These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. More than 60 million people in the ... brain, eyes, and other organs. You can get toxoplasmosis from Waste from an infected cat Eating contaminated ...

2

Toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a common infection of animals and man, yet remains a rare disease. The disease appears in the offspring of mothers first infected during pregnancy and by relapse of chronic infection in immunodeficient animals and man. Toxoplasmosis can be prevented by the simplest of hygienic measures, such as handwashing. Further control can be achieved by widespread education of the public about the dangers of toxoplasmosis and the methods of prevention. Education of veterinary and zoo workers would reduce transmission in an environment where it is most likely to occur because of high concentrations of cats and cat feces. Toxoplasmosis of sheep and pigs on farms may be amenable to vaccination with the ts-4 strain of Toxoplasma. Finally, the new T-263 toxoplasmosis vaccine for cats offers the possibility of drastically reducing environmental contamination with oocysts, especially on farms. The reduction in numbers of viable oocysts in the environment would eventually reduce the infection of bird and rodent intermediate hosts, and ultimately, the infection of humans. PMID:1962006

Fishback, J L; Frenkel, J K

1991-08-01

3

Prospects for European labour demand.  

PubMed

The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during the 1975-85 decade. After the adjustment of the recession, European manufacturing industry is relatively more competitive and overall will experience a slower employment decline. Further, the growth of services will be limited by the effects of restrictive budgetary policies upon the development of public services. In all 5 countries, the main projected areas of employment growth are business and related services, tourism and leisure activities, and health care. Those occupations most likely to expand are the more highly qualified groups associated with the growth sectors. The main changes in the location of functions within the economic structure are likely to be the continuing contracting out of service functions within production industries to the service sector; and the growth of small relative to large enterprises. PMID:12281366

Lindley, R M

1988-07-01

4

Congenital toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a group of symptoms that occur when an unborn baby (fetus) is infected with the parasite ... Toxoplasmosis infection can be passed to a developing baby if the mother becomes infected while pregnant. The ...

5

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Cancer.gov

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was founded at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO), in Lyon, France, and is coordinated by Dr. Elio Riboli, Head of the School of Public Health at Imperial College, London. EPIC received substantial financial support from the Europe Against Cancer Program of the European Commission.

6

European Rural Regions: Current Trends, Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusion of the above statement as one of the key objectives in the draft Constitution for Europe is indicative of the significance of spatial equity to the members of the European Union. Implicit within this statement is a concern for rural regions as illustrated at the Salzburg Conference. In many respects this concern with rural regions sets the EU

David Meredith

2007-01-01

7

History and Prospects of Inequality between Europeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides the …rst study of inequality and poverty in the European Union from 1970 to 2040. The distribution of disposable in- come shows a large decrease of absolute poverty over the last decades, whereas inequality has not changed since 1980 after a fall in the 70s. The comparison between the two distributions of disposable income and fac- tor

Christian Morrisson; Fabrice Murtin

2003-01-01

8

Waste Paper Prospects in the European Community.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigates the potential for increasing the recovery rate (supply of) and/or the utilization rate (demand for) waste paper in the European Community. Concern about the problem derives both from the proportion of the Community's import bill a...

1983-01-01

9

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On ... Healthy people (nonpregnant) Most healthy people recover from toxoplasmosis without treatment. Persons who are ill can be ...

10

Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... or systemic steroids may further reduce the inflammation. Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

11

Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Pregnant Women On this Page When should I be concerned ... An Important Message for Women brochure. Should a woman breastfeed her infant if she had contracted a ...

12

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease On ... stillborn child a child born with signs of toxoplasmosis (e.g., abnormal enlargement or smallness of the ...

13

Visual function in human ocular toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess functional impairment in terms of visual acuity reduction and visual field defects in inactive ocular toxoplasmosis. Methods 61 patients with known ocular toxoplasmosis in a quiescent state were included in this prospective, cross?sectional study. A complete ophthalmic examination, retinal photodocumentation and standard automated perimetry (Octopus perimeter, program G2) were performed. Visual acuity was classified on the basis of the World Health Organization definition of visual impairment and blindness: normal (?20/25), mild (20/25 to 20/60), moderate (20/60 to 20/400) and severe (<20/400). Visual field damage was correspondingly graded as mild (mean defect <4?dB), moderate (mean defect 4–12?dB) or severe (mean defect >12?dB). Results 8 (13%) patients presented with bilateral ocular toxoplasmosis. Thus, a total of 69 eyes was evaluated. Visual field damage was encountered in 65 (94%) eyes, whereas only 28 (41%) eyes had reduced visual acuity, showing perimetric findings to be more sensitive in detecting chorioretinal damage (p<0.001). Correlation with the clinical localisation of chorioretinal scars was better for visual field (in 70% of the instances) than for visual acuity (33%). Moderate to severe functional impairment was registered in 65.2% for visual field, and in 27.5% for visual acuity. Conclusion In its quiescent stage, ocular toxoplasmosis was associated with permanent visual field defects in >94% of the eyes studied. Hence, standard automated perimetry may better reflect the functional damage encountered by ocular toxoplasmosis than visual acuity. PMID:16987904

Scherrer, Janine; Iliev, Milko E; Halberstadt, Markus; Kodjikian, Laurent; Garweg, Justus G

2007-01-01

14

Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... is shed in the feces. • Feed your cat commercial dry or canned food. • Never feed cats raw ... Health. February 2003. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Women What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis (Tox-o-plaz-mo- ...

15

International interest withholding taxation: Prospects for a common European policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989 the European Union member states rejected a proposal to introduce a minimum interest withholding tax of 15 percent. Some Union member states, however, remain keenly interested in bringing about some minimum level of international taxation of interest income. This suggests that member states will be asked to reconsider the issue in the near future. This paper first examines

Harry Huizinga

1994-01-01

16

Toxoplasmosis – A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of 88 Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30–50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this ‘asymptomatic infection’ may also lead to development of other human pathologies. Aims of the Study The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Methods and Findings Prevalence data published between 1995–2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (p<0.1). For several obtained significant correlations between the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. Conclusions The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research. PMID:24662942

Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovi?ková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H.

2014-01-01

17

Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs  

PubMed Central

Background Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate whether treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin associated with a lack of monitoring for toxoplasmosis seroconversion affects the prognosis of patients. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study with 246 newborns (NB) at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis in Goiânia (Brazil) between October 2003 and October 2011. We analyzed the efficacy of maternal treatment with spiramycin. Results A total of 40.7% (66/162) of the neonates were born seriously infected. Vertical transmission associated with reactivation during pregnancy occurred in 5.5% (9/162) of the NB, with one showing severe infection (systemic). The presence of specific immunoglobulins (fetal IgM and NB IgA) suggested the worst prognosis. Treatment of pregnant women by spiramycin resulted in reduced vertical transmission. When infected pregnant women did not undergo proper treatment, the risk of severe infection (neural-optical) in NB was significantly increased. Fetal IgM was associated with ocular impairment in 48.0% (12/25) of the fetuses and neonatal IgA-specific was related to the neuro-ophthalmologic and systemic forms of the disease. When acute toxoplasmosis was identified in the postpartum period, a lack of monitoring of seronegative pregnant women resulted in a higher risk of severe congenital infection. Conclusion Treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin reduces the possibility of transmission of infection to the fetus. However, a lack of proper treatment is associated with the onset of the neural-optical form of congenital infection. Primary preventive measures should be increased for all pregnant women during the prenatal period and secondary prophylaxis through surveillance of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant woman should be introduced to reduce the severity of congenital infection in the environment. PMID:24438336

2014-01-01

18

Maternal serologic screening for toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a rare, but potentially serious, problem during pregnancy. Toxoplasmosis is caused by a protozoal parasite that can be found in warm-blooded animals (including humans); dried cat feces, contaminated soil, or contaminated water; and raw or undercooked meat containing infective tissue cysts. Although cats play a role in the epidemiology of the disease, there is no statistical correlation

Jennifer A. Pinard; Nan S. Leslie; Pamela J. Irvine

2003-01-01

19

Toxoplasmosis A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of  

E-print Network

Toxoplasmosis ­ A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden Background: Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30­50% of the world human, Prandota J, Sovickova´ M, Israili ZH (2014) Toxoplasmosis ­ A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent

Flegr, Jaroslav

20

Present and future prospects for Eutelsat - The European regional satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence, present day, future prospects, and objectives of Eutelsat are described. Eutelsat has been pursuing the goal of providing high performance and a highly effective solution to European telecommunication needs. The results obtained so far show that this objective has been reached. The evolution of the different services over the latter half of the 1980s is illustrated. A cooperative venture between the main operators of basic telecommunication services in Europe, Eutelsat intends to continue to supply, at low cost, the European satellite infrastructure necessary to provide traditional and new services. The Eutelsat Convention's flexibility allows adaptation to the new environment, the accession of new members, and the development of new satellite services for the continent. Two new areas of services which Eutelsat plans to address in the near future - direct broadcast services and land mobile satellite services - are described.

Grenier, Jean

21

[Two cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

Two cases of disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis of a pet mouse and a red panda are described. The pet mouse had a private owner; the red panda lived in a zoological garden in Saxony. At necropsy, both animals suffered from a systemic toxoplasmosis. A severe necrotizing hepatitis was the main histological feature in both animals. Parasitic cysts could be abundantly found in the liver, moderately in the brain and in a low number in other organs. With the PAS-reaction, cysts showed a weak staining in the mouse and a strong staining in the red panda. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry. PMID:22331331

Stief, B; Kiesow, C; Ellenberger, C

2012-01-01

22

Specific floater home ranges and prospective behaviour in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many bird species, floaters are present on the breeding grounds in one or more years before they breed. There is increasing evidence that they have specific home ranges in which they search for information about current and future breeding opportunities. We investigated the role of prospecting in a migratory European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) population. Radio-tracking showed that male starling floaters use specific home range areas during the breeding period. Nest-box observations demonstrated that non-parental nest intrusion is common in the starling and that it is significantly more frequent during the nestling than during the incubation period. In addition, small groups of nest boxes were more likely to be occupied by starlings if they had been put up during the preceding breeding season. The results suggest that floaters try to acquire information about local breeding communities. One specific type of information may be the location of potential breeding sites.

Tobler, Michael; Smith, Henrik G.

23

Fatal acute toxoplasmosis in three golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

Fatal acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in three golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), a breeding pair and their male offspring, by histology and immunohistochemistry. The distribution and severity of lesions differed among the animals, but the small intestine and the pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes were especially affected. Protozoal organisms consistent with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, often clustered, were seen in all lesions and were specifically immunostained with a T. gondii polyclonal antibody. The infection was probably acquired orally. Several breeding groups of golden lion tamarins have succumbed to toxoplasmosis both in North American and European zoos, so this disease should be considered an important problem in this endangered species. Toxoplasma gondii can cause latent infections in New World primates and therefore could potentially induce abortions or congenital infections in wild golden lion tamarins born from latently infected reintroduced females. PMID:9638627

Juan-Sallés, C; Prats, N; Marco, A J; Ramos-Vara, J A; Borrás, D; Fernández, J

1998-03-01

24

Multiple Miscarriages Are Associated with the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the risk of ovarian cancer clearly reduces with each full-term pregnancy, the effect of incomplete pregnancies is unclear. We investigated whether incomplete pregnancies (miscarriages and induced abortions) are associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. This observational study was carried out in female participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 274,442 women

Marieke G. M. Braem; N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; Leo J. Schouten; Roy F. P. M. Kruitwagen; Annekatrin Lukanova; Naomi E. Allen; Petra A. Wark; Anne Tjønneland; Louise Hansen; Christina Marie Braüner; Kim Overvad; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet; Birgit Teucher; Anna Floegel; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; George Adarakis; Maria Plada; Sabina Rinaldi; Veronika Fedirko; Isabelle Romieu; Valeria Pala; Rocco Galasso; Carlotta Sacerdote; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Inger Torhild Gram; Oxana Gavrilyuk; Eiliv Lund; Maria-José Sánchez; Catalina Bonet; Maria-Dolores Chirlaque; Nerea Larrañaga; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Jose R. Quirós; Annika Idahl; Nina Ohlson; Eva Lundin; Karin Jirström; Salma Butt; Konstantinos K. Tsilidis; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nick Wareham; Elio Riboli; Rudolf Kaaks; Petra H. M. Peeters

2012-01-01

25

Clinical and diagnostic findings in 20 patients with toxoplasmosis and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The clinical and diagnostic findings in 20 cases of toxoplasmosis associated with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) were investigated in a prospective study of patients in south-east England. Individual details were recorded by a standardised questionnaire incorporating an evaluation of initial presentation, radiological findings, therapy and clinical progression. Toxoplasma serology was performed by reference assays and the presence

R. E. HOLLIMAN

1991-01-01

26

Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

The current epidemiologic evidence suggests that men with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be at lower risk of developing prostate cancer, but little is known about its association with stage and grade of the disease. The association between self-reported diabetes mellitus at recruitment and risk of prostate cancer was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among 139,131 eligible men, 4,531 were diagnosed with prostate cancer over an average follow-up of 12 years. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for education, smoking status, body mass index, waist circumference, and physical activity. In a subset of men without prostate cancer, the cross-sectional association between circulating concentrations of androgens and insulin-like growth factor proteins with diabetes status was also investigated using linear regression models. Compared to men with no diabetes, men with diabetes had a 26% lower risk of prostate cancer (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.86). There was no evidence that the association differed by stage (p-heterogeneity, 0.19) or grade (p-heterogeneity, 0.48) of the disease, although the numbers were small in some disease subgroups. In a subset of 626 men with hormone measurements, circulating concentrations of androstenedione, total testosterone and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-three were lower in men with diabetes compared to men without diabetes. This large European study has confirmed an inverse association between self-reported diabetes mellitus and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. PMID:24862312

Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Rohrmann, Sabine; Nöthlings, Ute; Arriola, Larraitz; Gunter, Marc J; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J Ramón; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Molina-Montes, Esther; Gavrila Chervase, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay T; Wareham, Nick J; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Malm, Johan; Orho-Melander, Marju; Johansson, Mattias; Stattin, Pär; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

2015-01-15

27

Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Intake of dairy products has been associated with risk of some cancers, but findings are often inconsistent and information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is limited, particularly from prospective settings. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk/cheese/yogurt) and their components (calcium/vitamin D/fats/protein), with first incident HCC (N(cases) = 191) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, including a nested case-control subset (N(cases) = 122) with the assessment of hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infections status, liver damage and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels. For cohort analyses, multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For nested case-control analyses, conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% CI. A total of 477,206 participants were followed-up for an average of 11 years (person-years follow-up = 5,415,385). In the cohort study, a significant positive HCC risk association was observed for total dairy products (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.13-2.43; p(trend) = 0.012), milk (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.24; p(trend) = 0.049), and cheese (HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38; p(trend) = 0.101), but not yogurt (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.65-1.35). Dietary calcium, vitamin D, fat and protein from dairy sources were associated with increased HCC risk, whereas the same nutrients from nondairy sources showed inverse or null associations. In the nested case-control study, similar results were observed among hepatitis-free individuals. Results from this large prospective cohort study suggest that higher consumption of dairy products, particularly milk and cheese, may be associated with increased HCC risk. Validation of these findings in other populations is necessary. Potential biologic mechanisms require further exploration. PMID:24615266

Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trepo, Elisabeth; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Boffetta, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Dik, Vincent K; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Hjartåker, Anette; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro Sanchez, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Lindkvist, Björn; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

2014-10-01

28

Total dietary carbohydrate, sugar, starch and fibre intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To describe dietary carbohydrate intakes and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects, aged between 35–74 years, were administered a standardized, 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g\\/day) of total carbohydrate, sugars, starch and fibre

A E Cust; M R Skilton; M M E van Bakel; J Halkjær; A Olsen; C Agnoli; T Psaltopoulou; E Buurma; E Sonestedt; M D Chirlaque; S Rinaldi; A Tjønneland; M K Jensen; F Clavel-Chapelon; M C Boutron-Ruault; R Kaaks; U Nöthlings; Y Chloptsios; D Zylis; A Mattiello; S Caini; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; G Skeie; C L Parr; E Molina-Montes; J Manjer; I Johansson; A McTaggart; T J Key; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani

2009-01-01

29

Romania's Exchange Rate Policy towards its European Monetary Union Membership - Prospects and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has a focus in considering the implications of the European integration for the present and future exchange rate arrangements between the European Union and Romania as an emerging country. The objective of this paper is to examine rather medium-term outlook for exchange rate arrangement involving Romania in its European membership process and the EU in the new single

Nicu Marcu

2008-01-01

30

Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis?  

PubMed Central

Evidence that prevention, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis is beneficial developed as follows: antiparasitic agents abrogate Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite growth, preventing destruction of infected, cultured, mammalian cells and cure active infections in experimental animals, including primates. They treat active infections in persons who are immune-compromised, limit destruction of retina by replicating parasites and thereby treat ocular toxoplasmosis and treat active infection in the fetus and infant. Outcomes of untreated congenital toxoplasmosis include adverse ocular and neurologic sequelae described in different countries and decades. Better outcomes are associated with treatment of infected infants throughout their first year of life. Shorter intervals between diagnosis and treatment in utero improve outcomes. A French approach for diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus and infant can prevent toxoplasmosis and limit adverse sequelae. In addition, new data demonstrate that this French approach results in favorable outcomes with some early gestation infections. A standardized approach to diagnosis and treatment during gestation has not yet been applied generally in the USA. Nonetheless, a small, similar experience confirms that this French approach is feasible, safe, and results in favorable outcomes in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study cohort. Prompt diagnosis, prevention and treatment reduce adverse sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:19430661

McLeod, Rima; Kieffer, Francois; Sautter, Mari; Hosten, Tiffany; Pelloux, Herve

2009-01-01

31

Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in AIDS Patients in Brazil: Importance of Molecular and Immunological Methods Using Peripheral Blood Samples  

PubMed Central

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral focal lesion in AIDS and still accounts for high morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Its occurrence is more frequent in patients with low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is directly related to the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the population. Therefore, it is important to evaluate sensitive, less invasive, and rapid diagnostic tests. We evaluated the value of PCR using peripheral blood samples on the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis and whether its association with immunological assays can contribute to a timely diagnosis. We prospectively analyzed blood samples from 192 AIDS patients divided into two groups. The first group was composed of samples from 64 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosed by clinical and radiological features. The second group was composed of samples from 128 patients with other opportunistic diseases. Blood collection from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis was done before or on the third day of anti-toxoplasma therapy. PCR for T. gondii, indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and an avidity test for toxoplasmosis were performed on all samples. The PCR sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in blood were 80% and 98%, respectively. Patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis (89%) presented higher titers of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than patients with other diseases (57%) (P < 0.001). These findings suggest the clinical value of the use of both PCR and high titers of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies for the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. This strategy may prevent more invasive approaches. PMID:16207959

Colombo, Fabio A.; Vidal, Jose E.; Oliveira, Augusto C. Penalva de; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Bonasser-Filho, Francisco; Nogueira, Roberta S.; Focaccia, Roberto; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

2005-01-01

32

[Ocular toxoplasmosis: from pathophysiology to microbiological diagnosis].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in immunocompetent subjects: 30% of the world population may be affected, with wide variability. However, despite high seroprevalence, the incidence of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is limited to about 2% of infected patients; thus, about one million patients in France may be estimated to have active or cicatricial OT. Microbiological tools available to the clinician have considerably advanced over the last two decades, allowing the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis to be confirmed in the vast majority of suspected cases. Regardless of the route of infection (congenital or acquired), laboratory confirmation of OT plays a major role in the patient's management, particularly in atypical cases. PMID:23219508

Sauer, A; Villard, O; Bourcier, T; Speeg-Schatz, C; Candolfi, E

2013-01-01

33

Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners  

MedlinePLUS

... are the symptoms of toxoplasmosis? Individuals with healthy immune systems: Most people who become infected with Toxoplasma do ... more. Rarely, eye disease occurs. Individuals with weakened immune systems: People with weakened immune systems may experience severe ...

34

EUROPEANIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract As a strategy of self-representation and a device of power, Europeanization is fundamentally reorganizing territoriality and peoplehood, the two principles of group identification that have shaped modern European order. It is the result of a new level and intensity of integration that has been a reaction to the destruction of this century's first and second world wars and the

John Borneman; Nick Fowler

1997-01-01

35

Development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis: current status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a vaccine for human toxoplasmosis is briefly discussed. Recent progress in knowledge of the protective immune response generated by Toxoplasma gondii and the current status of development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis are highlighted.

Girish M Bhopale

2003-01-01

36

Diet in the Aetiology of Ulcerative Colitis: A European Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake of nutrients and the development of ulcerative colitis in a cohort study. Methods: The study population was

Andrew R. Hart; Robert Luben; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjonneland; Jakob Linseisen; Gabriele Nagel; Göran Berglund; Stefan Lindgren; Olof Grip; Timothy Key; Paul Appleby; Manuela M. Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Göran Hallmans; Åke Danielsson; Richard Palmqvist; Hubert Sjodin; Gun Hägglund; Kim Overvad; Domenico Palli; Giovanna Masala; Elio Riboli; Hugh Kennedy; Ailsa Welch; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nicholas Day; Sheila Bingham

2008-01-01

37

Indo-European and the Nostratic Hypothesis: History of Research, Current Trends, and Future Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of Indo-European languages proposes that this language family is not genetically isolated but is distantly related to certain other language families of northern and central Eurasia, the Indian subcontinent, and the ancient Near East. The history of research into this macrofamily of languages, termed Nostratic, is reviewed, with notes…

Bomhard, Allan R.

38

EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION: PROBLEMS, PROSPECTS AND GLOBAL FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of economic integration has made considerable progress during the 1990s in the European Union (EU). Firstly, with the establishment of a single market in 1993 and now, within a relatively short period of time, the most significant yet, the movement towards a single currency for participating Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) members on 1 January 1999. This will

CHARLES HARVIE

1997-01-01

39

Neuropsychiatric manifestations of latent toxoplasmosis on mothers and their offspring.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases worldwide. It is estimated that approximately one-third of the world's population is latently infected. Infection generally occurs via oral the route and maternal transmission. Damage of the central nervous system is one of the most serious consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis. Moreover, recent investigations proposed that acute and sub-acute congenital toxoplasmosis as well as latent toxoplasmosis during pregnancy; play various roles in the etiology of different neuropsychiatric disorders in mothers and their offspring. This paper reviews new findings about the role of latent toxoplasmosis in the etiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders in mothers and their offspring. PMID:24156764

Abdoli, Amir; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Arbabi, Mohsen; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh

2014-09-01

40

Clinical Features and Treatment of Ocular Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Ocular toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the infection with Toxoplasma gondii through congenital or acquired routes. Once the parasite reaches the retina, it proliferates within host cells followed by rupture of the host cells and invasion into neighboring cells to make primary lesions. Sometimes the restricted parasite by the host immunity in the first scar is activated to infect another lesion nearby the scar. Blurred vision is the main complaint of ocular toxoplasmic patients and can be diagnosed by detection of antibodies or parasite DNA. Ocular toxoplasmosis needs therapy with several combinations of drugs to eliminate the parasite and accompanying inflammation; if not treated it sometimes leads to loss of vision. We describe here clinical features and currently available chemotherapy of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:24039281

Park, Young-Hoon

2013-01-01

41

[Hodgkin's disease with concurrent infection of toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

Hodgkin's disease (HD) is a specific type of malignant lymphoma characteristic of local and general lymphadenectasis. Aquired toxoplasmosis (AT) is one kind of lymphoadenopathy without fever and fatigue. When the two diseases coexist, clinical and pathological misdiagnosis may be made. This is the first male case of toxoplasmosis and Hodgkin's disease in China, diagnosed by surgical removal of the major part of the cervical and supraclavicular masses, detection of blood anti-toxoplasma gondii antibody, PCR analysis of toxoplasma gondii DNA, and pathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of the tumour tissues. The patient treated by radiation and chemotherapy was abated. PMID:10374505

Yu, Z; Zhang, M; Shi, Q

1997-01-01

42

Limits to CBA in UK and European environmental policy: retrospects and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the contemporary debate and the now long standing role of CBA in UK and European environmental policy appraisal\\u000a (EPA) and looks forward to possible future applications. The position taken is that despite its limitations CBA still has\\u000a an important part to play in EPA. However, with the increasingly ‘contested’ nature of environmental and related public policies\\u000a and

R. Kerry Turner

2007-01-01

43

ALOX12 in human toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

ALOX12 is a gene encoding arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), a member of a nonheme lipoxygenase family of dioxygenases. ALOX12 catalyzes the addition of oxygen to arachidonic acid, producing 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which can be reduced to the eicosanoid 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). 12-HETE acts in diverse cellular processes, including catecholamine synthesis, vasoconstriction, neuronal function, and inflammation. Consistent with effects on these fundamental mechanisms, allelic variants of ALOX12 are associated with diseases including schizophrenia, atherosclerosis, and cancers, but the mechanisms have not been defined. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes morbidity and mortality and stimulates an innate and adaptive immune inflammatory reaction. Recently, it has been shown that a gene region known as Toxo1 is critical for susceptibility or resistance to T. gondii infection in rats. An orthologous gene region with ALOX12 centromeric is also present in humans. Here we report that the human ALOX12 gene has susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis (rs6502997 [P, <0.000309], rs312462 [P, <0.028499], rs6502998 [P, <0.029794], and rs434473 [P, <0.038516]). A human monocytic cell line was genetically engineered using lentivirus RNA interference to knock down ALOX12. In ALOX12 knockdown cells, ALOX12 RNA expression decreased and levels of the ALOX12 substrate, arachidonic acid, increased. ALOX12 knockdown attenuated the progression of T. gondii infection and resulted in greater parasite burdens but decreased consequent late cell death of the human monocytic cell line. These findings suggest that ALOX12 influences host responses to T. gondii infection in human cells. ALOX12 has been shown in other studies to be important in numerous diseases. Here we demonstrate the critical role ALOX12 plays in T. gondii infection in humans. PMID:24686056

Witola, William H; Liu, Susan Ruosu; Montpetit, Alexandre; Welti, Ruth; Hypolite, Magali; Roth, Mary; Zhou, Ying; Mui, Ernest; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournie, Gilbert J; Cavailles, Pierre; Bisanz, Cordelia; Boyer, Kenneth; Withers, Shawn; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Swisher, Charles N; Heydemann, Peter T; Rabiah, Peter; Muench, Stephen P; McLeod, Rima

2014-07-01

44

Waterborne Toxoplasmosis, Brazil, from Field to Gene  

PubMed Central

Water was the suspected vehicle of Toxoplasma gondii dissemination in a toxoplasmosis outbreak in Brazil. A case-control study and geographic mapping of cases were performed. T. gondii was isolated directly from the implicated water and genotyped as SAG 2 type I. PMID:16494765

de Moura, Lenildo; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia; Wada, Marcelo Y.; Jones, Jeffrey L.; Tuboi, Suely H.; Carmo, Eduardo H.; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Camargo, Natal J.; Trevisan, Ronaldo; Graca, Regina M.T.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Moura, Iaci; Dubey, J.P.; Garrett, Denise O.

2006-01-01

45

[Toxoplasmosis: new aspects, diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

The position of visceral toxoplasmosis in HIV infection has changed in the late 1980's. The strong prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the French population and the regression of pneumocystosis due to generalization of primary prophylaxis have made cerebral toxoplasmosis the initial manifestation of AIDS in about 20% of the cases. At the same time, a better management of AIDS patients has made it possible to hope for a longer survival, even in patients with very deep immunodeficiency. Altogether, these various elements are in favour of developing a primary prophylaxis in patients at high risk for visceral toxoplasmosis. During the last few years, other visceral forms of this infection have emerged, which are either localized (chorioretinitis, diffuse encephalitis) or disseminated, affecting the lung, liver, heart, muscles, bone marrow and other viscera. These forms usually imply a very severe immunodeficiency. Because of the toxicity of the reference therapy, sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine, attempts are being made at developing more effective and better tolerated treatments. At the moment, the clindamycin-pyrimethamine combination is a possible alternative. Other compounds, and in particular macrolids, are still under study. PMID:1565998

Oksenhendler, E; Matheron, S

1992-01-15

46

Abortion Due to Toxoplasmosis in Small Ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The present study was carried out on a flock of sheep and goats suffered from late abortion with incidences of 35.6 and 43.7%, respectively. Toxoplasmosis was a prime suspect. Blood samples were taken from infected dams for serological examination. Tissue samples were collected from internal organs of aborted feti for bacteriological examination, PCR and histopathological study. Serological examinations

Y. F. Ahmed; S. M. Sokkar; H. M. Desouky; A. H. Soror

47

Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime  

E-print Network

The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion since many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R&D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Angstrom FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with the energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in sub-Angstrom regime. As an option for generation of brilliant photon beams at short wa...

Brinkmann, R; Sekutowicz, J; Yurkov, M V

2014-01-01

48

Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion for many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R&D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Ångström FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with electron energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in the sub-Ångström regime. As an option for generating brilliant photon beams at short wavelengths we also consider harmonic lasing that has recently attracted a significant attention.

Brinkmann, R.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Sekutowicz, J.; Yurkov, M. V.

2014-12-01

49

Results of a Peripheral Cutting Balloon Prospective Multicenter European Registry in Hemodialysis Vascular Access  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To report initial experience with the Peripheral Cutting Balloon (PCB) in treatment of failing hemodialysis shunts. Methods. A total of 190 patients (95 men, 95 women; average age 64.4 {+-} 11.9 years, range 32-87 years) who were treated with the PCB for pressure-resistant stenosis, restenosis or failed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the venous limb of an arteriovenous shunt were followed in seven European centers using a simple registry. The group consisted of 109 de novo lesions (57%) and 79 restenotic lesions (43%). Results. Technical success was achieved in 88.9% of cases. Primary patency was as follows (the results for whole group and simultaneous results for de novo lesions and restenoses are presented): 1 month (140 patients followed): 94%, 98%, and 93%; 3 months (116 patients followed): 93%, 98%, and 92%; 6 months (40 patients followed): 85%, 92%, and 79%; 12 months (27 patients followed): 74%, 87%, and 48%. No complication occurred. Patients experienced an equal or lower level of pain during the procedure compared with conventional PTA. Conclusion. The PCB proved to be successful in dilating pressure-resistant stenoses. We cannot conclude whether PCB angioplasty can lower the restenosis rate in hemodialysis access lesions, but the long-term patency for de novo lesions is high. A further randomized study is advisable.

Peregrin, Jan H., E-mail: jape@medicon.cz; Rocek, Miloslav [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)

2007-04-15

50

[Real-time quantitative PCR for toxoplasmosis diagnosis].  

PubMed

Congenital toxoplasmosis results from foetus contamination by Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy. It is a frequent and severe condition calling for close monitoring of mothers at risk. During the last decades, numerous advances have been made specially in the antenatal diagnosis. The congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis relies currently on PCR test of amniotic fluid, with a sensitivity of 80%. More recently, real-time quantitative PCR has been developed to improve toxoplasmosis diagnosis. We therefore compared the diagnosis value of quantitative real-time PCR with our conventional PCR-hybridization for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:15689314

Ordinaire, I; Simon, A; Fréalle, E; Soula, F; Valat, A-S; Rouland, V; Subtil, D; Dei-Cas, E; Camus, D; Delhaes, L

2005-01-01

51

A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel, and shipyard welders.  

PubMed Central

A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies located in nine European countries has been assembled with the aim of investigating the relation of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. The observation period and the criteria for inclusion of welders varied from country to country. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort and observed numbers of deaths (and for some countries incident cancer cases) were compared with expected numbers calculated from national reference rates. Mortality and cancer incidence ratios were analysed by cause category, time since first exposure, duration of employment, and estimated cumulative dose to total fumes, chromium (Cr), Cr VI, and nickel (Ni). Overall a statistically significant excess was reported for mortality from lung cancer (116 observed v 86.81 expected deaths, SMR = 134). When analysed by type of welding an increasing pattern with time since first exposure was present for both mild steel and stainless steel welders, which was more noticeable for the subcohort of predominantly stainless steel welders. No clear relation was apparent between mortality from lung cancer and duration of exposure to or estimated cumulative dose of Ni or Cr. Whereas the patterns of lung cancer mortality in these results suggest that the risk of lung cancer is higher for stainless steel than mild steel welders the different level of risk for these two categories of welding exposure cannot be quantified with precision. The report of five deaths from pleural mesothelioma unrelated to the type of welding draws attention to the risk of exposure to asbestos in welding activities. PMID:2015204

Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Andersen, A; Anderson, K; Becker, N; Chang-Claude, J; Ferro, G; Gérin, M; Gray, C N; Hansen, K S

1991-01-01

52

Comparison between two amplification sets for molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

PCR is now commonly applied to the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Although several methods are available, comparative studies are few, making it difficult to compare the performance of each technique. We compared the sensitivities of two real-time PCR assays through a prospective study on fetuses, neonates, and immunocompromised patients and on the ocular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The first system targeted the widely used B1 gene (GenBank accession number AF179871) while the second (RE) targeted a more recently described sequence repeated roughly 200 to 300 times (GenBank accession number AF146527). We demonstrated that molecular diagnosis requires the duplication of PCR assays, especially with the B1 system, as only one PCR was positive in 33.3% of cases. Our study showed that the RE target was more sensitive for all biological samples (amniotic fluid, placenta, aqueous humor, whole blood, and cerebrospinal and bronchoalveolar fluids) and significantly improved the performance of the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Taking into consideration all clinical samples, the mean gain in the crossing point value was 4.2 +/- 1.7 cycles and was even more significant for amniotic fluid (5.8 +/- 1.7 cycles). PMID:16517845

Cassaing, S; Bessières, M H; Berry, A; Berrebi, A; Fabre, R; Magnaval, J F

2006-03-01

53

Dietary intakes and risk of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).  

PubMed

The etiology of leukemias cannot entirely be explained by known risk factors, including ionizing radiation, benzene exposure, and infection with human T cell leukemia virus. A number of studies suggested that diet influences the risk of adult leukemias. However, results have been largely inconsistent. We examined the potential association between dietary factors and risk of leukemias among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Among the 477,325 participants with mean follow-up of 11.34 yr (SD = 2.47), 773 leukemias (373 and 342 cases of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia, respectively) were identified. Diet over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline using a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to explore the association between dietary factors that have previously been associated with leukemia risk, including red and processed meat, poultry, offal, fish, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and seeds/nuts, and risk of both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. No significant associations were observed between dietary measures and total, lymphoid, and myeloid leukemias. Additional subtype analyses showed no dietary association with risk of major subtypes of leukemias. In summary, this study did not support a possible link between selected dietary factors and risk of leukemias. PMID:24279598

Saberi Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Peeters, Petra; Romieu, Isabelle; Kelly, Rachel; Riboli, Elio; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Nieters, Alexandra; Teucher, Birgit; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Valanou, Elisavet; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Parr, Christine L; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine M; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel

2014-01-01

54

Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

There are inconsistent and limited data available to assess the relationship between fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We examined the consumption of total fat, fat sources and fat subtypes in relation to risk of EOC and its major histologic subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition which includes incident invasive (n=1095) and borderline (n=96) EOC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate models, we observed no association with consumption of total fat, animal or plant fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, or fatty fish and risk of invasive EOC. There was, however, an increased risk of invasive EOC in the highest category of intake (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1) of polyunsaturated fat (HR=1.22, 95% CI=1.02-1.48, Ptrend=0.02). We did not observe heterogeneity in the risk associations in comparisons of serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes. This study does not support an etiological role for total fat intake in relation to EOC risk; however, based on observations of a positive association between intake of polyunsaturated fat and invasive EOC risk in the current and previous studies, this fat subtype warrants further investigation to determine its potential role in EOC development. PMID:25155210

Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Dossus, Laure; Fagherazzi, Guy; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quirós, J Ramón; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Chamosa, Saioa; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Chajes, Veronique; Gunter, Marc J

2014-10-01

55

Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Combined with Disseminated Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old man presented with mental change, fever, abdominal pain, tenderness and palpable mass on the lower abdomen. He was a non-Korean engineer and did not accompany a legal guardian, so medical history taking was difficult due to his mental status. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple rim-enhanced lesions of the brain, and abdominal computed tomography showed huge paraspinal abscess. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed poorly defined nodular opacities. We initially thought that this patient was infected with toxoplasmosis with typical cerebral image finding and immunoglobulin laboratory finding of cerebrospinal fluid and serum study. The abdominal abscess was confirmed as tuberculosis through the pathologic finding of caseous necrosis. We used anti-tuberculosis medication and anti-toxoplasmosis medication for almost 4 months, and then his clinical state and radiological findings were considerably improved. PMID:22792433

Ahn, Poong Gi; Lee, Dong Min; Kim, Hyeok Su

2012-01-01

56

[Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Niamey, Niger].  

