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Determinants of response to a parent questionnaire about development and behaviour in 3 year olds: European multicentre study of congenital toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine how response to a parent-completed postal questionnaire measuring development, behaviour, impairment, and parental concerns and anxiety, varies in different European centres. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 3 year old children, with and without congenital toxoplasmosis, who were identified by prenatal or neonatal screening for toxoplasmosis in 11 centres in 7 countries. Parents were mailed a

A Salt; K Freeman; A Prusa; N Ferret; W Buffolano; G Malm; D Schmidt; HK Tan; RE Gilbert




Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is a unicellular protozoan. The definitive hosts, cats, produce hardy oocysts and sporozoites. Ingestion by a nonfeline leads to the formation of tachyzoites acutely, which cause parasitemia and further dissemination, and bradyzoites, which lead to latent infection with the formation of tissue cysts in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Toxoplasmosis can be transmitted

Sylvia Siegfried Gagne



Prenatal Treatment for Serious Neurological Sequelae of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: An Observational Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The effectiveness of prenatal treatment to prevent serious neurological sequelae (SNSD) of congenital toxoplasmosis is not known. Methods and Findings Congenital toxoplasmosis was prospectively identified by universal prenatal or neonatal screening in 14 European centres and children were followed for a median of 4 years. We evaluated determinants of postnatal death or SNSD defined by one or more of functional neurological abnormalities, severe bilateral visual impairment, or pregnancy termination for confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. Two-thirds of the cohort received prenatal treatment (189/293; 65%). 23/293 (8%) fetuses developed SNSD of which nine were pregnancy terminations. Prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD. The odds ratio for prenatal treatment, adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion, was 0.24 (95% Bayesian credible intervals 0.07–0.71). This effect was robust to most sensitivity analyses. The number of infected fetuses needed to be treated to prevent one case of SNSD was three (95% Bayesian credible intervals 2–15) after maternal seroconversion at 10 weeks, and 18 (9–75) at 30 weeks of gestation. Pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment did not reduce SNSD compared with spiramycin alone (adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 0.21–2.95). The proportion of live-born infants with intracranial lesions detected postnatally who developed SNSD was 31.0% (17.0%–38.1%). Conclusion The finding that prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD in infected fetuses should be interpreted with caution because of the low number of SNSD cases and uncertainty about the timing of maternal seroconversion. As these are observational data, policy decisions about screening require further evidence from a randomized trial of prenatal screening and from cost-effectiveness analyses that take into account the incidence and prevalence of maternal infection. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Paul, Malgorzata; Prusa, Andrea; Buffolano, Wilma; Malm, Gunilla; Salt, Alison; Freeman, Katherine; Petersen, Eskild; Gilbert, Ruth E.



Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis.  


The objective of this investigation was to describe systems for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis implemented in European countries. In September 2004, a questionnaire, adapted from the evaluation criteria published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was sent to a panel of national correspondents in 35 countries in the European geographical area with knowledge of the epidemiological surveillance systems implemented in their countries. Where necessary, we updated the information until July 2007. Responses were received from 28 countries. Some 16 countries reported routine surveillance for toxoplasmosis. In 12 countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Scotland and Slovakia), surveillance was designed to detect only symptomatic toxoplasmosis, whether congenital or not. Four countries reported surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis, on a regional basis in Italy and on a national basis in Denmark, France and Germany. In conclusion, epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis needs to be improved in order to determine the true burden of disease and to assess the effectiveness of and the need for existing prevention programmes. PMID:18445459

Bénard, A; Petersen, E; Salamon, R; Chęne, G; Gilbert, R; Salmi, L R



Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

The objective of this investigation was to describe systems for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis implemented in European countries. In September 2004, a questionnaire, adapted from the evaluation criteria published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was sent to a panel of national correspondents in 35 countries in the European geographical area with knowledge of the epidemiological surveillance systems implemented in their countries. Where necessary, we updated the information until July 2007. Responses were received from 28 countries. Some 16 countries reported routine surveillance for toxoplasmosis. In 12 countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Scotland and Slovakia), surveillance was designed to detect only symptomatic toxoplasmosis, whether congenital or not. Four countries reported surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis, on a regional basis in Italy and on a national basis in Denmark, France and Germany. In conclusion, epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis needs to be improved in order to determine the true burden of disease and to assess the effectiveness of and the need for existing prevention programmes.

Benard, Antoine; Petersen, Eskild; Salamon, Roger; Chene, Genevieve; Gilbert, Ruth; Salmi, Louis Rachid; for the European Toxo Prevention Study Group (EUROTOXO)



Association between prenatal treatment and clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis in infancy: A cohort study in 13 European centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine the effectiveness of prenatal treatment for clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods: We prospectively identified 255 live-born infants with congenital toxoplasmosis using prenatal or neonatal screening. We determined the effect of prenatal treatment on the risks of intracranial or ocular lesions in infancy, accounting for gestational age at maternal seroconversion. Results: Prenatal treatment within 4 wk of

Luuk Gras; Martine Wallon; Arnold Pollak; Mario Cortina-borja; Birgitta Evengard; Michael Hayde; Eskild Petersen; Ruth Gilbert



Determinants of response to a parent questionnaire about development and behaviour in 3 year olds: European multicentre study of congenital toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to determine how response to a parent-completed postal questionnaire measuring development, behaviour, impairment, and parental concerns and anxiety, varies in different European centres. Methods Prospective cohort study of 3 year old children, with and without congenital toxoplasmosis, who were identified by prenatal or neonatal screening for toxoplasmosis in 11 centres in 7 countries. Parents were mailed a questionnaire that comprised all or part of existing validated tools. We determined the effect of characteristics of the centre and child on response, age at questionnaire completion, and response to child drawing tasks. Results The questionnaire took 21 minutes to complete on average. 67% (714/1058) of parents responded. Few parents (60/1058) refused to participate. The strongest determinants of response were the score for organisational attributes of the study centre (such as direct involvement in follow up and access to an address register), and infection with congenital toxoplasmosis. Age at completion was associated with study centre, presence of neurological abnormalities in early infancy, and duration of prenatal treatment. Completion rates for individual questions exceeded 92% except for child completed drawings of a man (70%), which were completed more by girls, older children, and in certain centres. Conclusion Differences in response across European centres were predominantly related to the organisation of follow up and access to correct addresses. The questionnaire was acceptable in all six countries and offers a low cost tool for assessing development, behaviour, and parental concerns and anxiety, in multinational studies.

Salt, A; Freeman, K; Prusa, A; Ferret, N; Buffolano, W; Malm, G; Schmidt, D; Tan, HK; Gilbert, RE



Assessing the European Union's Prospects for Cohesion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis assesses the prospects for building a constitutional structure for the European Union (EU) that will secure popular support and protect national sovereignty, in the light of four theories of political integration: functionalism, neotunctionali...

A. P. Giorgianni



Regionalization in European Agricultural Policy: Institutional Actualities, Issues and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trouvé A. and Berriet-Solliec M. Regionalization in European agricultural policy: institutional actualities, issues and prospects, Regional Studies. Europe's regions are having more say in agricultural policy, which has historically been managed at national and European levels. In this context, the balance of power with other tiers of government may be a driving force behind (or a constraint on) change, bringing

Aurélie Trouvé; Marielle Berriet-Solliec



Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment  


... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...


Association between congenital toxoplasmosis and parent-reported developmental outcomes, concerns, and impairments, in 3 year old children  

PubMed Central

Background Information is lacking on the effects of congenital toxoplasmosis on development, behavior, and impairment in later childhood, as well as on parental concerns and anxiety. This information is important for counselling parents about the prognosis for an infected child and for policy decisions on screening. Methods We prospectively studied a cohort of children identified by screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women or neonates between 1996 and 2000 in ten European centers. At 3 years of age, parents of children with and without congenital toxoplasmosis were surveyed about their child's development, behavior, and impairment, and about parental concerns and anxiety, using a postal questionnaire. Results Parents of 178/223 (80%) infected, and 527/821 (64%) uninfected children responded. We found no evidence that impaired development or behavior were more common in infected children, or that any potential effect of congenital toxoplasmosis was masked by prenatal treatment. Parents of infected children were significantly more anxious and reported more visual problems in their children. Conclusion On average, children aged three to four years with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by screening and treated during infancy in this European setting had risks of abnormal development and behavior similar to uninfected children. Parental anxiety about infected children needs to be addressed by clinicians. Future studies with longer follow up and clinician-administered assessments may be better able to detect any subtle differences in child outcomes.

Freeman, Katherine; Salt, Alison; Prusa, Andrea; Malm, Gunilla; Ferret, Nicole; Buffolano, Wilma; Schmidt, Dorthe; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Gilbert, Ruth E



Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms  


... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...


My Journey with Toxoplasmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author describes her fears and struggles as she came to terms, as an American expatriate in France, with a medical diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. This condition led to her birthing a son with Asperger's Syndrome. She tells of plunging herself into research to learn more about Toxoplasmosis, the number of things that could be seriously wrong with…

Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann



Immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous infection affecting 500 million persons around the world, with a range of incidence 12%–90%, increasing with age, education, crowding and sanitary habits. Cats are the definitive host. Infection is primarily congenital but acquired ocular infection has been documented. The review focuses on the immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmosis with emphasis on the eye problem due to its morbidity.

S. M. Hegab; S. A. Al-Mutawa



My Journey with Toxoplasmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes her fears and struggles as she came to terms, as an American expatriate in France, with a medical diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. This condition led to her birthing a son with Asperger's Syndrome. She tells of plunging herself into research to learn more about Toxoplasmosis, the number of things that could be seriously wrong with…

Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann



European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer. Information on usual individual dietary intake was assessed using different validated dietary assessment methods

N. Slimani; R. Kaaks; P. Ferrari; C. Casagrande; F. Clavel-Chapelon; G. Lotze; A. Kroke; D. Trichopoulos; A. Trichopoulou; C. Lauria; M. Bellegotti; M. C. Ocké; P. H. M. Peeters; D. Engeset; E. Lund; A. Agudo; N. Larranaga; I. Mattisson; C. Andren; I. Johansson; G. Davey; A. A. Welch; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; W. A. van Staveren; R. Saracci; E. Riboli



Latent toxoplasmosis and human.  


Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases worldwide. Although estimated that one third of the world's population are infected with Toxoplasma gondii, but the most common form of the disease is latent (asymptomatic). On the other hand, recent findings indicated that latent toxoplasmosis is not only unsafe for human, but also may play various roles in the etiology of different mental disorders. This paper reviews new findings about importance of latent toxoplasmosis (except in immunocompromised patients) in alterations of behavioral parameters and also its role in the etiology of schizophrenia and depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's diseases and Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, headache and or migraine, mental retardation and intelligence quotients, suicide attempt, risk of traffic accidents, sex ratio and some possible mechanisms of T. gondii that could contribute in the etiology of these alterations. PMID:23133466

Dalimi, A; Abdoli, A



Visual function in human ocular toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess functional impairment in terms of visual acuity reduction and visual field defects in inactive ocular toxoplasmosis. Methods 61 patients with known ocular toxoplasmosis in a quiescent state were included in this prospective, cross?sectional study. A complete ophthalmic examination, retinal photodocumentation and standard automated perimetry (Octopus perimeter, program G2) were performed. Visual acuity was classified on the basis of the World Health Organization definition of visual impairment and blindness: normal (?20/25), mild (20/25 to 20/60), moderate (20/60 to 20/400) and severe (<20/400). Visual field damage was correspondingly graded as mild (mean defect <4?dB), moderate (mean defect 4–12?dB) or severe (mean defect >12?dB). Results 8 (13%) patients presented with bilateral ocular toxoplasmosis. Thus, a total of 69 eyes was evaluated. Visual field damage was encountered in 65 (94%) eyes, whereas only 28 (41%) eyes had reduced visual acuity, showing perimetric findings to be more sensitive in detecting chorioretinal damage (p<0.001). Correlation with the clinical localisation of chorioretinal scars was better for visual field (in 70% of the instances) than for visual acuity (33%). Moderate to severe functional impairment was registered in 65.2% for visual field, and in 27.5% for visual acuity. Conclusion In its quiescent stage, ocular toxoplasmosis was associated with permanent visual field defects in >94% of the eyes studied. Hence, standard automated perimetry may better reflect the functional damage encountered by ocular toxoplasmosis than visual acuity.

Scherrer, Janine; Iliev, Milko E; Halberstadt, Markus; Kodjikian, Laurent; Garweg, Justus G



Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean and parts of tropical Africa as compared to Europe and Northern America, and is quite rare

E. Petersen; A. Kijlstra; M. Stanford



Waterborne Toxoplasmosis, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Two waterborne outbreaks of toxoplasmosis have been described recently in southern Brazil. We present data from a community-based study of pregnant women in northeastern Brazil. Consumption of homemade ice was the only variable associated with seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio, 3.1, 95% confidence interval, 1.53–6.24). Our results suggest water as a source of infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

Meyer-Cirkel, Vanessa; Moura, Romulo Cesar Saboia; Gomide, Marcia; Queiroz, Jose Ajax Nogueira; Saweljew, Peter; Liesenfeld, Oliver



European space science - In retrospect and in prospect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a time when all space progams have to redefine their goals following the end of the Cold War, and when some Member States are questioning whether the (modest) pace that marked the first 35 years of European space science should not be slower and the budget allocated to that activity reduced, it is useful to look back and assess whether ESA, and before it the European Space Research Organization (ESRO), have been good for science and have played the roles as outlined in their Conventions. It is also useful and enlightneing to assess whether ESA has conducted its program efficiently.

Bonnet, R. M.



Use of dietary supplements in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition calibration study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Specific questions on dietary supplement use

G Skeie; T Braaten; A Hjartĺker; M Lentjes; P Amiano; P Jakszyn; V Pala; A Palanca; E M Niekerk; H Verhagen; K Avloniti; T Psaltopoulou; M Niravong; M Touvier; K Nimptsch; J Haubrock; L Walker; E A Spencer; N Roswall; A Olsen; P Wallström; S Nilsson; C Casagrande; G Deharveng; V Hellström; M-C Boutron-Ruault; A Tjřnneland; A M Joensen; F Clavel-Chapelon; A Trichopoulou; C Martinez; L Rodríguez; G Frasca; C Sacerdote; P H M Peeters; J Linseisen; A Schienkiewitz; A A Welch; J Manjer; P Ferrari; E Riboli; S Bingham; D Engeset; E Lund; N Slimani



International interest withholding taxation: Prospects for a common European policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989 the European Union member states rejected a proposal to introduce a minimum interest withholding tax of 15 percent. Some Union member states, however, remain keenly interested in bringing about some minimum level of international taxation of interest income. This suggests that member states will be asked to reconsider the issue in the near future. This paper first examines

Harry Huizinga



The European fighter aircraft?potential and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses the European Fighter Aircraft, the product of the collaborative Experimental Aircraft Programme. Analysing the roles he expects the EFA to play and detailing design features, he is confident that it is an ideal craft for the new NATO strategy.

Ned Frith



Immunopathogenesis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

The immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is not completely understood. This paper will try to discuss the most frequently asked questions about the immunopathogeny of congenital toxoplasmosis: differential virulence of Toxoplasma isolates, genetic susceptibility to infection, facilitation of placental transfer, models of congenital toxoplasmosis, and transmission in seropositive hosts. Most published data suggest a role of the genetic background of the host and of the parasite. Models of congenital toxoplasmosis have been evaluated, but it appears that the conclusion drawn would be barely appropriate to understand the pathogenesis in pregnant women.

Dupouy-Camet, Jean



Toxoplasmosis: A Global Threat  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis, a disease described worldwide, which is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, commonly involves the retina. The disease has a higher impact in immunocompromised individuals and in congenital infection because of the severity of central nervous system involvement. Although simple prophylactic measures could reduce transmission, T. gondii seroprevalence is still high, especially in South America. Educational campaigns and the development of new drugs to prevent primary infection could potentially reduce the burden of the disease.

Furtado, Joao M; Smith, Justine R; Belfort, Rubens; Gattey, Devin; Winthrop, Kevin L



Evolution, transition and prospection of Chinese planning: From a perspective of its connections with European planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

ä China has been well known for its huge amounts of planning practises since its reform and opening policy. However, systemic discussions related to planning theory are inadequate. This paper discussed the evolution, transition and a possible prospection of Chinese planning from both theoretical and empirical dimensions, particularly featured by exploring links between Chinese planning and European (or 'western' oriented)

Zhang Shuhai; Gert de Roo; Lu Bin



European offshore conference in London: a review of the prospects for the 1980's  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial Times has sponsored the second European offshore conference in London, with discussions devoted to government policies in the UK and in Norway, future prospects for offshore industry activities and technology, and markets for North Sea oil and gas. Licenses will continue to be available in the British sector to all comers, regardless of nationality. The two roles of




Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were

N. E. Allen; T. J. Key; P. N. Appleby; R. C. Travis; A. W. Roddam; A. Tjonneland; N. F. Johnsen; K. Overvad; J. Linseisen; S. Rohrmann; H. Boeing; T. Pischon; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; L. Kiemeney; G. Tagliabue; D. Palli; P. Vineis; R. Tumino; A. Trichopoulou; C. Kassapa; D. Trichopoulos; E. Ardanaz; N. Larranaga; M. J. Tormo; C. A. Gonzalez; J. R. Quiros; M-J Sánchez; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; J. Manjer; G. Berglund; P. Stattin; G. Hallmans; N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; S. Rinaldi; E. Riboli



Prospective Trends in the Socio-Economic Context of Education in European Market Economy Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to project and analyze the prospective long-term trends in the socioeconomic context of the educational systems of European market economies and to outline in global terms the probable implication for education and training in the future. Composed of three chapters, the chapter 1 focuses on projected long-term…

Weiss, M.; And Others


Meat, fish and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fi sh intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. Methods: We prospectively followed 478 040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on

Teresa Norat; Sheila Bingham; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Mathieu Mazuir; Kim Overvad; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjřnneland; Francoise Clavel; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Emmanuelle Kesse; Heiner Boeing; Manuela M. Bergmann; Alexandra Nieters; Jakob Linseisen; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Yannis Tountas; Franco Berrino; Domenico Palli; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Petra H. M. Peeters; Dagrun Engeset; Eiliv Lund; Guri Skeie; Eva Ardanaz; C. Gonzalez; Carmen Navarro; J. Ramón Quirós; María-José Sanchez; Göran Berglund; Irene Mattisson; Göran Hallmans; Richard Palmqvist; Nicholas E. Day; Kay-Tee Khaw; Timothy J. Key; Miguel San Joaquin; B. Hemon; Rodolfo Saracci; Rudolf Kaaks; Elio Riboli



Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35–74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g\\/day) and energy (kcal\\/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes

M C Ocké; N Larrańaga; S Grioni; S W van den Berg; P Ferrari; S Salvini; V Benetou; J Linseisen; E Wirfält; S Rinaldi; M Jenab; J Halkjćr; M U Jakobsen; M Niravong; F Clavel-Chapelon; R Kaaks; M Bergmann; E Moutsiou; A Trichopoulou; C Lauria; C Sacerdote; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; P H M Peeters; A Hjartĺker; C L Parr; M J Tormo; M J Sanchez; J Manjer; V Hellstrom; A Mulligan; E A Spencer; E Riboli; S Bingham; N Slimani



Standardization of Food Composition Databases for the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): General Theoretical Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPIC is a prospective cohort study on diet and cancer involving 480 000 subjects from nine European countries. In order to establish the relationship between nutrient intakes and disease, standardized food composition databases are needed. In the absence of already existing comparable European nutrient database(s), an ad hoc approach was developed to standardize the EPIC databases. New matrices were built

Nadia Slimani; Ute Ruth Charrondičre; Wija van Staveren; Elio Riboli



[Congenital toxoplasmosis: severe ocular and neurological complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two infants with congenital toxoplasmosis are presented. A girl born prematurely was treated postnatally after the mother had received antimicrobial treatment during pregnancy for acute toxoplasmosis. Apart from being small for gestational age, she remained without symptoms and treatment was ceased after 13 months. A 2-month-old boy presented with hydrocephalus and chorioretinitis, consistent with congenital toxoplasmosis. Despite antimicrobial treatment, at

F. Hoekstra; C. Buzing; J. M. J. Sporken; C. E. Erasmus; M. van der Flier; B. A. Semmekrot



Detection by PCR of Toxoplasma gondii in blood in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.  

