected with Toxoplasma gondii, and to morphologically visualize Toxoplasma gondii in the lymph nodes by use of specific monoclonal antibodies. For this purpose, 30 aspirates of lymph nodes of patients who had definite serologic evidence for and clinical picture of acute toxoplasma infection were analyzed by use of classic cytology and immunocytochemistry methods. Results confirmed a recognizable cytologic picture of reactive hyperplasia of follicular center cells and granulomatous inflammation, with a unique finding of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite in lymphatic cells. PMID:15909891

Malovi?, Darija

2005-01-01

244

Toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus.  

PubMed

A near-full-term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. Within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. Both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex and medulla associated with protozoal tissue cysts. Protozoa in brain and kidneys were identified as Toxoplasma gondii based on immunoreactivity to T. gondii polyclonal antibodies that stain both tachyzoites and tissue cysts and BAG1 T. gondii antibodies that are bradyzoite specific. The tissue cysts exhibited intense positivity to T. gondii and mild immunoreactivity to Neospora caninum antibodies. The dam had a high antibody titer (1 : 12,800) to T. gondii and low titer (1 : 100) to N. caninum using their respective agglutination tests. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in alpaca. PMID:25000722

Dubey, Jitender P; Johnson, James E; Hanson, Margaret A; Pierce, Virginia

2014-06-01

245

[Congenital toxoplasmosis with ocular involvment--case report].  

PubMed

Two thirds of the congenital toxoplasmosis cases describe minimal or inapparent symptoms present at birth, being diagnosed from a psychomotor retard. The forms of chorioretinitis may be described by repeated outbursts in the first years of life. Chorioretinitis or focal necrotizing retinitis usually develops in a bilateral way, being progressive and leading to blindness. Usually there is only one focal inflammatory beginning at the edge of a pigmented scar and the local inflammatory process may extend through successive spikes in other regions of the retina. Active chorioretinitis is expressed clinically by a blurred misty eyesight, with the advent of scotomas, photophobia, and if the macula is involved, the loss of the central eyesight may occur. In this paper I present the patient R.A., 6 years old from Constanta who is hospitalized in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases for investigations and treatment continuity because positive IgG Toxoplasma was previously found. The child has spastic quadriplegia and profound mental retardation. PMID:25145122

Constantin, Farah; Denislam, Dogan

2014-01-01

246

Value of PCR for evaluating occurrence of parasitemia in immunocompromised patients with cerebral and extracerebral toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

PCR was used to evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii parasitemia by detection of the B1 gene in blood samples in two groups of immunosuppressed patients (148 subjects) suspected of having cerebral or extracerebral infection, respectively. Group I consisted of 52 patients with AIDS with suspected cerebral toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis was clinically proven in 15 cases. Parasitemia was detected by PCR in only two of these patients (13.3%), both showing evidence of disseminated infection. Group II consisted of 96 immunocompromised patients, either with AIDS or receiving iatrogenic immunosuppressive therapy. Of these patients, 65 (34 with AIDS and 31 others) showed abnormalities only in chest radiography and were first screened for the presence of Toxoplasma DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Blood was then analyzed when the parasite was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The remaining 31 subjects (22 with AIDS and 9 others) were suspected of having extracerebral, pulmonary, or disseminated toxoplasmosis, and blood was studied directly in these cases. Among the nine patients with clinically diagnosed extracerebral infection in group II, the parasite was detected by PCR in the blood of five patients (55.5%), all having pulmonary toxoplasmosis. If all patients with clinical manifestations of extracerebral toxoplasmosis (from both groups) who had not received antitoxoplasma therapy when the samples were collected are considered, PCR detected parasitemia in seven of the nine cases (77.8%). The present study indicates that examination of blood by PCR may be valuable in cases of extracerebral toxoplasmosis because of the disseminated nature of the disease. Since most cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis result from the local reactivation of latent brain cysts, detection of parasitemia by PCR is useful only in cases associated with severe cerebral infection or dissemination of this disease. Images PMID:7852576

Khalifa K el-S; Roth, A; Roth, B; Arasteh, K N; Janitschke, K

1994-01-01

247

Toxoplasmosis lymphadenitis presenting as a parotid mass: a report of 2 cases.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis manifesting as a parotid mass is rare; our review of the literature found only 6 previously reported cases. We report 2 new cases. Both patients presented with a small, mobile left parotid mass, and both were successfully treated with a diagnostic superficial parotidectomy. In both cases, the patient had been regularly exposed to cats and had recently eaten undercooked meat. When evaluating a parotid mass, otolaryngologists should be aware of the infectious causes of parotid swelling and lymphadenopathy and consider the possibility of toxoplasmosis when the history and pathologic findings are not suggestive of more common diseases. PMID:17124940

Shashy, Ron G; Pinheiro, Daniel; Olsen, Kerry D

2006-10-01

248

Toxoplasmosis in dogs: first report of toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a v...

249

Tc-99m colloid lung uptake in a rare case of toxoplasmosis with liver involvement  

SciTech Connect

Intensive lung accumulation of colloid (Tc-99m phytate) was demonstrated in a child suffering from acquired toxoplasmosis with a rare manifestation of severe liver damage. The possible mechanism and clinical importance of colloid lung concentration in this case is briefly discussed, including a review of the literature on this subject.

Garty, I.; Tal, I.; Kaynan, A.

1984-06-01

250

Determination of Genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Isolated from Patients with Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with human toxoplasmosis, we developed a sensitive approach for typing parasites grown from clinical samples by short-term in vitro culture. A newly described nested PCR assay was capable of amplifying genomic DNA from as few as five parasites in the presence of host tissues. Typing was based on DNA polymorphisms at

DANIEL K. HOWE; STEPHANIE HONORE; FRANCIS DEROUIN; L. DAVID SIBLEY

1997-01-01

251

Highly Endemic, Waterborne Toxoplasmosis in North Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, reports of uveitis consistent with toxoplasmosis led to a survey of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1997-1999. The survey population was selected randomly from schools, randomly chosen communities, and an army battalion. Serum samples from 1,436 persons were tested. With results adjusted for age, 84%

Lílian Maria Garcia Bahia-Oliveira; Jeffrey L. Jones; Juliana Azevedo-Silva; Cristiane C. F. Alves; Fernando Oréfice; David G. Addiss

2003-01-01

252

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in marrow recipients: a report of three cases and a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma infection following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is infrequently reported. We report three cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in BMT recipients documented during an 8-year period at our institution: one after an unrelated marrow transplant in a toxoplasma-seronegative patient, the second complicating syngeneic marrow transplantation, and the third following allogeneic, related BMT. The disease is extremely rare in seronegative patients and

PH Chandrasekar; F Momin

1997-01-01

253

DISSEMINATED TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A MEDITERRANEAN PREGNANT RISSO'S DOLPHIN (GRAMPUS GRISEUS) WITH TRANSPLACENTAL FETAL INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) dam and its fetus based on pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and the structure of the parasite. The dolphin was stranded alive on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and died a few hrs later. At necropsy the ...

254

Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus).  

PubMed

Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), an arboreal species of the tropical rainforests of South and Central America. In view of its specialized lifestyle and ecosystem and its low metabolic rate, B. tridactylus would seem to warrant further investigation in respect of its susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:11578142

Túry, E; Costa Messias, A; Belák, K; Gimeno, E J

2001-01-01

255

Acute Disseminated Toxoplasmosis in a Captive Three-toed Sloth ( Bradypus tridactylus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), an arboreal species of the tropical rainforests of South and Central America. In view of its specialized lifestyle and ecosystem and its low metabolic rate, B. tridactylus would seem to warrant further investigation in respect of its susceptibility toToxoplasma gondii .

E. Tuúry; A. Costa Messias; K. Belák; E. J. Gimeno

2001-01-01

256

LETHAL TOXOPLASMOSIS IN AN AVIARY OF KAKARIKIS (CYANORAMPHUS SPP.) IN AUSTRALIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A small outbreak of fatal toxoplasmosis is described in 6 kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.) in an aviary in Australia. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, and lungs. Protozoal tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclona...

257

FATAL TOXOPLASMOSIS AND CONCURRENT CALODIUM HEPATICUM INFECTION IN KOREAN SUIRRELS (TANIAS SIBERICUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four Korean squirrels (Tanias siberius) imported in Spain from People’s Republic of China died two days after their arrivel at a pet shop. They had neurological signs associated with generalized toxoplasmosis involving brain, lungs, liver, and the heart. Toxoplasma gondii–like tachyzoites and tis...

258

ACUTE FATAL TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SQUIRRELS (SCIURUS CAROLENSIS) WITH BRADYZOITES IN VISCERAL TISSUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 3 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolensis) from Louisiana and Pennsylvania. The predominant lesion was multifocal necrosis in several organs, especially of the lymph nodes. Numerous Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were seen in lesions and the diagnosis was confirmed imm...

259

Novel Synergistic Protective Efficacy of Atovaquone and Diclazuril on Fetal-Maternal Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Over 1 billion people globally are estimated to be infected with Toxoplasma gondii with severe or unknown consequences and no safe and effective therapies are available against congenital or persistent chronic infection. We propose that atovaquone and diclazuril synergistically protect against fetal-maternal toxoplasmosis. Methods Programmed pregnant mice were treated with atovaquone and diclazuril monotherapy, or combined (atovaquone + diclazuril) therapy and infected with tachyzoites (0, 300, 600) and the course of infection was studied. Results Infected dams with low dose (300) developed moderate toxoplasmosis complications and treatments were similarly effective with minor differences between monotherapies. In contrast, major differences were observed amongst varied treatments during high-dose (600) infection and severe related- toxoplasmosis complications as follows. Dams developed hydrothorax, ascities and excess weight gain. Combined therapy (P < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril monotherapy (P < 0.05) protected dams from excess weight, hydrothorax, and ascities. Infected dams exhibited splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and severe hepatitis. Combined therapy synergistically normalized pathology (P < 0.001) and to a lesser degree monotherapy (diclazuril P < 0.01, and atovaquone P < 0.05) protected dams from hepatitis and splemomegaly. Additionally, behavioral response to pain stimuli and fetal weight and fetal numbers were significantly preserved in treated dams Conclusions This is the first report describing combined atovaquone and diclazuril therapy (a) to be safe in pregnancy, (b) to exert novel synergistic effects, and (c) to protect dams and their nested fetuses against adverse effects of severe toxoplasmosis. PMID:25210646

Oz, Helieh S.

2014-01-01

260

Multicentric Comparative Assessment of the Bio-Evolution Toxoplasma gondii Detection Kit with Eight Laboratory-Developed PCR Assays for Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid is an essential tool for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and is currently essentially based on the use of PCR. Although some consensus is emerging, this molecular diagnosis suffers from a lack of standardization and an extreme diversity of laboratory-developed methods. Commercial kits for the detection of T. gondii by PCR were recently developed and offer certain advantages; however, they must be assessed in comparison with optimized reference PCR assays. The present multicentric study aimed to compare the performances of the Bio-Evolution T. gondii detection kit and laboratory-developed PCR assays set up in eight proficient centers in France. The study compared 157 amniotic fluid samples and found concordances of 99% and 100% using 76 T. gondii-infected samples and 81 uninfected samples, respectively. Moreover, taking into account the classification of the European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis, the overall diagnostic sensitivity of all assays was identical and calculated to be 86% (54/63); specificity was 100% for all assays. Finally, the relative quantification results were in good agreement between the kit and the laboratory-developed assays. The good performances of this commercial kit are probably in part linked to the use of a number of good practices: detection in multiplicate, amplification of the repetitive DNA target rep529, and the use of an internal control for the detection of PCR inhibitors. The only drawbacks noted at the time of the study were the absence of uracil-N-glycosylase and small defects in the reliability of the production of different reagents. PMID:25339393

Filisetti, Denis; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Yera, Hélčne; Candolfi, Ermano; Bastien, Patrick

2015-01-01

261

Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and Latent Toxoplasmosis and Demographic Variables on Cognitive Function in Young to Middle-Aged Adults.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults. PMID:25590622

Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

2015-01-01

262

Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and Latent Toxoplasmosis and Demographic Variables on Cognitive Function in Young to Middle-Aged Adults  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer’s disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States’ National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis – both of which appear to be common in the general population – appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults. PMID:25590622

Gale, Shawn D.; Erickson, Lance D.; Brown, Bruce L.; Hedges, Dawson W.

2015-01-01

263

Immunoglobulin G avidity in diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Traditional serological techniques have some limitations in evaluating the duration of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women, patients with lymphadenopathy, and older children suspected of having congenital toxoplasmosis. In these three groups of patients, two variants of T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity tests were used: an EIA Kit (Labsystems) and a noncommercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specially elaborated in the laboratory. The avidity of specific IgG in sera from 23 patients with a known recently acquired infection (mainly pregnant women) was low (less than 30%), whereas that in sera from 19 patients with toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy of 3 weeks to 6 months in duration (mean, 8.3 weeks) covered a large range (between 0.2 and 57.8%; mean, 25. 7%); high avidity results were observed for 10 of 19 patients (52. 6%). The large range of IgG avidity in patients with toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy suggests various durations of infection in these patients, with a tendency for a chronic phase of toxoplasmosis. According to the avidity marker, five patients with lymphadenopathy for less than 3 months did not have a recent Toxoplasma infection. In 6 of 19 patients with lymphadenopathy (31.6%), low IgG avidity values persisted until 5 months after the first serological examination. In all four patients with a documented chronic course of Toxoplasma infection (6 months to 8 years after the first positive serology), high IgG avidity values were observed. Among sera from 10 children and young immunocompetent adults suspected of having ocular reactivation of congenital toxoplasmosis, all had high IgG avidity values (over 40%), suggesting congenitally acquired ocular infection rather than noncongenital infection. In conclusion, the avidity of IgG is a valuable marker of recent toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, suggests the duration of invasion in patients with lymphadenopathy, and may be helpful for differentiation between reactivation of congenital infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. A low IgG avidity does not always identify a recent case of toxoplasmosis, but a high IgG avidity can exclude primary infections of less than 5 months' duration. PMID:10391853

Paul, M

1999-07-01

264

Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infects about 30% of the human population. Common sources of infection are oocysts in cat faeces contaminating drinking water or unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, and organ transplants from infected donors containing tissue cysts. However, very often, it is not possible to identify any potential source of infection in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Here we present a hypothesis suggesting that toxoplasmosis is transmitted from infected men to noninfected women during unprotected sexual intercourse, which can result in the most serious form of disease, congenital toxoplasmosis. Arguments for the hypothesis: (1) Toxoplasma tachyzoites are present in the seminal fluid and tissue of the testes of various animals including humans. In some species infection of females by artificial insemination with semen from infected males has been observed. (2) Up to two thirds of Toxoplasma infections in pregnant women cannot be explained by the known risk factors. (3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child-bearing age covaries with the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in particular countries. (4) In some countries, an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25-35 years. This second peak of infection could be associated with women having regular unprotected sex after marriage. (5) Toxoplasmosis triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2-3 years earlier in men than in women. However, this difference in the onset can be found only between Toxoplasma-infected patients. The increased onset of schizophrenia in infected women could be associated with the already mentioned second peak of toxoplasmosis incidence. (6) The prevalence of toxoplasmosis decreases in developed countries in last 20 years. This trend could be a result of decrease in promiscuity and increase in safe sex practices, both associated with the AIDS pandemics. (7) In women, probability of being Toxoplasma-infected correlates positively with the amount of unprotected sex with the child's father before the conception. Evidence against the hypothesis: Questionnaire study showed negative association between Toxoplasma infection and the number of earlier partners with whom the woman had unprotected sex. If our hypothesis turns out to be true, then sexual route of transmission, even if rare, could be responsible for a large part of cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. Women should be warned that having unprotected sex with men of positive or unknown toxoplasmosis status should be avoided during pregnancy. PMID:24986706

Flegr, J; Klapilová, K; Ka?ková, S

2014-09-01

265

Prospect Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many readers may be aware that trees grow in Brooklyn, few may be cognizant of the fact that, yes, a forest grows in Brooklyn. This urban forest just happens to be in the boroughâÂÂs own lovely Prospect Park, designed by those giants of landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Often overlooked by some who are primarily concerned with that other large swath of green in the middle of Manhattan, Prospect Park contains a 90-acre meadow, a zoo, a celebrated performing arts festival, and a lake. Visitors to the Prospect Park Alliance website can learn all about these things, and also delve into the parkâÂÂs history. Those planning a visit may wish to look at the âÂÂGeneral Infoâ and âÂÂPlaces To Goâ sections for a selection of brief descriptions and photographs. For those seeking a historical perspective the âÂÂHistory & Natureâ area is delightful. Here visitors can learn about the parkâÂÂs historical development and creation, and learn more about those individuals responsible for the parkâÂÂs design and aesthetic appeal. Finally, visitors should look at the online exhibit âÂÂA Glimpse Of Prospect Parkâ for a bit of visual perspective on the parkâÂÂs history.

Prospect Park (New York, N.Y.)

266

Biodiversity Prospecting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

1994-01-01

267

Pyrimethamine-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules to improve drug efficacy for the treatment of toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

We propose an innovative product based on the nanoencapsulation of pyrimethamine (PYR), aiming an improvement of drug efficacy for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. The in vitro cytotoxicity effect of encapsulated PYR and PYR-colloidal suspension was concomitantly evaluated against LLC-MK2 lineage and mouse peritoneal macrophage showing that the cells had similar tolerance for both PYR encapsulated or in the aqueous suspension. CF1 mice acutely infected with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain treated with different doses (5.0-10 mg/kg/day) of PYR-nanocapsules had survival rate higher than the animals treated with the same doses of non-encapsulated PYR. Thus, encapsulation of PYR improved the efficacy of this drug against an acute model of toxoplasmosis in mice and can be considered an alternative for reducing the dose of PYR, which, in turn, could also reduce the side effects associated to the treatment. PMID:24292545

Pissinate, Kenia; dos Santos Martins-Duarte, Érica; Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende; de Oliveira, Catiúscia Padilha; Vommaro, Rossiane Cláudia; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; de Souza, Wanderley

2014-02-01

268

Enhanced surveillance for toxoplasmosis in England and Wales, 2008-2012.  