PubMed

A seroepidemiological survey of toxoplasmosis was carried out in Niamey, Niger, in 1992. Three hundred and seventy-one sera from 200 females and 171 males were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay for IgG. Using a cut-off value of 12 UI, 67 sera (18%) were positive. In this group detection of specific IgM by ELISA with immunocapture revealed 8 positive sera (11.9%). Seroprevalence of specific IgG was not correlated with ethnic origin or sex but did increase with age from 6.9% in subjects under 5 years to 34.9% in subjects 50 years and over. These findings are comparable with those from previous studies in similar climates and confirm that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis is higher in humid coastal regions than dry desert areas. PMID:8767792

Julvez, J; Magnaval, J F; Meynard, D; Perie, C; Baixench, M T

1996-01-01

57

Contribution of molecular diagnosis to congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on 73 samples from mothers and children with congenital toxoplasmosis. PCR assays had significantly higher sensitivity in prenatal period than in birth period when targeting the 529-bp repeat element (81.3% versus 36.0%) or the B1 gene (64.6% versus 20.0%). PMID:23518182

Delhaes, Laurence; Yera, Hélène; Ache, Sandrine; Tsatsaris, Vassili; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique

2013-06-01

58

Primary intraocular (retinal) lymphoma following ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: Toxoplasmosis gondii (T. gondii) is a common world-wide parasite that presents in the eye with focal retinochoriditis and vitritis. Although it is rare, ocular toxoplamosis has been linked to primary intraocular (retinal) lymphoma, which is mostly a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. METHODS: An elderly female patient was treated for recurrent ocular toxoplasmosis, and because of progressive vitritis, a diagnostic vitrectomy was performed. Shortly afterwards she developed multiple brain lesions. Pathological examinations of the vitreous specimen and cerebral tissues were conducted including tests for T. gondii, EBV, and CMV DNA. RESULTS: The patient initially responded to anti-toxoplasmosis treatment, but continued to have persistent vitritis. She was diagnosed with primary intraocular lymphoma and a repeated MRI revealed cerebral lesions. Brain biopsy confirmed lymphoma. T. gondii DNA was found in malignant vitreous cells, but was absent in the non-malignant vitreous cells and brain lymphoma cells. CMV and EBV genes were not found in any of the lymphoma cells. CONCLUSION: T. gondii may have played a role in lymphoproliferation and PIOL development. PMID:20454548

Sauer, Theodor C; Meyers, Sanford M; Shen, Defen; Vegh, Sara; Vygantas, Charles; Chan, Chi-Chao

2010-04-01

59

Primary intraocular (retinal) lymphoma following ocular toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Toxoplasmosis gondii (T. gondii) is a common world-wide parasite that presents in the eye with focal retinochoriditis and vitritis. Although it is rare, ocular toxoplamosis has been linked to primary intraocular (retinal) lymphoma, which is mostly a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Methods An elderly female patient was treated for recurrent ocular toxoplasmosis, and because of progressive vitritis, a diagnostic vitrectomy was performed. Shortly afterwards she developed multiple brain lesions. Pathological examinations of the vitreous specimen and cerebral tissues were conducted including tests for T. gondii, EBV, and CMV DNA. Results The patient initially responded to anti-toxoplasmosis treatment, but continued to have persistent vitritis. She was diagnosed with primary intraocular lymphoma and a repeated MRI revealed cerebral lesions. Brain biopsy confirmed lymphoma. T. gondii DNA was found in malignant vitreous cells, but was absent in the non-malignant vitreous cells and brain lymphoma cells. CMV and EBV genes were not found in any of the lymphoma cells. Conclusion T. gondii may have played a role in lymphoproliferation and PIOL development. PMID:20454548

Sauer, Theodor C.; Meyers, Sanford M.; Shen, DeFen; Vegh, Sara; Vygantas, Charles; Chan, Chi-Chao

2009-01-01

60

Endogenous sex hormones and endometrial cancer risk in women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological data show that reproductive and hormonal factors are involved in the etiology of endometrial cancer, but there is little data on the association with endogenous sex hormone levels. We analyzed the association between prediagnostic serum concentrations of sex steroids and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using a nested case–control design of 247 incident endometrial cancer cases and 481 controls, matched on center, menopausal status, age, variables relating to blood collection, and, for premenopausal women, phase of menstrual cycle. Using conditional regression analysis, endometrial cancer risk among postmenopausal women was positively associated with increasing levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estrone, total estradiol, and free estradiol. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest versus lowest tertile were 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50–4.72; P=0.002 for a continuous linear trend) for estrone, 2.07 (95% CI 1.20–3.60; P=0.001) for estradiol, and 1.66 (95% CI 0.98–2.82; P=0.001) for free estradiol. For total and free testosterone, ORs for the highest versus lowest tertile were 1.44 (95% CI 0.88–2.36; P=0.05) and 2.05 (95% CI 1.23–3.42; P=0.005) respectively. Androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were not associated with risk. Sex hormone-binding globulin was significantly inversely associated with risk (OR for the highest versus lowest tertile was 0.57, 95% CI 0.34–0.95; P=0.004). In premenopausal women, serum sex hormone concentrations were not clearly associated with endometrial cancer risk, but numbers were too small to draw firm conclusions. In conclusion, relatively high blood concentrations of estrogens and free testosterone are associated with an increased endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:18509001

Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Cust, Anne; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Peeters, Petra H; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Lahmann, Petra H; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Larranaga, Nerea; Pera, Guillem; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Ramon Quiros, J; Ardanaz, Eva; Tj?nneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Linseisen, Jakob; Schulz, Mandy; Boeing, Heiner; Lundin, Eva; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitiros; Naska, Androniki; Tumino, Rosario; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

2008-01-01

61

Association of Sleep Duration with Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study  

PubMed Central

Background In view of the reduced number of hours devoted to sleep in modern western societies the question arises what effects might result from sleep duration on occurrence of chronic diseases. Methods Data from 23 620 middle-aged participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study, that were recruited between 1994–1998, were analyzed by using Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration at baseline and incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Results During a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years 841 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, 197 cases of myocardial infarction, 169 incident strokes, and 846 tumor cases were observed. Compared to persons sleeping 7-<8 h/day, participants with sleep duration of <6 h had a significantly increased risk of stroke (Hazard Ratio (HR)?=?2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–3.59), cancer (HR?=?1.43, 95% CI: 1.09–1.87), and overall chronic diseases (HR?=?1.31, 95% CI: 1.10–1.55) in multivariable adjusted models. Self-reported daytime sleep at baseline was not associated with incident chronic diseases in the overall study sample. However, there had been an effect modification of daytime sleep by hypertension showing that daytime sleep was inversely related to chronic disease risk among non-hypertensive participants but directly related to chronic diseases among hypertensives. Conclusion Sleep duration of less than 6 h is a risky behavior for the development of chronic diseases, particularly stroke and cancer, and should be therefore addressed in public health campaigns. PMID:22295122

von Ruesten, Anne; Weikert, Cornelia; Fietze, Ingo; Boeing, Heiner

2012-01-01

62

Acute Papillitis in Young Female with Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Papillitis and complicating acute toxoplasma retinochoroiditis, are unusual and atypical features of toxoplasmosis. This report presents a female with unusual acute papillitis. This patient had an active toxoplasmic chorioretinitis lesion that appeared to involve the optic nerve head and a major blood vessel as well as central nervous systems (CNS). Papillitis may be secondary to juxtapapillary retinitis (Jensen choroiditis). Very rarely, the optic nerve head may be the primary site of involvement. This case report illustrates a rare presentation of acute papillitis in a young immunocompetent female. PMID:21887084

Alipanahi, Rakhshandeh; Sayyahmelli, Sima

2011-01-01

63

Toxoplasmosis: a serological survey in Ontario wildlife.  

PubMed

Sera from seven species of wild animals in Ontario were examined for antibody to Toxoplasma gondii using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Of 158 sera tested, 53% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 56% of the striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), 78% of the coyotes (Canis latrans), 33% of the black bears (Ursus americanus), 18% of the short tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and none of the field voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) had antibody. Antibody to T. gondii was present in sera from wild animals captured throughout southern Ontario. A positive linear correlation between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and age of fox pups was calculated (p < 0.005). PMID:16502687

Quinn, P J; Ramsden, R O; Johnston, D H

1976-10-01

64

A prospective analysis of thrombotic events in the European collaboration study on low-dose aspirin in polycythemia (ECLAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. – The clinical course of polycythemia vera (PV) is often complicated by arterial and venous thrombosis. Current information on these vascular complications derives from very few prospective clinical trials and several retrospective studies. The purpose of this analysis is to report the incidence, clinical features and risk factors for thrombosis in a large number of patients prospectively followed in

Guido Finazzi

2004-01-01

65

Self-rated health and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-InterAct study: a case-cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the association between self-rated health and risk of type 2 diabetes and whether the strength of this association is consistent across five European centres. Design Population-based prospective case-cohort study. Setting Enrolment took place between 1992 and 2000 in five European centres (Bilthoven, Cambridge, Heidelberg, Potsdam and Umeå). Participants Self-rated health was assessed by a baseline questionnaire in 3399 incident type 2 diabetic case participants and a centre-stratified subcohort of 4619 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study which was drawn from a total cohort of 340?234 participants in the EPIC. Primary outcome measure Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate centre-specific HRs and 95% CIs for incident type 2 diabetes controlling for age, sex, centre, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, physical activity and hypertension. The centre-specific HRs were pooled across centres by random effects meta-analysis. Results Low self-rated health was associated with a higher hazard of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age and sex (pooled HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.88). After additional adjustment for health-related variables including BMI, the association was attenuated but remained statistically significant (pooled HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.53). I2 index for heterogeneity across centres was 13.3% (p=0.33). Conclusions Low self-rated health was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The association could be only partly explained by other health-related variables, of which obesity was the strongest. We found no indication of heterogeneity in the association between self-rated health and type 2 diabetes mellitus across the European centres. PMID:23471609

Wennberg, Patrik; Rolandsson, Olov; van der A, Daphne L; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Feller, Silke; Bergmann, Manuela M; Langenberg, Claudia; Sharp, Stephen J; Forouhi, Nita; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas

2013-01-01

66

Daño renal agudo por sulfadiacina en paciente con toxoplasmosis oftálmica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient on treatment with sulfadiazine plus pyrimethamine for ophthalmic toxoplasmosis developed renal failure. Using a microscope it is possible to see the characteristic wheat sheaf images of the sulfadiazine crystals.

Susana García de Cruz; Olaia Cores Calvo; Ángel Campos Bueno; Cristina Peña Busto

2011-01-01

67

Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies. PMID:22491772

Darde, Marie-Laure

2012-01-01

68

Prediction of Psychosis in Adolescents and Young Adults at High Risk Results From the Prospective European Prediction of Psychosis Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Indicated prevention is currently regarded as the most promising strategy to attenuate, delay, or even avert psychosis. Existing criteria need improvement in terms of specificity and individual risk assessment to allow for better targeted and earlier interventions. Objective: To develop a differential predictive clinical model of transition to first-episode psychosis. Design: Prospective multicenter, naturalistic field study with a total

S. Ruhrmann; F. Schultze-Lutter; R. K. R. Salokangas; M. Heinimaa; D. Linszen; P. Dingemans; M. Birchwood; P. Patterson; G. Juckel; A. Heinz; A. Morrison; S. Lewis; Reventlow von H. G; J. Klosterkoetter

2010-01-01

69

Job stress, absenteeism and coronary heart disease European cooperative study (the JACE study). Design of a multicentre prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The motives, objectives and design of a multicentre prospective study on job stress, absenteeism and coronary heart disease in Europe (the JACE study) is presented in this paper. Some specific gaps in the reviewed literature are explicitly tapped into by the JACE study. Its objectives are i) to compare the distributions of the Karasek job stress scales for the

IRENE HOUTMAN; MARCEL KORNITZER; PATRICK DE SMET; RAMAZAN KOYUNCU; GUY DE BACKER; EDWIN PELFRENE; MONIQUE ROMON; CHARLES BOULENGUEZ; MARCO FERRARIO; INAKI PEREZ; LARS WILHELMSEN; ANNIKA ROSENGREN; PER-OLOF OSTERGREN

1999-01-01

70

Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, can induce various hormonal and behavioural alterations in infected hosts, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between latent toxoplasmosis and maternal AITD in pregnancy. Methods Cross-sectional study in 1248 consecutive pregnant women in the 9–12th gestational weeks. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and free thyroxine (FT4) were assessed by chemiluminescence; the Toxoplasma status was detected by the complement fixation test (CFT) and anti-Toxoplasma IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Overall, 22.5% of the women were positive for latent toxoplasmosis and 14.7% were screened positive for AITD. Women with latent toxoplasmosis had more often highly elevated TPOAb than the Toxoplasma-negative ones (p?=?0.004), and latent toxoplasmosis was associated with decrease in serum TSH levels (p?=?0.049). Moreover, we found a positive correlation between FT4 and the index of positivity for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (p?=?0.033), which was even stronger in the TPOAb-positive Toxoplasma-positive women, (p?=?0.014), as well as a positive correlation between FT4 and log2 CFT (p?=?0.009). Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis was associated with a mild increase in thyroid hormone production in pregnancy. The observed Toxoplasma-associated changes in the parameters of AITD are mild and do not seem to be clinically relevant; however, they could provide new clues to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID:25350671

Kankova, Sarka; Prochazkova, Lucie; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel; Springer, Drahomira; Potlukova, Eliska

2014-01-01

71

Individual patient data meta-analysis of prenatal treatment effect for congenital toxoplasmosis.  

E-print Network

. Consequently, infected mothers can only be detected by serological testing. Prenatal testing for toxoplasmosisIndividual patient data meta-analysis of prenatal treatment effect for congenital toxoplasmosis: rodolphe.thiebaut@isped.u-bordeaux2.fr Running title: Prenatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis Word

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Teaching by Satellite in a European Virtual Classroom. [and] Open Universities--Their Rationale, Characteristics and Prospects. ZIFF Papiere 92.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of two papers in this publication is "Teaching by Satellite in a European Virtual Classroom" (Desmond Keegan). It describes the first accredited university course by satellite, a 1-year certificate course in safety and health at work offered by the University College Dublin. It discusses the enrollment of 219 students at 10 sites (the…

Keegan, Desmond; Holmberg, Borje

73

A prospective study of the effects of marital status and family relations on young children's adjustment among African American and European American families.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development prospectively, using an ethnically diverse sample of approximately 300 low-income families. We also were able to examine the moderating effects of ethnicity on child adjustment in always two-parent, to-be-divorced, already-divorced, and always single-parent families. Results indicated that to-be-divorced European American and African American families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for predivorce differences in child behavior problems, whereas rejecting parenting accounted for differences in problem behavior between always single-parent and always two-parent families. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of ethnicity in influencing young, low-income children's adjustment to different family structures. PMID:10368919

Shaw, D S; Winslow, E B; Flanagan, C

1999-01-01

74

Ocular toxoplasmosis II: clinical features, pathology and management  

PubMed Central

The term, ocular toxoplasmosis, refers to eye disease related to infection with the parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Recurrent posterior uveitis is the typical form of this disease, characterized by unilateral, necrotizing retinitis with secondary choroiditis, occurring adjacent to a pigmented retinochoroidal scar and associated with retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Multiple atypical presentations are also described, and severe inflammation is observed in immunocompromised patients. Histopathological correlations demonstrate focal coagulative retinal necrosis, and early in the course of the disease, this inflammation is based in the inner retina. For typical ocular toxoplasmosis, a diagnosis is easily made on clinical examination. In atypical cases, ocular fluid testing to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or to determine intraocular production of specific antibody may be extremely helpful for establishing aetiology. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in most communities, serological testing for T. gondii antibodies is generally not useful. Despite a lack of published evidence for effectiveness of current therapies, most ophthalmologists elect to treat patients with ocular toxoplasmosis that reduces or threatens to impact vision. Classic therapy consists of oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, plus systemic corticosteroid. Substantial toxicity of this drug combination has spurred interest in alternative antimicrobials, as well as local forms of drug delivery. At this time, however, no therapeutic approach is curative of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:22712598

Butler, Nicholas J; Furtado, Joao M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Smith, Justine R

2014-01-01

75

Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - the EPIC-InterAct study  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including 8 countries with large geographical variation. Methods Using a case-cohort design, 11,245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N=15,798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. 24-h diet recall data from a subsample (N=2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. Results Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95 % CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22), (ptrend=0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect [HR (95% CI)] using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 ?g/day dietary vitamin D. Conclusion This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type-2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person. PMID:24253760

Abbas, Sascha; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Beulens, Joline WJ; Buijsse, Brian; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Masters, Tilman Kuhn; Mattiello, Amalia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Quiros, J. Ramon; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Saieva, Calogero; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

2014-01-01

76

Ecological-Level Associations Between Highly Processed Food Intakes and Plasma Phospholipid Elaidic Acid Concentrations: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine

Véronique Chajès; Carine Biessy; Graham Byrnes; Geneviève Deharveng; Mitra Saadatian-Elahi; Mazda Jenab; Petra H. M. Peeters; Marga Ocké; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Ingegerd Johansson; Göran Hallmans; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfält; Paula Jakszyn; Carlos A. González; Jose-Maria Huerta; Carmen Martinez; Pilar Amiano; Laudina Rodriguez Suárez; Eva Ardanaz; Anne Tjønneland; Jytte Halkjaer; Kim Overvad; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Franco Berrino; Valeria Pala; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Maria Santucci de Magistris; Elisabeth A. Spencer; Francesca L. Crowe; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Ute Nöethlings; Karina Standahl Olsen; Guri Skeie; Eiliv Lund; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimosthenis Zilis; Erifili Oustoglou; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Elio Riboli; Nadia Slimani

2011-01-01

77

Endogenous androgens and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by tumor characteristics in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

The role of endogenous androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in ovarian carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous disease and there are no prospective data on endogenous androgens and EOC risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage) or the dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis (i.e. type I vs. type II, leading to less or more aggressive tumors). We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort evaluating androgens and SHBG and invasive EOC risk by tumor characteristics. Female participants who provided a blood sample and were not using exogenous hormones at blood donation were eligible (n = 183,257). A total of 565 eligible women developed EOC; two controls (n = 1,097) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression models. We observed no association between androgens, SHBG and EOC overall. A doubling of androstenedione reduced risk of serous carcinomas by 21% (odds ratio (OR)log2?=?0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?[0.64-0.97]). Moreover, associations differed for low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, with positive associations for low-grade and inverse associations for high-grade carcinomas (e.g. androstenedione: low grade: ORlog2 ?=?1.99 [0.98-4.06]; high grade: ORlog2 ?=?0.75 [0.61-0.93], phet ???0.01), similar associations were observed for type I/II tumors. This is the first prospective study to evaluate androgens, SHBG and EOC risk by tumor characteristics and type I/II status. Our findings support a possible role of androgens in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional studies exploring this association are needed. PMID:24890047

Ose, Jennifer; Fortner, Renée T; Rinaldi, Sabina; Schock, Helena; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Dossus, Laure; Fournier, Agnes; Baglietto, Laura; Romieu, Isabelle; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Brändstedt, Jenny; Lundin, Eva; Idahl, Annika; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T; Lund, Eiliv; Kaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunther, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

2015-01-15

78

Toxoplasmosis Update and Public Health Implications  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii has a coccidian life cycle in the intestine of domestic and wild felids that includes a series of asexual and sexual stages and an oocyst stage that is shed in the feces. Oocysts complete their development outside the body, eventually becoming infective for about 350 species of vertebrates including cats and man. The effects of climate on oocyst survival and the physical and biological means of oocyst dispersal are discussed. Infectivity and pathogenicity for livestock species vary. Acute disease results from rapidly multiplying tachyzoites that may be transmitted by carnivorism, transfusion, vertical transmission and other routes. Patent infections may persist for the life of a host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. Bradyzoites initiate acute infection in other hosts after carnivorism or organ transplantation or in the same host after immunosuppression. Also discussed are: (a) prevalence of T. gondii in livestock as determined by digestion and serological techniques, (b) identification in humans as accomplished by isolation, serological and skin test techniques and (c) identification in cats as accomplished primarily by fecal examinations for oocysts infective for mice. Source of human infections, major outbreaks, treatment, effects on mental health and methods for preventing toxoplasmosis in man and livestock are listed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7337909

Fayer, R.

1981-01-01

79

First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuñez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castaño, Giovanny

2011-01-01

80

Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 ± 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 ± 14.7 years, P < 0.0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0.414, 95% CI 0.2231-0.7692, P = 0.007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT. PMID:23507508

Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandão; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C

2014-01-01

81

Paradoxical effect of clindamycin in experimental, acute toxoplasmosis in cats.  

PubMed Central

Cats were experimentally inoculated parenterally with the ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii to characterize the efficacies of two different dosages of orally administered clindamycin hydrochloride in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Concentrations of clindamycin hydrochloride at levels previously suggested to be inhibitory to T. gondii replication in vitro were achieved in the serum and aqueous humor but not in the cerebrospinal fluid. Antibiotic therapy, initiated 7 days after inoculation, resulted in no significant difference in the morphometric severity of ocular posterior segment lesions compared with that in the control groups. Treatment appeared to blunt T. gondii-specific immunoglobulin M production but had no significant effect on immunoglobulin G titers. Paradoxically, clindamycin administration was associated with increased morbidity and mortality from hepatitis and interstitial pneumonia, which are characteristic of generalized toxoplasmosis. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha activity was detected at moderate levels in all groups of cats and correlated with the severity of clinical disease. The results of the study suggest that clindamycin, when administered at this specific time interval following inoculation, does not ameliorate ocular lesions and has a detrimental effect on the clinical course of acute, experimental toxoplasmosis in cats. The factors responsible for and the relevance of this detrimental effect to naturally occurring toxoplasmosis in humans and pet cats were not clear from the study but may relate to an antibiotic-associated decrease in the antitoxoplasmic activity of phagocytic cells responsible for the control of T. gondii. PMID:8726000

Davidson, M G; Lappin, M R; Rottman, J R; Tompkins, M B; English, R V; Bruce, A T; Jayawickrama, J

1996-01-01

82

Fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently congenitally acquired. PMID:3586212

Dubey, J P; Quinn, W J; Weinandy, D

1987-04-01

83

Fatal Neonatal Toxoplasmosis in a Bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently con- genitally acquired.

J. P. Dube; W. J. Quinn; D. Weinandy

84

Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Trinidad  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8%) were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P < 0.05; ?2) higher in adult water buffalo, 12.4% (14 of 113) compared with young water buffalo, 4.2% (6 of 143). Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis across the seven farms ranged from 0.0% (0 of 20) in Farm G compared with 20.0% (10 of 50) detected in Farm B. The differences in seropositivity by management system, free-ranging 6.7% (14 of 213) and semi-intensive 10.0% (12 of 120) and by sex, in male 6.7% (7 of 104) and female 8.3% (19 of 229) water buffalo, were not statistically significant (P > 0.05; ?2). This is the first documentation of toxoplasmosis in water buffalo in Trinidad. PMID:22195295

Persad, Anil; Charles, Roxanne; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.

2011-01-01

85

Decrease of psychomotor performance in subjects with latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis  

E-print Network

of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, U nemocnice 1, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic $ Centre for Occupational of infection and mean reaction time suggested that slow and cumulative effects of latent toxoplasmosis rather for the decrease of psychomotor performance of infected subjects. To our knowledge, this is the first study

Flegr, Jaroslav

86

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Latent toxoplasmosis reduces gray matter density in schizophrenia  

E-print Network

, Faculty of Science of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, and 4Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract Objectives. To address the role of latent T. gondii. The latent toxoplasmosis has been thought to be asymp- tomatic and the clinical consequences of this long

Flegr, Jaroslav

87

Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case–control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76–1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96–1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. What's new? High dairy protein intake has previously been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The current study was nested in EPIC, and results from this first Europe-wide study suggest that while the C/T13910 lactase polymorphism is associated with milk intake, the variant has no large effect on prostate cancer risk. The data illustrate the challenges of applying mendelian randomisation to explore the relationship between dairy product consumption and cancer risk. Very large studies with both genetic and dietary data are thus needed for investigations using genetic proxies of nutritional exposures. PMID:22965418

Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tj?nneland, Anne; F?ns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramon Quiros, J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as); Stattin, Par; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

2013-01-01

88

Promoting health equity in European children: Design and methodology of the prospective EPHE (Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity) evaluation study  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing health inequalities is a top priority of the public health agendas in Europe. The EPHE project aims to analyse the added value of a community-based interventional programme based on EPODE methodology, adapted for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in childhood obesity. The interventions that will be implemented by this project focus on four energy balance-related behaviours (fruit and vegetable consumption, tap water intake, physical inactivity, sleep duration) and their determinants. This article presents the design of the effect evaluation of the EPHE project. Methods/Design This is a prospective two-year follow-up evaluation study, which will collect data on the energy balance-related behaviours and potential environmental determinants of 6–8 year olds, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents. For this purpose a parental self-reported questionnaire is constructed. This assesses the socio-economic status of the parents (5 items) and the dietary (12 items), sedentary (2 items) and sleeping (4 items) behaviour of the child. Alongside potential family-environmental determinants are assessed. The EPHE parental questionnaire will be disseminated in schools of a selected medium-sized city in seven European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Portugal, Romania, The Netherlands). Discussion This study will evaluate the effects of the EPHE community-based interventional programmes. Furthermore, it will provide evidence for children’s specific energy balance-related behaviours and family environmental determinants related to socio-economic inequalities, in seven European countries. PMID:24690078

2014-01-01

89

A large prospective European cohort study of patients treated with strontium ranelate and followed up over 3 years.  

PubMed

Strontium ranelate has been available as an osteoporosis treatment in Europe since 2004. This article describes a large European observational survey of the use of strontium ranelate in clinical daily practice. A retrospective observational registry included 32,446 women consulting for postmenopausal osteoporosis in seven countries. Within the registry, 12,046 women were receiving strontium ranelate and were followed up over 3 years. The baseline characteristics of the follow-up cohort were similar to those of the whole registry cohort (age, 68.9 ± 10.3 years; body mass index, 25.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); lumbar spine T-score, -2.57 ± 0.85 SD; femoral neck T-score, -2.11 ± 0.86 SD). At baseline, 77 % of patients had at least one risk factor for osteoporosis, and 46 % had a previous history of osteoporotic fracture. Mean duration of follow-up was 32.0 ± 9.7 months, and treatment duration was 25.2 ± 13.7 months (24,956 patient-years of treatment). Persistence with strontium ranelate was 80 % at 1 year, 68 % at 2 years, and 64 % at 32 months; most patients (about 80 %) reported rarely omitting a dose. At least one emergent adverse event was reported in 2,674 (22 %) patients, most frequently gastrointestinal side effects. The crude incidence of venous thromboembolic events was 2.1/1,000 patient-years. No cases of hypersensitivity reactions, such as drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Steven-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis, were reported. During follow-up, a fracture occurred in 890 patients (7 %); 429 of the fractures were nonvertebral fractures. Our observational survey over 32 months indicated good rates of adherence with strontium ranelate and confirmed its good safety profile in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:23455629

Audran, M; Jakob, F J; Palacios, S; Brandi, M-L; Bröll, H; Hamdy, N A T; McCloskey, E V

2013-09-01

90

Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries  

PubMed Central

Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries. PMID:23292003

Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

2013-01-01

91

Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was examined in this case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids (?- and ?-carotene, canthaxanthin, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin) and vitamins A (retinol), C and E (?-, ?- and ?- and ?-tocopherol) and dietary consumption of ?-carotene and vitamins A, C and E were determined in 898 colon cancer cases, 501 rectal cancer cases and 1,399 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were performed to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). An association was observed between higher prediagnostic plasma retinol concentration and a lower risk of colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile?=?0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87, p for trend?=?0.01), most notably proximal colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile?=?0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.77, p for trend?=?0.01). Additionally, inverse associations for dietary ?-carotene and dietary vitamins C and E with (distal) colon cancer were observed. Although other associations were suggested, there seems little evidence for a role of these selected compounds in preventing CRC through their antioxidative properties. PMID:24771392

Leenders, Max; Leufkens, Anke M; Siersema, Peter D; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Vrieling, Alina; Hulshof, Paul J M; van Gils, Carla H; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Kyrø, Cecilie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagerhazzi, Guy; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Johnson, Theron; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Androulidaki, Anna; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bakker, Marije F; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Barricarte, Aurelio; María Huerta, José; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Key, Timothy J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Wark, Petra A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As

2014-12-15

92

Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the future of ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Despite large advances in the field of ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist in our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding infectious disease. Although ocular toxoplasmosis is considered to have a high health burden, still little is known about its exact prevalence and how it affects the quality of life. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis depends on local habits throughout the globe, and changes are likely in view of increased meat consumption in developing countries and demands for higher animal welfare in the Western world. Water is increasingly seen as an important risk factor and more studies are needed to quantitate and control the role of water exposure (drinking, swimming). Tools are now becoming available to study both the human host as well as parasite genetic factors in the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. Further research on the role of Toxoplasma strains as well as basic studies on parasite virulence is needed to explain why Toxoplasma associated eye disease is so severe in some countries, such as Brazil. Although genetic analysis of the parasite represents the gold standard, further developments in serotyping using peptide arrays may offer practical solutions to study the role of parasite strains in the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. More research is needed concerning the pathways whereby the parasite can infect the retina. Once in the retina further tissue damage may be due to parasite virulence factors or could be caused by an aberrant host immune response. Local intraocular immune responses are nowadays used for diagnostic procedures. Future developments may include the use of Raman technology or the direct visualization of a Toxoplasma cyst by optical coherence tomography (OCT). With the availability of ocular fluid specimens obtained for diagnostic purposes and the development of advanced proteomic techniques, a biomarker fingerprint that is unique for an eye with toxoplasmosis may become available. It is hoped that such a biomarker analysis may also be able to distinguish between acquired versus congenital disease. Recently developed mouse models of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis are extremely promising with regard to disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24131274

Kijlstra, Aize; Petersen, Eskild

2014-04-01

93

Biomarker patterns of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are associated with risk of colorectal cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).  

PubMed

A number of biomarkers of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are individually related to higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between biomarker patterns and CRC incidence has not been previously evaluated. Our study investigates the association of biomarker patterns with CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During median follow-up time of 7.0 (3.7-9.4) years, 1,260 incident CRC cases occurred and were matched to 1,260 controls using risk-set sampling. Pre-diagnostic measurements of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), insulin-like growth factor 1, adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were used to derive biomarker patterns from principal component analysis (PCA). The relation with CRC incidence was assessed using conditional logistic regression models. We identified four biomarker patterns 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP', 'TG/C-peptide' and 'leptin/sOB-R' to explain 60 % of the overall biomarker variance. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, the 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' patterns were associated with CRC risk [for the highest quartile vs the lowest, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51-0.93, P-trend = 0.01; IRR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.30-2.23, P-trend = 0.002; and IRR = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.58-1.07; P-trend = 0.05, respectively]. In contrast, the 'TG/C-peptide' pattern was not associated with CRC risk (IRR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00, P-trend = 0.24). After cases within the first 2 follow-up years were excluded, the 'ROM/CRP' pattern was no longer associated with CRC risk, suggesting potential influence of preclinical disease on these associations. By application of PCA, the study identified 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' as biomarker patterns representing potentially important pathways for CRC development. PMID:24791703

Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Fedirko, Veronika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Jansen, Eugene; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Murphy, Neil; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Westhpal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Duell, Eric J; Molina-Montes, Esther; Quirós, J Ramón; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

2014-04-01

94

Trends, productivity losses, and associated medical conditions among toxoplasmosis deaths in the United States, 2000-2010.  

PubMed

Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000-2010. A matched case-control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. PMID:25200264

Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

2014-11-01

95

Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the residents of Cheju island, Korea  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to evaluate the epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis among the residents of Cheju island. The sera of local students from 18 high schools (boys 2110, girls 2460) and those of adults (474 admitted to Cheju Chungang General Hospital) were collected and checked for the IgG antibody titers against Toxoplasma gondii. Serum samples collected from both the students and adults showed sero-positive rate of 5.5% and 12.9%, respectively. Although the rates were not significantly different between the sexes (5.4% for the boys and 5.5% for the girls attending school), the geographical difference showed a significant difference between the urban (4.6~6.9%) and rural areas (5.6~8.8%) (p<0.05). Based on the high positive rates, it should be necessary to control toxoplasmosis in Cheju island. PMID:10905070

Jin, Kwang-Nam; Park, Yong-Keun; Hong, Seong-Chul; Bae, Jong-Myon; Lee, Sung-Hee; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Hwang, Hwan-Sik; Chung, Young-Bae; Lee, Nam-Seok; Nam, Ho-Woo

2000-01-01

96

[Toxoplasmosis in Japan. Comparative study of different regions].  

PubMed

Specificities of Japan by geography, culture, and low incidence for Toxoplasmosis were examined in this epidemiological study. 1 731 human sera were examined by several immunological tests but these results are related with Agglutination-Latex test. The sera came from North (Hokkaido), Middle (Tokyo area) and South (Okinawa). The ratio for the whole Japan towards Toxoplasmosis is 24.7% but the increase of antibodies with age is late: rate of positivity 4.6% up to 17 years old and nearly 30% after 30 years old. Cats, business, climate do not seem to influence the human infection. It is consumption of meat and particularly raw meat which influence the results: 40.8% positive results among eaters of raw meat and 22% among those not eating meat or eating it well cooked. PMID:3836767

Dumas, N; Kawai, K; Cazaux, M; Seguela, J P

1985-01-01

97

Ocular toxoplasmosis: a very rare presentation in an immunocompetent patient.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of red eye, photophobia, pain and decreased visual acuity of the right eye. The ophthalmological examination revealed hypertensive non-granulomatous panuveitis, retinal vasculitis with focus of retinochoroiditis with pigmented central area suggestive of ocular toxoplasmosis in the active phase. He started treatment with azithromycin, pyrimethamine, topical steroids and measures for control of intraocular pressure. Serology for Toxoplasma gondii was positive and for HIV, negative. For headache and vomiting, he was hospitalised in order to exclude cerebral toxoplasma. The cerebral CT scan, MRI and lumbar puncture were negative and treatment was changed to pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and prednisolone. For persistence of vomiting he started clindamycin with clinical and ophthalmological improvement. The patient is currently under prophylaxis with co-trimoxazol for 1?year, and maintains clinical improvement. This case illustrates the rarity of presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis, without cerebral in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:25270156

Matias, Margarida; Gomes, Antonia; Marques, Tiago; Fonseca, Ana Claudia

2014-01-01

98

An atypical strain associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Tunisia.  

PubMed

We report the identification and typing of a congenital toxoplasmosis case in a diabetic pregnant young woman living in Tunis. The Toxoplasma DNA extracted from amniotic fluid was detected by Real Time PCR and subjected to a multilocus genetic characterisation of the strain at markers: 3'SAG2, 5'SAG2, New SAG2, SAG3, GRA6, BTUB, APICO, PK1, KT850 and UPRT1. An atypical genotype of T.gondii with unusual genetic composition was revealed. It is the first time that an atypical strain has been associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Africa. Atypical strains are associated with severe clinical manifestations so systematic genotyping should be investigated with the amniocentesis. PMID:22143816

Boughattas, Sonia; Abdallah, Rym Ben; Siala, Emna; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aida

2011-10-01

99

Diclazuril Protects against Maternal Gastrointestinal Syndrome and Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of foodborne, gastrointestinal and congenital syndrome with particularly severe or unknown health consequences. There is no safe and effective preventive or therapeutic modality against congenital toxoplasmosis or to eliminate the persistent chronic infection. Hypothesis Diclazuril to be safe in pregnancy and effective against gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Methods CD1 programmed pregnant mice were divided into groups and administered a diet containing diclazuril, or sham control. Treatments were initiated on Day 5 of pregnancy and continued until Day 16 when dams were euthanatized. On Day 8 of pregnancy dams were infected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of tachyzoites (0, 100, 300, 600) from Type II strain. Dams were monitored daily for distress, pain, and abortion and samples collected at the end of the experiments. Results Infected dams developed moderate to severe Toxoplasma related complications in tachyzoites dose dependent manner. Animals became anemic and showed hydrothorax, and ascities. Diclazuril effectively protected dams from ascities and anemia (p < 0.05). Infected dams showed splenomegaly, with massive infiltration of epithelioid cells compared with the protective effect of diclazuril in treated animals. Infected dams exhibited severe hepatitis (score 0 to 4 scale = 3.5 ± 0.01) with influx of inflammatory and plasma cells, dysplastic hepatocytes, multinucleated giant cell transformation and hepatic cells necrosis. Diclazuril treatment significantly protected dams from hepatitis, also in tachyzoites dose (100, 300, 600) dependent manner (respectively infected-treated versus infected controls, p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Colonic tissues were significantly shortened in length, with infiltration of lymphocytes, and macrophages and microabscess formations in the cryptic structures, with significant improvement in diclazuril treated animals. Additionally, the number of fetuses, fetal length and fetal weight were preserved in diclazuril treated dams. Conclusions This is the first report describing of diclazuril safety in pregnancy as well as efficacy against mild to moderate hepato-gastrointestinal syndrome in dams and fetal toxoplasmosis (Special issue, “Treatment of Liver Diseases”). PMID:24851194

Oz, Helieh S.; Tobin, Thomas

2014-01-01

100

Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%), jaundice (13.8%), and microcephaly (6.9%). During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein?200mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p=0.0325). Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases), developmental delay (31.0%), motor deficit (13.8%), convulsion (27.5%), and attention deficit (10.3%). All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences. PMID:24662141

Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Breganó, Regina Mitsuka; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

2014-01-01

101

Methodological Challenges in the Application of the Glycemic Index in Epidemiological Studies Using Data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition1–3  

PubMed Central

Associations between the glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) and diseases are heterogeneous in epidemiological studies. Differences in assigning GI values to food items may contribute to this inconsistency. Our objective was to address methodological issues related to the use of current GI and GL values in epidemiological studies. We performed ecological comparison and correlation studies by calculating dietary GI and GL from country-specific dietary questionnaires (DQ) from 422,837 participants from 9 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study and single standardized 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) obtained from a representative sample (n = 33,404) using mainly Foster Powell's international table as a reference source. Further, 2 inter-rater and 1 inter-method comparison were conducted, comparing DQ GI values assigned by independent groups with values linked by us. The ecological correlation between DQ and 24-HDR was good for GL (overall r = 0.76; P < 0.005) and moderate for GI (r = 0.57; P < 0.05). Mean GI/GL differences between DQ and 24-HDR were significant for most centers. GL but not GI from DQ was highly correlated with total carbohydrate (r = 0.98 and 0.15, respectively; P < 0.0001) and this was higher for starch (r = 0.72; P < 0.0001) than for sugars (r = 0.36; P < 0.0001). The inter-rater and inter-method variations were considerable for GI (weighted ? coefficients of 0.49 and 0.65 for inter-rater and 0.25 for inter-method variation, respectively) but only mild for GL (weighted ? coefficients > 0.80). A more consistent methodology to attribute GI values to foods and validated DQ is needed to derive meaningful GI/GL estimates for nutritional epidemiology. PMID:19158224

van Bakel, Marit M. E.; Slimani, Nadia; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Du, Huaidong; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Brighenti, Furio; Halkjaer, Jytte; Cust, Anne E.; Ferrari, Pietro; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Crowe, Francesca L.; Bingham, Sheila; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Johansson, Ingegerd; Manjer, Jonas; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Mattiello, Amalia; Salvini, Simonetta; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kaaks, Rudolf

2009-01-01

102

Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet: The European Prospective Mother–Child Study (NewGeneris)  

PubMed Central

Background: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. Objectives: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother–child study. Methods: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006–2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. Results: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was –132 g (95% CI: –207, –56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was –0.33 cm (95% CI: –0.61, –0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. If confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women. PMID:23092936

Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria; Agramunt, Silvia; Alexander, Jan; Brunborg, Gunnar; Chatzi, Leda; Fleming, Sarah; Fthenou, Eleni; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hardie, Laura J.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Merlo, Domenico F.; Nielsen, Jeanette K.; Rydberg, Per; Segerbäck, Dan; Sunyer, Jordi; Wright, John; Törnqvist, Margareta; Kleinjans, Jos C.