PubMed Central

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was performed prospectively in the blood of 19 patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis. The B1 gene and TGR1E sequence were used as targets and results were confirmed by hybridisation. Controls consisted of 24 HIV infected patients with tissue culture proven T gondii parasitaemia and 57 HIV infected patients without toxoplasmosis. PCR was positive with both targets in 20 of 24 samples (84%) from patients with parasitaemia. Three of 57 samples (5%) from patients without toxoplasmosis were PCR positive with either target, but none was positive with both targets. Only three of the 19 patients (16%) with cerebral toxoplasmosis had a positive PCR with both targets before the start of specific treatment. PCR performed in blood is of little diagnostic value in cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis but could be useful in patients with disseminated infection. Images

Lamoril, J; Molina, J M; de Gouvello, A; Garin, Y J; Deybach, J C; Modai, J; Derouin, F



[Two cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis].  


Two cases of disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis of a pet mouse and a red panda are described. The pet mouse had a private owner; the red panda lived in a zoological garden in Saxony. At necropsy, both animals suffered from a systemic toxoplasmosis. A severe necrotizing hepatitis was the main histological feature in both animals. Parasitic cysts could be abundantly found in the liver, moderately in the brain and in a low number in other organs. With the PAS-reaction, cysts showed a weak staining in the mouse and a strong staining in the red panda. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry. PMID:22331331

Stief, B; Kiesow, C; Ellenberger, C



Ocular toxoplasmosis associated with scleritis  

PubMed Central

We report an atypical presentation of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis with associated scleritis in a young and immunocompetent patient. The diagnosis was done on the basis of Polymerase chain reaction of vitreous sample, and the clinical response to specific treatment. This case highlights the unusual presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis as scleritis.

Kamath, Yogish S; Rathinam, S R; Kawali, Ankush



The International Congress on Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in both veterinary and human medicine. Infection during pregnancy can result in fetal transmission and a congenital infection syndrome. In immune-compromised hosts reactivation of latent infection can result in encephalitis. It has been estimated that as many as one-third of the human population harbours this zoonosis. The Seventh International Congress on Toxoplasmosis, organised by

Louis M. Weiss; Kami Kim



Toxoplasmosis: Pathogenesis and immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasmosis, caused by intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is infects a wide variety of warm-blood animals including humans. Pathogenesis, during acute infection the tachyzoite can invade and proliferate in all nucleated cells. Replication leads to host cell death, rapid invasion of neighbouring cells and tachyzoites disseminate via the bloodstream. It also can invade many tissues, such as the liver, spleen

Phuangphet Waree



Body size and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that obesity is related to increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, only a few studies report on measures of central vs. peripheral adiposity. We examined the association between anthropometric measures, including waist and hip circumference and RCC risk among 348,550 men and women free of cancer at baseline from 8 countries of the European Prospective

Tobias Pischon; Petra H Lahmann; Heiner Boeing; Anne Tjřnneland; Jytte Halkjaer; Kim Overvad; Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch; Jakob Linseisen; Nikolaus Becker; Antonia Trichopoulou; Vassiliki Benetou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Sabina Sieri; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Salvatore Panico; Evelyn Monninkhof; Petra H M Peeters; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Frederike L Büchner; Börje Ljungberg; Göran Hallmans; Göran Berglund; Carlos Alberto González; Miren Dorronsoro Iraeta; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Carmen A Navarro; Carmen Martínez-García; José Ramón Quirós; Andrew Roddam; Naomi E Allen; Sheila A Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Rudolf Kaaks; Teresa Norat; Nadia Slimani; Elio Riboli



Anthropometry, physical activity, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking is the only established risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Results from several epidemiologic studies have suggested that increased body mass index and\\/or lack of physical activity may be associated with an increased risk of this disease. We examined the relationship between anthropometry and physical activity recorded at baseline and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective

Amy Berrington de González; Elizabeth A Spencer; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Andrew Roddam; Rachel Stolzenberg-Solomon; Jytte Halkjaer; Anne Tjřnneland; Kim Overvad; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Antonia Trichopoulou; Vassiliki Benetou; Aristoteles Papadimitriou; Valeria Pala; Domenico Palli; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Hendriek C Boshuizen; Marga C Ocké; Petra H Peeters; Eiliv Lund; Carlos A Gonzalez; Nerea Larrańaga; Carmen Martinez-Garcia; Michelle Mendez; Carmen Navarro; J Ramón Quirós; María-José Tormo; Göran Hallmans; Weimin Ye; Sheila A Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Naomi Allen; Tim J Key; Mazda Jenab; Teresa Norat; Pietro Ferrari; Elio Riboli



Physical activity and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence concerning the possible association between physical activity and the risk of prostate cancer is inconsistent and additional data are needed. We examined the association between risk of prostate cancer and physical activity at work and in leisure time in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In our study, including 127,923 men aged 20-97 years

Nina Fřns Johnsen; A. Tjonneland; Birthe L. R. Thomsen; Jane Christensen; Steffen Loft; Christine Friedenreich; Timothy J. Key; Naomi E. Allen; Petra H. Lahmann; Lotte Mejlvig; Kim Overvad; Rudolf Kaaks; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boing; A. Trichopoulou; D. Zylis; R. Tumino; V. Pala; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; L. A. L. M. Kiemeney; L. R. Suarez; C. A. Gonzalez; M. J. Sanchez; J. M. Huerta; A. B. Gurrea; J. Manjer; E. Wirfalt; K. T. Khaw; N. Wareham; P. Boffetta; L. Egevad; S. Rinaldi; E. Riboli



Dietary Fat and the Risk of Clinical Type 2 Diabetes The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of dietary fat in the etiology of type 2 diabetes remains uncertain. The authors investigated the association between dietary fat composition and risk of clinical type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk study and identified food consumption patterns associated with dietary fat composition. Diet was assessed at baseline (1993-1997) using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.

Anne-Helen Harding; Nicholas E. Day; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila Bingham; Robert Luben; Ailsa Welsh; Nicholas J. Wareham


[Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patient].  


Pulmonary toxoplasmosis occurs mainly in immunosuppressed patients and its diagnosis mainly relies upon biological confirmation of the parasite. We present the case of a 47 years patient in medullar aplasia after induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia that developed pulmonary infiltrates of parasitic origin. The diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis was established after identification of the parasite in brochioloalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and peripheral blood. Serological tests are of limited utility in immunosuppressed patients. We used classical methods for the diagnosis of parasitosis but they are being replaced by molecular methods. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allows a highly specific and sensitive diagnosis on any sample but it cannot be performed in any center. PMID:23077869

Rîp?, Carmen; Cojocaru, Ingrid; Luca, Mariana; Luca, C?t?lina Mihaela; Leon, Maria; Bahnea, Roxana-Gabriela


Toxoplasmosis in the perinatal period.  

PubMed Central

Although many of the fundamental biological features of toxoplasmosis are today well appreciated, the practical problem of prevention of its most serious consequence--disabling congenital disease, remains unsolved. The reasons vary in different communities, but are concerned with detection of the chief mode of spread, assessment of incidence, delineation of vulnerable antenatal women in latently infected populations, and assessment of the risks of therapeutics. The results of some of the approaches to these problems in Scotland are reported and discussed.

Williams, H.



Anthropometry, physical activity, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking is the only established risk factor for\\u000apancreatic cancer. Results from several epidemiologic studies\\u000ahave suggested that increased body mass index and\\/or lack of\\u000aphysical activity may be associated with an increased risk of\\u000athis disease. We examined the relationship between anthropometry\\u000aand physical activity recorded at baseline and the\\u000arisk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective

A. Berrington de Gonzalez; E. A. Spencer; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; A. Roddam; R. Stolzenberg-Solomon; J. Halkjaer; A. Tjřnneland; K. Overvad; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; H. H. Boeing; T. Pischon; J. Linseisen; S. Rohrmann; A. Trichopoulou; V. Benetou; A. Papadimitriou; V. Pala; D. Palli; S. Panico; R. Tumino; P. Vineis; H. C. Boshuizen; M. C. Ocke; P. H. M. Peeters; E. Lund; C. A. Gonzalez; N. Larranaga; C. Martinez-Garcia; Michelle Mendez; C. Navarro; J. R. Quirós; M. J. Tormo; G. Hallmans; W. Ye; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; N. Allen; T. J. Key; M. Jenab; T. Norat; P. Ferrari; E. Riboli



Dietary fat intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: results from the 24-h dietary recalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:This paper describes the dietary intake of total fat, saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and cholesterol of participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in 27 centres across 10 countries.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, a stratified random sample of 36 034 participants (age range 35–74 years) completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall, assessed

J Linseisen; A A Welch; M Ocké; P Amiano; C Agnoli; P Ferrari; E Sonestedt; V Chajčs; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; R Kaaks; C Weikert; M Dorronsoro; L Rodríguez; I Ermini; A Mattiello; Y T van der Schouw; J Manjer; S Nilsson; M Jenab; E Lund; M Brustad; J Halkjćr; M U Jakobsen; K T Khaw; F Crowe; C Georgila; G Misirli; M Niravong; M Touvier; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani



Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A high consumption of fruit and vegetables is possi- bly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the findings to date are inconsistent. Objective: We examined the relation between self-reported usual consumption of fruit and vegetables and the incidence of CRC. Design: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 452,755 subjects (131,985 men

H Bas Bueno-De-Mesquita; Pietro Ferrari; Mazda Jenab; Martine M Ros; Corinne Casagrande; Anne Tjřnneland; Anja Olsen; Kim Overvad; Ole Thorlacius-Ussing; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Sophie Morois; Rudolf Kaaks; Jakob Linseisen; Heiner Boeing; Ute Nothlings; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Gesthimani Misirli; Domenico Palli; Sabina Sieri; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Carla H van Gils; Marga C Ocke ´; Eiliv Lund; Miren Dorronsoro; Carmen Navarro; Aurelio Barricarte; Goran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Goran Hallmans; Richard Palmqvist; Sheila A Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Timothy J Key; Paolo Boffetta; Nadia Slimani; Sabina Rinaldi; Valentina Gallo; Teresa Norat; Elio Riboli


Prevention of toxoplasmosis in transplant patients.  


Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection that affects haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Its incidence in these patients is closely related to the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the general population, which is high in Europe. In SOT recipients, toxoplasmosis results mainly from transmission of the parasite with the transplanted organ from a Toxoplasma-seropositive donor to a Toxoplasma-seronegative recipient. This risk is high in cases of transplantation of organs that are recognized sites of encystation of the parasite, e.g. the heart, and is markedly lower in other SOT recipients. Clinical symptoms usually occur within the first 3 months after transplantation, sometimes as early as 2 weeks post transplant, and involve febrile myocarditis, encephalitis or pneumonitis. In HSCT recipients, the major risk of toxoplasmosis results from the reactivation of a pre-transplant latent infection in seropositive recipients. The median point of disease onset is estimated at 2 months post transplant, with <10% of cases occurring before 30 days and 15-20% later than day 100. Toxoplasmosis usually manifests as encephalitis or pneumonitis, and frequently disseminates with multiple organ involvement. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on the demonstration of parasites or parasitic DNA in blood, bone marrow, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or biopsy specimens, and serological tests do not often contribute to the diagnosis. For prevention of toxoplasmosis, serological screening of donors and recipients before transplantation allows the identification of patients at higher risk of toxoplasmosis, i.e. seropositive HSCT recipients and mismatched (seropositive donor/seronegative recipients) SOT recipients. Preventing toxoplasmosis disease in those patients presently relies on prophylaxis via prescription of co-trimoxazole. PMID:19018809

Derouin, F; Pelloux, H



Olive oil intake and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spanish cohort.  


Olive oil is well known for its cardioprotective properties; however, epidemiological data showing that olive oil consumption reduces incident CHD events are still limited. Therefore, we studied the association between olive oil and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort study. The analysis included 40 142 participants (38 % male), free of CHD events at baseline, recruited from five EPIC-Spain centres from 1992 to 1996 and followed up until 2004. Baseline dietary and lifestyle information was collected using interview-administered questionnaires. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the relationship between validated incident CHD events and olive oil intake (energy-adjusted quartiles and each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) increment), while adjusting for potential confounders. During a 10·4-year follow-up, 587 (79 % male) CHD events were recorded. Olive oil intake was negatively associated with CHD risk after excluding dietary mis-reporters (hazard ratio (HR) 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·00 for each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) and HR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·59, 1·03 for upper v. lower quartile). The inverse association between olive oil intake (per 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)) and CHD was more pronounced in never smokers (11 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·048)), in never/low alcohol drinkers (25 % reduced CHD risk (P < 0·001)) and in virgin olive oil consumers (14 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·072)). In conclusion, olive oil consumption was related to a reduced risk of incident CHD events. This emphasises the need to conserve the traditional culinary use of olive oil within the Mediterranean diet to reduce the CHD burden. PMID:23006416

Buckland, Genevieve; Travier, Noemie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Sánchez, María-José; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Huerta, José María; Navarro, Carmen; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrańaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos A



The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first prospective study of blood folate levels and gastric cancer. Gastric cancer cases (n=247) and controls (n=631) were matched for study center, age,

S. E. Vollset; J. Igland; M. Jenab; A. Fredriksen; K. Meyer; S. Eussen; H. K. Gjessing; P. M. Ueland; G. Pera; N. Sala; A. Agudo; G. Capella; G. Del Giudice; D. Palli; H. Boeing; C. Weikert; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; F. Carneiro; V. Pala; P. Vineis; R. Tumino; S. Panico; G. Berglund; J. Manjer; R. Stenling; G. Hallmans; C. Martinez; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; C. Navarro; J. R. Quiros; N. Allen; T. J. Key; S. Bingham; J. Linseisen; R. Kaaks; K. Overvad; A. Tjonneland; F. L. Buchner; P. H. M. Peeters; M. E. Numans; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M.-C. Boutron-Ruault; A. Trichopoulou; E. Lund; N. Slimani; P. Ferrari; E. Riboli; C. A. Gonzalez



Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners  


... are the symptoms of toxoplasmosis? Individuals with healthy immune systems: Most people who become infected with Toxoplasma do ... more. Rarely, eye disease occurs. Individuals with weakened immune systems: People with weakened immune systems may experience severe ...


Impact of the European Clinical Trials Directive on prospective academic clinical trials associated with BMT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Clinical Trials Directive (EU 2001; 2001\\/20\\/EC) was introduced to improve the efficiency of commercial and academic clinical trials. Concerns have been raised by interested organizations and institutions regarding the potential for negative impact of the Directive on non-commercial European clinical research. Interested researchers within the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) were surveyed to determine whether

L. J. Frewer; D. G. Coles; I A van der Lans; D. Schroeder; K. Champion; J. F. Apperley



Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and with complete information on diet, smoking, physical activity and body mass index, who were between 35 and 69 years old at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association of meat consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results As of June 2009, 26,344 deaths were observed. After multivariate adjustment, a high consumption of red meat was related to higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.28, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day), and the association was stronger for processed meat (HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.66, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day). After correction for measurement error, higher all-cause mortality remained significant only for processed meat (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25, per 50 g/d). We estimated that 3.3% (95% CI 1.5% to 5.0%) of deaths could be prevented if all participants had a processed meat consumption of less than 20 g/day. Significant associations with processed meat intake were observed for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and 'other causes of death'. The consumption of poultry was not related to all-cause mortality. Conclusions The results of our analysis support a moderate positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, in particular due to cardiovascular diseases, but also to cancer.



When quantity matters: Activity levels and re-election prospects of Members of the European Parliament  

Microsoft Academic Search

After each European election nearly half of the outgoing Members of the European Parliament re-enter the EP for an additional legislative term. Despite this being a persistent phenomenon, the reasons behind it are still unclear. In this paper I test the hypothesis that the work of an MEP in the EP affects their chances for re-election. I argue that there

Emmanuel Sigalas



Impact of the European Clinical Trials Directive on prospective academic clinical trials associated with BMT  

PubMed Central

The European Clinical Trials Directive (EU 2001; 2001/20/EC) was introduced to improve the efficiency of commercial and academic clinical trials. Concerns have been raised by interested organizations and institutions regarding the potential for negative impact of the Directive on non-commercial European clinical research. Interested researchers within the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) were surveyed to determine whether researcher experiences confirmed this view. Following a pilot study, an internet-based questionnaire was distributed to individuals in key research positions in the European haemopoietic SCT community. Seventy-one usable questionnaires were returned from participants in different EU member states. The results indicate that the perceived impact of the European Clinical Trials Directive has been negative, at least in the research areas of interest to the EBMT.

Frewer, L J; Coles, D; van der Lans, I A; Schroeder, D; Champion, K; Apperley, J F



Mediterranean Diet and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified subcohort of 15,798 participants selected from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED) (score range 0–18) was used to assess adherence to MDP on the basis of reported consumption of nine dietary components characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Cox proportional hazards regression, modified for the case-cohort design, was used to estimate the association between rMED and risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS The multiple adjusted hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes among individuals with medium (rMED 7–10 points) and high adherence to MDP (rMED 11–18 points) were 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.01) and 0.88 (0.79–0.97), respectively, compared with individuals with low adherence to MDP (0–6 points) (P for trend 0.013). The association between rMED and type 2 diabetes was attenuated in people <50 years of age, in obese participants, and when the alcohol, meat, and olive oil components were excluded from the score. CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective study, adherence to the MDP, as defined by rMED, was associated with a small reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in this European population.





... birds. But because it reproduces sexually only in cats, wild and domestic felines are the parasite's ultimate ... become infected if you: Come into contact with cat feces that contain the parasite. You may accidentally ...




... if they hunt animals or are fed raw meat. By eating raw or undercooked meat, especially pork, lamb or wild game. By touching ... has been in contact with raw or undercooked meat and then putting your hands in or near ...


Use of IgG Avidity test in case definitions of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.  


A survey network for congenital toxoplasmosis (TOXO-NET) was set up in December 1996 in Piedmont (Italy). Participants were asked to classify the infections in pregnant mothers and newborns by the criteria of the European Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis published by Lebech in 1996. Because the IgG Avidity test is largely employed as a 2nd level test in toxoplasmosis diagnosis and it could be helpful to date infection, the co-ordinators of TOXO-NET suggested including it in the "case definition" of "probable" infection and "unlikely" infection. 117 cases of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy divided into the risk categories under Lebech's criteria were re-examined using the "new" case definitions. 77 out of 117 (65.8%) Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy could be defined with only one serum sample using the IgG Avidity test. The IgG Avidity test proved a useful method to classify the Toxoplasma gondii infections in pregnancy, especially when we had only one serum sample. PMID:14964401

Zotti, C; Charrier, L; Giacomuzzi, M; Moiraghi Ruggenini, A; Mombrň, M; Fabris, C; Marocchetti, P; Alfieri, R; Leto, R; Renzi, N; Milano, R; Lievre, M A; Colozza, M; Zanella, D; Antona, G; Paschero, M C; Tosetti, F; Miglietti, D; Nicoletta, T; De Renzi, G; Tinivella, F; Donati, M; Ferrini, A; Crotti, G; Coucourde, L; Guazzotti, G C; Gera, A; Malabaila, A; Di Natale, C; Rabozzi, M L; Ginardi, C; Bruzzone, T; Canepa, C; Fruttero, M; Mastracchio, G; Valle, S; Toppino, M; Forno, N; Bellingeri, P; Caraccio, W; Lazzara, C; Decaroli, V; Pedrazzi, E; Gomella, S



IgA antibody response during acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii specific IgA and IgM antibodies were quantitated by an antibody capture agglutination assay in 260 patients with acquired toxoplasmosis and from 94 fetuses suspected of congenital toxoplasmosis and 30 infected children. In acquired toxoplasmosis, IgA antibodies to T gondii were found in 95% of the cases. In congenital toxoplasmosis IgA antibodies were more frequently detected (75%) in cord

M H Bessičres; C Roques; A Berrebi; V Barre; M Cazaux; J P Séguéla



Labour migration and the single European market: a synthetic and prospective note.  


"The present paper is an attempt to analyse and forecast the following major issues relating to migration in Europe after 1992: (i) the evolution and structure of intra-European flows in the forthcoming single European market; (ii) the integration, after 1992, of established immigrant communities, including ethnic minorities and second generation groups; (iii) future immigration from non-EC member states.... The article explains that, in addition to policy-related mutations inherent in the completion of the internal market, other factors (demographic changes and insufficient enrolment of national graduate students in key disciplines) and issues (emergence of atypical groups such as second generation and Eastern European migrants), are due to generate new patterns and modified interests in European labour migration after 1992." PMID:12179887

Ardittis, S



[Toxoplasmosis encephalitis in patients with AIDS].  