PubMed

A report on Toxoplasma gondii by the UK Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food recommended that more accurate figures on the burden of disease in the UK are needed. We present the first 5 years of data from an enhanced surveillance scheme for toxoplasmosis in England and Wales. Between 2008 and 2012, 1824 cases were reported, with an average of 365 each year. There were 1109 immunocompetent cases, the majority presenting with lymphadenopathy, and 364 immunosuppressed cases, with central nervous system and systemic symptoms most frequently reported. There were also 190 pregnant and 33 congenital cases. Of the pregnant cases, 148 were asymptomatic (probably detected during screening), while 28 suffered a fetal loss or stillbirth. The enhanced surveillance system has led to an improvement in the detection of toxoplasmosis in England and Wales. However, numbers are still likely to be an underestimate, biasing towards the more severe infections. PMID:24093517

Halsby, K; Guy, E; Said, B; Francis, J; O'Connor, C; Kirkbride, H; Morgan, D

2014-08-01

269

Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

2012-01-01

270

Excretory-secretory antigens: a suitable candidate for immunization against ocular toxoplasmosis in a murine model.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis, responsible for ocular impairment, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. We investigated the effect of Toxoplasma excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) on parasite load and distribution in the eye tissue of a murine model. Case and control groups were immunized with ESA and PBS, respectively. Two weeks after the second immunization, the mice were challenged intraperitoneally with virulent RH strain of Toxoplasma; eye tissue samples of both groups were collected daily (days 1, 2, 3, and the last day before death). Parasite load was determined using real-time quantitative PCR targeted at the B1 gene. Compared to the control group, infected mice that received ESA vaccine presented a considerable decrease in parasite load in the eye tissue, demonstrating the effect of ESA on parasite load and distribution. Diminution of parasite load in mouse eye tissue indicated that ESA might help control disease-related complications and could be a valuable immunization candidate against ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:25467037

Norouzpour Deilami, Kiumars; Daryani, Ahmad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sharif, Mehdi; Dadimoghaddam, Yousef; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Alizadeh, Ahad

2014-12-01

271

Toxoplasmosis of Spinal Cord in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patient Presenting as Paraparesis: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Although brain has been the most common site for toxoplasma infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, involvement of spinal cord by toxoplasma has been rarely found. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis can present as acute onset weakness in both lower limbs associated with sensory and bladder dysfunction. A presumptive diagnosis can be made in patients with CD4 count <100/mm3 based on a positive serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, no recent prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis, intramedullary ring enhancing lesion in spinal cord supported by similar lesions in brain parenchyma. Institutions of antitoxoplasma treatment in such patients result in prompt clinical response and therefore avoiding the need of unnecessary invasive diagnostic tests. Here, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in immunocompromised patient presenting as myelopathy who showed significant clinical improvement after starting antitoxoplasma treatment. Hence toxoplasmic myelitis should be considered in toxoplasma seropositive immunocompromised patients presenting as myelopathy and imaging studies showing ring enhancing intramedullary lesion. PMID:25538456

Agrawal, Sachin R; Singh, Vinita; Ingale, Sheetal; Jain, Ajeet Prasad

2014-01-01

272

Biofuels, Climate Policy and the European Vehicle Fleet  

E-print Network

We examine the effect of biofuels mandates and climate policy on the European vehicle fleet, considering the prospects for diesel and gasoline vehicles. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, ...

Rausch, Sebastian

273

Evaluation of the liaison automated testing system for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a worldwide health problem, and different screening strategies exist. Testing of toxoplasma-specific antibodies in infants identifies congenital toxoplasmosis during the first year of life. However, experience with commercial available immunoassays is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the performance and analytical characteristics of the Liaison diagnostic system in infants. In a retrospective study, serum Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were measured in samples from 333 infants, including 212 noninfected infants and 121 infants with congenital toxoplasmosis. A total of 1,157 umbilical cord blood and peripheral serum samples were analyzed. Liaison toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies and the IgG avidity index were compared to the infection status of the infant, determined by the Sabin-Feldman dye test and immunosorbent agglutination assay--IgM. All noninfected infants were seronegative by Liaison IgG within the first year of life. The Liaison system showed a sensitivity of 81.8%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value of 100.0%, a negative predictive value of 90.6%, and overall agreement of 84.4% by comparison with the dye test. Overall agreement of both IgM test systems was 96.0%. In this study cohort, avidity did not show a potential diagnostic benefit for the detection of congenital infection. In conclusion, the Liaison system is a valuable tool to monitor the serologic course of infants at risk. A final serologic confirmatory test is recommended to improve the rate of detection of congenital toxoplasmosis at 1 year of life. Protocols of routine follow-up testing in infants and accurate diagnostic tools after acute gestational infections are needed to improve medical care. PMID:23015644

Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Hayde, Michael; Pollak, Arnold; Herkner, Kurt R; Kasper, David C

2012-11-01

274

Acute disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis after haploidentical stem cell transplantation despite atovaquone prophylaxis in a young man.  

PubMed

We describe a case of fatal acute disseminated breakthrough toxoplasmosis in a 19-year-old adolescent after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia despite continued atovaquone prophylaxis. Diagnosis was at necropsy, and confirmed by postmortem polymerase chain reaction analysis in plasma. This report illustrates the need for protozoal monitoring despite atovaquone prophylaxis, in severely immunocompromised patients with intolerance to standard treatment. PMID:20724953

Garcia de la Fuente, Isabel; Ansari, Marc; Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Passweg, Jakob R; Gumy-Pause, Fabienne; Ozsahin, Hulya; Lobrinus, Johannes A; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

2010-11-01

275

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

2012-01-01

276

Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates and Toxoplasmosis Seroprevalence in Stray Cats of ?zmir, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of ?zmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in ?zmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42–48% and 33.4–34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P?=?0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in ?zmir. PMID:25127360

Can, Hüseyin; Dö?kaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H. Gökhan; Caner, Ay?e; ?z, Sultan Gülce; Dö?kaya, Aysu De?irmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Ça?da?; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçal?, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

2014-01-01

277

Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Although toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals is generally asymptomatic, in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS, cancer, and transplant patients), it can lead to serious pathological effects. This study included a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in immunocompromised patients in Iran. Electronic English and Persian databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], IranMedex, and IranDoc), parasitology congresses, and projects and theses of Iranian medical universities, were systematically searched from 1997 to 2013 (published or unpublished data). In this paper, several studies that used serological methods for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis were selected. Analysis of seroprevalence estimates was pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Twenty-two studies, comprising 2,805 individuals, were included in the meta-analysis. Overall seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in Iranian immunocompromised patients was 50.01% (95% confidence interval, 43.85 to 56.17); however, there was significant heterogeneity among study groups. The results showed that seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmosis among transplant recipients, HIV/AIDS, and cancer patients in Iran was 55.1%, 50.05%, and 45.06%, respectively. In addition, IgM seroprevalence rate was estimated to be 4.85% (95% confidence interval, 2.22 to 8.41). This systematic review and meta-analysis identified a high seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection among immunocompromised patients (50%).Consideration of management , design and provision of appropriate control measures of toxoplasmosis is highly recommended. PMID:25500647

Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mahdi; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokri, Azar

2014-01-01

278

Chicken Toxoplasmosis in Different Types of Breeding: A Seroprevalence Survey in Southern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Since the meat of chicken is considered one of the sources of the human infection, this study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging with semi-industrial and industrial chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Shiraz, Southern, Iran. 203 serum samples from free-ranging chickens of sub-urban districts, 50 serum samples of semi-industri al chickens which rearing in

Q. Asgari; F. Akrami Mohajeri; M. Kalantari; B. Esmaeilzadeh; A. Farzaneh; M. Moazeni; S. R. Ghalebi; F. Saremi; M. Zarifi Kalyani; M. H. Motazedian

2008-01-01

279

Congenital toxoplasmosis: systematic review of evidence of efficacy of treatment in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To summarise the evidence that treating toxoplasmosis in pregnancy reduces the risk of congenital toxoplasma infection and improves infant outcomes.Design: Systematic review of studies comparing at least two concurrent groups of pregnant women with proved or likely acute toxoplasma infection in which treatments were compared with no treatment and outcomes in the children were reported.Subjects: Studies were identified from

Martine Wallon; Christiane Liou; Paul Garner; François Peyron

1999-01-01

280

Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates and toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in stray cats of ?zmir, Turkey.  

PubMed

Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of ?zmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in ?zmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42-48% and 33.4-34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P?=?0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in ?zmir. PMID:25127360

Can, Hüseyin; Dö?kaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H Gökhan; Caner, Ay?e; ?z, Sultan Gülce; Dö?kaya, Aysu De?irmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Ça?da?; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçal?, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

2014-01-01

281

Maternal Serologic Screening to Prevent Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Decision-Analytic Economic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine a cost-minimizing option for congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA decision-analytic and cost-minimization model was constructed to compare monthly maternal serological screening, prenatal treatment, and post-natal follow-up and treatment according to the current French (Paris) protocol, versus no systematic screening or perinatal treatment. Costs are based on published estimates of lifetime societal costs of developmental disabilities and

Eileen Stillwaggon; Christopher S. Carrier; Mari Sautter; Rima McLeod

2011-01-01

282

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. PMID:23135141

Bossart, Gregory D; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M; Camus, Alvin C; Bonde, Robert K; Dubey, Jitender P; Reif, John S

2012-11-01

283

Prospects for nuclear energy in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the prospects for nuclear energy development in the Eastern European countries of Belarus and Ukraine and in the Caucasian countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. The main focus is on Ukraine, but some reference is made to the prospects for energy development in other countries of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. The contribution of

Oleg Purtov

2008-01-01

284

[Cerebral toxoplasmosis during AIDS in the infectious diseases department of Point-G Teaching Hospital, Bamako, Mali].  

PubMed

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is common opportunistic infections of central nervous system in AIDS. It occurs most often in case of severe immunosuppression. The aim of this study is to investigate the general characteristics of cerebral toxoplasmosis during HIV infection and AIDS in hospital area in Bamako. It is a retrospective study of 5 years (form January 2001 to December 2005), conducted in the infectious diseases department of Point G Teaching Hospital of Bamako. It concerned all patients infected with HIV, hospitalized for cerebral toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was based on clinical, C T and therapeutic arguments. A total of 745 patients investigated, 26 met cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnostic criteria (14 men and 12 women). The rate of cerebral toxoplasmosis in the study population was 3.5%. The average age was 38.1 years (18-58 years). Focused neurological deficit (73.07%), intracranial hypertension signs (69.20%), meningeal syndrome (15.40%), seizures (57.69%) and consciousness disorders (30.80%) were the clinical characteristics. Hypodensity with or without peripheral enhancement images (93.75%) were found on CT. The average rate of CD4 T cells was 98.7cells/mm3 (5-473 cells/mm3). Oropharyngeal candidiasis in 61.53% of cases, intestinal cryptosporidiosis (11.53%), herpes zoster (3.84%) and Pott's disease (3.84%) were the opportunistic infections associated. Cotrimoxazole was used in 88.46% of patients and 3 patients (11.54%) received the standard treatment (Sulfadiazine-Pyrimethamine). Antitoxoplasmic treatment led to a clinical improvement in 84.61% and 4 deaths (15.39%). were recorded. The technical platform for etiological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is not available at the Point-G Teaching Hospital, so in case of encephalitis signs in a HIV positive patient, CT should be urgently perform and a treatment trial must begin without delay. PMID:22765969

Goďta, D; Karambe, M; Dembélé, J P; Sogoba, D; Sidibé, A F; Diaby, S; Cisse, I A; Fongoro, S; Dao, S

2012-01-01

285

Toxoplasmosis prevention and testing in pregnancy, survey of obstetrician-gynaecologists.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women can lead to congenital disease with severe neurological and ocular complications in the foetus. In 2006, we surveyed US obstetrician-gynaecologists to determine their knowledge and practices about toxoplasmosis prevention and testing. Questionnaires were mailed (four mailings) to a random sample of 1200 of the 33,354 members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Of the 1200 surveyed, 502 (42%) responded. The respondents were similar to all ACOG members by gender, region of the country and practice type (P > 0.5), and age (respondents were slightly younger, mean 46 years versus 47 years). To prevent toxoplasmosis, most respondents indicated that they counsel pregnant women about cat litter (99.6%), but fewer counselled about eating undercooked meat (77.6%), handling raw meat (67.4%), gardening (65.4%) or washing fruits and vegetables (34.2%). Many (73.2%) respondents were not aware that some Toxoplasma IgM tests have had a high false positive rate, and most (91.2%) had not heard of the avidity test, which can help determine the timing of Toxoplasma gondii infection in relation to pregnancy. There is a need for more education about T. gondii serological testing, particularly the Toxoplasma avidity test. US obstetrician-gynaecologists are providing beneficial counselling to their patients, but could provide more information about undercooked meat and soil risks. PMID:19744302

Jones, J L; Krueger, A; Schulkin, J; Schantz, P M

2010-02-01

286

Maintained Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among the Residents of Jeju Island, Korea  

PubMed Central

Seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis among the residents of Jeju island was surveyed and evaluated by ELISA with crude extract of Toxoplasma gondii. The sera of 2,348 residents (male 1,157 and female 1,191) were collected and checked for the IgG antibody titers, which showed 13.2% positive rate (309 sera). The positive rates were increasing gradually according to the age from 4.3% in teenage to 20.6% in seventies. The positive rates were significantly different between the sex by 16.2% for male and 10.2% for female (P<0.05). This positive rate of toxoplasmosis in Jeju island residents is regarded relatively higher than any other regions of Korea. And the high positive rate may be maintained continuously among Jeju island residents without any clear reasons until now but due to some parts peculiar socio-cultural tradition of Jeju island. Therefore, it is necessary to study further the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis of Jeju island. PMID:22072835

Hong, Sung-Jong; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Lee, Kyutaeg; Kim, Tong-Soo; Hong, Yeon-Pyo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hak-Yong; Ko, A-Ra; Kim, Yong-Joo

2011-01-01

287

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in the Residents of Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea  

PubMed Central

The seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis was surveyed among the residents of Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do by means of ELISA using a crude extract antigen of Toxoplasma gondii. The sera of 1,661 adult residents (866 males and 795 females) were collected and checked for IgG antibody titers, which showed 17.0% positive rate (282 sera). The positive rate was significantly different between the sex; 20.6% for males and 13.1% for females (P<0.05). The positive rates were higher in fifties of males (28.7%) and forties of females (20.0%). This positive rate of toxoplasmosis in Cheorwon-gun residents is regarded as the highest among the surveys of different geographical regions of Korea. This high positive rate may due in part to peculiar geographical locality of the surveyed area near the naturally well preserved demilitarized zone (DMZ) or presumably consumption of the pork imported from high endemic nations. Therefore, it is necessary to study further the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Cheorwon-gun. PMID:22949750

Ahn, Hye-Jin; Cho, Pyo Yun; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Kim, Tong-Soo; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Hong, Sung-Jong; Cha, Seok Ho

2012-01-01

288

[The Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

Congenital toxoplasmosis is the result of transplacental fetal infection by Toxoplasma gondii after the primary maternal infection. The severity of the disease depends on the gestational age at transmission. First trimester infections are more severe, but less frequent, than third trimester infections. Acute maternal infection is diagnosed by seroconversion or by the detection of IgM antibodies and a low IgG avidity test. In these cases, spiramycin should be initiated to prevent transmission to the fetus. For identification of fetal infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of amniotic fluid after 18 weeks gestation should be performed. If fetal infection is confirmed, the mothers should be treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid. Most infants infected in utero are born with no obvious signs of toxoplasmosis, but up to 80% developed learning and visual disabilities later in life. Neonatal diagnosis with IgM/IgA antibodies or blood/cerebrospinal fluid PCR may be difficult because false-negative results frequently occur. In these cases diagnosis is possible by demonstrating a rise in IgG titers during follow-up or by the detection of antibodies beyond one year of age. Early treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine may improve the ophthalmologic and neurological outcome. Congenital toxoplasmosis is a preventable disease. Pre-pregnancy screening and appropriate counseling regarding prevention measures in seronegative women may prevent fetal infection. PMID:23352717

Baquero-Artigao, F; del Castillo Martín, F; Fuentes Corripio, I; Goncé Mellgren, A; Fortuny Guasch, C; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; González-Tomé, M I; Couceiro Gianzo, J A; Neth, O; Ramos Amador, J T

2013-08-01

289

Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Mimicking Subacute Meningitis in HIV-Infected Patients; a Cohort Study from Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-associated subacute meningitis is mostly caused by tuberculosis or cryptococcosis, but often no etiology can be established. In the absence of CT or MRI of the brain, toxoplasmosis is generally not considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed cerebrospinal fluid real time PCR and serological testing for Toxoplasma gondii in archived samples from a well-characterized cohort of 64 HIV-infected patients presenting with subacute meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. Neuroradiology was only available for 6 patients. At time of presentation, patients mostly had newly diagnosed and advanced HIV infection (median CD4 count 22 cells/mL), with only 17.2% taking ART, and 9.4% PJP-prophylaxis. CSF PCR for T. Gondii was positive in 21 patients (32.8%). Circulating toxoplasma IgG was present in 77.2% of patients tested, including all in whom the PCR of CSF was positive for T. Gondii. Clinically, in the absence of neuroradiology, toxoplasmosis was difficult to distinguish from tuberculosis or cryptococcal meningitis, although CSF abnormalities were less pronounced. Mortality among patients with a positive CSF T. Gondii PCR was 81%, 2.16-fold higher (95% CI 1.04–4.47) compared to those with a negative PCR. Conclusions/Significance Toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected subacute meningitis in settings where neuroradiology is not available. PMID:23326616

Ganiem, A. Rizal; Dian, Sofiati; Indriati, Agnes; Chaidir, Lidya; Wisaksana, Rudi; Sturm, Patrick; Melchers, Willem; van der Ven, Andre; Parwati, Ida; van Crevel, Reinout

2013-01-01

290

European Mistletoe  

MedlinePLUS

... campaign . Top Sources American mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 7, 2009. European mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on ...

