Note: This page contains sample records for the topic toxoplasmosis european prospective from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Epidemiology & Risk Factors Who gets it and how... Biology Stages of parasite development... Disease Signs and symptoms ... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

2

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. More than 60 million people in the ... brain, eyes, and other organs. You can get toxoplasmosis from Waste from an infected cat Eating contaminated ...

3

Toxoplasmosis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), one of the better known and more widespread zoonotic diseases, originated in wildlife species and is now well established as a human malady. Food- and waterborne zoonoses, such as toxoplasmosis, are receiving increasing attention as components of disease emergence and resurgence. Toxoplasmosis is transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated food or water, and nearly one-third of humanity has been exposed to this parasite. The role of wildlife in this transmission process is becoming more clearly known and is outlined in this report. This zoonotic disease also causes problems in wildlife species across the globe. Future generations of humans will continue to be jeopardized by toxoplasmosis infections in addition to many of the other zoonotic diseases that have emerged during the past century. Through monitoring toxoplasmosis infection levels in wildlife populations, we will be better able to predict future human infection levels of this important zoonotic disease.

Hill, Dolores E.; Dubey, J. P.; Edited by Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles, III; Enright, Elizabeth A.

2014-01-01

4

Toxoplasmosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Definition Toxoplasmosis is infection by Toxoplasma gondii, a coccidian protozoan parasite of birds, cats, humans, and other mammals. In humans, infection is usually asymptomatic. Clinical symptoms arise in some congenitally infected infants and in adults...

M. K. Klassen-Fischer R. C. Neafie W. M. Meyers

2011-01-01

5

Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is a unicellular protozoan. The definitive hosts, cats, produce hardy oocysts and sporozoites. Ingestion by a nonfeline leads to the formation of tachyzoites acutely, which cause parasitemia and further dissemination, and bradyzoites, which lead to latent infection with the formation of tissue cysts in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Toxoplasmosis can be transmitted

Sylvia Siegfried Gagne

2001-01-01

6

Prospects for European labour demand.  

PubMed

The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during the 1975-85 decade. After the adjustment of the recession, European manufacturing industry is relatively more competitive and overall will experience a slower employment decline. Further, the growth of services will be limited by the effects of restrictive budgetary policies upon the development of public services. In all 5 countries, the main projected areas of employment growth are business and related services, tourism and leisure activities, and health care. Those occupations most likely to expand are the more highly qualified groups associated with the growth sectors. The main changes in the location of functions within the economic structure are likely to be the continuing contracting out of service functions within production industries to the service sector; and the growth of small relative to large enterprises. PMID:12281366

Lindley, R M

1988-07-01

7

Prospects of the European gas market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses prospects for increased consumption of natural gas within the European Union (EU) up to 2030. Particular emphasis is on the power generation sector, where the main growth in demand is expected to occur, on supply and infrastructural constraints and on future price of natural gas.It can be concluded that EU gas-import needs will increase substantially up to

Jan Kjärstad; F. Johnsson

2007-01-01

8

Congenital toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a group of symptoms that occur when an unborn baby (fetus) is infected with the parasite ... The developing baby can become infected with toxoplasmosis if the ... spread to the developing baby during the pregnancy itself, or ...

9

Therapy of ocular toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a prospective multicentre study to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic strategies currently used for ocular toxoplasmosis in a large number of patients (n=106). Treatment was given for at least four weeks and consisted of three triple drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulphadiazine and corticosteroids (n=29); group 2. clindamycin, sulphadiazine and corticosteroids (n=37); and group 3. cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim and

A. Rothova; H. J. Buitenhuis; C. Meenken; G. S. Baarsma; T. N. Boen-Tan; P. T. V. M. de Jong; C. M. C. Schweitzer; Z. Timmerman; J. de Vries; M. J. W. Zaal; A. Kijlstra

1989-01-01

10

Prospects for European Research and Development in Training & Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the prospects for research and development in the education and training fields offered by the European Communities. The position of the EC is explained in relation to the existing and forthcoming Framework Programmes of research and development. The 1987-91 Framework Programme has committed most of its funding to existing…

Whiting, John

2008-01-01

11

Foodborne toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis can be due to congenital infection or acquired infection after birth and is one of the leading illnesses associated with foodborne hospitalizations and deaths. Undercooked meat, especially pork, lamb, and wild game meat, and soil contaminated with cat feces on raw fruits and vegetables are the major sources of foodborne transmission for humans. The new trend in the production of free-range organically raised meat could increase the risk of Toxoplasma gondii contamination of meat. Foodborne transmission can be prevented by production practices that reduce T. gondii in meat, adequate cooking of meat, washing of raw fruits and vegetables, prevention of cross contamination in the kitchen, and measures that decrease spread of viable oocysts into the environment. PMID:22618566

Jones, Jeffrey L; Dubey, J P

2012-09-01

12

Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... with congenital toxoplasmosis have no symptoms early in infancy, but a large percentage will show signs of ... born with congenital toxoplasmosis and remains untreated during infancy, there's almost always some sign of the infection ( ...

13

Ovine toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Congenital infection with Toxoplasma gondii is an important cause of abortion in sheep worldwide. The cat is the definitive host of the parasite, and infected cats may shed millions of oocysts in their faeces resulting in extensive environmental contamination and an important source of infection for grazing herbivorous animals. Studies looking at development of specific antibodies in sheep, as an indicator of exposure to T. gondii, have shown that there is an increase in seroprevalence associated with age indicating that most infections in sheep occur following birth. The stage of gestation when transplacental transmission of T. gondii to the developing foetus occurs is critical in determining the clinical outcome. The importance of endogenous transplacental transmission in persistently infected ewes and its clinical importance is a subject of current debate. Ewes infected prior to mating develop immune responses that help protect against disease in a subsequent pregnancy and also against experimental challenge administered during pregnancy. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are activated following T. gondii infection and experiments involving the chronic cannulation of peripheral lymph nodes in sheep have allowed the dynamics of the immune responses to be analysed in real time. A live vaccine, Toxovax is the only commercially available vaccine worldwide to protect against congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:19995468

Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Buxton, David; Katzer, Frank

2009-12-01

14

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Facebook Recommend Twitter Tweet ... stillborn child a child born with signs of toxoplasmosis (e.g., abnormal enlargement or smallness of the ...

15

Prospects for a single, unitary European Community patent  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was the intention of the Treaty of Rome to create a common market in Europe, without barriers for the free circulation of goods. 40 years later, there is a common market with virtually no restrictions on the movement of people, goods, capital and services, there are good prospects for the common currency, but there is still not a common,

Manfred Schmiemann

1998-01-01

16

International interest withholding taxation: Prospects for a common European policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989 the European Union member states rejected a proposal to introduce a minimum interest withholding tax of 15 percent. Some Union member states, however, remain keenly interested in bringing about some minimum level of international taxation of interest income. This suggests that member states will be asked to reconsider the issue in the near future. This paper first examines

Harry Huizinga

1994-01-01

17

Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question Congenital toxoplasmosis is a dangerous fetal infection. Why is routine screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy not available for most Canadians? Answer Low prevalence of the infection, high cost associated with testing, low sensitivity of screening tests, false-positive test results, and limitations of treatment effectiveness are all cited as reasons for not routinely screening for T gondii infection in Canada. Currently, screening for the detection of T gondii is only performed in Nunavik and other parts of northern Quebec owing to the high prevalence of infection in this region. Congenital toxoplasmosis causes neurologic or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies.

Chaudhry, Shahnaz Akhtar; Gad, Nanette; Koren, Gideon

2014-01-01

18

Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Question Congenital toxoplasmosis is a dangerous fetal infection. Why is routine screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy not available for most Canadians? Answer Low prevalence of the infection, high cost associated with testing, low sensitivity of screening tests, false-positive test results, and limitations of treatment effectiveness are all cited as reasons for not routinely screening for T gondii infection in Canada. Currently, screening for the detection of T gondii is only performed in Nunavik and other parts of northern Quebec owing to the high prevalence of infection in this region. Congenital toxoplasmosis causes neurologic or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies. PMID:24733322

Chaudhry, Shahnaz Akhtar; Gad, Nanette; Koren, Gideon

2014-04-01

19

Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were

N. E. Allen; T. J. Key; P. N. Appleby; R. C. Travis; A. W. Roddam; A. Tjonneland; N. F. Johnsen; K. Overvad; J. Linseisen; S. Rohrmann; H. Boeing; T. Pischon; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; L. Kiemeney; G. Tagliabue; D. Palli; P. Vineis; R. Tumino; A. Trichopoulou; C. Kassapa; D. Trichopoulos; E. Ardanaz; N. Larranaga; M. J. Tormo; C. A. Gonzalez; J. R. Quiros; M-J Sánchez; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; J. Manjer; G. Berglund; P. Stattin; G. Hallmans; N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; S. Rinaldi; E. Riboli

2008-01-01

20

Diet and cancer — the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet is thought to be one of the most important contributing factors to cancer risk. The contribution of diet to cancer is linked to genetic factors, and uncovering the details of this linkage requires that very large studies be carried out over long time periods, with a detailed analysis of food intake. For this reason, the European Prospective Investigation into

Elio Riboli; Sheila Bingham

2004-01-01

21

Waterborne Toxoplasmosis, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Two waterborne outbreaks of toxoplasmosis have been described recently in southern Brazil. We present data from a community-based study of pregnant women in northeastern Brazil. Consumption of homemade ice was the only variable associated with seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio, 3.1, 95% confidence interval, 1.53–6.24). Our results suggest water as a source of infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

Meyer-Cirkel, Vanessa; Moura, Romulo Cesar Saboia; Gomide, Marcia; Queiroz, Jose Ajax Nogueira; Saweljew, Peter; Liesenfeld, Oliver

2007-01-01

22

Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs  

PubMed Central

Background Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate whether treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin associated with a lack of monitoring for toxoplasmosis seroconversion affects the prognosis of patients. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study with 246 newborns (NB) at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis in Goiânia (Brazil) between October 2003 and October 2011. We analyzed the efficacy of maternal treatment with spiramycin. Results A total of 40.7% (66/162) of the neonates were born seriously infected. Vertical transmission associated with reactivation during pregnancy occurred in 5.5% (9/162) of the NB, with one showing severe infection (systemic). The presence of specific immunoglobulins (fetal IgM and NB IgA) suggested the worst prognosis. Treatment of pregnant women by spiramycin resulted in reduced vertical transmission. When infected pregnant women did not undergo proper treatment, the risk of severe infection (neural-optical) in NB was significantly increased. Fetal IgM was associated with ocular impairment in 48.0% (12/25) of the fetuses and neonatal IgA-specific was related to the neuro-ophthalmologic and systemic forms of the disease. When acute toxoplasmosis was identified in the postpartum period, a lack of monitoring of seronegative pregnant women resulted in a higher risk of severe congenital infection. Conclusion Treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin reduces the possibility of transmission of infection to the fetus. However, a lack of proper treatment is associated with the onset of the neural-optical form of congenital infection. Primary preventive measures should be increased for all pregnant women during the prenatal period and secondary prophylaxis through surveillance of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant woman should be introduced to reduce the severity of congenital infection in the environment.

2014-01-01

23

Incidence of Limb Fracture across Europe: Results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The aim of this population-based prospective study was to determine the incidence of limb fracture by site and gender in\\u000a different regions of Europe. Men and women aged 50–79 years were recruited from population registers in 31 European centers.\\u000a Subjects were invited to attend for an interviewer-administered questionnaire and lateral spinal radiographs. Subjects were\\u000a subsequently followed up using an

A. A. Ismail; S. R. Pye; W. C. Cockerill; M. Lunt; D. Banzer; L. I. Benevolenskaya; A. Bhalla; J. Bruges Armas; J. B. Cannata; C. Cooper; P. D. Delmas; J. Dequeker; G. Dilsen; J. A. Falch; B. Felsch; D. Felsenberg; J. D. Finn; C. Gennari; K. Hoszowski; I. Jajic; J. Janott; O. Johnell; J. A. Kanis; G. Kragl; A. Lopez Vaz; R. Lorenc; G. Lyritis; F. Marchand; P. Masaryk; C. Matthis; T. Miazgowski; M. Naves-Diaz; H. A. P. Pols; G. Poor; A. Rapado; H. H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; W. Reisinger; C. Scheidt-Nave; J. Stepan; C. Todd; K. Weber; A. D. Woolf; T. W. O’Neill

2002-01-01

24

An Unseen Threat - Toxoplasmosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Twenty-first monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Why do doctors tell pregnant women not to clean the cat's litter box? It's because of Toxoplasmosis gondii, a parasite. Many of us are infected with T. gondii, and don't even know it, because the symptoms look like flu or other ailments and clear themselves up in a couple of weeks. But that is not the case for everyone.

2008-10-01

25

Anthropometric factors and risk of endometrial cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the association between anthropometry and endometrial cancer, particularly by menopausal status and exogenous hormone\\u000a use subgroups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Among 223,008 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, there were 567 incident\\u000a endometrial cancer cases during 6.4 years of follow-up. The analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards modeling.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and

Christine Friedenreich; Anne Cust; Petra H. Lahmann; Karen Steindorf; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Sylvie Mesrine; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Anne Tjønneland; Jytte Halkjær; Kim Overvad; Michelle Mendez; M. L. Redondo; Carmen Martinez Garcia; Nerea Larrañaga; María-José Tormo; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Naomi Allen; Tim Key; Antonia Trichopoulou; Effie Vasilopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Valeria Pala; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Amalia Mattiello; Paolo Vineis; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Petra H. M. Peeters; Göran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Eva Lundin; Annekatrin Lukanova; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Rudolf Kaaks; Elio Riboli

2007-01-01

26

Detection by PCR of Toxoplasma gondii in blood in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.  

PubMed Central

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was performed prospectively in the blood of 19 patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis. The B1 gene and TGR1E sequence were used as targets and results were confirmed by hybridisation. Controls consisted of 24 HIV infected patients with tissue culture proven T gondii parasitaemia and 57 HIV infected patients without toxoplasmosis. PCR was positive with both targets in 20 of 24 samples (84%) from patients with parasitaemia. Three of 57 samples (5%) from patients without toxoplasmosis were PCR positive with either target, but none was positive with both targets. Only three of the 19 patients (16%) with cerebral toxoplasmosis had a positive PCR with both targets before the start of specific treatment. PCR performed in blood is of little diagnostic value in cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis but could be useful in patients with disseminated infection. Images

Lamoril, J; Molina, J M; de Gouvello, A; Garin, Y J; Deybach, J C; Modai, J; Derouin, F

1996-01-01

27

Strategy for Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Evaluation of Methods Comparing Mothers and Newborns and Standard Methods for Postnatal Detection of Immunoglobulin G, M, and A Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study involving 14 laboratories supported by the European Community Biomed 2 program, we evaluated immunologic methods for the postnatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Among babies born to mothers who seroconverted to positivity for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, we analyzed 55 babies with CT on the basis of persistent anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) at 1 year of life and

J. M. Pinon; H. Dumon; C. Chemla; J. Franck; E. Petersen; M. Lebech; J. Zufferey; M.-H. Bessieres; P. Marty; R. Holliman; J. Johnson; V. Luyasu; B. Lecolier; E. Guy; D. H. M. Joynson; A. Decoster; G. Enders; H. Pelloux; E. Candolfi

2001-01-01

28

Specific floater home ranges and prospective behaviour in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many bird species, floaters are present on the breeding grounds in one or more years before they breed. There is increasing evidence that they have specific home ranges in which they search for information about current and future breeding opportunities. We investigated the role of prospecting in a migratory European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) population. Radio-tracking showed that male starling floaters use specific home range areas during the breeding period. Nest-box observations demonstrated that non-parental nest intrusion is common in the starling and that it is significantly more frequent during the nestling than during the incubation period. In addition, small groups of nest boxes were more likely to be occupied by starlings if they had been put up during the preceding breeding season. The results suggest that floaters try to acquire information about local breeding communities. One specific type of information may be the location of potential breeding sites.

Tobler, Michael; Smith, Henrik G.

29

Septic complications after biliary tract stone surgery: a review and report of the European prospective study.  

PubMed

We report a prospective, controlled study of the incidence of septic complications following biliary tract stone surgery. This study included a total of 280 patients operated on in eight hospitals in various European countries. In this study the computer program "Surgery" was used. Of 280 patients, 77 (27.5%) were male and 203 (72.5%) were female. The age ranged from 20 to 92 years (mean 54.8 years); 78.9% of the cases corresponded to clean-contaminated surgery; 85% of the patients received antibiotic prophylaxis with cefazolin. Twenty-one patients developed postoperative septic complications (7.5%) of which 12 (4.3%) were wound infections; five patients (1.8%) had intra-abdominal infections. The wound infection rate was 3.2% in clean-contaminated surgery, 7.7% in contaminated and 20% in dirty (p < 0.02). In laparoscopic cholecystectomy the global rate of septic complications was 3.6% vs. 12.6% in open cholecystectomy (p < 0.01); 2.4% and 6.3% wound infection respectively. The mean age of patients who developed postoperative septic complications was 61.5 years and 54.2 years old who did not develop any complications (p < 0.03). The duration of the postoperative period was 5 days in patients without infection and 13 days in patients with infection (p < 0.0001). Two patients died, one of them (0.4%) caused by sepsis. In addition to the European prospective study, a review of the problems of sepsis in biliary surgery was carried out. PMID:9261583

Cainzos, M; Sayek, I; Wacha, H; Pulay, I; Dominion, L; Aeberhard, P F; Hau, T; Aasen, A O

1997-01-01

30

[Two cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

Two cases of disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis of a pet mouse and a red panda are described. The pet mouse had a private owner; the red panda lived in a zoological garden in Saxony. At necropsy, both animals suffered from a systemic toxoplasmosis. A severe necrotizing hepatitis was the main histological feature in both animals. Parasitic cysts could be abundantly found in the liver, moderately in the brain and in a low number in other organs. With the PAS-reaction, cysts showed a weak staining in the mouse and a strong staining in the red panda. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry. PMID:22331331

Stief, B; Kiesow, C; Ellenberger, C

2012-01-01

31

Fatal acute toxoplasmosis in three golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

Fatal acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in three golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), a breeding pair and their male offspring, by histology and immunohistochemistry. The distribution and severity of lesions differed among the animals, but the small intestine and the pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes were especially affected. Protozoal organisms consistent with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, often clustered, were seen in all lesions and were specifically immunostained with a T. gondii polyclonal antibody. The infection was probably acquired orally. Several breeding groups of golden lion tamarins have succumbed to toxoplasmosis both in North American and European zoos, so this disease should be considered an important problem in this endangered species. Toxoplasma gondii can cause latent infections in New World primates and therefore could potentially induce abortions or congenital infections in wild golden lion tamarins born from latently infected reintroduced females. PMID:9638627

Juan-Sallés, C; Prats, N; Marco, A J; Ramos-Vara, J A; Borrás, D; Fernández, J

1998-03-01

32

Eating out of home: energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes in 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To assess the contribution of out-of-home (OH) energy and nutrient intake to total dietary intake, and to compare out- versus in-home nutrient patterns among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 participants aged between 35–74 years completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a software

P Orfanos; A Naska; A Trichopoulou; S Grioni; J M A Boer; M M E van Bakel; U Ericson; S Rohrmann; H Boeing; L Rodríguez; E Ardanaz; C Sacerdote; M C Giurdanella; E M Niekerk; P H M Peeters; J Manjer; B van Guelpen; G Deharveng; G Skeie; D Engeset; J Halkjær; A M Jensen; A McTaggart; F Crowe; V Stratigakou; E Oikonomou; M Touvier; M Niravong; E Riboli; S Bingham; N Slimani

2009-01-01

33

The natural history of multiple system atrophy: a prospective European cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal and still poorly understood degenerative movement disorder that is characterised by autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, and parkinsonism in various combinations. Here we present the final analysis of a prospective multicentre study by the European MSA Study Group to investigate the natural history of MSA. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of MSA were recruited and followed up clinically for 2 years. Vital status was ascertained 2 years after study completion. Disease progression was assessed using the unified MSA rating scale (UMSARS), a disease-specific questionnaire that enables the semiquantitative rating of autonomic and motor impairment in patients with MSA. Additional rating methods were applied to grade global disease severity, autonomic symptoms, and quality of life. Survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier analysis and predictors were identified in a Cox regression model. Group differences were analysed by parametric tests and non-parametric tests as appropriate. Sample size estimates were calculated using a paired two-group t test. Findings 141 patients with moderately severe disease fulfilled the consensus criteria for MSA. Mean age at symptom onset was 56·2 (SD 8·4) years. Median survival from symptom onset as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 9·8 years (95% CI 8·1–11·4). The parkinsonian variant of MSA (hazard ratio [HR] 2·08, 95% CI 1·09–3·97; p=0·026) and incomplete bladder emptying (HR 2·10, 1·02–4·30; p=0·044) predicted shorter survival. 24-month progression rates of UMSARS activities of daily living, motor examination, and total scores were 49% (9·4 [SD 5·9]), 74% (12·9 [8·5]), and 57% (21·9 [11·9]), respectively, relative to baseline scores. Autonomic symptom scores progressed throughout the follow-up. Shorter symptom duration at baseline (OR 0·68, 0·5–0·9; p=0·006) and absent levodopa response (OR 3·4, 1·1–10·2; p=0·03) predicted rapid UMSARS progression. Sample size estimation showed that an interventional trial with 258 patients (129 per group) would be able to detect a 30% effect size in 1-year UMSARS motor examination decline rates at 80% power. Interpretation Our prospective dataset provides new insights into the evolution of MSA based on a follow-up period that exceeds that of previous studies. It also represents a useful resource for patient counselling and planning of multicentre trials. Funding Fifth Framework Programme of the European Union, the Oesterreichische Nationalbank, and the Austrian Science Fund.

Wenning, Gregor K; Geser, Felix; Krismer, Florian; Seppi, Klaus; Duerr, Susanne; Boesch, Sylvia; Kollensperger, Martin; Goebel, Georg; Pfeiffer, Karl P; Barone, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Quinn, Niall P; Koukouni, Vasiliki; Fowler, Clare J; Schrag, Anette; Mathias, Christopher J; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya; Dupont, Erik; Ostergaard, Karen; Nilsson, Christer F; Widner, Hakan; Oertel, Wolfgang; Eggert, Karla Maria; Albanese, Alberto; del Sorbo, Francesca; Tolosa, Eduardo; Cardozo, Adriana; Deuschl, Gunther; Hellriegel, Helge; Klockgether, Thomas; Dodel, Richard; Sampaio, Cristina; Coelho, Miguel; Djaldetti, Ruth; Melamed, Eldad; Gasser, Thomas; Kamm, Christoph; Meco, Giuseppe; Colosimo, Carlo; Rascol, Olivier; Meissner, Wassilios G; Tison, Francois; Poewe, Werner

2013-01-01

34

Accidents at work among people with epilepsy. Results of a European prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Studies on accidents at work in people with epilepsy are scarce and the evidence that epilepsy carries an increased risk of accidents at work is mostly anecdotal. The present survey is a multicentre prospective cohort study of everyday life risks recently conducted in eight European countries (Estonia, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia and United Kingdom) comparing referral children and adults with epilepsy to age- and sex-matched non-epileptic controls. In this context, every accident occurring during work over a 1-3 year follow-up was prospectively reported by patients and controls. Six hundred and thirty-one adult patients with epilepsy and 592 controls from this cohort have been studied here. Each patient and his/her control received a diary to record any accident or illness, with severity, circumstances, causes, consequences (including days off-work) and (for the cases) the possible relation to a seizure. A slightly higher number of unskilled workers were present among patients with epilepsy than in controls. Twenty-two patients with epilepsy and nine controls reported accidents during work (p<0.05). Only two cases reported seizure-related accidents. In both groups the injuries were mild (only one requiring hospitalization) and caused abstention from work to the same extent. In patients with epilepsy, the risk of accidents was unaffected by seizure type and frequency. This study confirms that patients with epilepsy are at higher risk of accidents compared to the general population. However, injuries provoked by work accidents are generally mild and unrelated to seizures. PMID:16632385

Cornaggia, Cesare Maria; Beghi, Massimiliano; Moltrasio, Luca; Beghi, Ettore

2006-07-01

35

Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Intake of dairy products has been associated with risk of some cancers, but findings are often inconsistent and information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is limited, particularly from prospective settings. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk/cheese/yogurt) and their components (calcium/vitamin D/fats/protein), with first incident HCC (Ncases ?=?191) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, including a nested case-control subset (Ncases ?=?122) with the assessment of hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infections status, liver damage and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels. For cohort analyses, multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For nested case-control analyses, conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% CI. A total of 477,206 participants were followed-up for an average of 11 years (person-years follow-up?=?5,415,385). In the cohort study, a significant positive HCC risk association was observed for total dairy products (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR?=?1.66, 95% CI: 1.13-2.43; ptrend ?=?0.012), milk (HR?=?1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.24; ptrend ?=?0.049), and cheese (HR?=?1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38; ptrend ?=?0.101), but not yogurt (HR?=?0.94, 95% CI: 0.65-1.35). Dietary calcium, vitamin D, fat and protein from dairy sources were associated with increased HCC risk, whereas the same nutrients from nondairy sources showed inverse or null associations. In the nested case-control study, similar results were observed among hepatitis-free individuals. Results from this large prospective cohort study suggest that higher consumption of dairy products, particularly milk and cheese, may be associated with increased HCC risk. Validation of these findings in other populations is necessary. Potential biologic mechanisms require further exploration. PMID:24615266

Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trepo, Elisabeth; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Boffetta, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Dik, Vincent K; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Hjartåker, Anette; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro Sanchez, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Lindkvist, Björn; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

2014-10-01

36

STARR with Contour(R) Transtar(TM): prospective multicentre European study  

PubMed Central

Objective The stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) in patients with defecation disorders is limited by the shape and capacity of the circular stapler. A new device has been recently developed, the Contour® Transtar™ stapler, in order to improve the safety and effectiveness of the STARR technique. The study has been designed to confirm this declaration. Method From January to June 2007 a prospective European multicentre study of consecutive patients with defecation disorder caused by internal rectal prolapse underwent the new STARR technique. The assessment of perioperative morbidity and functional outcome after 6 weeks, 3 and 12 months was documented by different scores. Results In all 75 patients, median age 64, the Transtar procedure was performed with 9% intraoperative difficulties, 7% postoperative complications and no mortality. The mean reduction of the ODS score was ?15.6 (95%?CI: ?17.3 to ?13.8, P < 0.0001), mean reduction of SSS was ?12.6 (95%?CI: ?14.2 to ?11.2; P < 0.0001). 41% stated improvement of their continence status by CCF score, only 4 patients (5%) had deterioration. Conclusion The Transtar procedure is technically demanding, with good functional results similar to the conventional STARR.

Lenisa, L; Schwandner, O; Stuto, A; Jayne, D; Pigot, F; Tuech, JJ; Scherer, R; Nugent, K; Corbisier, F; Espin-Basany, E; Hetzer, F H

2009-01-01

37

Dietary fat intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: results from the 24-h dietary recalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:This paper describes the dietary intake of total fat, saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and cholesterol of participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in 27 centres across 10 countries.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, a stratified random sample of 36 034 participants (age range 35–74 years) completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall, assessed

J Linseisen; A A Welch; M Ocké; P Amiano; C Agnoli; P Ferrari; E Sonestedt; V Chajès; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; R Kaaks; C Weikert; M Dorronsoro; L Rodríguez; I Ermini; A Mattiello; Y T van der Schouw; J Manjer; S Nilsson; M Jenab; E Lund; M Brustad; J Halkjær; M U Jakobsen; K T Khaw; F Crowe; C Georgila; G Misirli; M Niravong; M Touvier; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani

2009-01-01

38

Toxoplasmosis in the perinatal period.  

PubMed Central

Although many of the fundamental biological features of toxoplasmosis are today well appreciated, the practical problem of prevention of its most serious consequence--disabling congenital disease, remains unsolved. The reasons vary in different communities, but are concerned with detection of the chief mode of spread, assessment of incidence, delineation of vulnerable antenatal women in latently infected populations, and assessment of the risks of therapeutics. The results of some of the approaches to these problems in Scotland are reported and discussed.

Williams, H.

1977-01-01

39

Ocular toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients.  

PubMed Central

We describe 16 cases of ocular and, in some patients, associated CNS toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients. T gondii is commonly associated with infection in the immunocompromised host. The lesions are most often seen in the CNS and eyes; involvement in the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes may be observed. CNS involvement by toxoplasmosis may be an initial manifestation of AIDS and may be associated with discrete or diffuse lesions. CT scan and MR imaging may demonstrate a multitude of lesions often displaying the characteristic ring-shaped enhancement after contrast injection. Ocular involvement by toxoplasmosis, though less common than CNS involvement, is characterized by several features. These may be manifested as single or multifocal retinal lesions in one or both eyes or massive areas of retinal necrosis. Invariably these lesions are unassociated with a pre-existing retinochoroidal scar suggesting that the lesions are a manifestation of acquired rather than congenital disease. Presence of IgM antibodies may support this observation although antibody levels in AIDS patients may not reflect the magnitude of disease. Vitreous reaction is often minimal. Anterior uveitis has been reported in one case. Treatment of the ocular infection with pyrimethamine, clindamycin and sulfadiazine is effective in over 75% of patients. Once resolution of the ocular infection is observed, maintenance therapy is continued as relapses occur in the absence of treatment. Corticosteroid treatment is unnecessary and its use has been associated with the development of CMV retinitis. Other retinal infections in AIDS patients which should be considered in the differential diagnosis include CMV, herpetic-associated ARN and syphilis. Concomitant CMV and toxoplasmosis in the same eye have been seen. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C

Gagliuso, D J; Teich, S A; Friedman, A H; Orellana, J

1990-01-01

40

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Ninety-three pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii seroconversion during pregnancy underwent prenatal diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis. The following tests were used: (1). amniocentesis for mouse inoculation (93 subjects), (2). amplification of T. gondii DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (79 subjects), and (3). cordocentesis for the detection of T. gondii-specific IgM antibodies (13 subjects). All patients had serial ultrasonographic scans to detect those fetuses with abnormalities that could be associated with congenital toxoplasmosis. Eighteen pregnancies (19.4%) had evidence of vertical transmission. A total of 11/18 (61.1%) had positive amniotic mouse inoculation test, while 10/12 (83.3%) had positive PCR results. The combination of both tests allowed the prenatal diagnosis in 17/18 infected fetuses (94.4%). All patients who underwent cordocentesis for the detection of T. gondii-specific IgM antibodies had negative results. However, in two of the above cases fetal toxoplasmosis was detected by amniotic fluid studies. In five of the infected fetuses there were abnormal ultrasonographic findings. All pregnancies with evidence of vertical transmission were terminated, whereas the remaining pregnancies proceeded normally to term. The present data showed that amniotic fluid studies, preferably PCR amplification of T. gondii DNA, are the best diagnostic tools for the detection of vertical transmission in pregnancies with seroconversion during pregnancy. PMID:12454967

Antsaklis, Aris; Daskalakis, George; Papantoniou, Nikolaos; Mentis, Andreas; Michalas, Stylianos

2002-12-01

41

The Posterior Cervical Lymph Node in Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Posterior cervical node enlargement is characteristic of clinical toxoplasmosis in adults. Lymph node biopsies from 37 patients, who were tested for toxoplasmosis by serologic and isolation studies, were examined. A characteristic pattern of sinus histiocytosis was seen in 17 of 18 posterior cervical nodes and in only 1 of 4 lymph nodes from other sites from patients with toxoplasmosis. The characteristic pattern was not seen in posterior cervical nodes or in lymph nodes from other sites from patients with other diseases. Lymphoma obscured the characteristic changes of toxoplasmosis in the posterior cervical nodes and other nodes of 5 patients with these coexisting diseases. Organisms were seen in tissue sections in only 2 instances. T gondii was isolated from mice in 14 of 17 attempts using nodes from patients with toxoplasmosis, but from none of 8 attempts using nodes from patients with other diseases. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 1Fig 2

Gray, George F.; Kimball, Anne C.; Kean, B. H.

1972-01-01

42

The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first prospective study of blood folate levels and gastric cancer. Gastric cancer cases (n=247) and controls (n=631) were matched for study center, age,

S. E. Vollset; J. Igland; M. Jenab; A. Fredriksen; K. Meyer; S. Eussen; H. K. Gjessing; P. M. Ueland; G. Pera; N. Sala; A. Agudo; G. Capella; G. Del Giudice; D. Palli; H. Boeing; C. Weikert; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; F. Carneiro; V. Pala; P. Vineis; R. Tumino; S. Panico; G. Berglund; J. Manjer; R. Stenling; G. Hallmans; C. Martinez; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; C. Navarro; J. R. Quiros; N. Allen; T. J. Key; S. Bingham; J. Linseisen; R. Kaaks; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; F. L. Buchner; P. H. M. Peeters; M. E. Numans; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M.-C. Boutron-Ruault; A. Trichopoulou; E. Lund; N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; E. Riboli; C. A. Gonzalez

2007-01-01

43

Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis?  

PubMed Central

Evidence that prevention, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis is beneficial developed as follows: antiparasitic agents abrogate Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite growth, preventing destruction of infected, cultured, mammalian cells and cure active infections in experimental animals, including primates. They treat active infections in persons who are immune-compromised, limit destruction of retina by replicating parasites and thereby treat ocular toxoplasmosis and treat active infection in the fetus and infant. Outcomes of untreated congenital toxoplasmosis include adverse ocular and neurologic sequelae described in different countries and decades. Better outcomes are associated with treatment of infected infants throughout their first year of life. Shorter intervals between diagnosis and treatment in utero improve outcomes. A French approach for diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus and infant can prevent toxoplasmosis and limit adverse sequelae. In addition, new data demonstrate that this French approach results in favorable outcomes with some early gestation infections. A standardized approach to diagnosis and treatment during gestation has not yet been applied generally in the USA. Nonetheless, a small, similar experience confirms that this French approach is feasible, safe, and results in favorable outcomes in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study cohort. Prompt diagnosis, prevention and treatment reduce adverse sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis.

McLeod, Rima; Kieffer, Francois; Sautter, Mari; Hosten, Tiffany; Pelloux, Herve

2009-01-01

44

Mediterranean Diet and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified subcohort of 15,798 participants selected from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED) (score range 0–18) was used to assess adherence to MDP on the basis of reported consumption of nine dietary components characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Cox proportional hazards regression, modified for the case-cohort design, was used to estimate the association between rMED and risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS The multiple adjusted hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes among individuals with medium (rMED 7–10 points) and high adherence to MDP (rMED 11–18 points) were 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.01) and 0.88 (0.79–0.97), respectively, compared with individuals with low adherence to MDP (0–6 points) (P for trend 0.013). The association between rMED and type 2 diabetes was attenuated in people <50 years of age, in obese participants, and when the alcohol, meat, and olive oil components were excluded from the score. CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective study, adherence to the MDP, as defined by rMED, was associated with a small reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in this European population.

2011-01-01

45

TLR4 in Toxoplasmosis; friends or foe?  

PubMed

Toxoplasma species are obligate intracellular protozoan which are responsible for induction of several forms of Toxoplasmosis in humans. The mechanisms responsible for the progression of the prolonged forms of Toxoplasmosis and associated pathologies are yet to be identified. However, previous studies proposed that immunological and genetic parameters may play important roles in the etiology and complexity of Toxoplasmosis. Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize microbial antigens and induce immune responses against parasites, including toxoplasma species. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are PRRs which recognize toxoplasma as a pathogenic parasite and activate immune cells. It has been reported that the TLR4 is a critical innate immune cell receptor in toxoplasma detection and subsequently activates immune responses using either MYD88 or TRIF pathways. This review collates recent information regarding the role of TLR4 and its related signaling molecules with Toxoplasmosis. PMID:24685700

Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Hakimi, Hamid; Abdollahi, Seyyed Hossein; Zainodini, Nahid; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Kennedy, Derek

2014-01-01

46

Fruit and vegetable consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Many case-control studies have suggested that higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cohort studies do not support such an association. We examined the associations of the consumption of fruits and vegetables and their main subgroups with pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is comprised of over 520,000 subjects recruited from 10 European countries. The present study included 555 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases after an average follow-up of 8.9 years. Estimates of risk were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender, and study center, and adjusted for total energy intake, weight, height, history of diabetes mellitus, and smoking status. Total consumption of fruit and vegetables, combined or separately, as well as subgroups of vegetables and fruits were unrelated to risk of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest quartile were 0.92 (0.68-1.25) for total fruit and vegetables combined, 0.99 (0.73-1.33) for total vegetables, and 1.02 (0.77-1.36) for total fruits. Stratification by gender or smoking status, restriction to microscopically verified cases, and exclusion of the first 2 years of follow-up did not materially change the results. These results from a large European prospective cohort suggest that higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is not associated with decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:19107929

Vrieling, Alina; Verhage, Bas A J; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Jenab, Mazda; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nöthlings, Ute; Trichopoulou, Antonia; John, Tountas; Dimosthenes, Zilis; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H M; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv; Rodríguez Suárez, Laudina; Jakszyn, Paula; Larrañaga, Nerea; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Lindkvist, Björn; Hallmans, Göran; Ye, Weimin; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Roddam, Andrew; Key, Tim; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J; Michaud, Dominique S; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

2009-04-15

47

Diagnostic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is deemed a local event, which may fail to evoke a detectable systemic immune response. A correct diagnosis of the disease is a necessary basis for estimating its clinical burden. This is not so difficult in a typical clinical picture. In atypical cases, further diagnostic efforts are to be installed. Although the aqueous humor may be analyzed for specific antibodies or the presence of parasitic DNA, the DNA burden therein is low, and in rare instances a confirmation would necessitate vitreous sampling. A laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis is frustrated by individual differences in the time elapsing between clinical symptoms and activation of specific antibody production, which may result in false negatives. In congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, a delay in the onset of specific local antibody production could reflect immune tolerance. Herein, the authors attempt to provide a simple and practicable algorithm for a clinically tailored diagnostic approach in atypical instances. PMID:21770803

Garweg, Justus G; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D F; Montoya, Jose G

2011-08-01

48

Variation in intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and potassium in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives:Adequate mineral intake is important for the maintenance of bone health, cellular function and general metabolism, and possibly in the aetiology of cancer and other chronic diseases. This study aimed at investigating variation in intakes of selected minerals across 10 European countries participating in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study.Methods:Nutrient intakes for 36 034 subjects, aged

A A Welch; H Fransen; M Jenab; M C Boutron-Ruault; R Tumino; C Agnoli; U Ericson; I Johansson; P Ferrari; D Engeset; E Lund; M Lentjes; M Touvier; M Niravong; N Larrañaga; L Rodríguez; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; A Tjønneland; L Bjerregaard; E Vasilopoulou; V Dilis; J Linseisen; U Nöthlings; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham

2009-01-01

49

IgA antibody response during acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii specific IgA and IgM antibodies were quantitated by an antibody capture agglutination assay in 260 patients with acquired toxoplasmosis and from 94 fetuses suspected of congenital toxoplasmosis and 30 infected children. In acquired toxoplasmosis, IgA antibodies to T gondii were found in 95% of the cases. In congenital toxoplasmosis IgA antibodies were more frequently detected (75%) in cord

M H Bessières; C Roques; A Berrebi; V Barre; M Cazaux; J P Séguéla

1992-01-01

50

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... solid organ transplants Handling cat litter Eating contaminated soil Eating raw or undercooked meat (lamb, pork, and ... dog feces. Wash your hands thoroughly after touching soil that may be contaminated with animal feces. Pregnant ...

51

Toxoplasmosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disease emergence in wildlife since the late 1900s has been of unprecedented scope relative to geographic areas of occurrence, wildlife species affected, and the variety of pathogens involved (Friend, 2006; Daszak and others, 2000). The emergence of many ...

D. E. Hill J. P. Dubey

2014-01-01

52

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... common in cat feces, raw vegetables, and the soil. It is also common in raw meat, especially ... Center at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, and the International Association of Providers of ...