Toxoplasmosis encephalitis developed in three male homosexuals with AIDS. Clinical symptoms of encephalitis began with a nonspecific organic mental syndrome. In two cases there developed late focal symptoms. There were light to moderately severe generalized EEG changes with additional focal signs. CSF findings and toxoplasmosis titres were not diagnostically altered. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple areas of decreased density in cortex and cerebellum. Administration of pyrimethamine and sulfamethoxydiazine to the three patients brought about clinical improvement within a few days and regression of abnormal CT changes within a few weeks of onset of treatment. One patient died after an encephalitis recurrence: autopsy demonstrated toxoplasma pseudocysts in immediate proximity to small necrotic foci in the brain. The possibility of toxoplasma encephalitis should be considered in AIDS patients who develop an organic mental syndrome. Often the diagnosis can only be made after response to a trial of toxoplasmosis treatment. PMID:3967592

Enzensberger, W; Helm, E B; Hopp, G; Stille, W; Fischer, P A



Diet in the Aetiology of Ulcerative Colitis: A European Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake of nutrients and the development of ulcerative colitis in a cohort study. Methods: The study population was

Andrew R. Hart; Robert Luben; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjonneland; Jakob Linseisen; Gabriele Nagel; Göran Berglund; Stefan Lindgren; Olof Grip; Timothy Key; Paul Appleby; Manuela M. Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Göran Hallmans; Ĺke Danielsson; Richard Palmqvist; Hubert Sjodin; Gun Hägglund; Kim Overvad; Domenico Palli; Giovanna Masala; Elio Riboli; Hugh Kennedy; Ailsa Welch; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nicholas Day; Sheila Bingham



Limits to CBA in UK and European environmental policy: retrospects and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the contemporary debate and the now long standing role of CBA in UK and European environmental policy appraisal\\u000a (EPA) and looks forward to possible future applications. The position taken is that despite its limitations CBA still has\\u000a an important part to play in EPA. However, with the increasingly ‘contested’ nature of environmental and related public policies\\u000a and

R. Kerry Turner



The diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is a common cause of infection in humans the world over. Toxoplasmosis, the disease caused byToxoplasma gondii, is observed in only a small portion of those infected. The most serious consequences of the infection are seen in the offspring of women who acquire the infection during pregnancy and in immunodeficient patients. Methods of diagnosis, their interpretation, treatment regimens,

R. E. McCabe; J. S. Remington



Serodiagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in macropods.  


The sera of 34 Australian macropods, the brains of which had been bioassayed for Toxoplasma gondii, were used to establish that a titre greater than 1/32 was significant for a direct agglutination test against toxoplasmosis. In addition, the concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol required to destroy the IgM fraction of macropod serum was confirmed in a modified direct agglutination test. To further validate the tests, the serological responses of three eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) dosed orally with T. gondii oocysts and one M. giganteus injected with T. gondii cysts were studied. The tests were then used to investigate a diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in four Tasmanian pademelons (Thylogale billardierii) clinically suspected of acquiring toxoplasmosis naturally. One hundred and fifty-one Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus) and 85 T. billardierii were also tested to determine the prevalence of acute toxoplasmosis of macropods in the wild. Four percent of M. r. rufogriseus and 1.2% of T. billardierii possessed T. gondii-specific IgM in their sera. PMID:2588468

Johnson, A M; Roberts, H; Statham, P; Munday, B L



Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  


Evidence from case-control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89-1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:21479828

Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Agudo, Antonio; Gram, Inger Torhild; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjřnneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-Maria; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, María-José; Rasmuson, Torgny; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Katsoulis, Michael; Oikonomou, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peeters, Petra H M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Brennan, Paul; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Xun, Wei W; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio



Meat and fish consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  


Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide with large geographical variation, which implies the contribution of diet and lifestyle in its etiology. We examined the association of meat and fish consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 477,202 EPIC participants from 10 European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were included in our analysis. Until 2008, 865 nonendocrine pancreatic cancer cases have been observed. Calibrated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox hazard regression models. The consumption of red meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.93-1.14) and processed meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.71-1.23) were not associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk. Poultry consumption tended to be associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84); however, there was no association with fish consumption (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.92-1.62). Our results do not support the conclusion of the World Cancer Research Fund that red or processed meat consumption may possibly increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The positive association of poultry consumption with pancreatic cancer might be a chance finding as it contradicts most previous findings. PMID:22610753

Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Nöthlings, Ute; Overvad, Kim; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjřnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cottet, Vanessa; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Grote, Verena; Teucher, Birigit; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Crowe, Francesca L; Goufa, Ioulia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Brustad, Magritt; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Duell, Eric J; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Rodríguez, Laudina; Tormo, María-José; Sund, Malin; Ye, Weimin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas



Comparison of standardised dietary folate intake across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  


Folate plays an important role in the synthesis and methylation of DNA as a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. Inadequate folate intake has been linked to adverse health events. However, comparable information on dietary folate intake across European countries has never been reported. The objective of the present study was to describe the dietary folate intake and its food sources in ten countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 36 034 participants (aged 35-74 years) who completed a single 24 h dietary recall using a computerised interview software program, EPIC-Soft® (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon). Dietary folate intake was estimated using the standardised EPIC Nutrient DataBase, adjusted for age, energy intake, weight and height and weighted by season and day of recall. Adjusted mean dietary folate intake in most centres ranged from 250 to 350 ?g/d in men and 200 to 300 ?g/d in women. Folate intake tended to be lower among current smokers and heavier alcohol drinkers and to increase with educational level, especially in women. Supplement users (any types) were likely to report higher dietary folate intake in most centres. Vegetables, cereals and fruits, nuts and seeds were the main contributors to folate intake. Nonetheless, the type and pattern of consumption of these main food items varied across the centres. These first comparisons of standardised dietary folate intakes across different European populations show moderate regional differences (except the UK health conscious group), and variation by sex, educational level, smoking and alcohol-drinking status, and supplement use. PMID:22040523

Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Genevieve; Freisling, Heinz; Biessy, Carine; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Chajčs, Véronique; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ericson, Ulrika; Wallström, Peter; Ros, Martine M; Peeters, Petra H M; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; María Huerta, José; Amiano, Pilar; Halkjćr, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Teucher, Birgit; Feller, Silke; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Vineis, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia



Dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  


Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 yr, 7760 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified among 319,985 women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of vitamin D intake, HR and 95% CI were 1.07 (0.87-1.32) and 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. The corresponding HR and 95% CIs for calcium intake were 0.98 (0.80-1.19) and 0.90 (0.79-1.02), respectively. For calcium intake in postmenopausal women, the test for trend was borderline statistically significant (P(trend) = 0.05). There was no significant interaction between vitamin D and calcium intake and cancer risk (P(interaction) = 0.57 and 0.22 in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). In this large prospective cohort, we found no evidence for an association between dietary vitamin D or calcium intake and breast cancer risk. PMID:23441605

Abbas, Sascha; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Peeters, Petra H; Engel, Pierre; Brustad, Magritt; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Tjřnneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Adarakis, George; Ouranos, Vassilis; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Buckland, Genevieve; Suárez, Marcial Vicente Argüelles; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Lenner, Per; Sund, Malin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Wark, Petra A; Riboli, Elio



The role of metabolic carcinogenesis in cancer causation and prevention: evidence from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.  


The theory that nutrition might be involved in the causation and prevention of cancer arose over 100 years ago from laboratory studies of the effect of diet on tumour growth. During the mid-20th century, the major focus of cancer epidemiology was on the role of tobacco and alcohol. It was not until the early 1980s, following a seminal report from Doll and Peto on cancer causes, that major research programmes on nutrition and cancer were instigated. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was established at IARC-WHO as a large prospective cohort study designed specifically to investigate the relationship of diet, nutritional factors, anthropometry and physical activity with cancer risk. Since the early 1990s, EPIC has made a major contribution to understanding the effect of these factors on population risk of cancer. This chapter summarises the development of the field of nutritional cancer epidemiology, and describes how the EPIC study was designed to investigate cancer and nutrition. Key findings from EPIC in the role of nutrition and metabolic factors and cancer are highlighted. PMID:24114471

Riboli, Elio



Anthropometric characteristics and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma is increasing steadily. It has been hypothesized that this may be due, in part, to the parallel rising prevalence of obesity. It is biologically plausible that anthropometric characteristics can infuence the risk of non- Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Design and Methods In the contest of the European Prospective Investigation into

Julie A. Britton; Aneire E. Khan; Sabine Rohrmann; Nikolaus Becker; Jakob Linseisen; Alexandra Nieters; Rudolf Kaaks; Anne Tjřnneland; Jytte Halkjćr; Marianne Tang Severinsen; Kim Overvad; Tobias Pischon; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; Victoria Kalapothaki; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Amalia Mattiello; Giovanna Tagliabue; Carlotta Sacerdote; Petra H. M. Peeters; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Eva Ardanaz; Carmen Navarro; Paula Jakszyn; Jone M. Altzibar; Göran Hallmans; Beatrice Malmer; Göran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Naomi Allen; Sheila Bingham; Hervé Besson; Pietro Ferrari; Mazda Jenab; Paolo Boffetta; Paolo Vineis; Elio Riboli


The actual development of European aviation safety requirements in aviation medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.  


Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Aviation Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them. PMID:19561781

Siedenburg, J



Ocular Sequelae of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Brazil Compared with Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis appears to be more severe in Brazil, where it is a leading cause of blindness, than in Europe, but direct comparisons are lacking. Evidence is accumulating that more virulent genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii predominate in South America. Methods We compared prospective cohorts of children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by universal neonatal screening in Brazil and neonatal or prenatal screening in Europe between 1992 and 2003, using the same protocol in both continents. Results Three hundred and eleven (311) children had congenital toxoplasmosis: 30 in Brazil and 281 in Europe, where 71 were identified by neonatal screening. Median follow up was 4.1 years in Europe and 3.7 years in Brazil. Relatively more children had retinochoroiditis during the first year in Brazil than in Europe (15/30; 50% versus 29/281; 10%) and the risk of lesions by 4 years of age was much higher: the hazard ratio for Brazil versus Europe was 5.36 (95%CI: 3.17, 9.08). Children in Brazil had larger lesions, which were more likely to be multiple and to affect the posterior pole (p<0.0001). In Brazil, visual impairment (<6/12 Snellen) was predicted for most affected eyes (87%, 27/31), but not in Europe (29%; 20/69, p<0.0001). The size of newly detected lesions decreased with age (p?=?0.0007). Conclusions T. gondii causes more severe ocular disease in congenitally infected children in Brazil compared with Europe. The marked differences in the frequency, size and multiplicity of retinochoroidal lesions may be due to infection with more virulent genotypes of the parasite that predominate in Brazil but are rarely found in Europe.

Gilbert, Ruth E.; Freeman, Katherine; Lago, Eleonor G.; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M. G.; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Buffolano, Wilma; Stanford, Miles R.; Petersen, Eskild



Results of a Peripheral Cutting Balloon Prospective Multicenter European Registry in Hemodialysis Vascular Access  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To report initial experience with the Peripheral Cutting Balloon (PCB) in treatment of failing hemodialysis shunts. Methods. A total of 190 patients (95 men, 95 women; average age 64.4 {+-} 11.9 years, range 32-87 years) who were treated with the PCB for pressure-resistant stenosis, restenosis or failed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the venous limb of an arteriovenous shunt were followed in seven European centers using a simple registry. The group consisted of 109 de novo lesions (57%) and 79 restenotic lesions (43%). Results. Technical success was achieved in 88.9% of cases. Primary patency was as follows (the results for whole group and simultaneous results for de novo lesions and restenoses are presented): 1 month (140 patients followed): 94%, 98%, and 93%; 3 months (116 patients followed): 93%, 98%, and 92%; 6 months (40 patients followed): 85%, 92%, and 79%; 12 months (27 patients followed): 74%, 87%, and 48%. No complication occurred. Patients experienced an equal or lower level of pain during the procedure compared with conventional PTA. Conclusion. The PCB proved to be successful in dilating pressure-resistant stenoses. We cannot conclude whether PCB angioplasty can lower the restenosis rate in hemodialysis access lesions, but the long-term patency for de novo lesions is high. A further randomized study is advisable.

Peregrin, Jan H., E-mail:; Rocek, Miloslav [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)



Dietary factors and in situ and invasive cervical cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.  


Some dietary factors could be involved as cofactors in cervical carcinogenesis, but evidence is inconclusive. There are no data about the effect of fruits and vegetables intake (F&V) on cervical cancer from cohort studies. We examined the association between the intake of F&V and selected nutrients and the incidence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive squamous cervical cancer (ISC) in a prospective study of 299,649 women, participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A calibration study was used to control measurement errors in the dietary questionnaire. After a mean of 9 years of follow-up, 253 ISC and 817 CIS cases were diagnosed. In the calibrated model, we observed a statistically significant inverse association of ISC with a daily increase in intake of 100 g of total fruits (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) and a statistically nonsignificant inverse association with a daily increase in intake of 100 g of total vegetables (HR 0.85: 95% CI 0.65-1.10). Statistically nonsignificant inverse associations were also observed for leafy vegetables, root vegetables, garlic and onions, citrus fruits, vitamin C, vitamin E and retinol for ISC. No association was found regarding beta-carotene, vitamin D and folic acid for ISC. None of the dietary factors examined was associated with CIS. Our study suggests a possible protective role of fruit intake and other dietary factors on ISC that need to be confirmed on a larger number of ISC cases. PMID:20853322

González, Carlos A; Travier, Noemie; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Castellsagué, Xavier; Bosch, F Xavier; Roura, Esther; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Pala, Valeria; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Manjer, Jonas; Dillner, Joakim; Hallmans, Göran; Kjellberg, Lennart; Sanchez, María-José; Altzibar, Jone M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjřnneland, Anne; Munk, Christian; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Peeters, Petra H M; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Naska, Androniki; Lund, Eiliv; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Franceschi, Silvia; Slimani, Nadia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Riboli, Elio



Leptin and soluble leptin receptor in risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.  


Leptin, a peptide hormone produced primarily by the adipocytes, is hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) may regulate leptin's physiologic functions; however its relation to CRC risk is unknown. This study explored the association of leptin and sOB-R with risk of CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 1,129 incident CRC cases (713 colon, 416 rectal) were matched within risk sets to 1,129 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). After multivariable adjustment including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and baseline leptin concentrations, sOB-R was strongly inversely associated with CRC (RR comparing the highest quintile vs. the lowest, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.40-0.76; P(trend) = 0.0004) and colon cancer (RR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.28-0.63, P(trend) = 0.0001); whereas no association was seen for rectal cancer (RR adjusted for BMI and waist circumference, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.48-1.44, P(trend) = 0.38). In contrast, leptin was not associated with risk of CRC (RR adjusted for BMI and waist circumference, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.56-1.29, P(trend) = 0.23). Additional adjustments for circulating metabolic biomarkers did not attenuate these results. These novel findings suggest a strong inverse association between circulating sOB-R and CRC risk, independent of obesity measures, leptin concentrations, and other metabolic biomarkers. Further research is needed to confirm the potentially important role of sOB-R in CRC pathogenesis. PMID:22926557

Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Rinaldi, Sabina; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J; Westphal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Halkjćr, Jytte; Racine, Antoine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Buckland, Genevieve; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Menéndez, Virginia; Peeters, Petra H; Söderberg, Stefan; Palmqvist, Richard; Allen, Naomi E; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nickolas; Pischon, Tobias



Life Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prospective association between life satisfaction and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Previous studies suggested that psychosocial factors may affect the development of chronic diseases but the impact of positive attitudes, in particular life satisfaction, is yet to be determined. Methods The analysis included 50,358 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study in Potsdam and Heidelberg. Life satisfaction was assessed in a baseline interview and incident cases of chronic diseases were identified and verified during follow-up. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models that were systematically multivariable-adjusted for established risk factors and prevalent diseases. Results During an average of 8 years of follow-up 2,293 cases of cancer, 1,840 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 440 cases of stroke, and 562 cases of myocardial infarction were observed. Women who were unsatisfied with life at baseline showed in all models a significantly increased risk of cancer (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18-1.78) and stroke (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.05-2.73) as well as an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus by trend across categories (p-trend=0.04) compared to women very satisfied with life. In men, a relationship between life satisfaction and stroke was found but did not persist after consideration of lifestyle factors and prevalent diseases. No significant association was observed between life satisfaction and risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that reduced life satisfaction is related to the development of chronic diseases—particularly in women and partly mediated by established risk factors.

Feller, Silke; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus



[Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Niamey, Niger].  


A seroepidemiological survey of toxoplasmosis was carried out in Niamey, Niger, in 1992. Three hundred and seventy-one sera from 200 females and 171 males were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay for IgG. Using a cut-off value of 12 UI, 67 sera (18%) were positive. In this group detection of specific IgM by ELISA with immunocapture revealed 8 positive sera (11.9%). Seroprevalence of specific IgG was not correlated with ethnic origin or sex but did increase with age from 6.9% in subjects under 5 years to 34.9% in subjects 50 years and over. These findings are comparable with those from previous studies in similar climates and confirm that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis is higher in humid coastal regions than dry desert areas. PMID:8767792

Julvez, J; Magnaval, J F; Meynard, D; Perie, C; Baixench, M T



Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Combined with Disseminated Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old man presented with mental change, fever, abdominal pain, tenderness and palpable mass on the lower abdomen. He was a non-Korean engineer and did not accompany a legal guardian, so medical history taking was difficult due to his mental status. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple rim-enhanced lesions of the brain, and abdominal computed tomography showed huge paraspinal abscess. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed poorly defined nodular opacities. We initially thought that this patient was infected with toxoplasmosis with typical cerebral image finding and immunoglobulin laboratory finding of cerebrospinal fluid and serum study. The abdominal abscess was confirmed as tuberculosis through the pathologic finding of caseous necrosis. We used anti-tuberculosis medication and anti-toxoplasmosis medication for almost 4 months, and then his clinical state and radiological findings were considerably improved.

Ahn, Poong Gi; Lee, Dong Min; Kim, Hyeok Su



Systemic toxoplasmosis in captive flying-foxes.  


Systemic toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii was diagnosed in two juvenile, captive flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus and P. scapulatus), which died following respiratory distress. One animal displayed clinical signs suggestive of neurological disease. This is the first report of this disease in megachiropteran bats and adds to the list of differential diagnoses for both systemic and neurological disease in these animals. The role of captivity in the exposure and development of the disease is discussed. PMID:22443329

Sangster, C R; Gordon, A N; Hayes, D



Meat and heme iron intake and esophageal adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.  