2012-01-01

103

Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.  

PubMed

High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96-1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. PMID:22965418

Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tjønneland, Anne; Føns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramón Quirós, J; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Stattin, Pär; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

2013-04-15

104

The impact of childhood acute rotavirus gastroenteritis on the parents' quality of life: prospective observational study in European primary care medical practices  

PubMed Central

Background Rotavirus (RV) is the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. A Quality of Life study was conducted in primary care in three European countries as part of a larger epidemiological study (SPRIK) to investigate the impact of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) on affected children and their parents. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was linguistically validated in Spanish, Italian and Polish. The questionnaire was included in an observational multicentre prospective study of 302 children aged <5?years presenting to a general practitioner or paediatrician for RVGE at centres in Spain, Italy or Poland. RV infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing (n?=?264). The questionnaire was validated and used to assess the emotional impact of paediatric RVGE on the parents. Results Questionnaire responses showed that acute RVGE in a child adversely affects the parents’ daily life as well as the child. Parents of children with RVGE experience worry, distress and impact on their daily activities. RVGE of greater clinical severity (assessed by the Vesikari scale) was associated with higher parental worries due to symptoms and greater changes in the child’s behaviour, and a trend to higher impact on parents’ daily activities and higher parental distress, together with a higher score on the symptom severity scale of the questionnaire. Conclusions Parents of a child with acute RVGE presenting to primary care experience worry, distress and disruptions to daily life as a result of the child’s illness. Prevention of this disease through prophylactic vaccination will improve the daily lives of parents and children. PMID:22650611

2012-01-01

105

Seropositivity and Higher Immunoglobulin G Antibody Levels Against Cytomegalovirus Are Associated With Mortality in the Population-Based European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background.?The relationship between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and mortality among immunocompetent individuals is uncertain. We aimed to examine whether seropositivity for CMV and the level of CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody are associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods.?We used data from a random sample of 13 090 participants aged 40–79 years at recruitment in 1993–1997 to the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer–Norfolk population-based cohort study. We measured baseline IgG antibody levels against CMV. Death certificates were obtained for all participants who died before 31 March 2011. Codes for the underlying cause of death were used to investigate cause-specific mortality. Results.?A total of 2514 deaths occurred during a mean follow-up of 14.3 years (SD, 3.3 years). Compared to seronegative participants (age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate, 12.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 11.3–13.2] per 1000 person-years at risk), rates increased across thirds of IgG antibody levels (score test of trend P < .0001). CMV seropositivity (prevalence 59%) was associated with increased all-cause mortality (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.16 [95% CI, 1.07–1.26]), similarly in men and women (P for interaction = .52). The association persisted after additionally adjusting for measures of socioeconomic status and possible confounders. Cause-specific analyses suggested that increased mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.06 [95% CI, .91–1.24]), cancer (HR, 1.13 [95% CI, .98–1.31]), and other causes (HR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.04–1.47) all appeared to contribute to the overall associations. Conclusions.?Seropositivity and higher IgG antibody levels against CMV are associated with increased mortality and after adjustment for a range of potential confounders in the general population. PMID:23442763

Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Langenberg, Claudia; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

106

Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging - A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r?=?0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r?=?0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r?=?0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r?=?0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r?=?0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r?=?0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r?=?0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r?=?0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r?=?0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r?=?0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication may be that associations of chronic disease risks with the sizes of internal body fat as measured by BMI, WC and HC may be strongly underestimated. PMID:24626110

Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Husing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

2014-01-01

107

Systemic toxoplasmosis in a five-month-old beaver, (Castor canadensis).  

PubMed

A 5-mo-old orphan beaver, Castor canadensis, died of severe systemic toxoplasmosis during rehabilitation. Histologic lesions included lymphohistiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, and interstitial pneumonia with multinucleated cells. Intracytoplasmic cysts containing tachyzoites and bradyzoites identified as Toxoplasma gondii by immunohisto-chemistry were present in macrophages, type-II pneumocytes, and endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal morbillivirus antibody and transmission electron microscopy of lung revealed no evidence of concurrent paramyxoviral infection, as commonly found in carnivores with toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis may affect young beavers in rehabilitation and zoological settings. PMID:15193086

Forzán, María J; Frasca, Salvatore

2004-03-01

108

Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii.  

PubMed

The 'Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is the most endangered corvid in the world, and intensive efforts are being made to reintroduce it to its former native range in Hawaii. We diagnosed Toxoplasma gondii infection in five free-ranging 'Alala. One 'Alala, recaptured from the wild because it was underweight and depressed, was treated with diclazuril (10 mg/kg) orally for 10 days. Antibodies were measured before and after treatment by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using whole T. gondii tachyzoites fixed in formalin and mercaptoethanol. The MAT titer decreased four-fold from an initial titer of 1:1,600 with remarkable improvement in physical condition. Lesions of toxoplasmosis also were seen in two partially scavenged carcasses and in a third fresh intact carcass. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed immunohistochemically by using anti-T. gondii specific serum. The organism was also cultured by bioassay in mice from tissues of one of these birds and the brain of a fifth 'Alala that did not exhibit lesions. The life cycle of the parasite was experimentally completed in cats. This is the first record of toxoplasmosis in 'Alala, and the parasite appears to pose a significant threat and management challenge to reintroduction programs for 'Alala in Hawaii. PMID:10813600

Work, T M; Massey, J G; Rideout, B A; Gardiner, C H; Ledig, D B; Kwok, O C; Dubey, J P

2000-04-01

109

Advies Inzake de Opsporing van Aangeboren Toxoplasmose (Advice Regarding the Incidence of Congenital Toxoplasmosis.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the presently available studies suggest that treatment of pregnant women with a primary infection could presumably prevent about 60% of the cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. However, the design of these studies does not allow a definite co...

1983-01-01

110

Systemic T Cell Response to Toxoplasma gondii Antigen in Patients with Ocular Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Analysis of systemic cellular response to Toxoplasma antigen in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Activated (CD25+) T cells were detected by flow cytometry after a 7-day culture of whole blood from patients with ocular (n = 16) or asymptomatic (n = 14) toxoplasmosis, and controls (n = 10), in the presence of soluble Toxoplasma antigen (ST-Ag). Interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL) 4,

Fatih Fatoohi; Grégoire Jacques Noël Cozon; Martine Wallon; Laurent Kodjikian; François Peyron

2006-01-01

111

Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the Zoo of Clères, France  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunostaining with polyclonal rabbit T. gondii antibodies and by transmission electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the bar-shouldered dove is a new host record for T. gondii. PMID:25407506

Rigoulet, Jacques; Hennache, Alain; Lagourette, Pierre; George, Catherine; Longeart, Loïc; Le Net, Jean-Loïc; Dubey, Jitender P.

2014-01-01

112

Co-existance of toxoplasmosis and neuroborreliosis - a case report.  

PubMed

The 53-year-old woman was initially diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, despite the fact that she did not really meet the clinical criteria. Her only symptoms were clumsiness and weakness of the right extremities. Being a veterinary research worker she had been exposed to infectious material. In 1995, she was diagnosed with ELISA as having toxoplasmosis and treated as such. In 2002, after the infectious, flu-like disease, she revealed arthritis and drowsiness, also with memory and language impairment. The patient continued to have symptoms consistent with previously examined clumsiness. She was diagnosed with Lyme via ELISA and PCR, and treated. She made a full recovery from acute symptoms. After a few months, neurological and neuropsychological examinations were performed. On the background of mild cognitive decline apraxia and difficulties of attention were noted as the main problems. A apraxia of the right hand complicated the patient's life and depreciated her quality of life. The patient underwent MRI examination. FSE, FAST and FLAIR sequences were made. The MRI demonstrated the appearance of several small hyperintense lesions in the white matter of the left and right frontal and left parietal lobe. These lesions were typical of the post-inflammatory leucoencephalopathy. Additionally, a ring-shaped, low-intensity lesion in the posterior part of the left parietal lobe was noticed. The lesion was 8 mm in diameter and described to be an old toxoplasmosis lesion. The patient had been treated and the symptoms consistent with Lyme disease resolved. Patient continues to have symptoms consistent with focal destruction of the parietal lobe. Over the past six months, she has not progressed and relapsed in a manner that is consistent with MS. PMID:16457490

Gustaw, Katarzyna; Be?towska, Katarzyna; D?ugosz, Edyta

2005-01-01

113

Prospects for Justice: The Procedural Aspect of the Right to Life Under the European Convention on Human Rights and Its Applications to Investigations of Northern Ireland's Bloody Sunday  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Comment examines how the new doctrine of the procedural aspect of Article 2 of the European Convention can provide recourse for the travesty of justice inherent in failed investigations of alleged violations of the right to life, such as the contended failure of the Widgery Tribunal's investigation of Bloody Sunday in Northern Ireland.

Kara E. Irwin

1998-01-01

114

Occupational social class, educational level, smoking and body mass index, and cause-specific mortality in men and women: a prospective study in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To investigate the independent associations between occupational and educational based measures of socioeconomic status (SES)\\u000a and cause-specific mortality, and the extent to which potentially modifiable risk factors smoking and body mass index (BMI)\\u000a explain such relationships. Design, setting and participants Prospective population study of 22,486 men and women aged 39–79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United

Emily McFadden; Robert Luben; Nicholas Wareham; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw

2008-01-01

115

Occupational social class, risk factors and cardiovascular disease incidence in men and women: a prospective study in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To investigate the association between occupational social class and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, and the extent\\u000a to which classical and lifestyle risk factors explain such relationships, and if any differences persist after 65 years of\\u000a age. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective population study of 22,478 men and women aged 39–79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United\\u000a Kingdom, recruited

Emily McFadden; Robert Luben; Nicholas Wareham; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw

2008-01-01

116

Application of assays for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in a colony of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in New World primate species. Clinical abnormalities associated with toxoplasmosis can be nonspecific, making it difficult to make a definitive antemortem diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Toxoplasmosis in New World primates can have a rapid clinical course, which may lessen the diagnostic utility of antemortem tests. However, while there are a variety of T. gondii serum antibody tests and T. gondii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays available that are not species specific, these assays have not been comparatively applied to New World primate cases. Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), a species of New World primate, are highly susceptible to fatal toxoplasmosis. Archived serum samples from 15 living and deceased woolly monkeys housed at the Louisville Zoological Garden (Louisville, Kentucky) were tested for T. gondii antibodies by a commercially available latex agglutination kit, a commercially available indirect hemagglutination kit, and the modified agglutination test. In addition, aliquots of the sera were assayed for T. gondii DNA using a PCR assay. Both woolly monkeys that died of disseminated toxoplasmosis were positive in all four assays, indicating that each could be used to aid in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in this species. We suspect that these assays have applications to other species of New World primates. PMID:17319125

Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Lappin, Michael R; Dubey, J P

2006-09-01

117

[Congenital toxoplasmosis with ocular involvment--case report].  

PubMed

Two thirds of the congenital toxoplasmosis cases describe minimal or inapparent symptoms present at birth, being diagnosed from a psychomotor retard. The forms of chorioretinitis may be described by repeated outbursts in the first years of life. Chorioretinitis or focal necrotizing retinitis usually develops in a bilateral way, being progressive and leading to blindness. Usually there is only one focal inflammatory beginning at the edge of a pigmented scar and the local inflammatory process may extend through successive spikes in other regions of the retina. Active chorioretinitis is expressed clinically by a blurred misty eyesight, with the advent of scotomas, photophobia, and if the macula is involved, the loss of the central eyesight may occur. In this paper I present the patient R.A., 6 years old from Constanta who is hospitalized in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases for investigations and treatment continuity because positive IgG Toxoplasma was previously found. The child has spastic quadriplegia and profound mental retardation. PMID:25145122

Constantin, Farah; Denislam, Dogan

2014-01-01

118

Protective role of nitric oxide in ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in ocular involvement during systemic toxoplasmosis. METHODS: C57B1/6 mice were infected with Toxoplasma gondii strain ME49. The synthesis of NO was inhibited by an intraperitoneal injection of aminoguanidine every 8 hours, starting on the day of infection. Control infected mice received phosphate buffered saline vehicle alone. After 14 days, the ocular lesions were evaluated by histopathological examination. The expression of NO synthase induced in the spleen by toxoplasma infection was evaluated by immunostaining. The production of NO by the spleen cells of infected mice was measured by the colorimetric assay of Griess in the supernatant of cultures stimulated with toxoplasma antigen or concanavalin A. RESULTS: The inhibition of NO production in T gondii infected mice resulted in a marked increase in the symptoms of ocular inflammation. We observed a strong induction of NO synthase expression in the spleen of infected animals. In culture, the spleen cells from these mice produced high levels of NO in response to T gondii antigens. This elevation of NO synthesis was suppressed in the presence of aminoguanidine. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that NO plays a crucial role in the protection against T gondii infection as reflected by the severity of the ocular involvement. Images PMID:8795379

Hayashi, S.; Chan, C. C.; Gazzinelli, R. T.; Pham, N. T.; Cheung, M. K.; Roberge, F. G.

1996-01-01

119

Role of endogenous transplacental transmission in toxoplasmosis in sheep.  

PubMed

To investigate the potential role of endogenous transplacental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii, 31 seropositive ewes presumed to be persistently infected with the parasite and 15 seronegative ewes were mated and monitored throughout pregnancy and lambing. Antibody titres were determined in precolostral sera from the liveborn lambs and in thoracic fluid from the dead lambs. A PCR for the B1 gene of T gondii was applied to the placentas from all the ewes and to the brains of the stillborn lambs. Samples of brain, lung, liver, spleen and heart from the dead lambs were examined by histopathology. No evidence of toxoplasmosis was detected by histopathology or PCR in any of the samples, but low titres of antibody to T gondii were detected in two liveborn, healthy offspring of a seropositive ewe by the immunofluorescent antibody test (3.2 per cent of pregnancies and 4.1 per cent of lambs in the seropositive group). Antibody to specific antigens of T gondii was demonstrated in sera from these two lambs by Western blotting. PMID:17142624

Rodger, S M; Maley, S W; Wright, S E; Mackellar, A; Wesley, F; Sales, J; Buxton, D

2006-12-01

120

Eccentric Target Sign in Cerebral Toxoplasmosis - neuropathological correlate to the imaging feature  

PubMed Central

Cerebral toxoplasmosis remains one of the most common focal brain lesions in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diagnosis is a challenge as on cranial imaging, it closely mimics central nervous system lymphoma, primary and metastatic CNS tumors or other intracranial infections like tuberculoma or abscesses. An MR imaging feature on post contrast T1 weighted sequences considered pathognomonic of toxoplasmosis is the ‘eccentric target sign’. The pathological correlate of this imaging sign has been speculative. Herein we correlate the underlying histopathology to the MR feature of ‘eccentric target sign’ in a patient with autopsy proven HIV/AIDS related cerebral toxoplasmosis. The central enhancing core of the target seen on MR imaging was produced by a leash of inflamed vessels extending down the length of sulcus that was surrounded by concentric zones of necrosis and a wall composed of histiocytes and proliferating blood vessels with impaired permeability producing the peripheral enhancing rim. PMID:20512900

Sharath Kumar, GG; Mahadevan, A; Guruprasad, AS; Kovoor, Jerry ME; Satishchandra, P; Nath, Avindra; Kumar, Ranga Uday; Shankar, SK

2010-01-01

121

Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon  

PubMed Central

Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials. PMID:25104952

Oz, Helieh S.

2014-01-01

122

Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon.  

PubMed

Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials. PMID:25104952

Oz, Helieh S

2014-01-01

123

Toxoplasmosis complications and novel therapeutic synergism combination of diclazuril plus atovaquone  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of foodborne disease, congenital complication, and morbidity. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to encounter congenital and persisting toxoplasmosis. The hypothesis was: combination diclazuril plus atovaquone to exert a novel therapeutic synergy to prevent toxoplasmosis syndromes. Methods: Pregnant dams were treated with diclazuril and atovaquone monotherapy or combination therapy and infected i.p with Toxoplasma tachyzoites. Results: Infected dams developed severe toxoplasmosis associated syndrome with increases in the abdominal adiposity surrounding uteri, gansterointestinal and other internal organs and excessive weight gain. Numerous organisms along with infiltration of inflammatory cells were detected scattered into adipose tissues. Combination therapy (p < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril (p < 0.05) protected dams from inflammatory fat and excess weight gains. This was consistent with pancreatitis development in infected dams (versus normal p < 0.05) with infiltration of inflammatory cells, degeneration and necrosis of pancreatic cells followed by the degeneration and loss of islets. Combination and monotherapy protected dams from these inflammatory and pathological aspects of pancreatitis. Infected dams exhibited severe colitis, and colonic tissues significantly shortened in length. Brush border epithelial cells were replaced with infiltration of lymphocytes, granulocytes, and microabscess formations into cryptic microstructures. Combination therapy synergistically preserved colonic structure and normalized pathological damages (p < 0.001) and to a lesser degree diclazuril monotherapy protected dams from colitis (p < 0.05) and gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Other complications included severe splenitis (p < 0.001) and hepatitis (p < 0.001) which were normalized with combination therapy. Conclusion: Combination diclazuril plus atovaquone was safe and with a novel therapeutic synergism protected dams and fetuses from toxoplasmosis. PMID:25309522

Oz, Helieh S.

2014-01-01

124

Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system in patients with AIDS in Mexico.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is the most common cause of intracerebral lesions in patients with AIDS. It is now standard clinical practice to treat empirically, based on clinical and radiographic findings, and to perform a biopsy of the lesion only in those patients who fail to have a clinical and radiographic response after two weeks of therapy. This study describes the presentation and response to therapy of central nervous system toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS at a private practice in Mexico City. A retrospective chart and radiology review of all patients with AIDS treated empirically for toxoplasmosis between 1988 and 1993 was performed. A total of 177 patients with AIDS were seen, nine (5.1%) had toxoplasmosis. Patients with toxoplasmosis were males with a median age of 39 years (range 26 - 65). In two patients, toxoplamosis of the CNS was the initial manifestation of HIV infection, all others had a prior diagnosis of AIDS with a mean of 10 months between their first AIDS defining event and the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The median CD4+ T-cell count at the time of the diagnosis of toxoplamsosis was 78 cells/microL. Most patients had headache associated with other focal neurological symptoms such as hemiplegia (2), hemiparesis (2) or seizures (4). Only 4 out of 9 patients had fever as part of their initial clinical presentation. Serum IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were positive in 6 out of 7 patients tested, while IgM antibodies were negative in all patients. On imaging studies (Computerized Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging), 4 patients had a single lesion while the rest had two or more lesions. Two patients were initially treated with pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine and were later changed to pyrimethamine/clindamycin, which was the treatment given from the beginning to all other patients. One patient died of an intralesional hemorrhage two weeks after the diagnosis despite adequate therapy. The probability of surviving 6 months after the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was 60%. The findings of these authors are similar to those reported in other series where toxoplasmosis of the CNS is a late complication of HIV infection associated with a CD4+ cell count of < 100 cells/microL. However, survival was short in spite of a good response to therapy. PMID:9428578

del Rio-Chiriboga, C; Orzechowski-Rallo, A; Sanchez-Mejorada, G

1997-01-01

125

Impact of Age and Gender on the Prevalence and Prognostic Importance of the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Europeans. The MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Methods Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982–1997, 69094 men and women aged 19–78 years, without known CVD, were included. During 12.2 years of follow-up, 3.7%/2.1% of men/women died due to CVD. The corresponding percentages for fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were 8.3/3.8 and 3.1/2.5. Results The prevalence of MetS, according to modified definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P<0.0001); with a 5-fold increase in women from ages 19–39 years to 60–78 years (7.4%/7.6% to 35.4%/37.6% for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) and a 2-fold increase in men (5.3%/10.5% to 11.5%/21.8%). Using multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, the associations between MetS and all three CVD events were significant (P<0.0001). For IDF/NCEP-ATPIII in men and women, hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.60/1.62 and 1.93/2.03, for CVD mortality 1.73/1.65 and 1.77/2.06, and for stroke 1.51/1.53 and 1.58/1.77. Whereas in men the HRs for CVD events were independent of age (MetS*age, P>0.05), in women the HRs for CHD declined with age (HRs 3.23/3.98 to 1.55/1.56; MetS*age, P?=?0.01/P?=?0.001 for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) while the HRs for stroke tended to increase (HRs 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05). Conclusion In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate for a redefinition of MetS taking into account age especially in women. PMID:25244618

Vishram, Julie K. K.; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H.; Jeppesen, J?rgen; Ibsen, Hans; J?rgensen, Torben; Palmieri, Luigi; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kee, Frank; Mancia, Giuseppe; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Salomaa, Veikko; Sans, Susana; Ferrieres, Jean; Dallongeville, Jean; Soderberg, Stefan; Arveiler, Dominique; Wagner, Aline; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Drygas, Wojciech; Olsen, Michael H.

2014-01-01

126

A prospective epidemiological study of new incident GISTs during two consecutive years in Rh?ne Alpes region: incidence and molecular distribution of GIST in a European region  

PubMed Central

Background: Preliminary data indicate that the molecular epidemiology of localised gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) may be different from that of advanced GIST. We sought to investigate the molecular epidemiology of sarcomas, including GIST, in the Rhone-Alpes region in France. Patients and methods: A prospective and exhaustive study in the Rhone-Alpes Region in France to assess the precise incidence of primary sarcomas with systematic centralised pathological review and molecular analysis was conducted for 2 consecutive years. Results: Among 760 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoma, 131 (17%) had a GIST. The majority of patients had gastric primaries (61%). Mutational analysis could be performed in 106 tumour samples (74%), and 71 (67%) had exon 11 mutations. PDGFRA mutations were found in 16% of cases, which is twice as high as previously reported for advanced GIST. Conclusion: Data indicate that PDGFRA mutations in localised GIST may be twice as high as what was previously reported in patients with advanced disease. This finding may have important consequences for patients offered adjuvant imatinib, although most of these tumours are in the low-risk group. PMID:20588273

Cassier, P A; Ducimetiere, F; Lurkin, A; Ranchere-Vince, D; Scoazec, J-Y; Bringuier, P-P; Decouvelaere, A-V; Meeus, P; Cellier, D; Blay, J-Y; Ray-Coquard, I

2010-01-01

127

Localized toxoplasmosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) causing placentitis, stillbirths, and disseminated fetal infection.  

PubMed

Localized, myocardial toxoplasmosis contributed to the death of a female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) 1 week after the delivery of 4 stillborn offspring with disseminated toxoplasmosis; the diagnosis was obtained by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in all 5 lemurs. Varying degrees of placentitis and placental edema with intralesional Toxoplasma gondii immunolabeling were observed in the 3 available placentas. The dam had severe myocarditis, and T. gondii antigen was only detected in the myocardial lesions. Disseminated toxoplasmosis with mild encephalitis was noted in all 4 fetuses, and 2 of the fetuses had mild acute multifocal hepatic necrosis. Fetal death was attributed to placental insufficiency with subsequent hypoxia and amniotic fluid aspiration. PMID:21908372

Juan-Sallés, Carles; Mainez, Mireia; Marco, Alberto; Sanchís, Ana M Malabia

2011-09-01

128

The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to investigate the role of known risk factors in explaining educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, and included 242,095 women, 433 in situ and 4,469 invasive breast cancers. Reproductive history (age at first full term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviours were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. Higher invasive breast cancer risk was found among women with higher education (RII=1.22: 1.09,1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII=1.13: 0.84,1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII=1.11: 0.98,1.25), most of the association being explained by age at first full term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height contributed most of these factors. When all known risk factors were adjusted for, no association remained between education and invasive breast cancer risk. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancers and remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII=1.61: 1.07,2.41), especially among nulliparous women. PMID:21084553

Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

2011-01-01

129

Novel Synergistic Protective Efficacy of Atovaquone and Diclazuril on Fetal-Maternal Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Over 1 billion people globally are estimated to be infected with Toxoplasma gondii with severe or unknown consequences and no safe and effective therapies are available against congenital or persistent chronic infection. We propose that atovaquone and diclazuril synergistically protect against fetal-maternal toxoplasmosis. Methods Programmed pregnant mice were treated with atovaquone and diclazuril monotherapy, or combined (atovaquone + diclazuril) therapy and infected with tachyzoites (0, 300, 600) and the course of infection was studied. Results Infected dams with low dose (300) developed moderate toxoplasmosis complications and treatments were similarly effective with minor differences between monotherapies. In contrast, major differences were observed amongst varied treatments during high-dose (600) infection and severe related- toxoplasmosis complications as follows. Dams developed hydrothorax, ascities and excess weight gain. Combined therapy (P < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril monotherapy (P < 0.05) protected dams from excess weight, hydrothorax, and ascities. Infected dams exhibited splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and severe hepatitis. Combined therapy synergistically normalized pathology (P < 0.001) and to a lesser degree monotherapy (diclazuril P < 0.01, and atovaquone P < 0.05) protected dams from hepatitis and splemomegaly. Additionally, behavioral response to pain stimuli and fetal weight and fetal numbers were significantly preserved in treated dams Conclusions This is the first report describing combined atovaquone and diclazuril therapy (a) to be safe in pregnancy, (b) to exert novel synergistic effects, and (c) to protect dams and their nested fetuses against adverse effects of severe toxoplasmosis. PMID:25210646

Oz, Helieh S.

2014-01-01

130

The Experiences and Recommendations of Families with Children Who Have Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toxoplasmosis infections are usually asymptomatic in health hosts, but can cause serious, sometimes life threatening, sequelae in infants when the mother acquires an acute infection during pregnancy and the parasite is transmitted via the placenta to the developing fetus. This article is part of a comprehensive research project investigating the…

Roberts, Jillian; Mortimer, Tamara; Mish, Sandra; Kerns, Kimberly; Jagdis, Frank; MacMath, Sheryl

2005-01-01

131

Toxoplasmosis associated with digital vasculitis and immunodeficiency--a dilemma in diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

We present a case of acquired toxoplasmosis associated with severe digital vasculitis--a previously unreported finding. The rise in Toxoplasma gondii antibody titres may have been attenuated by impaired cellular immunity, and this poses a problem for diagnosis. PMID:6483704

Ellis, M. E.; Webb, A. K.; Dunbar, E. M.

1984-01-01

132

CNS toxoplasmosis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a clinical-pathological-radiological review of 12 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

From January 1981 to January 1983 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed in 90 patients admitted to Kings County Hospital-Downstate Medical Center. CNS involvement occurred in 18 patients of whom 12 had toxoplasmosis confirmed by biopsy or necropsy. Pathological specimens from these 12 patients were notable for a marked diminution or absence of cellular inflammation. Each patient had elevated

A E Farkash; P J Maccabee; J H Sher; S H Landesman; G Hotson

1986-01-01

133

Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women  

E-print Network

199 Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women Jaroslav body weight in the 16th week of gravidity (p = 0.02) than Toxoplasma-negative women. Moreover is extremely high. Therefore, even its mild symptoms such as the decreased body weight in Toxoplasma

Flegr, Jaroslav

134

Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans  

E-print Network

Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans J. FLEGR infection of the coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii have a higher concentration of testosterone than in testosterone concentration among a population of 174 female and 91 male students screened for Toxoplasma

Flegr, Jaroslav

135

Influence of latent toxoplasmosis on the secondary sex ratio S. KAN KOVA 1  

E-print Network

2007; first published online 26 July 2007) SUMMARY The sex ratio may be influenced by many factorsInfluence of latent toxoplasmosis on the secondary sex ratio in mice S. KAN KOVA´ 1 , P. KODYM2 , D, such as stress and immunosuppression, age of parents, parity and sex of preceding siblings. In animal systems

Flegr, Jaroslav

136

Seroepidemiological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Intellectual Disability Children in Rehabilitation Centers of Northern Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serological studies revealed that toxoplasmosis has world wide distribution. Although the infection by "Toxoplasma gondii" is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and…

Sharif, M.; Ziaei, H.; Daryani, A.; Ajami, A.

2007-01-01

137

Seroepidemiological study of toxoplasmosis in intellectual disability children in rehabilitation centers of northern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serological studies revealed that toxoplasmosis has world wide distribution. Although the infection by Toxoplasma gondii is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and its severe effects on the fetus. There have been many reports

M. Sharif; H. Ziaei; A. Daryani; A. Ajami

2007-01-01

138

Levels of pyrimethamine in sera and cerebrospinal and ventricular fluids from infants treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis Study Group.  

PubMed Central

Pyrimethamine levels in sera, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and ventricular fluid were measured by using reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The specimens were from 37 infants receiving pyrimethamine for treatment of suspect or proven congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine half-life in serum was 64 +/- 12 h when determined by study of terminal-phase kinetics of samples obtained from nine babies. This half-life was significantly different (P = 0.008) from the pyrimethamine half-life (33 +/- 12 h) determined by terminal-phase kinetics for two babies of the same age taking phenobarbital. Serum pyrimethamine levels at various intervals after dosages of pyrimethamine were also lower for infants receiving phenobarbital. Levels measured in sera from babies taking the same dose of pyrimethamine throughout their first year of life did not appear to vary significantly over time or at different ages (P greater than 0.05). Mean +/- standard deviation serum levels 4 h after a pyrimethamine dose were 1.297 +/- 0.54 micrograms/ml for babies taking 1 mg of pyrimethamine per kg of body weight daily and 0.7 +/- 0.26 microgram/ml for babies taking 1 mg/kg each Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Levels in CSF were approximately 10 to 25% of concomitant levels in serum. Serum folate levels for infants who took 0.64 to 1.7 mg leukovorin per kg ranged from 33 to 663 ng/ml. To determine whether the levels of pyrimethamine in serum and CSF of treated infants were in a range that affected the most virulent, rapidly replicating, and standard laboratory strain of Toxoplasma gondii, effects of various concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine on replication of T. gondii in vitro were assessed. The levels of the antimicrobial agents effective in vitro were in the range of levels of pyrimethamine achieved in sera and CSF. Although folinic acid could inhibit the therapeutic effect of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in vitro, inhibition was noted only at levels (> or = 4,800 ng/ml) that were considerably higher than the folate levels found in the treated infants' sera. PMID:1510391

McLeod, R; Mack, D; Foss, R; Boyer, K; Withers, S; Levin, S; Hubbell, J

1992-01-01

139

Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility testing according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and new vs. old Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute clinical breakpoints: a 6-year prospective candidaemia survey from the fungal infection network of Switzerland.  

PubMed

We analyzed the species distribution of Candida blood isolates (CBIs), prospectively collected between 2004 and 2009 within FUNGINOS, and compared their antifungal susceptibility according to clinical breakpoints defined by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) in 2013, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2008 (old CLSI breakpoints) and 2012 (new CLSI breakpoints). CBIs were tested for susceptiblity to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin by microtitre broth dilution (Sensititre® YeastOne™ test panel). Of 1090 CBIs, 675 (61.9%) were C. albicans, 191 (17.5%) C. glabrata, 64 (5.9%) C. tropicalis, 59 (5.4%) C. parapsilosis, 33 (3%) C. dubliniensis, 22 (2%) C. krusei and 46 (4.2%) rare Candida species. Independently of the breakpoints applied, C. albicans was almost uniformly (>98%) susceptible to all three antifungal agents. In contrast, the proportions of fluconazole- and voriconazole-susceptible C. tropicalis and F-susceptible C. parapsilosis were lower according to EUCAST/new CLSI breakpoints than to the old CLSI breakpoints. For caspofungin, non-susceptibility occurred mainly in C. krusei (63.3%) and C. glabrata (9.4%). Nine isolates (five C. tropicalis, three C. albicans and one C. parapsilosis) were cross-resistant to azoles according to EUCAST breakpoints, compared with three isolates (two C. albicans and one C. tropicalis) according to new and two (2 C. albicans) according to old CLSI breakpoints. Four species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) represented >90% of all CBIs. In vitro resistance to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin was rare among C. albicans, but an increase of non-susceptibile isolates was observed among C. tropicalis/C. parapsilosis for the azoles and C. glabrata/C. krusei for caspofungin according to EUCAST and new CLSI breakpoints compared with old CLSI breakpoints. PMID:24188136

Orasch, C; Marchetti, O; Garbino, J; Schrenzel, J; Zimmerli, S; Mühlethaler, K; Pfyffer, G; Ruef, C; Fehr, J; Zbinden, R; Calandra, T; Bille, J

2014-07-01

140

Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infects about 30% of the human population. Common sources of infection are oocysts in cat faeces contaminating drinking water or unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, and organ transplants from infected donors containing tissue cysts. However, very often, it is not possible to identify any potential source of infection in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Here we present a hypothesis suggesting that toxoplasmosis is transmitted from infected men to noninfected women during unprotected sexual intercourse, which can result in the most serious form of disease, congenital toxoplasmosis. Arguments for the hypothesis: (1) Toxoplasma tachyzoites are present in the seminal fluid and tissue of the testes of various animals including humans. In some species infection of females by artificial insemination with semen from infected males has been observed. (2) Up to two thirds of Toxoplasma infections in pregnant women cannot be explained by the known risk factors. (3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child-bearing age covaries with the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in particular countries. (4) In some countries, an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25-35years. This second peak of infection could be associated with women having regular unprotected sex after marriage. (5) Toxoplasmosis triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2-3years earlier in men than in women. However, this difference in the onset can be found only between Toxoplasma-infected patients. The increased onset of schizophrenia in infected women could be associated with the already mentioned second peak of toxoplasmosis incidence. (6) The prevalence of toxoplasmosis decreases in developed countries in last 20years. This trend could be a result of decrease in promiscuity and increase in safe sex practices, both associated with the AIDS pandemics. (7) In women, probability of being Toxoplasma-infected correlates positively with the amount of unprotected sex with the child's father before the conception. Evidence against the hypothesis: Questionnaire study showed negative association between Toxoplasma infection and the number of earlier partners with whom the woman had unprotected sex. If our hypothesis turns out to be true, then sexual route of transmission, even if rare, could be responsible for a large part of cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. Women should be warned that having unprotected sex with men of positive or unknown toxoplasmosis status should be avoided during pregnancy. PMID:24986706

Flegr, J; Klapilová, K; Ka?ková, S

2014-09-01

141

Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

2012-03-01

142

Evaluation of Cystoid Change Phenotypes in Ocular Toxoplasmosis Using Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose To present unique cystoid changes occurring in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis observed in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Forty-six patients (80 eyes) with a diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis, who underwent volume OCT examination between January 2005 and October 2012, were retrospectively collected. Review of clinical examination findings, fundus photographs, fluorescein angiograms (FA) and OCT image sets obtained at initial visits and follow-up. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of cystoid space phenotypes visualized using OCT. Results Of the 80 eyes included, 17 eyes (15 patients) demonstrated cystoid changes in the macula on OCT. Six eyes (7.5%) had cystoid macular edema (CME), 2 eyes (2.5%) had huge outer retinal cystoid space (HORC), 12 eyes (15%) had cystoid degeneration and additional 3 eyes (3.75%) had outer retinal tubulation due to age related macular degeneration. In one eye with HORC, the lesion was seen in the photoreceptor outer segment, accompanied by photoreceptor elongation and splitting. Three eyes presented with paravascular cystoid degeneration in the inner retina without other macular OCT abnormality. Conclusions In this study, different phenotypes of cystoid spaces seen in eyes with ocular toxoplasmosis using spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) were demonstrated. CME presented as an uncommon feature, consistently with previous findings. Identification of rare morphological cystoid features (HORC with/without photoreceptor enlongation or splitting) on clinical examination had provided evidence to previous experimental models, which may also expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. Cystoid degeneration in the inner retina next to the retinal vessels in otherwise “normal” looking macula was observed, which may suggest more often clinical evaluation for those patients. Further studies are needed to verify the relevance of cystoid features seen on SD-OCT in assisting with the diagnosis and management of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:24505261

Shao, Qing; Keane, Pearse A.; Stubiger, Nicole; Joussen, Antonia M.; Sadda, Srinivas R.; Heussen, Florian M.

2014-01-01

143

Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly. Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages. Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. We selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ?1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women. Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; and using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); and using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7). Conclusion: In Iran, screening of toxoplasma is not routinely performed yet, while the incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors. PMID:24639709

Borna, Sedigheh; Shariat, Mamak; Fallahi, Mohaddese; Janani, Leila

2013-01-01

144

Seroprevalence and Sources of Toxoplasmosis among Orang Asli (Indigenous) Communities in Peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to evaluate the current seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among indigenous communities in Peninsular Malaysia and relate its association with epidemiological data. Overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 37.0% with 31.0% immunoglobulin (Ig) G, 1.8% IgM, and 4.2% seropositivity for both anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that age above 12 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval

R. Ngui; Y. A. L. Lim; N. F. H. Amir; V. Nissapatorn; R. Mahmud

2011-01-01

145

Isolation and Biological and Molecular Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Canine Cutaneous Toxoplasmosis in Brazil.  

PubMed

Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare manifestation. This study represents a case report of an immunosuppressed dog that developed nodular dermal lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The isolate (TgDgBr20) was characterized as mouse virulent and was genotyped as type BrI (ToxoDB genotype 6) using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and as Africa 1 through microsatellite analysis. PMID:25253796

Pena, Hilda F J; Moroz, Ludmila R; Sozigan, Rita K B; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Carvalho, Fernando R; Mota, Caroline M; Mineo, Tiago W P; Marcili, Arlei

2014-12-01

146

Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates and toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in stray cats of ?zmir, Turkey.  