291

Cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis related with IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-10 levels  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the synthesis of Interferon gamma (IFN-?), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-?), and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in chronically infected patients which developed the symptomatic disease as cerebral or ocular toxoplasmosis. Blood from 61 individuals were divided into four groups: Cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS patients (CT/AIDS group) (n = 15), ocular toxoplasmosis patients (OT group) (n = 23), chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR group) (n = 13) and healthy individuals (HI group) (n = 10). OT, CHR, and HI groups were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative. The diagnosis was made by laboratorial (PCR and ELISA) and clinical subjects. For cytokine determination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of each patient were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-10 activities were determined by ELISA. Patients from CT/AIDS and OT groups had low levels of IFN-? when were compared with those from CHR group. These data suggest the low resistance to develop ocular lesions by the low ability to produce IFN-? against the parasite. The same patients, which developed ocular or cerebral toxoplasmosis had higher TNF-? levels than CHR individuals. High TNF-? synthesis contribute to the inflammatory response and damage of the choroid and retina in OT patients and in AIDS patients caused a high inflammatory response as the TNF-? synthesis is not affected since monocytes are the major source this cytokine in response to soluble T. gondii antigens. IL-10 levels were almost similar in CT/AIDS and OT patients but low when compared with CHR individuals. The deviation to Th2 immune response including the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 may promote the parasite's survival causing the tissue immune destruction. IL-10 production in T. gondii-infected brains may support the persistence of parasites as down-regulating the intracerebral immune response. All these indicate that OT and CT/AIDS patients produced low levels of IL-10 (Th2 response) and IFN-? (Th1 response). They produced high TNF-? suggesting a high inflammatory response triggered by the parasite. PMID:25352834

Meira, Cristina S.; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L.; Vidal, José E.; de Mattos, Cinara C. Brandăo; Motoie, Gabriela; Costa-Silva, Thais A.; Gava, Ricardo; Frederico, Fábio B.; de Mattos, Luiz C.

2014-01-01

292

Transplacental toxoplasmosis in naturally-infected white-tailed deer: isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from foetuses of different gestational ages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clinical toxoplasmosis is most severe in congenitally-infected hosts. In humans, transmission of Toxoplasma gondii from the mother to the foetus is considered to be most efficient during the last trimester of pregnancy but clinical congenital toxoplasmosis is more severe if the transmission occurs d...

293

Th1 and Th2 immune response to P30 and ROP18 peptides in human toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

We determined the specific lymphocyte proliferative response and cytokine profile production regarding Toxoplasma P30 (2017 from virulent and non-virulent strain) and ROP18 protein-derived peptides (from clonal lineages I, II and III) in 19 patients having ocular toxoplasmosis, five suffering chronic asymptomatic infection, nine with congenital toxoplasmosis and eight Toxoplasma negative people. A Beckman Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used for determining antigen-specific T cells (CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood culture. IFN ? and IL10 levels were determined in culture supernatants. Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to total antigen and P30- and ROP18-derived peptides was observed in infected people. Ocular toxoplasmosis patients had a preferential Th2 response after antigenic stimulation. Non-virulent peptide 2017 was able to shift response toward Th1 in congenitally infected children and virulent peptide 2017 induced a Th2 response in chronically infected, asymptomatic people. An immune response in human toxoplasmosis after ex vivo antigenic stimulation was Th1- or Th2-skewed, depending on a patient's clinical condition. Colombian ocular toxoplasmosis patients' immune response was Th2-skewed, regardless of the nature of antigen stimulus. PMID:24816543

Torres-Morales, Elizabeth; Taborda, Laura; Cardona, Nestor; De-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sepulveda-Arias, Juan Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique

2014-10-01

294

Impact of Technological and Structural Change on Employment. Prospective Analysis 2020. Synthesis Report. Report to the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament. Technical Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possible impact of technological and structural change on employment in the European Union (EU) over the next 20 years was examined through an exploration of the following alternative policy-driven scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) concentrated technology policy (increases in innovation and research and development [R&D] efforts are…

2001

295

TOXOPLASMOSIS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE AMONG PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN ATTENDED IN PUBLIC HEALTH UNITS IN NITERÓI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented. PMID:25229225

Millar, Patricia Riddell; de Moura, Fernanda Loureiro; Bastos, Otílio Machado Pereira; de Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

2014-01-01

296

Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge among pregnant and postpartum women attended in public health units in Niterói, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented. PMID:25229225

Millar, Patricia Riddell; Moura, Fernanda Loureiro de; Bastos, Otílio Machado Pereira; Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia de; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

2014-01-01

297

doi:10.4061/2011/705358 Research Article Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Trinidad  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2011 Anil Persad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) acrossfarmsin Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8%) were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P water buffalo, 12.4 % (14 of 113) compared with young water buffalo, 4.2 % (6 of 143). Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis across the seven farms ranged from 0.0 % (0 of 20) in Farm G compared with 20.0 % (10 of 50) detected in Farm B. The differences in seropositivity by management system,

Anil Persad; Roxanne Charles; Abiodun A. Adesiyun

298

Outcome prediction in terms of functional disability and mortality at 1 year among ICU-admitted severe stroke patients: a prospective epidemiological study in the south of the European Union (Evascan Project, Andalusia, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo analyse 1-year mortality and functional disability outcomes and resource use in critical stroke patients admitted to ICU.Design and settingMulti-centre, prospective, observational study in 28 Spanish hospitals.PatientsPatients admitted for acute stroke from March–August 1999.InterventionCollection of data on: severity by Apache III and Glasgow Coma Score; neurological lesion, hospital and 1-year mortality; functional disability at 1 year by Barthel Index and Glasgow

Pedro Navarrete-Navarro; Ricardo Rivera-Fernández; Maria Teresa López-Mutuberría; Inmaculada Galindo; Francisco Murillo; José María Dominguez; Angeles Muńoz; José Manuel Jimenez-Moragas; Belén Nacle; Guillermo Vázquez-Mata

2003-01-01

299

Common Core History for Young Europeans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A required core contemporary history course is proposed for Europe's senior pupils, needed because of prospects for European integration. The course could be shaped by pairing three fundamental ideas with related conflicts: Reformation/30 Years War, Enlightenment/French Revolution and Napoleanic Wars, and Nationalism/World Wars I and II. (IAH)

Rogers, Peter

1993-01-01

300

Seroprevalence of toxoplasma-specific antibodies in patients suspected to have active toxoplasmosis: A cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and distribution of anti-toxoplasma-specific IgM and IgG tantibodies in patients suspected to have toxoplasmosis and investigate for any association between IgM and IgG antibodies and some toxoplasmosis risk factors as well. Materials and Methods: In a comparative cross-sectional study, 70 patients suspected to had active toxoplasmosis and 30 control volunteers, who gave informed consent, entered the study. In each group, patient age, sex, signs of appearance, education level, residency status (urban / rural), occupation, frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, abortion history, and some risk factors (Direct cat exposure, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption) were recorded. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (EUROIMMUN®, United Kingdom) were used for the evaluation of anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies according to the manufacturer's instructions. All analyses were done using SPSS-20. Results: The frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies like: Direct cat exposures, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption were not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05). The history of previous abortions in women in the toxoplasmosis-suspected group was significantly higher than that in the controls (31.4% versus 6.7%; P = 0.009). Conclusion: The frequency of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in toxoplasmosis suspected in the toxoplasmosis and control groups was not statistically significant. PMID:25538922

Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Jafarnezghad, Gholam-Abbas; Akbari, Mojtaba

2014-01-01

301

Prospective Optimization.  

PubMed

Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J

2014-05-01

302

Prospective Optimization  

PubMed Central

Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

2014-01-01

303

Assessment of laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background The different laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis have variable sensitivity and specificity. There is no evidence to prove that maternal treatment reduces the risk of fetal infection. The purpose of this study was to assess methods for the confirmation of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy, and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on clinical manifestations of the disease in newborns (NB). Methods This was a community-based, cross-sectional study of acute toxoplasmosis in newborns at risk of acquiring congenital infection. Participating newborns were born in the Clinical Hospital Maternity Ward of the Federal University of Goiás. Eligible participants were divided into 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 44 newborns born to mothers treated with spiramycin during pregnancy and group 2 consisted of 24 newborns born to mothers not treated with spiramycin during pregnancy because the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was not performed. The sensitivity and specifity of PCR for T. gondii DNA in peripheral blood and serological testing for specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA, and the effects of maternal spiramycin treatment on these parameters, were determined by associating test results with clinical manifestations of disease. Results The sensitivity of the markers (T. gondii DNA detected by PCR, and the presence of specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA) for congenital toxoplasmosis was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (31.6, 68.4, 36.8% and 3.7, 25.9, 11.1% respectively). Even with a low PCR sensitivity, the group 2 results indicate the importance of developing new techniques for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns. Within group 1, 70.4% of the infected newborns were asymptomatic and, in group 2, 68.4% showed clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis. Conclusions The higher proportion of infants without clinical symptoms in group 1 (70.4%) suggests the maternal treatment with spiramycin delays fetal infection, reducing the clinical sequelae of the disease in newborns. Given the low sensitivity of the tests used, when there is suspicion of congenital transmission several serological and parasitological tests are required in order to confirm or exclude congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns. PMID:24961630

2014-01-01

304

[Evaluation of the toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in pregnant women and creating a diagnostic algorithm].  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoon is widely distributed around the world and can infect all mammals and birds. While acquired toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in healthy subjects, acute infection during pregnancy may lead to abortion, stillbirth, fetal neurological and ocular damages. For the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis it is recommended that a screening programme and a diagnostic algorithm in pregnant women should be implemented while considering the cost effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and the actual risk of T.gondii transmission during pregnancy in a certain area. The aims of this study were to detect the T.gondii seropositivity in the pregnant women admitted to our hospital and to create a diagnostic algorithm in order to solve the problems arising from interpretation of the serological test results. A total of 6140 women aged 15-49 years who were admitted to our hospital between April 1st, 2010 to July 31st, 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. In the serum samples, T.gondii IgM, IgG and IgG avidity tests were performed by VIDAS automated analyzer using TOXO IgM, TOXO IgG II and TOXO IgG avidity kits (bioMerieux, France). It was noted that, both T.gondii IgM and IgG tests were requested from 4758 (77.5%) of the pregnant women, while only IgM test from 1382 (22.5%) cases. Sole IgM positivity was found as 0.2% (11/6140), IgG as 26.4% (1278/4758) and both IgM + IgG as 0.9% (44/4758). T.gondii IgG avidity tests were requested from 12 of 44 women who were found both IgM and IgG positive and eight of them revealed high avidity and four low avidity. Avidity test was ordered for the 91 (7.1%) of 1278 sole IgG positive cases and four of them were found to have low avidity. IgG avidity test was ordered for 554 (16.2%) of IgM and/or IgG negative subjects, however, the test was not performed according to rejection criteria of the laboratory. It was noticed that no re-testing was requested for none of the seronegative cases (3428/4758; 72%) during their follow-up. In our study, total Toxoplasma seropositivity rate among pregnant women was detected as 28% (1330/4758), showing statistically significant increase (p< 0.05) with age. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in the seropositivity rate between the years (2010-2013). Following the evaluation of the test orders, the problems related to test orders and interpretation of the test results were determined and a diagnostic algorithm to be used in our hospital, was established to minimize such problems in toxoplasma serology. It was concluded that a diagnostic algorithm related to toxoplasmosis serology should be implemented for the appropriate evaluation of the risk of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Such an approach is necessary to support the clinical diagnosis and to minimize the anxiety in pregnant women about congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24819265

Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Toyran, Alparslan; Cetin, Feyza; Coskun, Feride Alaca; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Aksoy, Altan

2014-04-01

305

Endochin-like quinolones are highly efficacious against acute and latent experimental toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan pathogen that causes devastating ocular and central nervous system disease. We show that the endochin-like quinolone (ELQ) class of compounds contains extremely potent inhibitors of T. gondii growth in vitro and is effective against acute and latent toxoplasmosis in mice. We screened 50 ELQs against T. gondii and selected two lead compounds, ELQ-271 and ELQ-316, for evaluation. ELQ-271 and ELQ-316, have in vitro IC50 values of 0.1 nM and 0.007 nM, respectively. ELQ-271 and ELQ-316 have ED50 values of 0.14 mg/kg and 0.08 mg/kg when administered orally to mice with acute toxoplasmosis. Moreover, ELQ-271 and ELQ-316 are highly active against the cyst form of T. gondii in mice at low doses, reducing cyst burden by 76–88% after 16 d of treatment. To investigate the ELQ mechanism of action against T. gondii, we demonstrate that endochin and ELQ-271 inhibit cytochrome c reduction by the T. gondii cytochrome bc1 complex at 8 nM and 31 nM, respectively. We also show that ELQ-271 inhibits the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome bc1 complex, and an M221Q amino acid substitution in the Qi site of the protein leads to >100-fold resistance. We conclude that ELQ-271 and ELQ-316 are orally bioavailable drugs that are effective against acute and latent toxoplasmosis, likely acting as inhibitors of the Qi site of the T. gondii cytochrome bc1 complex. PMID:23019377

Doggett, J. Stone; Nilsen, Aaron; Forquer, Isaac; Wegmann, Keith W.; Jones-Brando, Lorraine; Yolken, Robert H.; Bordón, Claudia; Charman, Susan A.; Katneni, Kasiram; Schultz, Tracey; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Hinrichs, David J.; Meunier, Brigitte; Carruthers, Vern B.; Riscoe, Michael K.

2012-01-01

306

Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus felis manul) at the Denver Zoological Gardens.  

PubMed

In May 1996 the Denver Zoological Gardens obtained two male and two female Pallas' cats (Otocolobus felis manul) that were wild-caught in the Ukraine. These animals were part of a group of 16 wild-caught adults (eight male and eight female) imported to the United States and Canada between 1995 and 1996. The Denver Zoological Gardens cats were quarantined at the zoo hospital for approximately I mo. During the quarantine period they were immobilized for physical examination, and sera were obtained from them to evaluate for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. All cats were positive for T. gondii antibodies by latex agglutination (titers from 1:512 to 1:1,024). After being paired for breeding, one pair produced two litters, and another pair produced four litters, a total of 17 kittens between 1997 and 2001. Four kittens and two young adults died from a disseminated granulomatous and necrotizing inflammation consistent with toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii infection was confirmed in all six deceased cats by polymerase chain reaction performed on formalin-fixed tissues. An additional five kittens disappeared and were not available for necropsy. The fatality rate from toxoplasmosis was 35.3% (6/17) for cats that were available for necropsy and could have been as high as 64.7% (11/17) if it were assumed that the disappeared kittens were also affected. The Pallas' kitten survival rate at the Denver Zoological Gardens was 35.3%. This article describes the clinical and pathologic features of toxoplasmosis in a group of Pallas' cats at the Denver Zoological Gardens. PMID:12398302

Kenny, David E; Lappin, Michael R; Knightly, Felicia; Baler, Jeffery; Brewer, Melissa; Getzy, David M

2002-06-01

307

Acute fatal toxoplasmosis in squirrels (Sciurus carolensis) with bradyzoites in visceral tissues.  

PubMed

Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 3 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolensis) from Louisiana and Pennsylvania. The predominant lesion was multifocal necrosis in several organs, especially of the lymph nodes. Numerous Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were seen in lesions, and the diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by reaction with polyclonal T. gondii-specific antibodies. Tissue cysts were seen in several organs, including lung alveoli. The presence of tissue cysts in alveoli of pet squirrels maybe of public health concern if tissue cysts excreted in nasal secretions are swallowed by children. PMID:16884019

Dubey, J P; Hodgin, E C; Hamir, A N

2006-06-01

308

Lymphadenopathy resulting from acute toxoplasmosis mimicking relapse of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.  