53

NUMERICAL WHIRL-FLUTTER INVESTIGATION OF THE EUROPEAN TILTROTOR CONCEPT: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the status of the numerical whirl-flutter investigation of the European tiltrotor concept that is carried over by the EU funded ADYN Consortium within Work Package 1. The Eu- ropean tiltrotor concept is based on an innovative approach to the design of tilting rotor aircraft that minimizes the drawbacks related to rotor-wing interaction while exploiting partial wing tilting

Emanuele Bianchi; Anselmo Russo; Rogelio Ferrer; Oliver Dieterich; Mauro Frosoni; Richard Bakker; Vasilis Riziotis; Didier Petot; Massimiliano Lanz

54

Pests, pesticide use and alternative options in European maize production: current status and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political efforts are made in the European Union (EU) to reduce pesticide use and to increase the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM). Within the EU project ENDURE, research priorities on pesticide reduction are defined. Using maize, one of the most important crops in Europe, as a case study, we identified the most serious weeds, arthropod pests, and fungal diseases

M. Meissle; P. Mouron; T. Musa; Weide van der R. Y; J. A. M. Groten

2010-01-01

55

A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel, and shipyard welders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies located in nine European countries has been assembled with the aim of investigating the relation of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. The observation period and the criteria for inclusion of welders varied from country to country. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort

L Simonato; A C Fletcher; A Andersen; K Anderson; N Becker; J Chang-Claude; G Ferro; M Gérin; C N Gray; K S Hansen

1991-01-01

56

IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis. PMID:24864110

Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

2014-01-01

57

European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) prospective survey of candidaemia: report from one Italian region  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ECMM epidemiological prospective survey of candidaemia was performed in one Italian region (Lombardy; population: 8 924 870) by the National Society of Medical Mycology (FIMUA) from September 1997 to December 1999. In total, 569 episodes were reported with an overall rate of 0.38\\/1000 admissions, 4.4\\/100000 patient days. Predisposing factors included presence of an intravascular catheter (89%), antibiotic treatment (88%),

A. M. Tortorano; E. Biraghi; A. Astolfi; C. Ossi; M. Tejada; C. Farina; S. Perin; C. Bonaccorso; C. Cavanna; A. Raballo; A. Grossi

2002-01-01

58

Seasonal variations in acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Between December 1999 and December 2004, 40 081 pregnant women were examined for toxoplasmosis with Toxo-IgG, Toxo-IgM enzyme immunoassay. Women with positive results were then retested with the Toxo-IgG avidity assay for recent toxoplasmosis. Recent acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was found to be significantly more frequent (p < 0.01) during winter than summer. The incidence of acute toxoplasmosis during winter-spring was also significantly more frequent (p < 0.025) than summer-autumn. This phenomenon should be taken into account when formulating preventive measures for toxoplasmosis, especially for pregnant women. PMID:16153265

Logar, J; Soba, B; Premru-Srsen, T; Novak-Antolic, Z

2005-10-01

59

A U-shaped relationship between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate intake has shown an inverse association with pancreatic cancer; nevertheless, results from plasma measurements were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to examine the association between plasma total homocysteine, methionine, folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5?-phosphate, riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We conducted a nested case–control study in

Shu-Chun Chuang; Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon; Per Magne Ueland; Stein Emil Vollset; Øivind Midttun; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjønneland; Kim Overvad; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Sophie Morois; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Birgit Teucher; Rudolf Kaaks; Cornelia Weikert; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; Vassiliki Benetou; Androniki Naska; Mazda Jenab; Nadia Slimani; Isabelle Romieu; Dominique S. Michaud; Domenico Palli; Sabina Sieri; Salvatore Panico; Carlotta Sacerdote; Rosario Tumino; Guri Skeie; Eric J. Duell; Laudina Rodriguez; Esther Molina-Montes; José Mar?´a Huerta; Nerea Larrañaga; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Dorthe Johansen; Jonas Manjer; Weimin Ye; Malin Sund; Petra H. M. Peeters; Suzanne Jeurnink; Nicholas Wareham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Francesca Crowe; Elio Riboli; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Paolo Vineis

2011-01-01

60

Measurement imprecision in vertebral morphometry of spinal radiographs obtained in the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study: consequences for the identification of prevalent and incident deformities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several algorithms are currently in use for evaluating vertebral deformities from plain lateral radiographs of the lumbar and thoracic spine. However, the effects of measurement imprecision as well as uncertainties over image magnification on the correct identification of prevalent and incident vertebral deformities with these algorithms has been little studied. In a pilot study for the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study

K WEBER; M LUNT; W GOWIN; T LAUERMANN; G ARMBRECHT; E WIELAND; G LEB; D FELSENBERG; Benjamin Franklin

61

Comparison of standardised dietary folate intake across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Folate plays an important role in the synthesis and methylation of DNA as a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. Inadequate folate intake has been linked to adverse health events. However, comparable information on dietary folate intake across European countries has never been reported. The objective of the present study was to describe the dietary folate intake and its food sources in ten countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 36 034 participants (aged 35-74 years) who completed a single 24 h dietary recall using a computerised interview software program, EPIC-Soft® (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon). Dietary folate intake was estimated using the standardised EPIC Nutrient DataBase, adjusted for age, energy intake, weight and height and weighted by season and day of recall. Adjusted mean dietary folate intake in most centres ranged from 250 to 350 ?g/d in men and 200 to 300 ?g/d in women. Folate intake tended to be lower among current smokers and heavier alcohol drinkers and to increase with educational level, especially in women. Supplement users (any types) were likely to report higher dietary folate intake in most centres. Vegetables, cereals and fruits, nuts and seeds were the main contributors to folate intake. Nonetheless, the type and pattern of consumption of these main food items varied across the centres. These first comparisons of standardised dietary folate intakes across different European populations show moderate regional differences (except the UK health conscious group), and variation by sex, educational level, smoking and alcohol-drinking status, and supplement use. PMID:22040523

Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Genevieve; Freisling, Heinz; Biessy, Carine; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Chajès, Véronique; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ericson, Ulrika; Wallström, Peter; Ros, Martine M; Peeters, Petra H M; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; María Huerta, José; Amiano, Pilar; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Teucher, Birgit; Feller, Silke; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Vineis, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia

2012-08-01

62

Smoking and the risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).  

PubMed

Smoking has recently been recognised as causally associated with the development of gastric cancer (GC). However, evidence on the effect by sex, duration and intensity of smoking, anatomic subsite and cessation of smoking is limited. Our objective was to assess the relation between tobacco use and GC incidence in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We studied data from 521,468 individuals recruited from 10 European countries taking part in the EPIC study. Participants completed lifestyle questionnaires that included questions on lifetime consumption of tobacco and diet in 1991-1998. Participants were followed until September 2002, and during that period 305 cases of stomach cancer were identified. After exclusions, 274 were eligible for the analysis, using the Cox proportional hazard model. After adjustment for educational level, consumption of fresh fruit, vegetables and preserved meat, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI), there was a significant association between cigarette smoking and gastric cancer risk: the hazard ratio (HR) for ever smokers was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.94). The HR of current cigarette smoking was 1.73 (95% CI = 1.06-2.83) in males and 1.87 (95% CI = 1.12-3.12) in females. Hazard ratios increased with intensity and duration of cigarette smoked. A significant decrease of risk was observed after 10 years of quitting smoking. A preliminary analysis of 121 cases with identified anatomic site showed that current cigarette smokers had a higher HR of GC in the cardia (HR = 4.10) than in the distal part of the stomach (HR = 1.94). In this cohort, 17.6 % (95% CI = 10.5-29.5 %) of GC cases may be attributable to smoking. Findings from this large study support the causal relation between smoking and gastric cancer in this European population. Stomach cancer should be added to the burden of diseases caused by smoking. PMID:14520702

González, Carlos A; Pera, Guillem; Agudo, Antonio; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Göran; Simán, Henrik; Nyrén, Olof; Agren, Asa; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, María J; Quiros, Jose R; Allen, Naomi; Bingham, Sheila; Day, Nicholas; Miller, Antony; Nagel, Gabriele; Boeing, Heiner; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Peeters, Petra; Numans, Mattijs; Clavel-Chapelon, François; Helen, Ishaki; Agapitos, Emmanuel; Lund, Eiliv; Fahey, Michael; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio

2003-11-20

63

Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Participants 109?118 men and 254?870 women, mainly aged 37-70. Main outcome measures Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men with about 24 g alcohol, one for women with about 12 g alcohol) and the estimated total annual number of cases of alcohol attributable cancer. Results If we assume causality, among men and women, 10% (95% confidence interval 7 to 13%) and 3% (1 to 5%) of the incidence of total cancer was attributable to former and current alcohol consumption in the selected European countries. For selected cancers the figures were 44% (31 to 56%) and 25% (5 to 46%) for upper aerodigestive tract, 33% (11 to 54%) and 18% (?3 to 38%) for liver, 17% (10 to 25%) and 4% (?1 to 10%) for colorectal cancer for men and women, respectively, and 5.0% (2 to 8%) for female breast cancer. A substantial part of the alcohol attributable fraction in 2008 was associated with alcohol consumption higher than the recommended upper limit: 33?037 of 178?578 alcohol related cancer cases in men and 17?470 of 397?043 alcohol related cases in women. Conclusions In western Europe, an important proportion of cases of cancer can be attributable to alcohol consumption, especially consumption higher than the recommended upper limits. These data support current political efforts to reduce or to abstain from alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of cancer.

2011-01-01

64

Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.  

PubMed

Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia. PMID:24784937

Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

2014-07-01

65

The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.  

PubMed

Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to underline the future challenges for European marine research in terms of the integrated coastal zone management of these highly significant coastal zones. PMID:18061212

Dauvin, Jean-Claude

2008-01-01

66

Prospective European multi-center study of natural family planning (1989-1992): interim results. The European Natural Family Planning Study Groups.  

PubMed

Since 1989 an international multicenter prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of natural family planning (NFP) methods in Europe has been conducted by the NFP Research Center at the University of Düsseldorf in collaboration with the European Zone of the International Federation for Family Life Promotion (IFFLP). Fourteen NFP-organizations from nine European countries participate in the study. Cycle data from women in the fertile age group are transferred to a special standard computer sheet by the respective organizations and forwarded at three-monthly intervals to the study center for analyses. To date, 10,045 cycles from 900 women aged between 19 and 54 years have been analyzed. This paper presents the pregnancy rate for the women aged between 19 and 45 years of age, who contributed 9284 cycles. In the analyses the cycles were subdivided into two categories consequent to sexual practices during the fertile phase: group I (NFP only--4277 cycles) use only NFP to avoid a pregnancy; group II (FA/mix--5007 cycles) where barrier methods or coitus interruptus during the fertile phase, at least in some cycles, were used to avoid a pregnancy. The women used different clinical indicators such as basal body temperature (BBT), cervical mucus, calculations, cyclical cervical changes or combinations of these to determine the beginning and the end of the fertile phase necessitating a further division into four subgroups, A, B, C, D, and different efficiency rates for each of these groups. In group A (symptothermal method, double check) 15 unintended pregnancies (UIP) occurred in 7404 cycles, giving a pregnancy rate of 2.4 Pearl Index (PI); in group B (muco-thermal method) there were 12 UIP in 1352 cycles with a pregnancy rate of 10.6 (PI); in group C (mucus to detect the beginning and mucus and BBT to determine the end of the fertile phase) there was one UIP in 434 cycles, and in group D (mucus method only) there was one IUP in 70 cycles. The numbers in group C and D are too small to calculate a pregnancy rate (PI). No pregnancy was observed in women over 40 years of age. Our conclusion from these preliminary results is that in the continent of Europe, the symptothermal method when used with periodic abstinence (NFP only = group I) and fertility awareness with the use of barriers during the fertile phase (FA/mix = group II) are effective methods of family planning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8147240

1993-12-01

67

The actual development of European aviation safety requirements in aviation medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.  

PubMed

Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Aviation Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them. PMID:19561781

Siedenburg, J

2009-04-01

68

The actual development of European Aviation Safety Requirements in Aviation Medicine: Prospects of Future EASA Requirements  

PubMed Central

Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990ies. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Awiation Requirement - Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them.

Siedenburg, J

2009-01-01

69

ALOX12 in Human Toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

ALOX12 is a gene encoding arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), a member of a nonheme lipoxygenase family of dioxygenases. ALOX12 catalyzes the addition of oxygen to arachidonic acid, producing 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which can be reduced to the eicosanoid 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). 12-HETE acts in diverse cellular processes, including catecholamine synthesis, vasoconstriction, neuronal function, and inflammation. Consistent with effects on these fundamental mechanisms, allelic variants of ALOX12 are associated with diseases including schizophrenia, atherosclerosis, and cancers, but the mechanisms have not been defined. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes morbidity and mortality and stimulates an innate and adaptive immune inflammatory reaction. Recently, it has been shown that a gene region known as Toxo1 is critical for susceptibility or resistance to T. gondii infection in rats. An orthologous gene region with ALOX12 centromeric is also present in humans. Here we report that the human ALOX12 gene has susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis (rs6502997 [P, <0.000309], rs312462 [P, <0.028499], rs6502998 [P, <0.029794], and rs434473 [P, <0.038516]). A human monocytic cell line was genetically engineered using lentivirus RNA interference to knock down ALOX12. In ALOX12 knockdown cells, ALOX12 RNA expression decreased and levels of the ALOX12 substrate, arachidonic acid, increased. ALOX12 knockdown attenuated the progression of T. gondii infection and resulted in greater parasite burdens but decreased consequent late cell death of the human monocytic cell line. These findings suggest that ALOX12 influences host responses to T. gondii infection in human cells. ALOX12 has been shown in other studies to be important in numerous diseases. Here we demonstrate the critical role ALOX12 plays in T. gondii infection in humans. PMID:24686056

Witola, William H; Liu, Susan Ruosu; Montpetit, Alexandre; Welti, Ruth; Hypolite, Magali; Roth, Mary; Zhou, Ying; Mui, Ernest; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournie, Gilbert J; Cavailles, Pierre; Bisanz, Cordelia; Boyer, Kenneth; Withers, Shawn; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Swisher, Charles N; Heydemann, Peter T; Rabiah, Peter; Muench, Stephen P; McLeod, Rima

2014-07-01

70

The role of cytokines in toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection withToxoplasma gondii is normally asymptomatic, but as a consequence of the AIDS epidemic the incidence of symptomatic disease and especially toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) has grown in frequency. The high frequency of adverse reactions to conventional therapeutic regimens for toxoplasmosis highlight the need to develop new strategies for the management of this disease. The importance of cytokines in resistance againstT.

Christopher A. Hunter; Carlos S. Subauste; Jack S. Remington

1994-01-01

71

Novel Interpretation of Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis According to Gestational Age at the Time of Maternal Infection  

PubMed Central

From a prospective cohort of 344 women who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, 344 amniotic fluid, 264 placenta, and 216 cord blood samples were tested for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis using the same PCR assay. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the PCR assay using amniotic fluid were 86.3% and 97.2%, respectively, and both specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. Using placenta and cord blood, sensitivities were 79.5% and 21.2%, and specificities were 92% and 100%, respectively. In addition, the calculation of pretest and posttest probabilities and the use of logistic regression allowed us to obtain curves that give a dynamic interpretation of the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis according to gestational age at maternal infection, as represented by the three sample types (amniotic fluid, placenta, and cord blood). Two examples are cited here: for a maternal infection at 25 weeks of amenorrhea, a negative result of prenatal diagnosis allowed estimation of the probability of congenital toxoplasmosis at 5% instead of an a priori (pretest) risk estimate of 33%. For an infection at 10 weeks of amenorrhea associated with a pretest congenital toxoplasmosis risk of 7%, a positive PCR result using placenta at birth yields a risk increase to 43%, while a negative result damps down the risk to 0.02%. Thus, with a molecular diagnosis performing at a high level, and in spite of the persistence of false negatives, posttest risk curves using both negative and positive results prove highly informative, allowing a better assessment of the actual risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and finally an improved decision guide to treatment.

Sterkers, Yvon; Pratlong, Francine; Albaba, Sahar; Loubersac, Julie; Picot, Marie-Christine; Pretet, Vanessa; Issert, Eric; Boulot, Pierre

2012-01-01

72

Tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data regarding tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer (EC) is still inconclusive. We examined the association of tea and coffee consumption with EC risk among 442,143 men and women without cancer at baseline from 9 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Tea and coffee intakes were recorded using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationships between tea and coffee intake and EC risk. During a mean follow-up of 11.1 years, 339 participants developed EC, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 174 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the multivariable models, no significant associations between tea (mostly black tea), and coffee intake and risk of EC, EAC and ESCC were observed. In stratified analyses, among men coffee consumption was inversely related to ESCC (HR for comparison of extreme tertiles 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.88; p-trend?=?0.022), but not among women. In current smokers, a significant and inverse association was observed between ESCC risk and tea (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.93; p-trend?=?0.053) and coffee consumption (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.73; p-trend?=?0.011). However, no statistically significant findings were observed using the continuous variable (per 100 mL/d). These data did not show a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and EC, EAC and ESCC, although a decreased risk of ESCC among men and current smokers is suggested, but need to be confirmed in further prospective studies including more cases. PMID:24535727

Zamora-Ros, Raul; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Dik, Vincent K; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kuhn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Grioni, Sara; Palli, Domenico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Argüelles, Marcial; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Nilsson, Lena; Wallner, Bengt; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Peeters, Petra H M; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Freisling, Heinz; Stepien, Magdalena; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

2014-09-15

73

Results of a Peripheral Cutting Balloon Prospective Multicenter European Registry in Hemodialysis Vascular Access  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To report initial experience with the Peripheral Cutting Balloon (PCB) in treatment of failing hemodialysis shunts. Methods. A total of 190 patients (95 men, 95 women; average age 64.4 {+-} 11.9 years, range 32-87 years) who were treated with the PCB for pressure-resistant stenosis, restenosis or failed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the venous limb of an arteriovenous shunt were followed in seven European centers using a simple registry. The group consisted of 109 de novo lesions (57%) and 79 restenotic lesions (43%). Results. Technical success was achieved in 88.9% of cases. Primary patency was as follows (the results for whole group and simultaneous results for de novo lesions and restenoses are presented): 1 month (140 patients followed): 94%, 98%, and 93%; 3 months (116 patients followed): 93%, 98%, and 92%; 6 months (40 patients followed): 85%, 92%, and 79%; 12 months (27 patients followed): 74%, 87%, and 48%. No complication occurred. Patients experienced an equal or lower level of pain during the procedure compared with conventional PTA. Conclusion. The PCB proved to be successful in dilating pressure-resistant stenoses. We cannot conclude whether PCB angioplasty can lower the restenosis rate in hemodialysis access lesions, but the long-term patency for de novo lesions is high. A further randomized study is advisable.

Peregrin, Jan H., E-mail: jape@medicon.cz; Rocek, Miloslav [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)

2007-04-15

74

Glycated haemoglobin, diabetes, and mortality in men in Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC›Norfolk)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective To examine,the value of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration, a marker of blood glucose concentration, as a predictor of death from,cardiovascular,and all causes in men. Design Prospective population,study. Setting Norfolk cohort,of European,Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC›Norfolk). Subjects 4662 men,aged 45›79 years who,had had glycated haemoglobin,measured,at the baseline survey in 1995›7 who,were,followed,up to December 1999. Main outcome measures

Tee Khaw; Nicholas Wareham; Robert Luben; Sheila Bingham; Suzy Oakes; Ailsa Welch; Nicholas Day

2001-01-01

75

A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel, and shipyard welders.  

PubMed Central

A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies located in nine European countries has been assembled with the aim of investigating the relation of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. The observation period and the criteria for inclusion of welders varied from country to country. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort and observed numbers of deaths (and for some countries incident cancer cases) were compared with expected numbers calculated from national reference rates. Mortality and cancer incidence ratios were analysed by cause category, time since first exposure, duration of employment, and estimated cumulative dose to total fumes, chromium (Cr), Cr VI, and nickel (Ni). Overall a statistically significant excess was reported for mortality from lung cancer (116 observed v 86.81 expected deaths, SMR = 134). When analysed by type of welding an increasing pattern with time since first exposure was present for both mild steel and stainless steel welders, which was more noticeable for the subcohort of predominantly stainless steel welders. No clear relation was apparent between mortality from lung cancer and duration of exposure to or estimated cumulative dose of Ni or Cr. Whereas the patterns of lung cancer mortality in these results suggest that the risk of lung cancer is higher for stainless steel than mild steel welders the different level of risk for these two categories of welding exposure cannot be quantified with precision. The report of five deaths from pleural mesothelioma unrelated to the type of welding draws attention to the risk of exposure to asbestos in welding activities.

Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Andersen, A; Anderson, K; Becker, N; Chang-Claude, J; Ferro, G; Gerin, M; Gray, C N; Hansen, K S

1991-01-01

76

Oral contraceptives, reproductive history and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors may initiate long-term changes to the hormonal milieu and thereby, possibly influence colorectal cancer risk. Methods: We examined the association of hormonal and reproductive factors with risk of colorectal cancer among 337?802 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, of whom 1878 developed colorectal cancer. Results: After stratification for center and age, and adjustment for body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, physical activity and alcohol consumption, ever use of oral contraceptives was marginally inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR), 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–1.02), although this association was stronger among post-menopausal women (HR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74–0.95). Duration of oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors, including age at menarche, age at menopause, type of menopause, ever having an abortion, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy and breastfeeding, were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusion: Our findings provide limited support for a potential inverse association between oral contraceptives and colorectal cancer risk.

Tsilidis, K K; Allen, N E; Key, T J; Bakken, K; Lund, E; Berrino, F; Fournier, A; Olsen, A; Tj?nneland, A; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Byrnes, G; Chajes, V; Rinaldi, S; Chang-Claude, J; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Boeing, H; Koumantaki, Y; Stasinopoulou, G; Trichopoulou, A; Palli, D; Tagliabue, G; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van Duijnhoven, F J B; van Gils, C H; Peeters, P H M; Rodriguez, L; Gonzalez, C A; Sanchez, M-J; Chirlaque, M-D; Barricarte, A; Dorronsoro, M; Borgquist, S; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Hallmans, G; Rodwell, S A; Khaw, K-T; Norat, T; Romaguera, D; Riboli, E

2010-01-01

77

Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of endometrial carcinoma among postmenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Estrogen-only menopausal hormone therapy (HT) increases the risk of endometrial cancer, but less is known about the association with other types of HT. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, the authors examined the association of various types of HT with the risk of endometrial cancer among 115,474 postmenopausal women recruited into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition between 1992 and 2000. After a mean follow-up period of 9 years, 601 incident cases of endometrial cancer were identified. In comparison with never users of HT, risk of endometrial cancer was increased among current users of estrogen-only HT (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77, 3.57), tibolone (HR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.67, 5.26), and, to a lesser extent, estrogen-plus-progestin HT (HR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.83), although risks differed according to regimen and type of progestin constituent. The association of HT use with risk was stronger among women who were older, leaner, or had ever smoked cigarettes. The finding of a strong increased risk of endometrial cancer with estrogen-only HT and a weaker association with combined HT supports the hypothesis that progestins have an attenuating effect on endometrial cancer risk. The increased risk associated with tibolone use requires further investigation. PMID:20961969

Allen, Naomi E; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Key, Timothy J; Dossus, Laure; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lund, Eiliv; Bakken, Kjersti; Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Fournier, Agnès; Fabre, Alban; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Krogh, Vittorio; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bergmann, Manuela; Schuetze, Madlen; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; van Gils, Carla H; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Molina-Montes, Maria-Esther; Redondo, María-Luisa; Duell, Eric J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Rinaldi, Sabina; Fedirko, Veronika; Mouw, Traci; Michaud, Dominique S; Riboli, Elio

2010-12-15

78

Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of ovarian cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.  

PubMed

The association between menopausal hormone therapy (HT) and risk of ovarian cancer was assessed among 126,920 post-menopausal women recruited into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. After an average of 9-year follow-up, 424 incident ovarian cancers were diagnosed. Cox models adjusted for body mass index, smoking status, unilateral ovariectomy, simple hysterectomy, age at menarche, number of full-term pregnancies, and duration of oral contraceptives were used. Compared with baseline never use, current use of any HT was positively associated with risk (HR [hazard ratio], 1.29; 95% CI [confidence interval], 1.01-1.65), while former use was not (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.70-1.30). Current estrogen-only HT was associated with a 63% higher risk (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.08-2.47), while current estrogen plus progestin was associated with a smaller and non-significant higher risk (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.89-1.62). Use of tibolone was associated with a twofold greater risk (HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.06-4.50), but was based on small numbers. In conclusion, women who currently use HT have a moderate increased risk of ovarian cancer, and which may be stronger for estrogen-only than estrogen plus progestin preparations. PMID:21637986

Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Dossus, Laure; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bakken, Kjersti; Lund, Eiliv; Fournier, Agnès; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Hansen, Louise; Tjønneland, Anne; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Benetou, Vassiliki; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Galasso, Rocco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Braem, Marieke G M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Gram, Inger T; Rodríguez, Laudina; Duell, Eric J; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

2011-08-01

79

Ocular Sequelae of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Brazil Compared with Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis appears to be more severe in Brazil, where it is a leading cause of blindness, than in Europe, but direct comparisons are lacking. Evidence is accumulating that more virulent genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii predominate in South America. Methods We compared prospective cohorts of children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by universal neonatal screening in Brazil and neonatal or prenatal screening in Europe between 1992 and 2003, using the same protocol in both continents. Results Three hundred and eleven (311) children had congenital toxoplasmosis: 30 in Brazil and 281 in Europe, where 71 were identified by neonatal screening. Median follow up was 4.1 years in Europe and 3.7 years in Brazil. Relatively more children had retinochoroiditis during the first year in Brazil than in Europe (15/30; 50% versus 29/281; 10%) and the risk of lesions by 4 years of age was much higher: the hazard ratio for Brazil versus Europe was 5.36 (95%CI: 3.17, 9.08). Children in Brazil had larger lesions, which were more likely to be multiple and to affect the posterior pole (p<0.0001). In Brazil, visual impairment (<6/12 Snellen) was predicted for most affected eyes (87%, 27/31), but not in Europe (29%; 20/69, p<0.0001). The size of newly detected lesions decreased with age (p?=?0.0007). Conclusions T. gondii causes more severe ocular disease in congenitally infected children in Brazil compared with Europe. The marked differences in the frequency, size and multiplicity of retinochoroidal lesions may be due to infection with more virulent genotypes of the parasite that predominate in Brazil but are rarely found in Europe.

Gilbert, Ruth E.; Freeman, Katherine; Lago, Eleonor G.; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M. G.; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Buffolano, Wilma; Stanford, Miles R.; Petersen, Eskild

2008-01-01

80

Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: prevention, screening, and treatment.  

PubMed

Background: One of the major consequences of pregnant women becoming infected by Toxoplasma gondii is vertical transmission to the fetus. Although rare, congenital toxoplasmosis can cause severe neurological or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies. Prenatal care must include education about prevention of toxoplasmosis. The low prevalence of the disease in the Canadian population and limitations in diagnosis and therapy limit the effectiveness of screening strategies. Therefore, routine screening is not currently recommended. Objective: To review the prevention, diagnosis, and management of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Outcomes: Outcomes evaluated include the effect of screening on diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and the efficacy of prophylaxis and treatment. Evidence: The Cochrane Library and Medline were searched for articles published in English from 1990 to the present related to toxoplasmosis and pregnancy. Additional articles were identified through references of these articles. Values: The quality of evidence is rated and recommendations made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Benefits, harms, and costs: Guideline implementation should assist the practitioner in developing an approach to screening for and treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Patients will benefit from appropriate management of this condition. Sponsor: The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations 1. Routine universal screening should not be performed for pregnant women at low risk. Serologic screening should be offered only to pregnant women considered to be at risk for primary Toxoplasma gondii infection. (II-3E) 2. Suspected recent infection in a pregnant woman should be confirmed before intervention by having samples tested at a toxoplasmosis reference laboratory, using tests that are as accurate as possible and correctly interpreted. (II-2B) 3. If acute infection is suspected, repeat testing should be performed within 2 to 3 weeks, and consideration given to starting therapy with spiramycin immediately, without waiting for the repeat test results. (II-2B) 4. Amniocentesis should be offered to identify Toxoplasma gondii in the amniotic fluid by polymerase chain reaction (a) if maternal primary infection is diagnosed, (b) if serologic testing cannot confirm or exclude acute infection, or (c) in the presence of abnormal ultrasound findings (intracranial calcification, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, or severe intrauterine growth restriction). (II-2B) 5. Amniocentesis should not be offered for the identification of Toxoplasma gondii infection at less than 18 weeks' gestation and should be offered no less than 4 weeks after suspected acute maternal infection to lower the occurrence of false-negative results. (II-2D) 6. Toxoplasma gondii infection should be suspected and screening should be offered to pregnant women with ultrasound findings consistent with possible TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, and other) infection, including but not limited to intracranial calcification, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, or severe intrauterine growth restriction. (II-2B) 7. Each case involving a pregnant woman suspected of having an acute Toxoplasma gondii infection acquired during gestation should be discussed with an expert in the management of toxoplasmosis. (III-B) 8. If maternal infection has been confirmed but the fetus is not yet known to be infected, spiramycin should be offered for fetal prophylaxis (to prevent spread of organisms across the placenta from mother to fetus). (I-B) 9. A combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and folinic acid should be offered as treatment for women in whom fetal infection has been confirmed or is highly suspected (usually by a positive amniotic fluid polymerase chain reaction). (I-B) 10. Anti-toxoplasma treatment in immunocompetent pregnant women with previous infection with Toxoplasma gondii should not be

Paquet, Caroline; Yudin, Mark H

2013-01-01

81

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined\\u000a this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.\\u000a Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of cancer were diagnosed in 112,430 never smokers in EPIC. Childhood ETS was self-reported\\u000a by participants at baseline, along with

Shu-Chun ChuangValentina; Valentina Gallo; Dominique Michaud; Kim Overvad; Anne Tjønneland; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Isabelle Romieu; Kurt Straif; Domenico Palli; Valeria Pala; Rosario Tumino; Carlotta Sacerdote; Salvatore Panico; Petra H. Peeters; Eiliv Lund; Inger Torhild Gram; Jonas Manjer; Signe Borgquist; Elio Riboli; Paolo Vineis

2011-01-01

82

Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed

N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajès; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartåker; A Tjønneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham

2009-01-01

83

Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g\\/day) of total, animal and

J Halkjær; A Olsen; L J Bjerregaard; G Deharveng; A Tjønneland; A A Welch; F L Crowe; E Wirfält; V Hellstrom; M Niravong; M Touvier; J Linseisen; A Steffen; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M D Chirlaque; N Larrañaga; P Ferrari; P Contiero; G Frasca; D Engeset; E Lund; G Misirli; M Kosti; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham

2009-01-01

84

Phytoestrogen Exposure Correlation with Plasma Estradiol in Postmenopausal Women in European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk May Involve Diet-Gene Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional studies investigating the relationship be- tween phytoestrogens in diet, urine, or blood with plasma estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) have been inconclusive. We investigated the relationship among phytoestrogen exposure, polymorphisms in the ESR1, COMT, CYP19, and SHBG genes, and plasma estradiol and SHBG levels in 125 free-living postmenopausal women taking part in a cohort study (European Prospective

Yen-Ling Low; James I. Taylor; Philip B. Grace; Mitch Dowsett; Serena Scollen; Alison M. Dunning; Angela A. Mulligan; Ailsa A. Welch; Robert N. Luben; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nick E. Day; Nick J. Wareham; Sheila A. Bingham

85

A bivariate measurement error model for nitrogen and potassium intakes to evaluate the performance of regression calibration in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, the performance of 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) measurements as reference measurements in a linear regression calibration model is evaluated critically at the individual (within-centre) and aggregate (between-centre) levels by using unbiased estimates of urinary measurements of nitrogen and potassium intakes.Methods:Between 1995 and 1999, 1072 study subjects (59% women) from

P Ferrari; A Roddam; M T Fahey; M Jenab; C Bamia; M Ocké; P Amiano; A Hjartåker; C Biessy; S Rinaldi; I Huybrechts; A Tjønneland; C Dethlefsen; M Niravong; F Clavel-Chapelon; J Linseisen; H Boeing; E Oikonomou; P Orfanos; D Palli; M Santucci de Magistris; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; P H M Peeters; C L Parr; T Braaten; M Dorronsoro; T Berenguer; B Gullberg; I Johansson; A A Welch; E Riboli; S Bingham; N Slimani

2009-01-01

86

Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Subclinical Viral and Toxoplasmosis Infections as Aetiology and How They Alter the Clinical Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To explore in a prospective study the evidence of certain viral and toxoplasmosis infections in sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). Methods: 84 consecutive patients with SSHL meeting certain criteria. All patients were assessed for specific IgM antibodies against cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, toxoplasma and Epstein-Barr virus. All were treated with intravenous steroids and assigned to two groups: 76 IgM

Dimitrios Kikidis; Thomas P. Nikolopoulos; Georgios Kampessis; Georgios Stamatiou; Aristeidis Chrysovergis

2011-01-01

87

Consumption of Dairy Products and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents. Materials and Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed), yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables. Results During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98). Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99) and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79–1.02) in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99); this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99), with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81–1.24). Conclusions Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products considered.

Murphy, Neil; Norat, Teresa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Tj?nneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Nailler, Laura; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Dik, Vincent K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Perez, Maria Jose Sanchez; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Johansson, Ingegerd; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Fedirko, Veronika; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio

2013-01-01

88

Toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Felis rufus).  

PubMed

A bobcat (Felis rufus) estimated to be 6-mo old exhibited head pressing, stupor, intermittent seizures, and vocalization. Based on gross and histopathologic features, it was diagnosed to have severe focally extensive protozoal meningoencephalitis. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed as the etiologic agent by an avidin-biotin immunohistochemical test. This is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a free-ranging bobcat. PMID:8592391

Smith, K E; Fisher, J R; Dubey, J P

1995-10-01

89

Atypical anterior optic neuropathy caused by toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report atypical anterior optic neuropathy due to toxoplasmosis.METHODS: Interventional case report. A 33-year-old male presented with sudden painless loss of vision and floaters in the right eye. Examination demonstrated a best-corrected visual acuity of 20\\/200, optic nerve head edema, retinal hemorrhages, and vitreous opacities.RESULTS: Nine days later, a granuloma at the optic nerve head was apparent, and the

Alice Song; Ingrid U. Scott; Janet L. Davis; Byron L. Lam

2002-01-01

90

A review of toxoplasmosis in wild birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii affects most species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. There is considerable confusion regarding the identity of T. gondii-like parasites and the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In this review, T. gondii-like infections in different species of wild birds are reviewed with particular reference to prevalences, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment. Although subclinical T. gondii infections are

J. P. Dubey

2002-01-01

91

Reconsidering the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To review recent observations regarding the sources of Toxoplasma gondii infection and rates of ocular involvement in cases of infection acquired after birth, and to reconcile them with older observations and widely held beliefs about the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis.METHOD:A review of pertinent reports from the medical literature.RESULTS:There are several potential sources and routes of infection, including inhalation of spores

Gary N. Holland

1999-01-01

92

Prospective European-wide multicentre study on a blood based real-time PCR for the diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Background Acute schistosomiasis constitutes a rare but serious condition in individuals experiencing their first prepatent Schistosoma infection. To circumvent costly and time-consuming diagnostics, an early and rapid diagnosis is required. So far, classic diagnostic tools such as parasite microscopy or serology lack considerable sensitivity at this early stage of Schistosoma infection. To validate the use of a blood based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for the detection of Schistosoma DNA in patients with acute schistosomiasis who acquired their infection in various endemic regions we conducted a European-wide prospective study in 11 centres specialized in travel medicine and tropical medicine. Methods Patients with a history of recent travelling to schistosomiasis endemic regions and freshwater contacts, an episode of fever (body temperature ?38.5°C) and an absolute or relative eosinophil count of ?700/?l or 10%, were eligible for participation. PCR testing with DNA extracted from serum was compared with results from serology and microscopy. Results Of the 38 patients with acute schistosomiasis included into the study, PCR detected Schistosoma DNA in 35 patients at initial presentation (sensitivity 92%). In contrast, sensitivity of serology (enzyme immunoassay and/or immunofluorescence assay) or parasite microscopy was only 70% and 24%, respectively. Conclusion For the early diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis, real-time PCR for the detection of schistosoma DNA in serum is more sensitive than classic diagnostic tools such as serology or microscopy, irrespective of the region of infection. Generalization of the results to all Schistosoma species may be difficult as in the study presented here only eggs of S. mansoni were detected by microscopy. A minimum amount of two millilitre of serum is required for sufficient diagnostic accuracy.

2013-01-01

93

Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study  

PubMed Central

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested case–control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI = 1.03–1.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.16–2.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.27–2.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out.

Agudo, Antonio

2013-01-01

94

Ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran: 40 cases analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM To report ocular symptoms, funduscopic findings and demographic distribution of ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran METHODS In this cross-sectional study, a total of 40 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (24 female, 16 male) were enrolled. The distribution of symptoms and funduscopic findings were studied. RESULTS The patients' age was in the range of 13-52 with the most common age of 19 years old. Twenty-four patients were female (60.0%). The most common presenting sign was visual loss. There was anterior chamber (AC) inflammation in 23 patients (57.5%). Vitritis was presented in 36 patients (90.0%). In 35 patients (87.5%), the retinal lesion was central. In patients with peripheral lesion, 3 patients (60.0%) had flashing vs 12.5% chance of flashing in all patients. Older patients had larger lesion (P=0.04). CONCLUSION Ocular toxoplasmosis substantially varies among patients with different age, gender, status of immunity, site of lesion and other undetermined factors. One of ocular symptoms, flashing, may necessitate a more precise peripheral fundus examination.

Tabatabaei, Seidali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Foroutan, Alireza; Ahmadabadi, Mehdinili; Zarei, Reza; Piri, Nilofar; Gordiz, Arzhang

2011-01-01

95

Toxoplasmosis in bone marrow transplantation: a report of two cases and systematic review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma infection represents a rare but often fatal complication in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. We report two cases of toxoplasmosis: one of successfully treated cerebral toxoplasmosis after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and a fatal case of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in a BMT recipient. We have systematically reviewed the 110 published cases of toxoplasmosis following BMT. We analyzed the pre-transplant

A Mele; PJ Paterson; HG Prentice; P Leoni; CC Kibbler

2002-01-01

96

Refinement of the mouse model of congenital toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the present investigation, focusing on the BALB\\/c mouse model of congenital toxoplasmosis, were: (1) to find a method to determine pregnancy in the mouse. The method has 100% sensitivity and 72% specificity; (2) to test congenital transmission during the chronic stage of toxoplasmosis. This occurred in 2 of 10 mice tested; (3) to investigate the relationship between

A. Freyre; J. Falcón; J. Méndez; A. Rodriguez; L. Correa; M. González

2006-01-01

97

Severe Acquired Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Adult Patients in French Guiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common presentation of symptomatic postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients is painless cervical adenopathy. Acute visceral manifestations are associated in rare cases. We report 16 cases of severe primary toxoplasmosis diagnosed in French Guiana during a 6.5-year period. All of the subjects were immunocompetent adults hospitalized with clinical presentations consisting of a marked, non- specific infectious syndrome accompanied

B. Carme; F. Bissuel; D. Ajzenberg; R. Bouyne; C. Aznar; M. Demar; S. Bichat; D. Louvel; A. M. Bourbigot; C. Peneau; P. Neron; M. L. Darde

2002-01-01

98

Acute Papillitis in Young Female with Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Papillitis and complicating acute toxoplasma retinochoroiditis, are unusual and atypical features of toxoplasmosis. This report presents a female with unusual acute papillitis. This patient had an active toxoplasmic chorioretinitis lesion that appeared to involve the optic nerve head and a major blood vessel as well as central nervous systems (CNS). Papillitis may be secondary to juxtapapillary retinitis (Jensen choroiditis). Very rarely, the optic nerve head may be the primary site of involvement. This case report illustrates a rare presentation of acute papillitis in a young immunocompetent female.

Alipanahi, Rakhshandeh; Sayyahmelli, Sima

2011-01-01

99

The role of cytokines in toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is normally asymptomatic, but as a consequence of the AIDS epidemic the incidence of symptomatic disease and especially toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) has grown in frequency. The high frequency of adverse reactions to conventional therapeutic regimens for toxoplasmosis highlight the need to develop new strategies for the management of this disease. The importance of cytokines in resistance against T. gondii has been shown primarily in murine models of toxoplasmosis and a number of cytokines (e.g., IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2 and IL-12) have been proposed for trials in patients with TE. One mechanism by which these cytokines produce their effects is through stimulation of macrophages and/or NK cells. However, there are problems with immunological intervention in immunocompromised patients with TE since the infection is present primarily in the central nervous system (CNS), an immunoprivileged site, and because certain cytokines may down regulate the immune response. While much valuable information has been obtained from studies conducted in immunocompetent strains of mice their relevance to an immunocompromised host is unknown. The development of genetically altered mice with immune deficiencies offers promising new models that may allow for more rational development of new treatment regimens. PMID:7865354

Hunter, C A; Subauste, C S; Remington, J S

1994-01-01

100

Experimental toxoplasmosis in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

The susceptibility of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to graded doses of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts was studied. Sixteen budgerigars were divided into 4 groups (A-D) of 4 each. Birds in groups A-C were fed 100,000, 1,000, or 100 infective oocysts of the VEG strain of T. gondii, respectively. Budgerigars in group D were not fed oocysts and served as controls. All 4 birds in group A died (or were killed) because of acute severe enteritis 5 or 6 days after feeding oocysts (DAFO). Three of the 4 birds in group B were killed (or died) because of toxoplasmosis 9 or 14 DAFO. One budgerigar in group C and the 4 budgerigars in group D remained healthy and were killed 35 or 39 DAFO. Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in tissues of all budgerigars fed oocysts. The control budgerigars remained clinically normal and showed no evidence of T. gondii exposure. These results indicate that, compared to other passerines, budgerigars are relatively resistant to clinical toxoplasmosis. PMID:12099420

Dubey, J P; Hamir, A N

2002-06-01

101

Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Phytoestrogens are a group of compounds found in plants that structurally resemble the hormone oestradiol, and thus have the potential to act as oestrogen agonists or antagonists. Their potential effects may alter the risk of breast cancer, but only a limited range of phytoestrogens has been examined in prospective cohort studies. Methods Serum and urine samples from 237 incident breast cancer cases and 952 control individuals (aged 45 to 75 years) in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort were analysed for seven phytoestrogens (daidzein, enterodiol, enterolactone, genistein, glycitein, o-desmethylangolensin, and equol) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Data on participants' diet, demographics, anthropometrics, and medical history were collected upon recruitment. All models were adjusted for weight, fat and energy intake, family history of breast cancer, social class, analytical batch, and factors related to oestrogen exposure. Results Urinary or serum phytoestrogens were not associated with protection from breast cancer in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort. Breast cancer risk was marginally increased with higher levels of total urinary isoflavones (odds ratio = 1.08 (95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 1.16), P = 0.055); among those with oestrogen receptor-positive tumours, the risk of breast cancer was increased with higher levels of urinary equol (odds ratio = 1.07 (95% confidence interval = 1.01 to 1.12), P = 0.013). Conclusion There was limited evidence of an association between phytoestrogen biomarkers and breast cancer risk in the present study. There was no indication of decreased likelihood of breast cancer with higher levels of phytoestrogen biomarkers, but the observation that some phytoestrogen biomarkers may be associated with greater risk of breast cancer warrants further study with greater statistical power.

Ward, Heather; Chapelais, Gaelle; Kuhnle, Gunter GC; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila

2008-01-01

102

Toxoplasmosis of the spinal cord in an immunocompromised patient  

PubMed Central

We, herein, describe an HIV-positive patient with toxoplasmosis of the spinal cord. We also carried out a comprehensive literature review of this topic, with emphasis on the diagnostic tools and therapeutic approach.

Martinez, Ernesto; Bolivar, Guillermo; Sanchez, Sandra; Carrascal, Edwin

2013-01-01

103

Laboratory Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 40 years, the Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute (TSL-PAMFRI) has been dedicated to the laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis. TSL-PAMFRI is the \\

Infectious Diseases

2002-01-01

104

Multiple cases of acquired toxoplasmosis retinitis presenting in an outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of the study was to examine the variability in presentation and outcome of individuals presenting with acquired toxoplasmosis retinitis in the setting of an outbreak of the disease.

Andrew J Burnett; Stanley G Shortt; Judith Isaac-Renton; Arlene King; Denise Werker; William R Bowie

1998-01-01

105

Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.  

PubMed

Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye. PMID:24521535

Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Åman, Per; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Pischon, Tobias; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cottet, Vanessa; Kühn, Tilman; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Bakken, Toril; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Asli, Lene Angell; Sánchez, Soledad; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Slimani, Nadia; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard

2014-05-28

106

Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies.