PubMed

Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of ?zmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in ?zmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42-48% and 33.4-34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P?=?0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in ?zmir. PMID:25127360

Can, Hüseyin; Dö?kaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H Gökhan; Caner, Ay?e; ?z, Sultan Gülce; Dö?kaya, Aysu De?irmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Ça?da?; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçal?, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

2014-01-01

147

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. PMID:23135141

Bossart, Gregory D; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M; Camus, Alvin C; Bonde, Robert K; Dubey, Jitender P; Reif, John S

2012-11-01

148

Toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis and brucellosis in stray dogs housed at the shelter in Umuarama municipality, Paran?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are diseases with worldwide distribution. Among stray dogs, these zoonoses are facilitated by direct contact with other animal species, by the habit of scavenging garbage and hunting in search of food, drinking standing water, smelling other animals’ urine, licking female genitalia and the sexual act itself. The objective of this study was to detect antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella canis and anti-Brucella abortus in stray dogs housed in shelters at Umuarama city, Paraná, Brazil. In order to detect toxoplasmosis, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed, agglutination microscopic (MAT) test for leptospirosis and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and buffered acidified antigen (BAA) tests for brucellosis. Results Of the 175 serum samples analyzed, 70.85% were considered positive for toxoplasmosis by IFA, 20% by MAT for leptospirosis and 2.85% by AGID for Brucella canis. Conclusions The serological results of this study showed that stray dogs housed at the private shelter are potential carriers of these three different zoonoses and contribute to the spread and maintenance of these etiologic agents in the urban area of Umuarama (PR), Brazil. PMID:24066949

2013-01-01

149

[Intrathecal synthesis of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies during cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with African AIDS].  

PubMed

Thirty-four HIV-1-infected in-patients of the Hôpital Central des Forces Armées Congolaises, Brazzaville, Congo, hospitalized for suspected cerebral toxoplasmosis, have been evaluated for integrity of the blood-brain barrier, intrathecal synthesis of total IgG, toxoplasmic serology in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and for intrathecal synthesis of IgG to Toxoplasma gondii. An empiric scale to gauge the possibility of clinical cerebral toxoplasmosis was used to classify the patients (+, +2, +3). Only an intrathecal synthesis of IgG to Toxoplasma gondii was found to be associated with suspected cerebral toxoplamosis: it was found in about 80% of patients, and more frequently in patients with a higher probability of disease. In contrast, alteration of the blood-brain barrier, intrathecal synthesis of total IgG and toxoplasmic serology in blood as well as in cerebrospinal fluid were not associated with suspected cerebral toxoplamosis. Taken together, these findings confirm that intrathecal synthesis of antitoxoplasmic antibodies of IgG isotype occurs in cerebral toxoplasmosis. Demonstration of intrathecal synthesis of antitoxoplasmic IgG antibodies could be used to confirm clinical diagnosis of cerebral toxoplamosis, especially in an African context, where sophisticated laboratory facilities are often lacking. PMID:10399597

Makuwa, M; Loemba, H; Beuzit, Y; Livrozet, J M; Belec, L

1999-05-01

150

T cell mediated immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate T cell immunity to Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) in pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis. This issue has never been addressed before in humans and available information derives from murine models. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from pregnant women with primary Tg infection were stimulated with Tg tachyzoites, excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) or recombinant surface antigen-1 (rSAG-1), and tested for proliferation, immunophenotype, cytokine production and antigen specific cytotoxic activity. Pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis displayed a significant decrease of the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio and a significant increase of circulating T cell receptor (TCR) gammadelta+ cells as compared to their uninfected counterparts. T cells from Tg infected pregnant women proliferated to Tg tachyzoites, ESA or rSAG-1. Most tachyzoite and ESA specific T cell blasts were CD4+, whereas SAG-1 specific blasts were CD4+ and CD8+. ESA and tachyzoite specific T cell blasts displayed a Th1 or Th0 cytokine profile with overexpression of IFN-gamma. This pattern was unchanged upon in vitro exposure of T cells to progesterone, tested at a concentration close to that reached in vivo at the maternal-fetal interface. Finally, tachyzoite or ESA specific T cell blasts lysed, through a granule exocytosis dependent mechanism, autologous lymphoblastoid cell lines presenting Tg antigens. In conclusion, pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis mounted in vitro Tg-specific Th1/Th0 responses whose impact on neonatal infection warrants further investigation. PMID:16324868

Prigione, Ignazia; Chiesa, Sabrina; Taverna, Paola; Ceccarelli, Roberto; Frulio, Rosanna; Morandi, Fabio; Bocca, Paola; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Pistoia, Vito

2006-02-01

151

Role of specific immunoglobulin E in diagnosis of acute toxoplasma infection and toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies were evaluated in an immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine their usefulness in the diagnosis of acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii. IgE antibodies were not detected in serum specimens from otherwise seronegative individuals, individuals with chronic toxoplasma infection, or infants without congenital toxoplasmosis. In contrast, they were detected in pregnant women who seroconverted during gestation (100% by ELISA, 63% by ISAGA), patients with toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy (96% by ELISA, 88% by ISAGA), infants with signs of congenital toxoplasmosis which prompted serologic testing in the postnatal period (92% by ELISA, 67% by ISAGA), children and adults with toxoplasmic chorioretinitis (36% by ELISA, 18% by ISAGA), and adult patients with AIDS and toxoplasmic encephalitis (33% by ELISA, 25% by ISAGA). In many of the serum specimens, the titer of IgE antibodies detected by the ISAGA were close to or at the positive cutoff value. The duration of detectable IgE antibodies in patients with acute infections varied considerably among individuals but showed a trend toward a briefer duration by the ISAGA than by the ELISA. These results reveal that recrudescence of IgE antibodies in patients with reactivated chronic infection (toxoplasmic chorioretinitis and toxoplasmic encephalitis) may be useful diagnostically and that demonstration of toxoplasma IgE antibodies is a useful adjunct to currently available serologic tests for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasma infection and toxoplasmosis. PMID:8263181

Wong, S Y; Hajdu, M P; Ramirez, R; Thulliez, P; McLeod, R; Remington, J S

1993-01-01

152

Anaphylactic reaction to intravenous corticosteroids in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction This case report presents for the first time an acute systemic allergic reaction to corticosteroids in a patient with ocular toxoplasmosis after treatment with intravenous cortisone, and discusses alternative treatments. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian woman with an anaphylactic reaction after intravenous injection of prednisolone-21-hydrogensuccinate (Solu-Decortin® H) given for the treatment of toxoplasmosis-associated chorioretinitis. Immediately after the injection, she developed an acute erythema of the legs and abdomen, angioedema, hypotension (blood pressure 80/40mmHg), tachycardia (heart rate 140/minute), hyperthermia (38.8°C), and respiratory distress. Allergological examinations showed a positive skin-prick test to prednisolone and methylprednisolone. In addition, an oral exposure test with dexamethasone (Fortecortin®) and betamethasone (Celestamine®) was conducted to find alternative corticosteroids for future treatments. After oral application, no local or systemic reactions were observed for these two substances. Conclusions This case report demonstrates that systemic allergic reactions are possible in patients with uveitis or other inflammatory ophthalmological conditions treated with intravenous corticosteroids. Intravenous administration of cortisone, for example, in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis, should always be conducted with caution because of a possible allergic reaction. For patients who react to a particular steroid, it is necessary to undergo allergological testing to confirm that the compound in question is indeed allergenic, and to identify other corticosteroids that are safe for future anti-inflammatory treatments. PMID:24694257

2014-01-01

153

Toxoplasmosis-Serological Evidence and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women in Southern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite in pregnant women. This case-controlled study assessed the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in 640 pregnant women in southern Thailand and identified their associated risk factors. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 181 (28.3%). Of this, 138 (21.6%) were positive for only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, 43 (6.7%) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies, and none were positive for IgM antibody. Multivariate analysis revealed that increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–2.67), living outside Songkhla province (adjusted OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.08–2.24), parity (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.01–2.68), contact with cats (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.20–2.43), and drinking of unclean water (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.08–2.68) were factors associated with Toxoplasma seroprevalence. On the basis of the results obtained, a health surveillance program should be initiated as a primary preventive measure for congenital toxoplasmosis and focus on educating women of the child-bearing age group to avoid contact with cats and to strictly practice personal hygiene. PMID:21813842

Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ling, Lau Yee; Chandeying, Verapol

2011-01-01

154

Seroprevalence and Sources of Toxoplasmosis among Orang Asli (Indigenous) Communities in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

This study aims to evaluate the current seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among indigenous communities in Peninsular Malaysia and relate its association with epidemiological data. Overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 37.0% with 31.0% immunoglobulin (Ig) G, 1.8% IgM, and 4.2% seropositivity for both anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that age above 12 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75–4.04, P < 0.001), using untreated river and mountain water supplies (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.01–2.40, P = 0.050), and close proximity with cats (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.10–1.76, P = 0.010) were factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among these communities who live in poor socioeconomic conditions, a comprehensive health surveillance program and screening should be initiated among women of childbearing age and pregnant women during the antenatal period for early diagnosis and treatment. The role of domestic cats and environmental contamination with oocyst in soil and water has to be highlighted and addressed in future prevention strategies for these communities. PMID:21976569

Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Amir, Noor Farah Hani; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Mahmud, Rohela

2011-01-01

155

Cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis related with IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-10 levels  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the synthesis of Interferon gamma (IFN-?), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-?), and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in chronically infected patients which developed the symptomatic disease as cerebral or ocular toxoplasmosis. Blood from 61 individuals were divided into four groups: Cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS patients (CT/AIDS group) (n = 15), ocular toxoplasmosis patients (OT group) (n = 23), chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR group) (n = 13) and healthy individuals (HI group) (n = 10). OT, CHR, and HI groups were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative. The diagnosis was made by laboratorial (PCR and ELISA) and clinical subjects. For cytokine determination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of each patient were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-10 activities were determined by ELISA. Patients from CT/AIDS and OT groups had low levels of IFN-? when were compared with those from CHR group. These data suggest the low resistance to develop ocular lesions by the low ability to produce IFN-? against the parasite. The same patients, which developed ocular or cerebral toxoplasmosis had higher TNF-? levels than CHR individuals. High TNF-? synthesis contribute to the inflammatory response and damage of the choroid and retina in OT patients and in AIDS patients caused a high inflammatory response as the TNF-? synthesis is not affected since monocytes are the major source this cytokine in response to soluble T. gondii antigens. IL-10 levels were almost similar in CT/AIDS and OT patients but low when compared with CHR individuals. The deviation to Th2 immune response including the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 may promote the parasite's survival causing the tissue immune destruction. IL-10 production in T. gondii-infected brains may support the persistence of parasites as down-regulating the intracerebral immune response. All these indicate that OT and CT/AIDS patients produced low levels of IL-10 (Th2 response) and IFN-? (Th1 response). They produced high TNF-? suggesting a high inflammatory response triggered by the parasite. PMID:25352834

Meira, Cristina S.; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L.; Vidal, Jose E.; de Mattos, Cinara C. Brandao; Motoie, Gabriela; Costa-Silva, Thais A.; Gava, Ricardo; Frederico, Fabio B.; de Mattos, Luiz C.

2014-01-01

156

Innate Refractoriness of the Lewis Rat to Toxoplasmosis Is a Dominant Trait That Is Intrinsic to Bone Marrow-Derived Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous parasitic infection causing a wide spectrum of diseases. It is usually asymp- tomatic but can lead to severe ocular and neurological disorders. Among the small-animal models available to study factors that determine susceptibility to toxoplasmosis, the rat appears to be rather similar to humans, particularly in terms of resistance to acute infection. Here, we demonstrate that

Veronique Sergent; Bastien Cautain; Jamal Khalife; Didier Deslee; Patrick Bastien; Anne Dao; Jean-Francois Dubremetz; Gilbert J. Fournie; Abdelhadi Saoudi; Marie-France Cesbron-Delauw

2005-01-01

157

Th1 and Th2 immune response to P30 and ROP18 peptides in human toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

We determined the specific lymphocyte proliferative response and cytokine profile production regarding Toxoplasma P30 (2017 from virulent and non-virulent strain) and ROP18 protein-derived peptides (from clonal lineages I, II and III) in 19 patients having ocular toxoplasmosis, five suffering chronic asymptomatic infection, nine with congenital toxoplasmosis and eight Toxoplasma negative people. A Beckman Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used for determining antigen-specific T cells (CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood culture. IFN ? and IL10 levels were determined in culture supernatants. Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to total antigen and P30- and ROP18-derived peptides was observed in infected people. Ocular toxoplasmosis patients had a preferential Th2 response after antigenic stimulation. Non-virulent peptide 2017 was able to shift response toward Th1 in congenitally infected children and virulent peptide 2017 induced a Th2 response in chronically infected, asymptomatic people. An immune response in human toxoplasmosis after ex vivo antigenic stimulation was Th1- or Th2-skewed, depending on a patient's clinical condition. Colombian ocular toxoplasmosis patients' immune response was Th2-skewed, regardless of the nature of antigen stimulus. PMID:24816543

Torres-Morales, Elizabeth; Taborda, Laura; Cardona, Nestor; De-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sepulveda-Arias, Juan Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique

2014-10-01

158

SERO-PREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN PREGNANT MOTHERS AND NEW BORN INFANTS IN EASTERN PROVINCE, SAUDI ARABIA  

PubMed Central

Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoa of worldwide distribution. In immunocompetent adults, it is usually the cause of asymptomatic infection. However, infection during pregnancy poses a special risk because of the teratogenic effect of toxoplasma. Objective: Determine the sero-prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and newborn infants in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Eastern Province. Methods: In this hospital-based study, sera from 175 pregnant females were screened for toxoplasma IgG and IgM. Results and Conclusion: A very low number (N=1/175, 0.57%) of pregnant mothers seroconverted during pregnancy, although many (N=69/175, 39.4%) were recorded with inactive toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Delivery was normal in all cases except for a small number (N=1/175, 0.57%) of newborns (as recorded from cord blood) who were positive for toxoplasmosis. PMID:23008638

Al-Mulhim, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Qurashi, Abdulrahman M.

2001-01-01

159

Assessment of laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background The different laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis have variable sensitivity and specificity. There is no evidence to prove that maternal treatment reduces the risk of fetal infection. The purpose of this study was to assess methods for the confirmation of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy, and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on clinical manifestations of the disease in newborns (NB). Methods This was a community-based, cross-sectional study of acute toxoplasmosis in newborns at risk of acquiring congenital infection. Participating newborns were born in the Clinical Hospital Maternity Ward of the Federal University of Goiás. Eligible participants were divided into 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 44 newborns born to mothers treated with spiramycin during pregnancy and group 2 consisted of 24 newborns born to mothers not treated with spiramycin during pregnancy because the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was not performed. The sensitivity and specifity of PCR for T. gondii DNA in peripheral blood and serological testing for specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA, and the effects of maternal spiramycin treatment on these parameters, were determined by associating test results with clinical manifestations of disease. Results The sensitivity of the markers (T. gondii DNA detected by PCR, and the presence of specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA) for congenital toxoplasmosis was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (31.6, 68.4, 36.8% and 3.7, 25.9, 11.1% respectively). Even with a low PCR sensitivity, the group 2 results indicate the importance of developing new techniques for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns. Within group 1, 70.4% of the infected newborns were asymptomatic and, in group 2, 68.4% showed clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis. Conclusions The higher proportion of infants without clinical symptoms in group 1 (70.4%) suggests the maternal treatment with spiramycin delays fetal infection, reducing the clinical sequelae of the disease in newborns. Given the low sensitivity of the tests used, when there is suspicion of congenital transmission several serological and parasitological tests are required in order to confirm or exclude congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns. PMID:24961630

2014-01-01

160

Epidemiological factors associated with seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from Gurupi, State of Tocantins, Brazil.  

PubMed

Introduction Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii dissemination among pregnant women is relevant because the parasite can be spread from mother to infant. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from Gurupi, State of Tocantins, Brazil, from February 2012 to June 2013. Methods The study population included 487 pregnant women. Sociodemographic, dietary and cultural data were collected using a standardized and validated form. Peripheral blood was collected for serologic testing using the ELISA test (IgM/IgG antibodies). The data were analyzed by comparing seropositivity with risk factors using crude and adjusted odds ratios. Results The prevalence rate for IgG and IgM antibodies was 68.7% and 5.7%, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with toxoplasmosis risk included the following: education level ? 8 years (OR: 6.612; CI: 1.450-30.144), age ? 30 years (OR: 5.273; CI: 1.166-23.844), working outside the home (OR: 1.604; CI: 1.015-2.536), and family income of two minimum wages or lower (OR: 2.700; CI: 1.891-8.182). Regarding dietary habits, there was a significant association of seropositivity with meat intake (OR: 1.78; CI: 1.149-4.080), cutting vegetables without washing the cutting board beforehand (OR: 2.051; CI: 1.165-3.614), frequent intake of vegetables (OR: 2.051; CI: 1.368-3.006) and in natura milk intake (OR: 2.422; CI: 1.014-5.785). Conclusions The high prevalence rates of toxoplasmosis in Gurupi are related to age, raw meat and in natura milk intake, as well as education level, working outside the home, and poor hygienic habits during meal preparation. PMID:25229288

da Silva, Marcos Gontijo; Câmara, Joseneide Teixeira; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Castro, Ana Maria

2014-07-01

161

Triazole-based compound as a candidate to develop novel medicines to treat toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

This article reports anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity of 3-(thiophen-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione. The compound displayed significant and reproducible antiparasitic effects at nontoxic concentrations for the host cells, with an experimentally determined 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) at least 30 times better than that of the known chemotherapeutic agent sulfadiazine. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase was defined as the probable target for anti-Toxoplasma activity of the tested compound. These results provide the foundation for future work to develop a new class of medicines to better treat toxoplasmosis. PMID:25288090

Dzitko, Katarzyna; Paneth, Agata; Plech, Tomasz; Pawe?czyk, Jakub; W?gli?ska, Lidia; Paneth, Piotr

2014-12-01

162

A probable outbreak of toxoplasmosis among boarding school students in Turkey.  

PubMed

In total, 171 students from a boarding school in Izmir, Turkey, with mild and non-specific symptoms of toxoplasmosis, were screened during September-October 2002. All 171 students were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM. Of 43 students tested, 40 (93%) had low IgG avidity. None showed evidence of ophthalmic involvement. The data suggest that T. gondii may spread rapidly in close living conditions, possibly following exposure to cat litter. This is the largest recent outbreak of toxoplamosis described in the medical literature. PMID:16774565

Doganci, L; Tanyuksel, M; Araz, E R; Besirbellioglu, B A; Erdem, U; Ozoguz, C A; Yucel, N; Ciftcioglu, A

2006-07-01

163

Severe hepatitis resulting from toxoplasmosis in a barred owl (Strix varia) from Québec, Canada.  

PubMed

A female adult barred owl (Strix varia) had been hurt by a car. Its general status declined gradually within 2 wk with anorexia and inactivity. Necropsy examination revealed marked multifocal pale areas in liver, emaciation, and mild airsacculitis and pericarditis. Histopathologic examination revealed severe acute multifocal hepatic necrosis with numerous protozoal tachyzoites within necrotic foci and in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and macrophages. These tachyzoites stained with an indirect immunohistochemistry method for Toxoplasma gondii antigens. This is the first reported case of hepatitis resulting from toxoplasmosis in a raptor. PMID:9356724

Mikaelian, I; Dubey, J P; Martineau, D

1997-01-01

164

European Mistletoe  

MedlinePLUS

... campaign . Top Sources American mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 7, 2009. European mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on ...

165

European Community.  

PubMed

The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

1987-05-01

166

Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including humans. It belongs to  

E-print Network

parasite that infects most species of warm blooded animals, including humans, and can cause the disease-to-person, except in instances of mother-to-child (congenital) transmission and blood transfusion or organToxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including

Wood, Marcelo A.

167

Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal  

E-print Network

1 Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all, Czech Republic b Department of General Anthropology, Faculty of Humanities, University in Prague, Prague, CZ-158 00, Prague 13, Czech Republic * Corresponding author: J. Flegr, Department of Philosophy

Flegr, Jaroslav

168

Activity of clarithromycin alone or in combination with other drugs for treatment of murine toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

The activity of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin was examined alone or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of acute or chronic infections with Toxoplasma gondii in mice. A dose of 300 mg of clarithromycin per kg per day administered alone for 10 days, beginning 24 hours after infection, protected 10 to 30% of mice infected with lethal inocula of tachyzoites or tissue cysts of different strains of T. gondii, including some strains isolated from patients with both AIDS and toxoplasmosis. Although clarithromycin was protective, a wide variation in its activity against different strains was observed. Survival of infected mice was increased significantly by treatment with clarithromycin in combination with pyrimethamine or with sulfadiazine. Treatment of chronically infected mice with clarithromycin at 300 mg/kg/day administered alone for 8 weeks resulted in significant reduction in the numbers of T. gondii cysts in their brains. The combination of clarithromycin and minocycline resulted in an activity against T. gondii cysts that was significantly greater than the activity of clarithromycin or minocycline administered alone. These results indicate a role for clarithromycin in the treatment of human toxoplasmosis, particularly when this antibiotic is used in combination with other drugs with activity against T. gondii. PMID:1489188

Araujo, F G; Prokocimer, P; Lin, T; Remington, J S

1992-01-01

169

Toxoplasmosis in a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and two American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and 2 American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). The woodchuck was euthanized by a wildlife rescue organization in New York after progressive clinical signs of head tilt, circling, and rapid weight loss. Necropsy examination revealed acute subdural hemorrhage over the right cerebral hemisphere. Histologic lesions included meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. Protozoal cysts were present in affected and unaffected neuroparenchyma. The squirrels were found dead, emaciated, and moderately infested with fleas near a park in northern Indiana. In both squirrels, the lungs were consolidated with numerous nodules up to 2 mm in diameter. Histologically, pneumonia and encephalitis were associated with intracellular and free protozoa. Additional histologic lesions included multifocal lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa in both squirrels. The protozoa were positive with Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunohistochemistry and had ultrastructural features consistent with T. gondii in both squirrels. A real-time polymerase chain reaction test using T. gondii-specific probes demonstrated protozoal DNA in the lung, brain, and kidney of the squirrels and in the brain and heart of the woodchuck. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in woodchucks or American red squirrels. Because rodents are common near urban settlements, this finding underscores their role as important intermediate hosts for T. gondii. PMID:17998563

Bangari, Dinesh S; Mouser, Pamela; Miller, Margaret A; Stevenson, Gregory W; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Thacker, H Leon

2007-11-01

170

Lunar Prospecting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space resources are essential for space settlement: Large space settlements on the Moon or Mars will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources on the Moon is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources that involves planetary research, technology development, human workforce training, and education. Our work builds on previous studies.

Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Martel, Linda

2002-01-01

171

Prospect Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many readers may be aware that trees grow in Brooklyn, few may be cognizant of the fact that, yes, a forest grows in Brooklyn. This urban forest just happens to be in the boroughâÂÂs own lovely Prospect Park, designed by those giants of landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Often overlooked by some who are primarily concerned with that other large swath of green in the middle of Manhattan, Prospect Park contains a 90-acre meadow, a zoo, a celebrated performing arts festival, and a lake. Visitors to the Prospect Park Alliance website can learn all about these things, and also delve into the parkâÂÂs history. Those planning a visit may wish to look at the âÂÂGeneral Infoâ and âÂÂPlaces To Goâ sections for a selection of brief descriptions and photographs. For those seeking a historical perspective the âÂÂHistory & Natureâ area is delightful. Here visitors can learn about the parkâÂÂs historical development and creation, and learn more about those individuals responsible for the parkâÂÂs design and aesthetic appeal. Finally, visitors should look at the online exhibit âÂÂA Glimpse Of Prospect Parkâ for a bit of visual perspective on the parkâÂÂs history.

Prospect Park (New York, N.Y.)

172

Biofuels, Climate Policy and the European Vehicle Fleet  

E-print Network

We examine the effect of biofuels mandates and climate policy on the European vehicle fleet, considering the prospects for diesel and gasoline vehicles. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, ...

Rausch, Sebastian

173

Impact of Technological and Structural Change on Employment. Prospective Analysis 2020. Synthesis Report. Report to the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament. Technical Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possible impact of technological and structural change on employment in the European Union (EU) over the next 20 years was examined through an exploration of the following alternative policy-driven scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) concentrated technology policy (increases in innovation and research and development [R&D] efforts are…

2001

174

Future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analysed against the many problems facing the conservation of natural and semi-natural habitats on a world scale, future prospects\\u000a are laden with difficulties which it would be unrealistic to ignore. The continued demographic explosion in most underdeveloped\\u000a countries is leading to greater and greater pressures, which are eliminating valuable natural areas on an accelerating scale.\\u000a Fresh waters are particularly at

P. S. Maitland; N. C. Morgan

175

Recombinant dense granular protein (GRA5) for detection of human toxoplasmosis by Western blot.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5) in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5) was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp.). PMID:24987700

Ching, Xiao Teng; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Andiappan, Hemah

2014-01-01

176

Congenital toxoplasmosis from a mother with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case report.  

PubMed

A 33-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was suspected of being primarily infected with Toxoplasma gondii at 12 weeks of gestation (GW). Although acetylspiramycin was started at 17 GW, the T.?gondii?DNA gene was detected in the amniotic fluid at 18 GW. Chemotherapy was changed to pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine from 20 GW, but was changed back to acetylspiramycin after 2 weeks because of vomiting. Acetylspiramycin was continued until her delivery. DM was controlled well during the pregnancy. An asymptomatic male baby was born by cesarean section at 37 GW, and was treated with acetylspiramycin for 4 weeks because the polymerase chain reaction results of umbilical cord blood were positive. He has developed normally until the present, that is, 6 months of age. Herein, we describe a case report in which symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis was avoided in a pregnant woman with an immunosuppressive risk due to prompt chemotherapy. PMID:25164320

Sato, Shimpei; Nishida, Masakazu; Nasu, Kaei; Narahara, Hisashi; Norose, Kazumi; Aosai, Fumie

2014-11-01

177

CNS toxoplasmosis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a clinical-pathological-radiological review of 12 cases.  

PubMed Central

From January 1981 to January 1983 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed in 90 patients admitted to Kings County Hospital-Downstate Medical Center. CNS involvement occurred in 18 patients of whom 12 had toxoplasmosis confirmed by biopsy or necropsy. Pathological specimens from these 12 patients were notable for a marked diminution or absence of cellular inflammation. Each patient had elevated serological studies for toxoplasma. AIDS presented with symptoms referable to CNS toxoplasma in eight patients. In the remaining four patients, toxoplasma was found late in the course of the illness. CT showed either ring enhancing lesions or solid nodules. The course was uniformly fatal, though patients treated continuously with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine survived longer. Images PMID:3746305

Farkash, A E; Maccabee, P J; Sher, J H; Landesman, S H; Hotson, G

1986-01-01

178

Identification and characterization of Toxoplasma gondii aspartic protease 1 as a novel vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can pose a serious threat to human health by causing toxoplasmosis. There are no drugs that target the chronic cyst stage of this infection; therefore, development of an effective vaccine would be an important advance. Aspartic proteases play essential roles in the T. gondii lifecycle. The parasite has four aspartic protease encoding genes, which are called toxomepsin 1, 2, 3 and 5 (TgASP1, 2, 3 and 5, respectively). Methods Bioinformatics approaches have enabled us to identify several promising linear-B cell epitopes and potential Th-cell epitopes on TgASP1, thus supporting its potential as a DNA vaccine against toxoplasmosis. We expressed TgASP1 in Escherichia coli and used the purified protein to immunize BALB/c mice. The antibodies obtained were used to determine where TgASP1 was localized in the parasite. We also made a TgASP1 DNA vaccine construct and evaluated it for the level of protection conferred to mice against infection with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. Results TgASP1 appears to be a membrane protein located primarily at the tip of the T. gondii tachyzoite. Investigation of its potential as a DNA vaccine showed that it elicited strong humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and that these responses were mediated by Th-1 cells. Mice immunized with the vaccine had greater levels of protection against mortality following challenge with T. gondii RH tachyzoites than did those immunized with PBS or the empty vector control. Conclusions TgASP1 is a novel candidate DNA vaccine that merits further investigation. PMID:23768047

2013-01-01

179

Maternal Serologic Screening to Prevent Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Decision-Analytic Economic Model  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine a cost-minimizing option for congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States. Methodology/Principal Findings A decision-analytic and cost-minimization model was constructed to compare monthly maternal serological screening, prenatal treatment, and post-natal follow-up and treatment according to the current French (Paris) protocol, versus no systematic screening or perinatal treatment. Costs are based on published estimates of lifetime societal costs of developmental disabilities and current diagnostic and treatment costs. Probabilities are based on published results and clinical practice in the United States and France. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate robustness of results. Universal monthly maternal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis with follow-up and treatment, following the French protocol, is found to be cost-saving, with savings of $620 per child screened. Results are robust to changes in test costs, value of statistical life, seroprevalence in women of childbearing age, fetal loss due to amniocentesis, and to bivariate analysis of test costs and incidence of primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy. Given the parameters in this model and a maternal screening test cost of $12, screening is cost-saving for rates of congenital infection above 1 per 10,000 live births. If universal testing generates economies of scale in diagnostic tools—lowering test costs to about $2 per test—universal screening is cost-saving at rates of congenital infection well below the lowest reported rates in the United States of 1 per 10,000 live births. Conclusion/Significance Universal screening according to the French protocol is cost saving for the US population within broad parameters for costs and probabilities. PMID:21980546

Stillwaggon, Eileen; Carrier, Christopher S.; Sautter, Mari; McLeod, Rima

2011-01-01

180

Improving Urine Sample Efficacy as a Convenient Alternative for Invasive Samples in Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnosis of some diseases is difficult due to invasive sampling. Urine has been candidate as a non-invasive and convenient alternative. It has many advantages and easy accessibility but some technical ills should be removed. Finding a suitable extraction method for improving urine DNA quantity and quality in altering invasive specimens for molecular diagnosis of some infectious diseases, was the main object of present research. Method Toxoplasmosis was selected as an experimental model, regarding the congenital and ocular forms, its abundance and requirement to invasive sample for diagnosis. Samples prepared by adding some defined Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain) tachyzoites to normal urine. Several urine DNA extraction and purification methods comparatively were tested for finding the best one. The amount of extracted DNA assessed using Nanodrope spectrophotometer and a multiplex semi-nested PCR were designed for evaluating the results. Results Urine samples with known number of tachyzoites were purified comparatively by five better methods. The results reviled that Cinnagen kit performed with more efficacies. It works well up to 1-5tachyzoites µl?1 of urine. The amount and quality of extracted DNA of more than 100 urine samples with defined tachyzoites were analyzed using a nested PCR method. Finally methods were enough sensitive to detect one tachyzoite DNA in final PCR reaction. Conclusion This method was enough eligible and sensitive to perform molecular tests for different purposes of instance detecting toxoplasmosis by urine sample as a convenience and non invasive method; although it is better to perform some more experiments using patients samples comparing gold methods. PMID:23682277

Eskandarian, AA

2013-01-01

181

Prospective Optimization  

PubMed Central

Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

2014-01-01

182

Toxoplasmosis presenting as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast and a palpable axillary lymph node mimicking malignancy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in toxoplasmosis. A breast mass due to toxoplasmosis is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of toxoplasmosis that presented as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast with a palpable axillary lymph node which mimicked breast cancer. Case presentation A 45-year-old otherwise healthy Caucasian woman presented with a lump on the lateral aspect of her left breast. Her mother had breast cancer that was diagnosed at the age of 66 years. During an examination, we discovered that our patient had a discrete, firm lump in the axillary tail of her left breast and an enlarged, palpable lymph node in her left axilla. Her right breast and axilla were normal. The clinical diagnosis was malignancy in the left breast. Ultrasound and mammographic examinations of her breast suggested a pathological process but were not conclusive. She had targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core biopsy of the lesions. FNAC was indeterminate (C3) but suggested a possibility of toxoplasmosis. The core biopsy was not suggestive of malignancy but showed granulomatous inflammation. She had a wide local excision of the breast lump and an axillary lymph node biopsy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies excluded carcinoma or lymphoma but suggested the possibility of intramammary and axillary toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. The results of Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG serology tests were positive, supporting a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Conclusions Toxoplasmosis rarely presents as a pseudotumor of the breast. FNAC and histology are valuable tools for a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and serology is an important adjunct for confirmation. PMID:21816047

2011-01-01

183

Black Europeans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Library has been producing quality online features for close to a decade now, and this latest offering is worth a close look. This particular feature offers some insights and commentary on five prominent black Europeans. It may even come as a surprise to some visitors that several of the individuals profiled were black, such as Alexandre Dumas, the celebrated author of The Three Musketeers. These profiles are supplemented with essays by Dr. Mike Phillips, a writer, scholar, and journalist. The essays are accompanied by a series of images, including engravings, portraits, and illustrations. Visitors may also want to view and print out extended versions of Phillipsâ essays, which are available here in the pdf format.

184

Identification of potential serodiagnostic and subunit vaccine antigens by antibody profiling of toxoplasmosis cases in Turkey.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis, caused by infection of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is associated with mild disease in healthy individuals, whereas individuals with depressed immunity may develop encephalitis, neurologic disorders, and other organ diseases. Women who develop acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus, which may lead to fetal damage. A diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring IgG, or IgM where it is important to determine the onset of infection. A negative IgM result essentially excludes acute infection, whereas a positive IgM test is largely uninterpretable because IgM can persist for up to 18 months after infection. To identify antigens for improved diagnosis of acute infection, we probed protein microarrays displaying the polypeptide products of 1357 Toxoplasma exons with well-characterized sera from Turkey. The sera were classified according to conventional assays into (1) seronegative individuals with no history of T. gondii infection; (2) acute infections defined by clinical symptoms, high IgM titers, and low avidity IgG; (3) chronic/convalescent cases with high avidity IgG but persisting IgM; (iv) true chronic infections, defined by high avidity IgG and no IgM. We have identified 38 IgG target antigens and 108 IgM target antigens that can discriminate infected patients from healthy controls, one or more of which could form the basis of a 'tier-1' test to determine current or previous exposure. Of these, three IgG antigens and five IgM antigens have the potential to discriminate chronic/IgM persisting or true chronics from recent acutely infected patients (a 'tier-2' test). Our analysis of the antigens revealed several enriched features relative to the whole proteome, which include transmembrane domains, signal peptides, or predicted localization at the outer membrane. This is the first protein microarray survey of the antibody response to T. gondii, and will help in the development of improved serodiagnostics and vaccines. PMID:21512035

Liang, Li; Dö?kaya, Mert; Juarez, Silvia; Caner, Ay?e; Jasinskas, Algis; Tan, Xiaolin; Hajagos, Bettina E; Bradley, Peter J; Korkmaz, Metin; Gürüz, Yüksel; Felgner, Philip L; Davies, D Huw

2011-07-01

185

Intranasal Immunisation with Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii Actin Partly Protects Mice against Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan intracellular parasite, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, and a worldwide zoonosis for which an effective vaccine is needed. Actin is a highly conserved microfilament protein that plays an important role in the invasion of host cells by T. gondii. This study investigated the immune responses elicited by BALB/c mice after nasal immunisation with a recombinant T. gondii actin (rTgACT) and the subsequent protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections. We evaluated the systemic response by proliferation, cytokine and antibody measurements, and we assessed the mucosal response by examining the levels of TgACT-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. Parasite load was assessed in the liver and brain, and the survival of mice challenged with a virulent strain was determined. The results showed that the mice immunised with rTgACT developed high levels of specific anti-rTgACT IgG titres and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with a predominance of IgG2a. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-? and IL-2), Th2 (IL-4) and Treg (IL-10) cytokines, indicating that not only Th1-type response was induced, but also Th2- and Treg-types responses were induced, and the splenocyte stimulation index (SI) was increased in the mice immunised with rTgACT. Nasal immunisation with rTgACT led to strong mucosal immune responses, as seen by the increased secretion of SIgA in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. The vaccinated mice displayed significant protection against lethal infection with the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%), while the mice chronically infected with RH exhibited lower liver and brain parasite loads (60.05% and 49.75%, respectively) than the controls. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that actin triggers a strong systemic and mucosal response against T. gondii. Therefore, actin may be a promising vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. PMID:24386114

Yin, Li-Tian; Hao, Hai-Xia; Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Yin, Guo-Rong

2013-01-01

186

A dedicated surveillance network for congenital toxoplasmosis in Greece, 2006-2009: assessment of the results  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Acute infections in pregnant women may be transmitted to the fetus and cause severe illness. The purpose of this study was to establish a dedicated surveillance network (DSN) for congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) in Greece, in order to assess the birth prevalence of CT. Methods A DSN of thirty clinicians was established for reporting CT cases from hospitals throughout Greece. The clinicians were selected on the basis that there was a high possibility the suspected cases would be referred to them from district hospitals or private clinics. Suspected cases of CT were reported on a monthly basis with a zero reporting card during a surveillance period from April 2006 to December 2009. A questionnaire was sent for any suspected case to record information including demographic parameters, clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory results. Serological and molecular confirmation of cases was performed by the Pasteur Hellenic Institute. All newborns suspected of CT received treatment and were serologically and clinically followed up for one year. Results The monthly response rate reached 100%, although only after reminders sent to 65% of the participant physicians. Sixty-three suspected CT cases were recorded by the DSN during the study period including fourteen confirmed and seven probable cases. Ten cases (47.6%) presented with symptoms at birth. Chorioretinitis was the most prominent manifestation, occurring in five symptomatic CT cases (50%). No other symptoms appeared by the end of the one year clinical follow up. No case was recorded by the existing surveillance system of the Hellenic Center of Disease Control and Prevention (HCDCP) during the same time period. Birth prevalence was estimated at 0.45, 0.51 and 0.51 per 10,000 births for 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively. The incidence rate of symptomatic CT at birth was estimated at 0.10 cases per 10,000 births per year in Greece (for the period 2007–2009). Conclusion The DSN for CT proved to be more sensitive than the classical notification system, easy in application and very efficient in reporting rare diseases such as CT. Similar DSNs could be used to provide useful information on other rare diseases. PMID:23173875

2012-01-01

187

Impact assessment of the European Clinical Trials Directive: a longitudinal, prospective, observational study analyzing patterns and trends in clinical drug trial applications submitted since 2001 to regulatory agencies in six EU countries  

PubMed Central

Background Shifts in clinical trial application rates over time indicate if the attractiveness of a country or region for the conduct of clinical trials is growing or decreasing. The purpose of this observational study was to track changes in drug trial application patterns across several EU countries in order to analyze the medium-term impact of the EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC on the conduct of drug trials. Methods Rates of Clinical Trial Applications (CTA) for studies with medicinal products in those six countries in the EU, which authorize on average more than 500 trials per year, were analyzed. Publicly available figures on the number of annually submitted CTA, the distribution of trials per phase and the type of sponsorship were tracked; missing data were provided by national drug agencies. Results Since 2001, the number of CTA in Italy and Spain increased significantly (5.0 and 2.5% average annual growth). For Italy, the gain was driven by a strong increase of applications from academic trial sponsors; Spain's growth was due to a rise in trials run by commercial sponsors. The Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK saw a decline (1.9, 2.3, 3.0 and 5.3% average annual diminution; significant (P < 0.05) except for Germany) in clinical drug trials. The decrease in the UK was caused by a sharp fall in academic trial activities. Across the six analyzed countries, no EU-wide trial-phase-specific patterns or trends were observed. Conclusions The EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC did not achieve the harmonization of clinical trial requirements across Europe. Rather, it resulted in the leveling of clinical trial activities caused by a continuing decrease in CTA rates in the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK. Southern European countries, Italy and Spain, benefited to some extent from policy changes introduced by the Directive. In Italy's case, national funding measures helped to considerably promote the conduct of non-commercial trials. On the other hand, the EU Directive-driven transition from liberal policy environments, based on non-explicit trial approval through notifications, towards red-taped processes of trial authorization, contributed to the decreases in trial numbers in Germany and the UK. In the latter case, national research governance concerns had a share in the country's marked decline. However, different EU member states successfully developed best practices, which a new European legislation should take into consideration to resume Europe's attractiveness and international competitiveness for the conduct of clinical trials. PMID:22540886

2012-01-01

188

Synergistic activity of azithromycin and pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine in acute experimental toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of azithromycin administered alone or combined with pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine was examined in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis. Outbred Swiss mice acutely infected with tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain were treated for 10 days from day +1 postinfection. The efficacy of each regimen was assessed in terms of survival rates and sequential titration of parasites in blood, brain, and lungs by using a tissue culture method. Administration of azithromycin at 300, 150, or 75 mg/kg of body weight per day resulted in prolonged survival relative to that of untreated controls; sequential examination of parasite burden showed early eradiaction of Toxoplasma gondii from the lungs, whereas dissemination to the brain was not prevented. A remarkable synergistic effect was observed when azithromycin (150 mg/kg/day) was administered in combination with pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine at noncurative dosages, i.e., 12.5 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively. In mice treated with azithromycin plus sulfadiazine and azithromycin plus pyrimethamine, parasite burdens in blood and organs, relapses after cessation of therapy, and mortality were all markedly reduced relative to mice treated with any of the agents alone. These results show that azithromycin, which is remarkably active on pulmonary Toxoplasma infection, significantly potentiates the curative effect of sulfadiazine or pyrimethamine. PMID:1324642

Derouin, F; Almadany, R; Chau, F; Rouveix, B; Pocidalo, J J

1992-01-01

189

A New IgG Immunoblot Kit for Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

The determination of the accurate immune status of pregnant women is crucial in order to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis. Equivocal results with conventional serological techniques are not uncommon when IgG titers are close to the cut-off value of the test, so that a confirmatory technique is needed. For this purpose, we developed a homemade immunoblot (IB) using soluble extract of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and assessed it by testing 154 positive, 100 negative, and 123 equivocal sera obtained from pregnant women. In order to select the more valuable bands in terms of sensitivity and specificity, we used the Youden Index (YI). The highest YIs were those given by the 32, 36, 98, 21, and 33 bands. The simultaneous presence on the same blot of at least 3 bands showed a much higher YI (0.964) and was adapted as the positivity criterion. The analysis of results showed that our homemade IB correlated well with the commercial LDBIO Toxo II IgG® kit recently recommended as a confirmatory test (96.7% of concordance).