Although recent studies suggest that high intakes of meat and heme iron are risk factors for several types of cancer, studies in relation to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are scarce. Previous results in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) based on a relatively small number of cases suggested a positive association between processed meat and EAC. In this study, we investigate the association between intake of different types of meats and heme iron intake and EAC risk in a larger number of cases from EPIC. The study included 481,419 individuals and 137 incident cases of EAC that occurred during an average of 11 years of follow-up. Dietary intake of meat (unprocessed/processed red and white meat) was assessed by validated center-specific questionnaires. Heme iron was calculated as a type-specific percentage of the total iron content in meat. After adjusting for relevant confounders, we observed a statistically significant positive association of EAC risk with heme iron and processed meat intake, with HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68 and HR: 2.27, 95% CI:1.33-3.89, respectively, for comparison of the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake. Our results suggest a potential association between higher intakes of processed meat and heme iron and risk of EAC. PMID:23728954

Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Agudo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Molina, Esther; Sánchez, M José; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Siersema, Peter D; Matiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Saieva, Calogero; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadie; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Riboli, Elio; Murphy, Neil; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Oikonomidou, Edespina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Mattias; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Freisling, Heinz; Barricarte, Aurelio; M Huerta, Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Kuehn, Tilman; Grote, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Peeters, Petra Hm; A González, Carlos



Phytoestrogen Exposure Correlation with Plasma Estradiol in Postmenopausal Women in European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk May Involve Diet-Gene Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional studies investigating the relationship be- tween phytoestrogens in diet, urine, or blood with plasma estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) have been inconclusive. We investigated the relationship among phytoestrogen exposure, polymorphisms in the ESR1, COMT, CYP19, and SHBG genes, and plasma estradiol and SHBG levels in 125 free-living postmenopausal women taking part in a cohort study (European Prospective

Yen-Ling Low; James I. Taylor; Philip B. Grace; Mitch Dowsett; Serena Scollen; Alison M. Dunning; Angela A. Mulligan; Ailsa A. Welch; Robert N. Luben; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nick E. Day; Nick J. Wareham; Sheila A. Bingham


The Reciprocal Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depression in Older European Adults: A Prospective Cross-Lagged Panel Design Using SHARE Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the reciprocal nature of the physical activity-depressive symptoms relationship in 17,593 older adults from 11 European countries older adults (M age = 64.07, SD = 9.58) across two-year follow-up. Also, gender and age were examined as potential moderators of this relation. Method: A two-wave cross-lagged panel design and latent change

Magnus Lindwall; Pernilla Larsman; Martin S. Hagger



Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g\\/day) of total, animal and

J Halkjćr; A Olsen; L J Bjerregaard; G Deharveng; A Tjřnneland; A A Welch; F L Crowe; E Wirfält; V Hellstrom; M Niravong; M Touvier; J Linseisen; A Steffen; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M D Chirlaque; N Larrańaga; P Ferrari; P Contiero; G Frasca; D Engeset; E Lund; G Misirli; M Kosti; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham



Dietary ?-carotene, vitamin C and E intake and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, studies on dietary antioxidant intake, including ?-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E, and breast cancer risk are inconclusive.\\u000a Thus, we addressed this question in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a median follow-up\\u000a time of 8.8 years, 7,502 primary invasive breast cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models were used to\\u000a estimate hazard ratios (HR)

G. Nagel; J. Linseisen; C. H. van Gils; P. H. Peeters; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; F. Clavel-Chapelon; I. Romieu; A. Tjřnneland; A. Olsen; N. Roswall; P. M. Witt; K. Overvad; S. Rohrmann; R. Kaaks; D. Drogan; H. Boeing; A. Trichopoulou; V. Stratigakou; D. Zylis; D. Engeset; E. Lund; G. Skeie; F. Berrino; S. Grioni; A. Mattiello; G. Masala; R. Tumino; R. Zanetti; M. M. Ros; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; E. Ardanaz; M. J. Sánchez; J. M. Huerta; P. Amiano; L. Rodríguez; J. Manjer; E. Wirfält; P. Lenner; G. Hallmans; E. A. Spencer; T. J. Key; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; S. Rinaldi; N. Slimani; P. Boffetta; V. Gallo; T. Norat; E. Riboli



Endogenous versus exogenous exposure to N-nitroso compounds and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of gastric cancer (GC) associated with dietary intake of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and endogenous formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs) was investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The study included 521,457 individuals and 314 incident cases of GC that had occurred after 6.6 average years of follow-up. An index of endogenous NOC (ENOC) formation was

Paula Jakszyn; Sheila A Bingham; Guillem Pera; Antonio Agudo; Robert Luben; Ailsa Welch; Heiner Boeing; Giuseppe del Giudice; Domenico Palli; Calogero Saieva; Vittorio Krogh; Carlotta Sacerdote; Rosario Tumino; Salvatore Panico; Göran Berglund; Henrik Simán; Göran Hallmans; María José Sanchez; Nerea Larrańaga; Aurelio Barricarte; María-Dolores Chirlaque; José Ramón Quirós; Timothy J Key; Naomi E Allen; Eiliv Lund; Fátima Carneiro; Jakob Linseisen; Gabriele Nagel; Kim Overvad; Anne Tjřnneland; Anja Olsen; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Marga C Ocké; Petra H M Peeters; Mattijs E Numans; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Antonia Trichopoulou; Claus Fenger; Roger Stenling; Pietro Ferrari; Mazda Jenab; Teresa Norat; Elio Riboli; Carlos Alberto González



Ocular toxoplasmosis I: parasitology, epidemiology and public health.  


Ocular toxoplasmosis results from retinal infection with the protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite, which exists as multiple clonal subpopulations and in three stages, is capable of replication in any nucleated cell of its primary feline or multiple paratenic hosts. Human seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis is high across the globe, but with geographic variation. While prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis is not well documented, toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is the commonest form of posterior uveitis in many countries. Correlation of parasite genotype with disease is an important area of new research. Ocular infection with T. gondii often follows ingestion of bradyzoites in undercooked infected meat. Oocysts may survive for an extended period in the environment, and water contaminated with oocysts is an important source in toxoplasmosis epidemics. Ocular toxoplasmosis is preventable by a combination of community activities and personal measures. Public health action is well justified by the considerable burden of congenital and postnatal infections. PMID:22594908

Furtado, Joăo M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Butler, Nicholas J; Smith, Justine R



Genetic Variability of the mTOR Pathway and Prostate Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)  

PubMed Central

The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway integrates various signals, regulating ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis as a function of available energy and amino acids, and assuring an appropriate coupling of cellular proliferation with increases in cell size. In addition, recent evidence has pointed to an interplay between the mTOR and p53 pathways. We investigated the genetic variability of 67 key genes in the mTOR pathway and in genes of the p53 pathway which interact with mTOR. We tested the association of 1,084 tagging SNPs with prostate cancer risk in a study of 815 prostate cancer cases and 1,266 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We chose the SNPs (n?=?11) with the strongest association with risk (p<0.01) and sought to replicate their association in an additional series of 838 prostate cancer cases and 943 controls from EPIC. In the joint analysis of first and second phase two SNPs of the PRKCI gene showed an association with risk of prostate cancer (ORallele?=?0.85, 95% CI 0.78–0.94, p?=?1.3×10?3 for rs546950 and ORallele?=?0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.93, p?=?5.6×10?4 for rs4955720). We confirmed this in a meta-analysis using as replication set the data from the second phase of our study jointly with the first phase of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project. In conclusion, we found an association with prostate cancer risk for two SNPs belonging to PRKCI, a gene which is frequently overexpressed in various neoplasms, including prostate cancer.

Campa, Daniele; Husing, Anika; Stein, Angelika; Dostal, Lucie; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Tj?nneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; ?stergaard, Jane Nautrup; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sala, Nuria; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Huerta, Jose Maria; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; van Kranen, Henk; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Hallmans, Goran; Johansson, Mattias; Romieu, Isabelle; Jenab, Mazda; Cox, David G.; Siddiq, Afshan; Riboli, Elio; Canzian, Federico; Kaaks, Rudolf



Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.  


Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI = 1.03-1.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.16-2.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.27-2.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:23389292

Agudo, Antonio; Bonet, Catalina; Sala, Núria; Muńoz, Xavier; Aranda, Núria; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Grioni, Sara; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Allen, Naomi E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Numans, Mattijs E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudof; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Meidtner, Karina; Johansson, Mattias; Sund, Malin; Manjer, Jonas; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A; Jakszyn, Paula



Serum androgens and prostate cancer among 643 cases and 643 controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  


We examined the hypothesis that serum concentrations of circulating androgens and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) are associated with risk for prostate cancer in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, androstanediol glucuronide and SHBG were measured in serum samples for 643 prostate cancer cases and 643 matched control participants, and concentrations of free testosterone were calculated. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for risk of prostate cancer in relation to the serum concentration of each hormone. After adjustment for potential confounders, there was no significant association with overall risk for prostate cancer for serum total or free testosterone concentrations (highest versus the lowest thirds: OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.73-1.41 and OR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.74-1.55, respectively) or for other androgens or SHBG. Subgroup analyses showed significant heterogeneity for androstenedione by cancer stage, with a significant inverse association of androstenedione concentration and risk for advanced prostate cancer. There were also weak positive associations between free testosterone concentration and risk for total prostate cancer among younger men and risk for high-grade disease. In summary, in this large nested case-control study, concentrations of circulating androgens or SHBG were not strongly associated with risk for total prostate cancer. However, our findings are compatible with a positive association of free testosterone with risk in younger men and possible heterogeneity in the association with androstenedione concentration by stage of disease; these findings warrant further investigation. PMID:17514649

Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Roddam, Andrew W; Rinaldi, Sabina; Egevad, Lars; Gann, Peter H; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner; Johnsen, Nina Fřns; Tjřnneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tumino, Rosario; Sieri, Sabina; Vineis, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Quirós, José Ramón; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Larrańaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos; Sanchez, Maria-José; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bikou, Chrysa; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Stattin, Pär; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf



[Preparation of the Eighth Framework Programme of the European Union--Health Priority. European Commission organizes proposal of aims in biomedical research prospecting to 2020].  


Eighth framework programme (FP8) of the European Union for years 2014-2020 undergoes the preparatory process. The overview presents current status of the programme preparation. European Commission organized three workshops (-omics in personalised medicine, 4D biology for health and disease, and Stratification biomarkers in personalised medicine) with the purpose to bring together experts from different fields to build a 2020 vision, and to identify the research needs for next years. PMID:22132619

Kinkorová, Judita



The antibody response in experimental ocular toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The dynamics of the humoral immune response in ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) are poorly understood. We therefore investigated\\u000a this process in a rabbit model of the disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Of 24 infection-naďve adult rabbits, 12 were left untreated and 12 were systematically infected with 5,000 tachyzoites of\\u000a the non-cyst-forming BK strain of Toxoplasma gondii. Three months later, all rabbits were inoculated

Justus G. Garweg; Matthias Boehnke



Transmission of toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii) by foods.  


Protozoan foodborne diseases are generally underrecognized. Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, one of the most prevalent parasitic infections to humans and domestic animals. The most likely source of T. gondii occurring through food is the consumption of raw or undercooked meat contaminated with tissue cysts. Sporulated T. gondii oocysts, from the feces of infected cats, present in the environment are a potential source of infection. The ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts and the eating of unwashed raw vegetables or fruits were identified as an important risk factor in most epidemiological studies. This review presents information and data to show the importance of T. gondii transmission by foods. PMID:20691951

Pereira, Karen Signori; Franco, Regina M B; Leal, Diego A G



Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)(N = 520,000). We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results The proportion of lung cancers in never- and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5–7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related) particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10–20 ug/m3, whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher). Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m3 would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented, and our estimate of 5–7% is likely to be an underestimate. Overall, our prospective study draws attention to the need for strict legislation concerning the quality of air in Europe.

Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Veglia, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Luisa; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Lund E, Eiliv; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Cirera, Lluis; Quiros, J Ramon; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Forsberg, Bertil; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Tim J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Saracci, Rodolfo; Riboli, Elio



[Neonatal cholestasis due to congenital toxoplasmosis. Case report].  


Neonatal cholestasis is the manifestation of many different diseases. Its early etiological diagnosis is crucial, since treatment before 60 days of life changes the prognosis in children with biliary atresia. Congenital toxoplasmosis can be asymptomatic in the newborn, or have mainly neurological, ophthalmological or gastrointestinal symptoms (hepatomegaly, cholestatic jaundice). Neonatal cholestasis secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis is not a situation frequently reported. We report the case of an infant with neonatal cholestasis due to a congenital toxoplasmosis, in order to discuss the difficulties in establishing the etiological diagnostic and to review the indications of invasive studies such as liver biopsy in these situations. PMID:23912297

Robino, Luciana; Machado, Karina; Montano, Alicia


Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Crete.  


In Greece there are no official recommendations concerning the management of pregnant women for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. A protocol for monitoring pregnant women was designed in order to differentiate between acute and latent toxoplasmosis and was tested successfully for 7 years. The maternofetal transmission rate in Crete was assessed and a map showing seroprevalence of pregnant women in all prefectures of Greece was prepared. The high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Greece (up to 46% in some areas) may be explained by: (a) the presence of a great number of stray cats; (b) the Greek diet consisting of large amounts of raw, wild vegetables and salads that could easily be contaminated with oocysts; (c) the high consumption of meat, smoked pork and sausages, well-documented sources of T. gondii infection. T. gondii genotypes were characterized, directly from clinical samples, after PCR-RFLP on the SAG2 gene and sequence analysis at the restriction sites. They belonged to all 3 clonal lineages. PMID:18689233

Antoniou, M; Tzouvali, H; Sifakis, S; Galanakis, E; Georgopoulou, E; Tselentis, Y



Modeling seismic wave propagation across the European plate: structural models and numerical techniques, state-of-the-art and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Together with the building and maintenance of observational and data banking infrastructures - i.e. an integrated organization of coordinated sensor networks, in conjunction with connected data banks and efficient data retrieval tools - a strategic vision for bolstering the future development of geophysics in Europe should also address the essential issue of improving our current ability to model coherently the propagation of seismic waves across the European plate. This impacts on fundamental matters, such as correctly locating earthquakes, imaging detailed earthquake source properties, modeling ground shaking, inferring geodynamic processes. To this extent, we both need detailed imaging of shallow and deep earth structure, and accurate modeling of seismic waves by numerical methods. Our current abilities appear somewhat limited, but emerging technologies may enable soon a significant leap towards better accuracy and reliability. To contribute to this debate, we present here the state-of-the-art of knowledge of earth structure and numerical wave modeling in the European plate, as the result of a comprehensive study towards the definition of a continental-scale reference model. Our model includes a description of crustal structure (EPcrust) merging information deriving from previous studies - large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness, density, and seismic parameters. This a priori crustal model improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies beneath the Alpine mobile belt, and fast lithospheric signatures under the two main Mediterranean subduction systems (Aegean and Tyrrhenian). We validate this new model through comparison of recorded seismograms with simulations based on numerical codes (SPECFEM3D). To ease and increase model usage, we also propose the adoption of a common exchange format for tomographic earth models based on JSON, a lightweight data-interchange format supported by most high-level programming languages, and provide tools for manipulating and visualising models, described in this standard format, in Google Earth and GEON IDV. In the next decade seismologists will be able to reap new possibilities offered by exciting progress in general computing power and algorithmic development in computational seismology. Structural models, still based on classical approaches and modeling just few parameters in each seismogram, will benefit from emerging techniques - such as full waveform fitting and fully nonlinear inversion - that are now just showing their potential. This will require extensive availability of supercomputing resources to earth scientists in Europe, as a tool to match the planned new massive data flow. We need to make sure that the whole apparatus, needed to fully exploit new data, will be widely accessible. To maximize the development, so as for instance to enable us to promptly model ground shaking after a major earthquake, we will also need a better coordination framework, that will enable us to share and amalgamate the abundant local information on earth structure - most often available but difficult to retrieve, merge and use. Comprehensive knowledge of earth structure and of best practices to model wave propagation can by all means be considered an enabling technology for further geophysical progress.

Morelli, Andrea; Danecek, Peter; Molinari, Irene; Postpischl, Luca; Schivardi, Renata; Serretti, Paola; Tondi, Maria Rosaria



Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study  

PubMed Central

Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA) formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1) and a follow-up (visit 2) at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years) participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate) on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85%) were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P < .001) to 2.1 at visit 2. On the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, 88% and 76% of the treatments were rated very much improved or much improved by physicians and patients, respectively. Of the physicians, 95.6% rated this HA filler as very or fairly easy to use. Similarly, 92% of patients were very likely or quite likely to return for treatment; nearly all (98%) would recommend this treatment to friends. Transient (mean duration: 5.5 days) injection-site adverse events (AEs) occurred in 24 patients. Bruising was the most common AE. Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

Hoffmann, Klaus



Anthropometry, physical activity, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.  


Tobacco smoking is the only established risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Results from several epidemiologic studies have suggested that increased body mass index and/or lack of physical activity may be associated with an increased risk of this disease. We examined the relationship between anthropometry and physical activity recorded at baseline and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (n = 438,405 males and females age 19-84 years and followed for a total of 2,826,070 person-years). Relative risks (RR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and country and adjusted for smoking and self-reported diabetes and, where appropriate, height. In total, there were 324 incident cases of pancreatic cancer diagnosed in the cohort over an average of 6 years of follow-up. There was evidence that the RR of pancreatic cancer was associated with increased height [RR, 1.74; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.20-2.52] for highest quartile compared with lowest quartile (P(trend) = 0.001). However, this trend was primarily due to a low risk in the lowest quartile, as when this group was excluded, the trend was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.27). A larger waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference were both associated with an increased risk of developing the disease (RR per 0.1, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.48; P(trend) = 0.02 and RR per 10 cm, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P(trend) = 0.03, respectively). There was a nonsignificant increased risk of pancreatic cancer with increasing body mass index (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.95-1.24 per 5 kg/m(2)), and a nonsignificant decreased risk with total physical activity (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.50-1.35 for most active versus inactive). Future studies should consider including measurements of waist and hip circumference, to further investigate the relationship between central adiposity and the risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:16702364

Berrington de González, Amy; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Roddam, Andrew; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachel; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjřnneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Papadimitriou, Aristoteles; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Ocke, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Larrańaga, Nerea; Martinez-Garcia, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle; Navarro, Carmen; Quirós, J Ramón; Tormo, María-José; Hallmans, Göran; Ye, Weimin; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim J; Jenab, Mazda; Norat, Teresa; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio



Difficulties with anonymous shortlisting of medical school applications and its effects on candidates with non-European names: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility of anonymous shortlisting of applications for medical school and its effect on those with non-European names. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Leeds school of medicine, United Kingdom. Subjects 2047 applications for 1998 entry from the United Kingdom and the European Union. Intervention Deletion of all references to name and nationality from the application form. Main outcome measures Scoring by two admissions tutors at shortlisting. Results Deleting names was cumbersome as some were repeated up to 15 times. Anonymising application forms was ineffective as one admissions tutor was able to identify nearly 50% of candidates classed as being from an ethnic minority group. Although scores were lower for applicants with non-European names, anonymity did not improve scores. Applicants with non-European names who were identified as such by tutors were significantly less likely to drop marks in one particular non-academic area (the career insight component) than their European counterparts. Conclusions There was no evidence of benefit to candidates with non-European names of attempting to blind assessment. Anonymising application forms cannot be recommended. Key messagesIt is cumbersome to anonymise the current Universities and Colleges Admissions Service form as a candidate's name may appear up to 15 timesAnonymised application forms may still be identified as being from candidates from ethnic minority groupsMore thorough anonymising of application forms, such as deletion of cultural activities, would edit out some personal attributes and may disadvantage these candidatesAnonymous assessment of applications cannot be recommended

Lumb, Andrew B; Vail, Andy



Association of a diabetes risk score with risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, specific types of cancer, and mortality: a prospective study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)Potsdam cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the impact of a recently developed, non-invasive risk score predictive for type 2 diabetes on the incidence and\\u000a mortality of cardiovascular diseases and specific types of cancer. A total of 23,455 participants from the population-based\\u000a European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Potsdam study aged 35–65 years and free of diabetes and\\u000a major chronic diseases at baseline (1994–1998) were

Christin Heidemann; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Ute Nöthlings; Hans-Georg Joost; Matthias B. Schulze



Toxoplasmosis in Bennett’s wallabies ( Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. In this study, an epizootic of toxoplasmosis among captive Bennett’s wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) from different locations is reported. By means of light microscopy, Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were observed associated to interstitial pneumonia, non-suppurative myocarditis, cholangiohepatitis and severe gastroenteritis. The protozoa stained positively with a T. gondii antibody and ultrastructurally were

R. Bermúdez; L. D. Faílde; A. P. Losada; J. M. Nieto; M. I. Quiroga



Equine recurrent uveitis and its relation to toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine recurrent uveitis (EUR) is an immunomediated syndrome that may be attributed to many different causes, such as toxoplasmosis.\\u000a For this reason and to determine whether toxoplasmosis has a role in the appearance of EUR in our area, this research was\\u000a carried out on 25 affected horses. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on serum samples twice with 2-month\\u000a interval

Gholam Ali Kojouri; Camellia Taghadosi



[Aspects of diagnostics and prevention of toxoplasmosis].  


The infection of humans with opportunistic protozoon Toxoplasma gondii is severe for immunocompromised individuals (AIDS patients, transplant recipients, fetuses). Because of the lack of protective vaccines, the rules of primary (avoidance) prevention have to be introduced. The principles of such prevention, particularly important for seronegative pregnant women, as well as new data on the possibility of T. gondii reinfection in seropositive humans and animals were presented in the article. The attention was also focused on laboratory diagnostics of toxoplasmosis, associated, among others, with prolonged persistence of specific IgM antibodies and delayed maturation of IgG antibodies. The psychic and physical consequences of chronic Toxoplasma gondii infections were mentioned (lowered IQ, schizophrenia etc.). PMID:16886555

D?ugo?ska, Henryka



Immune response and immunopathology during toxoplasmosis1  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of medical and veterinary significance that is able to infect any warm-blooded vertebrate host. In addition to its importance to public health, several inherent features of the biology of T. gondii have made it an important model organism to study host-pathogen interactions. One factor is the genetic tractability of the parasite, which allows studies on the microbial factors that affect virulence and allows the development of tools that facilitate immune studies. Additionally, mice are natural hosts for T. gondii, and the availability of numerous reagents to study the murine immune system makes this an ideal experimental system to understand the functions of cytokines and effector mechanisms involved in immunity to intracellular microorganisms. In this article, we will review current knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune responses required for resistance to toxoplasmosis, the events that lead to the development of immunopathology, and the natural regulatory mechanisms that limit excessive inflammation during this infection.