Darde, Marie-Laure

2012-01-01

107

[Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis on Mayotte (Comores Archipelago)].  

PubMed

A seroepidemiological survey of toxoplasmosis was carried out on Mayotte Island. Detection of IgG was performed on 871 samples from 509 females and 362 males by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Using a cut-off value of 12 UI (1/16), 734 sera (84.3%) were found to be positive. Assays for specific IgM which were carried out only in positive subjects detected IgM in 13 people (1.5%). Comparison between different ethnic groups showed significantly higher rates of seroprevalence in villages with latrines. This finding is attributed to the use of fresh water for bathing and dish washing. It has been hypothesized that use of salt water for these purposes lessens the rate of contamination by destroying Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. PMID:7746127

Julvez, J; Magnaval, J F; Baixench, M T; Maron, I

1994-01-01

108

Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Findings from early observational studies have suggested that the intake of dietary fat might be a contributing factor in the etiology of prostate cancer. However, the results from more recent prospective studies do not support this hypothesis, and the possible association between different food sources of fat and prostate cancer risk also remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to

Francesca L Crowe; Timothy J Key; Paul N Appleby; Ruth C Travis; Kim Overvad; Marianne U Jakobsen; Nina F Johnsen; A. Tjonneland; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Antonia Trichopoulou; Pagona Lagiou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Carlotta Sacerdote; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Vitorrio Krogh; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Lambertus A Kiemeney; Maria-Dolores Chirlaque; Eva Ardanaz; Maria-José Sanchez; Nerea Larranaga; Carlos A Gonzalez; José R Quiros; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfalt; Par Stattin; Göran Hallmans; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila Bingham; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Elio Riboli

2008-01-01

109

Ensuring accurate oral mucositis assessment in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Prospective Oral Mucositis Audit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucositis (OM) has substantial negative clinical, quality-of-life, and economic consequences for patients with haematologic malignancies who require myeloablative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Uniform training in OM assessment is infrequent in clinical practice, so the true incidence and duration of OM are unknown. Nurses and physicians from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation recently undertook an audit of 214

Barry Quinn; Rebecca Stone; Mary Uhlenhopp; Shaun McCann; Nicole Blijlevens

2007-01-01

110

A prospective view on European pharmaceutical research and development. Policy options to reduce fragmentation and increase competitiveness.  

PubMed

This article analyses 3 areas of policy that could reduce the fragmentation and improve the competitiveness of the European pharmaceutical sector. It argues that a potential solution to the issue of fragmentation of pharmaceutical research, development and innovation may be the development of policies at the European level, in those areas that European institutions have a competence. These areas may not necessarily rely exclusively on solving the issue of pricing and reimbursing pharmaceuticals as European Union (EU) Member States invoke the subsidiarity principle to claim policy exclusivity in this area. By contrast, policy areas where European institutions have a competence may include: i) a more intensified collaboration in science and technology policy (supporting the science base, identifying education needs for the future, collaborating in the development of new technologies and fostering university-industry collaboration); ii) support of research and development (R&D) by means of directly channelling funds into basic pharmaceutical research, avoiding duplication of the research effort, developing a set of research priorities, tackling the issue of technology transfer, promoting university-industry and cross-border collaborations or providing incentives that would induce private R&D activities in areas with large socioeconomic impact; and iii) an improvement in the environment for the financing of innovation in the EU, by means of selective use of tax policy at the national level (and where applicable, at the EU level), institutional reform in order to widen the pool of available funds for private investment, and the introduction of schemes that would encourage individuals and institutions to hold equity in innovative companies. The article identifies specific research, regulatory, medical and financing needs that require policy intervention, evaluates the possible dynamic implications of such interventions and highlights the benefits that may accrue from their implementation. PMID:10178646

Kanavos, P

1998-02-01

111

Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.  

PubMed

Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11.5-year follow-up, 11,576 incident BC cases were identified. No association was observed between the intake of total flavonoids [hazard ratio comparing fifth to first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.97, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.04; P trend = 0.591], isoflavones (HRQ5-Q1 1.00, 95 % CI: 0.91-1.10; P trend = 0.734), or total lignans (HRQ5-Q1 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.93-1.11; P trend = 0.469) and overall BC risk. The stratification of the results by menopausal status at recruitment or the differentiation of BC cases according to oestrogen and progesterone receptors did not affect the results. This study shows no associations between flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk, overall or after taking into account menopausal status and BC hormone receptors. PMID:23572295

Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Touillaud, Marina; Perquier, Florence; Fagherazzi, Guy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tikk, Kaja; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Dilis, Vardis; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Menéndez, Virginia; Travier, Noémie; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Sund, Malin; Landberg, Rikard; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Travis, Ruth C; Scalbert, Augustin; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

2013-05-01

112

Antibiotics for human toxoplasmosis: a systematic review of randomized trials  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of different treatment regimens in clinical syndromes of toxoplasmosis were assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on the clinical entity of toxoplasmosis. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Fourteen randomized trials were included of which one was a non-comparative study. One well-designed trial showed that trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more effective than placebo for clinical recovery of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy in immunocompetent hosts. For toxoplasmic encephalopathy, efficacy of pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole were similar, whereas pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine versus pyrimathamine+clindamycin showed no difference, irrespective of the outcome. Intravitreal clindamycin+dexamethasone and conventional treatment with oral pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine had similar efficacy with regard to all outcome measures in ocular toxoplasmosis, and intravitreal therapy was found to be safe. Adverse effects seemed more common with pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine. Most trials for encephalitis and ocular manifestations had a high risk of bias and were of poor methodological quality. There were no trials evaluating drugs for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, or for congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine is an effective therapy for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis; trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole and pyrimethamine+clindamycin are possible alternatives. Treatment with either oral or intravitreal antibiotics seems reasonable for ocular toxoplasmosis. Overall, trial evidence for the efficacy of these drugs for toxoplasmosis is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed.

Rajapakse, Senaka; Chrishan Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Deepika Fernando, Sumadhya

2013-01-01

113

IMPORTED NON–PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA: A FIVE-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN A EUROPEAN REFERRAL CENTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. From 2000 to 2005, we investigated prospectively 98 cases of imported non–Plasmodium falciparum malaria (48 Plasmodium vivax ,3 4P. ovale, and 16 P. malariae). Latency period between return and clinical attack exceeded,three months,in 40% of the patients. It was,longer in travelers who,had,taken chemoprophylaxis. Time to diagnosis was longer in patients with P. malariae,infection and in those with late-onset first

Emmanuel Bottieau; Jan Clerinx; Erwin Van Den Enden; Marjan Van Esbroeck; Robert Colebunders; Alfons Van Gompel; Jef Van Den Ende

114

AGORA--IV. The Low-Skilled on the European Labour Market: Prospects and Policy Options. Towards a Minimum Learning Platform (Thessaloniki, Greece, October 29-30, 1998). CEDEFOP Panorama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the proceedings of the fourth AGORA conference in Greece conducted by a European team of the Newskills project. (The Newskills project examines the employment prospects of those with a low level of formal education in Europe, and aims to raise awareness of the importance of a minimum learning platform after consultation with…

European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

115

Ecological-Level Associations Between Highly Processed Food Intakes and Plasma Phospholipid Elaidic Acid Concentrations: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine

Véronique Chajès; Carine Biessy; Graham Byrnes; Geneviève Deharveng; Mitra Saadatian-Elahi; Mazda Jenab; Petra H. M. Peeters; Marga Ocké; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Ingegerd Johansson; Göran Hallmans; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfält; Paula Jakszyn; Carlos A. González; Jose-Maria Huerta; Carmen Martinez; Pilar Amiano; Laudina Rodriguez Suárez; Eva Ardanaz; Anne Tjønneland; Jytte Halkjaer; Kim Overvad; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Franco Berrino; Valeria Pala; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Maria Santucci de Magistris; Elisabeth A. Spencer; Francesca L. Crowe; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Ute Nöethlings; Karina Standahl Olsen; Guri Skeie; Eiliv Lund; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimosthenis Zilis; Erifili Oustoglou; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Elio Riboli; Nadia Slimani

2011-01-01

116

Promoting health equity in European children: Design and methodology of the prospective EPHE (Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity) evaluation study  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing health inequalities is a top priority of the public health agendas in Europe. The EPHE project aims to analyse the added value of a community-based interventional programme based on EPODE methodology, adapted for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in childhood obesity. The interventions that will be implemented by this project focus on four energy balance-related behaviours (fruit and vegetable consumption, tap water intake, physical inactivity, sleep duration) and their determinants. This article presents the design of the effect evaluation of the EPHE project. Methods/Design This is a prospective two-year follow-up evaluation study, which will collect data on the energy balance-related behaviours and potential environmental determinants of 6–8 year olds, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents. For this purpose a parental self-reported questionnaire is constructed. This assesses the socio-economic status of the parents (5 items) and the dietary (12 items), sedentary (2 items) and sleeping (4 items) behaviour of the child. Alongside potential family-environmental determinants are assessed. The EPHE parental questionnaire will be disseminated in schools of a selected medium-sized city in seven European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Portugal, Romania, The Netherlands). Discussion This study will evaluate the effects of the EPHE community-based interventional programmes. Furthermore, it will provide evidence for children’s specific energy balance-related behaviours and family environmental determinants related to socio-economic inequalities, in seven European countries.

2014-01-01

117

Ocular toxoplasmosis II: clinical features, pathology and management  

PubMed Central

The term, ocular toxoplasmosis, refers to eye disease related to infection with the parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Recurrent posterior uveitis is the typical form of this disease, characterized by unilateral, necrotizing retinitis with secondary choroiditis, occurring adjacent to a pigmented retinochoroidal scar and associated with retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Multiple atypical presentations are also described, and severe inflammation is observed in immunocompromised patients. Histopathological correlations demonstrate focal coagulative retinal necrosis, and early in the course of the disease, this inflammation is based in the inner retina. For typical ocular toxoplasmosis, a diagnosis is easily made on clinical examination. In atypical cases, ocular fluid testing to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or to determine intraocular production of specific antibody may be extremely helpful for establishing aetiology. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in most communities, serological testing for T. gondii antibodies is generally not useful. Despite a lack of published evidence for effectiveness of current therapies, most ophthalmologists elect to treat patients with ocular toxoplasmosis that reduces or threatens to impact vision. Classic therapy consists of oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, plus systemic corticosteroid. Substantial toxicity of this drug combination has spurred interest in alternative antimicrobials, as well as local forms of drug delivery. At this time, however, no therapeutic approach is curative of ocular toxoplasmosis.

Butler, Nicholas J; Furtado, Joao M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Smith, Justine R

2014-01-01

118

Characterization of ROP18 alleles in human toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The role of the virulent gene ROP18 polymorphisms is not known in human toxoplasmosis. A total of 320 clinical samples were analyzed. In samples positive for ROP18 gene, we determined by an allele specific PCR, if patients got the upstream insertion positive ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse avirulent strain) or the upstream insertion negative ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse virulent strain). We designed an ELISA assay for antibodies against ROP18 derived peptides from the three major clonal lineages of Toxoplasma. 20 clinical samples were of quality for ROP18 allele analysis. In patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, a higher inflammatory reaction on eye was associated to a PCR negative result for the upstream region of ROP18. 23.3%, 33% and 16.6% of serums from individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis were positive for type I, type II and type III ROP18 derived peptides, respectively but this assay was affected by cross reaction. The absence of Toxoplasma ROP18 promoter insertion sequence in ocular toxoplasmosis was correlated with severe ocular inflammatory response. Determination of antibodies against ROP18 protein was not useful for serotyping in human toxoplasmosis. PMID:24177250

Sánchez, Víctor; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

2014-04-01

119

Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Abstract. Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings. PMID:24808246

Jones, Jeffrey L; Parise, Monica E; Fiore, Anthony E

2014-05-01

120

Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings.

Jones, Jeffrey L.; Parise, Monica E.; Fiore, Anthony E.

2014-01-01

121

A Survey of Toxoplasmosis Among Mentally Retarded Children  

PubMed Central

To determine what role, if any, toxoplasmosis plays in the mental retardation of children, sera from 345 mentally retarded children were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. The serological tests employed were the complement-fixation, the Sabin-Feldman dye test and the immunofluorescence test. The donors were also skin-tested with toxoplasmin. Of 345 mentally retarded donors nine gave a positive skin reaction, 15 possessed complement-fixing antibodies, 21 had immunofluorescent antibodies and 45 had dye test antibodies to T. gondii. The incidence of antibodies to T. gondii in the mentally retarded group was approximately the same as in the normal control group of the same age, and less than in the group suspected of having toxoplasmosis. It is concluded that in the children in this study toxoplasmosis played little or no role as a predisposing factor in the occurrence of congenital mental deficiency.

Labzoffsky, N. A.; Fish, N. A.; Gyulai, E.; Roughley, F.

1965-01-01

122

Juvenile polyarteritis nodosa associated with toxoplasmosis presenting as Kawasaki disease.  

PubMed

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis characterized by inflammatory necrosis of medium-sized arteries. Juvenile PAN and Kawasaki disease (KD) both cause vasculitis of the medium-sized arteries, and share common features. They have overlapping clinical features. Treatment should be managed according to the severity of symptoms and persistence of clinical manifestations. Herein is described the case of a 14-year-old boy first diagnosed with KD, who then fulfilled the criteria for juvenile PAN due to the development of severe myalgia, persistent fever, polyneuropathy and coronary arterial dilatation. He also had acute toxoplasmosis at the onset of vasculitis symptoms. The final diagnosis was of juvenile PAN associated with toxoplasmosis infection. Toxoplasma infection can be considered as an etiological agent for PAN and other vasculitis syndromes. Awareness of toxoplasmosis-related PAN facilitates early diagnosis, and instigation of appropriate treatment. PMID:24730628

Ba?aran, Ozge; Cakar, Nilgün; Gür, Gökçe; Kocaba?, Abdullah; Gülhan, Belgin; Cayc?, Fatma ?emsa; Celikel, Banu Acar

2014-04-01

123

Immunopathology in ocular toxoplasmosis: facts and clues.  

PubMed

Although parasite-mediated host cell lysis is deemed to be an important cause of tissue destruction in ocular toxoplasmosis (OT), the severity of the disease is probably correlated with hypersensitivity and inflammation. Notwithstanding, the mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory process in recurrent OT are poorly understood. Recent evidence has identified interleukin (IL) 17 as a marker for disease severity. The ocular and cerebral presence of this cytokine is generally associated with the induction of autoimmune responses in the brain and the eye. Indeed, there are indications that autoimmunity may contribute to clinical variability in the activity of OT. IL-23, which induces the proliferation of IL-17-producing cells and IL-27, which is a counterplayer to IL-17, may regulate T(H)-1-cell-mediated responses in OT. The importance of these cytokines in experimental models of uveitis and encephalitis has been recently reported. CD25(+) regulatory T-cells may control the local inflammatory response and protect the host against collateral inflammatory tissue damage. The responses of these cells to OT may be suitably tailored to cope with either an acquired or a congenital aetiology. Knowledge relating to immunoreactivity in OT has grown impressively during the past few years. Its characteristic and variable features have been identified and the potential relevance of autoimmunity has been assessed. In light of this knowledge, potential future treatment options have been considered. PMID:19430646

Garweg, Justus G; Candolfi, Ermanno

2009-03-01

124

First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis.

Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nunez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castano, Giovanny

2011-01-01

125

Premarket evaluation of commercial toxoplasmosis indirect fluorescent-antibody reagents.  

PubMed Central

The quality of commercial toxoplasmosis indirect fluorescent-antibody reagents was evaluated over a 6-year period. Seven manufacturers voluntarily submitted their products for evaluation in the Center for Disease Control Premarket Evaluation Program. Each product was tested in accordance with the Center for Disease Control performance and labeling specifications and evaluation methods. Only 49% of all of the products tested met the Center for Disease Control requirements. Performance criteria are outlined, and suggestions are offered to assist laboratorians in obtaining toxoplasmosis indirect fluorescent-antibody reagents of high quality.

Durham, T M; Colvin, H M

1978-01-01

126

[Nodular toxoplasmosis as a diagnostic and therapeutic problem].  

PubMed

Enlargement of lymph nodes of the neck, slightly elevated body temperature and discomfort are symptoms characteristic of many illnesses. One of these can be toxoplasmosis. Because the rarity of its occurrence, sometimes toxoplasmosis may be last to be recognized. In many cases absence of specific additional examination guidelines can contribute to several problems with correct diagnosis. At the present time, the most reliable sample analysis methods are the examination of levels of antibodies IgG and IgM, and the histopathological verification. The authors also indicate that varying therapeutic effects using prophilactic treatment and insufficient additional examination could lead to diagnostic problems. PMID:10391039

Zaorski, P; Koz?owski, J

1999-01-01

127

Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case–control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76–1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96–1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. What's new? High dairy protein intake has previously been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The current study was nested in EPIC, and results from this first Europe-wide study suggest that while the C/T13910 lactase polymorphism is associated with milk intake, the variant has no large effect on prostate cancer risk. The data illustrate the challenges of applying mendelian randomisation to explore the relationship between dairy product consumption and cancer risk. Very large studies with both genetic and dietary data are thus needed for investigations using genetic proxies of nutritional exposures.

Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tj?nneland, Anne; F?ns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramon Quiros, J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as); Stattin, Par; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

2013-01-01

128

Consumption of fried foods and risk of coronary heart disease: Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the association between consumption of fried foods and risk of coronary heart disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Participants 40?757 adults aged 29-69 and free of coronary heart disease at baseline (1992-6), followed up until 2004. Main outcome measures Coronary heart disease events and vital status identified by record linkage with hospital discharge registers, population based registers of myocardial infarction, and mortality registers. Results During a median follow-up of 11 years, 606 coronary heart disease events and 1135 deaths from all causes occurred. Compared with being in the first (lowest) quarter of fried food consumption, the multivariate hazard ratio of coronary heart disease in the second quarter was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.45), in the third quarter was 1.07 (0.83 to 1.38), and in the fourth quarter was 1.08 (0.82 to 1.43; P for trend 0.74). The results did not vary between those who used olive oil for frying and those who used sunflower oil. Likewise, no association was observed between fried food consumption and all cause mortality: multivariate hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest quarter of fried food consumption was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.14; P for trend 0.98). Conclusion In Spain, a Mediterranean country where olive or sunflower oil is used for frying, the consumption of fried foods was not associated with coronary heart disease or with all cause mortality.

2012-01-01

129

Pre-diagnostic Circulating Parathyroid Hormone Concentration and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been proposed to play a promoting role in carcinogenesis. However, no epidemiologic studies have yet directly investigated its role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods A case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort was conducted with 1,214 incident, sporadic CRC cases matched to 1,214 controls. Circulating pre-diagnostic PTH and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Detailed dietary and lifestyle questionnaire data were collected at baseline. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for the association between circulating PTH and CRC risk. Results In multivariate analyses (including adjustment for 25(OH)D concentration) with a priori defined cut-points, high levels of serum PTH (?65ng/L) compared to medium PTH levels of 30–65 ng/L were associated with increased CRC risk (RR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.03-1.93). In analyses by sex, the CRC risk was 1.77 (95%CI: 1.14-2.75) and 1.15 (95%CI: 0.73-1.84) in men and women, respectively (Pheterogeneity=0.01). In sub-group analyses by anatomical sub-site, the risk for colon cancer was RR=1.56, 95%CI:1.03-2.34, and for rectal cancer RR=1.20, 95%CI:0.72-2.01 (Pheterogeneity=0.21). Effect modification by various risk factors was examined. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that high serum PTH levels may be associated with incident, sporadic CRC in Western European populations, and in particular among men. Impact To our knowledge, this is the first study on PTH and CRC. The role of PTH in carcinogenesis needs to be further investigated.

Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Pischon, Tobias; Norat, Teresa; Jansen, Eugene H.J.M.; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B.; Tj?nneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Engel, Pierre; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Sieri, Sabina; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra HM; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Rodriguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Bonet, Catalina; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Goran; Key, Timothy J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Wark, Petra A.; Romaguera, Dora; Jenab, Mazda

2011-01-01

130

Teachers' and prospective teachers' explanations of liquid-state phenomena: A comparative study involving three European countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As contact with liquids occurs from an early stage in individuals' lives, children construct explanations for liquids and liquid-state phenomena. These may differ from the accepted scientific explanations, interfere with formal teaching, and even persist until entry into higher education. The objective of this investigation is to compare student-teachers' and in-service science teachers' explanations for liquid-state phenomena, in three European countries. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire applied to 195 Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish in-service science teachers. Data analysis revealed poor performance among participants, showing low percentages of correct answers. In addition, no systematic differences were found between participants from the three countries, and teaching experience seems to minimize some of the conceptual difficulties showed by in-service teachers. Globally, science education seems to have had a limited effect on student-teachers' and in-service science teachers' conceptions. We conclude that more attention should be paid to the liquid state in both initial and continuing teacher education programs so that teachers can understand more clearly liquid-state phenomena and succeed in explaining them to their students.

Leite, Laurinda; Mendoza, José; Borsese, Aldo

2007-02-01

131

Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants 100?166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 2.5-10 ?m (PMcoarse), and <10 ?m (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 ?g/m3 for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 ?g/m3 increase in PM2.5) and below 40 ?g/m3 for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 ?g/m3 increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values.

2014-01-01

132

Progression of multiple system atrophy (MSA): a prospective natural history study by the European MSA Study Group (EMSA SG).  

PubMed

The disease-specific Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) has been developed recently and validated for assessing disease severity in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Here, we aimed at (1) assessing rates of disease progression in MSA and (2) validating UMSARS for sensitivity to change over time. Impairment was assessed at two time points 12 months apart using UMSARS Part I (historical review), UMSARS Part II (motor examination), as well as measures of global disease severity, including UMSARS Part IV, Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Parkinson's disease staging, Schwab England Activities of Daily Living (SE ADL), and a three-point global Severity Scale (SS3). Fifty patients (male:female ratio, 1:0.9; possible MSA, 16%; probable MSA, 84%; MSA-parkinsonian, 58%; MSA-cerebellar, 42%) were assessed twice with an interval of 12.3 months. UMSARS II scores progressed by 57.3% (P<0.0001) and UMSARS I scores by 35.6% (P<0.0001) in relation to the respective baseline scores with no differences between motor subtypes, diagnostic categories and gender. Significant inverse correlations between (1) UMSARS I or UMSARS II progression and (2) baseline disability measures (i.e., the respective UMSARS or SS3 scores) and disease duration were found. Furthermore, the increases in HY staging, SE ADL and SS3 correlated significantly with UMSARS I, UMSARS II, and UMSARS IV progression. This report is the first prospective study showing rapid annual UMSARS rates of decline in MSA. Our data contribute to the ongoing validation process of UMSARS, and they facilitate the planning and implementation of future neuroprotective intervention trials. PMID:16161136

Geser, Felix; Wenning, Gregor K; Seppi, Klaus; Stampfer-Kountchev, Michaela; Scherfler, Christoph; Sawires, Martin; Frick, Carolin; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Ulmer, Hanno; Pellecchia, Maria T; Barone, Paolo; Kim, Hee T; Hooker, Juzar; Quinn, Niall P; Cardozo, Adriana; Tolosa, Eduardo; Abele, Michael; Klockgether, Thomas; Østergaard, Karen; Dupont, Erik; Schimke, Nicole; Eggert, Karla M; Oertel, Wolfgang; Djaldetti, Ruth; Poewe, Werner

2006-02-01

133

Cerebral and ocular congenital toxoplasmosis complicated by West syndrome  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a child who presented cerebral and ocular congenital toxoplasmosis associated with West syndrome. He was seen and followed-up in the in patients pediatric and ophthalmologic units at the Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaoundé in Cameroon between July 2008 and February 2010.

Eballe, Andre Omgbwa; Ellong, Augustin; Zoua, Marie Evodie Akono; Bella, Lucienne Assumpta; Ngeufack, Seraphin; Kouam, Jeanne Mayouego; Melong, Justin

2010-01-01

134

Fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently congenitally acquired. PMID:3586212

Dubey, J P; Quinn, W J; Weinandy, D

1987-04-01

135

Toxoplasmosis in Serbia: time for an action plan.  

PubMed

Known for a century, Toxoplasma gondii has been studied in Serbia half this time, ever since the introduction of the Sabin-Feldman test at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR) in 1959. However, despite 50 years of continuous efforts, exact data on the frequency of acute clinical disease, acute infections in pregnancy and congenital infection in the offspring are still lacking, due to the vague regulatory provision that toxoplasmosis is subject to reporting "in case of epidemiological indications". It is, however, clear that the major Toxoplasma-induced public health issue in Serbia, like elsewhere in Europe, is congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Continuous monitoring of particular patient groups showed a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of infection over the past two decades, and a consequently increased proportion of women susceptible to infection in pregnancy, suggesting a potential increase in the incidence of CT. Studies of risk factors for infection transmission have provided data to guide national health education campaigns. It is expected that the recent appointment of the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis as the focal point for the collection of data from the primary level, will provide the means for accurate assessment of the measure of the problem, which is a prerequisite of an evidence-based nation-wide prevention program. In the meantime, health education of all pregnant women, focused at risk factors of major local significance, is advocated as a sound and financially sustainable option to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21073140

Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O; Bobi?, B; Klun, I

2010-09-01

136

Clinical manifestation and prognosis of active ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in the world. This study described the clinical characteristics and visual outcome of 193 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis at Feiz Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) during the last six years. The setting and design used was a retrospective non-comparative observational case series. In this study, 193 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (111 female, 82 male) were enrolled. The distribution of symptoms and fundoscopic findings were studied. The most-reported chief complaint was blurred vision in 96 % (184 patients) and floaters in 13.47 % (25 patients) of cases and most frequent clinical manifestations were chorioretinitis 98.48 % (190 patients), macular scars 50.7 % (98 patients), and atrophic optic papilla two (1.03 %) patients. Primary retinal lesions were observed in 16 (8.2 %) and combination of active lesions and old retinochoroidal scars in 177 (91.7 %) of the patients. Retinal detachment occurred in 11 (5.69 %) patients. Bilateral involvement was found in 27 % of patients. Blindness was 0.05 % after treatment. Recurrence rate was 14.5 %. In conclusion, ocular toxoplasmosis substantially varies among patients with different age, gender, site of lesion and other factors. Suddenly blurred vision, floater, and pain could be caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Flashing, may necessitate a more precise peripheral fundus examination. PMID:22733253

Kianersi, Farzan; Naderi Beni, Afsaneh; Naderi Beni, Zahra

2012-12-01

137

Treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis: finding out what works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for the effectiveness of prenatal or postnatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis will be critical to guide policy about prenatal and neonatal screening over the next 10 years, let alone the next 100. Randomised controlled trials are needed to address questions about treatment effectiveness, although cohort studies are also needed to provide information on prognosis, especially disability. Nowhere are such

Ruth Gilbert

2009-01-01

138

Multivariate analysis of febrile neutropenia occurrence in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: data from the INC-EU Prospective Observational European Neutropenia Study  

PubMed Central

Myelosuppression, particularly febrile neutropenia (FN), are serious dose-limiting toxicities that occur frequently during the first cycle of chemotherapy. Identifying patients most at risk of developing FN might help physicians to target prophylactic treatment with colony-stimulating factor (CSF), in order to decrease the incidence, or duration, of myelosuppression and facilitate delivery of chemotherapy as planned. We present a risk model for FN occurrence in the first cycle of chemotherapy, based on a subgroup of 240 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) enroled in our European prospective observational study. Eligible patients had an International Prognostic Index of 0–3, and were scheduled to receive a new myelosuppressive chemotherapy regimen with at least four cycles. Clinically relevant factors significantly associated with cycle 1 FN were older age, increasing planned cyclophosphamide dose, a history of previous chemotherapy, a history of recent infection, and low baseline albumin (<35 g/l). Prophylactic CSF use and higher weight were associated with a significant protective effect. The model had high sensitivity (81%) and specificity (80%). Our model, together with treatment guidelines, may rationalise the clinical decision of whether to support patients with CSF primary prophylaxis based on their risk factor profile. Further validation is required.

Pettengell, Ruth; Bosly, Andre; Szucs, Thomas D; Jackisch, Christian; Leonard, Robert; Paridaens, Robert; Constenla, Manuel; Schwenkglenks, Matthias

2008-01-01

139

Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status. PMID:24008851

Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

2013-09-01

140

Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using

A Olsen; J Halkjær; C H van Gils; B Buijsse; H Verhagen; M Jenab; M C Boutron-Ruault; U Ericson; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M Touvier; M Niravong; M Waaseth; G Skeie; K T Khaw; R Travis; P Ferrari; M J Sanchez; A Agudo; K Overvad; J Linseisen; C Weikert; C Sacerdote; A Evangelista; D Zylis; K Tsiotas; J Manjer; B van Guelpen; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham

2009-01-01

141

Phytoestrogen Concentrations in Serum and Spot Urine as Biomarkers for Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake and Their Relation to Breast Cancer Risk in European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects of this study consisted of 333 women (aged 45 - 75 years) drawn from a large United Kingdom prospec- tive study of diet and cancer, the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk study. Using newly developed gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography\\/mass spectro- metry methods incorporating triply 13C-labeled stand- ards, seven phytoestrogens (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol,

Philip B. Grace; James I. Taylor; Yen-Ling Low; Robert N. Luben; Angela A. Mulligan; Nigel P. Botting; Mitch Dowsett; Ailsa A. Welch; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nick J. Wareham; Nick E. Day; Sheila A. Bingham

142

Varicella-Like Cutaneous Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with Aplastic Anemia  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old patient with aplastic anemia presented with vesicular varicella-like skin lesions on her face, arms, legs, back, and abdomen. However, diagnosis for herpetic infection was negative. Findings of a skin biopsy led to a tentative histologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare finding in immunocompromised patients and might mimic other infectious diseases, and vesicular lesions associated with toxoplasmosis have not been reported previously.

Zimmermann, Stefan; Hadaschik, Eva; Dalpke, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C.; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Lehners, Nicola; Kapaun, Annette

2013-01-01

143

Clinical validation of the European Panel on the Appropriateness of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (EPAGE) II criteria in an open-access unit: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background and study aims The European Panel on the Appropriateness of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (EPAGE I) criteria were recently updated (EPAGE II), but no prospective studies have used these criteria in clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to validate the EPAGE II criteria in an open-access endoscopy unit. Patients and methods A prospective observational study was conducted in an open-access endoscopy unit at the tertiary care referral center. Consecutive outpatients (n = 1004; mean age 58.9 ± 13.1 years; 45% men) were referred for diagnostic colonoscopy between September 2009 and February 2010. The appropriateness of colonoscopy was assessed based on EPAGE II criteria, and the relationship between appropriateness and both referral doctor and detection of significant lesions was examined. The effectiveness of EPAGE II criteria in assessing appropriateness was measured by means of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for detecting significant lesions. Results Colonoscopic cecal intubation was achieved in 956 patients (95.2%). Most referral doctors were gastroenterologists (58.0%) and the most common indication was colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (35.2%). EPAGE II criteria were applicable in 968 patients (96.4%); of these patients, the indication was appropriate in 778 (80.4%), inappropriate in 102 (10.5%), and uncertain in 88 (9.1%). Patients with appropriate or uncertain indications based on EPAGE II criteria had more relevant endoscopic findings than those with inappropriate indications (38.8% vs. 24.5%; OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22–3.13; P<0.005). Sensitivity and negative predictive value of EPAGE II criteria for detecting significant lesions were 93.1% (95% CI 90%–96%) and 75.5% (95% CI 67%–84%), respectively, whereas for advanced neoplastic lesions these values were 98.0% (95% CI 95%–100%) and 98.0% (95% CI 95%–100%), respectively. Adherence to EPAGE II recommendations was an independent predictor of finding a significant lesion (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.20–3.11; P = 0.007). Conclusions EPAGE II is a simple, valid score for detecting inappropriate colonoscopies in clinical practice.

Garcia, AZ Gimeno; Gonzalez, Y; Quintero, E; Nicolas-Perez, D; Adrian, Z; Romero, R; Fernandez, O Alarcon; Hernandez, M; Carrillo, M; Felipe, V; Diaz, J; Ramos, L; Moreno, M; Jimenez-Sosa, A

2013-01-01

144

Biomarker patterns of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are associated with risk of colorectal cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).  

PubMed

A number of biomarkers of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are individually related to higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between biomarker patterns and CRC incidence has not been previously evaluated. Our study investigates the association of biomarker patterns with CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During median follow-up time of 7.0 (3.7-9.4) years, 1,260 incident CRC cases occurred and were matched to 1,260 controls using risk-set sampling. Pre-diagnostic measurements of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), insulin-like growth factor 1, adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were used to derive biomarker patterns from principal component analysis (PCA). The relation with CRC incidence was assessed using conditional logistic regression models. We identified four biomarker patterns 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP', 'TG/C-peptide' and 'leptin/sOB-R' to explain 60 % of the overall biomarker variance. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, the 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' patterns were associated with CRC risk [for the highest quartile vs the lowest, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51-0.93, P-trend = 0.01; IRR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.30-2.23, P-trend = 0.002; and IRR = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.58-1.07; P-trend = 0.05, respectively]. In contrast, the 'TG/C-peptide' pattern was not associated with CRC risk (IRR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00, P-trend = 0.24). After cases within the first 2 follow-up years were excluded, the 'ROM/CRP' pattern was no longer associated with CRC risk, suggesting potential influence of preclinical disease on these associations. By application of PCA, the study identified 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' as biomarker patterns representing potentially important pathways for CRC development. PMID:24791703

Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Fedirko, Veronika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Jansen, Eugene; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Murphy, Neil; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Westhpal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Duell, Eric J; Molina-Montes, Esther; Quirós, J Ramón; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

2014-04-01

145

Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. Design The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Setting 23 centres in 10 countries. Participants 380?395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6?years on average. Main outcome measures 20?453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment. Results HRs comparing extreme drinkers (?30?g/day in women and ?60?g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1–4.9?g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60?years, drinking more than 30?g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60?g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women. Conclusions In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality.

Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Kragh Andersen, Per; Johansson, Mattias; Boeing, Heiner; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Sanchez, Carmen Navarro; Arriola, Larraitz; Wallstrom, Peter; Tj?nneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra; Beulens, Joline WJ; Nunes, Luciana; Gunter, Marc; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Brennan, Paul; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

2014-01-01

146

Ga-67 citrate myocardial uptake in a patient with AIDS, toxoplasmosis, and myocarditis  

SciTech Connect

A 38-year-old man with AIDS presented with fever of unknown origin, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Admission laboratory data revealed a positive toxoplasmosis titer in the blood. The initial chest x-ray showed small bilateral pleural effusions, a normal cardiac silhouette, no infiltrates, and no interstitial edema. Ga-67 imaging revealed markedly abnormal uptake in the myocardium. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis myocarditis was made based on laboratory and imaging data. The patient was treated for toxoplasmosis. No myocardial uptake of tracer was demonstrated on a follow-up Ga-67 scan, performed after completion of treatment for toxoplasmosis.

Memel, D.S.; DeRogatis, A.J.; William, D.C. (St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY (USA))

1991-05-01

147

Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the future of ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Abstract Despite large advances in the field of ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist in our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding infectious disease. Although ocular toxoplasmosis is considered to have a high health burden, still little is known about its exact prevalence and how it affects the quality of life. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis depends on local habits throughout the globe, and changes are likely in view of increased meat consumption in developing countries and demands for higher animal welfare in the Western world. Water is increasingly seen as an important risk factor and more studies are needed to quantitate and control the role of water exposure (drinking, swimming). Tools are now becoming available to study both the human host as well as parasite genetic factors in the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. Further research on the role of Toxoplasma strains as well as basic studies on parasite virulence is needed to explain why Toxoplasma associated eye disease is so severe in some countries, such as Brazil. Although genetic analysis of the parasite represents the gold standard, further developments in serotyping using peptide arrays may offer practical solutions to study the role of parasite strains in the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. More research is needed concerning the pathways whereby the parasite can infect the retina. Once in the retina further tissue damage may be due to parasite virulence factors or could be caused by an aberrant host immune response. Local intraocular immune responses are nowadays used for diagnostic procedures. Future developments may include the use of Raman technology or the direct visualization of a Toxoplasma cyst by optical coherence tomography (OCT). With the availability of ocular fluid specimens obtained for diagnostic purposes and the development of advanced proteomic techniques, a biomarker fingerprint that is unique for an eye with toxoplasmosis may become available. It is hoped that such a biomarker analysis may also be able to distinguish between acquired versus congenital disease. Recently developed mouse models of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis are extremely promising with regard to disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24131274

Kijlstra, Aize; Petersen, Eskild

2014-04-01

148

Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet: The European Prospective Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)  

PubMed Central

Background: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. Objectives: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother–child study. Methods: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006–2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. Results: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was –132 g (95% CI: –207, –56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was –0.33 cm (95% CI: –0.61, –0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. If confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women.

Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria; Agramunt, Silvia; Alexander, Jan; Brunborg, Gunnar; Chatzi, Leda; Fleming, Sarah; Fthenou, Eleni; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hardie, Laura J.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Merlo, Domenico F.; Nielsen, Jeanette K.; Rydberg, Per; Segerback, Dan; Sunyer, Jordi; Wright, John; Tornqvist, Margareta; Kleinjans, Jos C.

2012-01-01

149

Dietary intake measurement using 7 d diet diaries in British men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study: a focus on methodological issues.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to describe the energy, nutrient and crude v. disaggregated food intake measured using 7 d diet diaries (7dDD) for the full baseline Norfolk cohort recruited for the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) study, with emphasis on methodological issues. The first data collection took place between 1993 and 1998 in Norfolk, East Anglia (UK). Of the 30,445 men and women, aged 40-79 years, registered with a general practitioner invited to participate in the study, 25,639 came for a health examination and were asked to complete a 7dDD. Data from diaries with data recorded for at least 1 d were obtained for 99% members of the cohort; 10,354 (89·8%) of the men and 12,779 (91·5%) of the women completed the diet diaries for all 7 d. Mean energy intake (EI) was 9·44 (SD 2·22) MJ/d and 7·15 (SD 1·66) MJ/d, respectively. EI remained approximately stable across the days, but there was apparent under-reporting among the participants, especially among those with BMI >25 kg/m². Micronutrient density was higher among women than among men. In conclusion, under-reporting is an issue, but not more so than that found in national surveys. How foods were grouped (crude or disaggregated) made a difference to the estimates obtained, and comparison of intakes showed wide limits of agreement. The choice of variables influences estimates obtained from the food group data; while this may not alter the ranking of individuals within studies, this issue may be relevant when comparing absolute food intakes between studies. PMID:24041116

Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Mulligan, Angela A; Powell, Natasha A; Parry-Smith, David; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Welch, Ailsa A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

2014-02-01

150

Health resource utilisation associated with skeletal-related events in European patients with lung cancer: ? subgroup analysis from a prospective multinational study  

PubMed Central

Bone complications or skeletal-related events (SREs), typically defined as radiation to bone, pathological fractures, surgery to bone and spinal cord compression, occur frequently in patients with bone metastases. As the survival of patients with advanced lung cancer improves, preventing SREs is becoming increasingly clinically relevant. The aim of this analysis was to assess the impact of SREs on health resource utilisation (HRU) in European lung cancer patients with bone metastasis. This multinational, observational study included patients who had at least one SRE in the 97 days prior to enrolment, a life expectancy of ?6 months and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0–2. Data on HRU were retrospectively collected for up to 97 days prior to enrolment with a planned prospective follow-up for up to 18–21 months. The HRU measures included the number and length of inpatient hospitalisations and the number of outpatient visits and procedures. The investigators determined whether each HRU was attributable to a SRE. In total, 135 patients with lung cancer, enrolled at centres in Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, contributed 214 SREs to this analysis. The median length [quartile (Q)1, Q3] of follow-up ranged from 1.5 (0.7, 3.3) to 5.6 (2.0, 8.2) months across the countries. Overall, 41% of the SREs required an inpatient stay, with a median (Q1, Q3) duration of 19.0 (6.0, 28.0) days. Spinal cord compression and surgery to bone were the SRE types most frequently requiring inpatient stays. Radiation to bone was associated with the largest number of outpatient visits and procedures. All the SREs resulting from bone metastases in patients with lung cancer contribute considerably to HRU and efforts to minimise the incidence of bone complications in these patients through appropriate treatments may help reduce this burden.

LORUSSO, VITO; DURAN, IGNACIO; GARZON-RODRIGUEZ, CRISTINA; LUFTNER, DIANA; BAHL, AMIT; ASHCROFT, JOHN; HECHMATI, GUY; WEI, RACHEL; THOMAS, EMMA; HOEFELER, HERBERT

2014-01-01

151

ExtaviJect(R) 30G device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis: a prospective European study  

PubMed Central

Background The ExtaviJect® 30G autoinjector was developed to facilitate parenteral self-administration of interferon beta-1b (Extavia®), a first-line disease-modifying therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to assess patient compliance with treatment when using the autoinjector, patients’ and nurses’ experiences of using the device, its tolerability, and patient satisfaction. Methods This was a 12-week, real-world, prospective, observational, noninterventional study conducted in nine European countries. Questionnaires were used to measure patient compliance and to assess patients’ and nurses’ experiences. All adverse events were recorded by severity, including injection site reactions or pain. Patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9) and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) instruments, respectively. Results Of 582 patients enrolled, 568 (98%) received at least one injection and attended the first follow-up visit at 6 weeks, and 542 (93%) attended the second follow-up visit at 12 weeks. For the whole study, 548 of 568 (97%) patients were compliant with treatment. Among the various questions assessing whether the device was easy and quick to use accurately, without fear of the needle, 56%–98% of patients and 59%–98% of nurses were in agreement. There were nine serious adverse events (four disease-related) reported among the 227 (39%) patients reporting adverse events. Scores increased in the TSQM-9 convenience domain between weeks 6 and 12 (P=0.0009), and in the EQ-5D visual analog scale between baseline and week 12 (P<0.0001), indicating improvement in health-related quality of life. Conclusion ExtaviJect 30G was convenient to use and was associated with high levels of compliance.