Saghrouni, Fatma; Lakhal, Sami; Bouratbine, Aida; Ben Said, Moncef; Boukadida, Jalel

2014-01-01

190

A new IgG immunoblot kit for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.  

PubMed

The determination of the accurate immune status of pregnant women is crucial in order to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis. Equivocal results with conventional serological techniques are not uncommon when IgG titers are close to the cut-off value of the test, so that a confirmatory technique is needed. For this purpose, we developed a homemade immunoblot (IB) using soluble extract of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and assessed it by testing 154 positive, 100 negative, and 123 equivocal sera obtained from pregnant women. In order to select the more valuable bands in terms of sensitivity and specificity, we used the Youden Index (YI). The highest YIs were those given by the 32, 36, 98, 21, and 33 bands. The simultaneous presence on the same blot of at least 3 bands showed a much higher YI (0.964) and was adapted as the positivity criterion. The analysis of results showed that our homemade IB correlated well with the commercial LDBIO Toxo II IgG® kit recently recommended as a confirmatory test (96.7% of concordance). PMID:25352697

Khammari, Imen; Saghrouni, Fatma; Lakhal, Sami; Bouratbine, Aida; Ben Said, Moncef; Boukadida, Jalel

2014-10-01

191

High susceptibility of partridges ( Perdix perdix ) to toxoplasmosis compared with other gallinaceous birds.  

PubMed

Partridges ( Perdix perdix ), chukars ( Alectoris chukar ), wild guineafowl ( Numida meleagris ), wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) and chickens ( Gallus domesticus ) were inoculated per os with 103 or 105 Toxoplasma gondii oocysts (K7 strain). Two of five partridges fed 103 oocysts and six of eight partridges fed 105 oocysts died between day 6 and 16 post-inoculation (p.i.); no clinical symptoms were observed in surviving birds. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in the birds by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) first on day 7 p.i. On days 14, 21 and 28 p.i. (end of the experiment), antibodies were found in all partridges, chukars, guineafowl and turkeys. In chickens, IFAT antibodies were first detected on day 14 p.i., and all chickens were serologically positive on days 21 and 28 p.i. Bioassay in mice revealed T. gondii in the brain, liver, spleen, heart and leg muscles of all partridges and chukars. Enteritis was the most striking lesion in partridges that died. Results indicated that partridges are highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis, while chukars, wild guineafowl and turkeys seem to be less susceptible. Chickens are highly resistant to T. gondii infections. PMID:19184852

Sedlak, K; Franti, I L

2000-12-01

192

An overview of seventy years of research (1944-2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from Colombia. Recent studies, especially in the states of Antioquia, Quindío and Cundinamarca, indicate that toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem. Approximately half of the women of child bearing age have T. gondii antibodies, and the clinical disease in congenitally infected children is more severe than in Europe. Limited studies indicate that the strains of T. gondii from Colombia are genetically and phenotypically different than in Europe and North America. However, epidemiological factors, such as the involvement of domestic and/or wild animals in transmission, the distribution of strain diversity by natural geographic regions, and the variation in risk factors between regions that are associated with human infection in Colombia, remain unknown. Areas of research for the future are outlined. This review should be of interest to biologists, veterinarians, physicians, and parasitologists. PMID:25190525

Cañón-Franco, William Alberto; López-Orozco, Natalia; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P

2014-01-01

193

Chronic murine toxoplasmosis is defined by subtle changes in neuronal connectivity  

PubMed Central

Recent studies correlate chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection with behavioral changes in rodents; additionally, seropositivity in humans is reported to be associated with behavioral and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study we investigated whether the described behavioral changes in a murine model of chronic toxoplasmosis are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity and brain neuronal circuitry. In mice chronically infected with T. gondii, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data analysis displayed the presence of heterogeneous lesions scattered throughout all brain areas. However, a higher density of lesions was observed within specific regions such as the somatosensory cortex (SSC). Further histopathological examination of these brain areas indicated the presence of activated resident glia and recruited immune cells accompanied by limited alterations of neuronal viability. In vivo diffusion-tensor MRI analysis of neuronal fiber density within the infected regions revealed connectivity abnormalities in the SSC. Altered fiber density was confirmed by morphological analysis of individual, pyramidal and granule neurons, showing a reduction in dendritic arbor and spine density within the SSC, as well as in the hippocampus. Evaluation of synapse efficacy revealed diminished levels of two key synaptic proteins, PSD95 and synaptophysin, within the same brain areas, indicating deficits in functionality of the synaptic neurotransmission in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. gondii infection in a murine model results in synaptic deficits within brain structures leading to disturbances in the morphology of noninfected neurons and modified brain connectivity, suggesting a potential explanation for the behavioral and neuropsychiatric alterations. PMID:24524910

Parlog, Alexandru; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Weller, Marianna; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Mawrin, Christian; Korte, Martin; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

2014-01-01

194

TOXOPLASMOSIS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE AMONG PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN ATTENDED IN PUBLIC HEALTH UNITS IN NITER?I, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented. PMID:25229225

Millar, Patricia Riddell; de Moura, Fernanda Loureiro; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira; de Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudre, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

2014-01-01

195

European Dialogue: The Magazine for European Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new bimonthly magazine published by the European Commission is targeted at "decision-makers/opinion formers having an impact on European Integration" in the ten Central European and Baltic countries that have applied to join the EU. The electronic version of the first issue contains articles on humanitarian aid, membership negotiations, pensions, and economic forecasts.

1997-01-01

196

Prospect redux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The remote estimation of leaf biochemical content from spaceborne platforms has been the subject of many studies aimed at better understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The major ecological processes involved in exchange of matter and energy, like photosynthesis, primary production, evaportranspiration, respiration, and decomposition can be related to plant properties e.g., chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose and lignin contents. As leaves represent the most important plant surfaces interacting with solar energy, a top priority has been to relate optical properties to biochemical constituents. Two different approaches have been considered: first, statistical correlations between the leaf reflectance (or transmittance) and biochemical content, and second, physically based models of leaf scattering and absorption developed using the laws of optics. Recently reviewed by Verdebout et al., the development of models of leaf optical properties has resulted in better understanding of the interaction of light with plant leaves. Present radiative transfer models mainly use chlorophyll and/or water contents as input parameters to calculate leaf reflectance. Inversion of these models allows to retrieve these constituents from spectrophotometric measurements. Conel et al. recently proposed a two-stream Kubelka-Munk model to analyze the influence of protein, cellulose, lignin, and starch on leaf reflectance, but in fact, the estimation of leaf biochemistry from remote sensing is still an open question. In order to clarify it, a laboratory experiment associating visible/infrared spectra of plan leaves both with physical measurements and biochemical analyses was conducted at the Joint Research Center during the summer of 1993. This unique data set has been used to upgrade the PROSPECT model, by including leaf biochemistry.

Jacquemoud, S.; Ustin, S. L.; Verdebout, J.; Schmuck, G.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.

1995-01-01

197

Recognition of Toxoplasma gondii excreted and secreted antigens by human sera from acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis: identification of markers of acute and chronic infection.  

PubMed Central

While the serological response to somatic antigens of Toxoplasma gondii is currently analysed, little information is available on the antibody response to the antigens excreted and secreted by tachyzoïtes (ESA). This serological study is focused on the immune response towards these antigens which were released by the parasites in cell-free culture medium. Human sera corresponding to 'acute', 'subacute' and 'chronic' acquired infection and sera from infected newborns and from their mothers were analysed by radio-immunoprecipitation with 35S methionine-labelled ESA and with radio-iodinated membrane antigens followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In chronic toxoplasmosis, IgG antibodies recognized among ESA major 108, 97, 86, 60, 57, 42, 39 and 28.5 kD antigens; the 108-97 kD doublets and the 28.5 kD antigen seemed characteristic of the chronic phase of toxoplasmosis. In acute infection, IgM antibodies to the 97 kD antigen, the first to appear, seem to contitute good markers of early acute infection. The comparative study of antibody response to membrane antigens showed that, in chronic toxoplasmosis, human sera recognized four antigens of 43, 35, 30 and 22 kD and that, in acute toxoplasmosis, they first recognized the 43 and 30 kD antigens. The serological evolution in congenital toxoplasmosis was the same as in acquired infection. In some cases, the serological profile of the newborn was different from that of his mother, with an additional antibody response to a 170 kD antigen. This study demonstrates in human toxoplasmosis an early, intense and characteristic antibody response against ESA, suggesting that the use of these antigens could lead in the future to improved diagnostic tests. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3208449

Decoster, A; Darcy, F; Capron, A

1988-01-01

198

The Importance of IgG Avidity and the Polymerase Chain Reaction in Treating Toxoplasmosis during Pregnancy: Current Knowledge  

PubMed Central

A brief report on the nature and epidemiology of T. gondii infection is firstly presented. The importance of the specific IgG avidity test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for toxoplasmosis is discussed, along with their significance and importance as auxiliary methods for determining the most likely time for the initial infection by this coccidian and for defining the therapeutic strategy. Lastly, practical comments are made in relation to the classical therapeutic regimens, with special attention to the indications for fetal treatment, when this is necessary. PMID:24191157

Bortoletti Filho, Joao; Carvalho, Natalia da Silva; Helfer, Talita Micheletti; Nogueira Serni, Priscila de Oliveira; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

2013-01-01

199

Evaluation of a new protocol for retrospective diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by use of Guthrie cards.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of IgM Western blotting (WB), IgA enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and DNA amplification by real-time PCR on Guthrie cards to retrospectively establish the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). To this purpose, Guthrie cards were collected from 18 infants born to mothers with primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Moreover, the analytical sensitivity of T. gondii PCR was assessed by testing mock dried blood specimens set up with several known DNA dilutions. IgM WB was demonstrated to be the most sensitive method. When the results of T. gondii DNA detection and specific IgM recovery were combined, retrospective CT diagnosis by using Guthrie cards was established in 3 out of 6 infected infants (sensitivity, 50%; 95% confidence interval, 26.8% to 73.2%). No positive PCR or serologic results were found in the group of 12 uninfected infants, demonstrating the excellent specificity of the three methods (95% confidence interval, 78.1% to 99.5%). The findings of the present study suggest that, in cases of missed diagnosis of CT at birth, analysis of Guthrie cards for children with compatible clinical findings after the perinatal period, in particular the combination of recovery of specific IgM antibodies and T. gondii DNA amplification, could be helpful. Nevertheless, since suboptimal conditions of storage of dried blood specimens can seriously affect sensitivity, negative results cannot rule out CT diagnosis. In contrast, because of the excellent specificity shown by IgM serologic testing and T. gondii DNA amplification on Guthrie cards, positive results obtained by either of the two methods should be considered diagnostic. PMID:24899036

Marangoni, Antonella; Capretti, Maria Grazia; De Angelis, Morena; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Foschi, Claudio; Orlandi, Azzurra; Marsico, Concetta; Righetti, Francesca; Faldella, Giacomo; Cevenini, Roberto

2014-08-01

200

Clinical pattern of ocular toxoplasmosis treated in a referral centre in Serbia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the clinical pattern of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in a referral centre in Serbia. Patients and methods The medical records of consecutive patients admitted for OT to the single referral centre for uveitis in Serbia between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. OT was diagnosed on the basis of typical fundus lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma. Results In a total of 457 uveitis patients, OT was the third leading cause, with 59 patients (12.9%). Most OT cases (73%) were monocular. An active primary retinal lesion was observed in 36% and recurrent OT in 64% patients. Localization of lesions was central/paracentral (44%), juxtapapillar (27%), peripheral (19%), and multifocal (10%). Other ocular manifestations of inflammation included vitritis (44%), anterior uveitis (19%), and retinal vasculitis (10%). Complications included choroidal neovascularization in two and exudative retinal detachment with cataract, glaucoma, and cystoid macular oedema in one patient each. The detection of Toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies in a single patient indicates a low rate of OT concomitant with acute infection. After treatment, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) increased significantly. However, 14 (24%) patients ended up legally blind in the affected eye, of which 2 (3%) with bilateral blindness, all with a very poor BCVA (0.047±0.055) at presentation. Visual impairment and treatment outcome were both associated with central localization of lesions (P<0.0001 and P=0.006, respectively). Conclusion OT is a significant cause of posterior uveitis in Serbia. Patients should be aware of the recurring nature of OT and react immediately if symptoms occur. PMID:22361847

Kovacevic-Pavicevic, D; Radosavljevic, A; Ilic, A; Kovacevic, I; Djurkovic-Djakovic, O

2012-01-01

201

Comparison of Mother and Child Antibodies That Target High-Molecular-Mass Toxoplasma gondii Antigens by Immunoblotting Improves Neonatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study proposes a new reading of immunoblotting (IB) in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Our findings demonstrate that a three-IgM-band association at 75, 90, and 100 kDa called the IgM triplet increases the sensitivity to 95.8% when combined with prenatal and serological neonatal tests. PMID:22695159

Wallon, Martine; Faucher, Benoit; Piarroux, Renaud; Peyron, Francois; Franck, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

202

False serologic evidence for acute primary toxoplasmosis during liver transplantation for fulminant hepatitis B: a case report.  

PubMed

Acute primary Toxoplasma gondii infection is usually considered to be a contraindication for solid organ transplantation. Recent reports of acute T. gondii infection have highlighted the need to include T. gondii serology in the pretransplant screening of solid-organ transplant recipients. However such serology might be misleading. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman who received a liver transplantation for life-threatening liver failure due to hepatitis B virus infection. The presence of high IgM titers against T. gondii, as detected by membrane immunoassay, immunofluorescence, and mu-capture ELISA tests, together with the absence of IgG antibodies in the immediate pretransplant serology screening suggested acute primary T. gondii infection at the time of transplantation. We initiated a preemptive therapy with intravenous clindamycin and cotrimoxazole. However, negative PCR and IgA capture assays, together with the absence of a sustained IgG response finally excluded the initial diagnosis of primary toxoplasmosis, leading to discontinuation of antitoxoplasmosis therapy. This case illustrates the problem that, in the context of fulminant hepatitis B, serologic markers for acute primary toxoplasmosis can be falsely positive. Confirmation by PCR and IgA antibody determinations is required to confirm this diagnosis. PMID:20005415

Uçkay, I; Wunderli, W; Giostra, E; Majno, P; Mentha, G; van Delden, C

2009-12-01

203

Biomarker Analysis Revealed Distinct Profiles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Infants with Ocular Lesions of Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is the main infectious cause of human posterior retinochoroiditis, the most frequent clinical manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis. This investigation was performed after neonatal screening to identify biomarkers of immunity associated with immunopathological features of the disease by flow cytometry. The study included infected infants without NRL and with retinochoroidal lesions (ARL, ACRL, and CRL) as well as noninfected individuals (NI). Our data demonstrated that leukocytosis, with increased monocytes and lymphocytes, was a relevant hematological biomarker of ARL. Immunophenotypic analysis also revealed expansion of CD14+CD16+HLA-DRhigh monocytes and CD56dim cytotoxic NK-cells in ARL. Moreover, augmented TCR??+ and CD8+ T-cell counts were apparently good biomarkers of morbidity. Biomarker network analysis revealed that complex and intricated networks underscored the negative correlation of monocytes with NK- and B-cells in NRL. The remarkable lack of connections involving B-cells and a relevant shift of NK-cell connections from B-cells toward T-cells observed in ARL were outstanding. A tightly connected biomarker network was observed in CRL, with relevant connections of NK- and CD8+ T-cells with a broad range of cell subsets. Our findings add novel elements to the current knowledge on the innate and adaptive immune responses in congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:25328286

Machado, Anderson Silva; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Bela, Samantha Ribeiro; Andrade, Glaucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januario, Jose Nelio; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G.; Ferro, Eloisa Amalia Vieira; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; --UFMG-CTBG, UFMG Congenital Toxoplasmosis Brazilian Group

2014-01-01

204

PCR-Based Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in Blood and Ocular Samples for Diagnosis of Ocular Toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

PCR detection of Toxoplasma gondii in blood has been suggested as a possibly efficient method for the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) and furthermore for genotyping the strain involved in the disease. To assess this hypothesis, we performed PCR with 121 peripheral blood samples from 104 patients showing clinical and/or biological evidence of ocular toxoplasmosis and from 284 (258 patients) controls. We tested 2 different extraction protocols, using either 200 ?l (small volume) or 2 ml (large volume) of whole blood. Sensitivity was poor, i.e., 4.1% and 25% for the small- and large-volume extractions, respectively. In comparison, PCR with ocular samples yielded 35.9% sensitivity, while immunoblotting and calculation of the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient yielded 47.6% and 72.3% sensitivities, respectively. Performing these three methods together provided 89.4% sensitivity. Whatever the origin of the sample (ocular or blood), PCR provided higher sensitivity for immunocompromised patients than for their immunocompetent counterparts. Consequently, PCR detection of Toxoplasma gondii in blood samples cannot currently be considered a sufficient tool for the diagnosis of OT, and ocular sampling remains necessary for the biological diagnosis of OT. PMID:25210066

Bourdin, C; Busse, A; Kouamou, E; Touafek, F; Bodaghi, B; Le Hoang, P; Mazier, D; Paris, L; Fekkar, A

2014-11-01

205

Genetic and Epigenetic Factors at COL2A1 and ABCA4 Influence Clinical Outcome in Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background Primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can be transmitted to the fetus. At birth, infected infants may have intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus, and retinochoroiditis, and new ocular lesions can occur at any age after birth. Not all children who acquire infection in utero develop these clinical signs of disease. Whilst severity of disease is influenced by trimester in which infection is acquired by the mother, other factors including genetic predisposition may contribute. Methods and Findings In 457 mother-child pairs from Europe, and 149 child/parent trios from North America, we show that ocular and brain disease in congenital toxoplasmosis associate with polymorphisms in ABCA4 encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 4. Polymorphisms at COL2A1 encoding type II collagen associate only with ocular disease. Both loci showed unusual inheritance patterns for the disease allele when comparing outcomes in heterozygous affected children with outcomes in affected children of heterozygous mothers. Modeling suggested either an effect of mother's genotype, or parent-of-origin effects. Experimental studies showed that both ABCA4 and COL2A1 show isoform-specific epigenetic modifications consistent with imprinting. Conclusions These associations between clinical outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis and polymorphisms at ABCA4 and COL2A1 provide novel insight into the molecular pathways that can be affected by congenital infection with this parasite. PMID:18523590

Jamieson, Sarra E.; de Roubaix, Lee-Anne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Mui, Ernest J.; Cordell, Heather J.; Kirisits, Michael J.; Miller, E. Nancy; Peacock, Christopher S.; Hargrave, Aubrey C.; Coyne, Jessica J.; Boyer, Kenneth; Bessieres, Marie-Helene; Buffolano, Wilma; Ferret, Nicole; Franck, Jacqueline; Kieffer, Francois; Meier, Paul; Nowakowska, Dorota E.; Paul, Malgorzata; Peyron, Francois; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Thulliez, Philippe; Wallon, Martine; Petersen, Eskild; McLeod, Rima; Gilbert, Ruth E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

2008-01-01

206

Correlation of Parasite Load Determined by Quantitative PCR to Clinical Outcome in a Heart Transplant Patient with Disseminated Toxoplasmosis?  

PubMed Central

Disseminated toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in transplant recipients, which results either from reactivation of latent infection or from organ-transmitted primary infection. Preventive measures and diagnostic screening methods differ between countries and are related to the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma spp. in the general population. Here we report a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis in a heart transplant recipient with previous immunity that occurred after cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for the prevention of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was stopped. Quantitative PCR proved useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of Toxoplasma infection. Decreasing parasitic burdens in sequential samples of cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid correlated with a favorable outcome and allowed modulation of the immunosuppressive drug regimen. The duration of anti-Toxoplasma treatment and the need for maintenance prophylaxis are discussed, as well as prophylaxis for solid-organ transplant recipients. Although a rare event in heart transplant recipients, Toxoplasma reactivation must be investigated promptly, since early treatment improves the prognosis. PMID:20463167

Patrat-Delon, Solene; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Lavoue, Sylvain; Lelong, Bernard; Guiguen, Claude; le Tulzo, Yves; Robert-Gangneux, Florence

2010-01-01

207

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by duplex real-time PCR using fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis frequently relies on PCR tests of amniotic fluid (AF). A duplex real-time quantitative PCR test based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer was developed to quantify the parasite load and to decrease the risk of contamination. An internal control based on the detection of 10 pg mouse DNA added to the AF was included to check for PCR efficiency. The relationship between the parasite load and the occurrence of ultrasonographic abnormalities in 87 samples of AF was analyzed. Seven AF (8%) had a parasitic load > 10(3); 14 (16%) had > 10(2)-< or =10(3); 26 (30%) had > 10-< or = 10(2); and 40 (46%) had < or = 10 parasites/ml. Four of the six AF with cerebral ventriculomegaly had >10(3) parasites/ml. The other two had 130 and 24 parasites/ml, respectively. No parasitic loads of > 10(3) parasites/ml and no ultrasonographic abnormalities were observed in the 11 AF with maternal toxoplasmosis in the third trimester. Therefore, there is a trend to associate high parasite count with ultrasonographic abnormality, but the main concern remains early maternal infection. The importance of quantification should be better evaluated with postnatal studies. The duplex LightCycler PCR test currently provides rapid and safe results. PMID:11241531

Costa, J M; Ernault, P; Gautier, E; Bretagne, S

2001-02-01

208

The welfare costs of hybrid carbon policies in the European Union  

E-print Network

To what extent do the welfare costs associated with the implementation of the Burden Sharing Agreement in the European Union depend on sectoral allocation of emissions rights? What are the prospects for strategic climate ...

Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Viguier, Laurent L.; Reilly, John M.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Criqui, Patrick.

209

Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

2012-06-01

210

Mineral prospecting manual  

SciTech Connect

This book: provides the mineral prospector with a series of essential guidelines for the work he must do and the precautions he will have to take; shows how successful mineral prospecting is dependent on the critical examination of technical, economic and financial data examined during each phase of the operation; and provides information on physical preparations for prospecting, hammer prospecting, prospecting in coastal formations, drilling techniques and equipment, sampling procedures, and current research methods (e.g.: remote sensing and geochemistry).

Chaussier, J.B.; Morer, J.

1986-01-01

211

Toxoplasma gondii Protein Disulfide Isomerase (TgPDI) Is a Novel Vaccine Candidate against Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including both mammals and birds. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) localises to the surface of T. gondii tachyzoites and modulates the interactions between parasite and host cells. In this study, the protective efficacy of recombinant T. gondii PDI (rTgPDI) as a vaccine candidate against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice was evaluated. rTgPDI was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Five groups of animals (10 animals/group) were immunised with 10, 20, 30, 40 ?g of rTgPDI per mouse or with PBS as a control group. All immunisations were performed via the nasal route at 1, 14 and 21 days. Two weeks after the last immunisation, the immune responses were evaluated by lymphoproliferative assays and by cytokine and antibody measurements. The immunised mice were challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain on the 14th day after the last immunisation. Following the challenge, the tachyzoite loads in tissues were assessed, and animal survival time was recorded. Our results showed that the group immunised with 30 ?g rTgPDI showed significantly higher levels of specific antibodies against the recombinant protein, a strong lymphoproliferative response and significantly higher levels of IgG2a, IFN-gamma (IFN-?), IL-2 and IL-4 production compared with other doses and control groups. While no changes in IL-10 levels were detected. After being challenged with T. gondii tachyzoites, the numbers of tachyzoites in brain and liver tissues from the rTgPDI group were significantly reduced compared with those of the control group, and the survival time of the mice in the rTgPDI group was longer than that of mice in the control group. Our results showed that immunisation with rTgPDI elicited a protective immune reaction and suggested that rTgPDI might represent a promising vaccine candidate for combating toxoplasmosis. PMID:23967128

Wang, Hai-Long; Li, Ya-Qing; Yin, Li-Tian; Meng, Xiao-Li; Guo, Min; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Liu, Hong-Li; Liu, Juan-Juan; Yin, Guo-Rong

2013-01-01

212

Performance of the BioPlex 2200 flow immunoassay in critical cases of serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The BioPlex 2200 automated analyzer (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) is a recently developed multiplex analyzer that enables the detection of anti-Toxoplasma, -rubella, and -cytomegalovirus antibodies in the same assay. The aim of this study was to compare this new technology (using the BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgG/IgM kit) in critical cases of serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis (acute, chronic, or congenital infections and cases with discrepant results) to the technologies used in our routine practice, i.e., the Platelia IgG/IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Bio-Rad Laboratories) and the Toxo-Screen direct agglutination assay (bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Overall, most cases of false-positive/negative results obtained with the Platelia IgG or Toxo-Screen assay were corrected by the BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgG (87.5%). Furthermore, the analysis of 35 sequences of sera showed a trend toward a more rapid decrease of IgM titers by BioPlex 2200 than by Platelia. These results for IgM detection can be explained by a weaker detection of residual IgM. Indeed, among 23 serum samples from patients with probable past infection with long-lasting IgM (Platelia M positive and IgG avidity index, ?0.5), the BioPlex 2200 Toxoplasma IgM assay was positive for only 11 serum samples. In our panel of critical cases comprising 156 serum and 6 cord blood samples from 103 patients with acute, chronic, or congenital infection, the BioPlex 2200 IgG assay was a sensitive (97.8%) and specific (91.3%) method for IgG detection. The high specificity (97.4%) of IgM detection combined with the shorter kinetics of IgM titers may considerably reduce the number of residual IgM detections, thus yielding more precise diagnoses of acute infections. PMID:24477853

Guigue, Nicolas; Menotti, Jean; Hamane, Samia; Derouin, Francis; Garin, Yves Jean-François

2014-04-01

213

Anatomy of health effects of Mediterranean diet: Greek EPIC prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the relative importance of the individual components of the Mediterranean diet in generating the inverse association of increased adherence to this diet and overall mortality.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Greek segment of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Participants 23 349 men and women, not previously diagnosed with cancer, coronary heart disease, or diabetes, with

Antonia Trichopoulou; Christina Bamia; Dimitrios Trichopoulos

2009-01-01

214

The Relationship between Life Goals and Fields of Study among Young European Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the relationships among life goals, job prospects and fields of study for a sample of young European higher education graduates. The results show that there is a characteristic pattern for each field of study with regard to the variables used. Graduates in a given field have similar life goals and job prospects, as well as a…

Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Gabaldon, Daniel; Mora, Jose-Gines; Vila, Luis E.

2007-01-01

215

Distributed resources and targeted DSM: Experiences and opportunities for European utilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to explore the opportunities for distributed resources (DR), especially targeted demand-side management (DSM), to be implemented by European utilities. An analysis approach for identifying high-cost service areas is described, and some prospects for exploiting DR, based on such analysis, in the European context are discussed.

Swisher, J.

1995-12-01

216

Turkey's European Union candidacy: From Luxembourg to Helsinki ? to Ankara?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the European Council's Helsinki meeting in December 1999, Turkey was accepted as a candidate for EU membership. However, many obstacles to Turkish EU membership remain. These include domestic political and economic factors, relations with Greece, and some discomfort with the prospect of the inclusion within the EU of an Islamic country. Security considerations may have played a considerable part

William Park

2000-01-01

217

Services and conflict management: Cultural and European integration perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses and discusses the implications of three important characteristics (assertiveness, performance orientation and gender egalitarianism) of Turkish culture from a conflict management styles perspective in the light of the prospective integration of Turkey with the European Union (EU). The analysis of the three cultural characteristics indicates that Turkish people are more likely to resort to avoiding, accommodating and

Erdogan Koc

2010-01-01

218

Towards an immunosense vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis: Protective Toxoplasma gondii epitopes restricted by HLA-A*0201  

PubMed Central

The ideal vaccine to protect against toxoplasmosis in humans would include antigens that elicit a protective T helper cell type 1 immune response, and generate long-lived IFN-?-producing CD8+ T cells. Herein, we utilized a predictive algorithm to identify candidate HLA-A02 supertype epitopes from T. gondii proteins. Thirteen peptides elicited production of IFN-? from PBMC of HLA-A02 supertype persons seropositive for T. gondii infection but not from seronegative controls. These peptides displayed high-affinity binding to HLA-A02 proteins. Immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with these pooled peptides, with a universal CD4+ epitope peptide called PADRE, formulated with adjuvant GLA-SE, induced CD8+ T cell IFN-? production and protected against parasite challenge. Peptides identified in this study provide candidates for inclusion in immunosense epitope-based vaccines. PMID:21095258

Cong, Hua; Mui, Ernest J.; Witola, William H.; Sidney, John; Alexander, Jeff; Sette, Alessandro; Maewal, Ajesh; McLeod, Rima

2010-01-01

219

A Comparative Serological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by CLIA and ELISA Methods in Chalus City Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most common disease in humans and animals (zoonosis) caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually appeared as asymptomatic in immunocompromised individuals but its most common symptom is lymphadenopathy. Shortly before or during the first trimester of pregnancy, this disease can be transferred to the fetus and cause serious infection in the fetus. In late pregnancy (third trimester), the complications of this infection is very low or unsigned. Due to the absence of non-specific clinical symptoms or slight infection in pregnant women, prenatal diagnosis is often impossible. Objectives: Since no research compared these two methods, we decided to compare these methods and determine which method works better for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Patients and Methods: In this study, 50 pregnant women who referred to the Chalus Health Center laboratory were included and the blood samples were tested for presence of IgG and IgM antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii by both ELISA and Chemiluminescence methods. Results: Of the 50 samples tested by the ELISA method, 26 samples (52%) were positive for IgG . No samples were positive for IgM. Of the 50 samples tested by the Chemiluminescence method, 28 samples (56%) were positive for IgG. No samples were positive for IgM. Conclusions: A significant relationship between the age of the youngest child and the infection rate was seen. No significant correlation between age, number of individuals in the household, number of children, location, type of construction, consumption of greens, the way of greens and meat consumption, drug use, history of stillbirth and infection levels was seen. PMID:24910803

Elahian Firouz, Zahra; Kaboosi, Hami; Faghih Nasiri, Abdolreza; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Zaboli, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

220

Comparative assessment of a commercial kit and two laboratory-developed PCR assays for molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection that may cause severe disease and is regarded as a serious health problem in France. Detection of the parasite by molecular methods is crucial for diagnosing the disease. The extreme diversity of methods and performances of Toxoplasma PCR assays makes the use of commercial PCR kits an attractive alternative, as they offer a chance for standardization. We compared the performances of three molecular methods for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in amniotic fluid: a commercial method using nested PCR and two laboratory-developed methods, one using conventional PCR and the other one real-time PCR. This evaluation was based upon a T. gondii DNA serial dilution assay, three amniotic fluid samples spiked with T. gondii at different concentrations, and a clinical cohort of 33 amniotic fluid samples. The T. gondii DNA serial dilution assay showed a much lower sensitivity for the commercial kit than for the laboratory-developed methods. Moreover, out of 12 proven congenital toxoplasmosis cases, 91.7% were detected by the laboratory-developed assays, whereas only 50% were detected by the commercial kit. A lack of sensitivity of the method, partly due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, was the main drawback of the commercial method. This study emphasizes that commercial PCR diagnostic kits do not systematically perform better than carefully optimized laboratory-developed methods. There is a need for thorough evaluation of such kits by proficient groups, as well as for performance standards that commercial kits can be tested against to improve confidence in those selected by health care providers. PMID:23035184

Morelle, Christelle; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick; Sterkers, Yvon

2012-12-01

221

Diversity and evolution of methods and practices for the molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in France: a 4-year survey.  

PubMed

The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is currently based upon molecular biology using a sample of amniotic fluid. The vast majority of centres globally (and all centres in France) performing this diagnosis use 'in house' or laboratory-developed PCR assays. This may be the source of considerable inter-laboratory variation in the performances of the assays, hampering any valuable comparison of data among different centres. The present study was based upon questionnaires that were sent to 21-25 centres between 2002 and 2005 enquiring about methods and practices of the PCR-based prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. An extreme diversity of PCR methods and practices was observed. Thus, in 2005, 35 PCR methods, differing in one of the main steps of the whole process, were reported as being in use for routine diagnosis, with nine centres using two or three methods. We provide comprehensive information on the extraction methods, DNA targets, primer pairs and detection methods used for this diagnosis, as well as their evolution, during the period of study. Interestingly, in this period (2002-2005), a rapid progression of the number of laboratories using real-time PCR technology, which increased from four to 19, was observed. We also studied general PCR practices concerning, for example, the number of reaction tubes used for each biological sample and the inclusion of controls. The return of information in a yearly report provided the opportunity for writing proposals aiming to improve laboratory practices for this diagnosis at the national level. The high diversity of methods and practices currently used emphasizes the need for external quality assessment of the performances of the molecular diagnostic methods. PMID:19886905

Sterkers, Y; Varlet-Marie, E; Marty, P; Bastien, P

2010-10-01

222

Application of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and enzootic abortion of ewes.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydophila abortus are the 2 most common infectious causes of ovine abortion worldwide. These obligate intracellular pathogens are associated with severe placentitis leading to abortion or stillbirth in pregnant ewes, and resulting in significant economic losses. The objectives of the current study were the development, validation, and application of a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay capable of quantifying the burden of infection by T. gondii and C. abortus in material submitted for diagnostic purposes. The validation was carried out using samples from ewes experimentally infected with these organisms. Based on the numbers of genome copies detected, an arbitrary cutoff level was established to correlate with significant pathological changes sufficient to give rise to abortion. When the PCR assay was applied to samples from 66 Irish farms with naturally occurring outbreaks of ovine abortion, toxoplasmosis and enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) accounted for 14% and 20% of the farms, respectively, while on 6% of the farms, there was evidence of dual infection. When standard diagnostic techniques including histopathological examination, serological analysis, chlamydial antigen detection, and bacteriological culture, were used on samples from the same farms, toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 17% of farms, and EAE in 12%; dual infection was diagnosed on 3% of the farms. In general, good agreement was found between the PCR and the standard methods. The duplex real-time PCR assay developed in this study has proved to be a very sensitive and rapid tool that might provide a valuable addition to the methods currently available for routine diagnosis of ovine abortions. PMID:22807509

Gutierrez, Jorge; O'Donovan, James; Proctor, Aisling; Brady, Colm; Marques, Patricia X; Worrall, Sheila; Nally, Jarlath E; McElroy, Maire; Bassett, Hugh; Fagan, John; Maley, Stephen; Buxton, David; Sammin, Donal; Markey, Bryan K

2012-09-01

223

Comparative Assessment of a Commercial Kit and Two Laboratory-Developed PCR Assays for Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection that may cause severe disease and is regarded as a serious health problem in France. Detection of the parasite by molecular methods is crucial for diagnosing the disease. The extreme diversity of methods and performances of Toxoplasma PCR assays makes the use of commercial PCR kits an attractive alternative, as they offer a chance for standardization. We compared the performances of three molecular methods for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in amniotic fluid: a commercial method using nested PCR and two laboratory-developed methods, one using conventional PCR and the other one real-time PCR. This evaluation was based upon a T. gondii DNA serial dilution assay, three amniotic fluid samples spiked with T. gondii at different concentrations, and a clinical cohort of 33 amniotic fluid samples. The T. gondii DNA serial dilution assay showed a much lower sensitivity for the commercial kit than for the laboratory-developed methods. Moreover, out of 12 proven congenital toxoplasmosis cases, 91.7% were detected by the laboratory-developed assays, whereas only 50% were detected by the commercial kit. A lack of sensitivity of the method, partly due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, was the main drawback of the commercial method. This study emphasizes that commercial PCR diagnostic kits do not systematically perform better than carefully optimized laboratory-developed methods. There is a need for thorough evaluation of such kits by proficient groups, as well as for performance standards that commercial kits can be tested against to improve confidence in those selected by health care providers. PMID:23035184

Morelle, Christelle; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Pelloux, Herve; Bastien, Patrick

2012-01-01

224

Multiple intracranial space-occupying lesions in a renal transplant recipient from an area endemic for tuberculosis (TB): TB vs. toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Renal transplant recipients may present with intracranial space-occupying lesions (SOLs) due to infections as well as a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Here, we discuss a renal transplant recipient who presented with neurologic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed multiple focal SOLs. Tuberculosis (TB), toxoplasmosis, nocardiosis, fungal infections, and PTLD were considered in the differential diagnosis. MRI spectroscopy was suggestive of an infectious cause, such as toxoplasmosis or TB. Serologic tests using Toxoplasma were negative. A brain biopsy followed by immunohistochemical staining using Toxoplasma antibody demonstrated multiple intravascular cysts of toxoplasma. This case highlights the diagnostic dilemma in an immunocompromised patient with multiple focal brain lesions, especially in areas where TB is endemic. PMID:25040057

Bagchi, S; Sachdev, S S; Nalwa, A; Das, C J; Sinha, S; Suri, V; Mahajan, S; Bhowmik, D; Agarwal, S

2014-10-01

225

Turkey and European Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkish membership in the European Union has been and, it is safe to assume, will continue to be an issue hotly debated by\\u000a experts, policymakers and public opinion alike. As argued by EU Commissioner for Internal Market and Services, Frits Bolkenstein\\u000a , in a view shared by many European officials and a majority of European public opinion, because of Turkey's

Thanos Dokos

226

Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.  