Dupont, Christopher D.; Christian, David A.; Hunter, Christopher A.



Slower postnatal motor development in infants of mothers with latent toxoplasmosis during the first 18 months of life.  


Toxoplasmosis, a zoonosis caused by a protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, is probably the most widespread human parasitosis in developed countries. Pregnant women with latent toxoplasmosis have seemingly younger fetuses especially in the 16th week of gestation, which suggests that fetuses of Toxoplasma-infected mothers have slower rates of development in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the present retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data on postnatal motor development of infants from 331 questionnaire respondents including 53 Toxoplasma-infected mothers to search for signs of early postnatal development disorders. During the first year of life, a slower postnatal motor development was observed in infants of mothers with latent toxoplasmosis. These infants significantly later developed the ability to control the head position (p=0.039), to roll from supine to prone position (p=0.022) and were slightly later to begin crawling (p=0.059). Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that the difference in the rates of prenatal and early postnatal development between children of Toxoplasma-negative and Toxoplasma-positive mothers might be caused by a decreased stringency of embryo quality control in partly immunosuppressed Toxoplasma-positive mothers resulting in a higher proportion of infants with genetic or developmental disorders in offspring. However, because of relatively low return rate of questionnaires and an associated risk of a sieve effect, our results should be considered as preliminary and performing a large scale prospective study in the future is critically needed. PMID:22819214

Ka?ková, Sárka; Sulc, Jan; K?ivohlavá, Romana; Kub?na, Aleš; Flegr, Jaroslav



Serum Vitamin D and Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Case-Control Analysis Nested Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

PubMed Central

Results from the majority of studies show little association between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, a finding that has not been demonstrated in a wider European population, however. The authors examined whether vitamin D concentrations were associated with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1994–2000). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in 652 prostate cancer cases matched to 752 controls from 7 European countries after a median follow-up time of 4.1 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for prostate cancer risk in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D after standardizing for month of blood collection and adjusting for covariates. No significant association was found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quintile: odds ratio?=?1.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.88; P for trend?=?0.188). Subgroup analyses showed no significant heterogeneity by cancer stage or grade, age at diagnosis, body mass index, time from blood collection to diagnosis, or calcium intake. In summary, the results of this large nested case-control study provide no evidence in support of a protective effect of circulating concentrations of vitamin D on the risk of prostate cancer.

Travis, Ruth C.; Allen, Naomi E.; Appleby, Paul N.; Roddam, Andrew W.; Tj?nneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Kroger, Janine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Sieri, Sabina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larranaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Arguelles, Marcial V.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Stattin, Par; Hallmans, Goran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J.



Ensuring accurate oral mucositis assessment in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Prospective Oral Mucositis Audit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucositis (OM) has substantial negative clinical, quality-of-life, and economic consequences for patients with haematologic malignancies who require myeloablative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Uniform training in OM assessment is infrequent in clinical practice, so the true incidence and duration of OM are unknown. Nurses and physicians from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation recently undertook an audit of 214

Barry Quinn; Rebecca Stone; Mary Uhlenhopp; Shaun McCann; Nicole Blijlevens



Successful treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis with clindamycin: a case report.  


Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis is generally a late complication of HIV infection and usually occurs in patients with CD4 + T-cell counts below 200/?l. Co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole) is the most common drug used in India for the treatment of AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis. Other alternative drugs used for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis are clindamycin plus pyrimethamine and clarithromycin with pyrimethamine.A 30-year-old male known case of retroviral disease presented to Kasturba Medical College, India, with complaints of fever, headache and vomiting. Computed tomography scan of his brain showed irregular ring enhancing lesion in the right basal ganglia. Toxoplasma serology revealed raised IgG antibody levels. Based on the CT features and serology, diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. He was treated with clindamycin alone as he had history of sulfonamide allergy. The patient was symptomatically better after 48 hours. After 21 days, repeat CT of brain was done which was normal. The patient showed good clinical improvement within 48 hours and the lesion resolved completely within 3 weeks. The authors recommend using clindamycin without pyrimethamine in resource poor settings and in patients who do not tolerate sulfa drugs. PMID:23074553

Madi, Deepak; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Rao, Satish; Ramapuram, John T; Mahalingam, Soundarya



Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Findings from early observational studies have suggested that the intake of dietary fat might be a contributing factor in the etiology of prostate cancer. However, the results from more recent prospective studies do not support this hypothesis, and the possible association between different food sources of fat and prostate cancer risk also remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to

Francesca L Crowe; Timothy J Key; Paul N Appleby; Ruth C Travis; Kim Overvad; Marianne U Jakobsen; Nina F Johnsen; A. Tjonneland; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Antonia Trichopoulou; Pagona Lagiou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Carlotta Sacerdote; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Vitorrio Krogh; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Lambertus A Kiemeney; Maria-Dolores Chirlaque; Eva Ardanaz; Maria-José Sanchez; Nerea Larranaga; Carlos A Gonzalez; José R Quiros; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfalt; Par Stattin; Göran Hallmans; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila Bingham; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Elio Riboli



Disseminated toxoplasmosis resulting in graft failure in a cord blood stem cell transplant recipient.  


Toxoplasmosis is an infrequent infection with a high mortality rate in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and is usually caused by reactivation of prior, latent infection upon intensive immunosuppression. We report a case of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis, diagnosed at autopsy, in a 7-year-old boy who received a cord blood graft for recurrent acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case represents both the first reported case of toxoplasmosis in an engrafted cord blood recipient, and also of graft failure due to toxoplasmosis. Recommendations for toxoplasmosis diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis in stem cell transplant recipients are reviewed. PMID:16333839

Goebel, W Scott; Conway, James H; Faught, Philip; Vakili, Saeed T; Haut, Paul R



Toxoplasmosis in Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain.  


Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. In this study, an epizootic of toxoplasmosis among captive Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) from different locations is reported. By means of light microscopy, Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were observed associated to interstitial pneumonia, non-suppurative myocarditis, cholangiohepatitis and severe gastroenteritis. The protozoa stained positively with a T. gondii antibody and ultrastructurally were similar to T. gondii. Strikingly, tachyzoites appeared sometimes in an intranuclear location within granulocyte-like cells. Feral cats or reactivation of a latent infection are discussed as the possible sources of infection. As far as we know, this is the first confirmed report of toxoplasmosis in Bennett's wallabies in Spain and Europe, and may constitute a risk of infection for humans since new alimentary habits are being imposed in our countries. PMID:19046816

Bermúdez, R; Faílde, L D; Losada, A P; Nieto, J M; Quiroga, M I



Effective Compliance during the First 3 Months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure A European Prospective Study of 121 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective compliance (time spent at the effective pressure) with nasal CPAP in obstructive sleep apnea has been reported to be poor. The aim of our study was to evaluate effective compliance in a large European multicenter study. One hundred twenty-one consecutive newly treated patients (initial ap- nea-hypopnea index (AHI) 5 62.0 6 29.5\\/h, AHI under CPAP 5 6.4 6 8.1\\/h,



A prospective study of the effects of marital status and family relations on young children's adjustment among African American and European American families.  


The present study investigated the effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development prospectively, using an ethnically diverse sample of approximately 300 low-income families. We also were able to examine the moderating effects of ethnicity on child adjustment in always two-parent, to-be-divorced, already-divorced, and always single-parent families. Results indicated that to-be-divorced European American and African American families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for predivorce differences in child behavior problems, whereas rejecting parenting accounted for differences in problem behavior between always single-parent and always two-parent families. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of ethnicity in influencing young, low-income children's adjustment to different family structures. PMID:10368919

Shaw, D S; Winslow, E B; Flanagan, C


Anti-retinal autoantibodies in experimental ocular and systemic toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) develop autoreactivity to several retinal antigens, including retinal S-antigen. By\\u000a establishing an experimental rabbit model of systemic and of primary and secondary ocular toxoplasmosis, we wished to investigate\\u000a the onset and development of humoral response to retinal S-antigen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Of twelve infection-naďve rabbits, six were left untreated, and the other six were infected subcutaneously with 5,000

Justus G. Garweg; Yvonne de Kozak; Brigitte Goldenberg; Matthias Boehnke



Docosahexanoeic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the aetiology of crohn's disease: data from a european prospective cohort study (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionDocosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are both n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, including biological effects on genetic expression, immune cell function and the production of inflammatory eicosonoids. The aim of this investigation was to conduct the first prospective cohort study to determine if low dietary intakes of these nutrients were associated with the development of

S S M Chan



The prospective association between total and type of fish intake and type 2 diabetes in 8 European countries: EPIC-InterAct Study123  

PubMed Central

Background: Epidemiologic evidence of an association between fish intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and unresolved. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between total and type of fish intake and T2D in 8 European countries. Design: This was a case-cohort study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, 12,403 incident diabetes cases, and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals from 8 European countries. Habitual fish intake (lean fish, fatty fish, total fish, shellfish, and combined fish and shellfish) was assessed by country-specific dietary questionnaires. HRs were estimated in each country by using Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: No overall association was found between combined fish and shellfish intake and incident T2D per quartile (adjusted HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.06; P-trend = 0.99). Total fish, lean fish, and shellfish intakes separately were also not associated with T2D, but fatty fish intake was weakly inversely associated with T2D: adjusted HR per quartile 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), with an HR of 0.84 (0.70, 1.01), 0.85 (0.76, 0.95), and 0.87 (0.78, 0.97) for a comparison of the second, third, and fourth quartiles with the lowest quartile of intake, respectively (P-trend = 0.06). Conclusions: These findings suggest that lean fish, total fish, and shellfish intakes are not associated with incident diabetes but that fatty fish intake may be weakly inversely associated. Replication of these findings in other populations and investigation of the mechanisms underlying these associations are warranted. Meanwhile, current public health recommendations on fish intake should remain unchanged.

Patel, Pinal S; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Schulze, Matthias B; van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Beulens, Joline WJ; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Crowe, Francesca L; de Lauzon-Guillan, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Halkjaer, Jytte; Huerta, Jose Maria; Key, Timothy J; Kuhn, Tilman; Masala, Giovanna; Nilsson, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Panico, Salvatore; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Schmidt, Erik B; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Feskens, Edith JM; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J



Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.  


Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeĺ and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. PMID:21679483

Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjřnneland, Anne; Halkjćr, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A



Dietary intake of vitamin K and risk of prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg)1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anticarcinogenic activities of vitamin K have been observedinvariouscancercelllines,includingprostatecancercells. Epidemiologic studies linking dietary intake of vitamin K with the development of prostate cancer have not yet been conducted. Objective: We evaluated the association between dietary intake of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamin K2) and total and advanced prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into

Katharina Nimptsch; Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen


Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.  


A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described. PMID:23718784

Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P



Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil.  


SUMMARY The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, Săo José do Rio Preto, Săo Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25·5% of the patients were seronegative and 74·5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27·3% had OT and 72·7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2·22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·24-3·98, P = 0·009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1·77, 95% CI 1·05-2·98, P = 0·03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48·2 ± 21·2 years vs. OOD: 69·5 ± 14·7 years, P < 0·0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0·414, 95% CI 0·2231-0·7692, P = 0·007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT. PMID:23507508

Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandăo; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C



Cold urticaria associated with acute serologic toxoplasmosis.  


Cold urticaria is defined as a urticarial and/or angioedematous reaction of the skin to contact with cold objects, water or air. Types of urticaria associated with infectious diseases, such as mononucleosis, rubeola, varicella, syphilis, hepatitis, and HIV infection have been reported. We present the case of a patient who developed cold urticaria associated with acute serologic toxoplasmosis. The patient was a 34-year-old man who for the previous 2 months had presented cutaneous pruritus accompanied by several papular lesions in parts of the skin exposed to cold as well as those in contact with cold water. The result of an "ice-cube test" was positive. Serologic tests for Toxoplasma gondii showed an IgG level of 68 UI/ml and were positive for IgM, while a test for cryoglobulins was positive. One month later cryoglobulins were negative and a serologic test for T. gondii showed an IgG concentration of 75 UI/ml and positive IgM. Three months later cryoglobulins were still negative, IgG for T. gondii was 84 UI/ml, and IgM was positive. After 6 months cryoglobulins were still negative, IgG level was 68 UI/ml and IgM was still slightly positive. In the final evaluation, 14 months later, IgG level was 32 UI/ml and IgM was negative. The patient continues to present clinical manifestations of cold urticaria, although he has experienced some improvement and his tolerance to cold has increased after treatment with cetirizine. PMID:15946632

Miralles López, J C; López Andreu, F R; Sánchez-Gascón, F; López Rodríguez, C; Negro Alvarez, J M


Preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis in mice.  


As one of food-borne parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis entails the risk of developing reactivation in immunocompromised patients. The synthetic dipeptide pidotimod is a potent immunostimulating agent that improves the immunodefenses in immunodepression. To investigate the efficacy of pidotimod as a preventive treatment, we used a murine model of reactivated toxoplasmosis with cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunosuppression. Pidotimod administration significantly restored the body weight and spleen organ index, increased survival time (from 70 to 90%), and decreased the parasitemia (from 80 to 35%) of CY-induced mice with reactivated toxoplasmosis. Cytokine profiles and CD4(+) T cells subpopulation analyses by Cytometric Bead Array and flow cytometry demonstrated that pidotimod treatment resulted in a significant upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-2) and Th1 cells (from 3.73 ± 0.39 to 5.88 ± 0.46%) after CY induction in infected mice. Additionally, histological findings and parasite DNA quantification revealed that mice administered with pidotimod had a remarkable reduction of parasite burden (two-log) and amelioration of histopathology in the brains. The in vitro studies showed that pidotimod significantly restored concanavalin A-induced splenocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants of splenocyte culture. It could be concluded that the administration of pidotimod in immunocompromised mice significantly increases the Th1-biased immune response, prolongs survival time, and ameliorates the load of parasites in the blood. This is the first report of the preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis. PMID:23774843

Huo, Xing-Xing; Wang, Lin; Chen, Zhao-Wu; Chen, He; Xu, Xiu-Cai; Zhang, Ai-Mei; Song, Xiao-Rong; Luo, Qing-Li; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Fu, Yu; Wang, Hua; Du, Jian; Cai, Yi-Hong; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Lu, Fang-Li; Wang, Yong; Shen, Ji-Long



The global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), which results from infection of pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii. Methods The authors systematically searched 9 major databases for published and unpublished sources and established direct contact with the authors of source materials. Searches were country-specific. To be included, studies had to report on the incidence of CT, on positivity to Toxoplasma-specific IgM in infants and pregnant women (including seroconversion results) or on positivity to Toxoplasma-specific IgG in the general population. Various modelling techniques were used, depending on the country-specific data available, to estimate the CT incidence and burden in each country. These data were then synthesized into an estimate of the global incidence of CT and of the global burden of CT in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Findings The global annual incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was estimated to be 190?100 cases (95% credible interval, CI: 179?300–206?300). This was equivalent to a burden of 1.20 million DALYs (95% CI: 0.76–1.90). High burdens were seen in South America and in some Middle Eastern and low-income countries. Conclusion Congenital toxoplasmosis poses a substantial burden of poor health globally. Toxoplasmosis should be included in future updates of the global burden of disease and the corresponding data should be used to support public health interventions to reduce disease burden.

Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo



Toxoplasmosis, an overview with emphasis on ocular involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic zoonosis and an important cause of abortions, mental retardation, encephalitis, blindness, and death worldwide. Although a large body of literature has emerged on the subject in the past decades, many questions about the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease remain unanswered. This review aims to provide an overview of the current insights regarding the causative

Vincent N. A. Klaren; Aize Kijlstra



Concurrent toxoplasmosis and feline infectious peritonitis in a cat.  


A 13-year-old, 4-kg, neutered male Maine coon presented with ascites. Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were seen within neutrophils and macrophages, and free within the abdominal fluid. At necropsy, many abdominal organs were positive for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) antigens using immunohistochemical staining. This apparently is the first report of concurrent toxoplasmosis and FIP in a domestic cat. PMID:8542361

Toomey, J M; Carlisle-Nowak, M M; Barr, S C; Lopez, J W; French, T W; Scott, F W; Hoose, W; Pizano, S; Dubey, J P


Histopathological Features of Ocular Toxoplasmosis in the Fetus and Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ocular disease is a frequent manifesta- tion of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection. There are only limited data available in the literature concerning early stages of this disease in fetuses and infants. The pur- pose of our study was to characterize histopathological features in the eyes of 10 fetuses and 2 infants with con- genital toxoplasmosis. Methods: Fifteen eyes from

Fiona Roberts; Marilyn B. Mets; David J. P. Ferguson; Richard O'Grady; Carol O'Grady; Philippe Thulliez; Antoine P. Brezin; Rima McLeod



Experimental Ocular Toxoplasmosis in Genetically Susceptible and Resistant Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic factors determining the pathogenesis and course of ocular toxoplasmosis are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the development of experimental ocular pathogenesis in genetically dissimilar mice infected with either the RH strain, the PLK strain, or the immunodominant surface antigen 1 (SAG1 (P30))- deficient mutant of the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii. At 11 days postinfection, ocular infection

Fangli Lu; Shiguang Huang; Mark S. Hu; Lloyd H. Kasper



Ocular toxoplasmosis: in the storm of the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) can occur in the children of mothers infected with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy. It is not limited to the congenitally infected, but can also occur following adult-acquired infection or as a result of disease reactivation in immune-compromised and pregnant individuals. Many aspects of immune privilege in the eye, including constitutive TGF- ? expression and reduced MHC




Potential immunomodulatory effects of latent toxoplasmosis in humans  

PubMed Central

Background About 30% of the population worldwide are infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Latent toxoplasmosis has many specific behavioral and physiological effects on the human organism. Modified reactivity of the immune system has been suggested to play a key role in many of these effects. For example, the immunosuppression hypothesis explains the higher probability of the birth of male offspring observed in Toxoplasma-positive humans and mice by the protection of the (more immunogenic) male embryos against abortion. Methods Here we searched for indices of immunosuppression in Toxoplasma-positive subjects by comparing clinical records of immunology outpatients. Results Our cohort study showed that the male patients with latent toxoplasmosis had decreased and the Toxoplasma-positive women had increased leukocyte, NK-cell and monocyte counts in comparison with controls. The B-cell counts were reduced in both Toxoplasma-positive men and women. The difference between Toxoplasma-positive and Toxoplasma-negative subjects diminished with the decline of the specific Toxoplasma antibody titre (a proxy for the length of infection), which is consistent with the observed decreasing strength of the effect of latent toxoplasmosis on human reproduction. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in 128 male patients was unusually low (10.9%) which contrasted with normal prevalence in 312 female patients (23.7%) and in general population Prague (20-30%). Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis has immunomodulatory effects in human and probably protects men against some classes of immunopathological diseases. The main limitation of the present study was the absence of the data on the immunoreactivity of immune cells subpopulations. Therefore further studies are needed to search for indices of immunosuppression in human using more specific markers.