Boeru, Gabriel; Milanov, Ivan; De Robertis, Francesca; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lang, Michael; Rojas-Farreras, Sonia; Tomlinson, Mark

2013-01-01

152

Toxoplasmosis in a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from Paraná, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study describes toxoplasmosis in a by caught Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guinensis) from Paranaguá Bay, Paraná, Brazil. Interstitial pneumonia, multisystemic arteritis, multifocal adrenalitis and hepatitis were the primary lesions observed. These tissues had moderate to severe necrosis and mononuclear cells infiltration usually surrounded by tachyzoites and tissue cysts. Moderate lymphoid depletion was evident in the spleen. Toxoplasma gondii was positive by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evaluation. Furthermore, the animal was negative for Morbillivirus by immunohistochemistry and had low levels of persistent organochlorines. There is evidence of environmental changes in the Paranaguá Bay that could justify the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in Guiana dolphin. The sewage run-off from main urban areas and the presence of domestic and wild felids in areas surrounding the bay could be a source of T. gondii oocysts from land to sea. Based on its habitat, the authors recommend this dolphin species as sentinels for the health of bays and estuaries where they occur. PMID:23063774

Gonzales-Viera, O; Marigo, J; Ruoppolo, V; Rosas, F C W; Kanamura, C T; Takakura, C; Fernández, A; Catão-Dias, J L

2013-01-31

153

Lack of technical specificity in the molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerase chain reaction amplification of a fragment of the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii coupled to hybridization was performed in 42 patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results showed 50% of positivity in the IgM positive toxoplasmosis group, and 12.5% in the positive IgG and negative IgM individuals. The data presented here revealed a lack of specificity of

Alicia Kompalic-Cristo; Susie Andries Nogueira; Ana Lúcia Guedes; Cassia Frota; Luis Felipe González; Adeilton Brandão; Maria Regina Amendoeira; Constança Britto; Octavio Fernandes

2004-01-01

154

Effect of roxithromycin on acute toxoplasmosis in mice.  

PubMed Central

Roxithromycin effectively treated acute peritoneal murine toxoplasmosis. After five doses, starting 24 h after challenge, the 100 and 50% survival doses were 540 and 336 mg/kg per day, respectively. After 14 doses, starting 3 h after challenge, the 50% survival dose was 360 mg/kg per day. Toxoplasma gondii was recovered from the brain in 59 and 28% of surviving mice treated with 5 and 14 doses, respectively.

Chang, H R; Pechere, J C

1987-01-01

155

Diclazuril Protects against Maternal Gastrointestinal Syndrome and Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of foodborne, gastrointestinal and congenital syndrome with particularly severe or unknown health consequences. There is no safe and effective preventive or therapeutic modality against congenital toxoplasmosis or to eliminate the persistent chronic infection. Hypothesis Diclazuril to be safe in pregnancy and effective against gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Methods CD1 programmed pregnant mice were divided into groups and administered a diet containing diclazuril, or sham control. Treatments were initiated on Day 5 of pregnancy and continued until Day 16 when dams were euthanatized. On Day 8 of pregnancy dams were infected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of tachyzoites (0, 100, 300, 600) from Type II strain. Dams were monitored daily for distress, pain, and abortion and samples collected at the end of the experiments. Results Infected dams developed moderate to severe Toxoplasma related complications in tachyzoites dose dependent manner. Animals became anemic and showed hydrothorax, and ascities. Diclazuril effectively protected dams from ascities and anemia (p < 0.05). Infected dams showed splenomegaly, with massive infiltration of epithelioid cells compared with the protective effect of diclazuril in treated animals. Infected dams exhibited severe hepatitis (score 0 to 4 scale = 3.5 ± 0.01) with influx of inflammatory and plasma cells, dysplastic hepatocytes, multinucleated giant cell transformation and hepatic cells necrosis. Diclazuril treatment significantly protected dams from hepatitis, also in tachyzoites dose (100, 300, 600) dependent manner (respectively infected-treated versus infected controls, p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Colonic tissues were significantly shortened in length, with infiltration of lymphocytes, and macrophages and microabscess formations in the cryptic structures, with significant improvement in diclazuril treated animals. Additionally, the number of fetuses, fetal length and fetal weight were preserved in diclazuril treated dams. Conclusions This is the first report describing of diclazuril safety in pregnancy as well as efficacy against mild to moderate hepato-gastrointestinal syndrome in dams and fetal toxoplasmosis (Special issue, “Treatment of Liver Diseases”).

Oz, Helieh S.; Tobin, Thomas

2014-01-01

156

Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%), jaundice (13.8%), and microcephaly (6.9%). During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein?200mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p=0.0325). Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases), developmental delay (31.0%), motor deficit (13.8%), convulsion (27.5%), and attention deficit (10.3%). All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences. PMID:24662141

Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Mitsuka Breganó, Regina; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Barbante Casella, Antônio Marcelo; Ruiz Lopes Mori, Fabiana Maria; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

2014-01-01

157

Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat.  

PubMed

One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with disappointing results of the currently available treatment options have led to a plea for more effective prevention. In this review we describe Toxoplasma as a hazard associated with the consumption of undercooked meat or meat products and provide an analysis of the various options to control the risk of human toxoplasmosis via this source. Monitoring and surveillance programs may be implemented for pre-harvest control of Toxoplasma infection of farm animals, with the reduction of environmental oocyst load as the most important milestone. Alternatively, Toxoplasma safe meat can be obtained through simple post-harvest decontamination procedures, whereby freezing the meat may currently be the best option, although new technologies using irradiation or high-pressure treatment may offer promising alternatives. Influence of culture, religion and food handling customs may predispose a certain type of meat as an important source of infection, indicating that prevention needs to be tailored according to social habits in different regions in the world. The rationale for more stringent control measures to prevent toxoplasmosis both from disease and economic points of view is emphasized. PMID:18694755

Kijlstra, Aize; Jongert, Erik

2008-10-01

158

[Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis: perspectives].  

PubMed

In France, screening for toxoplasmosis is mandatory during pregnancy, whereas it is not performed in most other countries. The rationale for prenatal screening is to allow for several levels of intervention: primary prevention by health education; in case of seroconversion, prophylactic therapy; prenatal diagnosis using amniocentesis; the possibility of termination of pregnancy (TOP) in case of severe cerebral lesions at ultrasound; in most cases of fetal infection, antiparasitic therapy prenatally as well as postnatally. The French Health Authority (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]) called into question the screening policy, but maintained it for 5 years pending randomized clinical trials. Recent data is available to answer some of the questions, but not the place of prenatal therapy. The sensitivity of prenatal diagnosis has progressed, while the place of TOP has decreased. The incidence of toxoplasmosis in the French population has fallen. Some studies have shown evidence in favor of prenatal therapy for infected fetuses. However, studies of prophylactic therapy are disappointing. These studies are purely observational and concern mostly spiramycine. For the first time, a multicenter randomized clinical trial of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of Toxoplasma gondii is underway (the TOXOGEST study). The HAS guidelines are that any suspected toxoplasmosis seroconversion should be confirmed in a reference laboratory, and that patients should be referred to expert centers without delay. It is not recommeded to start therapy before such expert consultation. The reference centers should provide counseling and access to prenatal diagnosis and therapy options. PMID:22981973

Mandelbrot, L

2012-10-01

159

Serological rebound in congenital toxoplasmosis: long-term follow-up of 133 children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although serological rebound is common in infants with congenital toxoplasmosis, clinical recommendations for management, in particular the need for additional treatment, vary. The goals of our retrospective cohort study in 133 consecutive children with congenital toxoplasmosis were to estimate the incidence and duration of the rebounds, identify predictive factors, assess the long-term risk of eye lesions and the need for

Martine Wallon; Grégoire Cozon; René Ecochard; Patricia Lewin; François Peyron

2001-01-01

160

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: A multicenter evaluation of different diagnostic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate different methods of diagnosing congenital toxoplasmosis prenatally by amniocentesis and cordocentesis. Study Design: In a retrospective multicenter study, we investigated consecutive women who had seroconversion for Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy and who underwent either amniocentesis or cordocentesis or both to obtain a prenatal diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis. Data were obtained from 122 patients recruited

Walter Foulon; Jean-Michel Pinon; Babill Stray-Pedersen; Arnold Pollak; Maija Lappalainen; Anne Decoster; Isabelle Villena; Pål A. Jenum; Michael Hayde; Anne Naessens

1999-01-01

161

A systematic review of neonatal toxoplasmosis exposure and sensorineural hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe Joint Committee on Infant Hearing 2007 Position Statement includes in utero toxoplasmosis infection as a risk indicator for delayed-onset or progressive sensorineural hearing loss. It is recommended that children with congenital toxoplasmosis infection undergo audiologic monitoring to identify congenital and delayed-onset sensorineural hearing loss.

Erik D. Brown; Justin K. Chau; Shahnaz Atashband; Brian D. Westerberg; Frederick K. Kozak

2009-01-01

162

Patterns of physical activity and ultrasound attenuation by heel bone among Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk): population based study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study associations between patterns of physical activity and ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone in men and women. Design Cross sectional, population based study. Setting Norfolk. Participants 2296 men and 2914 women aged 45-74 registered with general practices participating in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC Norfolk). Results Self reported time spent in high impact physical activity was strongly and positively associated with ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone, independently of age, weight, and other confounding factors. Men who reported participating in ?2 hours/week of high impact activity had 8.44 dB/MHz (95% confidence interval 4.49 to 12.40) or 9.5%, higher ultrasound attenuation than men who reported no activity of this type. In women, the difference in ultrasound attenuation between those reporting any high impact activity and those reporting none was 2.41 dB/MHz (0.45 to 4.37) or 3.4% higher. In women this effect was similar in size to that of an age difference of four years. Moderate impact activity had no effect. However, climbing stairs was strongly independently associated with ultrasound attenuation in women (0.64 dB/MHz (0.19 to 1.09) for each additional five flights of stairs). There was a significant negative association in women between time spent watching television or video and heel bone ultrasound attenuation, which decreased by 0.08 dB/MHz (0.02 to 0.14) for each additional hour of viewing a week. Conclusions High impact physical activity is independently associated with ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone in men and women. As low ultrasound attenuation has been shown to predict increased risk of hip fracture, interventions to promote participation in high impact activities may help preserve bone density and reduce the risk of fracture. However, in older people such interventions may be inappropriate as they could increase the likelihood of falls.

Jakes, Rupert W; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila; Welch, Ailsa; Oakes, Suzy; Luben, Robert; Dalzell, Nicola; Reeve, Jonathan; Wareham, Nicholas J

2001-01-01

163

Toxoplasma gondii Recombinant Antigens as Tools for Serodiagnosis of Human Toxoplasmosis: Current Status of Studies  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan which is the cause of toxoplasmosis. Although human toxoplasmosis in healthy adults is usually asymptomatic, serious disease can occur in the case of congenital infections and immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, despite the exact recognition of its etiology, it still presents a diagnostic problem. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on the results of serological tests detecting anti-T. gondii-specific antibodies in the patient's serum sample. The specificities and sensitivities of serology tests depend mostly on the diagnostic antigen(s) used. Most of the commercial serological kits currently available are based on Toxoplasma lysate antigens (TLAs). In recent years, many studies showed that recombinant antigenic proteins of T. gondii may be an alternative source of antigens which are very useful for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. This article presents a review of current studies on the application and usefulness of different T. gondii recombinant antigens in serological tests for the diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

2013-01-01

164

Rifabutin is active in murine models of toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

Rifabutin, a semisynthetic derivative of rifamycin S, was examined alone and in combination with other drugs for activity in treatment of systemic toxoplasmosis and toxoplasmic encephalitis in murine models. One hundred percent of the mice infected with a lethal inoculum of tachyzoites or cysts of Toxoplasma gondii were protected against death by treatment with doses of 400 or 300 mg of rifabutin per kg administered alone for 10 days. Doses of 200 mg/kg protected at least 80% of the mice, and doses of 100 mg/kg protected 10 to 40% of the infected mice against death. Doses of 50 mg/kg were not protective but caused a delay in time to death. Combination of nonprotective (50-mg/kg) or slightly protective (100-mg/kg) doses of rifabutin with doses of sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, clindamycin, or atovaquone that did not confer any protection against death from toxoplasmosis when administered alone resulted in remarkable enhancement of the in vivo activities of all of these drugs. Seventy-five percent of the infected mice survived when treated with 100 mg of rifabutin per kg per day combined with the ineffective dose of 10 mg of pyrimethamine per kg. A dose of 50 mg of rifabutin per kg in combination with the ineffective dosages of clindamycin (25 mg/kg/day), atovoquone (5 mg/kg/day), and sulfadiazine (80 mg per liter of drinking water) protected at least 80, 60, and 60% of the mice against death, respectively. The inflammatory responses in the brains of mice treated for 30 days with 200 mg of rifabutin per kg per day were significantly reduced compared with those in the brains of untreated controls. These observations suggest that clinical trials with rifabutin for treatment and prevention of human toxoplasmosis may be justified, particularly when the drug is used in combination with other drugs with activity against T. gondii. Images

Araujo, F G; Slifer, T; Remington, J S

1994-01-01

165

Atovaquone ameliorate gastrointestinal Toxoplasmosis complications in a pregnancy model  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Toxoplasma is an important source of foodborne hospitalization with no safe and effective therapy against chronic or congenital Toxopalsmosis. Atovaquone is a drug of choice but not approved for use in congenital Toxoplasmosis. We hypothesized atovaquone to be safe and effective against feto-maternal Toxoplasmosis. Material/Methods Programmed pregnant mice were i.p. infected with 50–2400 Tachyzoites from Type II strain (clone PTG). Dams were treated daily with atovaquone or sham and monitored for pain, and complications. Results Dams developed pain related abdominal hypersensitivity (allodynia) to mechanical stimuli in a Tachyzoites dose dependent manner. Infected dams were anemic and exhibited ascities and severe hepatitis (score 3.6±0.01 on scale 0 – normal to 4 – severe) with influx of inflammatory and plasma cells, multinucleated dysplastic hepatocytes and necrosis. In addition, dams expressed mild to severe pancreatitis with mononuclear cell invasion, loss of islets and necrosis. This was consistent with splenomegaly (X3 Fold), and massive infiltration of epithelioid cells and loss of germinal structure. Colon became significantly shortened in length (p<0.01) with semi-normal content. Pathological manifestation included, shortening of crypts with numerous microabscess formations, infiltration of lymphocytes, and macrophages. The severe clinical complications led to abortion (50%), early birth (25%) or still birth (25%) consistent with the high dose of Tachyzoites inoculation. Atovaquone treatment partially but significantly protected the dams from the severity of hepatitis, splenomegaly, colitis, myocarditis, and pain related responses as well as fetal demise. Conclusions This is a valuable model for therapeutic evaluation of feto-maternal Toxoplasmosis and gastrointestinal complications. Atovaquone protects dams and their fetuses against some infectious/inflammatory aspects of the disease.

Oz, Helieh S.; Tobin, Thomas

2012-01-01

166

The IFN-gamma +874T/A gene polymorphism is associated with retinochoroiditis toxoplasmosis susceptibility.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis that generally produces an asymptomatic infection. In some cases, however, toxoplasmosis infection can lead to ocular damage. The immune system has a crucial role in both the course of the infection and in the evolution of toxoplasmosis disease. In particular, IFN-gamma plays an important role in resistance to toxoplasmosis. Polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines have been shown to have an association with susceptibility to parasitic diseases. The aim of this work was to analyse the occurrence of polymorphisms in the gene encoding IFN-gamma (+874T/A) among Toxoplasma gondii seropositive individuals, including those with ocular lesions caused by the parasite, from a rural population of Santa Rita de Cássia, Barra Mansa, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Further, we verified which of these polymorphisms could be related to susceptibility to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. This study included 34 individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis (ocular group) and 134 without ocular lesions (control group). The differences between A and T allele distributions were not statistically significant between the two groups. However, we observed that a higher frequency of individuals from the ocular group possessed the A/A genotype, when compared with the control group, suggesting that homozygocity for the A allele could enhance susceptibility to ocular toxoplasmosis in T. gondii infection. PMID:19547871

Albuquerque, Maíra Cavalcanti de; Aleixo, Ana Luisa Quintella do Couto; Benchimol, Eliezer Israel; Leandro, Ana Cristina Câmara S; das Neves, Leandro Batista; Vicente, Regiane Trigueiro; Bonecini-Almeida, Maria da Glória; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

2009-05-01

167

Activity of trovafloxacin in combination with other drugs for treatment of acute murine toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

Current therapy for toxoplasmosis with a synergistic combination of pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine or pyrimethamine plus clindamycin is not always efficacious and is frequently discontinued due to intolerable toxic effects in immunocompromised individuals, particularly those with AIDS. Trovafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone with potent activity against Toxoplasma gondii, was examined for potential synergistic activity when combined with other drugs used for treatment of human toxoplasmosis. Combinations of trovafloxacin with clarithromycin, pyrimethamine, or sulfadiazine demonstrated significantly enhanced activities compared to those observed with each drug alone. Our results suggest that combinations of trovafloxacin and other anti-toxoplasma drugs should be further explored for treatment of toxoplasmosis in humans.

Khan, A A; Slifer, T; Araujo, F G; Polzer, R J; Remington, J S

1997-01-01

168

Toxoplasmosis as a complication of transfusion in hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma Gondi is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that is one of the most important protozoa of blood and tissue. The medical importance of this parasite is considered from two aspects of congenital defects and opportunities among those with congenital immune deficiency. Depending on the mode of transmission through blood and the risk of infection to Toxoplasma Gondi in hemodialysis patients, this serological study was conducted on Iranian population. Materials and Methods This case-control study was conducted on 37 patients that underwent regular hemodialysis that 21 were male and 16 were female, and the mean age of them was 17.52±4.10 years (rages 13-22 years). Thirty-seven healthy individuals were chosen as control group. All samples were tested by using of ELISA kits with two methods of IgG-ELISA and IgM-ELISA. Finally obtained data was analysis by SPSS software. Results The results of this study revealed high prevalence of toxoplasmosis among hemodialysis patients. Other findings indicate that 21 out of 37 patients in the case group were positive for anti-Toxoplasma Gondi IgG in case group while in control group just 11 individuals were positive that was a statistically significant difference(p <0.05 ). Conclusion because of the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis among hemodialysis patients, identification of these patients for prevention of transfusion complications is important.

Ebrahim Zadeh, A; Bamedi, T; Etemadi, S; Shahrakipour, M; Saryazdipour, Kh

2014-01-01

169

Congenital toxoplasmosis associated with acquired oculomotor nerve (CN III) palsy.  

PubMed

A nine-week-old Caucasian male presented with right ptosis and right exotropia due to a third cranial nerve palsy. Symmetrical macular lesions and a paramacular hyperpigmented lesion with overlying vitreous cells in the left eye were compatible with congenital toxoplasmosis. Computer tomography demonstrated calcifications in the periventricular and midbrain regions where the oculomotor nerve exits the brainstem. The diagnosis was confirmed by the toxoplasma indirect fluorescent antibody titer greater than 1:2048 for the infant and greater than 1:512 for the mother. Treatment was instituted with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid. Neurologic sequelae included a right hemiparesis, infantile seizures, and generalized developmental delay. A Mueller's muscle resection (RUL) combined with 9-mm recession of the right lateral rectus and 7-mm resection of the right medial rectus muscles produced minimal ptosis and right exotropia one year later. the child now prefers to fix with the right eye and a vertical nystagmus is evident in the left eye. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of an infant with noncomitant strabismus due to congenital toxoplasma cranial nerve involvement. The finding of an acquired third cranial nerve palsy accompanied by progressive neurologic sequelae warrants consideration of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:7175624

Perry, D D; Marritt, J C; Greenwood, R S; Collier, A M; Tennison, M B

1982-01-01

170

Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ‘Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is the most endangered corvid in the world, and intensive efforts are being made to reintroduce it to its former native range in Hawaii. We diagnosed Toxoplasma gondii infection in five free-ranging ‘Alala. One ‘Alala, recaptured from the wild because it was underweight and depressed, was treated with diclazuril (10 mg/kg) orally for 10 days. Antibodies were measured before and after treatment by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using whole T. gondii tachyzoites fixed in formalin and mercaptoethanol. The MAT titer decreased four-fold from an initial titer of 1:1,600 with remarkable improvement in physical condition. Lesions of toxoplasmosis also were seen in two partially scavenged carcasses and in a third fresh intact carcass. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed immunohistochemically by using anti-T. gondii specific serum. The organism was also cultured by bioassay in mice from tissues of one of these birds and the brain of a fifth ‘Alala that did not exhibit lesions. The life cycle of the parasite was experimentally completed in cats. This is the first record of toxoplasmosis in ‘Alala, and the parasite appears to pose a significant threat and management challenge to reintroduction programs for ‘Alala in Hawaii.

Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Rideout, Bruce A.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Ledig, David B.; Kwok, O. C. H.; Dubey, J. P.

2000-01-01

171

Demonstration of Toxoplasma antigen containing complexes in active toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

With an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antigen, specific circulating immune complexes (CIC) were demonstrated in experimental and human toxoplasmosis. In experimentally infected mice, CIC became demonstrable as soon as antibodies appeared after fatal infection. When a nonvirulent strain of Toxoplasma was used CIC remained detectable for several weeks. This period was characterized by clinically healthy animals with increasing antibody titers and by cysts growing in the brains of the animals, indicating a subacute stage of the toxoplasma infection. In the human sera, a surprisingly high percentage of CIC was demonstrated. Both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM were found in the CIC; however, IgG was seen in the majority. If the humans were grouped according to other serological results, such as a combination with IgM antibodies, circulating antigens, or both, or a positive complement fixation test, increasingly more CIC were observed. When sera were selected from patients with clinical symptoms generally associated with toxoplasmosis, more CIC were also again demonstrated. On the contrary, in healthy individuals (blood donors), CIC were also regularly observed, suggesting that exacerbations of latent infections or reinfections may regularly occur without leading to clinical signs. In conclusion, we propose that the interpretation of a positive CIC test requires great care but may provide useful information about the activity of a toxoplasma infection.

van Knapen, F; Panggabean, S O; van Leusden, J

1985-01-01

172

North-south gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.  

PubMed

Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10·4 nmol/l; women, 10·7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north-south gradient. Vitamin B? concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22·2 nmol/l; women, 26·0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (P trend< 0·001). Vitamin B(6) concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77·3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70·4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (P trend< 0·001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle. PMID:23228223

Eussen, Simone J P M; Nilsen, Roy M; Midttun, Øivind; Hustad, Steinar; IJssennagger, Noortje; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Åse; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Dossus, Laure; Perquier, Florence; Overvad, Kim; Teucher, Birgit; Grote, Verena A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Plada, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ros, Martine M; Peeters, Petra H M; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Schneede, Jörn; van Guelpen, Bethany; Wark, Petra A; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Vollset, Stein Emil

2013-07-28

173

Advies Inzake de Opsporing van Aangeboren Toxoplasmose (Advice Regarding the Incidence of Congenital Toxoplasmosis.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the presently available studies suggest that treatment of pregnant women with a primary infection could presumably prevent about 60% of the cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. However, the design of these studies does not allow a definite co...

1983-01-01

174

Use of the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo report a cohort of patients in whom polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on vitreous samples and to place in perspective the current role of PCR in the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis.

Jose G Montoya; Steve Parmley; Oliver Liesenfeld; Glenn J Jaffe; Jack S Remington

1999-01-01

175

Longitudinal Study of New Eye Lesions in Children with Toxoplasmosis Who Were Not Treated During the First Year of Life  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To determine the incidence of new chorioretinal lesions in children with toxoplasmosis diagnosed after, and therefore not treated during, their first year. DESIGN Prospective longitudinal cohort study. METHODS Thirty-eight children were evaluated in Chicago between 1981 and 2005 for new chorioretinal lesions. Thirty-eight children and mothers had serum IgG antibody to Toxoplasma gondii. RESULTS Twenty-eight of 38 children had one of the following: diagnosis with serum antibody to T. gondii indicative of chronic infection at age 24 months, central nervous system calcifications, hydrocephalus, illness compatible with congenital toxoplasmosis perinatally but not diagnosed at that time. Twenty-five returned for follow-up during 1981 to 2005. Their mean (range) age at last exam was 10.9 ± 5.7 (range, 3.5 to 27.2) years and mean follow-up was 5.7 ± 2.9 years. Eighteen (72%) children developed at least one new lesion. Thirteen (52%) had new central lesions, 11 (44%) had new peripheral lesions, and six (24%) had both. Thirteen (52%) had new lesions diagnosed at age ? 10 years. New lesions were found at more than one visit in four (22%), and bilateral new lesions developed in seven (39%) of 18 children who developed new lesions. Of 10 additional children with eye findings and serologic tests indicative of chronic infection, six returned for follow-up, four (67%) developing new lesions at ? 10 years of age. CONCLUSIONS More than 70% developed new chorioretinal lesions. New lesions were commonly diagnosed after the first decade of life.

PHAN, LAURA; KASZA, KRISTEN; JALBRZIKOWSKI, JESSICA; NOBLE, A. GWENDOLYN; LATKANY, PAUL; KUO, ANNIE; MIELER, WILLIAM; MEYERS, SANFORD; RABIAH, PETER; BOYER, KENNETH; SWISHER, CHARLES; METS, MARILYN; ROIZEN, NANCY; CEZAR, SIMONE; SAUTTER, MARI; REMINGTON, JACK; MEIER, PAUL; MCLEOD, RIMA

2009-01-01

176

Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Phytoestrogens are a group of compounds found in plants that structurally resemble the hormone oestradiol, and thus have the potential to act as oestrogen agonists or antagonists. Their potential effects may alter the risk of breast cancer, but only a limited range of phytoestrogens has been examined in prospective cohort studies. METHODS: Serum and urine samples from 237 incident

Heather Ward; Gaelle Chapelais; Gunter GC Kuhnle; Robert Luben; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila Bingham

2008-01-01

177

Plasma cytokines and future risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): a case-control study nested in the Italian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recently, biological markers related to the immune system such as cytokines have been studied to further understand the etiology of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). However, to date, there are no studies that have studied cytokine levels prospectively in relation to NHL risk in the general population. METHODS: Using bead-based immunoassays, plasma levels of 11 cytokines, 4 chemokines, and 1 adhesion

F. Saberi Hosnijeh; E. J. M. Krop; C. Scoccianti; V. Krogh; D. Palli; S. Panico; R. Tumino; C. Sacredote; N. Nawroly; L. Portengen; J. Linseisen; P. Vineis; R. Vermeulen

2010-01-01

178

Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and their Genetic Determinants: A Study Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Purpose and scope: we are conducting a large case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, to estimate relative risks of breast cancer by levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and to examine associations of IGF-I levels and cancer risk with polymorphic v...

R. J. Kaaks

2002-01-01

179

Knowledge-based computer-aided decision support in prenatal toxoplasmosis screening (TempToxopert).  

PubMed

The development of TempToxopert aimed at assisting clinicians in analysing the results of prenatal toxoplasmosis screening tests. Expert knowledge about diagnostics, screening strategies, and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy was collected and represented as a rule-based decision graph. Based on actual and past individual findings, the system generates case-specific interpretative reports consisting of a diagnostic hypothesis, recommendations for further treatment, and interpretations of specific test results. PMID:16779184

Boegl, Karl; Anastassova, Nadejda; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Hayde, Michael; Pollak, Arnold

2005-01-01

180

Case report of a neonate with ocular toxoplasmosis due to congenital infection: estimation of the percentage of ocular toxoplasmosis in Greece caused by congenital or acquired infection  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a newborn male child with congenital toxoplasmosis. During pregnancy seroconversion occurred and positive titers of antitoxoplasmic antibodies (immunoglobulin M and G) were found in the mother, in the third trimester. She received treatment with spiramycin. After birth, the neonate presented with chorioretinitis and intracranial calcifications. The neonate received treatment with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin for 1 year. In addition to using a previously described method, we report for the first time in Greece an estimation regarding the percentage of ocular toxoplasmosis caused by congenital or acquired infection. We estimate that ocular toxoplasmosis in Greece is caused in 7% of the cases by congenital infection, and in 93% of the cases by acquired infection.

Asproudis, Ioannis; Koumpoulis, Ioannis; Kalogeropoulos, Chris; Sotiropoulos, Georgios; Papassava, Margarita; Aspiotis, Miltiadis

2013-01-01

181

Fatal toxoplasmosis in a vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea).  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a vinaceous Amazon parrot based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The bird was prostrate on the bottom of the cage and died. Necropsy revealed edema and congestion of the lungs, cloudy air sacs, and mild hepatomegaly. Histopathology revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation associated with many cysts containing bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii scattered throughout. The heart had mild multifocal lymphocytic myocarditis and free tachyzoites in the muscle fibers, and the kidneys had mild interstitial nephritis and a few cysts containing bradyzoites of T. gondii. Immunohistochemistry was negative for Sarcocystis falcatula and Neospora caninum and confirmed the protozoa as T. gondii. This is the first description of T. gondii in an endangered species ofa Brazilian psittacine. PMID:23397856

Ferreira, Francisco Carlos; Donatti, Rogerio Venâncio; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred Sales; Shivaprasad, H L; Vilela, Daniel Ambrózio da Rocha; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

2012-12-01

182

Seroreactivity to and Avidity for Recombinant Antigens in Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

To improve serodiagnostic methods for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, a new test system has been developed and evaluated based on the use of recombinant antigens. Five recombinant Toxoplasma gondii antigens (ROP1, MAG1, SAG1, GRA7, and GRA8) were cloned in Escherichia coli, purified, and applied directly onto nitrocellulose membranes in a line assay (recomLine Toxoplasma). A panel of 102 sera from 25 pregnant women with supposed recent toxoplasmosis and from two symptomatic children was compared to a panel of 71 sera from individuals with past infection. Both panels were analyzed using a recombinant line assay for immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies and a reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Within the IgM-positive samples, antibodies against ROP1 were predominant regardless of the infection state. In IgG analysis a characteristic antibody pattern was found for very recent infections. This pattern changed to a different one during the time course of infection: antibodies against GRA7 and GRA8 were characteristic for very early IgG, whereas antibodies against SAG1 and MAG1 appeared significantly later. These results were further confirmed by determination of the IgG antibody avidity for every single recombinant antigen. In the time course of infection, IgG antibodies against the early recognized antigens matured significantly earlier than those directed against the later antigens did. The IgA patterns did not give reliable information about the infection time points. The data revealed that the recombinant line assay provides valuable information on the actual state of infection, especially during the early infection time points.

Pfrepper, Klaus-Ingmar; Enders, Gisela; Gohl, Marion; Krczal, Doris; Hlobil, Harald; Wassenberg, Doris; Soutschek, Erwin

2005-01-01

183

Clinical Trials Update from the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Vienna, 2007: PROSPECT, EVEREST, ARISE, ALOFT, FINESSE, Prague8, CARESS in MI and ACUITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clinical Trials described in this article were presented at the Hotline and Clinical Trial Update Sessions of the European\\u000a Society of Cardiology Congress held in September 2007 in Vienna, Austria. The sessions chosen for this article represent the\\u000a scope of interest of Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. The presentations should be considered preliminary, as further analyses\\u000a could alter the final

A. Recio-Mayoral; J.-C. Kaski; J. J. V. McMurray; J. Horowitz; D. J. van Veldhuisen; W. J. Remme

2007-01-01

184

Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: ecological-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) and food questionnaires (FQ) to predict plasma carotenoid levels at the ecological level by assessing the relationship between mean plasma carotenoid levels and mean intake of fruit and vegetables measured by 24HDR and FQ across 16 European regions.Design:A random subsample of 3089 subjects

W. K. Al-Delaimy; N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; T. J. Key; E. Spencer; I. Johansson; G. Johansson; I. Mattisson; E. Wirfalt; S. Sieri; A. Agudo; E. Celentano; D. Palli; C. Sacerdote; R. Tumino; M. Dorronsoro; M. C. Ocke; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; K. Overvad; Ma D Chirlaque; A. Trichopoulou; A. Naska; A. Tjønneland; A. Olsen; E. Lund; G. Skeie; E. Ardanaz; E. Kesse; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; F. Clavel-Chapelon; S. Bingham; A. A. Welch; C. Martinez-Garcia; G. Nagel; J. Linseisen; J. R. Quirós; P. H. M. Peeters; C. H. van Gils; H. H. Boeing; A L van Kappel; J. P. Steghens; E. Riboli

2005-01-01

185

Prospective payment, prospective challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stineman MG. Prospective payment, prospective challenge. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1802-5. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has implemented an inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system (IRF-PPS) based on case-mix groups (CMGs). The CMGs, now almost identical in structure to the Functional Independence Measure[ndash ]Function-Related Groups (FIM-FRGs), will measure patients' functional severity by the FIM[trade ] instrument, rather than

Margaret G. Stineman

2002-01-01

186

The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To study the spectrum of adverse ocular effects which result from maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasma infection; further, to record the long-term visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these 2 major causes of fetal infection. STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A series of 55 patients with congenital infection have been studied prospectively on a long-term basis. The study group included a cohort of 34 cases with congenital rubella syndrome demonstrated by virus isolation, and 21 cases with a clinical diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and serologic confirmation. All patients had specific disease-related ocular defects. Rubella patients were first identified during or following the last major rubella epidemic in 1963-1964, and some have been followed serially since that time. A separate study group of representative toxoplasmosis patients presented for examination and diagnosis at varying time periods between 1967 and 1991. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: This study confirms that a broad spectrum of fetal injury may result from intrauterine infection and that both persistent and delayed-onset effects may continue or occur as late as 30 years after original infection. Many factors contribute to the varied outcome of prenatal infection, the 2 most important being the presence of maternal immunity during early gestation and the stage of gestation during which fetal exposure occurs in a nonimmune mother. RUBELLA: As a criteria of inclusion, all 34 rubella patients in this study exhibited one or more ocular defects at the time of birth or in the immediate neonatal period. Cataracts were present in 29 (85%) of the 34, of which 21 (63%) were bilateral. Microphthalmia, the next most frequent defect, was present in 28 (82%) of the 34 infants and was bilateral in 22 (65%). Glaucoma was recorded in 11 cases (29%) and presented either as a transient occurrence with early cloudy cornea in microphthalmic eyes (4 patients), as the infantile type with progressive buphthalmos (1 patient), or as a later-onset, aphakic glaucoma many months or years following cataract aspiration in 11 eyes of 6 patients. Rubella retinopathy was present in the majority of patients, although an accurate estimate of its incidence or laterality was not possible because of the frequency of cataracts and nystagmus and the difficulty in obtaining adequate fundus examination. TOXOPLASMOSIS: Twenty-one patients with congenital toxoplasmosis have been examined and followed for varying time periods, 7 for 20 years or more. The major reason for initial examination was parental awareness of an ocular deviation. Twelve children (57%) presented between the ages of 3 months and 4 years with an initial diagnosis of strabismus, 9 of whom had minor complaints or were diagnosed as part of routine examinations. All cases in this study have had evidence of retinochoroiditis, the primary ocular pathology of congenital toxoplasmosis. Two patients had chronic and recurrent inflammation with progressive vitreal traction bands, retinal detachments, and bilateral blindness. Macular lesions were always associated with central vision loss; however, over a period of years visual acuity gradually improved in several patients. Individuals with more severe ocular involvement were also afflicted with the most extensive central nervous system deficits, which occurred following exposure during the earliest weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital infection due to rubella virus has been almost completely eradicated in the United States, the long-term survivors from the prevaccination period continue to experience major complications from their early ocular and cerebral defects. They may be afflicted by the persistence of virus in their affected organs and the development of late manifestations of their congenital infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be the source of major defects for 3,000 to 4,100 infants in the United States each year; the spectrum of defects is wide and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of

O'Neill, J F

1998-01-01

187

Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case›control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the odds ratio and population attributable fraction associated with food and environmental risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Design Case›control study. Setting Six large European cities. Participants Pregnant women with acute infection (cases) detected by seroconversion or positive for anti›Toxoplasma gondii IgM were compared with pregnant women seronegative for toxoplasma (controls). Main outcome measures Odds ratios

R E Gilbert; W Buffolano; J Zufferey; E Petersen; P A Jenum; W Foulon; A E Semprini

2000-01-01

188

Application of assays for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in a colony of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in New World primate species. Clinical abnormalities associated with toxoplasmosis can be nonspecific, making it difficult to make a definitive antemortem diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Toxoplasmosis in New World primates can have a rapid clinical course, which may lessen the diagnostic utility of antemortem tests. However, while there are a variety of T. gondii serum antibody tests and T. gondii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays available that are not species specific, these assays have not been comparatively applied to New World primate cases. Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), a species of New World primate, are highly susceptible to fatal toxoplasmosis. Archived serum samples from 15 living and deceased woolly monkeys housed at the Louisville Zoological Garden (Louisville, Kentucky) were tested for T. gondii antibodies by a commercially available latex agglutination kit, a commercially available indirect hemagglutination kit, and the modified agglutination test. In addition, aliquots of the sera were assayed for T. gondii DNA using a PCR assay. Both woolly monkeys that died of disseminated toxoplasmosis were positive in all four assays, indicating that each could be used to aid in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in this species. We suspect that these assays have applications to other species of New World primates. PMID:17319125

Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Lappin, Michael R; Dubey, J P

2006-09-01

189

IMRT credentialing for prospective trials using institutional virtual phantoms: results of a joint European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer and Radiological Physics Center project  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) credentialing for a EORTC study was performed using an anthropomorphic head phantom from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC; RPCPH). Institutions were retrospectively requested to irradiate their institutional phantom (INSTPH) using the same treatment plan in the framework of a Virtual Phantom Project (VPP) for IMRT credentialing. Materials and methods CT data set of the institutional phantom and measured 2D dose matrices were requested from centers and sent to a dedicated secure EORTC uploader. Data from the RPCPH and INSTPH were thereafter centrally analyzed and inter-compared by the QA team using commercially available software (RIT; ver.5.2; Colorado Springs, USA). Results Eighteen institutions participated to the VPP. The measurements of 6 (33%) institutions could not be analyzed centrally. All other centers passed both the VPP and the RPC ±7%/4 mm credentialing criteria. At the 5%/5 mm gamma criteria (90% of pixels passing), 11(92%) as compared to 12 (100%) centers pass the credentialing process with RPCPH and INSTPH (p?=?0.29), respectively. The corresponding pass rate for the 3%/3 mm gamma criteria (90% of pixels passing) was 2 (17%) and 9 (75%; p?=?0.01), respectively. Conclusions IMRT dosimetry gamma evaluations in a single plane for a H&N prospective trial using the INSTPH measurements showed agreement at the gamma index criteria of ±5%/5 mm (90% of pixels passing) for a small number of VPP measurements. Using more stringent, criteria, the RPCPH and INSTPH comparison showed disagreement. More data is warranted and urgently required within the framework of prospective studies.

2014-01-01

190

Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin—an adipose tissue-derived protein—may provide?a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested case–control study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.95, P trend = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34–0.61, P trend < 0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.68–1.22, P trend = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.26–0.60, P trend < 0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.60–1.09, P trend = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B.; Fedirko, Veronika; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Westphal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tj?nneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Arguelles, Marcial; Bonet, Catalina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Goran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Pischon, Tobias

2012-01-01

191

Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study.  

PubMed

Adiponectin-an adipose tissue-derived protein-may provide a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested case-control study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-0.95, P(trend) = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34-0.61, P(trend) < 0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.68-1.22, P(trend) = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.26-0.60, P(trend) < 0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.60-1.09, P(trend) = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22431719

Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Fedirko, Veronika; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Westphal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Argüelles, Marcial; Bonet, Catalina; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, Jose-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Göran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E; Crowe, Francesca L; Pischon, Tobias

2012-06-01

192

Toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus.  

PubMed

A near-full-term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. Within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. Both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex and medulla associated with protozoal tissue cysts. Protozoa in brain and kidneys were identified as Toxoplasma gondii based on immunoreactivity to T. gondii polyclonal antibodies that stain both tachyzoites and tissue cysts and BAG1 T. gondii antibodies that are bradyzoite specific. The tissue cysts exhibited intense positivity to T. gondii and mild immunoreactivity to Neospora caninum antibodies. The dam had a high antibody titer (1 : 12,800) to T. gondii and low titer (1 : 100) to N. caninum using their respective agglutination tests. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in alpaca. PMID:25000722

Dubey, Jitender P; Johnson, James E; Hanson, Margaret A; Pierce, Virginia

2014-06-01

193

Toxoplasmosis in naturally infected rodents in Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

To assess the role of synanthropic rodents in the epidemiology of urban toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasma gondii infection was examined in 144 rats (Rattus norvegicus) and 12 mice (Mus musculus) captured using live animal traps in three locations in Belgrade city characterized by poor housing and degraded environment. In rats, specific IgG antibodies were detected by modified agglutination test in 22 (27.5%) of the 80 blood samples available. Toxoplasma brain cysts were microscopically detected in 11 (7.6%), and Toxoplasma DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction was demonstrated in 15 (10.4%) animals. Of these, both cysts and Toxoplasma DNA were detected in five (3.5%) rats. In mice, cysts were observed in 3 (25%), but Toxoplasma DNA was detected in even 10 (83.3%) animals, including all 3 with morphologically recognized cysts. Being a link in the chain of Toxoplasma infection, the existence of urban rodent reservoirs of infection represents a public health risk. PMID:21028963

Vujani?, Marija; Ivovi?, Vladimir; Kataranovski, Milena; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Bobi?, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Villena, Isabelle; Kataranovski, Dragan; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica

2011-08-01

194

Nephrotic syndrome with a nephritic component associated with toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent young man.  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Although the association of infection by toxoplasmosis with the development of nephrotic syndrome is uncommon, cases of this association have nevertheless been reported in the literature for more than two decades, not only for congenital toxoplasmosis, but also in acquired cases, and occasionally in immunocompetent patients. Development: A case is presented of an immunocompetent patient aged 15 with clinical and laboratory indications of nephrotic/nephritic syndrome, in whom serological tests showed Toxoplasma infection. Conclusion: The presentation of nephrotic syndrome in ages where it is not commonly seen, leads to clinical suspicion of secondary causes. Active search for possible causes should include common tropical infections.

Duran Botello, Claudia; Gonzalez Velasquez, Tania

2012-01-01

195

Clinical Effectiveness of Hymenoptera Venom Immunotherapy: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Interest Group on Insect Venom Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment failure during venom immunotherapy (VIT) may be associated with a variety of risk factors. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentration (BTC) and of other parameters with the frequency of VIT failure during the maintenance phase. Methods In this observational prospective multicenter study, we followed 357 patients with established honey bee or vespid venom allergy after the maintenance dose of VIT had been reached. In all patients, VIT effectiveness was either verified by sting challenge (n?=?154) or patient self-reporting of the outcome of a field sting (n?=?203). Data were collected on BTC, age, gender, preventive use of anti-allergic drugs (oral antihistamines and/or corticosteroids) right after a field sting, venom dose, antihypertensive medication, type of venom, side effects during VIT, severity of index sting reaction preceding VIT, and duration of VIT. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. Results 22 patients (6.2%) developed generalized symptoms during sting challenge or after a field sting. A strong association between the frequency of VIT failure and BTC could be excluded. Due to wide confidence bands, however, weaker effects (odds ratios <3) of BTC were still possible, and were also suggested by a selective analysis of patients who had a sting challenge. The most important factor associated with VIT failure was a honey bee venom allergy. Preventive use of anti-allergic drugs may be associated with a higher protection rate. Interpretation It is unlikely that an elevated BTC has a strong negative effect on the rate of treatment failures. The magnitude of the latter, however, may depend on the method of effectiveness assessment. Failure rate is higher in patients suffering from bee venom allergy.