PubMed

We report a case documenting fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in cervical, supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes resulting from acute toxoplasmosis. A 50-year-old Indian female with history of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of left breast, postchemotherapy status, was found to have hypermetabolic right cervical, supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes on a surveillance FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan. Her previous two PET/CT scans were unremarkable with no evidence of metabolically active disease. Therefore, a differential diagnosis of relapse of NHL versus infectious/inflammatory pathology was raised in the report. Biopsy of axillary lymph node demonstrated features characteristic of toxoplasmosis. The serological test results were also compatible with acute toxoplasmosis infection. Infective and inflammatory diseases are known to accumulate FDG, resulting in false positives for malignancy. This case demonstrates lymph nodal toxoplasmosis as a potential cause of false positive FDG PET/CT findings in patients with known malignancy and highlights the importance of histopathological and laboratory correlation for the accurate interpretation of FDG PET/CT scans. PMID:22531531

Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram; Mahajan, Pravin

2012-01-01

309

Genotypic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Human Toxoplasmosis in Spain: Direct Analysis from Clinical Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the different genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (strain types I, II, and III) associated with human toxoplasmosis in Spain. This determi- nation was made directly from primary clinical samples, obviating the previous process of isolation in mice or cell culture. A total of 34 isolates of T. gondii,

ISABEL FUENTES; JOSE M. RUBIO; CARMEN RAMIREZ; JORGE ALVAR

2001-01-01

310

Toxoplasmosis in Beluga Whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from the St Lawrence Estuary: Two Case Reportsand a Serological Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in two free-ranging beluga whales from the St Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada, in 1988 and 1998. Histologically, tachyzoites and bradyzoites were present in the brain, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals and lungs of both animals, and in the thymus of one. These organisms were readily labelled by an indirect immunohistochemical method for Toxoplasma gondii antigens. In the lymph

I Mikaelian; J Boisclair; JP Dubey; S Kennedy; D Martineau

2000-01-01

311

Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from captive slender-tailed meerkats ( Suricata suricatta) with fatal toxoplasmosis in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the diagnosis of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in three captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the zoo of La Plata, Argentina and the invitro isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii are reported. The animals showed depression, dyspnea and hypothermia, and also ataxia in one case, and died within 1–5 days. The main histopathological lesions included interstitial pneumonia,

W. Basso; G. Moré; L. Pardini; D. Bacigalupe; L. Venturini; M. C. Valenzuela; D. Balducchi; P. Maksimov; G. Schares; M. C. Venturini

2009-01-01

312

Systemic toxoplasmosis and concurrent porcine circovirus-2 infection in a pig.  

PubMed

Systemic toxoplasmosis and concurrent infection with porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) was diagnosed in a fattening pig. Clinical examination of the herd showed that up to 30% of the pigs of this weight group suffered from severe respiratory signs including sneezing and coughing, with a mortality rate of up to 5%. Gross necropsy examination revealed severe interstitial pneumonia and generalized lymphadenopathy. On microscopical examination there was necrotizing inflammation of the lung, adrenal glands and lymph nodes, associated with lymphoid depletion, cytoplasmic basophilic botryoid inclusion bodies and protozoal microorganisms. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Polymerase chain reaction analysis, in-situ hybridization and IHC confirmed systemic PCV-2 infection. These findings, associated with the respiratory signs and lesions in lymphoid tissues, are characteristic for post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In this case, immunosuppression by PCV-2 may have triggered systemic toxoplasmosis, or immune stimulation caused by coinfection with T. gondii may have caused extensive replication of PCV-2. PMID:19740479

Klein, S; Wendt, M; Baumgärtner, W; Wohlsein, P

2010-01-01

313

Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic New Zealand birds.  

PubMed

Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic New Zealand avian species are reported. Between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), and one North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. On gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. Histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of the kiwi while the kaka and kereru showed severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In the kiwi, protozoal organisms were present within both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver and within the epithelial cells and macrophages of the interstitium of the lungs in the kaka and two kereru. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue of the liver, lungs, or both. Genotyping of up to seven markers revealed that an atypical Type II isolate of Toxoplasma gondii was present in at least three of the cases. This study provides evidence that T. gondii can cause mortality in these endemic species and suggests further research is needed to determine the full extent of morbidity and mortality caused by this parasite in New Zealand's unique avifauna. PMID:24758132

Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; Burrows, Elizabeth; Roe, Wendi

2014-03-01

314

The involvement of anti-inflammatory protein, Annexin A1, in ocular toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of the protein annexin A1 (ANXA1), a potent endogenous regulator of the inflammatory process, in ocular toxoplasmosis. Methods C57BL/6 female mice were infected using intravitreal injections of either 106 tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain; T. gondii) or PBS only (control groups). After 24, 48, and 72 h, animals were sacrificed and their eyes were harvested for histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural immunocytochemical analysis of ANXA1. Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells (ARPE-19) were infected in vitro with T. gondii and collected after 60, 120, 240 min, and 24 h. Results Compared with non-infected eyes, an intense inflammatory response was observed in the anterior (24 h after infection) and posterior segments (72 h after infection) of the infected eye, characterized by neutrophil infiltration and by the presence of tachyzoites and their consequent destruction along with disorganization of normal retina architecture and RPE vacuolization. T. gondii infection was associated with a significant increase of ANXA1 expression in the neutrophils at 24, 48, and 72 h, and in the RPE at 48 and 72 h. In vitro studies confirmed an upregulation of ANXA1 levels in RPE cells, after 60 and 120 min of infection with T. gondii. Conclusions The positive modulation of endogenous ANXA1 in the inflammatory and RPE cells during T. gondii infection suggests that this protein may serve as a therapeutic target in ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:22740770

Mimura, Kallyne K.; Tedesco, Roberto C.; Calabrese, Katia S.; Gil, Cristiane D.

2012-01-01

315

Toxoplasmosis in a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and two American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and 2 American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). The woodchuck was euthanized by a wildlife rescue organization in New York after progressive clinical signs of head tilt, circling, and rapid weight loss. Necropsy examination revealed acute subdural hemorrhage over the right cerebral hemisphere. Histologic lesions included meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. Protozoal cysts were present in affected and unaffected neuroparenchyma. The squirrels were found dead, emaciated, and moderately infested with fleas near a park in northern Indiana. In both squirrels, the lungs were consolidated with numerous nodules up to 2 mm in diameter. Histologically, pneumonia and encephalitis were associated with intracellular and free protozoa. Additional histologic lesions included multifocal lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa in both squirrels. The protozoa were positive with Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunohistochemistry and had ultrastructural features consistent with T. gondii in both squirrels. A real-time polymerase chain reaction test using T. gondii-specific probes demonstrated protozoal DNA in the lung, brain, and kidney of the squirrels and in the brain and heart of the woodchuck. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in woodchucks or American red squirrels. Because rodents are common near urban settlements, this finding underscores their role as important intermediate hosts for T. gondii. PMID:17998563

Bangari, Dinesh S; Mouser, Pamela; Miller, Margaret A; Stevenson, Gregory W; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Thacker, H Leon

2007-11-01

316

Epizootic disseminated toxoplasmosis in captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta).  

PubMed

Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in seven captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) according to clinicopathologic findings and immunohistochemistry. Five of nine meerkats died during an outbreak in late 1994. These included four kits (2.5 to 4.5 months old) and a 4-year-old meerkat. Two other meerkats, both adults, died in 1992 and 1995. Respiratory insufficiency (4/7) and incoordination (3/7) were the most consistent clinical signs. although two of seven meerkats died unexpectedly. At necropsy, the lungs were reddened and noncollapsed (6/7), and had multiple pale round foci (4/7). Yellow foci of necrosis in mesenteric lymph nodes (4/7), splenomegaly (3/7), and hydropericardium (3/7) were other common gross findings. Microscopically, interstitial pneumonia was present in all seven meerkats, being acute to subacute in six of them. Type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia, aggregates of foamy macrophages, and giant cells were consistently seen. Multifocal to locally extensive necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes (4/7), mild to severe multifocal necrotizing hepatitis (5/6), and mild nonsuppurative encephalitis (4/6) were also seen. Toxoplasma-like organisms were consistently associated with these lesions and were stained by the avidin biotin peroxidase procedure with an antiserum that does not cross-react with Neospora caninum. Meerkats were most likely infected after an oral, primary exposure to Toxoplasma. Several observations indicate that meerkats may be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis. PMID:9150539

Juan-Sallés, C; Prats, N; López, S; Domingo, M; Marco, A J; Morán, J F

1997-01-01

317

Early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborn infants using IgG subclasses against two Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of ELISA-based testing of total IgG (IgGt) antibodies and its subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) against soluble (STAg) and recombinant (rSAG1 and rMIC3) antigens of Toxoplasma gondii for diagnosing congenital toxoplasmosis. Sera from 217 newborns initially testing positive for specific IgM in filter paper dried blood spots were tested for specific IgM and IgG by ELFA-VIDAS. Congenital toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 175 and ruled out in 42 infants. The validity of the ELISA tests was determined using the persistence of IgG antibodies (ELFA-VIDAS kit) at the end of 12 months, which is considered the reference test for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. The frequency of positivity with IgGt against STAg, rSAG1 and rMIC3 was found in 97.2%, 96.3% and 80.2%, respectively, of the newborns with confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. IgG1 reacted with all three antigens, while IgG3 and IgG4 reacted preferentially with rMIC3. Higher mean values of reactivity (sample optical density/cut-off) were found for all subclasses when using rMIC3. All of the antigens showed high sensitivity and low specificity in detecting anti-T. gondii IgGt and IgG1 and low sensitivity and high specificity in detecting IgG3 and IgG4. In conclusion, the combined detection of IgG antibody subclasses against recombinant toxoplasmic antigens may be useful for the early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:22510829

Silva, Carlos Henryque de Souza e; Andrade, Gláucia Queiroz de; Januário, José Nélio; Carneiro, Ana Carolina de Aguiar Vasconcelos; Carneiro, Mariangela; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner de Almeida

2012-05-01

318

Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany. PMID:25037927

Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

2014-10-01

319

European Central Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

320

Neonatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in a cohort of 165 women infected during pregnancy and influence of in utero treatment on the results of neonatal tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the performances of methods used for the neonatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. We included 165 pregnant women infected during pregnancy over a 10-year period. Fifty-seven cases of congenital toxoplasmosis were demonstrated (34.5%). Neonatal diagnosis gave positive results in 50 cases (88%). Parasites were isolated from placenta or cord blood in 61% of

M. H Bessičres; A Berrebi; M Rolland; M. C Bloom; C Roques; S Cassaing; C Courjault; J.-P Séguéla

2001-01-01

321

[Retrospective study of the implementation of the qualitative PCR technique in biological samples for monitoring toxoplasmosis in pediatric patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is severe and difficult to diagnose in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twelve patients receiving HSCT were monitored post-transplant, by qualitative PCR at the Children's Hospital S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". The monitoring of these patients was defined by a history of positive serology for toxoplasmosis in the donor or recipient and because their hematologic condition did not allow the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis. During the patients' monitoring, two of them with positive PCR results showed signs of illness by T. gondii and were treated with pyrimethamine-clindamycin. In two other patients, toxoplasmosis was the cause of death and an autopsy finding, showing negative PCR results. Four patients without clinical manifestations received treatment for toxoplasmosis because of positive PCR detection. In four patients there were no signs of toxoplasmosis disease and negative PCR results during follow-up. The qualitative PCR technique proved useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis reactivation in HSCT recipients, but has limitations in monitoring and making clinical decisions due to the persistence of positive PCR over time and manifestations of toxicity caused by the treatment. PMID:24721270

Nigro, Mónica G; Figueroa, Carlos; Ledesma, Bibiana A

2014-01-01

322

Hemophagocytic syndrome as uncommon presentation of disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent adult from Chinese Kunming.  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare disease that is often fatal, despite treatment. An immunocompetent patient was presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia, and hyperferritinemia, which conformed to a hemophagocytic syndrome diagnosis. Despite broad antibiotic treatment, the patient's clinical condition rapidly deteriorated and he died within 8 days of admission. Blood cultures and a serology test were negative; however, based on morphological characteristics, tissue cysts Toxoplasma gondii were found in the bone marrow. Based on polymerase chain reaction analysis, identity of the parasite was confirmed. Although very rare, T. gondii-associated hemophagocytic syndrome should be suspected in the case of cytopenia or multiorgan failure symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first fatal toxoplasmosis case reported from China. PMID:23509123

Yang, YanFen; Zuo, WeiWei; Hu, JunJie; Esch, Gerald W; Zuo, YangXian

2013-06-01

323

Direct Genotypic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Tunisia (North Africa)  

PubMed Central

Here, we determined the Toxoplasma gondii genotype in amniotic fluid, placenta, and cerebrospinal fluid samples from 14 congenital toxoplasmosis cases in Tunisia, North Africa. Direct genotypic characterization of T. gondii strains was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of six genetic markers (3?SAG2, 5? SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, and APICO) and thereafter, was analyzed by restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP). Samples were sequenced to resolve strain type whenever there were unclear enzyme digestion results. Multilocus analysis revealed that only one specimen harbored the type I allele in all studied loci, whereas the 13 others gave mixed genotype results with different alleles at different markers. Seven specimens produced RFLP profile of the recombinant strains I/III, and three produced a profile of I/II recombinant strains. The last three specimens produced complex digestion patterns. In these cases, sequence analysis revealed double peaks at known polymorphic sites, indicating the presence of multiple alleles. PMID:20519598

Boughattas, Sonia; Ben-Abdallah, Rym; Siala, Emna; Souissi, Olfa; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aďda

2010-01-01

324

Recombinant Dense Granular Protein (GRA5) for Detection of Human Toxoplasmosis by Western Blot  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5) in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5) was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp.). PMID:24987700

Ching, Xiao Teng; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Andiappan, Hemah

2014-01-01

325

European Dialogue: The Magazine for European Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new bimonthly magazine published by the European Commission is targeted at "decision-makers/opinion formers having an impact on European Integration" in the ten Central European and Baltic countries that have applied to join the EU. The electronic version of the first issue contains articles on humanitarian aid, membership negotiations, pensions, and economic forecasts.

1997-01-01

326

Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction on amniotic fluid for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The present study assessed sensitivity and specificity of PCR targeting P30 gene in diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis using amniotic fluid samples. A total of 358 pregnant women in their first trimester of pregnancy, most of them were asymptomatic while the others suffered lymphadenopathy, fever and/or malaise. The serum sample from each woman was screened for Toxoplasma-specific ELISA IgM & IgG. Sero-negative females were then screened in 2nd & 3rd trimesters for sero-conversion. Amniocentesis was performed to seropositive and sero-converted women. Detection of Toxoplasma DNA in AF was done by animal inoculation and PCR targeting P30 gene. 85/358 women were sero-positive for Toxoplasma. Congenital infection was detected in 14/85 fetuses by MI. One mouse had tachyzoite in peritoneal exudate while other 13 showed cysts in histpathological sections of mice. PCR test targeting P30 gene was positive in 13 with additional four fetuses, only PCR gave positive results, and serologic follow-up of suspected fetuses (17) by IgM ELISA confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. Sixteen cases of congenitally infected newborn were a symptomatic. One was clinically diagnosed (ventricular dilatation) by the ultrasound. The PCR drastically changed the diagnostic repertoire for prenatal diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR targeting P30 gene on AF samples were 92.9% & 94.4% respectively while positive predictive value (PPV) was 76.5%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 98.5%. Its disadvantages were in fact that negative result cannot exclude acute infection, and thus must be confirmed by MI and it is also an expensive technique. PMID:19795760

Eida, Omima M; Eida, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Abeer B

2009-08-01

327

Latent Toxoplasmosis in Patients With Different Malignancy: A Hospital Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in different populations may vary according to different environments, social customs and habits. This study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among patients with different malignancies and to ascertain the association between common risk factors and disease transmission. Methods This Cross-sectional study was from January to April of 2009. Four Oncology wards in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) were selected as the site for undertaking the present study. The survey involved 129 patients with different malignancies. Information was gathered by using study subject information sheet and a standardized structured questionnaire. Toxoplasma was screened by a standerd ELISA commercial kit in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and performed at the Department of Microbiology, HUKM Kuala Lumpur. A result of > 51 IU/ml of anti-Toxoplasma (IgG) antibody was regarded as positive, indicating latent or pre-existing Toxoplasma infection. A result of > 51 IU/ml of anti-Toxoplasma (IgM) antibody was regarded as positive, indicating recently acquired Toxoplasma infection. Results Total number of seropositive patients was 54 (67.6%), the mean age was 51 years (range15 - 88 years). Toxoplasma IgG positivity was highest among Malaysian (32%). Male to female ratio was almost equal. There was a statistically significant difference in seropositivity between patients living in rural areas compared to those living in urban areas, positive history of consumption of undercooked meat and/or blood transfusion (p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings give some support to Toxoplasma screening program and health education, including promotion of a healthy lifestyle exclusively in seronegative patients in order to prevent seroconversion and the incidence of clinically evident opportunistic infection. Keywords Toxoplasma gondii; Risk factors; Immunocompromised; seroconversion; Seroprevalence PMID:21629523

Nimir, Amal; Othman, Amizah; Ee, Soon; Musa, Zohdy; Majid, Iffah Abd; Kamarudin, Zalikha; Xian, Chee; Isa, Noor Hayati

2010-01-01

328

Alternative treatment approach to cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: experience from a resource poor setting.  

PubMed

The current standard treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis (pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine) often encounters problems of poor tolerability, adverse effects, frequent dropouts and non-availability of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine in some parts of India. We had to use the combination of two effective alternative agents for toxoplasmosis, cotrimoxazole and clindamycin, on compassionate ground. This retrospective observational study reports superior efficacy and better tolerability of cotrimoxazole/clindamycin compared to recommended regimen. Primary end-point (complete response) was defined as more than 50% improvement of clinical status or more than 50% decrease in the size of brain lesions after two weeks of treatment initiation. Complete response occurred more commonly in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin than in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine (80% vs. 31.25%, respectively, relative risk 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-5.43). There was a trend towards higher on-treatment mortality in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine in comparison to cotrimoxazole/clindamycin group (mortality rates 37.5% in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine vs 12% in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin, p?=?0.07, relative risk?=?3.125, 95% confidence interval: 0.91-10.75). Overall, 62.5% (10/16) patients in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine suffered drug-related adverse reactions compared to 24% (6/25) in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (p?=?0.02, relative risk?=?2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-5.76). Commonest complication in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine was severe thrombocytopenia with major bleeding (4/16, 25%). We propose that the new combination chemotherapy, which is widely available, effective and safe, can be practiced in developing countries. PMID:25411350

Goswami, Rama Prosad; Goswami, Rudra Prosad; Rahman, Mehebubar; Ray, Yogiraj; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

2014-11-18

329

The welfare costs of hybrid carbon policies in the European Union  

E-print Network

To what extent do the welfare costs associated with the implementation of the Burden Sharing Agreement in the European Union depend on sectoral allocation of emissions rights? What are the prospects for strategic climate ...

Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Viguier, Laurent L.; Reilly, John M.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Criqui, Patrick.

330

Mineral prospecting manual  

SciTech Connect

This book: provides the mineral prospector with a series of essential guidelines for the work he must do and the precautions he will have to take; shows how successful mineral prospecting is dependent on the critical examination of technical, economic and financial data examined during each phase of the operation; and provides information on physical preparations for prospecting, hammer prospecting, prospecting in coastal formations, drilling techniques and equipment, sampling procedures, and current research methods (e.g.: remote sensing and geochemistry).

Chaussier, J.B.; Morer, J.

1986-01-01

331

[Considering the role of the PCR method in routine diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in peripheral blood tests in immunocompetent patients].  

PubMed

Infections caused by pathogenic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii in our geographic area is the most frequent parasitic infection; Czech Republic declares seroprevalence approx. 30 %. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mostly based on serological methods are used (EIA IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG and avidity in IgG, Western Blot, complement fixation). According to positive results of these tests diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis is established. In our retrospective study we tried to evaluate results of T. gondii DNA positivity from blood samples by PCR compared with positive markers of acute infection in patients before specific therapy was initiated. In accordance with literature we concluded, that in routine examination of immunocompetent outpatients of Clinic of Infectious Diseases from the moment of 4 weeks after lymphatic nodes swelling protozoan DNA detection in blood sample is not possible. PMID:19937577

Cermáková, Zuzana; Prásil, Petr; Valenta, Zbynek; Förstl, Miroslav; Plísková, Lenka; Bolehovská, Radka

2009-08-01

332

Severe pulmonary toxoplasmosis mimicking viral pneumonitis after a third allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a man with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) twice, then underwent allo-SCT a third time due to relapse. On day 27, he developed acute respiratory distress, and bilateral interstitial infiltrates were noted on CT images. Despite receiving intensive treatment, the patient died on day 32 from progressive respiratory failure. An autopsy revealed evidence of diffuse alveolar damage caused by the genus Toxoplasma. At present, toxoplasmosis is considered to be a rare infectious complication in Japan. However, the actual incidence of toxoplasmosis may be higher than currently believed due to a lack of suspicion of the diagnosis in patients, difficulty in making a diagnosis and low autopsy rates. PMID:23064573

Sumi, Masahiko; Hata, Satoru; Sato, Keijiro; Fujikawa, Yuko; Shimizu, Ikuo; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Akahane, Daigo; Ueno, Mayumi; Ichikawa, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Hikaru

2012-01-01

333

Toxoplasmosis in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St Lawrence estuary: two case reports and a serological survey.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in two free-ranging beluga whales from the St Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada, in 1988 and 1998. Histologically, tachyzoites and bradyzoites were present in the brain, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals and lungs of both animals, and in the thymus of one. These organisms were readily labelled by an indirect immunohistochemical method for Toxoplasma gondii antigens. In the lymph nodes, spleen and lungs the organisms were associated with histiocytic infiltration. In the brain of one animal they were associated with mild multifocal gliosis and haemorrhages. There was no evidence of concomitant morbillivirus infection. Serum samples were collected from 22 beluga whales stranded between 1995 and 1998 on the shores of the St Lawrence Estuary and examined for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test. Antibody titres of s25 were found in six (27%) of the animals. This is the first confirmed report of toxoplasmosis in beluga whales. PMID:10627393

Mikaelian, I; Boisclair, J; Dubey, J P; Kennedy, S; Martineau, D

2000-01-01

334

Prospects of inertial confinement fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present status of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is briefly reviewed, emphasizing the National Ignition Facility (NIF) project in the US and the Megajoule project in France. Critical aspects of target performance such as symmetry and stability of capsule implosions and interaction physics in hohlraum targets are discussed. The advantages of heavy-ion beam drivers and corresponding research programs are pointed out with reference to the long-term prospects for ICF power production. The new concept of the fast ignition of precompressed fuel by petawatt, picosecond laser pulses is also covered. The laser plasma group at the Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) is one of the European institutes funded by EURATOM for an ICF keep-in-touch activity, and we highlight results obtained at MPQ relevant to the recent progress of ICF.

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

1997-12-01

335

Toxoplasmosis presenting as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast and a palpable axillary lymph node mimicking malignancy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in toxoplasmosis. A breast mass due to toxoplasmosis is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of toxoplasmosis that presented as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast with a palpable axillary lymph node which mimicked breast cancer. Case presentation A 45-year-old otherwise healthy Caucasian woman presented with a lump on the lateral aspect of her left breast. Her mother had breast cancer that was diagnosed at the age of 66 years. During an examination, we discovered that our patient had a discrete, firm lump in the axillary tail of her left breast and an enlarged, palpable lymph node in her left axilla. Her right breast and axilla were normal. The clinical diagnosis was malignancy in the left breast. Ultrasound and mammographic examinations of her breast suggested a pathological process but were not conclusive. She had targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core biopsy of the lesions. FNAC was indeterminate (C3) but suggested a possibility of toxoplasmosis. The core biopsy was not suggestive of malignancy but showed granulomatous inflammation. She had a wide local excision of the breast lump and an axillary lymph node biopsy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies excluded carcinoma or lymphoma but suggested the possibility of intramammary and axillary toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. The results of Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG serology tests were positive, supporting a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Conclusions Toxoplasmosis rarely presents as a pseudotumor of the breast. FNAC and histology are valuable tools for a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and serology is an important adjunct for confirmation. PMID:21816047

2011-01-01

336

Comparative study between serological and molecular methods for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in women and small ruminants in Egypt.  

PubMed

Routine serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis provides high sensitivity, but specificity varies depending on the test used; false-positive results (IgM) have been reported. Blood samples were collected from 88 women (59 pregnant and 29 nonpregnant) and 86 contact animals (62 sheep and 24 goats) at El Fayoum Governorate during the period from October 2005 to December 2006. All collected samples were tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection by serological tests (ELISA IgM & IgG and Sabin-Feldman dye test) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results revealed specific IgG in 45.8% and 41.4%, IgM in 30.5% and 24.2%, and positive Sabin-Feldman dye test in 23.7% and 17.2% in pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively. Positive PCR products were detected in 32.2% and 27.6% in pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively. Regarding animals, positive ELISA IgG and PCR were detected in 98.4% and 67.7% of sheep and 41.7% and 25.0% of goats, respectively. It was concluded that serological tests can detect higher rate of toxoplasmosis than PCR, so ELISA combined with the PCR technique is a recommended tool for accurate diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. PMID:19743922

Ghoneim, Nahed H; Shalaby, Said I; Hassanain, Nawal A; Zeedan, Gamil S G; Soliman, Youssef A; Abdalhamed, Abeer M

2010-01-01

337

[Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou (Bénin)].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the ImmunoComb® Toxo IgG and ImmunoComb® Toxo IgMassays (rapid diagnostic test) in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou. We interviewed 266 pregnant women, who first answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti T. gondii antibodies with the ImmunoComb toxo assays and with the ARCHITECT CIMA method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated to determine the performance of the rapid test. The seroprevalences of IgG against T. gondii by CIMA technique and rapid test were respectively 48.9% and 48.5%. The prevalence increased with age. Performances for IgG were: sensitivity 97%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 97.10%. For IgM, Sensitivity: 33.3% Specificity: 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 99.2%. Seroprevalence obtained shows that about half of the study population is not immune against T. gondii and requires regular serological monitoring until delivery. According to these results, and given the needs of toxoplasmosis diagnosis on the field characterized by an important decrease of immunized women, this test may be recommended in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in peripheral levels of the health pyramid. PMID:24639136

Ogouyčmi-Hounto, A; Agbayahoun-Chokki, F; Sissinto Savi de Tove, Y; Biokou Bankole, B; Adinsi de Souza, V; Assogba, M; Kinde-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

2014-05-01

338

Seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in antenatal women with bad obstetric history in a tertiary-care hospital of Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a well-documented cause of bad obstetric history (BOH) and a major reason of congenitally-acquired infection. The study was conducted to determine the seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in women with BOH, attending the antenatal clinic of the Mamata General Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study subjects included 105 antenatal women with BOH and 105 antenatal women who had previous normal deliveries. A serological evaluation was carried out to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, using commercial diagnostic kits, by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The seropositivity for Toxoplasma was 49.52% in the study group compared to 12.38% in the control group. The difference in seropositivity was significant (p=0.00). The seroprevalence gradually increased with advancing age. Abortion (51.92%) was the commonest form of pregnancy wastage, followed by stillbirths (36.53%) and premature deliveries (7.69%). The seropositivity of toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in the study group than that in the control group, and the seropositivity played an important role in determining the foetal outcome. Considering the subclinical pattern of infection, routine serological test is recommended for all pregnant women for both IgG and IgM antibodies. PMID:22524124

Sarkar, Munmun Das; Anuradha, B; Sharma, Neelam; Roy, Rabindra Nath

2012-03-01

339

Spiramycin/cotrimoxazole versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide and spiramycin alone for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Objective:To compare the effectiviness of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole (Sp/C) versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide (Pyr/Sul) and spiramycin alone (Spy) on mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy.Study design:Retrospective study of pregnant women evaluated for suspected toxoplasmosis between 1992 and 2011.Result:A total of 120 mothers and their 123 newborns were included. Prenatal treatment consisted of spiramycin in 43 mothers (35%), spiramycin/cotrimoxazole in 70 (56.9%) and pyrimethamine/sulfonamide in 10 (8.1%). A trend toward reduction in toxoplasmosis transmission was found when Sp/C was compared with Pyr/Sul and particularly with Spy alone (P=0.014). In particular, Spy increased the risk of congenital infection when compared with Sp/C (odds ratio (OR) 4.368; 95% CI: 1.253 to 15.219), but there was no significant reduction when Sp/C was compared with Pyr/Sul (OR 1.83; 95% CI: 0.184 to 18.274).Conclusion:The treatment based on Sp/C has significant efficacy in reducing maternal-fetal transmission of Toxoplasma gondii when compared with Pyr/Sul and particularly to Spy. Randomized controlled trials would be required.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 11 September 2014; doi:10.1038/jp.2014.161. PMID:25211284

Valentini, P; Buonsenso, D; Barone, G; Serranti, D; Calzedda, R; Ceccarelli, M; Speziale, D; Ricci, R; Masini, L

2014-09-11

340

New prospects in Cambrian platform orthoquartzites in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Middle Cambrian orthoquartzites produce oil in two small fields northwest of Gdansk, Poland; few developed offshore discoveries exist in the southeastern Baltic Sea. This joint Polish-German study on these poorly porous sandstones is aimed at delineating areas of better reservoir quality development and thus of future prospects. In the Polish part of the East European platform, Cambrian deposits exist in

J. Labecki; W. Weil; M. Schleicher; H. Kulke; J. Koester

1991-01-01

341

Distributed resources and targeted DSM: Experiences and opportunities for European utilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to explore the opportunities for distributed resources (DR), especially targeted demand-side management (DSM), to be implemented by European utilities. An analysis approach for identifying high-cost service areas is described, and some prospects for exploiting DR, based on such analysis, in the European context are discussed.

Swisher, J.

1995-12-01

342

Profiling of infection specific mRNA transcripts of the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), one of the most extensively cultured species in European aquaculture productions, is, along with the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a prospective model species for the Perciformes which includes several other commercially important species. Massive mortalities may be caused by bacterial or viral infections in intensive aquaculture production. Revealing transcripts involved in immune response

Elena Sarropoulou; Pilar Sepulcre; Laura Poisa-Beiro; Victoriano Mulero; José Meseguer; Antonio Figueras; Beatriz Novoa; Vasso Terzoglou; Richard Reinhardt; Antonios Magoulas; Georgios Kotoulas

2009-01-01

343

Identification of potential serodiagnostic and subunit vaccine antigens by antibody profiling of toxoplasmosis cases in Turkey.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis, caused by infection of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is associated with mild disease in healthy individuals, whereas individuals with depressed immunity may develop encephalitis, neurologic disorders, and other organ diseases. Women who develop acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus, which may lead to fetal damage. A diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring IgG, or IgM where it is important to determine the onset of infection. A negative IgM result essentially excludes acute infection, whereas a positive IgM test is largely uninterpretable because IgM can persist for up to 18 months after infection. To identify antigens for improved diagnosis of acute infection, we probed protein microarrays displaying the polypeptide products of 1357 Toxoplasma exons with well-characterized sera from Turkey. The sera were classified according to conventional assays into (1) seronegative individuals with no history of T. gondii infection; (2) acute infections defined by clinical symptoms, high IgM titers, and low avidity IgG; (3) chronic/convalescent cases with high avidity IgG but persisting IgM; (iv) true chronic infections, defined by high avidity IgG and no IgM. We have identified 38 IgG target antigens and 108 IgM target antigens that can discriminate infected patients from healthy controls, one or more of which could form the basis of a 'tier-1' test to determine current or previous exposure. Of these, three IgG antigens and five IgM antigens have the potential to discriminate chronic/IgM persisting or true chronics from recent acutely infected patients (a 'tier-2' test). Our analysis of the antigens revealed several enriched features relative to the whole proteome, which include transmembrane domains, signal peptides, or predicted localization at the outer membrane. This is the first protein microarray survey of the antibody response to T. gondii, and will help in the development of improved serodiagnostics and vaccines. PMID:21512035

Liang, Li; Dö?kaya, Mert; Juarez, Silvia; Caner, Ay?e; Jasinskas, Algis; Tan, Xiaolin; Hajagos, Bettina E; Bradley, Peter J; Korkmaz, Metin; Gürüz, Yüksel; Felgner, Philip L; Davies, D Huw

2011-07-01

344

Identification of Potential Serodiagnostic and Subunit Vaccine Antigens by Antibody Profiling of Toxoplasmosis Cases in Turkey*  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis, caused by infection of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is associated with mild disease in healthy individuals, whereas individuals with depressed immunity may develop encephalitis, neurologic disorders, and other organ diseases. Women who develop acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus, which may lead to fetal damage. A diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring IgG, or IgM where it is important to determine the onset of infection. A negative IgM result essentially excludes acute infection, whereas a positive IgM test is largely uninterpretable because IgM can persist for up to 18 months after infection. To identify antigens for improved diagnosis of acute infection, we probed protein microarrays displaying the polypeptide products of 1357 Toxoplasma exons with well-characterized sera from Turkey. The sera were classified according to conventional assays into (1) seronegative individuals with no history of T. gondii infection; (2) acute infections defined by clinical symptoms, high IgM titers, and low avidity IgG; (3) chronic/convalescent cases with high avidity IgG but persisting IgM; (iv) true chronic infections, defined by high avidity IgG and no IgM. We have identified 38 IgG target antigens and 108 IgM target antigens that can discriminate infected patients from healthy controls, one or more of which could form the basis of a ‘tier-1? test to determine current or previous exposure. Of these, three IgG antigens and five IgM antigens have the potential to discriminate chronic/IgM persisting or true chronics from recent acutely infected patients (a ‘tier-2? test). Our analysis of the antigens revealed several enriched features relative to the whole proteome, which include transmembrane domains, signal peptides, or predicted localization at the outer membrane. This is the first protein microarray survey of the antibody response to T. gondii, and will help in the development of improved serodiagnostics and vaccines. PMID:21512035

Liang, Li; Dö?kaya, Mert; Juarez, Silvia; Caner, Ay?e; Jasinskas, Algis; Tan, Xiaolin; Hajagos, Bettina E.; Bradley, Peter J.; Korkmaz, Metin; Gürüz, Yüksel; Felgner, Philip L.; Davies, D. Huw

2011-01-01

345

Intranasal Immunisation with Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii Actin Partly Protects Mice against Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan intracellular parasite, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, and a worldwide zoonosis for which an effective vaccine is needed. Actin is a highly conserved microfilament protein that plays an important role in the invasion of host cells by T. gondii. This study investigated the immune responses elicited by BALB/c mice after nasal immunisation with a recombinant T. gondii actin (rTgACT) and the subsequent protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections. We evaluated the systemic response by proliferation, cytokine and antibody measurements, and we assessed the mucosal response by examining the levels of TgACT-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. Parasite load was assessed in the liver and brain, and the survival of mice challenged with a virulent strain was determined. The results showed that the mice immunised with rTgACT developed high levels of specific anti-rTgACT IgG titres and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with a predominance of IgG2a. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-? and IL-2), Th2 (IL-4) and Treg (IL-10) cytokines, indicating that not only Th1-type response was induced, but also Th2- and Treg-types responses were induced, and the splenocyte stimulation index (SI) was increased in the mice immunised with rTgACT. Nasal immunisation with rTgACT led to strong mucosal immune responses, as seen by the increased secretion of SIgA in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. The vaccinated mice displayed significant protection against lethal infection with the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%), while the mice chronically infected with RH exhibited lower liver and brain parasite loads (60.05% and 49.75%, respectively) than the controls. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that actin triggers a strong systemic and mucosal response against T. gondii. Therefore, actin may be a promising vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. PMID:24386114

Yin, Li-Tian; Hao, Hai-Xia; Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Yin, Guo-Rong

2013-01-01

346

Prospective Validation Obtained in a Similar Group of Patients and with Similar High Throughput Biological Tests Failed to Confirm Signatures for Prediction of Response to Chemotherapy and Survival in Advanced NSCLC: A Prospective Study from the European Lung Cancer Working Party  