4-Aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin adducts and risk of smoking-related disease in never smokers and former smokers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective study.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate whether biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure [i.e., 4-aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin (4-ABP-Hb) adducts] were predictive of the risk of tobacco-related cancers and diseases. We did a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, involving 190 controls and 149 cases (incident cancer of the lung, bladder, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity, leukemias, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths). All individuals were never smokers or ex smokers for >10 years. 4-ABP-Hb adducts were analyzed in peripheral blood collected before the onset of the disease (median, 7 years). Overall, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher, although not statistically significantly so, in cases (as a whole) than controls. In the control population, high fruit and vegetable consumption significantly lowered the frequency of detectable adducts (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.025). Restricting the analysis to women, 4-ABP-Hb adducts were higher in cases than controls (Mann-Whitney P = 0.036) and the odds ratio (OR) for the presence/absence of adducts was 2.42 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.18-4.98]. Moreover, the association of adducts with the individual cancer types was stronger in women than in the whole study population, although statistically significant only for leukemias (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.06-7.20). The results provide some evidence that women may be more susceptible to environmental tobacco smoke, as suggested by their higher adduct levels. The most important finding of this prospective study is that, at least in women, 4-ABP-Hb adducts may help identify subjects at high risk of cancers related to environmental tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:16172219

Airoldi, Luisa; Vineis, Paolo; Colombi, Alessandro; Olgiati, Luca; Dell'Osta, Carlo; Fanelli, Roberto; Manzi, Luca; Veglia, Fabrizio; Autrup, Herman; Dunning, Alison; Garte, Seymour; Hainaut, Pierre; Hoek, Gerard; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Malaveille, Christian; Matullo, Giuseppe; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Peluso, Marco; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Hendrik B; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Quiros, Josč R; Berglund, Goran; Järvholm, Bengt; Hallmans, Goran; Day, Nicholas E; Allen, Naomi; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio



Consumption of fried foods and risk of coronary heart disease: Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the association between consumption of fried foods and risk of coronary heart disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Participants 40?757 adults aged 29-69 and free of coronary heart disease at baseline (1992-6), followed up until 2004. Main outcome measures Coronary heart disease events and vital status identified by record linkage with hospital discharge registers, population based registers of myocardial infarction, and mortality registers. Results During a median follow-up of 11 years, 606 coronary heart disease events and 1135 deaths from all causes occurred. Compared with being in the first (lowest) quarter of fried food consumption, the multivariate hazard ratio of coronary heart disease in the second quarter was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.45), in the third quarter was 1.07 (0.83 to 1.38), and in the fourth quarter was 1.08 (0.82 to 1.43; P for trend 0.74). The results did not vary between those who used olive oil for frying and those who used sunflower oil. Likewise, no association was observed between fried food consumption and all cause mortality: multivariate hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest quarter of fried food consumption was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.14; P for trend 0.98). Conclusion In Spain, a Mediterranean country where olive or sunflower oil is used for frying, the consumption of fried foods was not associated with coronary heart disease or with all cause mortality.



The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  


Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first prospective study of blood folate levels and gastric cancer. Gastric cancer cases (n=247) and controls (n=631) were matched for study center, age, sex, and time of blood donation. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene were determined, as were plasma concentrations of folate, cobalamin (vitamin B12), total homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (cobalamin deficiency marker) in prediagnostic plasma. Risk measures were calculated with conditional logistic regression. Although no relations were observed between plasma folate or total homocysteine concentrations and gastric cancer, we observed a trend toward lower risk of gastric cancer with increasing cobalamin concentrations (odds ratio, 0.79 per SD increase in cobalamin; P=0.01). Further analyses showed that the inverse association between cobalamin and gastric cancer was confined to cancer cases with low pepsinogen A levels (marker of severe chronic atrophic gastritis) at the time of blood sampling. The 677 C-->T MTHFR polymorphism was not associated with gastric cancer, but we observed an increased risk with the variant genotype of the 1298 A-->C polymorphism (odds ratio, 1.47 for CC versus AA; P=0.04). In conclusion, we found no evidence of a role of folate in gastric cancer etiology. However, we observed increased gastric cancer risk at low cobalamin levels that was most likely due to compromised cobalamin status in atrophic gastritis preceding gastric cancer. PMID:18006931

Vollset, Stein Emil; Igland, Jannicke; Jenab, Mazda; Fredriksen, Ase; Meyer, Klaus; Eussen, Simone; Gjessing, Hĺkon K; Ueland, Per Magne; Pera, Guillem; Sala, Núria; Agudo, Antonio; Capella, Gabriel; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Carneiro, Fátima; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Stenling, Roger; Hallmans, Göran; Martínez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Quirós, José R; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Büchner, Frederike L; Peeters, Petra H M; Numans, Mattijs E; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Slimani, Nadia; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A



Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries  

PubMed Central

Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries.

Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi



Varicella-Like Cutaneous Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with Aplastic Anemia  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old patient with aplastic anemia presented with vesicular varicella-like skin lesions on her face, arms, legs, back, and abdomen. However, diagnosis for herpetic infection was negative. Findings of a skin biopsy led to a tentative histologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare finding in immunocompromised patients and might mimic other infectious diseases, and vesicular lesions associated with toxoplasmosis have not been reported previously.

Zimmermann, Stefan; Hadaschik, Eva; Dalpke, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C.; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Lehners, Nicola; Kapaun, Annette



Multivariate analysis of febrile neutropenia occurrence in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: data from the INC-EU Prospective Observational European Neutropenia Study  

PubMed Central

Myelosuppression, particularly febrile neutropenia (FN), are serious dose-limiting toxicities that occur frequently during the first cycle of chemotherapy. Identifying patients most at risk of developing FN might help physicians to target prophylactic treatment with colony-stimulating factor (CSF), in order to decrease the incidence, or duration, of myelosuppression and facilitate delivery of chemotherapy as planned. We present a risk model for FN occurrence in the first cycle of chemotherapy, based on a subgroup of 240 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) enroled in our European prospective observational study. Eligible patients had an International Prognostic Index of 0–3, and were scheduled to receive a new myelosuppressive chemotherapy regimen with at least four cycles. Clinically relevant factors significantly associated with cycle 1 FN were older age, increasing planned cyclophosphamide dose, a history of previous chemotherapy, a history of recent infection, and low baseline albumin (<35 g/l). Prophylactic CSF use and higher weight were associated with a significant protective effect. The model had high sensitivity (81%) and specificity (80%). Our model, together with treatment guidelines, may rationalise the clinical decision of whether to support patients with CSF primary prophylaxis based on their risk factor profile. Further validation is required.

Pettengell, Ruth; Bosly, Andre; Szucs, Thomas D; Jackisch, Christian; Leonard, Robert; Paridaens, Robert; Constenla, Manuel; Schwenkglenks, Matthias



A cost-benefit analysis of prenatal screening for toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine critically the validity of a toxoplasma prenatal screening program, in the context of a cost-benefit analysis, as it relates to the Canadian experience. Recently, studies have suggested that early treatment of infected infants with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine is effective in reducing the sequelae of toxoplasmosis. It was concluded that a carefully planned screening program for detecting and treating infants infected with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy is cost beneficial. The cost of delivering a screening and treatment program is less than half of what it would cost to provide comprehensive long term medical, educational and other social services for the estimated 1000 children born each year with congenital toxoplasmosis. Even if an incidence as low as two infected infants per 1000 pregnancies is assumed and only 400 children were affected, the screening and preventive therapy program would be justified.

Sahai, Vic S; Onyett, Heather



Toxoplasmosis in a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from Paraná, Brazil.  


This study describes toxoplasmosis in a by caught Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guinensis) from Paranaguá Bay, Paraná, Brazil. Interstitial pneumonia, multisystemic arteritis, multifocal adrenalitis and hepatitis were the primary lesions observed. These tissues had moderate to severe necrosis and mononuclear cells infiltration usually surrounded by tachyzoites and tissue cysts. Moderate lymphoid depletion was evident in the spleen. Toxoplasma gondii was positive by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evaluation. Furthermore, the animal was negative for Morbillivirus by immunohistochemistry and had low levels of persistent organochlorines. There is evidence of environmental changes in the Paranaguá Bay that could justify the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in Guiana dolphin. The sewage run-off from main urban areas and the presence of domestic and wild felids in areas surrounding the bay could be a source of T. gondii oocysts from land to sea. Based on its habitat, the authors recommend this dolphin species as sentinels for the health of bays and estuaries where they occur. PMID:23063774

Gonzales-Viera, O; Marigo, J; Ruoppolo, V; Rosas, F C W; Kanamura, C T; Takakura, C; Fernández, A; Catăo-Dias, J L



[Congenital toxoplasmosis: randomised comparison of strategies for retinochoroiditis prevention].  


In France, children with confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis receive a treatment for a period of 12 to 24 months. Such prolonged treatment may generate potentially severe risks, in particular hematologic and cutaneous. Our objective is to compare the effectiveness of two therapeutic strategies on the prevention of retinochoroiditis by a randomized, non-inferiority, open-label, parallel study including 486 children, 3 to 6 months of age with a non-severe form of congenital toxoplasmosis. Following randomization, pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment is initiated for a period of three months, followed by a treatment with Fansidar(®) for 9 months, or therapeutic abstention. Follow-up visits during a two-year period will include an examination of the eye, a blood test, and questionnaires to evaluate the children's quality of life and their parents' anxiety. Confirming the non-inferiority of the effectiveness of a short-term treatment will improve the quality of life of parents and children. PMID:22186072

Wallon, Martine; Kieffer, François; Binquet, Christine; Thulliez, Philippe; Garcia-Méric, Patricia; Dureau, Pascal; Franck, Jacqueline; Peyron, François; Bonnin, Alain; Villena, Isabelle; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard; Masson, Sandrine; Félin, Alexandrin; Cornu, Catherine



Toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: a living legacy.  


Toxoplasmosis has historically been considered one of the most important opportunistic infections detected in HIV/AIDS patients. The prevalence rates of latent Toxoplasma infections in HIV-infected patients has been found to vary greatly from 3% to 97%. Prevalence has been found to be related to ethnicity, certain risk factors, and reactivation of toxoplasmosis. Prior to antiretroviral therapy, toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) was the most common focal cerebral lesion detected in AIDS patients with Toxoplasma infection, occurring in approximately half of Toxoplasma-seropositive patients. Other forms of dissemination have also been reported in AIDS patients in sites such as the eyes, lungs, heart and spinal cord. Anti-Toxoplasma therapy and chemoprophylaxis have shown effectiveness in reducing the incidence of TE, while noncompliance has been identified as a cause of relapse in these settings. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common neuropathological complications found at autopsy. Rapid progress in the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the observed patterns with TE, for which there has been a marked decrease in overall incidence. Subsequently, TE has been found to be significantly associated with the so-called "neurological immune restoration inflammatory syndrome" (NIRIS). Toxoplasma screening programs are recommended for all newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients. Chemoprophylaxis should be considered in HIV-infected patients who have a CD4 < 200 cells/mm3, particularly in settings where resources are limited and there is not access to HAART. TE remains a cause of morbidity and mortality among AIDS patients. PMID:20578449

Nissapatorn, Veeranoot



The changing pattern of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis: a study of 46 postmortem cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency, pathogenesis and morphological features of toxoplasmosis were assessed in a consecutive autopsy study. Among 204 patients who died from AIDS in Zurich during 1981–1990, 46 (23%) showed morphological evidence of cerebral toxoplasmosis. In 38 out of 46 cases (83%), toxoplasmosis was restricted to the central nervous system (CNS) and, therefore, pathogenetically classified as reactivation of a latent infection. Acute,

C. Strittmatter; W. Lang; O. D. Wiestler; P. Kleihues



Association of a diabetes risk score with risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, specific types of cancer, and mortality: a prospective study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort.  


To evaluate the impact of a recently developed, non-invasive risk score predictive for type 2 diabetes on the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases and specific types of cancer. A total of 23,455 participants from the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study aged 35-65 years and free of diabetes and major chronic diseases at baseline (1994-1998) were followed through 2006 for incident myocardial infarction, stroke, types of cancer, and death. Risk score points were assigned to each participant based on age, waist circumference, height, physical activity, history of hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of red meat, whole-grain bread, and coffee. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression models. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, participants with a high risk score (5-year probability to develop diabetes > or = 10%) had significantly higher risks of myocardial infarction (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-5.0) and stroke (1.9, 1.0-3.6), but not of colon, breast or prostate cancer incidence, than those with a low score (5-year probability < 1%). In addition, participants with a high risk score had considerably higher risks of cardiovascular (HR 4.6, 95% CI 2.3-9.4), cancer (1.7, 1.1-2.7), and total mortality (2.4, 1.8-3.4), the latter being equivalent to a difference in life expectancy of 13 years. These data indicate that a risk score predictive for type 2 diabetes is also related to elevated risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, and premature death in apparently healthy individuals and emphasize the need for early intervention in high-risk individuals. PMID:19357973

Heidemann, Christin; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Nöthlings, Ute; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schulze, Matthias B



Association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and blood pressure in the European prospective investigation into cancer-Norfolk population-based study.  


The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption and blood pressure is unclear. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 926 men and women aged 40 to 79 years participating in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk who completed a health questionnaire and attended a clinic from 1993 to 1997. The relationship between plasma vitamin C concentrations, as an indicator of fruit and vegetable intake, and systolic BP was examined. The magnitude of their association was assessed using dichotomized values of high (?140 mm Hg) and low (<140 mm Hg) systolic blood pressure. A total of 20 926 participants (46% men; mean [SD] 58.5 years [9.2 years]) were included after excluding participants with any missing data for variables of interest. People with high vitamin C concentrations had lower clinic blood pressure. The likelihood of having high blood pressure was 22% lower (odds ratio: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.71 to 0.86]) for those who were in the top quartiles of plasma vitamin C levels compared with the bottom quartiles after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, cholesterol, prevalent medical conditions, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, social class, education, use of vitamin C-containing supplement, and antihypertensive medication. Sex-specific analysis, as well as repeated analysis after exclusion of people who used vitamin C-containing supplements or who were taking antihypertensive medication, did not alter the results. There appears to be a strong association between vitamin C concentrations, an indicator of fruit and vegetable consumption, and a lower level of blood pressure. This may provide further evidence for health benefits of dietary patterns with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. PMID:21768529

Myint, Phyo K; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee



The impact of childhood acute rotavirus gastroenteritis on the parents' quality of life: prospective observational study in European primary care medical practices  

PubMed Central

Background Rotavirus (RV) is the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. A Quality of Life study was conducted in primary care in three European countries as part of a larger epidemiological study (SPRIK) to investigate the impact of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) on affected children and their parents. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was linguistically validated in Spanish, Italian and Polish. The questionnaire was included in an observational multicentre prospective study of 302 children aged <5?years presenting to a general practitioner or paediatrician for RVGE at centres in Spain, Italy or Poland. RV infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing (n?=?264). The questionnaire was validated and used to assess the emotional impact of paediatric RVGE on the parents. Results Questionnaire responses showed that acute RVGE in a child adversely affects the parents’ daily life as well as the child. Parents of children with RVGE experience worry, distress and impact on their daily activities. RVGE of greater clinical severity (assessed by the Vesikari scale) was associated with higher parental worries due to symptoms and greater changes in the child’s behaviour, and a trend to higher impact on parents’ daily activities and higher parental distress, together with a higher score on the symptom severity scale of the questionnaire. Conclusions Parents of a child with acute RVGE presenting to primary care experience worry, distress and disruptions to daily life as a result of the child’s illness. Prevention of this disease through prophylactic vaccination will improve the daily lives of parents and children.



Polymorphisms of Helicobacter pylori signaling pathway genes and gastric cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer-eurgast cohort.  


Helicobacter pylori is a recognized causal factor of noncardia gastric cancer (GC). Lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan of this bacterium are recognized by CD14, TLR4 and NOD2 human proteins, while NFKB1 activates the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines to elicit an immune response. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes have been associated with GC in different populations. We genotyped 30 SNPs of these genes, in 365 gastric adenocarcinomas and 1,284 matched controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort. The association with GC and its histological and anatomical subtypes was analyzed by logistic regression and corrected for multiple comparisons. Using a log-additive model, we found a significant association between SNPs in CD14, NOD2 and TLR4 with GC risk. However, after applying the multiple comparisons tests only the NOD2 region remained significant (p?=?0.009). Analysis according to anatomical subtypes revealed NOD2 and NFKB1 SNPs associated with noncardia GC and CD14 SNPs associated with cardia GC, while analysis according to histological subtypes showed that CD14 was associated with intestinal but not diffuse GC. The multiple comparisons tests confirmed the association of NOD2 with noncardia GC (p?=?0.0003) and CD14 with cardia GC (p?=?0.01). Haplotype analysis was in agreement with single SNP results for NOD2 and CD14 genes. From these results, we conclude that genetic variation in NOD2 associates with noncardia GC while variation in CD14 is associated with cardia GC. PMID:23824692

Companioni, Osmel; Bonet, Catalina; Muńoz, Xavier; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Vineis, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Riboli, Elio; Murphy, Neil; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lund, Eiliv; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Mattias; Sund, Malin; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Huerta, Jose M; Dorronsoro, Miren; Ramón Quirós, José; Tjonneland, Anne; Maxild Mortensen, Lotte; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Boeing, Heiner; de Mesquita, H Bas Bueno; Siersema, Peter; Peeters, Petra H M; Numans, Mattijs E; Carneiro, Fatima; Licaj, Idlir; Freisling, Heinz; Sala, Núria; González, Carlos A



Moderate-and-vigorous physical activity from adolescence to adulthood and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood: prospective observations from the European Youth Heart Study.  


AIM: To investigate the independent associations between mean exposure to or the change in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (PA) from adolescence to adulthood and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study among Danish boys and girls (N=277) followed for up to 12 years (age 15.7 (0.4) at baseline) enrolled in the European Youth Heart Study. PA intensity was objectively measured at baseline and follow-up, and ultrasonography was performed on the Carotid arteries at follow-up. Data on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), Carotid Compliance and Young's Elastic Modules were used as outcome measures. RESULTS: In the multivariable analyses (adjusted for personal-lifestyle and demographic factors) the mean exposure to moderate-and-vigorous PA from adolescence to adulthood was negatively associated with Young's Elastic Modules (?=-0.001×10(3) kPa (95% CI -0.0015 to -0.0002), p=0.02) and positively associated with Carotid Compliance (?=0.004 mm(2) kPa(-1) (95% CI 0.002 to 0.008), p=0.003) and cIMT (?=0.0003 mm (95% CI 0.00001 to 0.0007), p=0.013). Increases in moderate-and-vigorous PA from adolescence to adulthood were negatively associated with Young's Elastic Modules in adulthood (?=-0.00007×10(3) kPa (95% CI -0.0012 to -0.0001), p=0.01). Furthermore, participants with the largest decline in moderate-and-vigorous PA from adolescence to adulthood displayed significantly less compliant arteries compared with the remaining sample (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: High mean exposure to moderate-and-vigorous PA levels and increases herein were independently associated with lower levels of carotid arterial stiffness in adulthood. PMID:23584827

Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grřntved, Anders; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo



Concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background: Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (BPs) regulate cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and may have a role in the aetiology of various cancers. Information on their role in pancreatic cancer is limited and was examined here in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Methods: Serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 422 cases and 422 controls matched on age, sex, study centre, recruitment date, and time since last meal. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Neither circulating levels of IGF-I (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.75–1.93 for top vs bottom quartile, P-trend 0.301), IGFBP-3 (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.66–1.51, P-trend 0.79), nor the molar IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio, an indicator of free IGF-I level (OR=1.22, 95% CI 0.75–1.97, P-trend 0.27), were statistically significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In a cross-classification, however, a high concentration of IGF-I with concurrently low levels of IGFBP-3 was related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR=1.72, 95% CI 1.05–2.83; P-interaction=0.154). Conclusion: On the basis of these results, circulating levels of components of the IGF axis do not appear to be the risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, on the basis of the results of a subanalysis, it cannot be excluded that a relatively large amount of IGF-1 together with very low levels of IGFBP-3 might still be associated with an increase in pancreatic cancer risk.

Rohrmann, S; Grote, V A; Becker, S; Rinaldi, S; Tj?nneland, A; Roswall, N; Gr?nbaek, H; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Racine, A; Teucher, B; Boeing, H; Drogan, D; Dilis, V; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Palli, D; Tagliabue, G; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Mattiello, A; Rodriguez, L; Duell, E J; Molina-Montes, E; Dorronsoro, M; Huerta, J-M; Ardanaz, E; Jeurnink, S; Peeters, P H M; Lindkvist, B; Johansen, D; Sund, M; Ye, W; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Allen, N E; Crowe, F L; Fedirko, V; Jenab, M; Michaud, D S; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kaaks, R



Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort.  


Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ? 25 kg/m(2) ) with magnesium (HR(per 100 mg/day increase) = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR (per 1 mg/day increase) = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations. PMID:22438075

Molina-Montes, Esther; Wark, Petra A; Sánchez, María-José; Norat, Teresa; Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Michaud, Dominique S; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Katarachia, Helen; Skeie, Guri; Henningsen, Maria; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Vineis, Paolo; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José-María; Duell, Eric J; Quirós, José-Ramón; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Li, Kuanrong; Grote, Verena A; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Racine, Antoine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Peeters, Petra H M; Siersema, Peter D; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas



Disseminated toxoplasmosis following T cell-depleted related and unrelated bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 95% of reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis following BMT have occurred following an unmodified transplant. Most have been fatal, diagnosed at autopsy and without antemortem institution of specific therapy. From 1989 to 1999, we identified 10 cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis, in 463 consecutive recipients of a T cell-depleted (TCD) BMT. Transplants were from an unrelated donor (n =

TN Small; L Leung; J Stiles; TE Kiehn; SA Malak; RJ O’Reilly; K Sepkowitz



Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in High School Girls in Fasa District, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. Infections of human are common and are usually asymptomatic. The infection may be serious if is transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy. Prophylactic measures, early detection of the infection and treatment can avoid congenital toxoplasmosis and many long term effects. Objective: Seroepidemiological study in young girls is useful to

Gholamreza Hatam; Azra Shamseddin; Farhoud Nikouee


Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by polymerase chain reaction on neonatal peripheral blood.  