Rueff, Franziska; Przybilla, Bernhard; Bilo, Maria Beatrice; Muller, Ulrich; Scheipl, Fabian; Seitz, Michael J.; Aberer, Werner; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Bonifazi, Floriano; Campi, Paolo; Darsow, Ulf; Haeberli, Gabrielle; Hawranek, Thomas; Kuchenhoff, Helmut; Lang, Roland; Quercia, Oliviero; Reider, Norbert; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Severino, Maurizio; Sturm, Gunter Johannes; Treudler, Regina; Wuthrich, Brunello

2013-01-01

196

Long-term cryoconservation and stability of vitamin C in serum samples of the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.  

PubMed

Plasma vitamin C level may be associated with risk of some chronic diseases. The rapid degradability of vitamin C in biological samples necessitates its stabilization with metaphosphoric acid or similar agents. However, in most cohort studies, prospectively collected biological samples are not treated with stabilizing agents before long-term frozen storage and it is not known whether vitamin C can be properly measured in such samples. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of vitamin C degradation in plasma samples stored without stabilization for 7 to 11 years at -196 degrees C. Spearman's correlation coefficients indicate a moderate correlation between baseline and final plasma vitamin C levels in both men (r = 0.57, P < 0.0001) and women (r = 0.52, P < 0.0001). Samples were also categorized based on low or high baseline levels of plasma vitamin C, with the latter category showing the highest rate of loss per year of frozen storage in men (1.96 micromol/L, P value for difference <0.0001; percent loss 24.6%) and women (2.35 micromol/L, P value for difference <0.0001; percent loss 24.2%), as determined by multiple regression analysis adjusted for smoking status, age, and body mass index. In men, both baseline and final plasma vitamin C values were lower in smokers than never smokers, but for both men and women the rate of vitamin C loss during storage was not significantly different between smokers and never smokers. The results of this study show that vitamin C can be measured with reasonable reliability in plasma samples frozen for long periods of time without addition of any stabilizing agents. PMID:16030126

Jenab, Mazda; Bingham, Sheila; Ferrari, Pietro; Friesen, Marlin D; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Riboli, Elio

2005-07-01

197

The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to investigate the role of known risk factors in explaining educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, and included 242,095 women, 433 in situ and 4,469 invasive breast cancers. Reproductive history (age at first full term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviours were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. Higher invasive breast cancer risk was found among women with higher education (RII=1.22: 1.09,1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII=1.13: 0.84,1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII=1.11: 0.98,1.25), most of the association being explained by age at first full term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height contributed most of these factors. When all known risk factors were adjusted for, no association remained between education and invasive breast cancer risk. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancers and remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII=1.61: 1.07,2.41), especially among nulliparous women.

Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

2011-01-01

198

The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study.  

PubMed

Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MD) and genetic variation in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene have been reported to be associated with TAG and glucose metabolism. It is uncertain whether there is any interaction between these factors. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the association of adherence to a MD and rs780094 (G>A) SNP in the GCKR gene with the markers of cardiometabolic risk, and to investigate the interaction between genetic variation and MD adherence. We studied 20 986 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED: range 0-18) was used to assess MD adherence. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the rMED, genotype and cardiometabolic continuous traits, adjusting for potential confounders. In adjusted analyses, we observed independent associations of MD adherence and genotype with cardiometabolic risk, with the highest risk group (AA genotype; lowest rMED) having higher concentrations of TAG, total cholesterol and apoB (12·5, 2·3 and 3·1%, respectively) v. those at the lowest risk (GG genotype; highest rMED). However, the associations of MD adherence with metabolic markers did not differ by genotype, with no significant gene-diet interactions for lipids or for glycated Hb. In conclusion, we found independent associations of the rMED and of the GCKR genotype with cardiometabolic profile, but found no evidence of interaction between them. PMID:24804806

Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

2014-07-14

199

Feline immunodeficiency virus predisposes cats to acute generalized toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to examine the effects of a pre-existing, clinically asymptomatic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection on a primary challenge with Toxoplasma gondii. Parenteral challenge of FIV-infected cats with tachyzoites of the ME49 strain of T. gondii caused a precipitous drop in all lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, and B cells) and generalized severe toxoplasmosis. The predominant postmortem lesions included acute and often fatal interstitial pneumonia, dominated histologically by macrophages, and multifocal to coalescing hepatic necrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed numerous T. gondii antigen and tachyzoites in macrophages and other cell types in the lung lesions. The proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to specific (T. gondii antigen) and nonspecific (Concanavalin A) mitogens was defective in the dually infected cats, suggesting marked immunosuppression. In contrast to the dually infected cats, cats infected only with T. gondii developed a transient, mild clinical disease characterized by anorexia, lethargy, and multifocal chorioretinitis. Lymphocyte changes in T. gondii-infected cats included an early pan-lymphopenia followed by reestablishment of all lymphocyte subset profiles. These cats also showed a reduced proliferative response to Concanavalin A at 1 week after challenge, but a measurable in vivo response to T. gondii antigens, as evidenced by in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in the absence of a mitogenic stimulus. These results show that infection of cats with FIV-NCSU, markedly enhances their susceptibility to a primary T. gondii infection and provides a model to study the mechanisms of the underlying immunological defect(s) occurring early after HIV infection that may predispose individuals to development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and associated diseases. Images Figure 4

Davidson, M. G.; Rottman, J. B.; English, R. V.; Lappin, M. R.; Tompkins, M. B.

1993-01-01

200

Tc-99m colloid lung uptake in a rare case of toxoplasmosis with liver involvement  

SciTech Connect

Intensive lung accumulation of colloid (Tc-99m phytate) was demonstrated in a child suffering from acquired toxoplasmosis with a rare manifestation of severe liver damage. The possible mechanism and clinical importance of colloid lung concentration in this case is briefly discussed, including a review of the literature on this subject.

Garty, I.; Tal, I.; Kaynan, A.

1984-06-01

201

Toxoplasmosis in Free-Ranging Chacma Baboons (Papio ursinus) from the Kruger National Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Serological evidence of toxoplasmosis was found in 11 of 94 (11.7%) free-ranging chacma baboons from the Kruger National Park. Four of these animals also showed typical cysts in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles, without any accompanying inflammatory...

B. Wolstenholme E. E. McConnell H. H. Malherbe P. A. Basson V. De Vos

1973-01-01

202

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive porcupine (Coendou mexicanus) from Costa Rica.  

PubMed

An adult porcupine (Coendou mexicanus) from the National Zoo, San Jose, Costa Rica, died because of toxoplasmosis involving the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys. Toxoplasma gondii was found in lesions and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with T. gondii-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies. This is a new host record for T. gondii. PMID:8627495

Morales, J A; Peña, M A; Dubey, J P

1996-02-01

203

Severe Acquired Toxoplasmosis Caused by Wild Cycle of Toxoplasma gondii, French Guiana  

PubMed Central

From 1998 through 2006, 44 cases of severe primary toxoplasmosis were observed in French Guiana in immunocompetent adults. Toxoplasma gondii isolates exhibited an atypical multilocus genotype. Severe disease in humans may result from poor host adaptation to neotropical zoonotic strains of T. gondii circulating in a forest-based cycle.

Demar, Magalie; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Darde, Marie Laure

2009-01-01

204

Right Active Retinitis and Left Focal Retinochoroidal Scar in a Girl with Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In congenital cases, ocular toxoplasmosis often presents as a focal whitish fluffy lesion in the retina adjacent to an inactive chorioretinal scar. We examined a girl who has visible floaters in the right eye. The patient had focal active retinitis in the right fundus, a focal chorioretinal scar in the left fundus, a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgG

Megumi Kamiyama; Shuichi Yamamoto; Seiji Hayasaka

1997-01-01

205

Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women: High seroprevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, as well as the proportion of acutely infected and risk factors in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods Thirty maternities in Kinshasa were randomly selected and women attending antenatal consultation were invited to participate. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat) and a venous blood sample was taken. Sera were analysed for total immunoglobulins (Ig) by VIDAS Toxo Competition using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. IgM was determined by VIDIA Toxo IgM and IgG avidity by VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. Results A total of 781 women were included. Median age was 28 years old (IQR: 8.5). And 627 women (80.3%; 95% CI: 77.5-83.1) were found to be positive to total Ig and 17 out of 387 (4.4%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.4) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for 2 (11.8%) women, intermediate for 2 (11.8%) and high for 13 women (76.4%). There was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and any risk factors assessed. Conclusion In Kinshasa, toxoplasmosis endemicity is highly prevalent. One woman out of twenty five had a recent toxoplasmosis infection and 20% were not protected against primo-infection, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.

Yobi, Doudou; Piarroux, Renaud; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Franck, Jacqueline; Situakibanza, Hypolite; Muhindo, Hypolite; Mitashi, Patrick; Inocencio da Luz, Raquel Andreia; Van Sprundel, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

2014-01-01

206

AN OUTBREAK OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN WALLAROOS (Macropus robustus) IN A CALIFORNIA ZOO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four wahlaroos (Macropus nobustus) from a central California zoo colony of 22 died within a three week period. Histopathologic findings in all four cases were suggestive of toxoplasmosis. Brain, lung and heart were the most frequently involved organs. Within 4 months of the last death sera from nine colony members were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the indirect

G. A. BOORMAN; I G. V. KOLLIASIS; R. F. TAYLORIS

207

Highly Endemic, Waterborne Toxoplasmosis in North Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, reports of uveitis consistent with toxoplasmosis led to a survey of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1997-1999. The survey population was selected randomly from schools, randomly chosen communities, and an army battalion. Serum samples from 1,436 persons were tested. With results adjusted for age, 84%

Lílian Maria Garcia Bahia-Oliveira; Jeffrey L. Jones; Juliana Azevedo-Silva; Cristiane C. F. Alves; Fernando Oréfice; David G. Addiss

2003-01-01

208

The Experiences and Recommendations of Families with Children Who Have Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toxoplasmosis infections are usually asymptomatic in health hosts, but can cause serious, sometimes life threatening, sequelae in infants when the mother acquires an acute infection during pregnancy and the parasite is transmitted via the placenta to the developing fetus. This article is part of a comprehensive research project investigating the…

Roberts, Jillian; Mortimer, Tamara; Mish, Sandra; Kerns, Kimberly; Jagdis, Frank; MacMath, Sheryl

2005-01-01

209

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in marrow recipients: a report of three cases and a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma infection following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is infrequently reported. We report three cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in BMT recipients documented during an 8-year period at our institution: one after an unrelated marrow transplant in a toxoplasma-seronegative patient, the second complicating syngeneic marrow transplantation, and the third following allogeneic, related BMT. The disease is extremely rare in seronegative patients and

PH Chandrasekar; F Momin

1997-01-01

210

Determination of Genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Isolated from Patients with Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with human toxoplasmosis, we developed a sensitive approach for typing parasites grown from clinical samples by short-term in vitro culture. A newly described nested PCR assay was capable of amplifying genomic DNA from as few as five parasites in the presence of host tissues. Typing was based on DNA polymorphisms at

DANIEL K. HOWE; STEPHANIE HONORE; FRANCIS DEROUIN; L. DAVID SIBLEY

1997-01-01

211

Congenital toxoplasmosis presenting as central diabetes insipidus in an infant: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital toxoplasmosis has a wide range of presentation at birth varying from severe neurological features such as hydrocephalus and chorioretinitis to a well appearing baby, who may develop complications late in infancy. While neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with congenital toxoplasmosis are uncommon, isolated central diabetes insipidus is extremely rare. Case presentation Here, we report on a female infant who presented with fever, convulsions, and polyuria. Examination revealed weight and length below the 3rd centile along with signs of severe dehydration. Fundal examination showed bilateral chorioretinitis. This infant developed hypernatremia together with increased serum osmolality and decreased both urine osmolality and specific gravity consistent with central diabetes insipidus. Serology for toxoplasma specific immunoglobulin M was high for both the mother and the baby and polymerase chain reaction for toxoplasma deoxyribonucleic acid was positive in the infant confirming congenital toxoplasmosis. Brain computerized tomography scans demonstrated ventriculomegaly associated with cerebral and cortical calcifications. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities responded to nasal vasopressin therapy. Conclusion This report highlights central diabetes inspidus as a rare presentation of congenital toxoplasmosis.

2014-01-01

212

Toxoplasmosis II. Studies of Animal Sera Using Complement-Fixation Tests  

PubMed Central

Serological studies were performed in guinea pigs, a sheep, calf, goat and two pigs experimentally infected with toxoplasmosis. The direct complement-fixation method was effective in detecting antibodies in guinea-pig, goat and sheep sera. The modified complement-fixation technique supplementing complement with normal bovine serum fraction, was required when testing bovine serum. With swine sera best reactions occurred in the indirect complement-fixation test and definite but low grade reactions were produced in the direct test after pro-complementary activity was removed by pH treatment of the sera. Allergic skin reactions were produced in the experimental animals but improvement in the antigen is necessary before the test could be used generally in the field as a diagnostic method for animal toxoplasmosis.

Robertson, A.; Bannister, G. L.; Ruckerbauer, G. M.; Boulanger, P.

1963-01-01

213

Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI.

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

2012-01-01

214

Congenital toxoplasmosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and identification of the Toxoplasma gondii types involved.  

PubMed

Congenital toxoplasmosis has been little described in wild animals. We report a case of vertical transmission in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Necropsy and histopathologic examination of a pregnant female and her three fetuses revealed all to have lesions compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Nested polymerase chain reaction B1 gene detected Toxoplasma gondii in maternal (heart and diaphragm) and fetal (central nervous system, retina, optic nerve, heart, lung, tongue, and diaphragm) samples. The mother had a mixed infection of T. gondii types I and III. One fetus with type III infection developed no malformations, but the others-one with type I infection and one infected by types I and III-showed bilateral ocular agenesis, prognathism, and agenesis of the nasal cartilage. These results suggest the pathogenicity of the various T. gondii types may differ in wild boars. PMID:24502733

Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Gómez-Gordo, Luis; Saugar, José María; Frontera, Eva; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Reina, David; Serrano, Francisco Javier; Fuentes, Isabel

2013-10-01

215

Enhanced surveillance for toxoplasmosis in England and Wales, 2008-2012.  

PubMed

SUMMARY A report on Toxoplasma gondii by the UK Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food recommended that more accurate figures on the burden of disease in the UK are needed. We present the first 5 years of data from an enhanced surveillance scheme for toxoplasmosis in England and Wales. Between 2008 and 2012, 1824 cases were reported, with an average of 365 each year. There were 1109 immunocompetent cases, the majority presenting with lymphadenopathy, and 364 immunosuppressed cases, with central nervous system and systemic symptoms most frequently reported. There were also 190 pregnant and 33 congenital cases. Of the pregnant cases, 148 were asymptomatic (probably detected during screening), while 28 suffered a fetal loss or stillbirth. The enhanced surveillance system has led to an improvement in the detection of toxoplasmosis in England and Wales. However, numbers are still likely to be an underestimate, biasing towards the more severe infections. PMID:24093517

Halsby, K; Guy, E; Said, B; Francis, J; O'Connor, C; Kirkbride, H; Morgan, D

2014-08-01

216

Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis on Taiwan and some of the offshore islands.  

PubMed

Over 4,000 serum specimens from various population groups on Taiwan, Lan Yu, and the Pescadores Islands were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by use of the indirect hemagglutination test. Only 74 sera were considered to be positive at titers of 1:256 or greater. The highest prevalence rates of positive antibody titers were obtained from 335 people from Ian Yu Island; 59 (18%) were considered positive. A few (11 soldiers) positive titers were detected in sera from 2,487 Chinese Marine recruits on first bleedings and 4 found positive on a second bleeding 12-18 months later. Only a few suspected cases of toxoplasmosis have been reported from humans, yet a number of animals have been found infected with the parasite and other animals found serologically positive. These and other aspects of toxoplasmosis on Taiwan are discussed. PMID:2607560

Cross, J H; Hsu, H M

1989-09-01

217

Toxopain-1 Is Critical for Infection in a Novel Chicken Embryo Model of Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that cathepsins and specifically toxopain-1, a cathepsin B, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis. We found that inhibiting the expression of toxopain-1-specific mRNA and protein by >60% significantly decreased the capacity of the parasites to multiply and invade in vitro. To relate these in vitro results to the role of toxopain-1 in pathogenesis

Xuchu Que; Annette Wunderlich; Keith A. Joiner; Sharon L. Reed

2004-01-01

218

Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly. Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages. Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. We selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ?1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women. Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; and using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); and using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7). Conclusion: In Iran, screening of toxoplasma is not routinely performed yet, while the incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors.

Borna, Sedigheh; Shariat, Mamak; Fallahi, Mohaddese; Janani, Leila

2013-01-01

219

Congenital toxoplasmosis: systematic review of evidence of efficacy of treatment in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To summarise the evidence that treating toxoplasmosis in pregnancy reduces the risk of congenital toxoplasma infection and improves infant outcomes.Design: Systematic review of studies comparing at least two concurrent groups of pregnant women with proved or likely acute toxoplasma infection in which treatments were compared with no treatment and outcomes in the children were reported.Subjects: Studies were identified from

Martine Wallon; Christiane Liou; Paul Garner; François Peyron

1999-01-01

220

Seizure as an initial presentation of human immunodeficiency virus: acute toxoplasmosis mimicking glioblastoma multiforme.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 46-year-old man with a history significant only for hypertension and depression that presented with a new onset seizure resulting from a right parietal lobe mass. Further evaluation determined the parietal mass to be central nervous system toxoplasmosis, which was the initial presentation of his underlying HIV/AIDS. This case provided a diagnostic challenge and demonstrates the importance of a thorough evaluation as it pertains to a newly diagnosed brain lesion. PMID:24234430

Parekh, Parth; Boggs, Jody P; Silverberg, Marc; Marik, Paul

2013-01-01

221

Using lifestyle factors to identify individuals at higher risk of inflammatory polyarthritis (results from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk and the Norfolk Arthritis Register--the EPIC-2-NOAR Study)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the association of lifestyle factors with risk of inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer, Norfolk, UK (EPIC-Norfolk) gathered lifestyle data from participants aged 40–79?years from 1993 to 1997. Individuals who subsequently developed IP were identified by linkage with the Norfolk Arthritis Register. A Cox proportional hazard model was developed, and a score assigned to each risk factor to calculate the odds of developing IP. Results 25?455 EPIC participants were followed for a median (IQR) of 14.2 (12.9, 15.3)?years; 184 developed incident IP (138 cumulatively fulfilled criteria for RA; 107 were seropositive). Pack-years of smoking were associated with increased risk of IP and RA in men (HR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.37) per 10-pack-years) and seropositive IP (HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.41)) for all. Diabetes mellitus was associated with increased risk of IP (HR 2.54 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.09)), while alcohol (HR 0.86 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.99) per unit/day) and higher social class (HR 0.36 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.89) for professionals vs manual workers) were associated with reduced risk. Body mass index was associated with seronegative IP (HR 2.75 (95% CI 1.39 to 5.46) for obese vs normal-weight participants). In women, parity (HR 2.81 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.76) for ?2 vs no children) was associated with increased risk, and breast feeding (HR 0.66 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.94) for every 52?weeks of breast feeding) was inversely associated with risk. Risk factors from the model were used to generate a ‘risk score’. A total of 1159 (8.4%) women had scores reflecting a >3-fold increased risk of IP over those with a score of 0. Conclusions Several easily ascertained clinical and lifestyle factors can be used to stratify populations for risk of IP.

Lahiri, Manjari; Luben, Robert N; Morgan, Catharine; Bunn, Diane K; Marshall, Tarnya; Lunt, Mark; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Symmons, Deborah P M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bruce, Ian N

2014-01-01

222

[Cerebral toxoplasmosis during AIDS in the infectious diseases department of Point-G Teaching Hospital, Bamako, Mali].  

PubMed

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is common opportunistic infections of central nervous system in AIDS. It occurs most often in case of severe immunosuppression. The aim of this study is to investigate the general characteristics of cerebral toxoplasmosis during HIV infection and AIDS in hospital area in Bamako. It is a retrospective study of 5 years (form January 2001 to December 2005), conducted in the infectious diseases department of Point G Teaching Hospital of Bamako. It concerned all patients infected with HIV, hospitalized for cerebral toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was based on clinical, C T and therapeutic arguments. A total of 745 patients investigated, 26 met cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnostic criteria (14 men and 12 women). The rate of cerebral toxoplasmosis in the study population was 3.5%. The average age was 38.1 years (18-58 years). Focused neurological deficit (73.07%), intracranial hypertension signs (69.20%), meningeal syndrome (15.40%), seizures (57.69%) and consciousness disorders (30.80%) were the clinical characteristics. Hypodensity with or without peripheral enhancement images (93.75%) were found on CT. The average rate of CD4 T cells was 98.7cells/mm3 (5-473 cells/mm3). Oropharyngeal candidiasis in 61.53% of cases, intestinal cryptosporidiosis (11.53%), herpes zoster (3.84%) and Pott's disease (3.84%) were the opportunistic infections associated. Cotrimoxazole was used in 88.46% of patients and 3 patients (11.54%) received the standard treatment (Sulfadiazine-Pyrimethamine). Antitoxoplasmic treatment led to a clinical improvement in 84.61% and 4 deaths (15.39%). were recorded. The technical platform for etiological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is not available at the Point-G Teaching Hospital, so in case of encephalitis signs in a HIV positive patient, CT should be urgently perform and a treatment trial must begin without delay. PMID:22765969

Goïta, D; Karambe, M; Dembélé, J P; Sogoba, D; Sidibé, A F; Diaby, S; Cisse, I A; Fongoro, S; Dao, S

2012-01-01

223

Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Mimicking Subacute Meningitis in HIV-Infected Patients; a Cohort Study from Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-associated subacute meningitis is mostly caused by tuberculosis or cryptococcosis, but often no etiology can be established. In the absence of CT or MRI of the brain, toxoplasmosis is generally not considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed cerebrospinal fluid real time PCR and serological testing for Toxoplasma gondii in archived samples from a well-characterized cohort of 64 HIV-infected patients presenting with subacute meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. Neuroradiology was only available for 6 patients. At time of presentation, patients mostly had newly diagnosed and advanced HIV infection (median CD4 count 22 cells/mL), with only 17.2% taking ART, and 9.4% PJP-prophylaxis. CSF PCR for T. Gondii was positive in 21 patients (32.8%). Circulating toxoplasma IgG was present in 77.2% of patients tested, including all in whom the PCR of CSF was positive for T. Gondii. Clinically, in the absence of neuroradiology, toxoplasmosis was difficult to distinguish from tuberculosis or cryptococcal meningitis, although CSF abnormalities were less pronounced. Mortality among patients with a positive CSF T. Gondii PCR was 81%, 2.16-fold higher (95% CI 1.04–4.47) compared to those with a negative PCR. Conclusions/Significance Toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected subacute meningitis in settings where neuroradiology is not available.

Ganiem, A. Rizal; Dian, Sofiati; Indriati, Agnes; Chaidir, Lidya; Wisaksana, Rudi; Sturm, Patrick; Melchers, Willem; van der Ven, Andre; Parwati, Ida; van Crevel, Reinout

2013-01-01

224

[Evaluation of the toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in pregnant women and creating a diagnostic algorithm].  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoon is widely distributed around the world and can infect all mammals and birds. While acquired toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in healthy subjects, acute infection during pregnancy may lead to abortion, stillbirth, fetal neurological and ocular damages. For the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis it is recommended that a screening programme and a diagnostic algorithm in pregnant women should be implemented while considering the cost effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and the actual risk of T.gondii transmission during pregnancy in a certain area. The aims of this study were to detect the T.gondii seropositivity in the pregnant women admitted to our hospital and to create a diagnostic algorithm in order to solve the problems arising from interpretation of the serological test results. A total of 6140 women aged 15-49 years who were admitted to our hospital between April 1st, 2010 to July 31st, 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. In the serum samples, T.gondii IgM, IgG and IgG avidity tests were performed by VIDAS automated analyzer using TOXO IgM, TOXO IgG II and TOXO IgG avidity kits (bioMerieux, France). It was noted that, both T.gondii IgM and IgG tests were requested from 4758 (77.5%) of the pregnant women, while only IgM test from 1382 (22.5%) cases. Sole IgM positivity was found as 0.2% (11/6140), IgG as 26.4% (1278/4758) and both IgM + IgG as 0.9% (44/4758). T.gondii IgG avidity tests were requested from 12 of 44 women who were found both IgM and IgG positive and eight of them revealed high avidity and four low avidity. Avidity test was ordered for the 91 (7.1%) of 1278 sole IgG positive cases and four of them were found to have low avidity. IgG avidity test was ordered for 554 (16.2%) of IgM and/or IgG negative subjects, however, the test was not performed according to rejection criteria of the laboratory. It was noticed that no re-testing was requested for none of the seronegative cases (3428/4758; 72%) during their follow-up. In our study, total Toxoplasma seropositivity rate among pregnant women was detected as 28% (1330/4758), showing statistically significant increase (p< 0.05) with age. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in the seropositivity rate between the years (2010-2013). Following the evaluation of the test orders, the problems related to test orders and interpretation of the test results were determined and a diagnostic algorithm to be used in our hospital, was established to minimize such problems in toxoplasma serology. It was concluded that a diagnostic algorithm related to toxoplasmosis serology should be implemented for the appropriate evaluation of the risk of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Such an approach is necessary to support the clinical diagnosis and to minimize the anxiety in pregnant women about congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24819265

Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Toyran, Alparslan; Cetin, Feyza; Coskun, Feride Alaca; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Aksoy, Altan

2014-04-01

225

Fas-FasL Interaction Involved in Pathogenesis of Ocular Toxoplasmosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Ocular toxoplasmosis is a potentially blinding intraocular inflammation. The intent of this study was to investigate the role of Fas-FasL interaction in a murine model of acquired ocular toxoplasmosis induced by intracameral inoculation of Toxoplasma gondii. Intraocular inflammation, Fas and FasL expression on lymphocytes and on ocular tissues, the occurrence of apoptosis, and the frequency of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the infected eyes were analyzed in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Susceptibility to parasite-induced intraocular inflammation was observed in Fas-deficient (B6-lpr) and FasL-deficient (B6-gld) mice. Inoculation of 5,000 T. gondii tachyzoites induced significant intraocular inflammation associated with increase of Fas and FasL expression in the inoculated eyes of wild-type B6 mice. Flow cytometry demonstrated a significant increase of Fas and FasL expression on the splenocytes from naive mice incubated in vitro with the parasite and on the splenocytes harvested from the infected mice at day 8 after parasite inoculation. Apoptosis of inflammatory cells and cells in ocular tissues was seen, and a greater frequency of CD8+ than CD4+ T cells was observed in the infected eyes. The intensity of intraocular inflammation was greater in B6-lpr and B6-gld mice than in wild-type B6 mice (P < 0.05). The results suggest that Fas-FasL interaction associated with apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in mice.

Hu, Mark S.; Schwartzman, Joseph D.; Yeaman, Grant R.; Collins, Jane; Seguin, Rosanne; Khan, Imtiaz A.; Kasper, Lloyd H.

1999-01-01

226

Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus felis manul) at the Denver Zoological Gardens.  

PubMed

In May 1996 the Denver Zoological Gardens obtained two male and two female Pallas' cats (Otocolobus felis manul) that were wild-caught in the Ukraine. These animals were part of a group of 16 wild-caught adults (eight male and eight female) imported to the United States and Canada between 1995 and 1996. The Denver Zoological Gardens cats were quarantined at the zoo hospital for approximately I mo. During the quarantine period they were immobilized for physical examination, and sera were obtained from them to evaluate for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. All cats were positive for T. gondii antibodies by latex agglutination (titers from 1:512 to 1:1,024). After being paired for breeding, one pair produced two litters, and another pair produced four litters, a total of 17 kittens between 1997 and 2001. Four kittens and two young adults died from a disseminated granulomatous and necrotizing inflammation consistent with toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii infection was confirmed in all six deceased cats by polymerase chain reaction performed on formalin-fixed tissues. An additional five kittens disappeared and were not available for necropsy. The fatality rate from toxoplasmosis was 35.3% (6/17) for cats that were available for necropsy and could have been as high as 64.7% (11/17) if it were assumed that the disappeared kittens were also affected. The Pallas' kitten survival rate at the Denver Zoological Gardens was 35.3%. This article describes the clinical and pathologic features of toxoplasmosis in a group of Pallas' cats at the Denver Zoological Gardens. PMID:12398302

Kenny, David E; Lappin, Michael R; Knightly, Felicia; Baler, Jeffery; Brewer, Melissa; Getzy, David M

2002-06-01

227

Toxoplasmosis in golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) and emperor marmosets (Saguinus imperator) in captivity.  

PubMed

From 1991 to 1995, eight New World nonhuman primates of the family Callitrichidae belonging to the collection of Fundacão Parque Zoologico de São Paulo died of toxoplasmosis. Of the eight affected nonhuman primates, four were Leontopithecus chrysomelas (one male, three females) and four were Saguinus imperator (two males, two females). The most commonly affected organs were the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes, with hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions. Histopathologic examination revealed protozoa that were morphologically consistent with Toxoplasma gondii. Immunohistochemical assays were strongly positive for T. gondii. PMID:10982139

Epiphanio, S; Guimarães, M A; Fedullo, D L; Correa, S H; Catão-Dias, J L

2000-06-01

228

Successful treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a marrow transplant recipient: contribution of a PCR test in diagnosis and early detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report successful treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in an unrelated donor marrow transplant recipient. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for T. gondii-DNA performed both on cerebrospinal fluid and blood leukocytes. Retrospective testing of stored blood samples demonstrated positive leukocyte PCR signal detected up to 52 days prior to onset of clinical symptoms. This case

H Khoury; D Adkins; R Brown; L Goodnough; M Gokden; T Roberts; G Storch; J DiPersio

1999-01-01

229

Genotypic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Human Toxoplasmosis in Spain: Direct Analysis from Clinical Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the different genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (strain types I, II, and III) associated with human toxoplasmosis in Spain. This determi- nation was made directly from primary clinical samples, obviating the previous process of isolation in mice or cell culture. A total of 34 isolates of T. gondii,

ISABEL FUENTES; JOSE M. RUBIO; CARMEN RAMIREZ; JORGE ALVAR

2001-01-01

230

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: comparative value of fetal blood and amniotic fluid using serological techniques and cultures.  

PubMed

The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is mainly based on biological tests performed on fetal blood and amniotic fluid. We studied the performance of neonatal diagnosis procedures and the results of fetal blood and amniotic fluid analysis. Of 127 women who contracted toxoplasmosis and underwent prenatal diagnosis, the postnatal serological follow-up was long enough to definitively diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis in 19 cases and to exclude it in 27 cases. Prenatal diagnosis allowed the detection of 94.7 per cent (18/19) of the infected fetuses. The sensitivities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were equivalent, 88.2 per cent (15/17) and 87.5 per cent (14/16), respectively. In fetal blood, biological techniques were positive in 12/16 cases and in 2/16 cases, serological tests were the only positive sign. The specificities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were respectively 100 per cent (23/23) and 86.3 per cent (19/22) (three false-positive serological results). These results, added to the lower morbidity of amniocentesis compared with cordocentesis, might lead to cordocentesis being abandoned in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:9316127

Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Pelloux, H; Muet, F; Racinet, C; Bost, M; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

1997-09-01

231

Toxoplasmosis in Beluga Whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from the St Lawrence Estuary: Two Case Reportsand a Serological Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in two free-ranging beluga whales from the St Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada, in 1988 and 1998. Histologically, tachyzoites and bradyzoites were present in the brain, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals and lungs of both animals, and in the thymus of one. These organisms were readily labelled by an indirect immunohistochemical method for Toxoplasma gondii antigens. In the lymph

I Mikaelian; J Boisclair; JP Dubey; S Kennedy; D Martineau

2000-01-01

232

Spinal cord toxoplasmosis as an unusual presentation of AIDS: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Approximately 10% of patients with AIDS present with some neurological deficit as their initial complaint, and up to 80% will have CNS involvement during the course of their disease. Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS, but appears to be an uncommon cause of spinal cord disease. The incidence of myelopathy may be as high as 20%, with 50% of the cases reported post-mortem. We present a unique case of spinal cord disease as the initial presentation of AIDS. We also present a comprehensive literature review of this topic, its diagnosis and treatment. This is a retrospective chart review case report. After a detailed case presentation, several diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this unique case are thoroughly discussed. Although spinal cord toxoplasmosis is uncommon, it has been suggested that most patients with AIDS that present with evolving myelopathy, characterized by extremity weakness, sensory involvement, spinal cord enlargement, enhancing lesions in brain or spinal cord CT or MRI, have toxoplasmic myelitis.

Fuentes, Carmen R.; Colon-Rolon, Lissandra; Masvidal, Daniel

2010-01-01

233

Congenital toxoplasmosis: candidate host immune genes relevant for vertical transmission and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of vertebrate hosts, including humans. Transplacental passage of the parasite leads to congenital toxoplasmosis. A primary infection during the first weeks of gestation causes vertical transmission at low rate, although it causes major damage to the embryo. Transmission frequency increases to near 80% by the end of pregnancy, but the proportion of ill newborns is low. For transmission and pathogenesis, the parasite genetics is certainly important. Several host innate and adaptative immune response genes are induced during infection in adults, which control the rapidly replicating tachyzoite. The T helper 1 (Th1) response is protective, although it has to be modulated to avoid inflammatory damage. Paradoxical observations on this response pattern in congenital toxoplasmosis have been reported, as it may be protective or deleterious, inducing sterile abortion or favoring parasite transplacental passage. Regarding pregnancy, an early Th1 microenvironment is important for control of infectious diseases and successful implantation, although it has to be regulated to support trophoblast survival. Polymorphism of genes involved in these parallel phenomena, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), adhesins, cytokines, chemokines or their receptors, immunoglobulins or Fc receptors (FcRs), might be important in susceptibility for T. gondii vertical transmission, abortion or fetal pathology. In this study some examples are presented and discussed. PMID:20445562

Ortiz-Alegría, L B; Caballero-Ortega, H; Cañedo-Solares, I; Rico-Torres, C P; Sahagún-Ruiz, A; Medina-Escutia, M E; Correa, D

2010-07-01

234

Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic New Zealand birds.  

PubMed

Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic New Zealand avian species are reported. Between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), and one North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. On gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. Histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of the kiwi while the kaka and kereru showed severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In the kiwi, protozoal organisms were present within both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver and within the epithelial cells and macrophages of the interstitium of the lungs in the kaka and two kereru. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue of the liver, lungs, or both. Genotyping of up to seven markers revealed that an atypical Type II isolate of Toxoplasma gondii was present in at least three of the cases. This study provides evidence that T. gondii can cause mortality in these endemic species and suggests further research is needed to determine the full extent of morbidity and mortality caused by this parasite in New Zealand's unique avifauna. PMID:24758132

Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; Burrows, Elizabeth; Roe, Wendi

2014-03-01

235

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a Mediterranean pregnant Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) with transplacental fetal infection.  

PubMed

Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) dam and its fetus on the basis of pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and structure of the parasite. The dolphin was stranded alive on the Spanish Mediterranean coast and died a few hours later. At necropsy the dam was in good condition. From the standpoint of pathology, however, it had generalized lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly, enlargement of and multifocal hemorrhage in the adrenal glands, diffuse mucosal hemorrhage of the glandular and pyloric stomach, ulcerative glossitis and stomatitis, focal erosions and reddening of the laryngeal appendix, and severe paraotic sinusitis with intralesional nematodes Crassicauda grampicola. The dolphin was pregnant, most probably in the first gestational trimester. The most prominent microscopic lesions were multifocal granulomatous encephalomyelitis, diffuse subacute interstitial pneumonia, mild multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and nonsuppurative cholangiohepatitis, gastritis and adrenalitis, mild lymphoid depletion, medullary sinus and follicular histyocitosis, and systemic hemosiderosis. The fetus had foci of coagulative and lytic necrosis in the kidneys, the lung, and the heart. Most lesions were associated with tachyzoites and tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii. The diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically. This is the first report on toxoplasmosis in a Risso's dolphin (G. griseus) and on transplacental transmission to an early-stage fetus in any cetaceans. PMID:12435153

Resendes, A R; Almería, S; Dubey, J P; Obón, E; Juan-Sallés, C; Degollada, E; Alegre, F; Cabezón, O; Pont, S; Domingo, M

2002-10-01

236

The Unexpected Role for the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor on Susceptibility to Experimental Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is part of a signaling system that is mainly triggered by xenobiotic agents. Increasing evidence suggests that AhR may regulate immunity to infections. To determine the role of AhR in the outcome of toxoplasmosis, we used AhR?/? and wild-type (WT) mice. Following an intraperitoneal infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), AhR?/? mice succumbed significantly faster than WT mice and displayed greater liver damage as well as higher serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, nitric oxide (NO), and IgE but lower IL-10 secretion. Interestingly, lower numbers of cysts were found in their brains. Increased mortality was associated with reduced expression of GATA-3, IL-10, and 5-LOX mRNA in spleen cells but higher expression of IFN-? mRNA. Additionally, peritoneal exudate cells from AhR?/? mice produced higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-? but lower TLR2 expression than WT mice. These findings suggest a role for AhR in limiting the inflammatory response during toxoplasmosis.

Sanchez, Yuriko; de Dios Rosado, Juan; Vega, Libia; Elizondo, Guillermo; Estrada-Muniz, Elizabeth; Saavedra, Rafael; Juarez, Imelda; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

2010-01-01

237

Impact of Technological and Structural Change on Employment. Prospective Analysis 2020. Synthesis Report. Report to the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament. Technical Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possible impact of technological and structural change on employment in the European Union (EU) over the next 20 years was examined through an exploration of the following alternative policy-driven scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) concentrated technology policy (increases in innovation and research and development [R&D] efforts are…

2001

238

Plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles and their association with food intakes: results from a cross-sectional study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Plasma phospholipid fatty acids have been correlated with food intakes in populations with homogeneous dietary pat- terns. However, few data are available on populations with hetero- geneous dietary patterns. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether plasma phos- pholipid fatty acids are suitable biomarkers of dietary intakes across populations involved in a large European multicenter study. Design: A cross-sectional

Mitra Saadatian-Elahi; Nadia Slimani; Veronique Chajes; Mazda Jenab; Joelle Goudable; Carine Biessy; Pietro Ferrari; Graham Byrnes; Philippe Autier; Marga Ocke; Bas Bueno de Mesquita; Ingegerd Johansson; Goran Hallmans; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfalt; Carlos A Gonzalez; Carmen Navarro; Carmen Martinez; Pilar Amiano; Anne Tjønneland; Kim Overvad; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Franco Berrino; Valeria Pala; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Maria Santucci de Magistris; Francesca L Crowe; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Ute Noethlings; Karina Standahl Olsen; Guri Skeie; Eiliv Lund; Antonia Trichopoulou; Elio Riboli

239

The national neonatal screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark: results from the initial four years, 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe the outcome of four years' nationwide neonatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in liveborn newborns. Methods Congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosed if specific Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in eluate from the PKU Guthrie filter paper card from a child. Infants diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis were examined for intracranial and retinal lesions and treated for three months with sulphadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid continuously. Results Eluates from PKU?cards from 262?912 newborns were analysed. The birth prevalence of congenital toxoplasma infection was 2.1 per 10?000 liveborns. Congenital toxoplasmosis was suspected in 96 infants and confirmed in 55. Forty seven children were examined for intracranial and retinal lesions soon after birth; 12 had clinical signs at this first examination. Of these, 5 had intracranial calcifications, 2 had retinochoroidal lesions, 4 had intracranial calcifications and retinochoroidal lesions, and 1 had hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, and retinochoroidal lesions. Ninety four eyes were examined soon after birth; there were central retinochoroidal lesions in 9. Two children had macular lesion of both eyes, five had macular lesions of one eye. At 1 year of age, 10/68 eyes had central lesions, and at 3 years of age, 5/32 had central lesions. Thus new retinochoroidal lesions developed in three eyes in the observation period. Conclusions Neonatal screening is feasible for diagnosing children with congenital toxoplasmosis at birth in low endemic areas. Retinochoroiditis with macular lesion was diagnosed in 9.6% of the eyes at birth and in 15.6% of the eyes examined at 3 years of age.

Schmidt, D R; Hogh, B; Andersen, O; Fuchs, J; Fledelius, H; Petersen, E

2006-01-01

240

Statistics and Statisticians in European Drug Regulatory Agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of adequate provision for expert statistical review of license applications by European regulatory agencies has been increased by several developments including moves toward international harmonization. A brief questionnaire on the roles of statisticians and statistical review procedures was sent to the director of the national drug regulatory agency in each of 18 European countries (current and prospective members

Wolfgang Köpcke; David R. Jones; Bernhard Huitfeldt; Karsten Schmidt

1998-01-01

241

Biodiversity Prospecting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

1994-01-01

242

Prospect Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many readers may be aware that trees grow in Brooklyn, few may be cognizant of the fact that, yes, a forest grows in Brooklyn. This urban forest just happens to be in the boroughâÂÂs own lovely Prospect Park, designed by those giants of landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Often overlooked by some who are primarily concerned with that other large swath of green in the middle of Manhattan, Prospect Park contains a 90-acre meadow, a zoo, a celebrated performing arts festival, and a lake. Visitors to the Prospect Park Alliance website can learn all about these things, and also delve into the parkâÂÂs history. Those planning a visit may wish to look at the âÂÂGeneral Infoâ and âÂÂPlaces To Goâ sections for a selection of brief descriptions and photographs. For those seeking a historical perspective the âÂÂHistory & Natureâ area is delightful. Here visitors can learn about the parkâÂÂs historical development and creation, and learn more about those individuals responsible for the parkâÂÂs design and aesthetic appeal. Finally, visitors should look at the online exhibit âÂÂA Glimpse Of Prospect Parkâ for a bit of visual perspective on the parkâÂÂs history.