PubMed Central

Aim: Cisplatin doublets are standard 1st line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), without accurate predictor for response and survival, but important toxicity. Our aims were to identify predictive (for response) and prognostic (for survival) biological signatures in patients with NSCLC using messenger RNAs (mRNA) and miRNA expression. Methods: Patients with pathologically proven untreated NSCLC, receiving 1st line cisplatin–vinorelbine and with an assessable lesion were eligible. A bronchial biopsy was lysed into Tripure Isolation Reagent on ice, snap frozen, and stored at ?80°C. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarrays Agilent Technologies. miRNA expression was assessed using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (756 human miR panel, Applied Biosystems). Validation was performed by RT-PCR on the selected genes. Survival was measured from the registration date and response assessed by WHO criteria. Results: Biopsies for transcriptomic analyses were obtained from 60 consecutive patients. No statistically significant differences were observed according to the main clinical characteristics, response rate (43 vs. 41%) or survival (median 25 vs. 29?months) between derivation and validation sets. In the derivation set (n?=?38 patients), two mRNA and one miRNA predictive signatures for response were obtained. One mRNA and one miRNA prognostic signatures were derived from the first set, allowing an adequate distinction of patients with good and poor overall and progression-free survivals. None of these signatures could be validated in the validation set (n?=?22 patients). Conclusion: In this prospective study with advanced NSCLC treated with cisplatin–vinorelbine, we were able to derive with high throughput techniques predictive and prognostic signatures based on transcriptomic analyses. However, these results could not be reproduced in an independent validation set. The role of miRNA and mRNA as predictive or prognostic factors remains a research topic and the use of high throughput technology in that context questionable. The ClinicalTrials.gov study identifier is NCT00864266 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:25674536

Berghmans, Thierry; Ameye, Lieveke; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Colinet, Benoît; Cortot, Alexis; CsToth, Ingrid; Holbrechts, Stéphane; Lecomte, Jacques; Mascaux, Céline; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Paesmans, Marianne; Richez, Michel; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Tulippe, Christian; Willems, Luc; Dernies, Tiffany; Leclercq, Nathalie; Sculier, Jean-Paul

2014-01-01

347

Cerebral toxoplasmosis in an adolescent post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: successful outcome by antiprotozoal chemotherapy and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte recovery.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a rare opportunistic infection in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients and associated with severe T-cell deficiency. Here, we report the successful management of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a 15-year-old adolescent 4 months post allo-HSCT for non-Hodgkin lymphoma through rapid invasive diagnostics, long-term antiprotozoal chemotherapy, and an hematopoietic stem cell boost for persistently poor graft function. While supportive care and antiprotozoal chemotherapy achieved stabilization, definite improvement only occurred following recovery of CD4(+) T lymphocytes to >100 cells/?L. At 5 years after the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, the patient is in continuing remission with normalized clinical and imaging findings. PMID:25581774

Kerl, K; Ehlert, K; Brentrup, A; Schiborr, M; Keyvani, K; Becker, K; Rossig, C; Groll, A H

2015-02-01

348

Comparison of two assays in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: immunological and molecular.  

PubMed

Serological tests for Toxoplasma gondii are inadequate because antibody production either fails or is significantly delayed. This study in eastern Iraq investigated the IgG-avidity ELISA test for detecting recent T. gondii infections among pregnant women and compared immunological methods and PCR as molecular assays in the diagnosis of T. gondii. Serums samples were taken from 130 pregnant women at risk of toxoplasmosis and a control group of 25 women with normal pregnancy. Of 50 IgM- and/or IgG-positive samples, only 15 showed low IgG-avidity antibodies. PCR was performed on 25 selected samples. Toxoplasma DNA was detected in 15/15 IgM-positive with low IgG-avidity and 1/3 IgM-positive with high IgG-avidity. None of the IgM-negative with high IgG-avidity showed any Toxoplasma DNA. ELISA IgG-avidity when used in combination with ELISA IgG/IgM is a valuable assay for the exclusion of ongoing or recently acquired T. gondii infection in pregnant women. PMID:24932933

Hashoosh, D A; Majeed, I A

2014-01-01

349

Epidemiological and serological aspects in canine toxoplasmosis in animals with nervous symptoms.  

PubMed

The presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies was studied in samples of blood serum taken from eighty dogs with nervous symptoms at the Serviço de Enfermidades Infecciosas dos Animais, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Unesp, Botucatu, Săo Paulo, Brazil. The frequency of IgG titers were 16 (13.7%), 64 (13.7%), and 256 (5%), and for IgM titers were 16 (7.5%), 64 (15%), and 256 (8.7%). Positive reactions were more frequent in the older animals, males, from a rural environment, in constant contact with small animals, principally birds and rodents. There was a higher frequency of a positive reaction in dogs fed with kitchen food, especially in those fed with raw ingredients. The most common neurological pictures were alterations in consciousness, in movement, and in the hand-cart test. The percentage of reagents with specific IgM antibodies was high, indicating active infections, but the possibility of co-infection with the distemper virus can not be discarded, and this may be a predisposing factor for toxoplasmosis infection, once the distemper virus has a potent immunosuppressive action. PMID:11992143

de Brito, Adriana Falco; de Souza, Luiz Carlos; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; Langoni, Helio

2002-01-01

350

[Systemic microsporidiosis and toxoplasmosis in a patient with T prolymphocytic leukemia].  

PubMed

We report a case of microsporidiosis in a 72-year-old woman presenting with prolymphocytic leukemia. The underlying conditions 7 months after leukemia was diagnosed were pancytopenia and immunosuppression due to alemtuzumab and pentostatin. The patient's status had worsened and she presented with dysuria. Urine cultures for bacteria were repeatedly negative. She was first empirically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Three months later, urinary symptoms were persisting. Her blood lymphocyte count was 90/microl. Urine examination was positive for microsporidia using modified trichrome staining and Uvitex 2B fluorescence. Microsporidia were also detected in stools. The patient was cured by albendazole. This was consistent with an infection due to Encephalitozoon sp. Concurrently, disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in bone marrow, broncho-alveolar lavage and cerebrospinal fluid. She was successfully treated with sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine. Four cases of microsporidiosis in myeloid leukemic patients have been already described. The present case in a patient with lymphoid leukemia is the first to be reported. PMID:19046839

Jamet, D; Quinio, D; Moalic, E; Ianotto, J-C; Dalbies, F; Guillerm, G; Marion, V; Berthou, C; Nevez, G

2009-06-01

351

Primary central nervous system lymphoma in acquired immune deficiency syndrome mimicking toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old man, a hepatitis B virus carrier due to mother-to-child transmission, had a medical examination in September 2008 in nearby hospitals due to anorexia and weight loss. He was transported to our hospital because computed tomography (CT) detected intracranial lesions, and he had a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test. Head computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple hemorrhagic lesions and enhancement effect, suggesting a thin wall. Also, an enhancement effect was present in the ventricle walls and the subarachnoid space. No accumulation was found in the thallium-201 scintigraphy. The enhancement effect of the ventricle walls and the subarachnoid space disappeared after oral administration of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and calcium folinate, contributing to the diagnosis of an abscess and meningitis due to toxoplasma. However, mass lesions did not reduce. A biopsy was performed on 30 October, and the pathological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma. He died from respiratory function deterioration on 8 November. Lymphoma cells were found in ventricle wall tissue and the subarachnoid space at the autopsy. Toxoplasmosis will typically occur as a brain lesion most commonly in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), whereas malignant lymphoma commonly manifests as a brain neoplastic lesion. However, differentiating between images of these lesions is difficult, so diagnosis by early biopsy is recommended. PMID:21210240

Utsuki, Satoshi; Oka, Hidehiro; Abe, Katsutoshi; Osawa, Shigeyuki; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Yasui, Yoshie; Fujii, Kiyotaka

2011-02-01

352

Chronic murine toxoplasmosis is defined by subtle changes in neuronal connectivity  

PubMed Central

Recent studies correlate chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection with behavioral changes in rodents; additionally, seropositivity in humans is reported to be associated with behavioral and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study we investigated whether the described behavioral changes in a murine model of chronic toxoplasmosis are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity and brain neuronal circuitry. In mice chronically infected with T. gondii, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data analysis displayed the presence of heterogeneous lesions scattered throughout all brain areas. However, a higher density of lesions was observed within specific regions such as the somatosensory cortex (SSC). Further histopathological examination of these brain areas indicated the presence of activated resident glia and recruited immune cells accompanied by limited alterations of neuronal viability. In vivo diffusion-tensor MRI analysis of neuronal fiber density within the infected regions revealed connectivity abnormalities in the SSC. Altered fiber density was confirmed by morphological analysis of individual, pyramidal and granule neurons, showing a reduction in dendritic arbor and spine density within the SSC, as well as in the hippocampus. Evaluation of synapse efficacy revealed diminished levels of two key synaptic proteins, PSD95 and synaptophysin, within the same brain areas, indicating deficits in functionality of the synaptic neurotransmission in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. gondii infection in a murine model results in synaptic deficits within brain structures leading to disturbances in the morphology of noninfected neurons and modified brain connectivity, suggesting a potential explanation for the behavioral and neuropsychiatric alterations. PMID:24524910

Parlog, Alexandru; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Weller, Marianna; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Mawrin, Christian; Korte, Martin; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

2014-01-01

353

Toxoplasmosis in dogs: first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola.  

PubMed

Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also at assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n?=?103) brought to a veterinary clinic in the city of Luanda were investigated. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii with a modified agglutination test (MAT) commercial kit, at serial dilutions of 1?20 to 1?160. In accordance with the established cutoff value (MAT ?20), 16 dogs [15·5%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9·2-24·0%] had antibodies to T. gondii: 10 had a titer of 20, two had a titer of 40, and four had a titer of 80. Age (?12 months) was found to be a risk factor for infection [odds ratio (OR)?=?9·23; 95% CI: 1·16-73·27). For each 1-year increase in age, the risk of a dog being found seropositive significantly increased by an OR of 1·18 (95% CI: 1·02-1·36). The present study, which represents the first serological survey of T. gondii in any animal species from Angola, reveals a 15·5% seroprevalence of infection in pet dogs in Luanda. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiology of zoonotic T. gondii infection in Luanda and also in Angola. PMID:25392293

Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Brancal, Hugo; Dubey, Jitender P; Cardoso, Luís; Vilhena, Hugo

2014-10-01

354

[Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, CT and MRI images and differential diagnostic problems].  

PubMed

Cranial computed-tomographies (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 14 patients with AIDS and central nervous system toxoplasmosis (CNST) were reviewed. In spite of the low specificity of CT and MRI findings in CNS mass lesions of AIDS patients, there are some features which have been observed as more typical of CNST, namely: 94.9% of the lesions were round shaped and 94.5% had ring or nodular enhancement; 81.3% of the cases presented multiple lesions; 60.2% of the lesions were localized at the cerebral cortical or corticomedullary junction (100% of the cases showed at least 1 lesion in this localization); 34.6% of the lesions had less than 1cm in diameter.; on nonenhanced CT, 91.3% of the lesions were hypodense.; On T2-weighted MR images, 53.4% of the lesions had at least one hypointense zone on T2-weighted images. The existence of target-shaped lesions with hypointense centre on T2-weighted MR images (29.3% the observed lesions) is also suggestive of CNST, which, to our belief, had not been previously reported and will need confirmation with larger series. The visualization of iso/hyperdense lesions on nonenhanced CT or irregular shape lesions is uncommon in CNST. The finding of a solitary lesion, on CT or MR, it is not, by itself, a good criterion of differential diagnosis. PMID:8638472

Miguel, J; Champalimaud, J L; Borges, A; Chorăo, M; Branco, G; Doroana, M; Medina, E

1996-01-01

355

A New IgG Immunoblot Kit for Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

The determination of the accurate immune status of pregnant women is crucial in order to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis. Equivocal results with conventional serological techniques are not uncommon when IgG titers are close to the cut-off value of the test, so that a confirmatory technique is needed. For this purpose, we developed a homemade immunoblot (IB) using soluble extract of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and assessed it by testing 154 positive, 100 negative, and 123 equivocal sera obtained from pregnant women. In order to select the more valuable bands in terms of sensitivity and specificity, we used the Youden Index (YI). The highest YIs were those given by the 32, 36, 98, 21, and 33 bands. The simultaneous presence on the same blot of at least 3 bands showed a much higher YI (0.964) and was adapted as the positivity criterion. The analysis of results showed that our homemade IB correlated well with the commercial LDBIO Toxo II IgG® kit recently recommended as a confirmatory test (96.7% of concordance). PMID:25352697

Saghrouni, Fatma; Lakhal, Sami; Bouratbine, Aida; Ben Said, Moncef; Boukadida, Jalel

2014-01-01

356

European multicentre study to define disease activity criteria for systemic sclerosis.* I. Clinical and epidemiological features of 290 patients from 19 centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate the existence of differences among European referral centres for systemic sclerosis (SSc) in the pattern of attendance and referral and in the clinical and therapeutical approaches.METHODSIn 1995 the European Scleroderma Study Group initiated a multicentre prospective one year study whose aim was to define the disease activity criteria in SSc. During the study period each participating European centre

A Della Rossa; G Valentini; S Bombardieri; W Bencivelli; A J Silman; S DAngelo; M Matucci Cerinic; J F Belch; C M Black; R Becvar; P Bruhlman; F Cozzi; L Czirják; A A Drosos; B Dziankowska; C Ferri; A Gabrielli; R Giacomelli; G Hayem; M Inanc; N J McHugh; H Nielsen; R Scorza; E Tirri; F H J van den Hoogen; P G Vlachoyiannopoulos

2001-01-01

357

However, the European Union  

E-print Network

However, the European Union presidency Monday pointed to a new willingness by Japan to compromise talks with the European Union, which has been supporting France's bid. As a result, the Yomiuri said, China and Russia backed France. However, the European Union presidency Monday pointed to a new

358

Institutional Report: European Union  

E-print Network

Institutional Report: European Union Florence Bergeaud-Blackler CRIC, University of Manchester #12, Key Action 1, Contract no. QLK1-CT-2001-00291. Institutional Report: European Union Florence Bergeaud.trustinfood.org. This report presents data and analyses from studies at the European Union level. It belongs to a series

Boyer, Edmond

359

Adverse Socioeconomic Conditions and Oocyst-Related Factors Are Associated with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Population-Based Study in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective Congenital toxoplasmosis is a public health problem in Brazil. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais which is the second largest Brazilian State based on number of inhabitants, and its territorial extension is larger than that of France. Methods: Population-based case-control study to assess the association between congenital toxoplasmosis and maternal exposure to infection risk factors. The study included mothers/children participating in the Minas Gerais Newborn Screening Program. The cases consisted of 175 mothers of infected children, and the controls consisted of 278 mothers of children without suspected infection. The associations were assessed through binomial logistic regression with p?0.05. Results The variables associated with lower probability of toxoplasmosis were: older mother age (OR?=?0.89; CI95%?=?0.85–0.93), higher level of education (OR?=?0.85; CI95%?=?0.78–0.92), access to potable water (OR?=?0.21; CI95%?=?0.08–0.51), and home with flush toilet (OR?=?0.18; CI95%?=?0.04–078). The variables associated with higher probability of infection were: cats in the neighborhood (OR?=?2.27; CI95%?=?1.27–4.06), owning or visiting homes with domestic cats (OR?=?1.90; CI95%?=?1.09–3.31), handling the soil (OR?=?2.29; CI95%?=?1.32–3.96), and eating fresh meat not previously frozen (OR?=?3.97; CI95%?=?2.17–7.25). After stratification according region of residence (rural or urban/peri-urban), home with flush toilet and consumption of treated water were protective against the disease only in the rural stratum. Conclusions In Minas Gerais, congenital toxoplasmosis has been associated with poor socioeconomic conditions. Considering maternal exposure to sources of Toxoplasma gondii, the predominating risk factors were those related to the ingestion of oocysts. It is expected that these results will contribute to development of a program for prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis adapted to the reality of the population of Minas Gerais. The differences between populations living in rural and urban areas regarding the main risk factors for toxoplasmosis point to the need of considering regional specificities in planning strategies to control congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24523920

Carellos, Ericka Viana Machado; de Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; da Silva, Fabiana Maria; Loures, Ivy Rosa Coelho; de Andrade, Juliana Queiroz; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

2014-01-01

360

Auranofin Is Highly Efficacious against Toxoplasma gondii In Vitro and in an In Vivo Experimental Model of Acute Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background The mainstay of toxoplasmosis treatment targets the folate biosynthetic pathways and has not changed for the last 50 years. The activity of these chemotherapeutic agents is restricted to one lifecycle stage of Toxoplasma gondii, they have significant toxicity, and the impending threat of emerging resistance to these agents makes the discovery of new therapies a priority. We now demonstrate that auranofin, an orally administered gold containing compound that was FDA approved for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has activity against Toxoplasma gondii in vitro (IC50?=?0.28 µM) and in vivo (1 mg/kg). Methods/Principal Findings Replication within human foreskin fibroblasts of RH tachyzoites was inhibited by auranofin. At 0.4 µM, auranofin inhibited replication, as measured by percent infected fibroblasts at 24 hrs, (10.94% vs. 24.66% of controls; p?=?0.0003) with no effect on parasite invasion (16.95% vs. 12.91% p?=?0.4331). After 18 hrs, 62% of extracellular parasites treated with auranofin were non-viable compared to control using an ATP viability assay (p?=?0.0003). In vivo, a previously standardized chicken embryo model of acute toxoplasmosis was used. Fourteen day old chicken embryos were injected through the chorioallantoic vein with 1×104 tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain. The treatment group received one dose of auranofin at the time of inoculation (1 mg/kg estimated body weight). On day 5, auranofin-treated chicken embryos were 100% protected against death (p?=?0.0002) and had a significantly reduced parasite load as determined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and by the number of parasites quantified by real-time PCR. Conclusions These results reveal in vitro and in vivo activity of auranofin against T. gondii, suggesting that it may be an effective alternative treatment for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25079790

Andrade, Rosa M.; Chaparro, Juan D.; Capparelli, Edmund; Reed, Sharon L.