In a cohort of 12 consecutive neonates, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) established the diagnosis of 5 of 6 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis and did so earlier than serologic methods. We validated that PCR using neonatal peripheral blood is a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective method to affirm the diagnosis of previously undiagnosed congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21856107

Sterkers, Yvon; Ribot, Jennifer; Albaba, Sahar; Issert, Eric; Bastien, Patrick; Pratlong, Francine



Seroprevalence of Free-Ranging Chicken Toxoplasmosis in SubUrban Regions of Shiraz, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonotic disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality in the human fetus and in immunocompromised patients. Since the meat of chicken is considered one of the sources of the human infection, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among free-ranging chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 122 serum samples from



Toxoplasma gondii Recombinant Antigens as Tools for Serodiagnosis of Human Toxoplasmosis: Current Status of Studies.  


Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan which is the cause of toxoplasmosis. Although human toxoplasmosis in healthy adults is usually asymptomatic, serious disease can occur in the case of congenital infections and immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, despite the exact recognition of its etiology, it still presents a diagnostic problem. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on the results of serological tests detecting anti-T. gondii-specific antibodies in the patient's serum sample. The specificities and sensitivities of serology tests depend mostly on the diagnostic antigen(s) used. Most of the commercial serological kits currently available are based on Toxoplasma lysate antigens (TLAs). In recent years, many studies showed that recombinant antigenic proteins of T. gondii may be an alternative source of antigens which are very useful for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. This article presents a review of current studies on the application and usefulness of different T. gondii recombinant antigens in serological tests for the diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis. PMID:23784855

Holec-Gasior, Lucyna



Disseminated toxoplasmosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a seronegative recipient.  


Toxoplasmosis is increasingly diagnosed after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. In the majority of cases, reactivation of latent disease secondary to impaired cellular and humoral immunity after HSCT is believed to be the main pathogenetic mechanism. Hence, primary toxoplasmosis is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of infections after HSCT in a recipient who is seronegative for Toxoplasma gondii pre-transplant. We herein report a seronegative patient with acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed primary disseminated toxoplasmosis 5 months after HSCT from a seronegative unrelated donor. A review of all reported cases of primary toxoplasmosis after HSCT revealed significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with negative pre-transplant Toxoplasma serology should therefore be considered at risk for toxoplasmosis after allogeneic HSCT. Possible prevention and monitoring strategies for seronegative recipients are reviewed and discussed in detail. PMID:23279790

Osthoff, M; Chew, E; Bajel, A; Kelsey, G; Panek-Hudson, Y; Mason, K; Szer, J; Ritchie, D; Slavin, M



Atovaquone ameliorate gastrointestinal Toxoplasmosis complications in a pregnancy model  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Toxoplasma is an important source of foodborne hospitalization with no safe and effective therapy against chronic or congenital Toxopalsmosis. Atovaquone is a drug of choice but not approved for use in congenital Toxoplasmosis. We hypothesized atovaquone to be safe and effective against feto-maternal Toxoplasmosis. Material/Methods Programmed pregnant mice were i.p. infected with 50–2400 Tachyzoites from Type II strain (clone PTG). Dams were treated daily with atovaquone or sham and monitored for pain, and complications. Results Dams developed pain related abdominal hypersensitivity (allodynia) to mechanical stimuli in a Tachyzoites dose dependent manner. Infected dams were anemic and exhibited ascities and severe hepatitis (score 3.6±0.01 on scale 0 – normal to 4 – severe) with influx of inflammatory and plasma cells, multinucleated dysplastic hepatocytes and necrosis. In addition, dams expressed mild to severe pancreatitis with mononuclear cell invasion, loss of islets and necrosis. This was consistent with splenomegaly (X3 Fold), and massive infiltration of epithelioid cells and loss of germinal structure. Colon became significantly shortened in length (p<0.01) with semi-normal content. Pathological manifestation included, shortening of crypts with numerous microabscess formations, infiltration of lymphocytes, and macrophages. The severe clinical complications led to abortion (50%), early birth (25%) or still birth (25%) consistent with the high dose of Tachyzoites inoculation. Atovaquone treatment partially but significantly protected the dams from the severity of hepatitis, splenomegaly, colitis, myocarditis, and pain related responses as well as fetal demise. Conclusions This is a valuable model for therapeutic evaluation of feto-maternal Toxoplasmosis and gastrointestinal complications. Atovaquone protects dams and their fetuses against some infectious/inflammatory aspects of the disease.

Oz, Helieh S.; Tobin, Thomas



Toxoplasmosis I. Studies by the Fluorescein-labelled Antibody Technique  

PubMed Central

The fluorescein-labelled antibody technique was investigated for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The direct method, the inhibition and indirect modifications are suitable for the demonstration of Toxoplasma gondii in fluid and tissue-impression slides from animals in the acute phase of infection. The method was not applicable with the frozen tissue sections. The fluorescein-labelled antibody inhibition technique detected antibodies in immune sera from various species of animal. However the titres obtained were lower than with the complement-fixation test. ImagesFigure I

Ruckerbauer, G. M.; Robertson, A.; Bannister, G. L.; Boulanger, P.; Beauregard, M.



Plasma and dietary carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol levels and the risk of gastric adenocarcinomas in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

PubMed Central

Despite declining incidence rates, gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of death worldwide. Its aetiology may involve dietary antioxidant micronutrients such as carotenoids and tocopherols. The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma levels of seven common carotenoids, their total plasma concentration, retinol and ?- and ?-tocopherol, with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large cohort involving 10 countries. A secondary objective was to determine the association of total sum of carotenoids, retinol and ?-tocopherol on GCs by anatomical subsite (cardia/noncardia) and histological subtype (diffuse/intestinal). Analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in prediagnostic plasma from 244 GC cases and 645 controls matched by age, gender, study centre and date of blood donation. Conditional logistic regression models adjusted by body mass index, total energy intake, smoking and Helicobacter pylori infection status were used to estimate relative cancer risks. After an average 3.2 years of follow-up, a negative association with GC risk was observed in the highest vs the lowest quartiles of plasma ?-cryptoxanthin (odds ratio (OR)=0.53, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.30–0.94, Ptrend=0.006), zeaxanthin (OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.22–0.69, Ptrend=0.005), retinol (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.33–0.93, Ptrend=0.005) and lipid-unadjusted ?-tocopherol (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37–0.94, Ptrend=0.022). For all analytes, no heterogeneity of risk estimates or significant associations were observed by anatomical subsite. In the diffuse histological subtype, an inverse association was observed with the highest vs lowest quartile of lipid-unadjusted ?-tocopherol (OR=0.26, 95% CI=0.11–0.65, Ptrend=0.003). These results show that higher plasma concentrations of some carotenoids, retinol and ?-tocopherol are associated with reduced risk of GC.

Jenab, M; Riboli, E; Ferrari, P; Friesen, M; Sabate, J; Norat, T; Slimani, N; Tj?nneland, A; Olsen, A; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boeing, H; Schulz, M; Linseisen, J; Nagel, G; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Oikonomou, E; Berrino, F; Panico, S; Palli, D; Sacerdote, C; Tumino, R; Peeters, P H; Numans, M E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Buchner, F L; Lund, E; Pera, G; Chirlaque, M D; Sanchez, M-J; Arriola, L; Barricarte, A; Quiros, J R; Johansson, I; Johansson, A; Berglund, G; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Allen, N; Key, T; Carneiro, F; Save, V; Giudice, G Del; Plebani, M; Kaaks, R; Gonzalez, C A



Patterns of physical activity and ultrasound attenuation by heel bone among Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk): population based study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study associations between patterns of physical activity and ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone in men and women. Design Cross sectional, population based study. Setting Norfolk. Participants 2296 men and 2914 women aged 45-74 registered with general practices participating in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC Norfolk). Results Self reported time spent in high impact physical activity was strongly and positively associated with ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone, independently of age, weight, and other confounding factors. Men who reported participating in ?2 hours/week of high impact activity had 8.44 dB/MHz (95% confidence interval 4.49 to 12.40) or 9.5%, higher ultrasound attenuation than men who reported no activity of this type. In women, the difference in ultrasound attenuation between those reporting any high impact activity and those reporting none was 2.41 dB/MHz (0.45 to 4.37) or 3.4% higher. In women this effect was similar in size to that of an age difference of four years. Moderate impact activity had no effect. However, climbing stairs was strongly independently associated with ultrasound attenuation in women (0.64 dB/MHz (0.19 to 1.09) for each additional five flights of stairs). There was a significant negative association in women between time spent watching television or video and heel bone ultrasound attenuation, which decreased by 0.08 dB/MHz (0.02 to 0.14) for each additional hour of viewing a week. Conclusions High impact physical activity is independently associated with ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone in men and women. As low ultrasound attenuation has been shown to predict increased risk of hip fracture, interventions to promote participation in high impact activities may help preserve bone density and reduce the risk of fracture. However, in older people such interventions may be inappropriate as they could increase the likelihood of falls.

Jakes, Rupert W; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila; Welch, Ailsa; Oakes, Suzy; Luben, Robert; Dalzell, Nicola; Reeve, Jonathan; Wareham, Nicholas J



Neuropathological correlate of the "concentric target sign" in MRI of HIV-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis.  


Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a frequent cause of focal brain lesions in the setting of immunodeficiency states, particularly acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important diagnostic modality to differentiate toxoplasmosis from tuberculoma, and primary central nervous system lymphoma with diverse therapeutic implications. Several imaging patterns have been described in cerebral toxoplasmosis. The "concentric target sign" is a recently described MRI sign on T2-weighted imaging of cerebral toxoplasmosis that has concentric alternating zones of hypo- and hyperintensities. It is believed to be more specific than the well-known "eccentric target sign" in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis and hence more useful in differentiation from other focal brain lesions in the context of AIDS. The concentric target sign, seen in deep parenchymal lesions, is distinct from the surface-based cortical "eccentric" target sign. The histopathological correlate of the latter has been recently described, but that of the concentric target sign is not known. In this study we describe the neuropathological correlate of this concentric target sign from the postmortem of a 40-year-old man with AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis. The concentric alternating zones of hypo/hyper/iso/intensities corresponded to zones of hemorrhage/fibrin-rich necrosis with edema/coagulative compact necrosis/inflammation with foamy histiocytes admixed with hemorrhage forming the outermost zone, respectively. The exclusive specificity of this sign in cerebral toxoplasmosis remains to be further elucidated. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;38:488-495. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23440973

Mahadevan, Anita; Ramalingaiah, Arvinda Hanumantapura; Parthasarathy, Satishchandra; Nath, Avindra; Ranga, Udaykumar; Krishna, Shankar Susarla



Varicella-like cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a patient with aplastic anemia.  


A 60-year-old patient with aplastic anemia presented with vesicular varicella-like skin lesions on her face, arms, legs, back, and abdomen. However, diagnosis for herpetic infection was negative. Findings of a skin biopsy led to a tentative histologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare finding in immunocompromised patients and might mimic other infectious diseases, and vesicular lesions associated with toxoplasmosis have not been reported previously. PMID:23390283

Zimmermann, Stefan; Hadaschik, Eva; Dalpke, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Lehners, Nicola; Kapaun, Annette; Schnitzler, Paul



Gender differences in behavioural changes induced by latent toxoplasmosis.  


There is growing evidence that the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii modifies behaviour of its intermediate hosts, including humans, where it globally infects about 20-60% of the population. Although it is considered asymptomatic in its latent stage, it was previously found to have remarkable and gender different effects on the personality factors A (warmth), G (rule consciousness), L (vigilance, mistrust) and Q3 (self-control, self-image) from Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire. We performed a double blind experiment testing 72 and 142 uninfected men and women, respectively, and 20 and 29 infected men and women, respectively, in order to verify these gender differences using behavioural experiments. Our composite behavioural variables Self-Control and Clothes Tidiness (analogue to the 16PF factors G--conscientiousness and Q3--self-control) showed a significant effect of the toxoplasmosis-gender interaction with infected men scoring significantly lower than uninfected men and a trend in the opposite direction in women. The effect of the toxoplasmosis-gender interaction on our composite behavioural variable Relationships (analogue to factor A--warmth) approached significance; infected men scored significantly lower than uninfected men whereas there was no difference in women. In the composite behavioural variable Mistrust (analogue to factor L), the pattern was affected by environment (rural versus urban). Possible interpretations of the gender differences are discussed. PMID:16978630

Lindová, Jitka; Novotná, Martina; Havlícek, Jan; Jozífková, Eva; Skallová, Anna; Kolbeková, Petra; Hodný, Zdenek; Kodym, Petr; Flegr, Jaroslav



Great efficacy of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium against acute murine toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify more effective and less toxic drugs to treat animal toxoplasmosis. Methods Efficacy of seven kinds of sulfonamides against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in an acute murine model was evaluated. The mice used throughout the study were randomly assigned to many groups (10 mice each), which either remained uninfected or were infected intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii (strains RH and CN). All groups were then treated with different sulfonamides and the optimal treatment protocol was determined candidates. Sulfadiazine-sodium (SD) was used for comparison. Results The optimal therapy involved gavaging mice twice per day with 250 mg/kg bw of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium (SPZ) for five days. Using this protocol, the average survival time and the time-point of 50% fatalities were prolonged significantly compared with SD treatment. Treatment with SPZ protected 40% of mice from death, and the heart and kidney tissue of these animals was parasite-free, as determined by nested-PCR. SPZ showed excellent therapeutic effects in the treatment of T. gondii in an acute murine model and is therefore a promising drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of T. gondii in animals. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effective drug sulfachloropyrazine may be the new therapeutic options against animal toxoplasmosis.

Zeng, Yan-Bo; Zhu, Shun-Hai; Dong, Hui; Han, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Lian-Lian; Wang, Quan; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Qi-Ping; Ma, Wei-Jiao; Huang, Bing



Respiratory virus infections after stem cell transplantation: a prospective study from the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-acquired respiratory virus infections are a cause of mortality after stem cell transplantation (SCT). A prospective study was performed at 37 centers to determine their frequency and importance. Additional cases were also collected to allow the analysis of risk factors for severe infection. Forty episodes were collected in the prospective study and 53 additional episodes through subsequent case collection. The

P Ljungman; KN Ward; BNA Crooks; A Parker; R Martino; PJ Shaw; L Brinch; M Brune; R De La Camara; A Dekker; K Pauksen; N Russell; AP Schwarer; C Cordonnier



The prospects for using (Q)SARs in a changing political environment--high expectations and a key role for the european commission's joint research centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent policy developments in the European union (EU) and within the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have placed increased emphasis on the use of structure-activity relationships (SARs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), collectively referred to as (Q)SARs, within various regulatory programmes for the assessment of chemicals and products. The most significant example within the EU is the European

A. P. Worth; C. J. Van Leeuwen; T. Hartung



Increased risk of traffic accidents in subjects with latent toxoplasmosis: a retrospective case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 30–60% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations. METHODS: The seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in

Jaroslav Flegr; Jan Havlícek; Petr Kodym; Marek Malý; Zbyn?k Smahel



Fas-FasL Interaction Involved in Pathogenesis of Ocular Toxoplasmosis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular toxoplasmosis is a potentially blinding intraocular inflammation. The intent of this study was to investigate the role of Fas-FasL interaction in a murine model of acquired ocular toxoplasmosis induced by intracameral inoculation of Toxoplasma gondii. Intraocular inflammation, Fas and FasL expression on lympho- cytes and on ocular tissues, the occurrence of apoptosis, and the frequency of CD81 and CD41




A probable case of acquired toxoplasmosis presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin in an immunocompetent individual.  


Disseminated toxoplasmosis presenting as a prolonged febrile illness is rare in immunocompetent individuals. We report a probable case of acquired toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent woman who presented with fever of 6 months duration with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology and the presence of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites on bone marrow aspirate. The patient was successfully treated with pyrimethamine plus clindamycin. PMID:23726282

Abhilash, K P P; Roshine, M K; Vandana, K; Varghese, G M



Cerebellar toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS infant: case report and review of the literature.  


Cerebellar mass lesion is an uncommon presentation of toxoplasmosis. The authors report one rare case in an 11-month-old HIV/AIDS female infant who presented with deterioration in her developmental milestones. CT scan revealed a ring-enhancing mass lesion in the right cerebellar hemisphere with secondary obstructive hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted prior to posterior fossa decompression and biopsy of the lesion. The specimens obtained were divided into two. One specimen was sent for histological diagnosis immediately after surgery while the second specimen was preserved until the release of the histology report. The initial histopathology report indicated a neoplastic process. Immunohistochemical stains were attempted but interpreted with difficulty due to severe tissue necrosis. After waiting for close to 6 weeks without a definite histological diagnosis, the preserved second specimen was sent for histological analysis as a fresh specimen, and reported a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. This case presented diagnostic challenges to the authors whose radiological impressions of either a neoplastic lesion or a tuberculoma (based on our local neuroepidemiology) were reinforced by intraoperative findings highly suggestive of tuberculoma but which contrasted with the histological report, first as a neoplastic lesion and later toxoplasmosis. Although cerebellar toxoplasmosis is a rare complication of HIV/AIDS, this case report shows that toxoplasmosis should not be overlooked as a differential diagnosis of ring-enhancing cerebellar masses in HIV/AIDS patients irrespective of the patient's age and the absence of constitutional symptoms of toxoplasmosis. PMID:22286317

Ibebuike, Kaunda; Mantanga, Leo; Emereole, Obioma; Ndolo, Patrice; Kajee, Afsana; Gopal, Rasik; Pather, Sugeshnee



North-south gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.  


Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10·4 nmol/l; women, 10·7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north-south gradient. Vitamin B? concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22·2 nmol/l; women, 26·0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (P trend< 0·001). Vitamin B(6) concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77·3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70·4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (P trend< 0·001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle. PMID:23228223

Eussen, Simone J P M; Nilsen, Roy M; Midttun, Řivind; Hustad, Steinar; IJssennagger, Noortje; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Ĺse; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Dossus, Laure; Perquier, Florence; Overvad, Kim; Teucher, Birgit; Grote, Verena A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Plada, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ros, Martine M; Peeters, Petra H M; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Schneede, Jörn; van Guelpen, Bethany; Wark, Petra A; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Vollset, Stein Emil



Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Phytoestrogens are a group of compounds found in plants that structurally resemble the hormone oestradiol, and thus have the potential to act as oestrogen agonists or antagonists. Their potential effects may alter the risk of breast cancer, but only a limited range of phytoestrogens has been examined in prospective cohort studies. METHODS: Serum and urine samples from 237 incident

Heather Ward; Gaelle Chapelais; Gunter GC Kuhnle; Robert Luben; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila Bingham



Baseline alcohol consumption, type of alcoholic beverage and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the effect of modest alcohol consumption or of particular types of beverages on CRC risk remains unclear. We examined whether consumption of total alcohol or specific types of alcoholic beverages relate to overall or site-specific CRC risk in a prospective population study of 24,244 participants and

Jin Young Park; Panagiota N. Mitrou; Christina C. Dahm; Robert N. Luben; Nicholas J. Wareham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila A. Rodwell



Higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis in victims of traffic accidents suggest increased risk of traffic accident in Toxoplasma-infected inhabitants of Istanbul and its suburbs.  