Prospect Park (New York, N.Y.)

243

[Retrospective study of the implementation of the qualitative PCR technique in biological samples for monitoring toxoplasmosis in pediatric patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is severe and difficult to diagnose in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twelve patients receiving HSCT were monitored post-transplant, by qualitative PCR at the Children's Hospital S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". The monitoring of these patients was defined by a history of positive serology for toxoplasmosis in the donor or recipient and because their hematologic condition did not allow the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis. During the patients' monitoring, two of them with positive PCR results showed signs of illness by T. gondii and were treated with pyrimethamine-clindamycin. In two other patients, toxoplasmosis was the cause of death and an autopsy finding, showing negative PCR results. Four patients without clinical manifestations received treatment for toxoplasmosis because of positive PCR detection. In four patients there were no signs of toxoplasmosis disease and negative PCR results during follow-up. The qualitative PCR technique proved useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis reactivation in HSCT recipients, but has limitations in monitoring and making clinical decisions due to the persistence of positive PCR over time and manifestations of toxicity caused by the treatment. PMID:24721270

Nigro, Mónica G; Figueroa, Carlos; Ledesma, Bibiana A

2014-01-01

244

Diagnosis of antigenic markers of acute toxoplasmosis by IgG avidity immunoblotting  

PubMed Central

To perform IgG avidity immunoblotting assay for detection of acute toxoplasmosis, 100 serum samples were collected from Tehran, Iran. The presence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were checked by commercial Trinity kit. Samples were categorized in acute and chronic phases of Toxoplasma gondii infection according to IgG avidity ELISA. IgG avidity immunoblotting was performed, and antigenic bands with molecular weights of 22, 25, 28, 30, 32, 42, 44, 49, 55, 60, 66, 69, 88, 106, 130 and 157 kDa were recognized as low avidity markers. The most prevalent antigen for low avidity was p22. It is concluded that IgG avidity immunoblotting could distinguish acute and chronic phases of T. gondii infection.

Ali-Heydari, Siamak; Keshavarz, Hossien; Shojaee, Saeedeh; Mohebali, Mehdi

2013-01-01

245

Recombinant Dense Granular Protein (GRA5) for Detection of Human Toxoplasmosis by Western Blot  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5) in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5) was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp.).

Ching, Xiao Teng; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Andiappan, Hemah

2014-01-01

246

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of punctate outer retinal toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Punctate outer retinal toxoplasmosis is a recognized phenotype of this common ocular parasite. We present a case presenting with poor visual acuity, but with prompt treatment regaining excellent vision by the final time point. Imaging demonstrates progression of an active lesion adjacent to an inactive retinal scar with color photography, fluorescein angiography, and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). SD-OCT imaging of the chorioretinal scar demonstrated alternating hypertrophy and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium along with a discrete break in Bruch’s membrane. At baseline, the active lesion demonstrated a large collection of inflammatory subretinal fluid adjacent to an area of active retinitis. Over time, the subretinal material was found to resolve, there was restoration of the foveal anatomy, and the area of retinitis progressed into a chorioretinal scar.

Lujan, Brandon J.

2014-01-01

247

Spontaneous toxoplasmosis in canaries (Serinus canaria) and other small passerine cage birds.  

PubMed

An outbreak of spontaneous Toxoplasma gondii infection on an Italian bird-farm is described. Small passerine birds (Serinus canaria, Carduelis chloris, Carduelis carduelis, Carduelis spinus, Carduelis cannabina, Pyrrhula pyrrhula) showed clinical signs consisting of anorexia, prostration, weight loss, diarrhoea and dyspnoea accompanied by a high mortality rate. Clinical, pathological, biological and serological investigations were performed. Characteristic lesions and Toxoplasma gondii specimens were identified in several tissues by histopathological examinations. The detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii was constant in dead and sacrificed animals with macroscopic lesions. A therapy based on the administration of sulphadimethoxine and diaveridine was successful in limiting the mortality rate. Four months later some surviving birds developed ocular atrophy. Toxoplasma gondii cysts were observed in the brain and cerebral and ocular lesions described. Sera obtained from these animals were positive (>1:64) for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The authors conclude with some observations on the spread of toxoplasmosis among cage birds. PMID:18766519

Parenti, E; Sola, S C; Turilli, C; Corazzola, S

1986-01-01

248

[Ophthalmic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. Description of a case].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is an infection of worldwide distribution caused by Toxoplasma gondii, and infects a large proportion of the world population. Only under certain circumstances of severe immunosuppression can the parasite reactivate and cause disease. The most common form of presentation of this pathology in patients with positive HIV is the brain abscess. One of the extra-cerebral forms is toxoplasmic chorioretinitis, which could lead to a chronic active form of a slowly progressive retinitis. Diagnosis is made by observing the eye fundus and confirmed by the scarring obtained after specific treatment. We report a case of a patient with diabetes and positive HIV, in whom a toxoplasmic scar injury was detected in the annual retinography follow-up. A conservative therapeutic approach was decided, with regular check-ups for possible detection of disease activation. PMID:23566559

Hermida Pérez, J A; Bermejo Hernandez, A; Sobenes Gutierrez, R

2014-03-01

249

[Evaluation of the postnatal treatment efficacy in congenital toxoplasmosis identified by the newborn screening programme].  

PubMed

The effectiveness of neonatal screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM or IgA and IgM specific antibodies followed by an intensive anti-parasitic therapy for a prevention of clinical and immunological reactivations of congenital infection was studied. Thirty-five congenitally infected infants were included into clinical and serological follow-up. The children were mostly asymptomatic at birth or they expressed some non-specific reversible clinical abnormalities in neonatal period. Clinically overt toxoplasmosis occurred in 10 patients, including one infant with a severe form; 2 children had co-existing CMV infections. During the follow-up period, no clinical relapses were reported. Asymptomatic immunological rebounds of IgG or of IgG and IgA specific antibodies were observed in 16 patients. Anti-parasitic treatment initiated soon after birth seems to be promising in a prevention of early clinical sequelae of congenital T. gondii infection. PMID:16897960

Paul, M; Jaworska, A; Twardosz-Pawlik, H; Szczapa, J; Stefaniak, J

2001-01-01

250

Maternal Serologic Screening to Prevent Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Decision-Analytic Economic Model  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine a cost-minimizing option for congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States. Methodology/Principal Findings A decision-analytic and cost-minimization model was constructed to compare monthly maternal serological screening, prenatal treatment, and post-natal follow-up and treatment according to the current French (Paris) protocol, versus no systematic screening or perinatal treatment. Costs are based on published estimates of lifetime societal costs of developmental disabilities and current diagnostic and treatment costs. Probabilities are based on published results and clinical practice in the United States and France. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate robustness of results. Universal monthly maternal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis with follow-up and treatment, following the French protocol, is found to be cost-saving, with savings of $620 per child screened. Results are robust to changes in test costs, value of statistical life, seroprevalence in women of childbearing age, fetal loss due to amniocentesis, and to bivariate analysis of test costs and incidence of primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy. Given the parameters in this model and a maternal screening test cost of $12, screening is cost-saving for rates of congenital infection above 1 per 10,000 live births. If universal testing generates economies of scale in diagnostic tools—lowering test costs to about $2 per test—universal screening is cost-saving at rates of congenital infection well below the lowest reported rates in the United States of 1 per 10,000 live births. Conclusion/Significance Universal screening according to the French protocol is cost saving for the US population within broad parameters for costs and probabilities.

Stillwaggon, Eileen; Carrier, Christopher S.; Sautter, Mari; McLeod, Rima

2011-01-01

251

Latent Toxoplasmosis in Patients With Different Malignancy: A Hospital Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in different populations may vary according to different environments, social customs and habits. This study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among patients with different malignancies and to ascertain the association between common risk factors and disease transmission. Methods This Cross-sectional study was from January to April of 2009. Four Oncology wards in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) were selected as the site for undertaking the present study. The survey involved 129 patients with different malignancies. Information was gathered by using study subject information sheet and a standardized structured questionnaire. Toxoplasma was screened by a standerd ELISA commercial kit in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and performed at the Department of Microbiology, HUKM Kuala Lumpur. A result of > 51 IU/ml of anti-Toxoplasma (IgG) antibody was regarded as positive, indicating latent or pre-existing Toxoplasma infection. A result of > 51 IU/ml of anti-Toxoplasma (IgM) antibody was regarded as positive, indicating recently acquired Toxoplasma infection. Results Total number of seropositive patients was 54 (67.6%), the mean age was 51 years (range15 - 88 years). Toxoplasma IgG positivity was highest among Malaysian (32%). Male to female ratio was almost equal. There was a statistically significant difference in seropositivity between patients living in rural areas compared to those living in urban areas, positive history of consumption of undercooked meat and/or blood transfusion (p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings give some support to Toxoplasma screening program and health education, including promotion of a healthy lifestyle exclusively in seronegative patients in order to prevent seroconversion and the incidence of clinically evident opportunistic infection. Keywords Toxoplasma gondii; Risk factors; Immunocompromised; seroconversion; Seroprevalence

Nimir, Amal; Othman, Amizah; Ee, Soon; Musa, Zohdy; Majid, Iffah Abd; Kamarudin, Zalikha; Xian, Chee; Isa, Noor Hayati

2010-01-01

252

A case of fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in a cat being treated with cyclosporin A for feline atopy.  

PubMed

Acute systemic toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a 4-5-year-old, male, Domestic Short Hair cat, which had been on cyclosporine A immunomodulatory therapy for feline atopy, over an 8-month period. Cyclosporin A (CsA) has shown promising results as a immunosuppressive agent in the cat for the treatment of eosinophilic plaque and granulomas, allergic cervico-facial pruritus, feline atopy and other immune-mediated dermatoses. However, inhibition of T-lymphocyte function by CsA is believed to have predisposed this cat to the development of a newly acquired, acute Toxoplasma gondii infection, as characterized by severe hepatic and pancreatic pathology in conjunction with the heavy parasite load demonstrated on immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for T. gondii. Cats on CsA therapy appear to be at risk of developing fatal systemic toxoplasmosis. PMID:15214957

Last, Robert D; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Manning, Thomas; Lindsay, David; Galipeau, Laura; Whitbread, Trevor J

2004-06-01

253

Unusual presentation of primary toxoplasmosis infection in a kidney-transplant patient complicated by an acute left-ventricular failure  

PubMed Central

Although primary toxoplasmosis is a rare event following kidney transplantation, it can be life threatening. This report describes this complication. The patient presented with high-grade fever, haemolytic anaemia and haemophagocytic-syndrome-related pancytopaenia. Toxoplasma gondii diagnosis was ascertained by blood and bone-marrow PCR assays. After 6 weeks with Clindamycin plus pyrimethamine therapies and despite negativation of T. gondii blood PCR assay, the patient developed left-ventricular failure. After adding sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim, ramipril, digoxine, bisoprolol and spironolactone, he progressively recovered. Anti-T. gondii therapy was continued for 6 months. Four years later he received a third kidney allograft: at that time anti-T. gondii antibodies had become negative. The outcome was uneventful despite immunosuppression but with inclusion of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis. More than 3 years after the third kidney transplantation the patient has had no toxoplasmosis reactivation. This case report highlights that T. gondii can be the cause of myocarditis in a renal transplant recipient.

Hebraud, Benjamin; Kamar, Nassim; Borde, Jean-Sebastien; Bessieres, Marie-Helene; Galinier, Michel; Rostaing, Lionel

2008-01-01

254

Anti-Toxoplasma gondii secretory IgA in tears of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis: immunodiagnostic validation by ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii causes posterior uveitis and the specific diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. The presence of anti-T. gondii secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies in patients' tears has been reported and an association was found between ocular toxoplasmosis and the anti-T. gondii sIgA isotype in Brazilian patients. The purpose of this study was to provide an objective validation of the published

Maria Isabel Lynch; Elizabeth Malagueño; Luiz Felipe Lynch; Silvana Ferreira; Raphael Stheling; Fernando Oréfice

2009-01-01

255

Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was from a colony of 7 Bennet's wallabies that died over a 17-month period at a safari-zoological park in northeastern Spain. Only one of these wallabies was examined at necropsy. T. gondii-like organisms were detected by histological examination in several tissues and the diagnosis was confirmed through detection of T. gondii DNA by PCR. A nested PCR-based assay detected the 200- to 300-fold repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment of T. gondii in a sample of brain tissue. Genotyping analysis with 15 single-copy microsatellite markers was performed on this positive DNA sample and revealed an atypical genotype. Atypical genotypes are frequently associated with severe forms of toxoplasmosis in humans. The present report highlights the possible implications of the introduction of new atypical, more pathogenic T. gondii strains, to non-endemic areas. PMID:23523164

Fernández-Aguilar, X; Ajzenberg, D; Cabezón, O; Martínez-López, A; Darwich, L; Dubey, J P; Almería, S

2013-09-23

256

Association of a NOD2 Gene Polymorphism and T-Helper 17 Cells With Presumed Ocular Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Retinochoroiditis manifests in patients infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we assessed 30 sibships and 89 parent/case trios of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis (POT) to evaluate associations with polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within the NOD2 gene were genotyped. The family-based association test showed that the tag-SNP rs3135499 is associated with retinochoroiditis (P = .039). We then characterized the cellular immune response of 59 cases of POT and 4 cases of active ocular toxoplasmosis (AOT). We found no differences in levels of interferon ? (IFN-?) and interleukin 2 produced by T-helper 1 cells when comparing patients with AOT or POT to asymptomatic individuals. Unexpectedly, we found an increased interleukin 17A (IL-17A) production in patients with POT or OAT. In patients with POT or AOT, the main cellular source of IL-17A was CD4+CD45RO+T-bet?IFN-?? T-helper 17 cells. Altogether, our results suggest that NOD2 influences the production of IL-17A by CD4+ T lymphocytes and might contribute to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis.

Dutra, Miriam S.; Bela, Samantha R.; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L.; Fakiola, Michaela; Cruz, Ariane G.; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Quites, Humberto F.; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M. G.; Peixe, Ricardo G.; Campos, Wesley R.; Higino-Rocha, Anna C.; Miller, Nancy E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Antonelli, Lis R.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

2013-01-01

257

[Frequency of lesions suggestive of ocular toxoplasmosis among a rural population in the State of Rio de Janeiro].  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis among the general population of the district of Santa Rita de Cassia, Barra Mansa, State of Rio de Janeiro, a cross-sectional study on 1,071 individuals was performed. These subjects underwent serological tests (anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM) and physical and ophthalmological examinations. The diagnosis of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis was based on clinical and serological criteria and the appearance of the retinochoroidal lesion. The lesions were classified into three morphological types: 1. Limits marked with a halo of hyperpigmentation and an area of central chorioretinal atrophy; 2. Hypopigmented halo and hyperpigmented central area; and 3. Hyperpigmented or hypopigmented. The prevalence of healed lesions compatible with ocular toxoplasmosis was 3.8% among the general population and 5.8% among individuals who were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii (65.9% of the individuals evaluated). Type-1 lesions (41.5%), female sex (68.3%), peripheral lesions (58.5%) and lesions smaller than three disc diameters predominated. PMID:19448935

Aleixo, Ana Luisa Quintella do Couto; Benchimol, Eliezer Israel; Neves, Elisabeth de Souza; Silva, Cassius Schnell Palhano; Coura, Léa Camillo; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

2009-01-01

258

[Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou (Bénin)].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the ImmunoComb® Toxo IgG and ImmunoComb® Toxo IgMassays (rapid diagnostic test) in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou. We interviewed 266 pregnant women, who first answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti T. gondii antibodies with the ImmunoComb toxo assays and with the ARCHITECT CIMA method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated to determine the performance of the rapid test. The seroprevalences of IgG against T. gondii by CIMA technique and rapid test were respectively 48.9% and 48.5%. The prevalence increased with age. Performances for IgG were: sensitivity 97%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 97.10%. For IgM, Sensitivity: 33.3% Specificity: 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 99.2%. Seroprevalence obtained shows that about half of the study population is not immune against T. gondii and requires regular serological monitoring until delivery. According to these results, and given the needs of toxoplasmosis diagnosis on the field characterized by an important decrease of immunized women, this test may be recommended in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in peripheral levels of the health pyramid. PMID:24639136

Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Agbayahoun-Chokki, F; Sissinto Savi de Tove, Y; Biokou Bankole, B; Adinsi de Souza, V; Assogba, M; Kinde-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

2014-05-01

259

Association of a NOD2 gene polymorphism and T-helper 17 cells with presumed ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Retinochoroiditis manifests in patients infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we assessed 30 sibships and 89 parent/case trios of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis (POT) to evaluate associations with polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within the NOD2 gene were genotyped. The family-based association test showed that the tag-SNP rs3135499 is associated with retinochoroiditis (P = .039). We then characterized the cellular immune response of 59 cases of POT and 4 cases of active ocular toxoplasmosis (AOT). We found no differences in levels of interferon ? (IFN-?) and interleukin 2 produced by T-helper 1 cells when comparing patients with AOT or POT to asymptomatic individuals. Unexpectedly, we found an increased interleukin 17A (IL-17A) production in patients with POT or OAT. In patients with POT or AOT, the main cellular source of IL-17A was CD4(+)CD45RO(+)T-bet(-)IFN-?(-) T-helper 17 cells. Altogether, our results suggest that NOD2 influences the production of IL-17A by CD4(+) T lymphocytes and might contribute to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:23100559

Dutra, Míriam S; Béla, Samantha R; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L; Fakiola, Michaela; Cruz, Ariane G; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Quites, Humberto F; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G; Peixe, Ricardo G; Campos, Wesley R; Higino-Rocha, Anna C; Miller, Nancy E; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Antonelli, Lis R; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

2013-01-01

260

Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Kyrgyzstan: Seroprevalence, Risk Factor Analysis, and Estimate of Congenital and AIDS-Related Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG) against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8–7.8) (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9–6.5), and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5–21.7) (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1–19.3), respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked meat, as well as cat ownership, had no significant influence on the risk for seropositivity. Conclusions We present a first seroprevalence analysis for human T. gondii infection in the Kyrgyz Republic. Based on these data we estimate that 173 (95% CI 136–216) Kyrgyz children will be born annually to mothers who seroconverted to toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. In addition, between 350 and 1,000 HIV-infected persons are currently estimated to be seropositive for toxoplasmosis. Taken together, this suggests a substantial impact of congenital and AIDS-related symptomatic toxoplasmosis on morbidity and mortality in Kyrgyzstan.

Bodosheva, Aigerim; Kuttubaev, Omurbek; Hehl, Adrian B.; Tanner, Isabelle; Ziadinov, Iskender; Torgerson, Paul R.; Deplazes, Peter

2013-01-01

261

Utility of molecular and serodiagnostic tools in cerebral toxoplasmosis with and without tuberculous meningitis in AIDS patients: A study from South India  

PubMed Central

Background: Antemortem diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis, the second most common opportunistic infection (OI) in HIV-infected individuals in developing countries is a challenge. Materials and Methods: Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) -specific serology and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) were evaluated in sera and ventricular/lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 22 autopsy confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis with HIV and 17 controls. Frequency of concomitant T.gondii infection was investigated in 17 cases of HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of T. gondii IgG on CSF (ventricular and lumbar) and sera was 100% in histology proven cerebral toxoplasmosis (concentrations: 258 ± 50, 231 ± 36, and 646 ± 243 IU/mL, respectively); majority (94%) being high avidity type, suggesting reactivation/reinfection. The sensitivity of B1 nPCR was 100% on ventricular CSF, whereas it was only 77% on lumbar CSF. Based on histology, nPCR, and IgG serology, T. gondii co-infection with TBM was observed in 65% (11/17) of cases. Discussion and Conclusion: CSF IgG serology and nPCR are tests with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. TBM and cerebral toxoplasmosis can coexist and should be considered in the background of HIV infection in developing countries.

Adurthi, Sreenivas; Mahadevan, Anita; Bantwal, Radhika; Satishchandra, Parthasarthy; Ramprasad, Sujay; Sridhar, Hema; Shankar, S. K.; Nath, Avindra; Jayshree, R. S.

2010-01-01

262

Intranasal immunisation with recombinant Toxoplasma gondii actin partly protects mice against toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan intracellular parasite, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, and a worldwide zoonosis for which an effective vaccine is needed. Actin is a highly conserved microfilament protein that plays an important role in the invasion of host cells by T. gondii. This study investigated the immune responses elicited by BALB/c mice after nasal immunisation with a recombinant T. gondii actin (rTgACT) and the subsequent protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections. We evaluated the systemic response by proliferation, cytokine and antibody measurements, and we assessed the mucosal response by examining the levels of TgACT-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. Parasite load was assessed in the liver and brain, and the survival of mice challenged with a virulent strain was determined. The results showed that the mice immunised with rTgACT developed high levels of specific anti-rTgACT IgG titres and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with a predominance of IgG2a. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-? and IL-2), Th2 (IL-4) and Treg (IL-10) cytokines, indicating that not only Th1-type response was induced, but also Th2- and Treg-types responses were induced, and the splenocyte stimulation index (SI) was increased in the mice immunised with rTgACT. Nasal immunisation with rTgACT led to strong mucosal immune responses, as seen by the increased secretion of SIgA in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. The vaccinated mice displayed significant protection against lethal infection with the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%), while the mice chronically infected with RH exhibited lower liver and brain parasite loads (60.05% and 49.75%, respectively) than the controls. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that actin triggers a strong systemic and mucosal response against T. gondii. Therefore, actin may be a promising vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. PMID:24386114

Yin, Li-Tian; Hao, Hai-Xia; Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Yin, Guo-Rong

2013-01-01

263

Intranasal Immunisation with Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii Actin Partly Protects Mice against Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan intracellular parasite, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, and a worldwide zoonosis for which an effective vaccine is needed. Actin is a highly conserved microfilament protein that plays an important role in the invasion of host cells by T. gondii. This study investigated the immune responses elicited by BALB/c mice after nasal immunisation with a recombinant T. gondii actin (rTgACT) and the subsequent protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections. We evaluated the systemic response by proliferation, cytokine and antibody measurements, and we assessed the mucosal response by examining the levels of TgACT-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. Parasite load was assessed in the liver and brain, and the survival of mice challenged with a virulent strain was determined. The results showed that the mice immunised with rTgACT developed high levels of specific anti-rTgACT IgG titres and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with a predominance of IgG2a. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-? and IL-2), Th2 (IL-4) and Treg (IL-10) cytokines, indicating that not only Th1-type response was induced, but also Th2- and Treg-types responses were induced, and the splenocyte stimulation index (SI) was increased in the mice immunised with rTgACT. Nasal immunisation with rTgACT led to strong mucosal immune responses, as seen by the increased secretion of SIgA in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. The vaccinated mice displayed significant protection against lethal infection with the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%), while the mice chronically infected with RH exhibited lower liver and brain parasite loads (60.05% and 49.75%, respectively) than the controls. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that actin triggers a strong systemic and mucosal response against T. gondii. Therefore, actin may be a promising vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis.

Yin, Li-Tian; Hao, Hai-Xia; Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Yin, Guo-Rong

2013-01-01

264

An Outlook on the European Gas Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses prospects for increased consumption of natural gas within the European Union (EU). Particular emphasis\\u000a is on the power generation sector where the main growth in demand is expected to occur, on supply and infrastructural constraints\\u000a and on the future price of natural gas.\\u000a \\u000a It can be concluded that EU gas-import needs will increase substantially up to 2010,

Jan Kjärstad; Filip Johnsson

265

Comparison of two assays in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: immunological and molecular.  

PubMed

Serological tests for Toxoplasma gondii are inadequate because antibody production either fails or is significantly delayed. This study in eastern Iraq investigated the IgG-avidity ELISA test for detecting recent T. gondii infections among pregnant women and compared immunological methods and PCR as molecular assays in the diagnosis of T. gondii. Serums samples were taken from 130 pregnant women at risk of toxoplasmosis and a control group of 25 women with normal pregnancy. Of 50 IgM- and/or IgG-positive samples, only 15 showed low IgG-avidity antibodies. PCR was performed on 25 selected samples. Toxoplasma DNA was detected in 15/15 IgM-positive with low IgG-avidity and 1/3 IgM-positive with high IgG-avidity. None of the IgM-negative with high IgG-avidity showed any Toxoplasma DNA. ELISA IgG-avidity when used in combination with ELISA IgG/IgM is a valuable assay for the exclusion of ongoing or recently acquired T. gondii infection in pregnant women. PMID:24932933

Hashoosh, D A; Majeed, I A

2014-01-01

266

Chronic murine toxoplasmosis is defined by subtle changes in neuronal connectivity  

PubMed Central

Recent studies correlate chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection with behavioral changes in rodents; additionally, seropositivity in humans is reported to be associated with behavioral and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study we investigated whether the described behavioral changes in a murine model of chronic toxoplasmosis are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity and brain neuronal circuitry. In mice chronically infected with T. gondii, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data analysis displayed the presence of heterogeneous lesions scattered throughout all brain areas. However, a higher density of lesions was observed within specific regions such as the somatosensory cortex (SSC). Further histopathological examination of these brain areas indicated the presence of activated resident glia and recruited immune cells accompanied by limited alterations of neuronal viability. In vivo diffusion-tensor MRI analysis of neuronal fiber density within the infected regions revealed connectivity abnormalities in the SSC. Altered fiber density was confirmed by morphological analysis of individual, pyramidal and granule neurons, showing a reduction in dendritic arbor and spine density within the SSC, as well as in the hippocampus. Evaluation of synapse efficacy revealed diminished levels of two key synaptic proteins, PSD95 and synaptophysin, within the same brain areas, indicating deficits in functionality of the synaptic neurotransmission in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. gondii infection in a murine model results in synaptic deficits within brain structures leading to disturbances in the morphology of noninfected neurons and modified brain connectivity, suggesting a potential explanation for the behavioral and neuropsychiatric alterations.

Parlog, Alexandru; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Weller, Marianna; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Mawrin, Christian; Korte, Martin; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

2014-01-01

267

Chronic murine toxoplasmosis is defined by subtle changes in neuronal connectivity.  

PubMed

Recent studies correlate chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection with behavioral changes in rodents; additionally, seropositivity in humans is reported to be associated with behavioral and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study we investigated whether the described behavioral changes in a murine model of chronic toxoplasmosis are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity and brain neuronal circuitry. In mice chronically infected with T. gondii, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data analysis displayed the presence of heterogeneous lesions scattered throughout all brain areas. However, a higher density of lesions was observed within specific regions such as the somatosensory cortex (SSC). Further histopathological examination of these brain areas indicated the presence of activated resident glia and recruited immune cells accompanied by limited alterations of neuronal viability. In vivo diffusion-tensor MRI analysis of neuronal fiber density within the infected regions revealed connectivity abnormalities in the SSC. Altered fiber density was confirmed by morphological analysis of individual, pyramidal and granule neurons, showing a reduction in dendritic arbor and spine density within the SSC, as well as in the hippocampus. Evaluation of synapse efficacy revealed diminished levels of two key synaptic proteins, PSD95 and synaptophysin, within the same brain areas, indicating deficits in functionality of the synaptic neurotransmission in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. gondii infection in a murine model results in synaptic deficits within brain structures leading to disturbances in the morphology of noninfected neurons and modified brain connectivity, suggesting a potential explanation for the behavioral and neuropsychiatric alterations. PMID:24524910

Parlog, Alexandru; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Weller, Marianna; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Mawrin, Christian; Korte, Martin; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

2014-04-01

268

Plasma pyrimethamine concentrations during long-term treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.  

PubMed Central

Steady-state plasma pyrimethamine levels were measured by gas chromatography. The specimens were taken from 74 adults with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection receiving pyrimethamine-containing drugs for prophylaxis or curative therapy of reactivated cerebral toxoplasmosis. During an overall treatment period of 1,049 months, 1,012 plasma samples were investigated. Pyrimethamine concentrations could be evaluated in 904 plasma samples. The weekly dosage of pyrimethamine ranged from 25 to 1,400 mg; one patient with severe diarrhea received 2,100 mg/week. Steady-state plasma pyrimethamine concentrations were achieved after 12 to 20 days. Pyrimethamine concentrations evidently increased with the weekly dosage given. Mean concentrations were 253 +/- 151 ng/ml with 50 mg of pyrimethamine per week, 471 +/- 214 ng/ml with 100 mg of pyrimethamine per week, 1,893 +/- 1,182 ng/ml with 350 mg of pyrimethamine per week and 3,369 +/- 1,726 ng/ml with 1,050 mg of pyrimethamine per week. A widespread interpatient range was found for every dosage. With the simultaneous use of enzyme-inducing comedication, the plasma pyrimethamine levels decreased in several patients. Mild chronic liver disease did not influence plasma pyrimethamine concentrations. To avoid ineffective therapy or severe side effects, monitoring of pyrimethamine could be useful in patients receiving enzyme-inducing comedications and in patients with severe diarrhea or poor compliance.

Klinker, H; Langmann, P; Richter, E

1996-01-01

269

Experimental Prospect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first conference of this series the three of the lepton mixing angles are known. The non-zero value of the third mixing angle (?13) has been reported by ?e appearance in accelerator ?? beam and by ? disappearance in reactor experiments. The observation of the ?e appearance in ?? beam is the first clear evidence of the flavor oscillations. The results also show that neutrino oscillations phenomena can be described by three-generation scheme to the first approximation, where mixing of neutrinos can be described by three angles and one complex phase. There are two main issues to be investigated by neutrino oscillation experiments. One is the study of CP violation in lepton secto. Namely, the measurement of CP violating complex phase ? and the studies of the nature of CP violation phenomena in lepton sector. The other is search for neutrinos beyond three generations. There are indications of the existence of additional neutrinos, which should be tested by definitive experiments. The number of neutrino species has important implications not only in particle physics but also in physics of early Universe. Also many fundamental natures of neutrinos remain to be studied, such as absolute values of masses, nature of the particle (Majorana or Dirac particle). This article concentrates on the future experimental prospects on the study of neutrino physics by means of neutrino oscillation.

Nishikawa, Koichiro

2013-02-01

270

Antenatal screening for mother to child infections in immigrants and residents: the case of toxoplasmosis in northern Italy.  

PubMed

In Italy, serological screening is recommended to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis as part of the antenatal care protocol. Our study investigates (1) adherence to screening among Italian and migrant women and (2) specific T. gondii seroprevalence among hospitalized puerperas in Brescia and Udine, in northern Italy. All migrants (Group B) and a random Italian sample (Group A) filled in a questionnaire. Serological screening was rated as adequate when performed before conception or by the 12th week of gestation, and periodically repeated during pregnancy whenever negative. Nine hundred and twenty-two (922) puerperas were enrolled (Group A: 743; Group B: 179). Mean gestational age at first antenatal visit was 9.3 week, significantly more delayed in migrants (11.2w vs 8.9w; P < 0.0001). Toxoplasmosis was mentioned as a potential vertically transmitted infection by 380/922 (41.2%), but only by 13.4% of migrants (P < 0.0001). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG-Ab tested positive in 319/892 (35.8%), while the information was missing for 9 and 21 women resulted untested. Patients from northern Africa had an higher (AOR 3.63%; P = 0.002), while Asian patients a lower (AOR 0.33; P = 0.045) probability of being immune. A late screening was recorded in 115/848 (13.6%) women (Group A: 9.35%; Group B: 31.9%; P < 0.0001) and 82.1% of eligible migrants were not correctly monitored for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. A late toxoplasma serological test in migrant women precludes the timely application of preventive measure and may represent an indicator of suboptimal antenatal care. PMID:20140516

Tomasoni, Lina Rachele; Sosta, Elena; Beltrame, Anna; Rorato, Giada; Bigoni, Sara; Frusca, Tiziana; Zanardini, Cristina; Driul, Lorenza; Magrini, Francesca; Viale, Pierluigi; Castelli, Francesco

2010-12-01

271

The Importance of IgG Avidity and the Polymerase Chain Reaction in Treating Toxoplasmosis during Pregnancy: Current Knowledge  

PubMed Central

A brief report on the nature and epidemiology of T. gondii infection is firstly presented. The importance of the specific IgG avidity test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for toxoplasmosis is discussed, along with their significance and importance as auxiliary methods for determining the most likely time for the initial infection by this coccidian and for defining the therapeutic strategy. Lastly, practical comments are made in relation to the classical therapeutic regimens, with special attention to the indications for fetal treatment, when this is necessary.

Bortoletti Filho, Joao; Carvalho, Natalia da Silva; Helfer, Talita Micheletti; Nogueira Serni, Priscila de Oliveira; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

2013-01-01

272

Protective Effect of Vaccination with a Combination of Recombinant Surface Antigen 1 and Interleukin-12 against Toxoplasmosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

We studied the immune response induced in mice by recombinant Toxoplasma gondii surface antigen 1 (rSAG1) protein, alone or combined with interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an adjuvant, and the protective effect against toxoplasmosis. Immunization with rSAG1 alone induced a specific humoral type 2 immunity and did not protect the animals from infection. In contrast, immunization with rSAG1 plus IL-12 redirected humoral and cellular immunity toward a type 1 pattern and reduced the brain parasite load by 40%.

Letscher-Bru, Valerie; Villard, Odile; Risse, Bernhard; Zauke, Michael; Klein, Jean-Paul; Kien, Truong T.

1998-01-01

273

[Unusual calcification in brain suspected to be caused by toxoplasmosis: a report of an autopsy case].  

PubMed

A very rare case of severe calcification in brain is reported. A 49-year-old man was hit and run by a motorcar in acrossing a road on foot, and he died 1 hour later in an emergency hospital. Medico-legal autopsy was done at 5 hours after his death. The cause of death was cerebral contusion caused by a struck on partieto-occipital region. Unusually severe calcification was observed in the right and left cerebral hemispheres, especially basal ganglia, in the border areas between grey and white matters of frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, as well as in the cerebellar nucleus, cortex and medulla. Histological examination showed severe multiple calcification in the brain tissue. Dispersed deposit of pseudocalcium-Ca and edema were observed around the calcifications. Proliferation of glia cells and decrease of nerve cells were also noted. In his past history, he began to speak distinctly and to stagger since 8 years ago. Three years ago, he collided with guardrail while driving his motorcycle, and he was hospitalized. Calcification in the brain was already revealed in the roentogenographic examination. In the laboratory findings, the data of serum calcium, serum phosphorus and Ellsworth-Haward test were normal. The antibody of toxoplasma, however, showed high level more than X 1,024. After he was discharged, dementia, instability of trunk and dysarthria still continued, and he used to across a crowded road unconcernedly. The cause of the calcification might be suspected to be toxoplasmosis, although neither trophozoites, cysts nor oocysts were found in the brain tissue. PMID:2770037

Fukunaga, T; Fujiwara, S; Ueno, Y; Imabayashi, T; Nakagawa, K; Yanagida, Y; Mizoi, Y

1989-02-01

274

Kinetics of parasite burdens in blood and tissues during murine toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

A sensitive real-time PCR technique was used to examine the distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in the blood and tissues of mice during acute and chronic infection. Groups of Swiss Albino mice, inoculated i.p. with 10(2) or 10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain as a typical type-1 strain, or fed 10 cysts of the Me49 strain as a typical type-2 strain, were killed at different time points post-infection (p.i.), and blood and organs including the lungs, brain and liver were harvested for DNA extraction. Toxoplasma DNA was quantified by a real-time PCR targeted at the 529bp gene fragment, with a detection limit of a single parasite per g/ml of tissue. The results showed a strain- and dose-dependent spread of Toxoplasma. In infection with type-1 parasites, in case of a high infective dose, Toxoplasma DNA was detected within 24h p.i. in all analyzed tissues including the brain. Conversely, in case of a low infective dose, parasitaemia was undetectable early p.i., at a time when Toxoplasma DNA was detected in the tissues, but reached very high levels as infection progressed. With both infective doses, pre-death parasite burdens were higher in the blood than in the tissues, whereas the same loads in the lungs suggest that reaching these Toxoplasma burdens may be critical for survival. In infection with Me49 parasites, steady high parasite burdens were noted up to the end of the experiment at d42 only in the brain, parasitaemia was low but detectable throughout, and Toxoplasma DNA was completely cleared only from the liver. These data are important to better understand the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, and also as baseline data for the experimental evaluation of novel chemotherapeutics. PMID:22613495

Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica; Djoki?, Vitomir; Vujani?, Marija; Zivkovi?, Tijana; Bobi?, Branko; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Slavi?, Ksenija; Klun, Ivana; Ivovi?, Vladimir

2012-07-01

275

Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis and brucellosis in sugarcane field-workers in Trinidad and Tobago.  

PubMed

Sugarcane field-workers, like rice field-workers, livestock farmers and abattoir workers are known to be occupationally exposed to zoonotic agents. The study determined the seroprevalence of immunoglobulins to Toxoplasma gondii (IgM), Leptospira spp (IgM) and Brucella abortus (IgG) in sugarcane field-workers across weighing stations in the island of Trinidad. In addition, the association of risk factors to infections by the three zoonoses was investigated. Blood samples were collected from consenting apparently healthy sugarcane field-workers across the island of Trinidad. Current/acute infection in individuals was determined in the sera of individuals using the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for T gondii IgM antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Leptospira spp IgM immunoglobulins and both buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and competitive ELISA for B abortus IgG antibodies. The seroprevalence of IgM immunoglobulins to T gondii was 15.7% (64 of 407) and to Leptospira spp was 0.7% (5 of 704) and the difference was statistically significant (p 0 < 0.05; chi2). All 704 samples tested for B abortus IgG immunoglobulins were negative. All risk factors (age, gender race and type of work done) were not statistically significantly (p > 0.05; chi2) associated with infections by T gondii and Leptospira spp. It was concluded that sugarcane field-workers in Trinidad were at high risk of acute toxoplasmosis and, to a lesser extent, to leptospirosis. The fact that the four risk factors studied were not significantly associated with T gondii and Leptospira spp infections suggests that they may not be important in the epidemiology of both diseases in the population studied. PMID:20931907

Adesiyun, A; Rahaman, S; Bissessar, S; Dookeran, S; Stewart-Johnson, A; Hilaire, M Gittens-St

2010-01-01

276

Toxoplasmosis in natural populations of ungulates in france: prevalence and spatiotemporal variations.  

PubMed

Abstract Toxoplasmosis is characterized by a complex epidemiology. The risk of infection for humans depends on their contact with infective oocysts in a contaminated environment and on the amount of tissue cysts located within consumed meat. Unfortunately, the prevalence of tissue cysts is largely unknown for game species. Although herbivorous game species are a source of infection for humans, the level of infection found in wildlife can also be used to estimate environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and analyze its temporal dynamics in one population of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), one of mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon), and two of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in France, surveyed during a period of 6 to 28 years. Taking into account individual risk factors, we specifically analyzed the relationship between T. gondii prevalence and meteorological conditions that may influence oocyst survival. Serum samples from 101 chamois, 143 mouflons, and 1155 roe deer were tested for antibodies against T. gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, or both. Using MAT with a threshold of 1:6, seroprevalence was 14.7% in mouflon, 16.8% in chamois, and 43.7% in roe deer. In mouflon and roe deer, seroprevalence was positively correlated with age and/or body mass, in accordance with the hypothesis that antibodies have long-term persistence. In roe deer, seropositivity differed between the two populations and changed linearly over time between 1983 and 2010, increasing by a factor 1.75 every 10 years. Moreover, in this species, the highest prevalences were found during dry and cold years or during warm and moist years, depending on the population. Our results suggest that the risk for people to acquire infection through game meat increases over time, but with high variability according to the population of origin and meteorological conditions of the year. PMID:24745359

Gotteland, Cécile; Aubert, Dominique; Gibert, Philippe; Moinet, Marie; Klein, François; Game, Yvette; Villena, Isabelle; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

2014-06-01

277

Evaluation of a new protocol for retrospective diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by use of guthrie cards.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of IgM Western blotting (WB), IgA enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and DNA amplification by real-time PCR on Guthrie cards to retrospectively establish the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). To this purpose, Guthrie cards were collected from 18 infants born to mothers with primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Moreover, the analytical sensitivity of T. gondii PCR was assessed by testing mock dried blood specimens set up with several known DNA dilutions. IgM WB was demonstrated to be the most sensitive method. When the results of T. gondii DNA detection and specific IgM recovery were combined, retrospective CT diagnosis by using Guthrie cards was established in 3 out of 6 infected infants (sensitivity, 50%; 95% confidence interval, 26.8% to 73.2%). No positive PCR or serologic results were found in the group of 12 uninfected infants, demonstrating the excellent specificity of the three methods (95% confidence interval, 78.1% to 99.5%). The findings of the present study suggest that, in cases of missed diagnosis of CT at birth, analysis of Guthrie cards for children with compatible clinical findings after the perinatal period, in particular the combination of recovery of specific IgM antibodies and T. gondii DNA amplification, could be helpful. Nevertheless, since suboptimal conditions of storage of dried blood specimens can seriously affect sensitivity, negative results cannot rule out CT diagnosis. In contrast, because of the excellent specificity shown by IgM serologic testing and T. gondii DNA amplification on Guthrie cards, positive results obtained by either of the two methods should be considered diagnostic. PMID:24899036

Marangoni, Antonella; Capretti, Maria Grazia; De Angelis, Morena; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Foschi, Claudio; Orlandi, Azzurra; Marsico, Concetta; Righetti, Francesca; Faldella, Giacomo; Cevenini, Roberto

2014-08-01

278

Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"…

Prandota, Joseph

2010-01-01

279

Comparison of two DNA targets for the diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis by real-time PCR using fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It is endemic worldwide and, depending on the geographic location, 15 to 85% of the human population are asymptomatically infected. Routine diagnosis is based on serology. The parasite has emerged as a major opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised patients, in whom it can cause life-threatening disease. Moreover, when

Udo Reischl; Stéphane Bretagne; Dominique Krüger; Pauline Ernault; Jean-Marc Costa

2003-01-01

280

Treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy: A multicenter study of impact on fetal transmission and children’s sequelae at age 1 year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause fetal infection, with unpredictable sequelae in later life. We measured the effects of prenatal antibiotic therapy on the fetomaternal transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and on the appearance of sequelae in the congenitally infected child at age 1 year. Study Design: In a multicenter study we investigated consecutive women with Toxoplasma seroconversion during pregnancy. Data

Walter Foulon; Isabelle Villena; Babill Stray-Pedersen; Anne Decoster; Maija Lappalainen; Jean-Michel Pinon; Pål A. Jenum; Klaus Hedman; Anne Naessens

1999-01-01

281

The rat Toxo1 locus directs toxoplasmosis outcome and controls parasite proliferation and spreading by macrophage-dependent mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis is a healthcare problem in pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. Like humans, rats usually develop a subclinical chronic infection. LEW rats exhibit total resistance to Toxoplasma gondii infection, which is expressed in a dominant mode. A genome-wide search carried out in a cohort of F2 progeny of susceptible BN and resistant LEW rats led to identify on chromosome 10 a major locus of control, which we called Toxo1. Using reciprocal BN and LEW lines congenic for chromosome 10 genomic regions from the other strain, Toxo1 was found to govern the issue of T. gondii infection whatever the remaining genome. Analyzes of rats characterized by genomic recombination within Toxo1, reduced the interval down to a 1.7-cM region syntenic to human 17p13. In vitro studies showed that the Toxo1-mediated refractoriness to T. gondii infection is associated with the ability of the macrophage to impede the proliferation of the parasite within the parasitophorous vacuole. In contrast, proliferation was observed in fibroblasts whatever the genomic origin of Toxo1. Furthermore, ex vivo studies indicate that macrophage controls parasitic infection spreading by a Toxo1-mediated mechanism. This forward genetics approach should ultimately unravel a major pathway of innate resistance to toxoplasmosis and possibly to other apicomplexan parasitic diseases.