2014-01-01

361

Dating European Palaeolithic Cave Art: Progress, Prospects, Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade several dozen direct dates on cave art pigments or associated materials have supplemented more traditional\\u000a style-based attempts to establish a chronological (and developmental) scheme for cave art. In the “post-stylistic” era an\\u000a holistic integration of pigment “recipe” analysis, formal stylistic analysis and direct chronometric dating have been applied\\u000a to a handful of dates. Here, we examine

Paul Pettitt; Alistair Pike

2007-01-01

362

The Importance of IgG Avidity and the Polymerase Chain Reaction in Treating Toxoplasmosis during Pregnancy: Current Knowledge  

PubMed Central

A brief report on the nature and epidemiology of T. gondii infection is firstly presented. The importance of the specific IgG avidity test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for toxoplasmosis is discussed, along with their significance and importance as auxiliary methods for determining the most likely time for the initial infection by this coccidian and for defining the therapeutic strategy. Lastly, practical comments are made in relation to the classical therapeutic regimens, with special attention to the indications for fetal treatment, when this is necessary. PMID:24191157

Bortoletti Filho, Joăo; Carvalho, Natália da Silva; Helfer, Talita Micheletti; Nogueira Serni, Priscila de Oliveira; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

2013-01-01

363

Afro-Caribbean pemphigus : epidemiological data from a 5-year prospective study on the island of Guadeloupe (French West Indies)  

E-print Network

of African European descent). Methods: 5-year prospective study . Inclusion of the incident cases when autoimmune pemphigus in the13 Afro-Caribbean population. Moreover, all the studies performed with calculation1 Afro-Caribbean pemphigus : epidemiological data from a 5-year prospective study on the island

Boyer, Edmond

364

Amniocentesis for the detection of congenital toxoplasmosis: results from the nationwide Austrian prenatal screening program.  

PubMed

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) influences therapeutical management in pregnant women and their offspring. In Austria, a nationwide serological healthcare program to identify potential maternal toxoplasma infections during pregnancy exists. We assessed the clinical use of amniocentesis for toxoplasma-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on amniotic fluid to detect CT. Data on serology, amniocentesis, PCR, complications, treatment, and paediatric clinical outcome were collected retrospectively among the birth cohort 1992-2008. There were 1386 women with amniocentesis, but only in 707 cases (51%) was acute maternal infection confirmed serologically. A high proportion (49%) of amniocenteses with negative PCR results in women with chronic infection or seronegativity were performed without clinical justification for the women or their foetuses. The positive and negative predictive values of PCR were 94.4% and 99.3%, respectively. Thirty-nine foetuses with CT, including four deaths, were reported. The five PCR-negative but infected infants were identified by the serological and clinical follow-up program. Thirty percent of amniocenteses were performed in the third trimester, and gestational age or treatment did not influence PCR sensitivity. Amniocentesis is indicated in women with acute maternal infection, and facilitated targeted therapies in pregnant women and their offspring. In women with late toxoplasma infection, negative amniotic fluid PCR made treatment of infants unnecessary. Serological and clinical follow-up of infants is important to confirm the infection status of the infant. Recommendations, based on our 17-year experience, to improve the current diagnostic strategies and to reduce unnecessary amniocentesis, are given. PMID:25596783

Prusa, A-R; Kasper, D C; Pollak, A; Olischar, M; Gleiss, A; Hayde, M

2015-02-01

365

Evaluation of a New Protocol for Retrospective Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis by Use of Guthrie Cards  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of IgM Western blotting (WB), IgA enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and DNA amplification by real-time PCR on Guthrie cards to retrospectively establish the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). To this purpose, Guthrie cards were collected from 18 infants born to mothers with primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Moreover, the analytical sensitivity of T. gondii PCR was assessed by testing mock dried blood specimens set up with several known DNA dilutions. IgM WB was demonstrated to be the most sensitive method. When the results of T. gondii DNA detection and specific IgM recovery were combined, retrospective CT diagnosis by using Guthrie cards was established in 3 out of 6 infected infants (sensitivity, 50%; 95% confidence interval, 26.8% to 73.2%). No positive PCR or serologic results were found in the group of 12 uninfected infants, demonstrating the excellent specificity of the three methods (95% confidence interval, 78.1% to 99.5%). The findings of the present study suggest that, in cases of missed diagnosis of CT at birth, analysis of Guthrie cards for children with compatible clinical findings after the perinatal period, in particular the combination of recovery of specific IgM antibodies and T. gondii DNA amplification, could be helpful. Nevertheless, since suboptimal conditions of storage of dried blood specimens can seriously affect sensitivity, negative results cannot rule out CT diagnosis. In contrast, because of the excellent specificity shown by IgM serologic testing and T. gondii DNA amplification on Guthrie cards, positive results obtained by either of the two methods should be considered diagnostic. PMID:24899036

Capretti, Maria Grazia; De Angelis, Morena; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Foschi, Claudio; Orlandi, Azzurra; Marsico, Concetta; Righetti, Francesca; Faldella, Giacomo; Cevenini, Roberto

2014-01-01

366

Toxoplasmosis in natural populations of ungulates in france: prevalence and spatiotemporal variations.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is characterized by a complex epidemiology. The risk of infection for humans depends on their contact with infective oocysts in a contaminated environment and on the amount of tissue cysts located within consumed meat. Unfortunately, the prevalence of tissue cysts is largely unknown for game species. Although herbivorous game species are a source of infection for humans, the level of infection found in wildlife can also be used to estimate environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and analyze its temporal dynamics in one population of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), one of mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon), and two of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in France, surveyed during a period of 6 to 28 years. Taking into account individual risk factors, we specifically analyzed the relationship between T. gondii prevalence and meteorological conditions that may influence oocyst survival. Serum samples from 101 chamois, 143 mouflons, and 1155 roe deer were tested for antibodies against T. gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, or both. Using MAT with a threshold of 1:6, seroprevalence was 14.7% in mouflon, 16.8% in chamois, and 43.7% in roe deer. In mouflon and roe deer, seroprevalence was positively correlated with age and/or body mass, in accordance with the hypothesis that antibodies have long-term persistence. In roe deer, seropositivity differed between the two populations and changed linearly over time between 1983 and 2010, increasing by a factor 1.75 every 10 years. Moreover, in this species, the highest prevalences were found during dry and cold years or during warm and moist years, depending on the population. Our results suggest that the risk for people to acquire infection through game meat increases over time, but with high variability according to the population of origin and meteorological conditions of the year. PMID:24745359

Gotteland, Cécile; Aubert, Dominique; Gibert, Philippe; Moinet, Marie; Klein, François; Game, Yvette; Villena, Isabelle; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

2014-06-01

367

Ocular toxoplasmosis past, present and new aspects of an old disease.  

PubMed

Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is considered the most frequent form of infectious posterior uveitis and is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The resulting vision loss frequently incapacitates patients and places a considerable socio-economic burden on societies in particular in developing countries. Although, toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is a world-wide phenomenon stark regional differences with regard to prevalence and presumably route of infection exist. This review will discuss our current clinical understanding of OT including typical and atypical manifestations, patient characteristics which influence the course of disease and treatment options. Even though, congenital and acquired OT are not regarded as separate entities, certain differences exist, which will be assessed and evaluated in detail. A strong focus is laid on the disease causing parasite T. gondii, since solving the mystery of OT aetiology and the development of improved therapies will not be possibly with clinical science alone, but rather requires a precise understanding of parasitological and immunological pathomechanisms. Additionally, the biology and genetics of T. gondii form the foundation for novel and sophisticated diagnostic methods. Scientific advances in the recent years have shed some light on the different role of T. gondii strains with regard to OT manifestation and severity of disease. Genetic and environmental factors influencing OT will be presented and commonalities between OT and toxoplasmic encephalitis will be briefly discussed. Furthermore, the laboratory tools to study OT are crucial in our understanding of OT. In vivo and in vitro experimental approaches will be summarised and evaluated extensively. Finally, a brief outlook is given in which direction OT research should be headed in the future. PMID:24412517

Maenz, M; Schlüter, D; Liesenfeld, O; Schares, G; Gross, U; Pleyer, U

2014-03-01

368

Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.  

PubMed

Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

Hook, I M

2013-06-13

369

Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

370

Comparison of two DNA targets for the diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis by real-time PCR using fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It is endemic worldwide and, depending on the geographic location, 15 to 85% of the human population are asymptomatically infected. Routine diagnosis is based on serology. The parasite has emerged as a major opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised patients, in whom it can cause life-threatening disease. Moreover, when

Udo Reischl; Stéphane Bretagne; Dominique Krüger; Pauline Ernault; Jean-Marc Costa

2003-01-01

371

Treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy: A multicenter study of impact on fetal transmission and children’s sequelae at age 1 year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause fetal infection, with unpredictable sequelae in later life. We measured the effects of prenatal antibiotic therapy on the fetomaternal transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and on the appearance of sequelae in the congenitally infected child at age 1 year. Study Design: In a multicenter study we investigated consecutive women with Toxoplasma seroconversion during pregnancy. Data

Walter Foulon; Isabelle Villena; Babill Stray-Pedersen; Anne Decoster; Maija Lappalainen; Jean-Michel Pinon; Pĺl A. Jenum; Klaus Hedman; Anne Naessens

1999-01-01

372

Ante-mortem diagnosis, diarrhea, oocyst shedding, treatment, isolation and genetic typing of Toxoplasma gondii associated with clinical Toxoplasmosis in a naturally-infected cat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and other animals but clinical disease is relatively rare. It is unknown whether the severity of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent hosts is due to the parasite strain, host variability, or to other factors. Recently, attention has been focused on the ...

373

Seroprevalence for toxoplasmosis in individuals living in north west Tuscany: access to Toxo-test in central Italy.  

PubMed

This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in people living in north west Tuscany (central Italy) and to investigate the adherence to antenatal screening programs and access to the Toxo-test as well. Sera from a large sample of individuals suspected to have acute infection or from pregnant women (10,352 subjects) aged between 1 day and over 70 years were analysed for both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies using an immunoenzymatic method or a chemo-luminescent immunoassay. Overall, the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 21.4% (95% CI 20.62-22.20). A positive trend according to age was found, with low positivity observed in younger age groups. Among women of reproductive age the prevalence of IgG antibodies was 19.4% (95% CI 18.64-20.26). The overall IgM seroprevalence was 1.07% (95% CI 0.87-1.27). A low IgM prevalence was also observed in women of reproductive age (0.8%; 95% CI 0.65-1.03). Our study seems to indicate that primary prevention is widespread among women. However, an epidemiological surveillance system for toxoplasmosis should be implemented, to assess the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and to determine the true burden of disease in adults. PMID:21964589

Pinto, B; Castagna, B; Mattei, R; Bruzzi, R; Chiumiento, L; Cristofani, R; Buffolano, W; Bruschi, F

2012-06-01

374

Toxoplasma gondii: the effect of fluconazole combined with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine against acute toxoplasmosis in murine model.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised patients and responsible for toxoplasmic encephalitis, which is often lethal. Treatment for this infection is limited to a restricted therapeutic arsenal. In this work we tested the combination of fluconazole with the current treatment for acute toxoplasmosis on the murine model in vivo. Different experimental groups were treated with combinations of sulfadiazine plus pyrimethamine with fluconazole and pyrimethamine with fluconazole. Fluconazole is an important antifungal triazole used against others CNS related opportunistic pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida spp. The combinations of fluconazole plus sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine or fluconazole plus pyrimethamine were remarkably effective against T. gondii in vivo. The 10-day treatment with 10mg/kg/day of fluconazole combined with 40/1mg/kg/day sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine resulted in 93% survival of CF1 mice acutely infected with the highly virulent T. gondii RH strain, versus 36% of mice treated with just sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. Combinations of fluconazole with lower doses of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine or with just pyrimethamine were also efficient in reducing the mortality of mice compared with the treatment without fluconazole. The results obtained are promising for the treatment of human toxoplasmosis and point to the need to extend these studies to other murine models. PMID:23270807

Martins-Duarte, Érica S; de Souza, Wanderley; Vommaro, Rossiane C

2013-03-01

375

Assistant Director, Prospect Management Description  

E-print Network

Management · Enter and monitor prospect assignments and new prospect records requests. · Monitor data qualityAssistant Director, Prospect Management Description Full Time 40 hours Grade 055 Ofc Sr Vice Pres that facilitate the management of the University's prospects and ensuring the integrity of the University

Portman, Douglas

376

Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and…

Prandota, Joseph

2010-01-01

377

The long-term prospects for world development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing interdependence of the world economy requires the development of new approaches to policy-making. Nineteen\\u000a OECD member countries and the Commission of the European Communities therefore decided to take part in a three-year (1976–1978)\\u000a research project on the long-term prospects for world economic development and in the attempt to work out a general framework\\u000a for the economic and social

Wolfgang Michalski

1979-01-01

378

European auxiliary propulsion, 1972  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

Holcomb, L. B.

1972-01-01

379

European Biodiesel Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Biodiesel Board (EBB), a nonprofit organization, works to promote biodiesel use in the European Union (EU). The EBB website offers downloadable articles regarding biodiesel in the EU, downloadable reports from EU member states, a list of upcoming events, an EBB email information service, and basic statistical tables representing biodiesel production by country.

380

Performance of the BioPlex 2200 flow immunoassay in critical cases of serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The BioPlex 2200 automated analyzer (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) is a recently developed multiplex analyzer that enables the detection of anti-Toxoplasma, -rubella, and -cytomegalovirus antibodies in the same assay. The aim of this study was to compare this new technology (using the BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgG/IgM kit) in critical cases of serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis (acute, chronic, or congenital infections and cases with discrepant results) to the technologies used in our routine practice, i.e., the Platelia IgG/IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Bio-Rad Laboratories) and the Toxo-Screen direct agglutination assay (bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Overall, most cases of false-positive/negative results obtained with the Platelia IgG or Toxo-Screen assay were corrected by the BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgG (87.5%). Furthermore, the analysis of 35 sequences of sera showed a trend toward a more rapid decrease of IgM titers by BioPlex 2200 than by Platelia. These results for IgM detection can be explained by a weaker detection of residual IgM. Indeed, among 23 serum samples from patients with probable past infection with long-lasting IgM (Platelia M positive and IgG avidity index, ?0.5), the BioPlex 2200 Toxoplasma IgM assay was positive for only 11 serum samples. In our panel of critical cases comprising 156 serum and 6 cord blood samples from 103 patients with acute, chronic, or congenital infection, the BioPlex 2200 IgG assay was a sensitive (97.8%) and specific (91.3%) method for IgG detection. The high specificity (97.4%) of IgM detection combined with the shorter kinetics of IgM titers may considerably reduce the number of residual IgM detections, thus yielding more precise diagnoses of acute infections. PMID:24477853

Guigue, Nicolas; Menotti, Jean; Hamane, Samia; Derouin, Francis; Garin, Yves Jean-François

2014-04-01

381

European Commission: Public Opinion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some Scout Report readers might be wondering "How do Europeans feel about the euro?" or even "What do Europeans think about the effectiveness of different energy policies?" All of the answers to these questions (and many more) can be found on the European Commission's Public Opinion site. The site contains the results from surveys conducted with Europeans on their attitudes towards alcohol, the role of the European Union in formulating security policy, and a number of other topics. Visitors will definitely want to make their way to the Eurobarometer Interactive Search System, which allows them to choose a subject or country which is of interest to them. Visitors should also take a look at their very fine "Qualitative Studies" section, which includes reports such as "The Future of Europe" and "Integrating Gender Mainstreaming into Employment Policies". Needless to say, summaries of the reports are available in a wide range of languages, including Dutch, German, Italian, and French.

382

European Geography Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

European Geography Test is a collection of challenging Web-based geography exams that survey students' knowledge of European topography, European urban geography, and general map skills. Currently, this site hosts seven tests, which are available in English, Swedish, Spanish, and Dutch. Tests are divided into three different learning levels, and the focus and objectives for each test are clearly stated. The tests employ interactive maps, photographic images, pull-down menus, radio buttons, and fill-in forms to ask students a series of multiple choice, true or false, and matching questions. The questions included in European Geography Test were developed as part of an inter-university project for DGXXII of the European Commission by a consortium of instructors in the UK, Sweden, Belgium, Spain, and The Netherlands. Note: users must register at the site to take the free tests; registration requires name, email address, age, and country of residence.

383

Early Neonatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Value of Comparative Enzyme-Linked Immunofiltration Assay Immunological Profiles and Anti-Toxoplasma gondiiImmunoglobulin M (IgM) or IgA Immunocapture and Implications for Postnatal Therapeutic Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic strategies for congenital toxoplasmosis have changed profoundly in recent years. Immunological diagnosticmethods,longconsidereddisappointing,cannowbeusedataveryearlystage.Overa3-yearperiod, 1,050 infants at risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (born to 1,048 mothers infected during pregnancy) were monitored for a minimum of 12 months and a maximum of 7 years. More than 6,000 serum specimens were analyzed by comparative mother-infant immunological profiles (CIPs) based on an enzyme-linked immuno- filtrationassay(ELIFA)andanimmunocapturemethodforthedetectionofspecificimmunoglobulinM(IgM)

J. M. PINON; C. CHEMLA; I. VILLENA; F. FOUDRINIER; D. AUBERT; D. PUYGAUTHIER-TOUBAS; B. LEROUX; D. DUPOUY; C. QUEREUX; M. TALMUD; T. TRENQUE; G. POTRON; M. PLUOT; G. REMY; Robert Debre ´

384

The European Fusion Programme  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of the European fusion programme is the harnessing of the power of fusion to help meet mankind's future energy needs.This paper describes the current research programme, the unique organisational character of the fusion programme, and European and world-wide co-operation. The future evolution of the programme as part of the European Research Area and the developments currently taking place in preparation for the possible construction of ITER, the next major step towards the realisation of fusion power, are discussed.