PubMed

Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

Hook, I M

2013-06-13

227

[European regulation on blood and blood components].  

PubMed

The European regulation on blood and blood components is declined in four directives: the Directive 2002/98/EC known as "mother Directive" and three directives called "daughter Directives" 2004/33/EC, 2005/61/EC and 2005/62/EC. It constitutes a common basis of provisions of quality and safety of blood in the European Union (EU), thus guaranteeing this safety and this quality with the whole of the citizens circulating in Member States of the Union. It cannot prevent a Member State for maintaining or introducing more stringent protective measures. It encourages the anonymous, voluntary and unpaid blood donations. It envisages many provisions for the prospective blood donor eligibility, the blood collection, the testing, processing, storage, transport, distribution and issuing of blood and blood components and the haemovigilance. In the field of the haemovigilance, this European regulation widened the field of competence of the national systems to the notification of serious adverse events of the transfusion chain and the serious adverse reactions, which have occurred in the blood donors. The European directives were transposed in the French national law between 2004 and 2007 by legislative and lawful ways. PMID:21050786

Sandid, I

2010-12-01

228

Being ‘European’ in Gibraltar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the question of how Gibraltar’s contemporary identity is evolving as its inhabitants manipulate their status as citizens of a contested territory of the European Union. The people of Gibraltar exploit the connotations of ‘being European’ as part of their ongoing battle to resist Spanish and British efforts to negotiate a bilateral solution to the question of Gibraltar’s

KARIS MULLER

2004-01-01

229

European Biodiesel Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Biodiesel Board (EBB), a nonprofit organization, works to promote biodiesel use in the European Union (EU). The EBB website offers downloadable articles regarding biodiesel in the EU, downloadable reports from EU member states, a list of upcoming events, an EBB email information service, and basic statistical tables representing biodiesel production by country.

1969-12-31

230

European Commission: Public Opinion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some Scout Report readers might be wondering "How do Europeans feel about the euro?" or even "What do Europeans think about the effectiveness of different energy policies?" All of the answers to these questions (and many more) can be found on the European Commission's Public Opinion site. The site contains the results from surveys conducted with Europeans on their attitudes towards alcohol, the role of the European Union in formulating security policy, and a number of other topics. Visitors will definitely want to make their way to the Eurobarometer Interactive Search System, which allows them to choose a subject or country which is of interest to them. Visitors should also take a look at their very fine "Qualitative Studies" section, which includes reports such as "The Future of Europe" and "Integrating Gender Mainstreaming into Employment Policies". Needless to say, summaries of the reports are available in a wide range of languages, including Dutch, German, Italian, and French.

231

DNA adducts and lung cancer risk: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives were to investigate prospectively the ability of\\u000aDNA adducts to predict cancer and to study the determinants\\u000aof adducts, especially air pollutants. DNA adducts were\\u000ameasured in a case-control study nested in the European\\u000aProspective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)\\u000ainvestigation. Cases included newly diagnosed lung cancer\\u000a(n = 115), upper respiratory cancers (pharynx and larynx;\\u000an =

Marco Peluso; Armelle Munnia; Gerard Hoek; Michal Krzyzanowski; Fabrizio Veglia; Luisa Airoldi; Herman Autrup; Alison Dunning; Seymour Garte; Pierre Hainaut; Christian Malaveille; Emmanuelle Gormally; Giuseppe Matullo; Kim Overvad; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Jacob Linseisen; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; A. Kaladidi; D. Palli; V. Krogh; R. Tumino; S. Panico; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; P. H. M. Peeters; M. Kumle; C. A. Gonzalez; C. Martinez; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; C. Navarro; J. R. Quirós; G. Berglund; L. Janzon; B. Jarvholm; N. E. Day; T. J. Key; R. Saracci; R. Kaaks; E. Riboli; P. Vineis

2005-01-01

232

The European Values Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious minds want to know: "What exactly do Europeans believe?" It's an important and interesting question, and the directors and researchers in charge of the European Values Study (EVS) have been looking into this subject since the early 1980s. Based in the Netherlands the EVS concerns itself with asking Europeans about religion and morality, politics, work and leisure, and relationships. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their work and view previous and current surveys. While visitors do not have access to the raw data on the site, they can look at the questionnaires and read publications based on this research.

233

The European Spallation Source  

SciTech Connect

In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

2011-04-20

234

Prospective cognition in rats  

PubMed Central

Efforts to develop animal models of memory are critical for understanding the neural substrate of memory. Memory is essential for daily life and enables information to be stored and retrieved after seconds to years. The ability to remember episodes from the past is thought to be related to the ability to plan for the future. Here we focus on a particular aspect of prospective cognition, namely the ability to remember to take action when a future scenario occurs. This review focuses on a recently developed method to evaluate prospective memory in the rat. Available evidence suggests that rats remember to take action in the future, but little is known about the temporal specificity of such memories or about the flexibility and limitations of prospective memories. Recent studies that suggest that rats remember a specific past episode are reviewed to underscore potential approaches that may be used to explore the range and limits of prospective cognition. The review highlights some directions to explore, including the temporal specificity of prospective cognition, the range of flexibility or creativity within prospective cognition, and the constraints imposed by multiple motivational systems. PMID:23180886

Crystal, Jonathon D.

2012-01-01

235

European psychotraumatology - alongside the recent European history  

PubMed Central

This article outlines a personal reflection of experiences within the field of traumatic stress, especially in relation to specific events, which affected the author's professional life. Conclusions for further challenges for European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) are delineated. ESTSS's role in the global network of traumatic stress societies is discussed. This is a personal view of Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, president of ESTSS on behalf of the 20th birthday of ESTSS. PMID:23755321

Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

2013-01-01

236

Latex-protein complexes from an acute phase recombinant antigen of Toxoplasma gondii for the diagnosis of recently acquired toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of latex-protein complexes (LPC), from the acute phase recombinant antigen P35 (P35Ag) of Toxoplasma gondii and "core-shell" carboxylated or polystyrene (PS) latexes (of different sizes and charge densities) are considered, with the aim of producing immunoagglutination reagents able to detect recently acquired toxoplasmosis. Physical adsorption (PA) and chemical coupling (CC) of P35Ag onto latex particles at different pH were investigated. Greater amounts of adsorbed protein were obtained on PS latexes than on carboxylated latexes, indicating that hydrophobic forces govern the interactions between the protein and the particle surface. In the CC experiments, the highest amount of bound protein was obtained at pH 6, near the isoelectric point of the protein (IP=6.27). At this pH, it decreased both the repulsion between particle surface and protein, and the repulsion between neighboring molecules. The LPC were characterized and the antigenicity of the P35Ag protein coupled on the particles surface was evaluated by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Results from ELISA showed that the P35Ag coupled to the latex particles surface was not affected during the particles sensitization by PA and CC and the produced LPC were able to recognize specific anti-P35Ag antibodies present in the acute phase of the disease. PMID:24905682

Peretti, Leandro E; Gonzalez, Verónica D G; Marcipar, Iván S; Gugliotta, Luis M

2014-08-01

237

European Judicial Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a part of the European Commission, the European Judicial Network is primarily concerned with providing information about community law, European law, and various aspects of civil and commercial law. The homepage is well-organized, and visitors can start by clicking on the topic page sections, which cover everything from bringing a case to court to alternative dispute resolutions. On the right-side of the homepage, visitors can click on the flags of member states to learn more about each nation's legal system. The site will certainly be of interest to those with a legal background, but the main stated objective of the site is "to make life easier for people facing litigation of whatever kind where there is a transnational element." Not surprisingly, all of this information is available in the twenty official languages of the European Union.

2007-01-01

238

European Scientific Notes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monthly publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles which do not constitute part of the scientific literature may prove of value to American scientists by disclosi...

R. F. Potter, V. S. Hewitson

1975-01-01

239

Archive of European Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The creation of a so-called âÂÂcommon marketâ and throughout the European countries has taken decades, and this valuable scholarly resource created by a team of academics will be of great interest to anyone with a penchant for this subject. The idea for this archive of European Integration was devised by Phil Wilkin (who now serves as its editor), and over the years, his efforts have been aided by a team of other dedicated individuals. Simply put, the Archive of European Integration (AEI) is âÂÂan electronic repository and archive for research materials on the topic of European integration and unification.â As such, it is primarily concerned with collecting official European Community/European Union documents and certain independently-produced research materials. First-time visitors to the site can search the archive by six different methods, view a list of the latest additions, and also register at no charge for an account that will let them submit items to the archive. All told, the archive currently contains over 4800 documents ranging from working papers on topics such as the common agricultural policy as well as cultural policy.

240

European Union Scandal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the recent high-level corruption scandal in the European Union. Last Tuesday, the European Commission -- the executive body that initiates and implements EU legislation -- resigned en masse, plunging the supranational organization into unprecedented political chaos. All 20 commissioners, led by commission President Jacques Santer of Luxembourg, abdicated their positions the day after the release of a scathing report by the Committee of Independent Experts. The independent panel of experts, who were appointed by the European Parliament, had investigated allegations of bureaucratic malfeasance perpetrated by the European Commission. The committee's report collectively accused the commission of financial "fraud, mismanagement, and nepotism." In the wake of the incriminating report and subsequent resignations, EU foreign ministers are scrambling to find successors for the commissioners to placate the bewildered European citizenry and return to business as usual. This political upheaval happened at a crucial transitional time in the EU's 42-year history, undermining its credibility at a time when it plans to expand into eastern Europe. The current tumult occurred just three months after launching a new unified currency, seven weeks before the new Treaty of Amsterdam commences, and three months before the next European Parliamentary elections, which will determine the future composition of the EU's 626-member assembly. During the next two days, distracted leaders from all fifteen EU member states will meet in Berlin to discuss the reconstruction of the European Commission and formulate a seven-year budget for the entire EU, an organization with about 18,000 officials who administer nearly $100 billion annually. The eight resources discussed provide news, commentary, and analysis.

Osmond, Andrew.

241

European Monetary Institute (EMI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Monetary Institute was established in 1994 to oversee the implementation of a single currency for Europe. The EMI site contains information on its staff, organization, structure, and financial resources, and outlines the process of entering the third and final phase of the European Monetary Union. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.

242

European Universe Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

2011-10-01

243

Evidence for associations between the purinergic receptor P2X(7) (P2RX7) and toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection can result in intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus and retinochoroiditis. Acquired infection is commonly associated with ocular disease. Pathology is characterized by strong proinflammatory responses. Ligation of ATP by purinergic receptor P2X(7), encoded by P2RX7, stimulates proinflammatory cytokines and can lead directly to killing of intracellular pathogens. To determine whether P2X(7) has a role in susceptibility to congenital toxoplasmosis, we examined polymorphisms at P2RX7 in 149 child/parent trios from North America. We found association (FBAT Z-scores +/-2.429; P=0.015) between the derived C(+)G(-) allele (f=0.68; OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.14-3.75) at single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1718119 (1068T>C; Thr-348-Ala), and a second synonymous variant rs1621388 in linkage disequilibrium with it, and clinical signs of disease per se. Analysis of clinical subgroups showed no association with hydrocephalus, with effect sizes for associations with retinal disease and brain calcifications enhanced (OR=3.0-4.25; 0.004

Jamieson, S E; Peixoto-Rangel, A L; Hargrave, A C; Roubaix, L-A de; Mui, E J; Boulter, N R; Miller, E N; Fuller, S J; Wiley, J S; Castellucci, L; Boyer, K; Peixe, R G; Kirisits, M J; Elias, L de Souza; Coyne, J J; Correa-Oliveira, R; Sautter, M; Smith, N C; Lees, M P; Swisher, C N; Heydemann, P; Noble, A G; Patel, D; Bardo, D; Burrowes, D; McLone, D; Roizen, N; Withers, S; Bahia-Oliveira, L M G; McLeod, R; Blackwell, J M

2010-07-01

244

Evidence for associations between the purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2RX7) and toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection can result in intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus, and retinochoroiditis. Acquired infection is commonly associated with ocular disease. Pathology is characterized by strong pro-inflammatory responses. Ligation of ATP by purinergic receptor P2X7, encoded by P2RX7, stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokines and can lead directly to killing of intracellular pathogens. To determine whether P2X7 plays a role in susceptibility to congenital toxoplasmosis, we examined polymorphisms at P2RX7 in 149 child/parent trios from North America. We found association (FBAT Z scores ±2.429; P= 0.015) between the derived C(+)G(?) allele (f= 0.68; OR= 2.06; 95% CI: 1.14–3.75) at SNP rs1718119 (1068T>C; Thr-348-Ala), and a second synonymous variant rs1621388 in linkage disequilibrium with it, and clinical signs of disease per se. Analysis of clinical sub-groups showed no association with hydrocephalus, with effect sizes for associations with retinal disease and brain calcifications enhanced (OR=3.0 to 4.25; 0.004

Jamieson, Sarra E.; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L.; Hargrave, Aubrey C.; de Roubaix, Lee-Anne; Mui, Ernest J.; Boulter, Nicola R.; Miller, E. Nancy; Fuller, Stephen J.; Wiley, James S.; Castellucci, Lea; Boyer, Kenneth; Peixe, Ricardo Guerra; Kirisits, Michael J.; de Souza Elias, Liliani; Coyne, Jessica J.; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Sautter, Mari; Smith, Nicholas C.; Lees, Michael P.; Swisher, Charles N.; Heydemann, Peter; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Patel, Dushyant; Bardo, Dianna; Burrowes, Delilah; McLone, David; Roizen, Nancy; Withers, Shawn; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M. G.; McLeod, Rima; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

2010-01-01

245

Partial Protective Effect of Intranasal Immunization with Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry Protein 17 against Toxoplasmosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a variety of mammals, including humans. An effective vaccine for this parasite is therefore needed. In this study, RH strain T. gondii rhoptry protein 17 was expressed in bacteria as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the recombinant proteins (rTgROP17) were purified via GST-affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were nasally immunised with rTgROP17, and induction of immune responses and protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections were investigated. The results revealed that mice immunised with rTgROP17 produced high levels of specific anti-rTgROP17 IgGs and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response of IgG2a predominance. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-?and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, and enhanced lymphoproliferation (stimulation index, SI) in the mice immunised with rTgROP17. Strong mucosal immune responses with increased secretion of TgROP17-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes were also observed in these mice. The vaccinated mice displayed apparent protection against chronic RH strain infection as evidenced by their lower liver and brain parasite burdens (59.17% and 49.08%, respectively) than those of the controls. The vaccinated mice also exhibited significant protection against lethal infection of the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%) compared to the controls. Our data demonstrate that rTgROP17 can trigger strong systemic and mucosal immune responses against T. gondii and that ROP17 is a promising candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25255141

Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Tie-E; Yin, Li-Tian; Pang, Min; Guan, Li; Liu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Zheng, Guo-Ping; Yin, Guo-Rong

2014-01-01

246

Diphenyl diselenide and sodium selenite associated with chemotherapy in experimental toxoplasmosis: influence on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers and cytokine modulation.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) supplemented with diphenyl diselenide and sodium selenite in experimental toxoplasmosis, on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers and cytokine levels. Eighty-four BALB/c mice were divided in seven groups: group A (negative control), and groups B to G (infected). Blood and liver samples were collected on days 4 and 20 post infection (p.i.). Levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive substances and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were assessed in liver samples. Both biomarkers were significantly increased in infected groups on day 4 p.i., while they were reduced on day 20 p.i., compared with group A. Glutathione reductase (GR) activity significantly (P<0·01) increased on day 4 p.i., in group G, compared with group A. INF-? was significantly increased (P<0·001) in both periods, day 4 (groups B, C, F and G) and 20 p.i. (groups C, F and G). IL-10 significantly reduced (P<0·001) on day 4 p.i. in group B; however, in the same period, it was increased (P<0·001) in groups C and G, compared with group A. On day 20 p.i., IL-10 increased (P<0·001) in groups F and G. Therefore, our results highlighted that these forms of selenium, associated with the chemotherapy, were able to reduce lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, providing a beneficial immunological balance between the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25111395

Barbosa, Cleber F; Tonin, Alexandre A; DA Silva, Aleksandro S; DE Azevedo, Maria I; Monteiro, Danieli U; Waczuk, Emily P; Duarte, Thiago; Hermes, Carine; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda F; Faccio, Luciana; Tonin, Paula T; Wolkmer, Patricia; Leal, Marta R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Moresco, Rafael N; Lopes, Sonia T A; DE LA Rue, Mario L

2014-11-01

247

European Telecommunications Environmental Charter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Telecommunications Environmental Charter is a common environmental policy of the signatories who commit themselves to improve their environmental performance. To achieve this, an ETNO working group Environment has been established. Based on common requests, this group works out joint activities, e.g. common environmental indicators: environmental benchmarking; common ecological requests for products: guideline for environmentally responsible procurement; common environmental

A. Kuhn

1999-01-01

248

Multilingualism in European Workplaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

2014-01-01

249

European Polistes venom allergy.  

PubMed

The American Polistes species venom mixture--that of P. annularis, P. fuscatus, P. metricus and P. exclamans--was the only commercially available mixture for diagnosis and therapy until 1996. However, these species of Polistes are not present in Europe, where P. dominulus and P. gallicus and to a lesser extent P. nimphus are widespread. The aim of this study was to assess the allergenic differences among the commercial American mix, P. dominulus and P. gallicus venom in European patients and therefore to verify if this mixture is suitable for diagnosis in these patients. We carried out skin tests, radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) and RAST inhibition in Italian patients with adverse reactions to Polistes stings. RAST inhibition results demonstrated that cross-reactivity between the American and European species is only partial and that P. dominulus and P. gallicus venoms have exclusive allergens. Skin tests and direct RAST confirmed these results and also showed that European Polistes venom is more suitable than the American mix in Italian patients. Moreover, we found a high rate of cross-reactivity between P. dominulus and P. gallicus. To conclude, P. dominulus and/or P. gallicus venoms are necessary for diagnosis and therefore in the therapy of European patients. PMID:16792585

Severino, M G; Campi, P; Macchia, D; Manfredi, M; Turillazzi, S; Spadolini, I; Bilò, M B; Bonifazi, F

2006-07-01

250

European Commission Agriculture and  

E-print Network

European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32 (0) 2-2969909 Fax: +32 (0) 2-29211 33 E-mail: info@ec.europa.eu Web: https://www.ec.europa.eu/agriculture

251

Trends in European English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proposed that a European variety of English without native speakers is emerging as a language of international communication in Europe. This is a consequence of many factors, including the strength of the American economy, the breadth and depth of American research in science and technology, the pervasive influence of American-style popular…

Wilkinson, Robert

252

European inflation dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence on the fit of the New Phillips Curve (NPC) for the Euro area over the period 1970–1998, and use it as a tool to compare the characteristics of European inflation dynamics with those observed in the U.S. We also analyze the factors underlying inflation inertia by examining the cyclical behavior of marginal costs, as well as that

Jordi Gal??; Mark Gertler; J. David López-Salido

2001-01-01

253

EUROPEAN RESTRUCTURING Rudi Dornbusch  

E-print Network

and the Neumarkt--the German small cap attempt at venture capital. And big companies, too, are in the game. EuropeSept. 1999 EUROPEAN RESTRUCTURING Rudi Dornbusch Massachusetts Institute of Technology Europe recognizing the dramatic importance of modern information technology and are finding their way to the Internet

Bilbao Arrese, Jesús Mario

254

European Space Agency (ESA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Space Agency's homepage provides information on the ESA's telecommunications, navigations, Earth observations, human spaceflight missions, launches, space science, technology, industry, space operations, technical and quality management and television broadcasting. The site also contains a multimedia gallery, press releases, and an educational page for kids.

2010-04-30

255

European Southern Observatory  

E-print Network

Observatory Multi-Conjugate AO concept 1-2' FoV, Near IR, medium Strehl ratio AO using NGSs 6 Visible Shack Deformable Mirror at M6 Computing power: 2000 x NAOS Or 10 x VLT AO Facility On-axis, NIR, medium Strehl ratio AO using NGSs #12;5 European Southern Observatory SCAO Wavefront sensor pick-up arm Patrolling

Liske, Jochen

256

EUROPEAN COMMISSION FROM BIOBANKS  

E-print Network

: Larger longitudinal studies supported by the Wellcome Trust in the UK and in developing countries 46 #12EUROPEAN COMMISSION FROM BIOBANKS TO BIOMARKERS Translating the potential of human population genetics research to improve the quality of health of the EU citizen #12;FROM BIOBANKS TO BIOMARKERS

Rambaut, Andrew

257

European tax law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is intended as a textbook for students reading tax law or EC law. It offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC Treaty and of European integration and of the EC tax harmonization policy, a discussion of the Community tax rules in force, and a discussion of the EC Court's case law in tax matters.

B. J. M. Terra; P. J. Wattel

2008-01-01

258

European Southern Observatory  

E-print Network

performance Maximum deflection under gravity load 150 mm Maximum deflection under operational wind load 200 mm Maximum deflection under OBE 300 mm Maximum deflection under survival wind load 450 mm Maximum deflection. Required power to move against maximum operational wind (27 m/s or 100 km/h) is 5.3 MW. #12;8 European

Liske, Jochen

259

Determination of parasitic load in different tissues of murine toxoplasmosis after immunization by excretory-secretory antigens using Real time QPCR.  

PubMed

Excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs) of Toxoplasma gondii are one of the candidates for immunization against toxoplasmosis. For evaluation of immunization, we determined the kinetics of the distribution of Toxoplasma and parasite load in different tissues of mice immunized by ESAs. In this experimental study, 36 mice in case (n=18) and control (n=18) groups were immunized with ESAs and PBS, respectively. After 2weeks, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Toxoplasma virulent RH strain. Blood and different tissues (brain, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and muscle) were collected daily after challenge (1, 2, 3 and last day before death). Parasite load was calculated using Real time QPCR targeted at the B1 gene. ESAs as vaccine in different tissues showed various effects. However, infected mice which received the vaccine in comparison with control group, displayed a drastically decreasing in parasite burden, in their blood and tissues (P=0.000). These results indicated that ESAs with reduction of parasite load in different tissues of host could be evaluable candidate for the development of immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis. PMID:24852216

Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Dadimoghaddam, Yousef; Souteh, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Khalilian, Alireza; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Farazmand, Touraj; Kalani, Hamed; Rasouli, Mehdi

2014-08-01

260

Toxoplasmosis-Associated Difference in Intelligence and Personality in Men Depends on Their Rhesus Blood Group but Not ABO Blood Group  

PubMed Central

Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii influences the behaviour of infected animals and probably also personality of infected humans. Subjects with a Rhesus-positive blood group are protected against certain behavioural effects associated with Toxoplasma infection, including the deterioration of reaction times and personality factor shift. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we searched for differences in the toxoplasmosis-associated effects between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by testing 502 soldiers with two personality tests and two intelligence tests. The infected subjects expressed lower levels of all potentially pathognomic factors measured with the N-70 questionnaire and in neurasthenia measured with NEO-PI-R. The RhD-positive, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed lower while RhD-negative, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed higher intelligence than their Toxoplasma-free peers. The observed Toxoplasma-associated differences were always larger in RhD-negative than in RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype plays an important role in the strength and direction of association between latent toxoplasmosis and not only psychomotor performance, but also personality and intelligence. PMID:23593448

Flegr, Jaroslav; Preiss, Marek; Klose, Jiri

2013-01-01

261

Research Design in European Studies: The Case of Europeanization &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn this article, we contribute to the debate on research design and causal analysis in European integration studies by considering the sub-field of Europeanization. First, we examine the awareness of research design issues in the literature on Europeanization through a review of the debate on causality, concept formation and methods. Second, we analyse how much of the discussion of the

THEOFANIS EXADAKTYLOS; CLAUDIO M. RADAELLI

2009-01-01

262

European Regional Science Association 51s t European Congress  

E-print Network

European Regional Science Association ­ 51s t European Congress Barcelona, Spain, 30t h August ­ 3r.253.7694, ardent@mit.edu Abstract Investments decisions for airport capacity expansion are usually taken, either Association ­ 51s t European Congress Barcelona, Spain, 30t h August ­ 3r d September 2011 2 Introduction

263

The European Mobile System (EMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

1993-01-01

264

Russian and East European Studies  

E-print Network

complementary for Russian, political science, economics, history, geography, journalism, global studiesRussian and East European Studies Certificate About Us The Russian and East European Studies (REES a Russian and East European Certificate would be valu- able include print and broadcast journalism, civil

Saldin, Dilano

265

Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast between the igneous rocks and the sediments in archaeological context, thus the use of less sensitive instruments works fine for these conditions. Surveys in archaeological sites in Mexico during last 30 years have provided enough evidence that the best conditions to apply magnetic prospection is in lacustrine environment where the ancient inhabitants used igneous rocks as building material. These conditions has been more common than expected in the Trans volcanic Belt where most of the lakes were densely occupied in ancient times. Because most lakes were surrounded by quite recent volcanos, it was pretty common to use the basaltic and andesitic rocks to build the archaeological structures. In this contribution some of the most successful applications of the magnetic technique in archaeology will be shown to illustrate the possibilities of the magnetometry in archaeological prospection.

Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

2013-05-01

266

Prospecting for lunar resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much larger than elsewhere in a region. (4) We are developing a strategy that represents a comprehensive, integrated program to prospect for resources throughout the solar system. The plan involves a hierarchy of surface exploration techniques. At the base is a huge swarm (thousands to millions) of microrobots equipped with sensors to identify targeted resources. The tiny robots work in consort with sophisticated all- terrain rovers that serve as communication links and make detailed observations at promising locations identified by the microrobots.

Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

267

European Active Citizenship Introductory Guidelines for Practitioners  

E-print Network

Grundtvig G2 Learning Partnership EUROPEAN PUZZLE European Active Citizenship: Introductory Guidelines for Adult Educators 1 #12;European Active Citizenship Introductory Section B: Theory The European Union 8 Debates on Citizenship 10

268

European Space Agency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European equivalent to NASA, formed of 16 member countries. Users can access information on ESA's activities, including such topics as Earth observation, human spaceflight, and various aspects of space science. The educational section includes exercises for high school and college students and a teachers' section with projects, classroom tools, and training information. The kids' section includes lab activities, games, and news articles written for younger students. A multimedia gallery is provided that contains imagery of Mars, Earth, and other objects in the solar system, artists' conceptions of spacecraft, and others. There is also a media center which provides press releases, information notes, and information on ESA television broadcasts. Miscellaneous services include an events calendar, list of publications, and a "frequently asked questions" section. The site can be translated into a variety of languages.

269

European Environment Agency (EEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Environment Agency (EEA) Website contains a huge selection of online environmental information, data, and reports pertaining to all fifteen EU states, as well as Iceland, Lichtenstein, and Norway. Information is organized by themes, and the site employs a powerful multilingual search feature. Themes include environmental issues, sectors and activities, information related to specific media, regions, and actions for environmental improvement. The site also contains EEA publications and reports, as well as a data service providing access to data sets covering at least all EU member states. Finally, the European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET) provides a network which "facilitates co-operation and flow of data and information between EIONET partners and with the EEA." The EEA Website is a large, research-oriented repository of information.

270

Nice European Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EU members met last week in Nice, France to revise the manner in which the European Union reaches decisions in preparation for the entry of new member countries. Among the key provisions of the Treaty of Nice are a new formula for qualified majority voting (QMV), majority voting in some areas will now override individual country vetoes, and a reduction in the size of the European Commission. Background information on the meeting, progress reports, photos, speeches, and other materials are available at the official site of the Nice Council. Most of these resources are available in multiple languages. The full text of the Treaty itself is available in .pdf format from the main page.

271

THE EUROPEAN XFEL PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European X-ray Free Electron Laser XFEL is a 4th generation synchrotron radiation facility based on the SASE FEL concept and the superconducting TESLA technology for the linear accelerator. This multi-user facility will provide photon beams in a wavelength regime from 0.1nm to 5nm in three FEL beam lines and hard X-rays in two spontaneous radiation beam lines, serving in

R. Brinkmann

272

EUROPEAN IDENTITY AND EUROPEAN CITIZENSHIP IN THREE "EUROCITIES" : A SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE EUROPEAN  

E-print Network

and normative reflection on the potentialities of European citizenship, and a growing body of quantitative be considered prototypical European citizens. They are the very image of the European Commission's highest ideals 188 1 I would like to thank the editors of the journal and this special edition, as well

Boyer, Edmond

273

European Monetary Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EMU site was created by a group of students at the King's Hospital Secondary School in Palmerston, Dublin, Ireland. Their site discusses the potential positive and negative effects of the EMU, popular opinion on the Euro, and the possible side effects for Ireland, which will join, when its neighbor Britain does not join. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.

274

Le bois-énergie en Europe. Une étude prospective à l'horizon 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this 2020 prospective study, we have developed a methodology for analysis of the possibilities of increasing the use of fuelwood, and the socio-economic and environmental implications of the kind of mobilization which would result therefrom. We have made such an evaluation in five countries within the European Community: Austria, Finland, France, Portugal and Sweden. The methodology is described in

Benjamin Dessus

1999-01-01

275

The Future of the European “Social Model” in the Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the prospects for European welfare states in the context of globalization. It begins with a critical review of the globalization arguments. While there is some evidence that external constraints make life harder for policymakers seeking positive-sum outcomes, it is the combination of national debt and spending limits, plus domestic tax resistance, that really count in making expenditure-based

Maurizio Ferrera; Anton Hemerijck; Martin Rhodes

2001-01-01

276

Sustainable Transport in the European Union: A Review of the Past Research and Future Ideas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of the research on the sustainability of transport systems carried out over the last 15 years for the European Union (EU), identifies some missing gaps and elaborates on the prospective future ideas. The general concept of sustainable development and definitions of sustainability of transport systems and their operationalization are discussed. These are followed by the

Milan Janic

2006-01-01

277

The Epistemological Fog in Realising Learning to Learn in European Curriculum Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European Union is concerned about the economic prospects of its member states as they have to compete against newly emerging economies with lower wages and high ambitions. Part of the strategy to deal with this economic shadow is to create a knowledge economy, but in order to achieve this, a shift to a competence-based curriculum model is seen…

Leat, David; Thomas, Ulrike; Reid, Anna

2012-01-01

278

Near Surface 2011 17th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics  

E-print Network

Near Surface 2011 ­ 17th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics Leicester, UK tar has been previously studied with geochemical analyses and geophysical prospections. The previous results have shown a possible migration of the contaminant plume toward the housing estate. As geophysical

Boyer, Edmond

279

The European general thoracic surgery database project  

PubMed Central

The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Database is a free registry created by ESTS in 2001. The current online version was launched in 2007. It runs currently on a Dendrite platform with extensive data security and frequent backups. The main features are a specialty-specific, procedure-specific, prospectively maintained, periodically audited and web-based electronic database, designed for quality control and performance monitoring, which allows for the collection of all general thoracic procedures. Data collection is the “backbone” of the ESTS database. It includes many risk factors, processes of care and outcomes, which are specially designed for quality control and performance audit. The user can download and export their own data and use them for internal analyses and quality control audits. The ESTS database represents the gold standard of clinical data collection for European General Thoracic Surgery. Over the past years, the ESTS database has achieved many accomplishments. In particular, the database hit two major milestones: it now includes more than 235 participating centers and 70,000 surgical procedures. The ESTS database is a snapshot of surgical practice that aims at improving patient care. In other words, data capture should become integral to routine patient care, with the final objective of improving quality of care within Europe. PMID:24868445

Brunelli, Alessandro

2014-01-01

280

Prospective bonding applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

1981-07-01

281

European Museum Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Museum Media Publishers publishes this guide to the major museums in twelve European countries. The current edition describes some 1500 exhibitions planned between May 1997 and May 1998. Museums and exhibitions are listed alphabetically by country and city. Each entry describes the museum's collection, visiting information, and a description of their exhibitions through May 1998. When possible, a hyperlink to the museum's web site is also provided. Users can also view a chronological index of all the exhibitions in each country or search the site by museum or exhibition.

282

European space developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unable to keep up with the level of spending which the US and former USSR deemed necessary during the 1960s and 1970s as the frontiers of space science were rolled back and the 'space race' gained momentum, Europe progresses at a steadier pace, moving into niche sectors, notably scientific and communication satellites. Momentum has been steadily built up, with the Ariane launchers proving that an ambitious program could be both attained and maintained. This year, the European Space Agency (ESA) is scheduled to place six more spacecraft in orbit - four of them via Ariane-5.

Birch, Stuart

1995-04-01

283

EAC: The European Astronauts Centre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly established European Astronauts Centre (EAC) in Cologne represents the European Astronauts Home Base and will become a centre of expertise on European astronauts activities. The paper gives an overview of the European approach to man-in-space, describes the European Astronauts Policy and presents the major EAC roles and responsibilities including the management of selection, recruitment and flight assignment of astronauts; the astronauts support and medical surveillance; the supervision of the astronauts' non-flight assignments; crew safety; the definition of the overall astronauts training programme; the scheduling and supervision of the training facilities; the implementation of Basic Training; the recruitment, training and certification of instructors, and the interface to NASA in the framework of the Space Station Freedom programme. An overview is given on the organisation of EAC, and on the European candidate astronauts selection performed in 1991.

Ripoll, Andres

284

The first modern Europeans.  

PubMed

The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that modern humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known. PMID:22781582

Benazzi, Stefano

2012-01-01

285

European Industrial Relations Observatory Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Industrial Relations Observatory Online (EIROnline) was developed by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, an autonomous body created by the European Community. The aim of the site is to "initiate, collect, store, disseminate and provide access to information and analysis on developments in industrial relations" in the 15 European Union member states and Norway. Visitors will find the latest industrial relations news and feature articles arranged by country. There is also a bimonthly publication called the EIRObserver summarizing the news and items over the past two months.

286

European Conference on Computational Mechanics  

E-print Network

ECCM-2001 European Conference on Computational Mechanics June 26-29, 2001 Cracow, Poland NEW: { }/,,+, - , (2) ( ) ]}[,...,][:,...,{)][],...,[( n11n121 nxxxxxxfxxf = . (3) #12;ECCM-2001, Cracow, Poland 3

Pownuk, Andrzej

287

European Anti Poverty Network (EAPN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

European Anti Poverty Network was created in 1989 "to put the fight against poverty and social exclusion on the political agenda of the European Union." The Network consists of 25 European organizations that work to alleviate poverty and 15 national networks that fight poverty specifically inside the EU. EAPN offers a nice collection of position papers and reports analyzing the ongoings of the European Union, its member countries and their policies, as well as news releases and news flashes. The site gives general information about the EAPN including its mission, members, and activities, as well as providing a tightly organized set of links.

288

Prospects for HTS applications  

SciTech Connect

High temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is rapidly maturing into a working material being produced in ever larger quantities and being used in more significant demonstrations and prototypes. Conductor is now produced routinely in several hundred meter lengths with reproducible results. Current density has progressed to a level suitable for demonstration of many applications. Wire strength has improved and large prototypes fabricated or under consideration using HTS include Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), rotating electrical machines including synchronous ac and dc homopolar motors and drives, generators and condensers, underground transmission cables, utility distribution equipment such as transformers and current limiters, commercial processing applications such as magnetic separation, and specialty magnets such as high field inserts. In this paper the requirements, progress toward these requirements, and the prospects for the future are reviewed.

Gamble, B.B.; Snitchler, G.L.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)] [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

1996-07-01

289

How European is the European Journal of Developmental Psychology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tries to make clear why a European journal of developmental psychology makes sense. First it is explained that so-called European culture is a complicated matter: historically and culturally many fault lines are to be detected, from the borders of the Roman empire to the iron curtain. These fault lines separate different cultural areas within Europe.?Developmental thinking came into

Willem Koops

2009-01-01

290

Photovoltaic prospects in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

Starr, M. R.