Cavailles, Pierre; Sergent, Veronique; Bisanz, Cordelia; Papapietro, Olivier; Colacios, Celine; Mas, Magali; Subra, Jean-Francois; Lagrange, Dominique; Calise, Maryline; Appolinaire, Sylvie; Faraut, Thomas; Druet, Philippe; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Bessieres, Marie-Helene; Pipy, Bernard; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournie, Gilbert J.

2006-01-01

282

The rat Toxo1 locus directs toxoplasmosis outcome and controls parasite proliferation and spreading by macrophage-dependent mechanisms.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a healthcare problem in pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. Like humans, rats usually develop a subclinical chronic infection. LEW rats exhibit total resistance to Toxoplasma gondii infection, which is expressed in a dominant mode. A genome-wide search carried out in a cohort of F(2) progeny of susceptible BN and resistant LEW rats led to identify on chromosome 10 a major locus of control, which we called Toxo1. Using reciprocal BN and LEW lines congenic for chromosome 10 genomic regions from the other strain, Toxo1 was found to govern the issue of T. gondii infection whatever the remaining genome. Analyzes of rats characterized by genomic recombination within Toxo1, reduced the interval down to a 1.7-cM region syntenic to human 17p13. In vitro studies showed that the Toxo1-mediated refractoriness to T. gondii infection is associated with the ability of the macrophage to impede the proliferation of the parasite within the parasitophorous vacuole. In contrast, proliferation was observed in fibroblasts whatever the genomic origin of Toxo1. Furthermore, ex vivo studies indicate that macrophage controls parasitic infection spreading by a Toxo1-mediated mechanism. This forward genetics approach should ultimately unravel a major pathway of innate resistance to toxoplasmosis and possibly to other apicomplexan parasitic diseases. PMID:16407112

Cavaillès, Pierre; Sergent, Véronique; Bisanz, Cordelia; Papapietro, Olivier; Colacios, Céline; Mas, Magali; Subra, Jean-François; Lagrange, Dominique; Calise, Maryline; Appolinaire, Sylvie; Faraut, Thomas; Druet, Philippe; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Bessieres, Marie-Hélène; Pipy, Bernard; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournié, Gilbert J

2006-01-17

283

Toxoplasma gondii: the effect of fluconazole combined with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine against acute toxoplasmosis in murine model.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised patients and responsible for toxoplasmic encephalitis, which is often lethal. Treatment for this infection is limited to a restricted therapeutic arsenal. In this work we tested the combination of fluconazole with the current treatment for acute toxoplasmosis on the murine model in vivo. Different experimental groups were treated with combinations of sulfadiazine plus pyrimethamine with fluconazole and pyrimethamine with fluconazole. Fluconazole is an important antifungal triazole used against others CNS related opportunistic pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida spp. The combinations of fluconazole plus sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine or fluconazole plus pyrimethamine were remarkably effective against T. gondii in vivo. The 10-day treatment with 10mg/kg/day of fluconazole combined with 40/1mg/kg/day sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine resulted in 93% survival of CF1 mice acutely infected with the highly virulent T. gondii RH strain, versus 36% of mice treated with just sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. Combinations of fluconazole with lower doses of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine or with just pyrimethamine were also efficient in reducing the mortality of mice compared with the treatment without fluconazole. The results obtained are promising for the treatment of human toxoplasmosis and point to the need to extend these studies to other murine models. PMID:23270807

Martins-Duarte, Érica S; de Souza, Wanderley; Vommaro, Rossiane C

2013-03-01

284

Status of European Research and Development in Solar Chemistry and Industrial Interest in This Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A short, noncomprehensive summary of the European situation is given and some technical aspects of the European research and development (R&D) activities are sketched. In conclusion, the long-term prospects for solar chemistry are considered to be good, w...

P. Kesselring

1991-01-01

285

Mineral prospecting manual  

SciTech Connect

This book: provides the mineral prospector with a series of essential guidelines for the work he must do and the precautions he will have to take; shows how successful mineral prospecting is dependent on the critical examination of technical, economic and financial data examined during each phase of the operation; and provides information on physical preparations for prospecting, hammer prospecting, prospecting in coastal formations, drilling techniques and equipment, sampling procedures, and current research methods (e.g.: remote sensing and geochemistry).

Chaussier, J.B.; Morer, J.

1986-01-01

286

Methods of Electrical Prospecting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical methods of prospecting are becoming increasingly important as the search for hidden deposits of ore extends deeper and deeper below the surface of the earth. Electrical prospecting is not limited to this use, however; it has found many valuable applications in engineering and in geology. The 4 general methods of electrical prospecting are described briefly in this paper.

Donald G. Fink

1935-01-01

287

Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and…

Prandota, Joseph

2010-01-01

288

Anatomy of health effects of Mediterranean diet: Greek EPIC prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the relative importance of the individual components of the Mediterranean diet in generating the inverse association of increased adherence to this diet and overall mortality.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Greek segment of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Participants 23 349 men and women, not previously diagnosed with cancer, coronary heart disease, or diabetes, with

Antonia Trichopoulou; Christina Bamia; Dimitrios Trichopoulos

2009-01-01

289

Performance of the BioPlex 2200 flow immunoassay in critical cases of serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The BioPlex 2200 automated analyzer (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) is a recently developed multiplex analyzer that enables the detection of anti-Toxoplasma, -rubella, and -cytomegalovirus antibodies in the same assay. The aim of this study was to compare this new technology (using the BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgG/IgM kit) in critical cases of serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis (acute, chronic, or congenital infections and cases with discrepant results) to the technologies used in our routine practice, i.e., the Platelia IgG/IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Bio-Rad Laboratories) and the Toxo-Screen direct agglutination assay (bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Overall, most cases of false-positive/negative results obtained with the Platelia IgG or Toxo-Screen assay were corrected by the BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgG (87.5%). Furthermore, the analysis of 35 sequences of sera showed a trend toward a more rapid decrease of IgM titers by BioPlex 2200 than by Platelia. These results for IgM detection can be explained by a weaker detection of residual IgM. Indeed, among 23 serum samples from patients with probable past infection with long-lasting IgM (Platelia M positive and IgG avidity index, ?0.5), the BioPlex 2200 Toxoplasma IgM assay was positive for only 11 serum samples. In our panel of critical cases comprising 156 serum and 6 cord blood samples from 103 patients with acute, chronic, or congenital infection, the BioPlex 2200 IgG assay was a sensitive (97.8%) and specific (91.3%) method for IgG detection. The high specificity (97.4%) of IgM detection combined with the shorter kinetics of IgM titers may considerably reduce the number of residual IgM detections, thus yielding more precise diagnoses of acute infections. PMID:24477853

Guigue, Nicolas; Menotti, Jean; Hamane, Samia; Derouin, Francis; Garin, Yves Jean-François

2014-04-01

290

Early Neonatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Value of Comparative Enzyme-Linked Immunofiltration Assay Immunological Profiles and Anti-Toxoplasma gondiiImmunoglobulin M (IgM) or IgA Immunocapture and Implications for Postnatal Therapeutic Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic strategies for congenital toxoplasmosis have changed profoundly in recent years. Immunological diagnosticmethods,longconsidereddisappointing,cannowbeusedataveryearlystage.Overa3-yearperiod, 1,050 infants at risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (born to 1,048 mothers infected during pregnancy) were monitored for a minimum of 12 months and a maximum of 7 years. More than 6,000 serum specimens were analyzed by comparative mother-infant immunological profiles (CIPs) based on an enzyme-linked immuno- filtrationassay(ELIFA)andanimmunocapturemethodforthedetectionofspecificimmunoglobulinM(IgM)

J. M. PINON; C. CHEMLA; I. VILLENA; F. FOUDRINIER; D. AUBERT; D. PUYGAUTHIER-TOUBAS; B. LEROUX; D. DUPOUY; C. QUEREUX; M. TALMUD; T. TRENQUE; G. POTRON; M. PLUOT; G. REMY; Robert Debre ´

291

Comparative Immunoglobulin G Antibody Profiles between Mother and Child (CGMC Test) for Early Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is rendered difficult when specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and/or IgA antibodies are absent in the blood of the newborn infant. Since maternal IgG antibodies can cross the placenta, determination of IgG antibodies in newborn infants has hitherto not been used routinely for the diagnosis of congenital infection. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of an immunoblot assay which compares the early IgG profiles between the mother and her child (comparative IgG profile between mother and child; CGMC test) directed against a total cell lysate of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. Serum samples from 97 newborn infants at risk of toxoplasma infection were obtained from umbilical cord blood at birth or postnatally until 3 months of life and were directly compared with serum samples from the respective mothers. Congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosed only when IgG-reactive protein bands that were present in any newborn serum samples were absent in the corresponding maternal serum sample. Congenital infection was defined by conventional serological assays when IgM and/or IgA antibodies were present in newborn infant blood or when IgG titers rose within the first 12 months or were persistently stable for more than 8 months. Using these criteria, congenital infection was definitely confirmed in 11 cases. Three additional cases were diagnosed based on indicative data. The CGMC test, which was performed without knowledge of the results of conventional serologal assays, had sensitivity and specificity of 82.4 and 93.0%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values of 73.7 and 95.7%, respectively. When true positives and true negatives were considered, the comparative IgG profile had a ratio of 90.9% true results. The CGMC test thus is useful as an additional assay for the rapid diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis when paired serum samples from mother and child are available.

Gross, Uwe; Luder, Carsten G. K.; Hendgen, Vera; Heeg, Cornelia; Sauer, Irmtraud; Weidner, Andrea; Krczal, Doris; Enders, Gisela

2000-01-01

292

Seroepidemiological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed zoonosis. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat, which is among the main risk factors for acquiring human infection, is a popular tradition in Ethiopia. However, studies on toxoplasmosis in food animals used for human consumption in Ethiopia are very scarce. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the seroprevalence and the risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep in Ambo, Ada’a-Liben and Fentale districts of Central Ethiopia. Sera from 1130 sheep were analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii specific IgG antibodies using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the P30 antigen. A questionnaire was administered to assess potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. Association of seroprevalence with potential risk factors related to altitude, host and farm characteristics were analyzed by univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results Overall flock and animal level seroprevalences were 70.48% (160/227; 95% CI: 64.51, 76.46) and 31.59% (357/1130; 95% CI: 28.88, 34.31), respectively. The multivariable logistic regression model indicated that the probability of acquiring T. gondii was higher in sheep from highland (2300 – 3200 meters above sea level) [Odds ratio (OR)?=?4.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65, 6.36; P?toxoplasmosis in sheep is a good marker of the potential risk for human infections. Altitude, sex, age, flock size and source of water were identified as important risk factors to acquire the infection. Public education and awareness training are imperative in order to alleviate the danger posed to consumers. Further detailed studies to assess the impact of infections are warranted.

2013-01-01

293

Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.  

PubMed

Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

Hook, I M

2013-06-13

294

European Biodiesel Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Biodiesel Board (EBB), a nonprofit organization, works to promote biodiesel use in the European Union (EU). The EBB website offers downloadable articles regarding biodiesel in the EU, downloadable reports from EU member states, a list of upcoming events, an EBB email information service, and basic statistical tables representing biodiesel production by country.

1969-12-31

295

European auxiliary propulsion, 1972  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

Holcomb, L. B.

1972-01-01

296

European logistics beyond 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

European companies are facing new challenges in the next millennium. Seven trends in international logistics are outlined. These are supply chain management, globalisation of the supply chain, virtual enterprises, e-business, green logistics, strategic partnerships and new management principles. The implications for European companies are discussed and illustrated by examples from advanced companies. Asserts that it is employees and not the

Tage Skjoett-Larsen

2000-01-01

297

Towards an immunosense vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis: Protective Toxoplasma gondii epitopes restricted by HLA-A*0201  

PubMed Central

The ideal vaccine to protect against toxoplasmosis in humans would include antigens that elicit a protective T helper cell type 1 immune response, and generate long-lived IFN-?-producing CD8+ T cells. Herein, we utilized a predictive algorithm to identify candidate HLA-A02 supertype epitopes from T. gondii proteins. Thirteen peptides elicited production of IFN-? from PBMC of HLA-A02 supertype persons seropositive for T. gondii infection but not from seronegative controls. These peptides displayed high-affinity binding to HLA-A02 proteins. Immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with these pooled peptides, with a universal CD4+ epitope peptide called PADRE, formulated with adjuvant GLA-SE, induced CD8+ T cell IFN-? production and protected against parasite challenge. Peptides identified in this study provide candidates for inclusion in immunosense epitope-based vaccines.

Cong, Hua; Mui, Ernest J.; Witola, William H.; Sidney, John; Alexander, Jeff; Sette, Alessandro; Maewal, Ajesh; McLeod, Rima

2010-01-01

298

European Commission: Public Opinion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some Scout Report readers might be wondering "How do Europeans feel about the euro?" or even "What do Europeans think about the effectiveness of different energy policies?" All of the answers to these questions (and many more) can be found on the European Commission's Public Opinion site. The site contains the results from surveys conducted with Europeans on their attitudes towards alcohol, the role of the European Union in formulating security policy, and a number of other topics. Visitors will definitely want to make their way to the Eurobarometer Interactive Search System, which allows them to choose a subject or country which is of interest to them. Visitors should also take a look at their very fine "Qualitative Studies" section, which includes reports such as "The Future of Europe" and "Integrating Gender Mainstreaming into Employment Policies". Needless to say, summaries of the reports are available in a wide range of languages, including Dutch, German, Italian, and French.

299

European Geography Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

European Geography Test is a collection of challenging Web-based geography exams that survey students' knowledge of European topography, European urban geography, and general map skills. Currently, this site hosts seven tests, which are available in English, Swedish, Spanish, and Dutch. Tests are divided into three different learning levels, and the focus and objectives for each test are clearly stated. The tests employ interactive maps, photographic images, pull-down menus, radio buttons, and fill-in forms to ask students a series of multiple choice, true or false, and matching questions. The questions included in European Geography Test were developed as part of an inter-university project for DGXXII of the European Commission by a consortium of instructors in the UK, Sweden, Belgium, Spain, and The Netherlands. Note: users must register at the site to take the free tests; registration requires name, email address, age, and country of residence.

300

Psychophysiology of prospective memory.  

PubMed

Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages. PMID:24138288

Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

2014-10-01

301

A Comparative Serological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by CLIA and ELISA Methods in Chalus City Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most common disease in humans and animals (zoonosis) caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually appeared as asymptomatic in immunocompromised individuals but its most common symptom is lymphadenopathy. Shortly before or during the first trimester of pregnancy, this disease can be transferred to the fetus and cause serious infection in the fetus. In late pregnancy (third trimester), the complications of this infection is very low or unsigned. Due to the absence of non-specific clinical symptoms or slight infection in pregnant women, prenatal diagnosis is often impossible. Objectives: Since no research compared these two methods, we decided to compare these methods and determine which method works better for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Patients and Methods: In this study, 50 pregnant women who referred to the Chalus Health Center laboratory were included and the blood samples were tested for presence of IgG and IgM antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii by both ELISA and Chemiluminescence methods. Results: Of the 50 samples tested by the ELISA method, 26 samples (52%) were positive for IgG . No samples were positive for IgM. Of the 50 samples tested by the Chemiluminescence method, 28 samples (56%) were positive for IgG. No samples were positive for IgM. Conclusions: A significant relationship between the age of the youngest child and the infection rate was seen. No significant correlation between age, number of individuals in the household, number of children, location, type of construction, consumption of greens, the way of greens and meat consumption, drug use, history of stillbirth and infection levels was seen.

Elahian Firouz, Zahra; Kaboosi, Hami; Faghih Nasiri, Abdolreza; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Zaboli, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

302

Diagnosis of systemic toxoplasmosis with HIV infection using DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue for polymerase chain reaction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Toxoplasmosis can be a life-threatening disease when it occurs in patients with HIV infection. In particular, meningioencephalitis has been regarded as the most common toxoplasmic complication in such patients. However, toxoplasmic meningitis in a patient with HIV infection is extremely rare and purulent or tuberculous meningitis should be considered initially as a disease for differential diagnosis in Japan. Case presentation Toxoplasmic meningitis in a patient with HIV infection is reported. A 36-year-old Japanese man presented with fever, pulsating headache, lumbago, nausea, and vomiting. No examinations suggested toxoplasmosis including cerebrospinal fluid examinations, images, and serological tests. The result of a polymerase chain reaction assay using paraffin-embedded section was regarded as the conclusive evidence for the diagnosis. Conclusions We wish to emphasize the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction assays with nucleic acid extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections processed for routine histopathological examination, if the section shows the infectious agents or findings suggesting some infectious diseases.

2010-01-01

303

The European Fusion Programme  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of the European fusion programme is the harnessing of the power of fusion to help meet mankind's future energy needs.This paper describes the current research programme, the unique organisational character of the fusion programme, and European and world-wide co-operation. The future evolution of the programme as part of the European Research Area and the developments currently taking place in preparation for the possible construction of ITER, the next major step towards the realisation of fusion power, are discussed.

Antidormi, R.; Bartlett, D.; Bruhns, H. [European Commission (Belgium)

2004-03-15

304

Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.  

PubMed

A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety. PMID:24680078

Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

2014-04-01

305

Innate Refractoriness of the Lewis Rat to Toxoplasmosis Is a Dominant Trait That Is Intrinsic to Bone Marrow-Derived Cells  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous parasitic infection causing a wide spectrum of diseases. It is usually asymptomatic but can lead to severe ocular and neurological disorders. Among the small-animal models available to study factors that determine susceptibility to toxoplasmosis, the rat appears to be rather similar to humans, particularly in terms of resistance to acute infection. Here, we demonstrate that the Lewis (LEW) rat strain displays an unexpected refractoriness to Toxoplasma infection. Complete resistance was assessed by both negative anti-Toxoplasma serology and lack of detection of the parasite during the course of infection. In this model, sex, age, major histocompatibility complex, and inoculum size had no effect on resistance. Interestingly, progeny from F1 hybrid crosses between Fischer (F344) or Brown Norway susceptible rats and LEW resistant rats were also fully resistant, showing a dominant effect of the gene or set of genes. Furthermore, resistance of the LEW rat was shown to be dependent on hematopoietic cells and partially abrogated by neutralization of endogenous gamma interferon. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of a rodent strain that is refractory to Toxoplasma infection. This model is therefore an attractive and powerful tool to dissect host genetic factors involved in susceptibility to toxoplasmosis.

Sergent, Veronique; Cautain, Bastien; Khalife, Jamal; Deslee, Didier; Bastien, Patrick; Dao, Anne; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Fournie, Gilbert J.; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France

2005-01-01

306

Ethics and European security  

SciTech Connect

The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

Paskins, B.

1986-01-01

307

European Judicial Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a part of the European Commission, the European Judicial Network is primarily concerned with providing information about community law, European law, and various aspects of civil and commercial law. The homepage is well-organized, and visitors can start by clicking on the topic page sections, which cover everything from bringing a case to court to alternative dispute resolutions. On the right-side of the homepage, visitors can click on the flags of member states to learn more about each nation's legal system. The site will certainly be of interest to those with a legal background, but the main stated objective of the site is "to make life easier for people facing litigation of whatever kind where there is a transnational element." Not surprisingly, all of this information is available in the twenty official languages of the European Union.

2007-01-01

308

Social determinants of tuberculosis in Europe: a prospective ecological study.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered to be a disease of poverty, since its incidence is exacerbated by socioeconomic factors, inconsistent or partial treatment practices, and immigration from endemic countries. A prospective country level study, using a comprehensive dataset of TB incidence and prevalence taken from countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, was conducted. We employed quintile regression to investigate the prospective association between baseline (measured in 2000) and a nation's wealth, level of egalitarianism, migration rate, health-related lifestyle and social capital with TB incidence and prevalence over a 10-yr period (2000-2009). We found that ?50% of TB variation is accounted for by a nation's wealth and level of egalitarianism. We observed a negative prospective association between logged gross domestic product and TB rates, and a positive prospective association between income inequality and TB. National income levels per capita and income inequality are important predictors for TB incidence and prevalence in the WHO European region. They account for 50% of country-level variation, indicating the importance of a combined absolute and relative socioeconomic disadvantage in the development of TB. These findings also provide a tool for forecasting potential fluctuations in the level of TB epidemics in the WHO European region, with respect to socioeconomic changes. PMID:22267772

Ploubidis, George B; Palmer, Melissa J; Blackmore, Charlotte; Lim, Tek-Ang; Manissero, Davide; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan C

2012-10-01

309

European Education, European Citizenship? On the Role of Education in Constructing Europeanness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) education programs in fostering a sense of European citizenship. Addresses the five meanings given to the concept of European citizenship: (1) recognition of European heritage; (2) EU loyalty; (3) right of free movement; (4) political participation; and (5) active citizenship. (CMK)

Ollikainen, Aaro

2000-01-01

310

Occupational exposures contribute to educational inequalities in lung cancer incidence among men: Evidence from the EPIC prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent occupational exposures may explain socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer incidence after adjusting for smoking and dietary factors. Analyses were based on a subsampie of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study), a prospective cohort. The analyses included 703 incident lung cancer cases among men in Denmark,

G. Menvielle; H. C. Boshuizen; A. E. Kunst; P. Vineis; S. O. Dalton; M. M. Bergmann; S. Hermann; F. Veglia; P. Ferrari; K. Overvad; O. Raaschou-Nielsen; A. Tjønneland; R. Kaaks; J. Linseisen; D. Palli; V. Krogh; R. Tumino; L. Rodriguez; A. Agudo; M. J. Sánchez; J. M. A. Arozena; L. Cirera; E. Ardanaz; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; P. Boffetta; E. J. Duell; N. Slimani; V. Gallo; E. Riboli; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita

2010-01-01

311

[Combining indirect hemagglutination with the direct agglutination as a parameter for evaluating patients sent for serological verification of toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

The importance that Toxoplasma gondii congenital infection may assume is still representing a stimulus for trying to improve Toxoplasmosis serological diagnosis; task, this one, which Laboratory is charged with, and that is often hard, particularly when we have to value the possibility of an infection in progress. With the purpose to complete the results obtained in a preceding work of ours, we have valued two among the most commonly used tests for Toxoplasmosis serodiagnosis, the AD (direct agglutination provided by BioMerieux) and the IHA (indirect haemoagglutination provided by Behring), together and separately, in order to make use of their coupling with major security and effectiveness, on the ground of the results obtained on two different groups of individuals, in the number of 125 for each group; for these groups it was possible to expect a different index of receptivity and a different percentage of recent or in progress infections. It was come out, as regards the IHAm a very good degree of assurance in trying to single out the past immunity, while this test wouldn't generally seem to be able to offer sufficient indications to distinguish the recent or in progress infection from past immunity, as it often declares, in fact, middle-high titres also in cases probably referable to the last mentioned situation. The AD has offered a good tribute in estimating the past immunity and it would also appear to give assurance in singling out recent or in progress infection (thanks to the possibility to determine IgM presence); while the presumed capacity of this test in revealing cases of very early infection has resulted not sufficiently assured. In substance the coupling of the two test, which in the direct comparison have shown a good correlation, but also several discordances, seems to be an useful procedure of reciprocal confirmation as regards the singling out of immunity; while the possibility of showing the recent or in progress infection--anyway, always a difficult task, above all, when, as it happened in this research, we deal with it without being able to follow the titre evolution in the time-should be entrusted with major certainty to the AD. PMID:2490399

Mastracchio, G; Malcangi, A; Mineccia, C; Martinetto, P

1989-01-01

312

DNA adducts and lung cancer risk: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives were to investigate prospectively the ability of\\u000aDNA adducts to predict cancer and to study the determinants\\u000aof adducts, especially air pollutants. DNA adducts were\\u000ameasured in a case-control study nested in the European\\u000aProspective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)\\u000ainvestigation. Cases included newly diagnosed lung cancer\\u000a(n = 115), upper respiratory cancers (pharynx and larynx;\\u000an =

Marco Peluso; Armelle Munnia; Gerard Hoek; Michal Krzyzanowski; Fabrizio Veglia; Luisa Airoldi; Herman Autrup; Alison Dunning; Seymour Garte; Pierre Hainaut; Christian Malaveille; Emmanuelle Gormally; Giuseppe Matullo; Kim Overvad; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Jacob Linseisen; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; A. Kaladidi; D. Palli; V. Krogh; R. Tumino; S. Panico; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; P. H. M. Peeters; M. Kumle; C. A. Gonzalez; C. Martinez; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; C. Navarro; J. R. Quirós; G. Berglund; L. Janzon; B. Jarvholm; N. E. Day; T. J. Key; R. Saracci; R. Kaaks; E. Riboli; P. Vineis

2005-01-01

313

European Forest Institute: Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This European Forest Institute (EFI) is "An independent non-governmental organization conducting European forest research." This website provides information about EFI's mission, research goals, strategies and programs. Site users can view information about on-going and completed projects in any of the four EFI research programs which include: Forest Ecology and Management, Forest Products Markets and Socio-Economics, Policy Analysis, and Forest Resources and Information. EFI also provides a search engine for locating specific research projects as well as information about how to propose an EFI project.

314

Prospective cognition in rats  

PubMed Central

Efforts to develop animal models of memory are critical for understanding the neural substrate of memory. Memory is essential for daily life and enables information to be stored and retrieved after seconds to years. The ability to remember episodes from the past is thought to be related to the ability to plan for the future. Here we focus on a particular aspect of prospective cognition, namely the ability to remember to take action when a future scenario occurs. This review focuses on a recently developed method to evaluate prospective memory in the rat. Available evidence suggests that rats remember to take action in the future, but little is known about the temporal specificity of such memories or about the flexibility and limitations of prospective memories. Recent studies that suggest that rats remember a specific past episode are reviewed to underscore potential approaches that may be used to explore the range and limits of prospective cognition. The review highlights some directions to explore, including the temporal specificity of prospective cognition, the range of flexibility or creativity within prospective cognition, and the constraints imposed by multiple motivational systems.

Crystal, Jonathon D.

2012-01-01

315

Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

1995-04-01

316

Latex-protein complexes from an acute phase recombinant antigen of Toxoplasma gondii for the diagnosis of recently acquired toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of latex-protein complexes (LPC), from the acute phase recombinant antigen P35 (P35Ag) of Toxoplasma gondii and "core-shell" carboxylated or polystyrene (PS) latexes (of different sizes and charge densities) are considered, with the aim of producing immunoagglutination reagents able to detect recently acquired toxoplasmosis. Physical adsorption (PA) and chemical coupling (CC) of P35Ag onto latex particles at different pH were investigated. Greater amounts of adsorbed protein were obtained on PS latexes than on carboxylated latexes, indicating that hydrophobic forces govern the interactions between the protein and the particle surface. In the CC experiments, the highest amount of bound protein was obtained at pH 6, near the isoelectric point of the protein (IP=6.27). At this pH, it decreased both the repulsion between particle surface and protein, and the repulsion between neighboring molecules. The LPC were characterized and the antigenicity of the P35Ag protein coupled on the particles surface was evaluated by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Results from ELISA showed that the P35Ag coupled to the latex particles surface was not affected during the particles sensitization by PA and CC and the produced LPC were able to recognize specific anti-P35Ag antibodies present in the acute phase of the disease. PMID:24905682

Peretti, Leandro E; Gonzalez, Verónica D G; Marcipar, Iván S; Gugliotta, Luis M

2014-08-01

317

Detection of Murine Toxoplasmosis Using Magnetic Bead-Based Serum Peptide Profiling by MALDI-TOF MS  

PubMed Central

Abstract Establishment of a rapid, highly specific, and accurate method for diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection is essential to control and prevent zoonotic toxoplasmosis. In this study, a novel diagnostic strategy using magnetic bead-based serum peptide profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed. The serum peptides (samples I, II, and III) from T. gondii RH strain-infected mice at days 3, 6, and 9 post-infection (p.i.), and healthy mice were enriched by the optimized magnetic bead-based hydrophobic interaction (MB-HIC8). The mass spectrograms were acquired by MALDI-TOF MS, and analyzed by ClinProTools bioinformatics software from Bruker Daltonics. The diagnostic models from T. gondii RH-infected serum peptide profiling of samples I, II, and III were produced by genetic algorithms, and verified by cross-validation. The sample II model could correctly recognize T. gondii RH strain infection in mice at days 3, 6, and 9 p.i. with a sensitivity of 91.1% and a specificity of 96.7%., and also detect T. gondii ME49 strain-infected serum samples at days 3, 6, 9, and 12 p.i. with a sensitivity of 91.7%. The results of the present study suggest that serum peptide profiling by MALDI-TOF MS is a novel potential tool for the clinical diagnosis of acute T. gondii infection.

Li, Jiping; Jin, Hongtao; Li, Lixia; Shang, Limin; Zhao, Yongkun; Wei, Feng; Liu, Yanjing; Qian, Jun

2012-01-01

318

European respiratory nurses association.  

PubMed

A new overarching organisation, the European Respiratory Nurses Association (ERNA), hopes to become a must-join group for nursing organisations across Europe. The aim of ERNA is to give nurses with an interest in respiratory care a greater voice and, ultimately, to improve the care of patients living with respiratory conditions. PMID:24902058

Randhawa, Gurpreet; Fletcher, Monica

2014-06-01

319

Liberalizing European steel trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper constructs a simple model of the steel sector in Europe distinguishing eight western and two eastern European regions. It models the production of steel and also the various trade restrictions extant in 1992. It uses this model first to calculate the output and welfare effects of rationalizing the sector to remove the excess capacity experienced in 1992 and

L. Alan Winters

1995-01-01

320

Gifted European American Woman.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes factors affecting the achievement of 15 highly accomplished European American women in the fields of business, higher education, and law and government. Findings indicate participants tended to attribute their success to external factors while simultaneously employing proactive strategies to overcome potential barriers.…

Kitano, Margie K.; Perkins, Carol O.

2000-01-01

321

Efficiency in European banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the established literature on modelling the cost characteristics of banking markets by applying the flexible Fourier functional form and stochastic cost frontier methodologies to estimate scale economies, X-inefficiencies and technical change for a large sample of European banks between 1989 and 1997. The results reveal that scale economies are widespread for smallest banks and those in the

Y. Altunba?; E. P. M. Gardener; P. Molyneux; B. Moore

2001-01-01

322

Eastern European Cinema.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a structure for a course that highlights the best cinemas of Eastern European countries, in order to acquaint students with cinematic traditions of the region. Discusses course activities, coursework and evaluation, and resources. Advocates structuring the course around the film of experience of Eastern Europe, and presents and discusses…

Iordanova, Dina

1999-01-01

323

European Bioinformatics Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some interesting research projects are described on this website from the European Bioinformatics Institute. The site offers a number of data resources on topics such as genomes, macromolecular structures, protein families, and structure analysis. Taxonomy and ontology databases are also linked here, as well as databases of research literature.

2013-06-11

324

Future European Security Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue of European security has undergone a radical change. The threat of a large-scale military confrontation has faded; in its place are a combination of opportunities and risks. The opportunities arise if Central and Eastern Europe make the transiti...

G. D. Keuning

1993-01-01

325

European Music Year 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

1984-01-01

326

European inflation dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence on the fit of the New Phillips Curve (NPC) for the Euro area over the period 1970–1998, and use it as a tool to compare the characteristics of European inflation dynamics with those observed in the U.S. We also analyze the factors underlying inflation inertia by examining the cyclical behavior of marginal costs, as well as that

Jordi Gal??; Mark Gertler; J. David López-Salido

2001-01-01

327

Heart Failure Epidemiology: European Perspective  

PubMed Central

Heart failure poses an increasing problem for global healthcare systems. The epidemiological data which has been accrued over the last thirty years has predominantly been accumulated from experience within North America and Europe. Initial large cohort, prospective longitudinal studies produced the first publications; however latterly the focus has shifted onto epidemiological data governing hospitalisation and mortality. The emphasis behind this shift has been the resource implications with regards to repetitive, costly and prolonged hospitalisation. The European experience in heart failure, though similar to North America has recently demonstrated differences in hospitalisation which may underlie the differences between healthcare system configuration. Heart failure however remains an increasing global problem and the endpoint of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Allied with the fact of increasingly elderly populations and prior data demonstrating a steep rise in prevalent cases within more elderly populations, it is likely that the increasing burden of disease will continue to pose challenges for modern healthcare. Despite the predicted increase in the number of patients affected by heart failure, over the last thirty years, a clear management algorithm has evolved for the use of pharmacotherapies (neuro-hormonal antagonists), device based therapies (Implantable Cardioverting Defibrillator (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT)) and mechanical therapies including left ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplantation. Though the management of such patients has been clearly delineated in national and international guidelines, the underuse of all available and appropriate therapies remains a significant problem. When comparing various epidemiological studies from different settings and timepoints, it should be remembered that rates of prevalence and incidence may vary depending upon the definition used, methods of accumulating information (with the possibility of bias) and the chosen cut point of defining left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).

Guha, K; McDonagh, T

2013-01-01

328

The European Dimension in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European

Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

329

Agriculture and European Union Enlargement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential accession of a number of eastern and central European countries into the European Union (EU) seems destined to lead to further reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The financial costs of absorbing these countries may be extreme. This report documents the modeling framework (European Simulation Model, ESIM) used to analyze the 1992 CAP reform and discusses possible effects

Timothy E. Josling; David R. Kelch; Peter S. Liapis; Stefan Tangermann

1998-01-01

330

Modified Mediterranean diet and survival: EPIC-elderly prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective To examine whether adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, is associated with longer life expectancy among elderly Europeans.Design Multicentre, prospective cohort study.Setting Nine European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom).Participants 74 607 men and women, aged 60 or more, without coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer

Antonia Trichopoulou; Philippos Orfanos; Teresa Norat; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Marga C Ocké; Petra HM Peeters; Yvonne T van der Schouw; Heiner Boeing; Kurt Hoffmann; Paolo Boffetta; Gabriele Nagel; Giovanna Masala; Vittorio Krogh; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Christina Bamia; Androniki Naska; Vassiliki Benetou; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Guillem Pera; Carmen Martinez-Garcia; Carmen Navarro; Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco; Miren Dorronsoro; Elizabeth A Spencer; Timothy J Key; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Emmanuelle Kesse; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Goran Berglund; Elisabet Wirfalt; Goran Hallmans; Ingegerd Johansson; Anne Tjonneland; Anja Olsen; Kim Overvad; Heidi H Hundborg; Elio Riboli; Dimitrios Trichopoulos

2005-01-01

331

European Space Agency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European equivalent to NASA, formed of 16 member countries. Users can access information on ESA's activities, including such topics as Earth observation, human spaceflight, and various aspects of space science. The educational section includes exercises for high school and college students and a teachers' section with projects, classroom tools, and training information. The kids' section includes lab activities, games, and news articles written for younger students. A multimedia gallery is provided that contains imagery of Mars, Earth, and other objects in the solar system, artists' conceptions of spacecraft, and others. There is also a media center which provides press releases, information notes, and information on ESA television broadcasts. Miscellaneous services include an events calendar, list of publications, and a "frequently asked questions" section. The site can be translated into a variety of languages.

332

European Environment Agency (EEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Environment Agency (EEA) Website contains a huge selection of online environmental information, data, and reports pertaining to all fifteen EU states, as well as Iceland, Lichtenstein, and Norway. Information is organized by themes, and the site employs a powerful multilingual search feature. Themes include environmental issues, sectors and activities, information related to specific media, regions, and actions for environmental improvement. The site also contains EEA publications and reports, as well as a data service providing access to data sets covering at least all EU member states. Finally, the European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET) provides a network which "facilitates co-operation and flow of data and information between EIONET partners and with the EEA." The EEA Website is a large, research-oriented repository of information.

333

The European Nucleotide Archive  

PubMed Central

The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) is Europe’s primary nucleotide-sequence repository. The ENA consists of three main databases: the Sequence Read Archive (SRA), the Trace Archive and EMBL-Bank. The objective of ENA is to support and promote the use of nucleotide sequencing as an experimental research platform by providing data submission, archive, search and download services. In this article, we outline these services and describe major changes and improvements introduced during 2010. These include extended EMBL-Bank and SRA-data submission services, extended ENA Browser functionality, support for submitting data to the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA) through SRA, and the launch of a new sequence similarity search service.

Leinonen, Rasko; Akhtar, Ruth; Birney, Ewan; Bower, Lawrence; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Cheng, Ying; Cleland, Iain; Faruque, Nadeem; Goodgame, Neil; Gibson, Richard; Hoad, Gemma; Jang, Mikyung; Pakseresht, Nima; Plaister, Sheila; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Reddy, Kethi; Sobhany, Siamak; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Vaughan, Robert; Zalunin, Vadim; Cochrane, Guy

2011-01-01

334

Telemedicine and European law.  

PubMed

A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues. PMID:15074761

Callens, Stefaan

2003-01-01

335

European bounty for taxonomists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-professional taxonomists have been responsible for describing more than half of the animal species discovered in Europe from 1998 to 2007 (see also Nature 467, 788; 2010). The extraordinary current rate of description of new species makes Europe an unexpected frontier for biodiversity exploration. The Fauna Europaea database (http:\\/\\/www.faunaeur.org), released in 2004, lists more than 125,000 European species of multicellular

Benoît Fontaine; Achterberg van C; M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga; R. Araujo; M. Asche; H. Aspöck; U. Aspöck; P. Audisio; B. Aukema; N. Bailly; M. Balsamo; R. A. Bank; C. Belfiore; W. Bogdanowicz; G. Boxshall; D. Burckhardt; P. Chylarecki; L. Deharveng; A. Dubois; H. Enghoff; R. Fochetti; C. Fontaine; O. Gargominy; M. S. Gomez Lopez; D. Goujet; M. S. Harvey; K.-G. Heller; Helsdingen van Peter; H. Hoch; Jong de Y; O. Karsholt; W. Los; W. Magowski; J. A. Massard; S. J. McInnes; L. F. Mendes; E. Mey; V. Michelsen; A. Minelli; J. M. Nieto Nafria; Nieukerken van E. J; Th. Pape; Prins De W; M. Ramos; C. Ricci; C. Roselaar; E. Rota; H. Segers; T. Timm; Tol van J; Ph. Bouchet

2010-01-01

336

ERPA: European Research Papers Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ERPA, the European Research Papers Archive, provides a common interface for searching a database of online working papers relevant to European integration. Contributors to the archive include the Robert Schuman Centre of the Academy of European Law at the European University Institute, the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, the Jean Monnet Working Papers Series at Harvard Law School, and the European Communities Studies Association-Austria. Users can select either a short form to search recent additions to the archive or a long form to either or to also access the many advanced search options, including full-text searches.

337

Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.  

PubMed

The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23293164

Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

2013-01-01

338

The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

Ramirez, Teresita R.

339

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Relation to All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Nondiabetic European Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have evaluated the associa- tions between the metabolic syndrome (by any defini- tion) and mortality. This study examined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortal- ity in nondiabetic European men and women. Methods: The study was based on 11 prospective European cohort studies comprising 6156 men and

Gang Hu; Qing Qiao; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Beverley Balkau; Knut Borch-Johnsen; Kalevi Pyorala

2004-01-01

340

Pinpointing Your Top Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College and university fund raisers are offered three recommendations for targeting the best donors: (1) make effective use of indexes and directories, electronic or manual, to match foundation and college interests; (2) narrow the pool to true prospects; and (3) make preproposal contact geared to the foundation's style or organization. (MSE)

Prescott, Dennis A.

1995-01-01

341

Prospects for Nuclear Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospects for a revival of nuclear power were dim even before the partial reactor meltdowns at the Fukushima nuclear plant. Nuclear power has long been controversial because of concerns about nuclear accidents, proliferation risk, and the storage of spent fuel. These concerns are real and important. In addition, however, a key challenge for nuclear power has been the high

Lucas W. Davis

2011-01-01

342

Age and prospective memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an investigation into the effects of age, intelligence, and retrospective memory on performance in a prospective memory task in which subjects aged between 52 and 95 were required to telephone once a day either between two times or at an exact time. The most important influence on performance was how subjects chose to remember to make the

Elizabeth A. Maylor

1990-01-01

343

The European general thoracic surgery database project  

PubMed Central

The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Database is a free registry created by ESTS in 2001. The current online version was launched in 2007. It runs currently on a Dendrite platform with extensive data security and frequent backups. The main features are a specialty-specific, procedure-specific, prospectively maintained, periodically audited and web-based electronic database, designed for quality control and performance monitoring, which allows for the collection of all general thoracic procedures. Data collection is the “backbone” of the ESTS database. It includes many risk factors, processes of care and outcomes, which are specially designed for quality control and performance audit. The user can download and export their own data and use them for internal analyses and quality control audits. The ESTS database represents the gold standard of clinical data collection for European General Thoracic Surgery. Over the past years, the ESTS database has achieved many accomplishments. In particular, the database hit two major milestones: it now includes more than 235 participating centers and 70,000 surgical procedures. The ESTS database is a snapshot of surgical practice that aims at improving patient care. In other words, data capture should become integral to routine patient care, with the final objective of improving quality of care within Europe.