Antidormi, R.; Bartlett, D.; Bruhns, H. [European Commission (Belgium)

2004-03-15

385

The European Values Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious minds want to know: "What exactly do Europeans believe?" It's an important and interesting question, and the directors and researchers in charge of the European Values Study (EVS) have been looking into this subject since the early 1980s. Based in the Netherlands the EVS concerns itself with asking Europeans about religion and morality, politics, work and leisure, and relationships. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their work and view previous and current surveys. While visitors do not have access to the raw data on the site, they can look at the questionnaires and read publications based on this research.

386

European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center  

E-print Network

NEWSLETTER European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center Continued on page 6 Turkey're dealing with energy, NATO, the European Union, the Middle East, Iran, Cyprus, Greece; there's hardly, University of Pittsburgh At a recent speech in Brussels, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for European

Sibille, Etienne

387

European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center  

E-print Network

NEWSLETTER European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center URAL Continued on page 6 the Arab perspective on the European Neighborhood Policy. 4 Fellowships, Grants, and Opportunities. 5 to immigration and substantive inter-group tensions exist in many European countries. Therefore, understanding

Sibille, Etienne

388

European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center  

E-print Network

NEWSLETTER European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center Life in Libraries: A Project conferences we co-organized with the European Union Center of Excellence (EUCE) at the University of Pittsburgh, one on farming issues in 2008 and another on minority languages in the European Union region

Sibille, Etienne

389

European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center  

E-print Network

NEWSLETTER European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center Continued on page 6 countries and backgrounds, such as the European Union. The recent enlargement of the EU, which admitted 10 The Impact of Enlargement on the European Commission: Coming in at the Bottom and at the Top by Carolyn Ban

Sibille, Etienne

390

A Comparative Serological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by CLIA and ELISA Methods in Chalus City Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most common disease in humans and animals (zoonosis) caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually appeared as asymptomatic in immunocompromised individuals but its most common symptom is lymphadenopathy. Shortly before or during the first trimester of pregnancy, this disease can be transferred to the fetus and cause serious infection in the fetus. In late pregnancy (third trimester), the complications of this infection is very low or unsigned. Due to the absence of non-specific clinical symptoms or slight infection in pregnant women, prenatal diagnosis is often impossible. Objectives: Since no research compared these two methods, we decided to compare these methods and determine which method works better for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Patients and Methods: In this study, 50 pregnant women who referred to the Chalus Health Center laboratory were included and the blood samples were tested for presence of IgG and IgM antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii by both ELISA and Chemiluminescence methods. Results: Of the 50 samples tested by the ELISA method, 26 samples (52%) were positive for IgG . No samples were positive for IgM. Of the 50 samples tested by the Chemiluminescence method, 28 samples (56%) were positive for IgG. No samples were positive for IgM. Conclusions: A significant relationship between the age of the youngest child and the infection rate was seen. No significant correlation between age, number of individuals in the household, number of children, location, type of construction, consumption of greens, the way of greens and meat consumption, drug use, history of stillbirth and infection levels was seen. PMID:24910803

Elahian Firouz, Zahra; Kaboosi, Hami; Faghih Nasiri, Abdolreza; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Zaboli, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

391

European Judicial Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a part of the European Commission, the European Judicial Network is primarily concerned with providing information about community law, European law, and various aspects of civil and commercial law. The homepage is well-organized, and visitors can start by clicking on the topic page sections, which cover everything from bringing a case to court to alternative dispute resolutions. On the right-side of the homepage, visitors can click on the flags of member states to learn more about each nation's legal system. The site will certainly be of interest to those with a legal background, but the main stated objective of the site is "to make life easier for people facing litigation of whatever kind where there is a transnational element." Not surprisingly, all of this information is available in the twenty official languages of the European Union.

2007-01-01

392

European Molecular Biology Laboratory  

E-print Network

On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

1973-01-01

393

Entrepreneurship in European Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy makers’ interest in stimulating entrepreneurship suggests a general consensus about their beneficiary economic effects\\u000a that exist. For example, the goal of the EU 2000 Lisbon Agenda to become the world’s most innovative area by 2010 relies on\\u000a the entrepreneurial power of regions. The European Commission , in its Green paper on Entrepreneurship in Europe (European\\u000a Commission 2003 , p.

Niels Bosma; Veronique Schutjens; Erik Stam

394

Archive of European Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The creation of a so-called âÂÂcommon marketâ and throughout the European countries has taken decades, and this valuable scholarly resource created by a team of academics will be of great interest to anyone with a penchant for this subject. The idea for this archive of European Integration was devised by Phil Wilkin (who now serves as its editor), and over the years, his efforts have been aided by a team of other dedicated individuals. Simply put, the Archive of European Integration (AEI) is âÂÂan electronic repository and archive for research materials on the topic of European integration and unification.â As such, it is primarily concerned with collecting official European Community/European Union documents and certain independently-produced research materials. First-time visitors to the site can search the archive by six different methods, view a list of the latest additions, and also register at no charge for an account that will let them submit items to the archive. All told, the archive currently contains over 4800 documents ranging from working papers on topics such as the common agricultural policy as well as cultural policy.

395

Acute toxoplasmosis mimicking melanoma metastases: review of conditions causing false-positive results on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.  

PubMed

Invasive malignant melanoma is the most common fatal form of skin cancer. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography demonstrates a very high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of melanoma metastases. Here, we report an unusual case of toxoplasma lymphadenitis in a male adult patient mimicking a malignant cervical lymphadenopathy. Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts. PMID:23406996

Ivanova, K; Glatz, K; Zippelius, A; Nicolas, G; Itin, P

2012-01-01

396

Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation. PMID:25463314

Donahoe, Shannon L; Šlapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

2015-04-01

397

IgG avidity Western blot using Toxoplasma gondii rGRA-7 cloned from nucleotides 39-711 for serodiagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of congenital infection. The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of recombinant (r) GRA-7 cloned from nucleotides (n) 39-711 in discriminating between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. First, commercial IgM, IgG and IgG avidity ELISAs were used to determine the serological profile of the sera. Serum samples were from 20 symptomatic patients with acute infection (low IgG avidity, IgM positive), 10 with chronic infection (high IgG avidity, IgM negative) and 10 with indeterminate IgG avidity (IgM positive) which were tested for IgG avidity status with an in-house developed IgG avidity Western blot using the rGRA-7 recombinant antigen. All 20 sera from cases of probable acute infection showed bands which either faded out completely or reduced significantly in intensity after treatment with 8 M urea, whereas the band intensities of the 10 serum samples from chronic cases remained the same. Of the 10 sera with indeterminate IgG avidity status, after treatment with 8 M urea the band intensities with six sera remained the same, two sera had completely faded bands and another two sera had significantly reduced band intensities. Discrimination between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis was successfully performed by the in-house IgG avidity Western blot. PMID:23563759

Deshpande, Poonam S; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Noordin, Rahmah; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Saadatnia, Geita; Golkar, Majid; Osman, Sabariah; Karim, Izzati Zahidah Abdul; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

398

European Union Scandal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the recent high-level corruption scandal in the European Union. Last Tuesday, the European Commission -- the executive body that initiates and implements EU legislation -- resigned en masse, plunging the supranational organization into unprecedented political chaos. All 20 commissioners, led by commission President Jacques Santer of Luxembourg, abdicated their positions the day after the release of a scathing report by the Committee of Independent Experts. The independent panel of experts, who were appointed by the European Parliament, had investigated allegations of bureaucratic malfeasance perpetrated by the European Commission. The committee's report collectively accused the commission of financial "fraud, mismanagement, and nepotism." In the wake of the incriminating report and subsequent resignations, EU foreign ministers are scrambling to find successors for the commissioners to placate the bewildered European citizenry and return to business as usual. This political upheaval happened at a crucial transitional time in the EU's 42-year history, undermining its credibility at a time when it plans to expand into eastern Europe. The current tumult occurred just three months after launching a new unified currency, seven weeks before the new Treaty of Amsterdam commences, and three months before the next European Parliamentary elections, which will determine the future composition of the EU's 626-member assembly. During the next two days, distracted leaders from all fifteen EU member states will meet in Berlin to discuss the reconstruction of the European Commission and formulate a seven-year budget for the entire EU, an organization with about 18,000 officials who administer nearly $100 billion annually. The eight resources discussed provide news, commentary, and analysis.

Osmond, Andrew.

399

Safety of pleurodesis with talc poudrage in malignant pleural effusion: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We did a multicentre, open-label, prospective cohort study of 558 patients with malignant pleural eff usion who underwent thoracoscopy and talc poudrage with 4 g of calibrated French large-particle talc in 13 European hospitals, and one in South Africa. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome after talc pleurodesis. Findings No patients developed acute respiratory

Julius P Janssen; Gareth Collier; Phillippe Astoul; Gian Franco Tassi; Marc Noppen; Francisco Rodriguez-Panadero; Robert Loddenkemper; Felix JF Herth; Stefano Gasparini; Charles H Marquette; Birgit Becke; Marios E Froudarakis; Peter Driesen; Chris T Bolliger; Jean-Marie Tschopp

2007-01-01

400

Occupation and risk of lymphoma: a multicentre prospective cohort study (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesEvidence suggests that certain occupations and related exposures may increase the risk of malignant lymphoma. Farming, printing and paper industry, wood processing, meat handling and processing, welding, shoe and leather manufacturing and teaching profession are among the categories that have been implicated in previous studies. The relationship between occupation and malignant lymphoma has been investigated in a large European prospective

David Neasham; Ahlem Sifi; Kaspar Rene Nielsen; Kim Overvad; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Anne Tjřnneland; Aurelio Barricarte; Carlos A González; Carmen Navarro; Laudina Rodriguez Suarez; Ruth C Travis; Tim Key; Jakob Linseisen; Rudolf Kaaks; Paolo Crosignani; Franco Berrino; Stefano Rosso; Amalia Mattiello; R C H Vermeulen; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Göran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Sophia Zackrisson; Goran Hallmans; Beatrice Malmer; Sheila Bingham; Kay Tee Khaw; Manuela M Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; Giovanna Masala; Rosario Tumino; Eiliv Lund; Nadia Slimani; Pietro Ferrari; Paolo Boffetta; Paolo Vineis; Elio Riboli

2010-01-01

401

European Monetary Institute (EMI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Monetary Institute was established in 1994 to oversee the implementation of a single currency for Europe. The EMI site contains information on its staff, organization, structure, and financial resources, and outlines the process of entering the third and final phase of the European Monetary Union. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.

402

ORIGINAL ARTICLE 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01771.x New and old risk-factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection: prospective  

E-print Network

for Toxoplasmosis, National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic ABSTRACT The aims of this study wereG and IgM tests. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 23%. In multivariate analysis, independent that horizontal toxoplasmosis transmission in the Czech Republic may occur through consumption of raw meat

Flegr, Jaroslav

403

The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

Ramirez, Teresita R.

404

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Relation to All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Nondiabetic European Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have evaluated the associa- tions between the metabolic syndrome (by any defini- tion) and mortality. This study examined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortal- ity in nondiabetic European men and women. Methods: The study was based on 11 prospective European cohort studies comprising 6156 men and

Gang Hu; Qing Qiao; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Beverley Balkau; Knut Borch-Johnsen; Kalevi Pyorala

2004-01-01

405

European Forest Institute: Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This European Forest Institute (EFI) is "An independent non-governmental organization conducting European forest research." This website provides information about EFI's mission, research goals, strategies and programs. Site users can view information about on-going and completed projects in any of the four EFI research programs which include: Forest Ecology and Management, Forest Products Markets and Socio-Economics, Policy Analysis, and Forest Resources and Information. EFI also provides a search engine for locating specific research projects as well as information about how to propose an EFI project.

406

European security and France  

SciTech Connect

A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

deRose, A.

1985-01-01

407

What can I do with a degree in European and European Union Studies?  

E-print Network

What can I do with a degree in European and European Union Studies? ARTS Planning your career analysis and of isolation from short-term trends. European and European Union Studies. #12;ARTS `European to www.canterbury.ac.nz/liaison/best_prep.shtml What is European and European Union Studies? The European

Hickman, Mark

408

Limits of Deregulation in the Natural Gas Industry: the European Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a natural gas market that is growing because of the increased use of gas in the generation of electricity, the organization and regulation of the industry is changing, This paper is concerned with the likelihood and desirability of 'deregulation' of the European gas industry. It is argued that prospects for further growth in the use of natural gas are

Jacques Percebois

1995-01-01

409

The Epistemological Fog in Realising Learning to Learn in European Curriculum Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European Union is concerned about the economic prospects of its member states as they have to compete against newly emerging economies with lower wages and high ambitions. Part of the strategy to deal with this economic shadow is to create a knowledge economy, but in order to achieve this, a shift to a competence-based curriculum model is seen…

Leat, David; Thomas, Ulrike; Reid, Anna

2012-01-01

410

The Future of the European “Social Model” in the Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the prospects for European welfare states in the context of globalization. It begins with a critical review of the globalization arguments. While there is some evidence that external constraints make life harder for policymakers seeking positive-sum outcomes, it is the combination of national debt and spending limits, plus domestic tax resistance, that really count in making expenditure-based

Maurizio Ferrera; Anton Hemerijck; Martin Rhodes

2001-01-01

411

Near Surface 2011 17th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics  

E-print Network

Near Surface 2011 ­ 17th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics Leicester, UK tar has been previously studied with geochemical analyses and geophysical prospections. The previous results have shown a possible migration of the contaminant plume toward the housing estate. As geophysical

Boyer, Edmond

412

Supernovae and Cosmology with Future European Facilities  

E-print Network

Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the ESA Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope(E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned general-purpose ground-based 40m-class optical-IR telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of Type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programs such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST.

Hook, I M

2012-01-01

413

European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center  

E-print Network

Image courtesy of the European Commission Audiovisual Service. In this Issue: Spotlight on ArtNEWSLETTER European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center LIVEZEANU Continued on page Students! 3 Izabel Galliera studies con- temporary art in Hungary. 4 Fellowships, Grants, and Opportunities

Sibille, Etienne

414

Russian and East European Studies  

E-print Network

complementary for Russian, political science, economics, history, geography, journalism, global studiesRussian and East European Studies Certificate About Us The Russian and East European Studies (REES) Certificate program develops students' knowledge of the language, history, culture, and con- temporary

Saldin, Dilano

415

Prospective bonding applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

1981-07-01

416

852 Prospect Issue 1  

E-print Network

is an amateur publication and is not intended to infringe upon copyright held by Pet Fly Productions, UPN, or Paramount. 852 Prospect contains graphic homo-erotic material. It win not be sold to anyone under 18 years of age. Age Statement Required... across Sandburg's chest, the other gripping his ribs. Both men looked at him with serene expressions, waiting for any­ thing he wanted to say. Simon sipped his cof­ fee. He knew they were lovers, had known it for months. But it was hard to not react...

Multiple Contributors

1998-01-01

417

Eastern European Cinema.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a structure for a course that highlights the best cinemas of Eastern European countries, in order to acquaint students with cinematic traditions of the region. Discusses course activities, coursework and evaluation, and resources. Advocates structuring the course around the film of experience of Eastern Europe, and presents and discusses…

Iordanova, Dina

1999-01-01

418

European Green Crab  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The European green crab (Carcinus maenas), has invaded fisheries in Northern California and in British Columbia, where it may compete with the much more valuable Dungeness crab. The CD it holds in its claws is a database for the USGS Pacific Coast Estuarine Information System, just one source used t...

419

Teaching European Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

Raento, Pauliina

2008-01-01

420

The European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union has established itself as a leading text that provides readers from all disciplines with a sound understanding of the economics and policies of the EU. Its wealth of information, detail and analysis has ensured that previous editions have been read by a generation of students, researchers and policy makers. It covers all major EU policy areas as

Ali M. El-Agraa

1990-01-01

421

European Music Year 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

1984-01-01

422

European Southern Observatory  

E-print Network

- Garching - 2nd to 4th Nov 2005 #12;2 European Southern Observatory Cloudiness; Humidity, Precipitable Water, Seismicity; Survival loads (earthquakes, wind, precipitations); Present and future potential light pollution that skies are clear (%) at night for the years 1999 and 2000 over Canaries, NW Africa and Southern Spain (A

Liske, Jochen

423

European Commission Agriculture and  

E-print Network

European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

424

European inflation dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence on the fit of the New Phillips Curve (NPC) for the Euro area over the period 1970–1998, and use it as a tool to compare the characteristics of European inflation dynamics with those observed in the U.S. We also analyze the factors underlying inflation inertia by examining the cyclical behavior of marginal costs, as well as that

Jordi Gal??; Mark Gertler; J. David López-Salido

2001-01-01

425

The European Vibration Directive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union adopted a Directive in 2002 on minimum requirements for the health and safety of workers exposed to vibration. This is known as the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive. It builds on existing general employers' duties to manage risks to health and safety, and introduces exposure action and limit values for both hand-arm vibration and whole-body vibration, setting minimum

Chris M. NELSON; Paul F. BRERETON

2005-01-01

426

EUROPEAN STUDIES MINOR REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST  

E-print Network

credit with approval of the Faculty Coordinator for European Studies. ART 101 Survey of Western ArtEUROPEAN STUDIES MINOR REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST Name: ID#: Expected Graduation Date: Course Number and Title Waiver/ Substitution Semester Units REQUIRED COURSE (4 units) BAIS 370 European Lives & Culture

Galles, David