291

Recent European Manpower Policy Initiatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the ways that European nations were dealing with complex manpower problems similar to the ones faced by the United States during the recession of 1974-75. It reviews the methods used by the Western European countries during the recess...

C. D. Stewart

1975-01-01

292

PRESIDENCY CONCLUSIONS BRUSSELS EUROPEAN COUNCIL  

E-print Network

Conference, adopted a Declaration on combating terrorism and addressed a number of issues arising out European Council. II. TERRORISM 5. The European Council expresses its sympathy and solidarity the Declaration on Combating Terrorism. #12;Presidency Conclusions ­ Brussels, 25/26 March 2004 2 EN III

293

PRESIDENCY CONCLUSIONS THESSALONIKI EUROPEAN COUNCIL  

E-print Network

Constitutional Treaty is a good basis for starting in the Intergovernmental Conference. It requests the future. IMMIGRATION, FRONTIERS AND ASYLUM 8. The European Council of Seville emphasised the need to speed up to the development of a common European policy on asylum and migration. #12;Presidency Conclusions ­ Thessaloniki, 19

Sussex, University of

294

Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography  

E-print Network

Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography Systèmes, Modélisation, Géostatistiques context », Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography [En ligne], Systèmes, Modélisation, Géostatistiques of Geography Mehdi Saqalli, Charles L. Bielders, Pierre Defourny et Bruno Gérard Reconstituting family

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography  

E-print Network

Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography Systèmes, Modélisation, Géostatistiques of Geography [En ligne], Systèmes, Modélisation, Géostatistiques, document 413, mis en ligne le 25 février 2008 environment at a regional level 2 Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography Isabelle Thomas, Cécile Tannier et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

IDENTIFICATION OF SPOKEN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic spoken language identification is the problem of identifying the language being spoken from a sample of speech by an unknown speaker. In this paper we studied the problem of language identification in the context of the European languages, which allowed us to study the effect of language proximity in Indo-European languages. The results reveal a significant impact on the

Diamantino Caseiro; Isabel Trancoso

1998-01-01

297

European Identity: Diversity in Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the dynamics of identity within the European Union. The authors describe the necessary preconditions for the development of European Identity; including the value of freedom, equal rights and a re-conceptualization of the concept of solidarity in the context of citizenship. Highlighted are how debates about immigrant rights, the rise of neo-racist movements, and the role of political

Rik Pinxten; Marijke Cornelis; Robert A. Rubinstein

2007-01-01

298

International alliances in European retailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alliances within European retailing can be seen as either compact and tight alliances, with highly developed interactions amongst alliance partners, or as a much looser concept of collaborative activity amongst retailers. This paper accepts the broad definition of retail alliances that Dawson and Shaw (1992b) propose, and investigates whether this definition is helpful to the study of European retail alliance

Terry Robinson; Colin M. Clarke-Hill

1995-01-01

299

Participation in European water policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the possibilities for interactive policy-making in European water management. In the new European Water Framework Directive, public information and consultation are major elements in the procedure (process) that leads to River Basin Management Plans. In general, decision making in integrated water management should not be limited to the application of models and desk studies. Important decisions need

J. A. van Ast; S. P. Boot

2003-01-01

300

Olivier Arino European Space Agency  

E-print Network

Olivier Arino European Space Agency Presented by Hugh Eva European Commission Joint Research Centre GlobCover ­ a land cover map for the year 2005 #12;GlobCover Land Cover Version 2 #12;Heritage: IGBP and `change assessment' Objectives: A Global Land Cover Map 2005/2006 by using MERIS data at 300m #12

301

Biotechnology products and European consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 interviews conducted during 1997 with European food manufacturers and retailers, trade associations, government departments, consumer groups, environmental organizations and some individual academic scientists revealed how differences in the perceived attitudes of consumers gave rise to varying approaches by suppliers to the possible introduction of transgenic foods. European consumers generally are not against the pharmaceutical products of biotechnology

Vivian Moses

1999-01-01

302

European Citizenship and European Union Expansion: Perspectives on Europeanness and Citizenship Education from Britain and Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses some perspectives on citizenship education in Turkey and Britain in the context of current contested discourses on the nature of European identity and of the European Union (EU). It is based on data collected during an EU-funded student teacher exchange programme between three universities in Turkey and Leicester University…

Wilkins, Chris; Busher, Hugh; Lawson, Tony; Acun, Ismail; Goz, Nur Leman

2010-01-01

303

ANAIS: Status and prospects  

E-print Network

ANAIS (Annual modulation with NAI Scintillators) experiment aims to look for dark matter annual modulation with 250 kg of ultrapure NaI(Tl) scintillators at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), in order to confirm the DAMA/LIBRA positive signal in a model-independent way. The detector will consist in an array of close-packed single modules, each of them coupled to two high efficiency Hamamatsu photomultipliers. Two 12.5 kg each NaI(Tl) crystals provided by Alpha Spectra are currently taking data at the LSC. These modules have shown an outstanding light collection efficiency (12-16 phe/keV), about the double of that from DAMA/LIBRA phase 1 detectors, which could enable reducing the energy threshold down to 1 keVee. ANAIS crystal radiopurity goals are fulfilled for 232Th and 238U chains, assuming equilibrium, and in the case of 40K, present crystals activity (although not at the required 20 ppb level) could be acceptable. However, a 210Pb contamination out-of-equilibrium has been identified and its origin traced back, so we expect it will be avoided in next prototypes. Finally, current status and prospects of the experiment considering several exposure and background scenarios are presented.

J. Amare; S. Cebrian; C. Cuesta; E. Garcia; C. Ginestra; M. Martinez; M. A. Olivan; Y. Ortigoza; A. Ortiz de Solorzano; C. Pobes; J. Puimedon; M. L. Sarsa; J. A. Villar; P. Villar

2014-10-22

304

VETERANS INFORMATION FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS  

E-print Network

VETERANS INFORMATION honor our veterans FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS VETERANS AFFAIRS be eligible for other federal funds while receiving your veterans education bene ts. Complete the Free Institutional Tutition Remission oregonstate.edu/veterans Voyager Tuition Assistance Program Yellow Ribbon

Escher, Christine

305

ATTENTION PROSPECTIVE GRAPHIC DESIGN MAJORS  

E-print Network

ATTENTION PROSPECTIVE GRAPHIC DESIGN MAJORS ENTRANCE INTO ART 3610 AND 3630 IF YOU WISH TO BE CONSIDERED FOR ADMITTANCE INTO THE FIRST YEAR GRAPHIC DESIGN SEQUENCE, DELIVER YOUR PORTFOLIO TO THE ART IN GRAPHIC DESIGN FOR FALL SEMESTER. #12;

Tipple, Brett

306

PROSPECTIVE STUDENT HANDBOOK Mechanical Engineering  

E-print Network

2013 PROSPECTIVE STUDENT HANDBOOK Mechanical Engineering Aerospace Engineering Environmental accredited programs) Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering: · An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics to have successful careers as engineers, technology leaders and innovators. To prepare our students

Wang, Deli

307

European Southern Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organization comprised of 14 member countries. Its headquarters are in Germany, but they have three observatories in Chile as well. Their website is loaded with information and visitors shouldn't miss going on the "Virtual Tours", on the far right side of the homepage. The tours are of the three observatories in Chile, and offer almost 360 degree views of beautiful, yet sparse landscapes. The tour of La Silla has two particularly beautiful views, "La Silla Moonlight" and "La Silla Sunset". Visitors interested in seeing a panning of an artist's 3D rendering of the Orion Nebula must go to the "Video" link on the left hand menu on the homepage. There are over 1400 videos to choose from, so for those not into the Orion Nebula, never fear, there are plenty of other video choices. Finally, visitors must go to the "Top 100 Images" link on the right side of the homepage to see amazing and gorgeous images taken from the ESO's various observatories.

308

Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2013-01-01

309

Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success. PMID:23800302

2013-01-01

310

The European Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS): integrating early recognition and intervention in Europe  

PubMed Central

This paper provides the rationale and design of the European Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS), the first European prospective transnational field study of the prodrome and moderating risk/resilience factors of psychosis. As different health systems provide different structures of care, prevention programmes will only be successfully implemented and sustained system-wide, if they can be adapted to the system's special opportunities and needs. EPOS will provide a sound data base for a future evidence-based prevention of psychosis. Data on the recruitment of subjects and on the distribution of the four clinical criteria for an at-risk mental state for psychosis are given. PMID:16633542

KLOSTERKOTTER, JOACHIM; RUHRMANN, STEPHAN; SCHULTZE-LUTTER, FRAUKE; SALOKANGAS, RAIMO K.R.; LINSZEN, DON; BIRCHWOOD, MAX; JUCKEL, GEORG; MORRISON, ANTHONY; VAZQUEZ-BARQUERO, JOSE LUIS; HAMBRECHT, MARTIN; VON REVENTLOW, HEINRICH

2005-01-01

311

Heavy ion fusion: Prospects and status  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this talk is to review the status of HIF as it was presented at Princeton, and also to try to deduce something about the prospects for HIF in particular, and fusion in general, from the world and US political scene. The status of the field is largely, though not entirely, expressed through presentations from the two leading HIF efforts: (1) the US program, centered at LBNL and LLNL, is primarily concerned with applying induction linac technology for HIF drivers; (2) the European program, centered at GSI, Darmstadt, but including several other laboratories, is primarily directed towards the rf linac approach using storage rings for energy compression. Several developments in the field of HIF should be noted: (1) progress towards construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) gives strength to the whole rational for developing a driver for Inertial Fusion Energy; (2) the field of accelerator science has matured far beyond the status that it had in 1976; (3) Heavy Ion Fusion has passed some more reviews, including one by the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), and has received the usual good marks; (5) as the budgets for Magnetic Fusion have fallen, the pressures on the Office of Fusion energy (OFE) have intensified, and a move is underway to shift the HIF program out of the IFE program and back into the ICF program in the Defense Programs (DP) side of the DOE.

Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

1995-10-01

312

Conceptual modeling for Prospective Health Technology Assessment.  

PubMed

Prospective Health Technology Assessment (ProHTA) is a new and innovative approach to analyze and assess new technologies, methods and procedures in health care. Simulation processes are used to model innovations before the cost-intensive design and development phase. Thus effects on patient care, the health care system as well as health economics aspects can be estimated. To generate simulation models a valid information base is necessary and therefore conceptual modeling is most suitable. Project-specifically improved methods and characteristics of simulation modeling are combined in the ProHTA Conceptual Modeling Process and initially implemented for acute ischemic stroke treatment in Germany. Additionally the project aims at simulation of other diseases and health care systems as well. ProHTA is an interdisciplinary research project within the Cluster of Excellence for Medical Technology - Medical Valley European Metropolitan Region Nuremberg (EMN), which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), project grant No. 01EX1013B. PMID:22874147

Gantner-Bär, Marion; Djanatliev, Anatoli; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Sedlmayr, Martin

2012-01-01

313

European pain management discussion forum.  

PubMed

Queries from European physicians about analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from the author are presented. Topics addressed in this issue pertain to epidural injection for painful central lumbar stenosis and epicondolysis. PMID:23216190

Breivik, Harald

2012-12-01

314

Encon Motivation in European Refineries  

E-print Network

One essential element in a successful energy conservation or Encon program is effective motivation of employees and organizations to conserve energy. Encon motivation in our European refineries is a continuing effort that requires utilization...

Gambera, S.; Lockett, W., Jr.

1982-01-01

315

European Union: Constraints vs. Opportunities  

E-print Network

During the early 1980s, Europe suffered from slow economic growth. As a result of this stagnant growth pattern, the European Union created new economic policies and reforms, which eliminated tariffs and barriers among ...

Kahiha, Nguvitjita

2007-12-17

316

North European Transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland image a collage of older continental fragments and intervening basins that have been welded together in Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola orogenies. The Lapland-Kola orogen record the collision of Baltica and Laurentia during the compilation of the Columbia supercontinent. The collisional structures were overprinted by extension associated with the dispersal of Columbia. The Russian Arctic line 1-AR focuses on the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover of the Barents Sea Basin. The line images the transition from Paleoproterozoic Baltica to Neoproterozoic Barentsia. As part of the Rodinia supercontinent formation, Baltica collided with Barentsia resulting in Timanide orogeny. During the break-up of Rodinia an aborted rift was formed within the Barentsia. Later peripheral tectonic events modified the interior parts of Barentsia that acted first as a back arc basin and later as a foreland basin to the Uralian and Caledonian orogen during the formation of the Pangea supercontinent.

Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

2010-05-01

317

Collyriclosis in Central European hirundines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous monostome trematode Collyriclum faba (Bremser in Schmalz 1831) is a digenetic flatworm with unknown life cycle. Here, we provide the first compelling evidence\\u000a that despite low prevalence of the parasite, European hirundines are parasitized by this species. First host record for sand\\u000a martin (Riparia riparia) and first European host record for barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is provided. The birds

Petr Heneberg; Tibor Szép; Tomasz Iciek; Ivan Literák

318

Yahoo! Groups: EuropeanArchaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This moderated mailing list is intended for a discussion of European prehistoric and historic archaeology, from the Early Paleolithic period through the 1800s. EuropeanArchaeology is a general purpose academic list that is designed to include book and article announcements, field school announcements, discuss new discoveries, theories and interpretations, and related topics. At the site, users can subscribe to the list and read the discussion logs.

319

European Citizenship and the Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reconsiders the relationship between European citizenship and the regions in the light of theoretical developments in citizenship studies and empirical research in four sub-nation-state territories in Europe (Scotland in the UK, Catalonia in Spain, the Veneto in Italy and Upper Silesia in Poland).The article begins with an outline of the development of the idea of European citizenship and

Joe Painter

2008-01-01

320

[European general practice research agenda].  

PubMed

The EGPRN (European General Practice Research Network) research agenda is a review compiling the strengths and areas of development of European general practice, based on a systematic literature survey and its versatile analysis. The research agenda is a framework paper sharpening the definition and functions of general practice as well as its significance for researchers and decisionmakers. The agenda is useful in structuring the research, evaluation of research needs, strengthening of infrastructure and strategic planning of new research. PMID:24961062

Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koskela, Tuomas

2014-01-01

321

European Strategy for Tobacco Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Strategy for Tobacco Control (ESTC) reflects the increased political commitment to, and public health expectations of, tobacco control in WHO’s European Region. It was adopted by the WHO Regional Committee for Europe at its fifty-second session in September 2002 and provides an evidence-based framework and guidance for effective national action and international cooperation. The ESTC builds on the

2002-01-01

322

The Politics of a European Civil Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:?Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a ‘common frame of reference’. This paper argues that drafting a European Civil

Martijn W. Hesselink

2004-01-01

323

Severe South American ocular toxoplasmosis is associated with decreased Ifn-?/Il-17a and increased Il-6/Il-13 intraocular levels.  

PubMed

In a cross sectional study, 19 French and 23 Colombian cases of confirmed active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) were evaluated. The objective was to compare clinical, parasitological and immunological responses and relate them to the infecting strains. A complete ocular examination was performed in each patient. The infecting strain was characterized by genotyping when intraocular Toxoplasma DNA was detectable, as well as by peptide-specific serotyping for each patient. To characterize the immune response, we assessed Toxoplasma protein recognition patterns by intraocular antibodies and the intraocular profile of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Significant differences were found for size of active lesions, unilateral macular involvement, unilateral visual impairment, vitreous inflammation, synechiae, and vasculitis, with higher values observed throughout for Colombian patients. Multilocus PCR-DNA sequence genotyping was only successful in three Colombian patients revealing one type I and two atypical strains. The Colombian OT patients possessed heterogeneous atypical serotypes whereas the French were uniformly reactive to type II strain peptides. The protein patterns recognized by intraocular antibodies and the cytokine patterns were strikingly different between the two populations. Intraocular IFN-? and IL-17 expression was lower, while higher levels of IL-13 and IL-6 were detected in aqueous humor of Colombian patients. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that South American strains may cause more severe OT due to an inhibition of the protective effect of IFN-?. PMID:24278490

de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sauer, Arnaud; Pfaff, Alexander W; Bourcier, Tristan; Brunet, Julie; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Ballonzoli, Laurent; Villard, Odile; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Sundar, Natarajan; Grigg, Michael E; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E; Candolfi, Ermanno

2013-11-01

324

How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

Leviäkangas, P.

2010-09-01

325

EU Cohesion Policy and the Europeanization of Central and East European Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article probes the extent to which politics in Central and Eastern European (CEE) regions are becoming Europeanized. Existing analyses suggest that Europeanization and regionalization in CEE have been loosely related phenomena. These claims, along with broader forecasts about the waning post-accession influence of the European Union (EU), generate predictions that the politics of the regions will be ‘lightly Europeanized’.

John A. Scherpereel

2010-01-01

326

European football and the European union: Governance, participation and social cohesion — towards a policy research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the changing relationship of European football to the European Union (EU). Given technological, commercial, financial and organizational changes in the political economy of elite European football, and given the application of European law to sports bodies epitomised by the Bosman ruling, this article begins to outline a policy research agenda. Debates within the European Commission have centred

Adam Brown

2000-01-01

327

Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Functionality and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Diverse structural, functional and valuable polysaccharides are synthesized by bacteria of all taxa and secreted into the external environment. These polysaccharides are referred to as exopolysaccharides and they may either be homopolymeric or heteropolymeric in composition and of diverse high molecular weights (10 to 1000 kDa). The material properties of exopolysaccharides have revolutionized the industrial and medical sectors due to their retinue of functional applications and prospects. These applications have been extensive in areas such as pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmeceutical, herbicides and insecticides among others, while prospects includes uses as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunomodulation, anticancer and as bioflocculants. Due to the extensive applications of bacterial exopolysaccharides, this overview provides basic information on their physiologic and morphologic functions as well as their applications and prospects in the medical and industrial sectors. PMID:23203046

Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony I.

2012-01-01

328

Prospective Cognition The Prospective Cognition of Food Caching and Recovery  

E-print Network

-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) Nicola S. Clayton, Nathan J. Emery and Anthony Dickinson University of Cambridge-mail: nsc22@cam.ac.uk Figure 1. Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica) caching food. Volume , pp -2006 The role of prospective cognition in food caching and recovery by western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma

Cook, Robert

329

The European preferred parts list  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the European Preferred Parts List (EPPL) is the list of EEE parts for space application to be used as a guideline for the European space projects. It is part of the ECSS system (ECSS-Q-60-01, third level document), and it replaces the ESA PPL. Three years after its first issue, the current status of the EPPL and its future possible developments and improvements are presented. In particular, the evaluation is based on the results of a questionnaire prepared by the Implementation Team of the SCSB and forwarded to the whole European space community to investigate the actual grade of knowledge and usage of the EPPL and the required modifications. The conclusions of such exercise have been submitted to the the SCSB and will form the baseline for the future review of the document ECSS-Q-60-01 (requirements for the selection of parts for the EPPL).

Gallina, G.

2002-12-01

330

Guide to European Legal Databases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York University (NYU) Law School Reference Librarian For International and Foreign Law, Mirela Roznovschi, has prepared this excellent Guide to European Legal Databases. The Guide offers recommendations for search engines and search tips/strategies for researching foreign law topics. Visitors will find the annotated list of European Websites useful for finding constitutional, copyright, and environmental laws (many laws listed by country). Also referenced in the Guide are sites covering the laws of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Council of Europe, and the European Union. A section entitled Indices, Guides, Journals, Dictionaries, Library Catalogs covers consolidated resource guides and notable collections, to facilitate further research efforts.

331

European Register of Marine Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the European Register of Marine Species, an EU-funded marine biodiversity research consortium involving research groups in nine European nations. An ultimate goal of the project was to "produce a register of marine species in Europe, linked with a bibliography of identification guides, register of taxonomic experts, locations of collections of reference specimens, and an Information Pack on European marine biodiversity (based on this project's results)." The site links to brief and full checklists for numerous taxa including information on genus, higher taxon, authority, specific epithet, distribution, and more. From the species pages, site users can link to information about the checklists, identification guides, and taxonomic hierarchy. The homepage provides links to information about project participants, project background, and a simple map illustrating the geographic scope of the project. This site is also reviewed in the April 2, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

332

European Economic and Social Committee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) is a "consultative body of the European Union." The EESC is meant to serve as "a bridge between European and organized civil society", and their work includes networking with other governmental organization, adopting policy resolutions and suggestions, and researching energy issues, among other things. The materials on the site are divided into seven primary sections, including "Documents", "Themes", and "Events & Activities". A good place to get started is the "Themes" area, which features information about their recent activities in areas like civil society, consumers, economics, and agriculture and environment. Along the left-side of this page, visitors can look at the latest events and conferences related to each separate theme. Moving along, the "Documents" area includes opinion pieces and working papers such as "EU-Canada Relations" and "Higher Education and Entrepreneurship". Lastly, the "Press & Media" area includes videos, interviews, and photo galleries.

333

Europages: The European Business Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Europages is a pan-European purchaser's guide featuring a selection of 150,000 companies from 25 European countries. Published in collaboration with the major European telecom companies for 13 years, it is now available online. Europages can be searched in 5 languages, and additional languages will be available in the near future. Europages' Economic Info Service provides an economic indicators for all the industrial, commercial and service sectors driving Europe's economy. A selection of tables, maps and graphs presents the key figures and main short- and medium-term trends for each of the 18 Europages sectors can be viewed with Adobe Acrobat. (A link to Adobe is provided to download the Acrobat reader.)

1998-01-01

334

European Union a New Babylon?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

Mesch, F.

2010-07-01

335

Cohort Studies: Prospective versus Retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohort studies form a suitable study design to assess associations between multiple exposures on the one hand and multiple outcomes on the other hand. They are especially appropriate to study rare exposures or exposures for which randomization is not possible for practical or ethical reasons. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies have higher accuracy and higher efficiency as their respective main

Anne M. Euser; Carmine Zoccali; Kitty J. Jager; Friedo W. Dekker

2009-01-01

336

Wave energy prospect of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave energy studies to date have aimed at finding feasible solution of its realistic implementation to the different parts of the world. Bangladesh, which has the longest uninterrupted shoreline and a wide coastal area, should be taken to concern. This paper will briefly reviews the wave energy prospect in Bangladesh and describes about major wave energy plants and its environmental

M. J. Sarker; Imranul Karim; Shirajum Munir

2009-01-01

337

Prospects for top at CDF  

SciTech Connect

During the next two years, the Fermilab Tavatron is expected to deliver approximately 100pb{sup {minus}1} of integrated luminosity. We describe improvements to the CDF detector since the 1988--89 collider run and discuss the prospects for the discovery of the top quark during the 1992--93 collider runs.

Gerdes, D. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States))

1992-06-03

338

Job Prospects for Metallurgical Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Job prospects in mining, metal-extraction, steel, and refining industries are depressed, but technological discoveries are opening up new fields for metallurgical engineers. Enrollment/employment opportunities and salaries in these areas are discussed a well as the roles of foreign competition, plastics applications, and ceramics research and…

Basta, Nicholas

1985-01-01

339

CURRICULUM PRINCIPLES FOR PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO TEST THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO APPROACHES TO TEACHING PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS HOW TO SELECT APPROPRIATE INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES, 127 SECONDARY EDUCATION STUDENTS WERE PLACED IN TWO SAMPLE GROUPS AND TAUGHT DIFFERENT CURRICULUM PRINCIPLES. GROUP I WAS TAUGHT THE FIVE POINT RATIONALE DEVELOPED BY TYLER WHILE GROUP II USED THE BLOOM CLASSIFICATION OF…

BAKER, EVA L.; POPHAM, W. JAMES

340

Public Lecture Prospects for Solar  

E-print Network

Public Lecture Prospects for Solar Energy Utilization 4 p.m., October 8 100 Lindquist Hall Scientific lecture O Thermodynamically Efficient Solar Energy Concentration 2 p.m., October 7 128 Jabara Hall-Merced and director of the California Advanced Solar Technologies Institute. He invented the field of non

341

Scientific knowledge and modern prospecting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Modern prospecting is the systematic search for specified and generally ill-exposed components of the Earth's crust known as ore. This prospecting depends entirely on reliable, or scientific knowledge for guidance and for recognition of the search objects. Improvement in prospecting results from additions and refinements to scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is an ordered distillation of observations too numerous and too complex in themselves for easy understanding and for effective management. The ordering of these observations is accomplished by an evolutionary hierarchy of abstractions. These abstractions employ simplified descriptions consisting of characterization by selected properties, sampling to represent much larger parts of a phenomenon, generalized mappings of patterns of geometrical and numerical relations among properties, and explanation (theory) of these patterns as functional relations among the selected properties. Each abstraction is predicated on the mode of abstraction anticipated for the next higher level, so that research is a deductive process in which the highest level, theory, is indispensible for the growth and refinement of scientific knowledge, and therefore of prospecting methodology. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

Neuerburg, G.J.

1985-01-01

342

Accessing and Assessing Lunar Resources with PROSPECT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PROSPECT is a package in development by ESA to assess the in-situ resource potential of lunar regolith. PROSPECT will: obtain sub-surface regolith samples, extract volatiles, identify chemical species, quantify abundances, and characterize isotopes.

Carpenter, J. D.; Barber, S.; Cerroni, P.; Fisackerly, R.; Fumagalli, A.; Houdou, B.; Howe, C.; Magnani, P. G.; Morse, A.; Monchieri, E.; Reiss, P.; Richter, L.; Rizzi, F.; Sheridan, S.; Waugh, L.; Wright, I. P.

2014-10-01

343

Prospects for Improved Carbon Capture Technology  

E-print Network

Prospects for Improved Carbon Capture Technology Report to the Congressional Research Service Kitchin July 2010 #12;(this page intentionally left blank) #12;Prospects for Improved Carbon Capture Technology i Table of Contents CHAPTER 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

344

UV and Optical Detectors: Status and Prospects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

UV and visible detectors - status and prospects. The status and prospects for UV and visible detectors for space astrophysics missions will be described, based on the findings of the NASA working group roadmap report, hopefully updated.

Woodgate, Bruce; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

345

Prospect and refuge : shelter in Roxbury  

E-print Network

This thesis attempts to use the concept of juxtaposed prospect and refuge to design shelter on a large urban site (92,000 square feet). The broad range of scales stretches the applicability of prospect and refuge as a ...

Lee, Jane Elizabeth

1993-01-01

346

ESTSS at 20 years: "a phoenix gently rising from a lava flow of European trauma"  

PubMed Central

Roderick J. Ørner, who was President between 1997 and 1999, traces the phoenix-like origins of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) from an informal business meeting called during the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress (ECOTS) in 1987 to its emergence into a formally constituted society. He dwells on the challenges of tendering a trauma society within a continent where trauma has been and remains endemic. ESTSS successes are noted along with a number of personal reflections on activities that give rise to concern for the present as well as its future prospects. Denial of survivors’ experiences and turning away from survivors’ narratives by reframing their experiences to accommodate helpers’ theory-driven imperatives are viewed with alarm. Arguments are presented for making human rights, memory, and ethics core elements of a distinctive European psycho traumatology, which will secure current ESTSS viability and future integrity. PMID:23755328

?rner, Roderick J.

2013-01-01

347

EIoPortal: European Integration Online Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers in European studies will be interested to know that the Website of European Integration Online Papers (EIOP) (see the June 13, 1997 Scout Report) has become the European Integration Online Portal, offering direct links to not only the working papers of EIOP but to the European Research Papers Archive and to Euronet, a gateway to Internet sites and resources on issues of European Integration. With this grouping, the portal already constitutes a substantial outlet for scholarship on European studies, and plans are reportedly in the works for further enhancement.

348

Intellectual property and biotechnology: the European debate.  

PubMed

The European patent system allows for the introduction of moral issues into decisions about the granting of patents. This feature has greatly impacted European debates about the patenting of biotechnology. This essay explores the European experience, in both the European Union and the European Patent Organization. It argues that there has been great confusion surrounding these issues primarily because the Europeans have not developed a general theory about when exclusion from patentability is the best social mechanism for dealing with morally offensive technologies. PMID:18018994

Brody, Baruch

2007-06-01

349

Complete Policy Title: Prospect Clearance Policy  

E-print Network

campaign. The Prospect Clearance Policy protects against this problem. No fundraising activity, event of the prospect clearance committee. Please note that the deposit of such funds should be coordinated through prospect clearance process. Similarly, all solicitations from McMaster, for the capital campaign or other

Haykin, Simon

350

Magnetic Compass of European Robins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic compass of European robins does not use the polarity of the magnetic field for detecting the north direction. The birds derive their north direction from interpreting the inclination of the axial direction of the magnetic field lines in space, and they take the direction on the magnetic north-south axis for \\

Wolfgang Wiltschko; Roswitha Wiltschko

1972-01-01

351

Collyriclosis in Central European hirundines.  

PubMed

Cutaneous monostome trematode Collyriclum faba (Bremser in Schmalz 1831) is a digenetic flatworm with unknown life cycle. Here, we provide the first compelling evidence that despite low prevalence of the parasite, European hirundines are parasitized by this species. First host record for sand martin (Riparia riparia) and first European host record for barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is provided. The birds were captured and checked in ten European and Middle Eastern countries, stretching from Ireland to Bahrain, but only samples from Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) were positive for C. faba. In total, 164,582 sand martins and 100,443 barn swallows were examined, and seven and two birds had cutaneous C. faba cysts. Even though over 40% of the birds captured were juveniles, all but one infected individuals were adults, equally both males and females. The prevalence of the parasite on Central European hirundines were calculated as one in 20,641 for sand martins and one in 4,484 for barn swallows. All the infected birds were captured in close vicinity of water bodies. All the cysts were found close to the vent or on the legs. No adverse effects on its bird hosts were observed. PMID:21380577

Heneberg, Petr; Szép, Tibor; Iciek, Tomasz; Literák, Ivan

2011-09-01

352

The European Charter for Researchers  

E-print Network

The European Charter for Researchers The Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers Israeli Charter for Researchers and on a Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers The Commission for the Recruitment of Researchers. COM(2000) 6 final of 18.1.2000. 2 JO C 282. p. 1-2. of 25.11.2003. Council

Maoz, Shahar

353

OER: A European Policy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential benefits of OER have led many European governments to implement policies supporting their creation and use. This chapter aims to put these OER policies in context, discussing their focus and scope and highlighting challenges and bottlenecks. On the basis of the analysis of the current state of the art, it is argued that one of main…

Alquézar Sabadie, Jesús Maria; Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Puni, Yves; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina

2014-01-01

354

Encon motivation in European refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency in energy utilization in Esso Europe's refineries improved substantially in the mid-1970's, due primarily to energy conservation (Encon) motivation. Experience has since demonstrated that additional improvements can be achieved through further operational and maintenance practices. One essential element in a successful Encon program is effective motivation of employees and organizations to conserve energy. Encon motivation in European refineries is

S. Gambera; W. Lockett

1982-01-01

355

Adolescent Leisure across European Nations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined variations in adolescent time use within Europe and their relation to culture, focusing on organization of free time, most frequent leisure activities, and resulting emotional states. Found that European adolescents spent free time in a range of activities, including electronic media, computer games, playing musical instruments, reading,…

Flammer, August; Schaffner, Brigitta

2003-01-01

356

Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for…

Wrigley, Terry

2013-01-01

357

Banking Competition and European Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess how banking competition will be affected by the process of deregulation and integration in European financial markets, drawing on the lessons of recent research in finance, banking and industrial organization. Our central thesis contends that the main effect of integration will be to change the focus of banks' strategic behaviour from collusion and regulatory capture to competition. Nevertheless,

Xavier Vives

1990-01-01

358

Authoring for European digital teletext  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital teletext will be the most prominent multimedia service offered in digital television networks in Europe. Teletext is well known and has already been available for many years in analog television in European and elsewhere as an additional service provided by television operators. Digital Broadcast technology allows to enhance this service in quality and functionality. It provides many advantages in

Christian Fuhrhop; Andreas Kraft

1999-01-01

359

Reconstructing Indo-European Syllabification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chief concern of this dissertation is to investigate a fundamental, yet unsolved problem within the phonology of Proto-Indo-European (PIE): the process of syllabification. I show that by analyzing the much more easily reconstructable word-edge clusters we may predict which types of consonant clusters can occur word-medially, provided that we…

Byrd, Andrew Miles

2010-01-01

360

European Conference on Computational Mechanics  

E-print Network

ECCM-2001 European Conference on Computational Mechanics June 26-29, 2001 Cracow, Poland Comparison for the "flow stress" used in ref. [3] is TG ¦VUXW`Y"acb ' GedgfG a¥hpirq 476tsu8 Yvb ' G(dgfG hvwP 2 #12;ECCM

Kouhia, Reijo

361

European Conference on Computational Mechanics  

E-print Network

ECCM '99 European Conference on Computational Mechanics August 31 -- September 3 M¨unchen, Germany neighborhood of the given point, Y (x) = Z V ff(x; ¸)Y (¸) d¸ (4) 2 #12; ECCM '99, M¨unchen, Germany f s t e e

Jirasek, Milan

362

European Conference on Computational Mechanics  

E-print Network

ECCM-2001 European Conference on Computational Mechanics June 26-29, 2001 Cracow, Poland SOME,1,122,11,1,1,1,13 wwwuuwwwwwuuJ wwwuwwwwu wwwuwwwwuJP &&&&& &&&& &&&&& ++++++µ-+ +µ+++µ++ µ+++µ++= (6) with #12;ECCM-2001, Cracow

Qin, Qinghua

363

newsletternewsletter EUROPEAN FUSION DEVELOPEMENT AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

Institute for Nuclear Power Plants, Trnava Slovenia Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana httpnewsletternewsletter EUROPEAN FUSION DEVELOPEMENT AGREEMENT Issued by the EFDA Close Support Unit page 8 http://www.efda.org EU Enlargement: New Partnerships in Fusion Vol 2004 / 3 June 15, 2004 News 1

364

The Americanization of European football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Will European football keep leagues open, or adopt the American system of closed leagues? Would this reform be to the benefit of consumers? This paper develops a framework to analyse the consequences of the structure of competition - whether teams play in both national and international competitions or not - and the effects on performance of revenue sharing among teams

Thomas Hoehn; Stefan Szymanski

1999-01-01

365

European perspectives in thoracic surgery.  

PubMed

Europe, the old Continent, has been the cradle of thoracic surgery from the beginning of the last century. The structure and the activities of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) activities are directed to enlighten the path, provide the tools and set the standards for a quality inspired practice in thoracic surgery. PMID:24868436

Venuta, Federico

2014-05-01

366

Historical biogeography of European leuciscins (Cyprinidae): evaluating  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Historical biogeography of European leuciscins (Cyprinidae): evaluating the Lago Crisis for the dispersal and diversification of European leuciscins (Cyprinidae: Leuciscinae). Location have occurred in the Messinian or Pleistocene. Keywords Bayesian phylogeny, Cyprinidae, freshwater

367

Capital financing in prospective payment.  

PubMed

In the era of prospective payment, arranging financing for hospital capital projects is expected to become even more complicated than under cost-based reimbursement systems. This article outlines the information needed for a bond issue in the prospective payment environment, defines the roles and duties of several external persons and organizations involved with planning a major capital financing, and provides an overview of the entire process. This article assumes for illustrative purposes that a tax-exempt bond issue is going to be used to finance a facility expansion. This method was chosen since over 70% of all major capital financing for hospitals use the tax-exempt bond as the principal vehicle for attracting the necessary debt to finance a major construction project. The tax-exempt bond issue also requires the most detail in documentation and legal provisions. PMID:10273481

Oszustowicz, R J; Dreachslin, J L

1984-03-01

368

Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education policy, as…

Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

2012-01-01

369

Towards a European Union Gender Equality Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to monitor progress with respect to gender equality in European Union member states, indices are extremely useful. Existing indices are, however, not appropriate because they do not focus exclusively on gender (in)equality and have not been created to be used at the European level. Therefore a European Union Gender Equality Index is presented in this article. Based on

Janneke Plantenga; Chantal Remery; Hugo Figueiredo; Mark Smith

2009-01-01

370

European identity: between modernity and postmodernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this inquiry is to rethink the concept of European identity within the framework of the Declaration on European Identity and the Charter of European Identity. It will be argued that those documents employ the modernist notion of a centered, rational, stable, autonomous and unified self. However, this idea of the self leads to exclusion and essentialism. In

Sanja Ivic; Dragan D. Lakicevic

2011-01-01

371

European Converts to Islam: Mechanisms of Radicalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

While European converts to Islam represent only a tiny percentage of Europe's Muslim population, members of that group have participated in major Islamist terrorist plots and attacks on European soil. Although the radicalization process has not been the same for all individuals, it could be still possible to understand the circumstances under which some European converts turned to violence. Therefore,

Emmanuel Karagiannis

2012-01-01

372

Renewable energy technologies and the European industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European renewable energy industry has the potential to be a world leader. This has been achieved within the European region for specific technologies, through a set of policy activities at a national and regional level, driven primarily by employment, energy self-sufficiency and industrial competitiveness. Using the experience gained in recent years, European industry has the opportunity to continue to

Mark Whiteley; Mike Bess

2000-01-01

373

European Economic Crisis: Ireland in Comparative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current economic crisis has hit all European countries hard, but some are much more severely affected others. The problems manifest in European peripheral countries, especially Ireland, Spain, and Greece, have roots in domestic policy mistakes. However, the European context of these policy profiles also needs to be taken into account. The creation of the Euro initially yielded large credibility

Niamh Hardiman; Sebastian Dellepiane

2010-01-01

374

Hispanic and European Studies Program Hispanic and European Studies Program-Universitat Pompeu Fabra  

E-print Network

literary identity. #12;Hispanic and European Studies Program Hispanic and European Studies ProgramHispanic and European Studies Program Hispanic and European Studies Program- Universitat Pompeu: There are no prerequisites for this course Language requirements: None Course focus and approach: The course aims to study

Geffner, Hector

375

Hispanic and European Studies Program Hispanic and European Studies Program-Universitat Pompeu Fabra  

E-print Network

of European Media. · Have a better understanding of the impact of European culture on European Media Fabra 2011 1 Course title: Comparing Media Language of instruction: English Professor: Ruth Rodriguez students with a general overview of the Spanish Media and European Media. They study the relationship

Geffner, Hector

376

Hispanic and European Studies Program Hispanic and European Studies Program-Universitat Pompeu Fabra  

E-print Network

Hispanic and European Studies Program Hispanic and European Studies Program- Universitat Pompeu. #12;Hispanic and European Studies Program Hispanic and European Studies Program- Universitat Pompeu in Painting. The Naked Maja. Session 2 Goya and Illuminism 4: Caprichos, satire and social critique WEEK 3

Geffner, Hector

377

European Space Agency: Mars Express  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Europe reclaims a stake in Mars exploration! The European Space Agency has launched this informative site in conjunction with the Mars Express mission which lifted off on June 3, 2003. Before the live Webcast of the craft arrival in December, 2003, visitors to this well organized site can track the progress of the spacecraft. You can also learn a lot about early attempts to explore mars and investigate the possibility of life on Mars. The European Space Agency also has given the public detailed technical information on Mars Express and the Beagle 2 Lander that will actually land on the surface of the red planet. This site is an exciting way for educators, students and the general public to be actively involved with this historic event.