Brunelli, Alessandro

2014-01-01

344

Autism spectrum disorders may be due to cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with chronic neuroinflammation causing persistent hypercytokinemia that resulted in an increased lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and depressed metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and extreme changes in the weight resulting in obesity or wasting. Data presented in this review suggest that environmental triggering factors

Joseph Prandota

2010-01-01

345

Hip geometry, bone mineral distribution, and bone strength in European men and women: the EPOS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) have been shown previously to relate, independently of each other, to risk of hip fracture. We used Lunar DPX “?” versions of hip strength analysis (HSA) and hip axis length (HAL) software to analyze scans from ten representative age-stratified population samples in the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS). All 1617 subjects were >50

N Crabtree; M Lunt; G Holt; H Kroger; H Burger; S Grazio; K.-T Khaw; R. S Lorenc; J Nijs; J Stepan; J. A Falch; T Miazgowski; P Raptou; H. A. P Pols; J Dequeker; S Havelka; K Hoszowski; I Jajic; S Czekalski; G Lyritis; A. J Silman; J Reeve

2000-01-01

346

The Epistemological Fog in Realising Learning to Learn in European Curriculum Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European Union is concerned about the economic prospects of its member states as they have to compete against newly emerging economies with lower wages and high ambitions. Part of the strategy to deal with this economic shadow is to create a knowledge economy, but in order to achieve this, a shift to a competence-based curriculum model is seen…

Leat, David; Thomas, Ulrike; Reid, Anna

2012-01-01

347

Member states and the European Commission: theoretical insights from the new economics of organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to characterize the relationship between member governments and the European Commission has long been a matter of controversy among EU scholars. Although most now agree that traditional theoretical frameworks - inter-governmentalism and supranationalism - are inadequate to understand the complexities of EU governance, few viable alternatives have emerged. In this article, I provide a prospective look into a promising

Thomas J. Doleys

2000-01-01

348

Determination of parasitic load in different tissues of murine toxoplasmosis after immunization by excretory-secretory antigens using Real time QPCR.  

PubMed

Excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs) of Toxoplasma gondii are one of the candidates for immunization against toxoplasmosis. For evaluation of immunization, we determined the kinetics of the distribution of Toxoplasma and parasite load in different tissues of mice immunized by ESAs. In this experimental study, 36 mice in case (n=18) and control (n=18) groups were immunized with ESAs and PBS, respectively. After 2weeks, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Toxoplasma virulent RH strain. Blood and different tissues (brain, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and muscle) were collected daily after challenge (1, 2, 3 and last day before death). Parasite load was calculated using Real time QPCR targeted at the B1 gene. ESAs as vaccine in different tissues showed various effects. However, infected mice which received the vaccine in comparison with control group, displayed a drastically decreasing in parasite burden, in their blood and tissues (P=0.000). These results indicated that ESAs with reduction of parasite load in different tissues of host could be evaluable candidate for the development of immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis. PMID:24852216

Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Dadimoghaddam, Yousef; Hashemi Souteh, Mohammad Bagher; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Khalilian, Alireza; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Farazmand, Touraj; Kalani, Hamed; Rasouli, Mehdi

2014-08-01

349

European Pulsar Timing Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Pulsar Timing Array is a collaboration that has recently been formed between the five major radio observatories in Europe: Jodrell Bank, Effelsberg, Westerbork, Nançay and Sardinia. Together we work towards detecting gravitational waves. We combine the individual strengths of all the different observatories to obtain improved results. We give a short introduction on the partners, goals and instrumentation of this collaboration. Besides gravitational wave detection, the EPTA collaboration is sharing data to optimize timing on, for example, millisecond binary pulsars. We present some recent results of combining datasets of the four telescopes now in use for the EPTA.

Janssen, G. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Kramer, M.; Purver, M.; Jessner, A.; Cognard, I.

2008-02-01

350

European Museum Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Museum Media Publishers publishes this guide to the major museums in twelve European countries. The current edition describes some 1500 exhibitions planned between May 1997 and May 1998. Museums and exhibitions are listed alphabetically by country and city. Each entry describes the museum's collection, visiting information, and a description of their exhibitions through May 1998. When possible, a hyperlink to the museum's web site is also provided. Users can also view a chronological index of all the exhibitions in each country or search the site by museum or exhibition.

351

European Space Agency: Rosetta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rosetta is the European Space Agency's comet exploration spacecraft. Materials presented here describe the space craft and its mission, which is to rendezvous with and orbit Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and soft-land an instrument package on the comet's nucleus. En route to the comet, it will perform fly-bys of two asteroids, Steins and Lutetia. Topics include a mission summary, background science, information on the orbiter and lander, and a mission schedule. An image gallery is also provided that contains pictures of the spacecraft, imagery taken by the spacecraft, pictures of the launch, and others.

352

The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death worldwide and poses a significant respiratory disease burden. Little is known about the provision of lung cancer care across Europe. The overall aim of the Task Force was to investigate current practice in lung cancer care across Europe. The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide variation in content and scope, as well as methodological quality but at the same time there was relevant duplication. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is, in principle, feasible to collect prospective demographic and clinical data on patients with lung cancer. Legal obligations vary among countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe. PMID:24659546

Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David; Beckett, Paul; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Gaga, Mina; Gamarra, Fernando; Grigoriu, Bogdan; Hansen, Niels C G; Hubbard, Richard; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Jakobsen, Erik; Jovanovic, Dragana; Konsoulova, Assia; Kollmeier, Jens; Massard, Gilbert; McPhelim, John; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Milroy, Robert; Paesmans, Marianne; Peake, Mick; Putora, Paul-Martin; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Schönfeld, Nicolas; Sitter, Helmut; Skaug, Knut; Spiro, Stephen; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Taright, Samya; Thomas, Michael; van Schil, Paul E; Vansteenkiste, Johan F; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Sculier, Jean-Paul

2014-05-01

353

The Philosophy of Science in Prospective Science Teacher Education: Rationale and Practical Proposals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metascientific education of prospective science teachers is seen as a priority in many European countries, in accordance with the central role that contents about the nature of science have achieved in national curricula. In this paper, we present an original theoretical tool, which we have called the matrix of stages and strands that may prove of…

Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin; Izquierdo, Merce

354

European Industrial Relations Observatory Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Industrial Relations Observatory Online (EIROnline) was developed by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, an autonomous body created by the European Community. The aim of the site is to "initiate, collect, store, disseminate and provide access to information and analysis on developments in industrial relations" in the 15 European Union member states and Norway. Visitors will find the latest industrial relations news and feature articles arranged by country. There is also a bimonthly publication called the EIRObserver summarizing the news and items over the past two months.

355

Modern-day prospecting  

SciTech Connect

Locating productive oil and mineral deposits takes a combination of money, time, and luck. However, the modern-day prospector has several new tools at his disposal. Some are conventional and relatively inexpensive; others are more innovative and high-priced. Improved seismic techniques, image processing, and some other innovative prospecting methods are described. These techniques are helping oil companies improve their exploration win-loss records.

Not Available

1984-12-01

356

Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast between the igneous rocks and the sediments in archaeological context, thus the use of less sensitive instruments works fine for these conditions. Surveys in archaeological sites in Mexico during last 30 years have provided enough evidence that the best conditions to apply magnetic prospection is in lacustrine environment where the ancient inhabitants used igneous rocks as building material. These conditions has been more common than expected in the Trans volcanic Belt where most of the lakes were densely occupied in ancient times. Because most lakes were surrounded by quite recent volcanos, it was pretty common to use the basaltic and andesitic rocks to build the archaeological structures. In this contribution some of the most successful applications of the magnetic technique in archaeology will be shown to illustrate the possibilities of the magnetometry in archaeological prospection.

Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

2013-05-01

357

A Highly Conserved Toxo1 Haplotype Directs Resistance to Toxoplasmosis and Its Associated Caspase-1 Dependent Killing of Parasite and Host Macrophage  

PubMed Central

Natural immunity or resistance to pathogens most often relies on the genetic make-up of the host. In a LEW rat model of refractoriness to toxoplasmosis, we previously identified on chromosome 10 the Toxo1 locus that directs toxoplasmosis outcome and controls parasite spreading by a macrophage-dependent mechanism. Now, we narrowed down Toxo1 to a 891 kb interval containing 29 genes syntenic to human 17p13 region. Strikingly, Toxo1 is included in a haplotype block strictly conserved among all refractory rat strains. The sequencing of Toxo1 in nine rat strains (5 refractory and 4 susceptible) revealed resistant-restricted conserved polymorphisms displaying a distribution gradient that peaks at the bottom border of Toxo1, and highlighting the NOD-like receptor, Nlrp1a, as a major candidate. The Nlrp1 inflammasome is known to trigger, upon pathogen intracellular sensing, pyroptosis programmed-cell death involving caspase-1 activation and cleavage of IL-1?. Functional studies demonstrated that the Toxo1-dependent refractoriness in vivo correlated with both the ability of macrophages to restrict T. gondii growth and a T. gondii-induced death of intracellular parasites and its host macrophages. The parasite-induced cell death of infected macrophages bearing the LEW-Toxo1 alleles was found to exhibit pyroptosis-like features with ROS production, the activation of caspase-1 and IL1-? secretion. The pharmacological inactivation of caspase-1 using YVAD and Z-VAD inhibitors prevented the death of both intravacuolar parasites and host non-permissive macrophages but failed to restore parasite proliferation. These findings demonstrated that the Toxo1-dependent response of rat macrophages to T. gondii infection may trigger two pathways leading to the control of parasite proliferation and the death of parasites and host macrophages. The NOD-like receptor NLRP1a/Caspase-1 pathway is the best candidate to mediate the parasite-induced cell death. These data represent new insights towards the identification of a major pathway of innate resistance to toxoplasmosis and the prediction of individual resistance.

Bisanz, Cordelia; Lagrange, Dominique; Pilloux, Ludovic; Massera, Celine; Cristinelli, Sara; Jublot, Delphine; Bastien, Olivier; Loeuillet, Corinne; Aldebert, Delphine; Touquet, Bastien; Fournie, Gilbert J.; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie France

2014-01-01

358

A highly conserved Toxo1 haplotype directs resistance to toxoplasmosis and its associated caspase-1 dependent killing of parasite and host macrophage.  

PubMed

Natural immunity or resistance to pathogens most often relies on the genetic make-up of the host. In a LEW rat model of refractoriness to toxoplasmosis, we previously identified on chromosome 10 the Toxo1 locus that directs toxoplasmosis outcome and controls parasite spreading by a macrophage-dependent mechanism. Now, we narrowed down Toxo1 to a 891 kb interval containing 29 genes syntenic to human 17p13 region. Strikingly, Toxo1 is included in a haplotype block strictly conserved among all refractory rat strains. The sequencing of Toxo1 in nine rat strains (5 refractory and 4 susceptible) revealed resistant-restricted conserved polymorphisms displaying a distribution gradient that peaks at the bottom border of Toxo1, and highlighting the NOD-like receptor, Nlrp1a, as a major candidate. The Nlrp1 inflammasome is known to trigger, upon pathogen intracellular sensing, pyroptosis programmed-cell death involving caspase-1 activation and cleavage of IL-1?. Functional studies demonstrated that the Toxo1-dependent refractoriness in vivo correlated with both the ability of macrophages to restrict T. gondii growth and a T. gondii-induced death of intracellular parasites and its host macrophages. The parasite-induced cell death of infected macrophages bearing the LEW-Toxo1 alleles was found to exhibit pyroptosis-like features with ROS production, the activation of caspase-1 and IL1-? secretion. The pharmacological inactivation of caspase-1 using YVAD and Z-VAD inhibitors prevented the death of both intravacuolar parasites and host non-permissive macrophages but failed to restore parasite proliferation. These findings demonstrated that the Toxo1-dependent response of rat macrophages to T. gondii infection may trigger two pathways leading to the control of parasite proliferation and the death of parasites and host macrophages. The NOD-like receptor NLRP1a/Caspase-1 pathway is the best candidate to mediate the parasite-induced cell death. These data represent new insights towards the identification of a major pathway of innate resistance to toxoplasmosis and the prediction of individual resistance. PMID:24699513

Cavailles, Pierre; Flori, Pierre; Papapietro, Olivier; Bisanz, Cordelia; Lagrange, Dominique; Pilloux, Ludovic; Massera, Céline; Cristinelli, Sara; Jublot, Delphine; Bastien, Olivier; Loeuillet, Corinne; Aldebert, Delphine; Touquet, Bastien; Fournié, Gilbert J; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie France

2014-04-01

359

European project ISAWARE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As air traffic is increasing, the probability of encountering 'surveillance' alerts during flight is also increasing. In order to ensure safety, new on board systems need to be developed to provide the crew with a better 'situation awareness' (SA) about its external environment and potential hazards. In addition, the means to manage the data generated by these new systems needs to be build up. Despite the tremendous amount of information, crew workload must not increase. This is where the ISAWARE project comes in with the Integrated Situation Awareness System (ISAS) concept. ISAWARE (Increasing Safety through collision Avoidance WARning intEgration) is a project partly funded by the European Community, executed by a well balanced composition of several European aerospace companies (airframers, a helicopter manufacturer, avionics suppliers, airlines), one research laboratory and one university. The overall objective of the ISAWARE project is to conduct research into the potential improvements to flight safety that can be achieved by providing the pilot with complete predictive situation awareness during all phases of the flight. The Integrated Situational Awareness System (ISAS) merges data from different safety systems concerning terrain, traffic, weather and other. The system ensures the alerts consistency, prioritises alerts and anticipates threats along a predicted trajectory earlier than current systems can provide. The second main axis of the research is the development of synthetic vision displays (PFD, ND and HUD) to enhance the Human-Machine Interface (HMI). The key focus of the project is the development of a ground-based demonstrator rig which is interfaced to a dynamic flight simulator. This rig is used for the evaluation of the ISAWARE concept by a representative range of active airline crews.

Kaiser, Jochen; Smietanski, Guillaume; Kubbat, Wolfgang

2001-08-01

360

Epidemiology of Candidaemia in Europe: Results of 28Month European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) Hospital-Based Surveillance Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to update the epidemiological and mycological profile of candidaemia in Europe, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology conducted a prospective, sequential, hospital population-based study from September 1997 to December 1999. A total of 2,089 cases were documented by 106 institutions in seven European countries. Rates of candidaemia ranging from 0.20 to 0.38 per 1,000 admissions were reported. Candida

A. M. Tortorano; J. Peman; H. Bernhardt; L. Klingspor; C. C. Kibbler; O. Faure; E. Biraghi; E. Canton; K. Zimmermann; S. Seaton; R. Grillot

2004-01-01

361

European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

2009-01-01

362

Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.

2002-11-01

363

German role in the European energy market.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper evaluates the role of the united Germany in the European energy market. Following fields are emphasized: The European dimension; contrasting patterns of energy demand; the electricity crunch; the institutional issues; European implications. 7 ta...

O. Noreng

1990-01-01

364

European Science Notes. Volume 41, Number 9.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

European Science Notes is a monthly publication with brief articles on recent developments in European scientific research. Partial contents: Review of selected papers presented at the European Conference of the International Society for Research on Aggre...

C. J. Fox

1987-01-01

365

Third European Influenza Summit: organized by the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI).  

PubMed

On 2 May 2013, the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) held its third influenza summit at the Institute of European Studies at the Free University of Brussels. ESWI brought together more than 90 representatives of organizations of healthcare providers, senior citizens, at-risk patients and public health authorities for a day of tailored lectures, Q&A sessions and networking. Since recent studies, surveys and reviews have shed new light on some of the most intriguing influenza issues, the Summit faculty translated the newest scientific data into practice. The first part of the Summit programme focused on the current flu status in Europe, paying special attention to the protection of pregnant women and the elderly as well as to the issues of vaccine safety and effectiveness. The programme continued to highlight future challenges and evolutions like novel antiviral drugs against influenza, improved flu vaccines and the prospect of a universal flu vaccine. The annual ESWI flu summits are the pinnacles of ESWI's efforts to bridge the gap between science and society. ESWI's members are convinced that the fight against influenza can only be won when all parties are well informed and ready to work together. PMID:24183711

McElhaney, Janet; Osterhaus, Ab

2013-12-16

366

A controlled prospective case control study of a prevention training program in female team handball players: the German experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few authors have investigated the effectiveness of preventive intervention in European team handball.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a prevention program on the incidence of injuries in female European team handball players.Study design: Prospective controlled study.Methods: Ten female handball teams (134 players) took part in the prevention program (1. Information about injury

Wolf Petersen; Christoph Braun; Wiebke Bock; Kirsten Schmidt; Andre Weimann; Wolf Drescher; Elisabeth Eiling; Richard Stange; Thomas Fuchs; Jürgen Hedderich; Thore Zantop

2005-01-01

367

New prospects for astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history and prospects for astronomical activities conducted by the Royal Greenwich Observatory are outlined. The confirmation of the uniform rotation of the earth and the preparation of almanacs for use in navigation are discussed as the earliest activities of the Observatory, which was founded in 1675. The initiation of a program in astrophysics in 1934 with the acquisition of the 36-in. Yapp reflector is noted, along with the construction of the 100-in. Isaac Newton telescope at Herstmonceux, a location unfortunately characterized by suitable observing conditions only on about a quarter of the nights. The subsequent establishment of observing facilities overseas, including the South African Astronomical Observatory and the Anglo-Australian Telescope in the Southern Hemisphere and the observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands in the Northern Hemisphere are considered, with particular attention given to the designs of the proposed 4.2-m and 1-m telescopes and the modification of the Isaac Newton telescope which has been removed from Herstmonceux. Prospects for further activities within the Observatory along the lines of new instrumentation and telescopes and of research astronomy are then indicated.

Smith, F. G.

1981-10-01

368

Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

2003-01-01

369

European Southern Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organization comprised of 14 member countries. Its headquarters are in Germany, but they have three observatories in Chile as well. Their website is loaded with information and visitors shouldn't miss going on the "Virtual Tours", on the far right side of the homepage. The tours are of the three observatories in Chile, and offer almost 360 degree views of beautiful, yet sparse landscapes. The tour of La Silla has two particularly beautiful views, "La Silla Moonlight" and "La Silla Sunset". Visitors interested in seeing a panning of an artist's 3D rendering of the Orion Nebula must go to the "Video" link on the left hand menu on the homepage. There are over 1400 videos to choose from, so for those not into the Orion Nebula, never fear, there are plenty of other video choices. Finally, visitors must go to the "Top 100 Images" link on the right side of the homepage to see amazing and gorgeous images taken from the ESO's various observatories.

370

NEW PROSPECTS FOR RURAL YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WHEN THE MATERIAL WEALTH OF OUR NATION IS COUPLED WITH OUR GREATEST NATURAL RESOURCE, THE YOUTH OF AMERICA, THE PROSPECTS OF A BRIGHT FUTURE BECOME EXCELLENT, AND EACH OF THESE YOUNG PEOPLE DESERVES THE ASSURANCE THAT HE OR SHE WILL SHARE FULLY IN THESE PROSPECTS. HOWEVER, UP TO THE PRESENT, ONE SEGMENT OF OUR YOUTH GROUP, THE RURAL PORTION, HAS…

HUMPHREY, HUBERT H.

371

Prospective Memory Performance across Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors explored age differences in event-based prospective memory (PM) across adolescence. The tasks consisted of an ongoing task (OT; i.e., personality questionnaire items, math problems) and an embedded prospective task that required participants to remember to make a special response whenever they encountered a PM cue…

Wang, Lijuan; Kliegel, Matthias; Yang, Zhiliang; Liu, Wei

2006-01-01

372

European Solar Engineering School Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Solar Engineering School (ESES) provides courses in advanced solar energy engineering for well qualified master's level engineering students. The following are offered: advanced solar thermal engineering, advanced photovoltaic engineering, applied solar energy engineering, and utilization of solar energy.

2007-02-12

373

Relative efficiency of European airports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data envelopment analysis, efficiency ratios for European airports are determined. It appears that most airports are operating under increasing returns to scale. This is also reflected in the most productive scale size determined for the airports.

Eric Pels; Peter Nijkamp; Piet Rietveld

2001-01-01

374

European oil product supply modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programmi...

V. Saint-Antonin

1998-01-01

375

European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since World War II, Europe has evolved from the Westphalian intentional system into a consociational, supranational state system opting to trade sovereignty for collective economic, political and military security. Intergovernmentalism in the European Com...

R. L. Kellar

2001-01-01

376

Public Accountability in the European Union: Is the European Parliament able to hold the European Council accountable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Council occupies a central role in European politics. Yet it is not officially accountable to any public or parliamentary body for the decisions it makes on behalf of European citizens. National parliaments are only entitled to exert control over their own Heads of Government or State. The European Parliament, as a supranational institution, is the only parliamentary body

Marianne van de Steeg

2009-01-01

377

North European Transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland image a collage of older continental fragments and intervening basins that have been welded together in Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola orogenies. The Lapland-Kola orogen record the collision of Baltica and Laurentia during the compilation of the Columbia supercontinent. The collisional structures were overprinted by extension associated with the dispersal of Columbia. The Russian Arctic line 1-AR focuses on the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover of the Barents Sea Basin. The line images the transition from Paleoproterozoic Baltica to Neoproterozoic Barentsia. As part of the Rodinia supercontinent formation, Baltica collided with Barentsia resulting in Timanide orogeny. During the break-up of Rodinia an aborted rift was formed within the Barentsia. Later peripheral tectonic events modified the interior parts of Barentsia that acted first as a back arc basin and later as a foreland basin to the Uralian and Caledonian orogen during the formation of the Pangea supercontinent.

Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

2010-05-01

378

Prospects for HTS applications  

SciTech Connect

High temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is rapidly maturing into a working material being produced in ever larger quantities and being used in more significant demonstrations and prototypes. Conductor is now produced routinely in several hundred meter lengths with reproducible results. Current density has progressed to a level suitable for demonstration of many applications. Wire strength has improved and large prototypes fabricated or under consideration using HTS include Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), rotating electrical machines including synchronous ac and dc homopolar motors and drives, generators and condensers, underground transmission cables, utility distribution equipment such as transformers and current limiters, commercial processing applications such as magnetic separation, and specialty magnets such as high field inserts. In this paper the requirements, progress toward these requirements, and the prospects for the future are reviewed.

Gamble, B.B.; Snitchler, G.L.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)] [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

1996-07-01

379

Prospects for fetal surgery.  

PubMed

Until about forty years ago, the womb shielded the fetus from observation and therapy. The rapid changes in the diagnosis and treatment of human fetal anatomical abnormalities are due to improved fetal imaging studies as well as fetal sampling techniques (e.g. amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling), and a better understanding of fetal pathophysiology derived from laboratory animals. Fetal therapy is the logical culmination of progress in fetal diagnosis. In other words, the fetus is now a patient. The fetal surgical treatment of the most severe form of spina bifida - myelomeningocele (MMC) - will be used as a paradigm to illustrate progress in and future prospects for fetal surgery. This review will focus on the rationale for in utero repair in the context of pathologic observations and animal models of MMC, outcomes from human fetal MMC repair including the recently completed Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS trial), and future research directions. PMID:24094456

Adzick, N Scott

2013-11-01

380

Photovoltaic prospects in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

Starr, M. R.

381

Prenatal testing for Huntington's disease: a European collaborative study.  

PubMed

This European study involving seven genetic centres from six countries - Aberdeen, Cardiff (UK), Leiden (Netherlands), Leuven (Belgium), Paris (France), Rome (Italy), Athens (Greece) has gathered information on prenatal testing by direct mutation analysis and exclusion testing for Huntington's disease (HD) from the six European countries during the period 1993-1998. Data describing the parent belonging to the HD family was collected; this included their sex and age as well as their risk of developing HD. Information about previous pregnancies, the rank of the pregnancy being tested and its outcome was also gathered. In addition the number of previous prenatal tests for HD was recorded. Three hundred and five results were recorded by the participating countries between 1993 and 1998. The largest groups came from the UK (157) and the Netherlands (90). The mean age for the parent from the HD family was 30.8 years. In half of the tests the prospective parent was an asymptomatic gene carrier, 42% remained at risk, and 6% of the prospective parents were already showing clinical features of HD. 65% of tests performed used mutation analysis. PMID:12404099

Simpson, Sheila A; Zoeteweij, Moniek W; Nys, Kurt; Harper, Peter; Dürr, Alexandra; Jacopini, Gioia; Yapijakis, Christos; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry

2002-11-01

382

Updated standards and processes for accreditation of echocardiographic laboratories from The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.  

PubMed

Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards of practice and improve the quality of care. Criteria and requirements were published at that time for transthoracic, transoesophageal, and stress echocardiography. This paper reassesses and updates the quality standards to take account of experience and the technical developments of modern echocardiographic practice. It also discusses quality control, the incentives for laboratories to apply for accreditation, the reaccreditation criteria, and the current status and future prospects of the laboratory accreditation process. PMID:24662444

Popescu, Bogdan A; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Fox, Kevin F; Ray, Simon; Cardim, Nuno; Rigo, Fausto; Badano, Luigi P; Fraser, Alan G; Pinto, Fausto; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Habib, Gilbert; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

2014-07-01

383

Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxoplasma . Cats and kittens prefer litter boxes, garden soils, and sandboxes for elimination, and you may be ... Fruits and vegetables may have contact with contaminated soil or water also, and you can be infected ...

384

Toxoplasmosis and Breastfeeding  

MedlinePLUS

... 4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO Breastfeeding Introduction Recommendations Proper Handling and Storage of Human ... to Strategies to Support Breastfeeding Mothers and Babies Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ...

385

Toxoplasmosis – a waterborne zoonosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans become infected with Toxoplasma gondii mainly by ingesting uncooked meat containing viable tissue cysts or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts from the feces of infected cats. Circumstantial evidence suggests that oocyst-induced infections in humans are clinically more severe than tissue cyst-acquired infections. Until recently, water-borne transmission of T. gondii was considered uncommon but a large human

J. P. Dubey

2004-01-01

386

Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... infection causes inflammation of a small patch of retina which typically spontaneously resolves [See figures 1 and ... the infection sometimes leaves a localized pigmented scar (retina and underlying choroid) which contains the Toxoplasma organism ...

387

A new human IgG avidity test, using mixtures of recombinant antigens (rROP1, rSAG2, rGRA6), for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The preliminary diagnostic utility of two mixtures of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6) in IgG ELISA and IgG avidity test has been evaluated. A total of 173 serum samples from patients with toxoplasmosis and seronegative people were examined. The sensitivity of IgG ELISA for rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6 was 91.1% and 76.7%, respectively, while the reactivity for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was higher, at 100% and 95.4%, respectively, than for people with chronic infection, at 88.2% and 70.6%. In this study a different trend in avidity maturation of IgG antibodies for two mixtures of proteins in comparison with native antigen was observed. The results suggest that a new IgG avidity test using the mixtures of recombinant antigens may be useful for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis. For this reason, selected mixtures after the additional tests on groups of sera with well-defined dates of infection could be used as a better alternative to the native antigens of the parasite in the serodiagnosis of human T. gondii infection. PMID:24768295

Drapa?a, Dorota; Holec-G?sior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef; Ferra, Bart?omiej; Hiszczy?ska-Sawicka, El?bieta; Lautenbach, Dariusz

2014-07-01

388

Whither Europeanization? Concept Stretching and Substantive Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the concept of Europeanization in the light of recent research on the impact of the European Union politics and policy. Conceptual analysis is preliminary to empirical analysis. Accordingly, I examine the risk of 'concept stretching', discuss extension and intension of Europeanization, and propose a taxonomy to 'unpack' the concept and organize empirical research. The explanation of Europeanization

Claudio M. Radaelli

2002-01-01

389

Towards a European forum for the neurosciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994, TINS published a brief analysis of the problems faced by the European neuroscience community in its attempt to meet the challenges associated with the proclamation of the European `Decade of the Brain'. Since then numerous initiatives have been taken by national and European neuroscience societies with the common goals of improving communication among European neuroscientists, increasing the visibility

Wolf Singer

1997-01-01

390

The European Thoracic Surgery Database project: modelling the risk of in-hospital death following lung resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify pre-operative factors associated with in-hospital mortality following lung resection and to construct a risk model that could be used prospectively to inform decisions and retrospectively to enable fair comparisons of outcomes. Methods: Data were submitted to the European Thoracic Surgery Database from 27 units in 14 countries. We analysed data concerning all patients that had a lung

Richard Berrisford; Alessandro Brunelli; Gaetano Rocco; Tom Treasure; Martin Utley

2005-01-01

391

Reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use in relation to risk of glioma and meningioma in a large European cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The etiologies of glioma and meningioma tumors are largely unknown. Although reproductive hormones are thought to influence the risk of these tumors, epidemiologic data are not supportive of this hypothesis; however, few cohort studies have published on this topic. We examined the relation between reproductive factors and the risk of glioma and meningioma among women in the European Prospective

D. S. Michaud; V. Gallo; B. Schlehofer; A. Tjonneland; A. Olsen; K. Overvad; C. C. Dahm; R. Kaaks; A. Lukanova; H. Boeing; M. Schutze; A. Trichopoulou; C. Bamia; A. Kyrozis; C. Sacerdote; C. Agnoli; D. Palli; R. Tumino; A. Mattiello; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; M. M. Ros; P. H. M. Peeters; C. H. van Gils; E. Lund; K. Bakken; I. T. Gram; A. Barricarte; C. Navarro; M. Dorronsoro; M. J. Sanchez; L. Rodriguez; E. J. Duell; G. Hallmans; B. S. Melin; J. Manjer; S. Borgquist; K. T. Khaw; N. Wareham; N. E. Allen; K. K. Tsilidis; I. Romieu; S. Rinaldi; P. Vineis; E. Riboli

2010-01-01

392

European football and the European union: Governance, participation and social cohesion — towards a policy research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the changing relationship of European football to the European Union (EU). Given technological, commercial, financial and organizational changes in the political economy of elite European football, and given the application of European law to sports bodies epitomised by the Bosman ruling, this article begins to outline a policy research agenda. Debates within the European Commission have centred

Adam Brown

2000-01-01

393

Building a Strong, Unified European Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a European astronomy owes its present positions of leadership to the development of pan-European cooperation. For many years,\\u000a this happened mainly through a few international organisations, chiefly the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Their success highlights the potential of the much greater resources invested in European astronomy through national\\u000a programmes, especially when including university institutes and

Johannes Andersen

394

How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

Leviäkangas, P.

2010-09-01

395

Offshore oil prospects improve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issues, prospects, and environmental concerns about drilling for offshore oil and gas are being seen in a different light than at any other time during the past decade. Exploration drilling on offshore locations is proceeding at a high rate, and environmental concerns, while recognized as real, appear to be a lot less worrisome than might have been predicted a decade ago. Part of the reason for the changes in levels of concern results from the close monitoring programs that have been in effect for the past few years. Paul R. Ryan of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution recently described exploration activities on Georges Bank: “We now have the results of the first year of monitoring, and, although eight wells are considered a minimal observational test, there were no biological changes in the benthic community that could be attributed to drilling activity.” (Oceanus, 26, 2, 1983). The U.S. Geological Survey studied the Georges Bank drilling activities as well. Barium from drilling muds was detected at the sites, but in decreasing concentrations at distances away from drilling rigs. There was no evidence that the discharges caused biological changes. According to Ryan: “Postdrilling concentrates of barium were found to be within the range of predilling concentrations measured at other locations on the Bank. Concentrations of other metals measured were low and characteristic of unpolluted, coarse-grained sediment in other Continental Shelf areas.”

396

Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2013-01-01

397

[Investigation of combined effectiveness of spiramycin and beta-glucan in mice models of acute toxoplasmosis and determination of IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-? levels].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis which is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has a high risk of fetal infection development if the infection occurs during pregnancy. Treatment with oral spiramycin is recommended during pregnancy in order to prevent the transmission of protozoa to fetus and development of infection. Since beta- glucan is known to stimulate the immune system and increase the phagocytic activity of the cells, it has been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory effect on many infectious diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of beta-glucan alone and in combination with spiramycin and to determinate the levels of interlökin (IL)-10, IL-12 and tumor nekrosis factor (TNF)-? in mice experimentally infected with T.gondii. For this purpose, four experimental groups each consisting of eight BALB/c mice, were formed with the approval of Ethics Committee for the Animal Experiments. All the mice were infected with 2 ml of suspension containing 2 x 102/ml of trophozoite prepared from T.gondii RH strain (Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Parasitology Laboratory of Communicable Diseases Research Department, Ankara, Turkey), by intraperitoneal injection. Twenty-four hours after the infection, beta-glucan (3 mg/day) was given to the beta-glucan group, spiramycin (200 mg/kg/day) to the spiramycin group, beta-glucan (3 mg/day) plus spiramycin (200 mg/kg/day) to the beta-glucan-spiramycin (BG-S) group by oral gavage. The fourth group which was the control group was infected but untreated. The above administration was carried out for seven days. On the 8th day, under anaesthesia, 1 ml normal saline was given into the peritoneum, drawn back later and the number of trophozoites in 1 ml of peritoneal fluid was determined by counting them on the Thoma slide. Moreover, by drawing the heart blood; IL-10, IL-12, TNF-? levels were determined in serum samples by ELISA method (eBioscience Platinum, Austria). The number of trophozoites in the BG-S group was found significantly lower than the number of trophozoites in control, beta-glucan and spiramycin groups (p< 0.05). There was no significant difference between the beta-glucan and spiramycin groups, however the number of trophozoites in both groups was significantly lower than the number of trophozoites in the control group (p< 0.05). There was a certain decrease in IL-10 level in spiramycin and BG-S groups, compared to the control group, in addition when IL-10 levels in spiramycin and BG-S groups were compared with BG group, a significant decrease was noticed (p< 0.05). There was no difference in IL-12 levels between the groups, while there was a certain decrease in TNF-? level in beta-glucan, spiramycin, BG-S group in comparison to the control group. Within the reach of our literature survey, this study is the first research in which the effectiveness of the combination of beta-glucan and spiramycin in the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis was investigated. The results of our study suggested that there might be synergy between beta-glucan and spiramycin in the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:22951656

Büyükbaba Boral, Ozden; Sönmez Tamer, Gülden; Keçeli Özcan, Sema; Sönmez, Ne?e; I?sever, Halim; Tekeli, Fatma

2012-07-01

398

Survey of unlicensed and off label drug use in paediatric wards in European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To determine the extent of use of unlicensed and off label drugs in children in hospital in five European countries.Design: Prospective study of drugs administered to children in general paediatric medical wards over four weeks.Setting: Children's wards in five hospitals (one each in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands).Subjects: Children aged 4 days to 16 years

Sharon Conroy; Imti Choonara; Piero Impicciatore; Angelika Mohn; Henrik Arnell; Anders Rane; Carmen Knoeppel; Hannsjoerg Seyberth; Chiara Pandolfini; Maria Pia Raffaelli; Francesca Rocchi; Maurizio Bonati; Geertt Jong; Matthijs de Hoog; John van den Anker

2000-01-01

399

TulaVirus: a NewlyDetected Hantavirus Carried by European CommonVoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novelhantavirus hasbeendiscovered inEuropean common voles, Microtus arvalis and Microtus rossiaemeridionalis. According tosequencing dataforthegenomicRNA S segmentandnucleocapsid protein anddataolitained byimmunoblotting with a panelofmonoclonal antibodies, thevirus, designated Tulavirus, isadistinct novel memberofthegenus Hantavirus. Phylogenetic analysesofTulavirusindicate thatitismost closely related toProspect Hill, Puumala, andMuertoCanyonviruses. Theresults supporttheviewthatthe evolution ofhan.aviruses follows thatoftheir primary carriers. Comparison ofstrains circulating within a local rodent population revealed a genetic drift viaaccumulation

ALEXANDER PLYUSNIN; OLLI VAPALAHTI; HLKKA LANKINEN; NATALIA APEKINA; YURI MYASNIKOV; HANIMARI KALLIO-KOKKO; AKE LUNDKVIST; MARKUS BRUMMER-KORVENKONTIO

1994-01-01

400

Status Report: Prospect Drilling Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt is made to give a survey of the available drilling systems (processes and equipment), which are used in prospect drilling. Starting from the diamond core drilling technique system, the systems are described which can be distinguished according ...

J. Behrens C. Marx H. Schlueter

1981-01-01

401

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma. Results of the HDR-ALLO study - a prospective clinical trial by the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante de Médula Osea (GEL/TAMO) and the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Although Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a highly curable disease with modern chemotherapy protocols, some patients are primary refractory or relapse after first-line chemotherapy or even after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. We investigated the potential role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in this setting. Design and Methods In this phase II study 92 patients with relapsed Hodgkin’s lymphoma and an HLA-identical sibling, a matched unrelated donor or a one antigen mismatched, unrelated donor were treated with salvage chemotherapy followed by reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation. Fourteen patients showed refractory disease and died from progressive lymphoma with a median overall survival after trial entry of 10 months (range, 6–17). Seventy-eight patients proceeded to allograft (unrelated donors, n=23). Fifty were allografted in complete or partial remission and 28 in stable disease. Fludarabine (150 mg/m2 iv) and melphalan (140 mg/m2 iv) were used as the conditioning regimen. Anti-thymocyte globulin was additionally used as graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis for recipients of grafts from unrelated donors. Results The non-relapse mortality rate was 8% at 100 days and 15% at 1 year. Relapse was the major cause of failure. The progression-free survival rate was 47% at 1 year and 18% at 4 years from trial entry. For the allografted population, the progression-free survival rate was 48% at 1 year and 24% at 4 years. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with a lower incidence of relapse. Patients allografted in complete remission had a significantly better outcome. The overall survival rate was 71% at 1 year and 43% at 4 years. Conclusions Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can result in long-term progression-free survival in heavily pre-treated patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The reduced intensity conditioning approach significantly reduced non-relapse mortality; the high relapse rate represents the major remaining challenge in this setting. The HDR-Allo trial was registered in the European Clinical Trials Database (EUDRACT, https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/) with number 02-0036

Sureda, Anna; Canals, Carme; Arranz, Reyes; Caballero, Dolores; Ribera, Josep Maria; Brune, Mats; Passweg, Jacob; Martino, Rodrigo; Valcarcel, David; Besalduch, Joan; Duarte, Rafael; Leon, Angel; Pascual, Maria Jesus; Garcia-Noblejas, Ana; Corral, Lucia Lopez; Xicoy, Bianca; Sierra, Jordi; Schmitz, Norbert

2012-01-01

402

Guide to European Legal Databases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York University (NYU) Law School Reference Librarian For International and Foreign Law, Mirela Roznovschi, has prepared this excellent Guide to European Legal Databases. The Guide offers recommendations for search engines and search tips/strategies for researching foreign law topics. Visitors will find the annotated list of European Websites useful for finding constitutional, copyright, and environmental laws (many laws listed by country). Also referenced in the Guide are sites covering the laws of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Council of Europe, and the European Union. A section entitled Indices, Guides, Journals, Dictionaries, Library Catalogs covers consolidated resource guides and notable collections, to facilitate further research efforts.

403

Prospective memory: When reminders fail  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequent assumption in the area of prospective memory is that a reminder to do an activity in the future improves the likelihood\\u000a of doing the activity. The results of four experiments indicated, however, that the most general version of this assumption\\u000a is incorrect. Subjects were either reminded of a prospective memory task several times during a retention interval or

Melissa J. Guynn; Mark A. Mcdaniel; Gilles O. Einstein

1998-01-01

404

Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success.

2013-01-01

405

Western European Specialists Section (WESS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by the University of Virginia Library, is devoted to research into Western European history, literature, culture, and politics. The site provides links to well-maintained, quality sites in the aforementioned fields, including regional and historical resources, Websites on contemporary Europe, e-texts and e-text collections, guides to Library Resources, and book review sites. In addition, WESS offers an online newsletter which features articles of particular relevance to Western European subject specialists. WESS is part of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a division of the American Library Association.

406

Security Economics and European Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

407

Prospective memory in the rat  

PubMed Central

The content of prospective memory is comprised of representations of an action to perform in the future. When people form prospective memories, they temporarily put the memory representation in an inactive state while engaging in other activities, and then activate the representation in the future. Ultimately, successful activation of the memory representation yields an action at an appropriate, but temporally distant, time. A hallmark of prospective memory is that activation of the memory representation has a deleterious effect on current ongoing activity. Recent evidence suggests that scrub jays and non-human primates, but not other species, are capable of future planning. We hypothesized that prospective memory produces a selective deficit in performance at the time when rats access a memory representation but not when the memory representation is inactive. Rats were trained in a temporal bisection task (90 min/day). Immediately after the bisection task, half of the rats received an 8-g meal (meal group) and the other rats received no additional food (no-meal group). Sensitivity to time in the bisection task was reduced as the 90-min interval elapsed for the meal group but not for the no-meal group. This time-based prospective-memory effect was not based on response competition, an attentional limit, anticipatory contrast, or fatigue. Our results suggest that rats form prospective memories, which produces a negative side effect on ongoing activity.

Wilson, A. George; Crystal, Jonathon D.

2011-01-01

408

Interactions between European Citizenship and Language Learning among Adolescent Europeans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) has created debate as to the suitability of current structures and policies for effectively engaging citizens and developing social cohesion. Education and specifically modern foreign language (MFL) teaching are argued by the literature to play a key role in equipping young people to interact and…

Hennebry, Mairin

2011-01-01

409

Cost-Utility Analysis of Treatment with Olanzapine Compared with Other Antipsychotic Treatments in Patients with Schizophrenia in the Pan-European SOHO Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the cost utility of treating schizophrenic patients with olanzapine compared with other antipsychotics in a naturalistic outpatient setting. Methods: The pan-European SOHO study is a 3-year, prospective, outpatient, observational study of outcomes associated with antipsychotic treatment, focusing on olanzapine, in ten European countries. For the cost-utility analysis, healthcare resource use (inpatient care, day care, outpatient psychiatric consultations

Martin Knapp; Frank Windmeijer; Jacqueline Brown; Stathis Kontodimas; Spyridon Tzivelekis; Josep Maria Haro; Mark Ratcliffe; Jihyung Hong; Diego Novick

2008-01-01

410

ELDONET – European Light Dosimeter Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Light Dosimeter Network (ELDONET) project has been designed with the purpose of establishing an efficient system to monitor solar radiation in Europe, in as many as possible locations. This paper describes the structure of the server that collects and processes the data acquired by the different stations belonging to the network, and makes them freely available on the

Roberto Marangoni; Domenico Gioffré; Giuliano Colombetti; Michael Lebert; Donat-P. Häder

2000-01-01

411

European perspectives in thoracic surgery.  

PubMed

Europe, the old Continent, has been the cradle of thoracic surgery from the beginning of the last century. The structure and the activities of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) activities are directed to enlighten the path, provide the tools and set the standards for a quality inspired practice in thoracic surgery. PMID:24868436

Venuta, Federico

2014-05-01