378

Prospective memory across the lifespan: investigating the contribution of retrospective and prospective processes.  

PubMed

Prospective memory performance follows an inverted U-shaped function across the lifespan. Findings on the relative contribution of purely prospective memory and retrospective memory processes within prospective memory to this trajectory are scarce and inconclusive. We analyzed age-related differences in prospective memory performance across the lifespan in a cross-sectional design including six age groups (N = 99, 7-83 years) and investigated possible mechanisms by experimentally disentangling the relative contributions of retrospective memory and purely prospective memory processes. Results confirmed the inverted U-shaped function of prospective memory performance across the lifespan. A significant interaction between process type and age group was observed indicating differential relative contributions of retrospective memory and purely prospective memory processes on the development of prospective memory performance. Our results showed that mainly the pure prospective memory processes within prospective memory lead to lower prospective memory performance in young children and old adults. Moreover, the relative contributions of the retrospective memory and purely prospective memory processes are not uniform at both ends of the lifespan, i.e., in later adulthood the purely prospective memory processes seem to determine performance to an even greater extent than in childhood. Nevertheless, age effects were also observed in the retrospective component which thus contributed to the prospective memory performance differences between the age groups. PMID:24053765

Mattli, Florentina; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Studerus-Germann, Aline; Brehmer, Yvonne; Zöllig, Jacqueline

2014-01-01

379

Deutche Bahn European Train Timetables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Deutche Bahn AG offers this site, which is sure to be useful to European train travelers. The interactive train timetable allows the user to enter the city of departure and arrival, as well as the date and time, and returns the relevant train schedules. Users can also view station schedules, detailed route itineraries, and graphical route representations (Java). Pricing information is available for selected German routes only. The site is available in English and German.

380

Warming permafrost in European mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the first systematic measurements of European mountain permafrost temperatures from a latitudinal transect of six boreholes extending from the Alps, through Scandinavia to Svalbard. Boreholes were drilled in bedrock to depths of at least 100 m between May 1998 and September 2000. Geothermal profiles provide evidence for regional-scale secular warming, since all are nonlinear, with near-surface warm-side

Charles Harris; Daniel Vonder Mühll; Ketil Isaksen; Wilfried Haeberli; Johan Ludvig Sollid; Lorenz King; Per Holmlund; Francesco Dramis; Mauro Guglielmin; David Palacios

2003-01-01

381

Snack Patterns of Older Europeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe the snack consumption of older people from several European towns. Subjects with similar snack patterns are clustered into groups to explore the contribution of snacks to daily energy and micronutrient intake.Design Data from the 1993 Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly: A Concerted Action (SENECA) follow-up study were collected from a random, age-stratified sample of

ANNEMIEN HAVEMAN-NIES; WIJA A van STAVEREN

1998-01-01

382

International Heliophysical Year: European Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

Briand, C.

2007-08-01

383

Sussex European Institute, A Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, A Marie Curie Research Training Site University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RG, Tel. No. (01273) 678578  

E-print Network

crisis The main development in Europe during the summer was obviously the Russian invasion of Georgia up call' to European political elites, and the EU and NATO will now adopt a more posi- tive attitude- timistic about the prospects for this). Future of the Lisbon treaty The Russian incursion into Georgia over

Sussex, University of

384

Astro-H: science goals, development status, and European contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth X-ray mission initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H allows a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry a X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector (40-600 keV). ASTRO-H is expected to provide breakthrough results in the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution, the behaviour of matter in the gravitational strong field regime, the physical conditions in sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters at different redshifts. I will also review the European contribution to Astro-H, both in terms of hardware development as well as in terms of prospective support for the European community.

Guainazzi, M.; Astro-H Mission

2014-07-01

385

Attracting Prospective Engineering Students in the Emerging European Space for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of outreach activities implemented by the College of Engineering of the Public University of Navarra, Spain, is described. They represent different initiatives aimed to improve recruitment of young engineers in the difficult context of declining interest in engineering and the educational changes Europe is facing nowadays. The initiatives…

Lopez-Martin, Antonio J.

2010-01-01

386

Prospects for Inclusive Education in European Countries Emerging from Economic and Other Trauma: Serbia and Albania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines recent historical, social and economic factors in Albania and Serbia, identifying similarities and differences that have a bearing on the provision of education. The focus is on the education of children with difficulties in learning and/or disabilities (the term "special needs" is used for brevity). The paper provides a…

Radoman, Vesna; Nano, Virxhil; Closs, Alison

2006-01-01

387

Validation Studies of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Physical Activity Questions  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

388

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN PROSPECT: USING METAPHORS TO IDENTIFY CULTURAL PERCEPTIONS AMONGST YOUNG EUROPEANS (SUMMARY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

If entrepreneurship is to continue to deliver its promise of future prosperity (Finkle and Deeds, 2001) it is essential to maintain or grow the supply of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship education takes many forms and is a major and growing academic discipline world wide (Katz, 2003). Whether directly instrumental, role modeling or simply raising entrepreneurial awareness, cognition theory and the social construction

Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd; Sarah Jack; Alistair Anderson; Stavros A. Drakopoulos

2007-01-01

389

Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

E-print Network

employees. Spanish and Italian participants were recruited among blood donors, members of several health insurance pro- grams, employees of several enterprises, civil servants, but also the general population. In Utrecht and Florence, participants... ), Sweden (Malmö, Umea), Norway, and Denmark (Aarhus, Copenhagen)]. In most centers, the participants were recruited from the general population. However, the French cohort comprises female members of a health insurance program for school and university...

Rohrmann, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Nailler, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Crowe, Francesca L; Key, Timothy J; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitirios; Leenders, Max; Peeters, Petra H M; Engeset, Dagrun; Parr, Christine L; Skeie, Guri; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José M; Redondo, M L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieux, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Norat, Teresa; Vergnaud, Anne C; Riboli, Elio; Linseisen, and J

2013-03-07

390

Real convergence in the new Member States of the European Union (Shorter and longer term prospects)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the integration process of the new EU Member States is reflected by their nominal and real convergence performance. These tendencies are of special importance considering further enlargement of the Eurozone. The financial and economic crisis of 2008 has resulted, however, in a fundamentally new situation as regards these issues. The paper considers the experiences gained in real

Péter Halmai; Viktória Vásáry

2010-01-01

391

Telemetry on French ballistic missiles and European launch vehicles - Evolutions and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The milestones in the development of ballistic missiles and launch vehicles in France in the last 25 years are recalled. The development of measuring techniques on board missiles and launch vehicles is discussed, and the evolution of multiplex systems is reviewed, emphasizing Telemaque, Teucer, and Cannes PCM units. The future development of Cannes PCM is considered.

Pieters, Bernard

392

European Integration and the Prospects for Higher Education. Comparing Lithuania and Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of postcommunist transition in the countries of the former Eastern bloc as well as the countries that have emerged after the dissolution of Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia have necessitated the formulation of new educational legislation and the initiation of structural reforms at all levels of education. Redefinition of national…

Cuckovic, Biljana

2005-01-01

393

Meat, Fish, and Colorectal Cancer Risk: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

E-print Network

, Lyon, France (TN, PF, NS, MJ, MM, BH, RS, RK, ER); Medical Research Council Dunn Human Nutrition Unit); German Institute of Human Nutrition, Postdam-Rehbücke, Germany (HB, MMB) and Nutrition Teresa Norat, Sheila Bingham, Pietro Ferrari, Nadia Slimani, Mazda Jenab, Mathieu Mazuir, Kim

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

Urban transportation: perspectives and prospects  

SciTech Connect

The articles assembled in this book deal with the problems and prospects of transportation in North American cities. They identify factors and forces that have shaped urban-transport decisions over the last decades - the changing preferences of the public and the changing role of government. Their authors discuss issues and problems, as well as challenges and priorities for urban transportation. Urban-transportation planning, development, operation and maintenance are expressed from various, often different viewpoints, enabling the reader to formulate perceptions of transportation's possibilities in tomorrow's metropolis. From a total of 59 articles, a separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 articles that deal with energy aspects.

Levinson, H.S.; Weant, R.A. (eds.)

1982-01-01

395

Prospects of thermionic power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential thermionic power systems for space or terrestrial applications are described so that the development goals can be clearly identified. The thermionic power systems considered are a space nuclear power system, a fossil-fuel thermionic topping steam power system, a solar thermionic topping steam power system, and advanced systems. Attention is given to a discussion of the current status of technology development in thermionic converters and associated elements in power systems. Future prospects of thermionic power systems are also discussed. It is concluded that thermionic conversion has a great potential for a variety of applications.

Shimada, K.

1978-01-01

396

European Bioinformatics Institute: Research Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features the specialist research groups at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). The EBI's research groups provide "biological data and utilities to aid the scientific community in the understanding of genomic and proteomic data." This site offers a variety of information about numerous research groups including the Computational Genomics Group, Sequence Database Group, Macromolecular Structural Database Group, and Computational Neurobiology Group -- just to name a few. The separate research group web pages vary in content, offering links to such areas as research interests, publications, contact information, funding, projects, and more. This site also links to other sections of EBI including Services, Databases, Downloads, and Submissions.

397

Current Research in European Vocational Education and Human Resource Development. Proceedings of the Programme Presented By the Research Network on Vocational Education and Training (VETNET) at the European Conference of Educational Research (ECER) (3rd, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 20-23, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 24 papers represent the proceedings of a program presented by the research network on vocational education and training (VET). They include "School-Arranged or Market-Governed Workplace Training?" (Ulla Arnell-Gustafsson); "Prospects for Mutual Learning and Transnational Transfer of Innovative Practice in European VET" (Alan Brown, Jens…

Manning, Sabine, Ed.; Raffe, David, Ed.

398

The Europeanization of the Nation-State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the interrelationship between national and supranational politics in contemporary history. In Europe, the nature of national and transnational politics, law and economics has been completely transformed through the emergence of the European Union (EU) and its predecessor, the European Community (EC). We cannot understand the European nation-state (and its regions) without appreciating the EC’s or EU’s dynamic

Jan Palmowski

2011-01-01

399

Participation in European water policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the possibilities for interactive policy-making in European water management. In the new European Water Framework Directive, public information and consultation are major elements in the procedure (process) that leads to River Basin Management Plans. In general, decision making in integrated water management should not be limited to the application of models and desk studies. Important decisions need a high level of participation. In this interactive approach, visions, ideas, patterns of behaviour and solutions to perceived problems of different societal actors can be identified and incorporated into the decision-making process. For example, farmer organisations, environmental groups and associations of house owners, but also individual citizens often have various and differing ideas about measures that change the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of a river basin. Well-organised interaction has two main potential advantages: The quality of the decision will be higher because specific knowledge of people involved and their different views are taken into consideration. The interaction enables exchange of information which can lead to a better understanding of the ins and outs of the specific situation and in this way contribute to public support. By means of two examples of water related policy issues in Europe, i.e. economic approaches in the water framework directive and Integrated Product Policy, various opportunities for pluralistic as well as corporatist types of participation in modern water management are presented and discussed.

van Ast, J. A.; Boot, S. P.

400

European Route of Industrial Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) was started in 2003, and it quickly gained the cooperation of the three countries (Belgium, Great Britain and Germany) that were the heart of the Industrial Revolution. The ERIH brought together non-profits, academic institutions, and tourism organizations with the goal to "protect Europe's industrial heritage sites and use their preservation as a motor for the development of regions that are often suffering from economic decline." Visitors will enjoy the thoroughness of the ERIH's website, which offers an "Industrial History" of Europe. The links on the left hand menu for "Route System", "Anchor Points", "Regional Routes" and "European Theme Routes" offer different ways for visitors to view the industrial revolution, whether by the types of products produced or the size of their contribution to the industrial revolution. Each section has a map associated with it as well. Finally, the "Photo Gallery" links to photos of many of the industrial sites on the above routes, so visitors can see the beauty and uniqueness of these factories that forever changed how various goods were made.

401

The New European Wind Atlas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New European Wind Atlas 1. European wind resource assessment through a ERA-NET Plus project 1.1 The new EU Atlas The Commission decided earlier this year to issue an ERA-NET Plus call for the creation and publication of a new EU wind atlas. The atlas will cover Member states as well as Member states' exclusive economic zones, both onshore and offshore. It involved the launch of a single joint call for proposals by promoters of national and/or regional programmes, thereby allowing a more efficient use of existing financial resources. Therefore the funding scheme is that of ERA-NET Plus which implies that at least 5 MS shall commit at least 1 million Euros each and the Commission tops up with on third of the MS contribution. Basically it is the MS research programmes that will execute the project but an important part of the project is to create "open project development platforms" with associated protocols allowing a wider range of scientists worldwide to contribute. The project has a duration of 5 years. The decision on the new wind atlas was taken after several years of work by the European Wind Energy Technology Platform and the European Energy Research Alliances' Joint programme for Wind Energy. 2. Structure of the project The project will be structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel: 2.1 Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form, which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database. The database will at a minimum include: Wind resources and their associated uncertainty; Extreme wind; Turbulence characteristics; Adverse weather conditions; Predictability for short term prediction; Guidelines. 2.2 Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made public available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and relevant data at several heights and a horizontal resolution down to 100 m. Uncertainty estimates for the models and the model chain will also be published and predictability analysis will be performed for short term forecasting predictability. 2.3 Measurement campaigns to build and validate the EU wind atlas. At least five coordinated measurement campaigns will be undertaken and will cover at least complex terrains (mountains and forest), offshore, large changes in surface characteristics and cold climates. The campaigns will deliver high quality reference data on essential siting and load parameters. 3. Expected impact Reduce technical risk and uncertainty in complex terrain and offshore conditions. Create a standard for site assessment. Develop a basis for improved spatial planning tools. 4. References [1] A new EU Wind Energy Atlas: Proposal for an ERANET+ project. Produced by the TPWind Secretariat October 2011

Lundtang Petersen, Erik

2013-04-01

402

Fact Sheets on the European Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the European Parliament Directorate-General for Research, this site is a useful resource for courses on government or European studies. Fact sheets are divided into 6 categories: How the European Community works; Citizens Europe; The single market; Common policies; Economic and monetary union; and The Union's external relations. Each category contains several fact sheets on particular topics, and each fact sheet identifies the topic's legal basis, objectives, and achievements. Sample topics include: the institutions of economic and monetary union; common foreign and security policy; European Union institutions and bodies; and citizens of the Union and their rights. The site is available in both English and French.

1997-01-01

403

European Association of Sinological Librarians (EASL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an excellent collection of resources for both librarians and scholars interested in China. Highlights include recent and past issues of BEASL (Bulletin of the European Association of Sinological Librarians), notes from European China Library Groups, and an annotated list of selected European Sinological Libraries which includes information on holdings, focus, communication, and some hyperlinks. The site also offers telnet access to the catalogue of the Sinological Series in European Libraries Project (SSLEP). Two large collections of links are also featured: the first to libraries and East Asian Library Associations worldwide, the second to a wide variety of general and specific Asian resources.

404

Mexico's Petroleum Sector: Performance and prospects  

SciTech Connect

Mexico's Petroleum Sector: Performance and Prospect discusses the intricacies of the psychology and cultural mix of Mexican political and corporate roles. Contents: Structure; Size; Investments; Output; Sales; Procurement; Costs; Pemex financial management; Political management; National policy; Prospect; Mexico as an LDC; Appendix; Index.

Baker, G.

1983-01-01

405

A Prospective Analysis of Sexual Assault Perpetration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study prospectively evaluated perpetrator risk factors for sexual assault perpetration, including peer influences, beliefs and attitudes about sexuality, alcohol use, and token resistance. Perpetration of sexual assault was evaluated at three time periods: pretest, 3-month follow-up, and 7-month follow-up. Retrospective and prospective

Loh, Catherine; Gidycz, Christine; Lobo, Tracy; Luthra, Rohini

2005-01-01

406

Prospective memory and chronic heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience a number of debilitating symptoms, which impact on activities of daily living and result in poor quality of life. Prospective memory, which is defined as memory to carry out future intentions, has not been investigated in this group. However, emerging evidence suggests CHF patients have difficulties with cognitive processes related to prospective memory. Self-care, which partly relies on prospective memory, is essential in symptom management and preventing acute clinical deterioration. This study aims to measure prospective memory in CHF patients, and examine the relationship between prospective memory and CHF self-care. Methods/Design A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment will be conducted to assess a range of cognitive functions and psychopathology. The primary focus will be an assessment of prospective memory using a well-established behavioral measure; Virtual Week. Thirty CHF patients attending a nurse-led management program will be recruited from three hospital sites in Melbourne, Australia and their self-care behaviors will be assessed using the Self-care Chronic Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), a validated self-report tool. An additional 30 healthy controls, matched on age, gender, and IQ will be recruited from the general community. Discussion This is a group comparison study that will provide an evaluation of the prospective memory abilities of CHF patients. The findings of this research will provide insight into whether prospective memory may be hindering patients’ ability to perform adequate self-care. PMID:23984757

2013-01-01

407

Prospective Biology Teachers' Understanding of Genetics Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine one possible source of misconceptions that are held by students of genetics--the teachers. Is there evidence to suggest that prospective biology teachers might have misconceptions about genetics and related concepts? If prospective biology teachers have misconceptions in genetics, how do these misconceptions…

Cakir, Mustafa; Crawford, Barbara

408

Prospecting for Gold in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses gold prospecting in the US. The history of prospecting is covered, as well as where in the US gold can still be found and accounts of successful gold mining. Deposits of gold are also explained, including placer deposits and lode gold. Selected references for additional reading are given.

Kirkemo, Harold

409

Welcome to prospective Psychology concentrators Dan Osherson  

E-print Network

Welcome to prospective Psychology concentrators Dan Osherson osherson@princeton.edu Spring 2012 Dan Osherson Welcome to prospective Psychology concentrators #12;Much of the information that follows is available via: http://psych.princeton.edu/psychology/ug/main/declare.php These slides are available near

Osherson, Daniel

410

Future Prospects for Nuclear Power after Fukushima  

E-print Network

Future Prospects for Nuclear Power after Fukushima Nuclear is a highintensity energy source at the FukushimaDaiichi nuclear power plant in Japan has changed the perception of nuclear as a safe energy source as the next generation of Light Water Reactors. We will also discuss the future prospects of nuclear power

Goldberg, Bennett

411

Radiation detectors: needs and prospects  

SciTech Connect

Important applications for x- and ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy are found in prospecting, materials characterization, environmental monitoring, the life sciences, and nuclear physics. The specific requirements vary for each application with varying degrees of emphasis on either spectrometer resolution, detection efficiency, or both. Since no one spectrometer is ideally suited to this wide range of needs, compromises are usually required. Gas and scintillation spectrometers have reached a level of maturity, and recent interest has concentrated on semiconductor spectrometers. Germanium detectors are showing continuing refinement and are the spectrometers of choice for high resolution applications. The new high-Z semiconductors, such as CdTe and HgI/sub 2/, have shown steady improvement but are limited in both resolution and size and will likely be used only in applications which require their unique properties.

Armantrout, G.A.

1981-01-01

412

The Euro as More than a Currency: How Salient is the European Single Currency to Europeans  

E-print Network

of the requirements for the designation as HONORS UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW An Honors Fellows Thesis by LAURA JO HAYES History THE EURO AS MORE THAN A CURRENCY: HOW SALIENT IS THE EUROPEAN SINGLE CURRENCY TO EUROPEANS Approved by... for the designation as HONORS UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW An Honors Fellows Thesis by LAURA JO HAYES iii ABSTRACT The Euro As More Than a Currency: How Salient Is the European Single Currency to Europeans. (April 2010) Laura Jo Hayes Department...

Hayes, Laura J.

2010-07-14

413

Europeanizing Sub-national Governance: Partnership in the Implementation of European Union Structural Funds in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Da?browski M. Europeanizing sub-national governance: partnership in the implementation of European Union Structural Funds in Poland, Regional Studies. The legacy of centralism, lack of traditions in collaborative policy-making and weakly institutionalized sub-national authorities prompt questions about the transferability of the European Union's cohesion policy partnership principle to Central and Eastern European member states, which are the main recipients of cohesion

Marcin D?browski

2011-01-01

414

GPR prospection in ancient Ephesos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban area of ancient Ephesos (present Turkey) is too large to be fully excavated, so geophysical prospection and mapping can help with the investigation. Georadar is one of the most effective tools for it. Two different tasks solved by georadar are presented. The first problem was the interconnection between the city and the temple of Artemis. By historical records, it was made by two sacred procession roads, which had character of Graeco-Roman stoa, i.e., a roofed road. Only small parts of these roads were discovered in ruins or excavated. Some hundreds of metres from total length of a few kilometres became known, but the questions above were not solved. Then, the area was prospected by georadar. Series of GPR lines were scanned gradually from the last known points and evaluated right on the spot. As a result, a plan of georadar indications could be drawn. These indications created two lines tracing unknown parts of both roads joining together and then continuing till the entry of the temple. The results were confirmed by two boreholes. The second task was mapping of Hellenistic level of Tetragonos agora. At present, it is under the Roman level, and is visible only in some excavation pits. About a half the square was covered by detailed georadar survey. Numerous anomalies indicated presence of underground objects. Compared with the results of excavations, they were interpreted as ancient remains in several levels. Then plans of these indications were compiled for separated levels. Hellenistic buildings remains were mapped, forming an older agora, smaller and slightly different by its shape from the Roman building plan. Besides it, uncovered parts of Roman ruins were detected, as well as some remains of Classic and Archaic settlement levels. Some traces of even older human presence were found under them. Georadar results will serve as a guideline for future excavations.

Hruska, Jiri; Fuchs, Gerald

1999-03-01

415

Progress and Prospects toward a Space-based Gravitational-Wave Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last few years there has been much activity in the effort to produce a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. These efforts have enriched the understanding of the scientific capabilities of such an observatory leading to broad recognition of its value as an astronomical instrument. At the same time, rapidly developing events in the US and Europe have lead to a more complicated outlook than the baseline Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) project plan of a few years ago. I will discuss recent progress and developments resulting from the European eLISA study and the SGO study in the US and prospects looking forward.

Baker, John

2012-01-01

416

43 CFR 3505.10 - What is a prospecting permit?  

...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Prospecting Permits § 3505.10 What is a prospecting permit? (a) A prospecting permit gives you the...

2014-10-01

417

43 CFR 3505.10 - What is a prospecting permit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Prospecting Permits § 3505.10 What is a prospecting permit? (a) A prospecting permit gives you the...

2013-10-01

418

25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.  

... false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section 214.29 Indians...214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment of a well or mine shall be subject to the approval of...

2014-04-01

419

43 CFR 3505.10 - What is a prospecting permit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Prospecting Permits § 3505.10 What is a prospecting permit? (a) A prospecting permit gives you the...

2011-10-01

420

The Price of Europeanization: Why European Regional Policy Initiatives Are a Mixed Blessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 From the creation of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) in 1975, it has developed into the second most important policy area within the EU in budget terms taking up 35 per cent of the EU budget in 2000 (European Commission, 2000). While the European regional policy's impact on the reduction of regional disparities has remained limited at best

EIKO R. THIELEMANN

2002-01-01

421

EERA and Its European Conferences on Educational Research: A Patchwork of Research on European Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of Europeanisation is closely linked to the process of an emerging European Educational Research Area and an education research identity. The European Conferences on Educational Research (ECER), European Educational Research Association (EERA) and its networks are involved in new directions and strands of educational research in…

Keiner, Edwin; Hofbauer, Susann

2014-01-01

422

What can I do with a degree in European and European Union Studies?  

E-print Network

of European and European Union Studies offer expertise in a range of European issues in order to foster New Entrepreneurship and innovation are increasingly becoming an important part of the world of work and should be considered as a career option. For more information about UC student innovation & entrepreneurship, related

Hickman, Mark

423

Assessing European wild fire vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However, due to limitations in data availability, this approach of environmental accounting is not fully implemented yet. Keywords: fire vulnerability, damage assessment, land cover restoration, long-term fire risk, European scale

Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

2012-04-01

424

Current variables, definitions and endpoints of the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Registry  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) is increasingly used in daily clinical practice. However, little is known about its clinical utility such as image quality, safety and impact on patient management. In addition, there is limited information about the potential of CMR to acquire prognostic information. Methods The European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Registry (EuroCMR Registry) will consist of two parts: 1) Multicenter registry with consecutive enrolment of patients scanned in all participating European CMR centres using web based online case record forms. 2) Prospective clinical follow up of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) every 12 months after enrolment to assess prognostic data. Conclusion The EuroCMR Registry offers an opportunity to provide information about the clinical utility of routine CMR in a large number of cases and a diverse population. Furthermore it has the potential to gather information about the prognostic value of CMR in specific patient populations. PMID:19891768

2009-01-01

425

Postfledging survival of European starlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypotheses that mass at fledging and fledge date within the breeding season affect postfledging survival in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Nestlings were weighed on day 18 after hatch and tagged with individually identifiable patagial tags. Fledge date was recorded. Marked fledglings were resighted during weekly two-day intensive observation periods for 9 weeks postfledging. Post-fledging survival and sighting probabilities were estimated for each of four groups (early or late fledging by heavy or light fledging mass). Body mass was related to post-fledging survival for birds that fledged early. Results were not clear-cut for relative fledge date, although there was weak evidence that this also influenced survival. Highest survival probability estimates occurred in the EARLY-HEAVY group, while the lowest survival estimate occurred in the LATE-LIGHT group. Sighting probabilities differed significantly among groups, emphasizing the need to estimate and compare survival using models which explicitly incorporate sighting probabilities.

Krementz, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

1989-01-01

426

European National Society Cardiovascular Journals  

PubMed Central

Anesti Kondili MD, Djamaleddine Nibouche MD, Karlen Adamyan MD, Kurt Huber MD, Hugo Ector MD, Izet Masic MD, Rumiana Tarnovska MD, Mario Ivanusa MD, Vladimír Stane?k MD, Jørgen Videbæk MD, Mohamed Hamed MD, Alexandras Laucevicius MD, Pirjo Mustonen MD, Jean-Yves Artigou MD, Ariel Cohen MD, Mamanti Rogava MD, Michael Böhm MD, Eckart Fleck MD, Gerd Heusch MD, Rainer Klawki MD, Panos Vardas MD, Christodoulos Stefanadis MD, József Tenczer MD, Massimo Chiariello MD, Aleksandras Laucevicius MD, Joseph Elias MD, Halima Benjelloun MD, Olaf Rødevand MD, Piotr Kul/akowski MD, Edvard Apetrei MD, Victor A. Lusov MD, Rafael G. Oganov MD, Velibor Obradovic MD, Gabriel Kamensky MD, Miran F. Kenda MD, Christer Höglund MD, Thomas F. Lüscher MD, René Lerch MD, Moufid Jokhadar MD, Habib Haouala MD, Vedat Sansoy MD, Valentin Shumakov MD, Adam Timmis MD. (European National Society Cardiovascular Journals Editors, see Appendix for complete affiliations) PMID:18665206

Alfonso, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Pinto, F.J.; van der Wall, E.E.

2008-01-01

427

Carbon sequestration in European croplands.  

PubMed

The Marrakech Accords allow biospheric carbon sinks and sources to be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest management, cropland management, grazing land management, and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. Croplands are estimated to be the largest biospheric source of carbon lost to the atmosphere in Europe each year, but the cropland estimate is the most uncertain among all land-use types. It is estimated that European croplands (for Europe as far east as the Urals) lose 300 Tg (C) per year, with the mean figure for the European Union estimated to be 78 Tg (C) per year (with one SD=37). National estimates for EU countries are of a similar order of magnitude on a per-area basis. There is significant potential within Europe to decrease the flux of carbon to the atmosphere from cropland, and for cropland management to sequester soil carbon, relative to the amount of carbon stored in cropland soils at present. The biological potential for carbon storage in European (EU 15) cropland is of the order of 90-120 Tg (C) per year, with a range of options available that include reduced and zero tillage, set-aside, perennial crops, deep rooting crops, more efficient use of organic amendments (animal manure, sewage sludge, cereal straw, compost), improved rotations, irrigation, bioenergy crops, extensification, organic farming, and conversion of arable land to grassland or woodland. The sequestration potential, considering only constraints on land use, amounts of raw materials and available land, is up to 45 Tg (C) per year. The realistic potential and the conservative achievable potentials may be considerably lower than the biological potential because of socioeconomic and other constraints, with a realistically achievable potential estimated to be about 20% of the biological potential. As with other carbon sequestration options, potential impacts of non-CO, trace gases also need to be factored in. If carbon sequestration in croplands is to be used in helping to meet emission reduction targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the changes in soil carbon must be measurable and verifiable. Changes in soil carbon can be difficult to measure over a 5-year commitment period, and this has implications for Kyoto accounting and verification. Currently, most countries can hope to achieve only a low level of verifiability during the first commitment period, whereas those with the best-developed national carbon accounting systems will be able to deliver an intermediate level of verifiability. Very stringent definitions of verifiability would require verification that would be prohibitively expensive for any country. There is considerable potential in European croplands to reduce carbon fluxes to the atmosphere and to sequester carbon iri the soil, but carbon sequestration in soil has a finite potential and is non-permanent. Given that carbon sequestration may also be difficult to measure and verify, soil carbon sequestration is a riskier long-term strategy for climate mitigation than direct reduction of carbon emissions. However, improved agricultural management often has a range of other environmental and economic benefits in addition to climate mitigation potential, and this may make attempts to improve soil carbon storage attractive as part of integrated sustainability policies. PMID:17633030

Smith, Pete; Falloon, Pete

2005-01-01

428

European Cloth and "Tropical" Skin:  

PubMed Central

As Britain’s imperial and colonial ambitions intensified toward the end of the nineteenth century, the preservation of white European health in tropical climates became an increasingly important concern. Since at least the seventeenth century, the “tropics” had been seen as spaces holding vast potential wealth but also death and disease. To combat these deadly but desirable landscapes, the British built a considerable commodity culture around the preservation of white European health, and for many, tropical clothing was one of the most important and essential items in their “kits.” This article investigates the composition and use of such clothing in relation to British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates. First, it considers debates that ensued over the best material—wool, cotton, linen, silk, or a combination of these materials—and the role of “black” skin and local practice in the development of tropical clothing. Second, it demonstrates the importance of location in any discussion of tropical medicine and hygiene, and the tension and ambiguity that still surrounded British ideas of health and hygiene in the tropical colonies. Third, it argues that tropical clothing was important in the maintenance of climatic etiologies despite advances in parasitology and sanitary science. Finally, it considers the relationship of tropical clothing to the formation of a unique colonial identity. To British men and women embarking for any number of tropical destinations, proper clothing was not a banal and mundane component of their outfitting. For many, the clothing signified a departure from the safe and “civil” climes of Britain for adventure in the expanding tropical empire. PMID:19801795

Johnson, Ryan

2009-01-01

429

European Industrial Doctorates: Marie Curie Actions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

European industrial doctorates are joint doctoral training projects funded by the European Union (EU) and open to all research fields. The project brings together an academic participant (university, research institution, etc.) and a company. They have to be established in two different EU Member States or associated countries. Associated partners…

European Commission, 2012

2012-01-01

430

Cultural Diversity among American and European Businesspersons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An astute American, knowledgeable of and sensitive to cultural diversities among Europeans can communicate effectively for business success. The results of research into the communication customs of 27 European countries are presented: the Big Three (France, Germany, United Kingdom--England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales); Western…

West, Judy F.; Nixon, Judy C.

431

European Conference "GENDER ISSUES IN EUROPE TODAY"  

E-print Network

/ Croatia 11.15 The Role of the Teacher in Breaking Gender Stereotypes at School Riina Kytt, Estonian WomenEuropean Conference "GENDER ISSUES IN EUROPE TODAY" 11th June 2012 ­ Bonn / Germany Hotel IBIS / Germany 10.15 European Policy of Gender Mainstreaming ­ A Challenge for Civic Education Petra Grüne

Schüler, Axel

432

Contemporary European migrations, civic stratification and citizenship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1980s there has been a diversification of European migratory flows. States, which remain the key actors in migration policies despite growing European harmonisation, have responded to these complex patterns and contradictory pressures by diversifying migrant categories and statuses. The heterogeneity of migrant statuses, especially the growth in the number of those on temporary statuses and the undocumented,

Eleonore Kofman

2002-01-01

433

The Rationalities of European Border Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any account of European security that ignores border security is incomplete, and any account of border security that disregards functional issues is unfinished. Border security is an empirical manifestation of a state's adaptation to its political environment, so a comprehensive analysis of European security requires that both the empirical and conceptual parameters of border management should be identified. However, this

Alice Hills

2006-01-01

434

European and Intercultural Dimension in Greek Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negotiations concerning Greece's accession into the European Union began as early as 1961, when a cooperation agreement was signed between Greece and the European Economic Community. These negotiations were concluded 20 years later, on 1 January 1981, when Greece became the tenth full member of the EU. The next major step in Greece's progress…

Damanakis, Michael

2005-01-01

435

Hubert Ertl European Union Initiatives in Education  

E-print Network

Hubert Ertl European Union Initiatives in Education and Vocational Training - The Development AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING OUTLINE In this paper, the development and impact of European Union (EU) programmes policies in the fields of education and vocational training is outlined, since the evolution of programmes

Noé, Reinhold

436

Transnational Lives in European Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transnational collaboration by educational researchers in Europe has grown fast since the mid-1990s and the means to support it have become more easily accessible. A study of the growth of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) since its foundation in the mid-1990s shows how transnational research in European education began, and how…

Lawn, Martin

2014-01-01

437

LENS: European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) offers an introduction to its goal "to provide advanced laser and spectroscopic facilities for researchers from European countries and to promote and facilitate the exchange of ideas, scientific techniques, and technical skills." Individuals can find descriptions of past and upcoming events and seminars, lists of publication, and training and job opportunities.

2008-04-10

438

Religiousness and Fertility among European Muslims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on official data on religion, national origin, and other indicators of ethnic origin, Muslim fertility in 13 European countries is higher than that for other women, but in most countries with trend data the differences are diminishing over time. Fertility varies by country of origin of immigrants. Various European survey data show that higher proportions of Muslim women are

Charles F. Westoff; Tomas Frejka

2007-01-01

439

European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures ESFRI  

E-print Network

European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures ESFRI Roadmap 2010 StrategyReport onResearchInfrastructures Roadmap 2010 European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures ESFRI March 2011 #12;StrategyReportonResearchInfrastructures Roadmap 2010 #12;3esfriForeword > Strategy Report on Research Infrastructures Dear Ministers, Dear

Horn, David

440

Light pollution in Spain. An european perspective  

E-print Network

Spain appears in light pollution maps as a country less polluted than their neighbours in the European Union. This seems to be an illusion due to its low population density. The data indicate that Spain is one of the most contaminated countries. To reach these conclusions we compare the Spanish case to those of other European countries.

Alejandro Sanchez de Miguel; Jaime Zamorano

2008-10-23

441

Genetics and the Origin of European Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of European genetic data has been analyzed to dissect independent patterns of geographic variation. The most important cause of European genetic variation has been confirmed to correspond to the migration of Neolithic farmers from the area of origin of agriculture in the Middle East. The next most important component of genetic variation is apparently associated with a

Alberto Piazza; Sabina Rendine; Eric Minch; Paolo Menozzi; Liugi L. Cavalli-Sforza

1995-01-01

442

Internationalisms--Identical Vocabularies in European Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistic history has described borrowing in the European languages as a process exclusive to one language at any given time. However, it is more likely that there is a core of common loan words, or internationalisms, in many European languages. These internationalisms have come from a variety of sources: the historic interrelatedness of…

Braun, Peter

443

Images of Women in European History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests an approach to the teaching of European history which emphasizes the role of women. Discusses women's social and political roles during the Renaissance, amid 19th century European liberalism, and as reflected in 20th century visual and literary arts. (AV)

Alpern, Mildred

1978-01-01

444

The Euro and European financial markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study argues that the introduction of the euro would have a more immediate and direct impact on European bond markets than on European banking markets. The single currency would create a single private yield curve in the near term and could also lead to a more integrated government bond market. While the immediate impact of the euro for banking

Robert N. McCauley; William R. White

1997-01-01

445

The public visibility of Islam and European  

E-print Network

, discuss Islamic law without an Islamic state, and discover themselves as a minority groupArticle The public visibility of Islam and European politics of resentment: The minarets visibility of Islam reveals new political stakes in European democracies around issues of immigration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

446

Light pollution in Spain. An european perspective  

E-print Network

Spain appears in light pollution maps as a country less polluted than their neighbours in the European Union. This seems to be an illusion due to its low population density. The data indicate that Spain is one of the most contaminated countries. To reach these conclusions we compare the Spanish case to those of other European countries.

de Miguel, Alejandro Sanchez

2008-01-01

447

Mathematics Teaching in Four European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a comparative study, funded by the European Union, of the teaching of mathematics in five European countries, (Flanders, England, Finland, Hungary and Spain) to students in the upper primary (ages 10-12) and lower secondary (12-14) years. These ages were chosen as they represent a time when many students' experiences of…

Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

2006-01-01

448

European women's employment and fertility again  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why has European fertility fallen dramatically and why have European women taken paid employment over more years of their lives? What answers are suggested by economic models of women's labour supply and fertility? What are the implications of these models for differences in fertility and labour supply patterns between women and for econometric analysis? In this address, I review the

John F Ermisch; Dean Trench

1990-01-01