Reflexes of drivers who have toxoplasmosis have been shown to deteriorate from the actions of the parasitic cysts. The cysts can change the level of the neurotransmitters such as dopamine in the brain and by doing so extend the muscle response time and change personality profiles. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of the latent toxoplasmosis (LT) in the driver population who were either injured or died in traffic accidents reported in Istanbul and its suburbs. We compared the results with a control group and discussed the relationship between the LT and the traffic accidents. We included 218 (89.7%) non-fatal, 25 (10.3%) fatal cases in our study as study groups. A total 243 subjects, 234 (96%) male, 9 (4%) female (who were alcohol negative) compared with 191 (95.5%) male and 9 (4.5%) female subjects (control group) who had a traffic accident before but no history of toxoplasmosis were studied. Serologic tests, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG and IgM, and microimmunoflorescence (MIF) for IgG were used as the reference test, the Sabin-Feldman Dye test (SFDT) was used. According to serologic test results, LT seroprevalence in the study groups was 130 (53.5%) and in the control group 56 (28%) (p<0.0001). A LT was present in 126 out of 234 (53.8%) males in the study groups, and 54 out of 191 (28.3%) males in the control group (p<0.0001). In the 31-44 year age group, there was a significant difference with regard to toxoplasmosis between the study subjects and control groups (p<0.0001). This difference was statistically very significant in (recent and former) cases with middle-aged men (31-44 years old). The results of this retrospective study suggest that LT in drivers, especially those who are between 31 and 44 years might increase the risk for getting involved in a car accident. In a prospective study, Toxoplasma positive and negative subjects can be monitored before they are involved in a traffic accident to clarify the cause and result relationship. PMID:19356869

Kocazeybek, Bekir; Oner, Yasar Ali; Turksoy, Recep; Babur, Cahit; Cakan, Huseyin; Sahip, Nilgun; Unal, Ali; Ozaslan, Abdi; Kilic, Selcuk; Saribas, Suat; Aslan, Mustafa; Taylan, Aysegul; Koc, Sermet; Dirican, Ahmet; Uner, Huseyin Bulent; Oz, Vecdet; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Kucukbasmaci, Omer; Torun, Müzeyyen Mamal



The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To study the spectrum of adverse ocular effects which result from maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasma infection; further, to record the long-term visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these 2 major causes of fetal infection. STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A series of 55 patients with congenital infection have been studied prospectively on a long-term basis. The study group included a cohort of 34 cases with congenital rubella syndrome demonstrated by virus isolation, and 21 cases with a clinical diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and serologic confirmation. All patients had specific disease-related ocular defects. Rubella patients were first identified during or following the last major rubella epidemic in 1963-1964, and some have been followed serially since that time. A separate study group of representative toxoplasmosis patients presented for examination and diagnosis at varying time periods between 1967 and 1991. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: This study confirms that a broad spectrum of fetal injury may result from intrauterine infection and that both persistent and delayed-onset effects may continue or occur as late as 30 years after original infection. Many factors contribute to the varied outcome of prenatal infection, the 2 most important being the presence of maternal immunity during early gestation and the stage of gestation during which fetal exposure occurs in a nonimmune mother. RUBELLA: As a criteria of inclusion, all 34 rubella patients in this study exhibited one or more ocular defects at the time of birth or in the immediate neonatal period. Cataracts were present in 29 (85%) of the 34, of which 21 (63%) were bilateral. Microphthalmia, the next most frequent defect, was present in 28 (82%) of the 34 infants and was bilateral in 22 (65%). Glaucoma was recorded in 11 cases (29%) and presented either as a transient occurrence with early cloudy cornea in microphthalmic eyes (4 patients), as the infantile type with progressive buphthalmos (1 patient), or as a later-onset, aphakic glaucoma many months or years following cataract aspiration in 11 eyes of 6 patients. Rubella retinopathy was present in the majority of patients, although an accurate estimate of its incidence or laterality was not possible because of the frequency of cataracts and nystagmus and the difficulty in obtaining adequate fundus examination. TOXOPLASMOSIS: Twenty-one patients with congenital toxoplasmosis have been examined and followed for varying time periods, 7 for 20 years or more. The major reason for initial examination was parental awareness of an ocular deviation. Twelve children (57%) presented between the ages of 3 months and 4 years with an initial diagnosis of strabismus, 9 of whom had minor complaints or were diagnosed as part of routine examinations. All cases in this study have had evidence of retinochoroiditis, the primary ocular pathology of congenital toxoplasmosis. Two patients had chronic and recurrent inflammation with progressive vitreal traction bands, retinal detachments, and bilateral blindness. Macular lesions were always associated with central vision loss; however, over a period of years visual acuity gradually improved in several patients. Individuals with more severe ocular involvement were also afflicted with the most extensive central nervous system deficits, which occurred following exposure during the earliest weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital infection due to rubella virus has been almost completely eradicated in the United States, the long-term survivors from the prevaccination period continue to experience major complications from their early ocular and cerebral defects. They may be afflicted by the persistence of virus in their affected organs and the development of late manifestations of their congenital infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be the source of major defects for 3,000 to 4,100 infants in the United States each year; the spectrum of defects is wide and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of

O'Neill, J F



A dietary pattern protective against type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)—Potsdam Study cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of this study was to identify a dietary pattern associated with diabetes-related biomarkers and to investigate whether this pattern is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes.Methods  A nested case–control study of 192 cases of incident type 2 diabetes and 382 control subjects matched for sex and age was conducted. All subjects were participants in the population-based European

C. Heidemann; K. Hoffmann; J. Spranger; K. Klipstein-Grobusch; M. Möhlig; A. F. H. Pfeiffer; H. Boeing



[Toxoplasmosis in French Guiana. Atypical (neo-)tropical features of a cosmopolitan parasitosis].  


Toxoplasmosis, a typical cosmopolitan parasitosis, is a major health problem in French Guiana. Three factors account for this situation, i.e., (1) severity of toxoplasmosis in patients with HIV infection that is particularly prevalent in the area, (2) high risk of congenital transmission as shown by the steadily increasing prevalence of seropositivity in function of age in most of the Guianese population and (3) recent identification of severe primary toxoplasmosis infection in immunocompetent patients. In AIDS patients, the epidemiologic aspects of toxoplasmosis are correlated to the special features of the HIV-positive population in French Guiana and its clinical expression, mainly in the form of cerebral toxoplasmosis, does not suggest involvement of a particularly virulent strain of Toxoplasma. Similarly congenital toxoplasmosis does not present special tropical features other than problems associated with prevention, diagnosis and follow-up in poor and/or remote settings. These features are fully compatible with the classic domestic cat cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However severe forms of primary infection, particularly in immunocompetent adults, appear to be associated with atypical features. These forms appear to be correlated with a forest-based cycle involving wild cats, which are still numerous in French Guiana, and their prey. Ingestion of undercooked wildcat prey, which is also a delicacy for man, can also be a source of contamination as can be consumption of untreated river water infected with oocysts excreted by felines. Observation of higher toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in wild noncarnivorous mammals that live by foraging on the ground in uninhabited forest zones suggests that infection can also be due to ingestion of oocysts eliminated into the soil. Since there are no domestic cats in the area, it must be assumed that these oocysts are shed by wild felines. More convincing proof can be seen in the fact that T. gondi strains presenting polymorphism, similarities and atypical genetic features can be found both in this animal reservoir, particularly in jaguars, and in patients presenting the more severe form of toxoplasmosis. In addition to the purely scientific interest of confirming the existence of the forest-based cycle, knowledge of this atypical form of toxoplasmosis that is probably not confined to French Guiana or to the Amazon region has obvious practical medical implications not only for diagnosis but also for therapy and prevention. PMID:17201300

Carme, B; Demar-Pierre, M



Knowledge of Toxoplasmosis among Doctors and Nurses Who Provide Prenatal Care in an Endemic Region  

PubMed Central

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a potentially severe infection and its prevention is most often based on serological screening in pregnant women. Many cases could be prevented by simple precautions during pregnancy. Aiming to assess the knowledge about toxoplasmosis among professionals working in antenatal care in a high prevalent region, a questionnaire was administered to 118 obstetric nurses and physicians attending at primary care units and hospitals. The questionnaire was self-completed and included questions on diagnosis, clinical issues, and prevention. Only 44% of total answers were corrected. Lower scores were observed among those with over 10 years of graduation, working in primary care units, and nurses. Errors were mainly observed in questions of prevention and diagnosis. As congenital toxoplasmosis is a mother-to-child (MTC) transmitted disease, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious and irreversible fetal damage. Thus, doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care must be appropriately trained on prophylactic, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis. The authors suggest that measures should be taken for continuing education regarding toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

da Silva, Laura Berriel; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes; da Silva, Marizete Pereira; Bueno, Wendy Fernandes; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; de Souza Neves, Elizabeth



Application of assays for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in a colony of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha).  


Toxoplasma gondii infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in New World primate species. Clinical abnormalities associated with toxoplasmosis can be nonspecific, making it difficult to make a definitive antemortem diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Toxoplasmosis in New World primates can have a rapid clinical course, which may lessen the diagnostic utility of antemortem tests. However, while there are a variety of T. gondii serum antibody tests and T. gondii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays available that are not species specific, these assays have not been comparatively applied to New World primate cases. Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), a species of New World primate, are highly susceptible to fatal toxoplasmosis. Archived serum samples from 15 living and deceased woolly monkeys housed at the Louisville Zoological Garden (Louisville, Kentucky) were tested for T. gondii antibodies by a commercially available latex agglutination kit, a commercially available indirect hemagglutination kit, and the modified agglutination test. In addition, aliquots of the sera were assayed for T. gondii DNA using a PCR assay. Both woolly monkeys that died of disseminated toxoplasmosis were positive in all four assays, indicating that each could be used to aid in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in this species. We suspect that these assays have applications to other species of New World primates. PMID:17319125

Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Lappin, Michael R; Dubey, J P



Toxoplasmosis in military personnel involved in jungle operations.  


Tropical diseases, mainly leishmaniasis and malaria, increased among Colombian military personnel due to intensive operations in the jungle in the last ten years; as a result the Colombian army developed important preventive strategies for malaria and leishmaniasis. However, no knowledge exists about toxoplasmosis, an emergent disease in military personnel. We compared the prevalence of IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA and of parasitaemia by a real time PCR assay, in 500 professional soldiers that operated in the jungle with a group of 501 soldiers working in an urban zone (Bogotá). We found that the prevalence was significantly different between both groups of soldiers (80% in soldiers operating in jungle vs. 45% in urban soldiers, adjusted OR 11.4; CI 95%: 3.8-34; p<0.0001). All soldiers operating in the jungle drink unboiled and chlorine untreated lake or river water. In urban soldiers, these risk factors along with eating wild animal meat or eating tigrillo (little spotted cat) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence. Characteristic toxoplasmic choriorretinal lesions were found in 4 soldiers that operated in the jungle (0.8%) and in one urban soldier (0.19%). All soldiers before being deployed in jungle operations should be tested for Toxoplasma antibodies and to receive adequate health information about the routine use of personnel filters to purify their water for consumption. PMID:22178449

Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Barrios, Patricia; Cardona, Nestor; Álvarez, Catalina; Herrera, Claudia



Toxoplasma serotype is associated with development of ocular toxoplasmosis.  


Background.?Worldwide, ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the principal cause of posterior uveitis, a severe, life-altering disease. A Toxoplasma gondii enzyme-linked immunoassay that detects strain-specific antibodies present in serum was used to correlate serotype with disease. Methods.?Toxoplasma serotypes in consecutive serum samples from German uveitis patients with OT were compared with non-OT seropositive patients with noninfectious autoimmune posterior uveitis. OT patients were tested for association of parasite serotype with age, gender, location, clinical onset, size, visual acuity, or number of lesions (mean follow-up, 3.8 years) to determine association with recurrences. Results.?A novel, nonreactive (NR) serotype was detected more frequently in serum samples of OT patients (50/114, 44%) than in non-OT patients (4/56, 7%) (odds ratio, 10.0; 95% confidence interval 3.4-40.8; P < .0001). Non-OT patients were predominantly infected with Type II strains (39/56; 70%), consistent with expected frequencies in Central Europe. Among OT patients, those with NR serotypes experienced more frequent recurrences (P = .037). Polymerase chain reaction detected parasite DNA in 8/60 OT aqueous humor specimens but failed to identify Type II strain alleles. Conclusions.?Toxoplasma NR and Type II serotypes predominate in German OT patients. The NR serotype is associated with OT recurrences, underscoring the value of screening for management of disease. PMID:23878321

Shobab, Leila; Pleyer, Uwe; Johnsen, Joerdis; Metzner, Sylvia; James, Erick R; Torun, N; Fay, Michael P; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Grigg, Michael E



Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union.  


We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone. PMID:11532360

O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S



Associations between objectively measured physical activity intensity in childhood and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in adolescence: prospective observations from the European Youth Heart Study.  


BACKGROUND AND AIM: No prospective studies have investigated the association between physical activity (PA) and carotid subclinical cardiovascular disease across childhood. Therefore, the primary aim was to investigate the association between PA intensity across childhood and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and stiffness in adolescence. Second, we included a clustered cardiovascular disease risk score as outcome. METHODS: This was a prospective study of a sample of 254 children (baseline age 8-10 years) with a 6-year follow-up. The mean exposure and the change in minutes of moderate-and-vigorous and vigorous PA intensity were measured using the Actigraph activity monitor. Subclinical cardiovascular disease was expressed as cIMT, carotid arterial stiffness and secondarily as a metabolic risk z-score including the homoeostasis model assessment score of insulin resistance, triglycerides, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio, inverse of cardiorespiratory fitness, systolic blood pressure and the sum of four skinfolds. RESULTS: No associations were observed between PA intensity variables and cIMT or carotid arterial stiffness (p>0.05). Neither change in PA intensity (moderate-and-vigorous nor vigorous) nor mean minutes of moderate-and-vigorous PA intensity was associated to the metabolic risk z-score in adolescence (p>0.05). However, a significant inverse association was observed between mean minutes of vigorous PA and the metabolic risk z-score in adolescence independent of gender and biological maturity (standard ?=-0.19 p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: A high mean exposure to, or changes in, minutes spent at higher PA intensities across childhood was not associated to cIMT or stiffness in the carotid arteries in adolescence. Our observations suggest that a high volume of vigorous PA across childhood independently associated with lower metabolic cardio vascular disease risk in adolescence. PMID:23584828

Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grřntved, Anders; Mřller, Niels Christian; Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo



[Immunodiagnosis in 647 suspected clinical cases of toxoplasmosis].  


Though Toxoplasma gondii can cause severe pathology in human, in most of the cases it produces only asymptomatic infection. So, it is important to dispose some methods capables to discriminate between acute and chronic infections. An indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), dye test (DT) and complement fixation test (CFT) were performed in 647 sera from patients suspected of having toxoplasmosis infection. IHAT and DT titer > or = 4 and CFT > or = 5 were considered positive. Titers were classified as follows: low (4-16), median (64-512) and high (> or = 1000) for IHAT and DT. The pathologies for demanding these serological tests were: adenopathies (58), nephropathies (72), neuropathies (30), obstetrical problems (65), opthalmopathies (147), AIDS (237) and miscellaneous (37). Global positivity of 49.5% and 4.5% for IHAT/DT and CFT respectively were found. The positivity for the different groups were: adenopathies (48.3% and 13.8%), nephropathies (43.1% and 1.4%), neuropathies (26.7% and 3.3%), obstetrical problems (40.0% and 0.0%), ophthalmopathies (59.9% and 8.2%), AIDS (52.1% and 2.5%) and miscellaneous (40.5% and 2.7%) for IHAT/DT and CFT respectively. Low and median titers for IHAT/DT were found in 81.3% of cases. A high agreement in frequency of concordant and discordant titers of IHAT/DT and CFT, indicating a recent or acute infection was observed. This fact was more relevant in adenopathies, ophthalmopathies (uveitis) and AIDS groups. PMID:9640680

Contreras, M C; Gallo, S; Salinas, P; Rugiero, E; Sandoval, L; Schenone, H


Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin—an adipose tissue-derived protein—may provide?a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested case–control study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.95, P trend = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34–0.61, P trend < 0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.68–1.22, P trend = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.26–0.60, P trend < 0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.60–1.09, P trend = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B.; Fedirko, Veronika; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Westphal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tj?nneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Arguelles, Marcial; Bonet, Catalina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Goran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Pischon, Tobias



Localized toxoplasmosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) causing placentitis, stillbirths, and disseminated fetal infection.  


Localized, myocardial toxoplasmosis contributed to the death of a female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) 1 week after the delivery of 4 stillborn offspring with disseminated toxoplasmosis; the diagnosis was obtained by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in all 5 lemurs. Varying degrees of placentitis and placental edema with intralesional Toxoplasma gondii immunolabeling were observed in the 3 available placentas. The dam had severe myocarditis, and T. gondii antigen was only detected in the myocardial lesions. Disseminated toxoplasmosis with mild encephalitis was noted in all 4 fetuses, and 2 of the fetuses had mild acute multifocal hepatic necrosis. Fetal death was attributed to placental insufficiency with subsequent hypoxia and amniotic fluid aspiration. PMID:21908372

Juan-Sallés, Carles; Mainez, Mireia; Marco, Alberto; Sanchís, Ana M Malabia




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A small outbreak of fatal toxoplasmosis is described in 6 kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.) in an aviary in Australia. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, and lungs. Protozoal tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclona...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) dam and its fetus based on pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and the structure of the parasite. The dolphin was stranded alive on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and died a few hrs later. At necropsy the ...



Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts by North American zoos to establish a genetically viable captive pop- ulation of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) have been compromised by high newborn mortality (;60%), primarily because of toxoplasmosis. The basis for this extreme susceptibility to toxoplas- mosis is unknown. In the present study, the general health status of wild Pallas' cats in Mongolia was evaluated, including assessment

Meredith Brown; Michael R. Lappin; Janine L. Brown; Bariushaa Munkhtsog; William F. Swanson



The Experiences and Recommendations of Families with Children Who Have Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Toxoplasmosis infections are usually asymptomatic in health hosts, but can cause serious, sometimes life threatening, sequelae in infants when the mother acquires an acute infection during pregnancy and the parasite is transmitted via the placenta to the developing fetus. This article is part of a comprehensive research project investigating the…

Roberts, Jillian; Mortimer, Tamara; Mish, Sandra; Kerns, Kimberly; Jagdis, Frank; MacMath, Sheryl



Tc-99m colloid lung uptake in a rare case of toxoplasmosis with liver involvement.  


Intensive lung accumulation of colloid (Tc-99m phytate) was demonstrated in a child suffering from acquired toxoplasmosis with a rare manifestation of severe liver damage. The possible mechanism and clinical importance of colloid lung concentration in this case is briefly discussed, including a review of the literature on this subject. PMID:6590161

Garty, I; Tal, I; Kaynan, A



Protective Immunity against Congenital Toxoplasmosis with Recombinant SAG1 Protein in a Guinea Pig Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can induce fetal pathology and abortion in both humans and animals. The present study describes the development of an experimental model of congenital toxoplasmosis in the guinea pig. In this animal model, we evaluated the protective effect of vaccination with a recombinant form of SAG1 against maternofetal transmission of tachyzoites. The presence of




Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cardiac transplantation with seropositive match for Toxoplasma: should prophylaxis be extended?  


In cardiac transplant, toxoplasmosis in the immunocompromised recipient can result either from the transmission of the parasite from a seropositive donor (D+) to a seronegative recipient (R-) with the transplanted organ (more common) or from the reactivation of a pre-transplant latent infection (D-/R+ or D+/R+). In the immunocompromised patient, toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening disease. We report a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis following heart transplantation in a Toxoplasma seropositive recipient before transplantation (R+) (IgG 1:160, IgM negative) who received an organ from a Toxoplasma seropositive donor (D+) (IgG 1:640, IgM negative). No anti-Toxoplasma prophylactic treatment was administered. A number of complications arose in the postoperative period, as well as Enterobacter cloacae and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (reactivation) infections, but neither serological nor histological toxoplasma recrudescence was evidenced. The patient died on post transplant day 41. Post-autopsy histological examinations revealed an unexpected diffuse toxoplasmosis (lungs, brain, heart). PMID:18005867

Castagnini, Marta; Bernazzali, Sonia; Ginanneschi, Chiara; Marchi, Bruna; Maccherini, Massimo; Tsioulpas, Charilaos; Tanganelli, Piero



[Recommendation for diagnostics and therapy of toxoplasmosis in persons with HIV infection].  


Reactivation of latent toxoplasmosis is a serious complication in patients with deep immunodeficiency, but the disease has a good prognosis if early diagnosed and effectively treated. Definitive etiologic proof of the reactivation may be difficult and thus an empiric method (therapeutic trial) is used for confirmation of the diagnosis in clinical practice. The preferred therapy is a combination of pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine. PMID:18320505

Machala, L; Kodym, P; Rozsypal, H; Stanková, M; Sedlácek, D



Seroepidemiological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Intellectual Disability Children in Rehabilitation Centers of Northern Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Serological studies revealed that toxoplasmosis has world wide distribution. Although the infection by "Toxoplasma gondii" is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and…

Sharif, M.; Ziaei, H.; Daryani, A.; Ajami, A.



Murine neonatal infection provides an efficient model for congenital ocular toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital infection is one of the most serious settings of infection with the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Ocular diseases, such as retinochoroiditis, are the most common sequels of such infection in utero. However, while numerous studies have investigated the physiopathology of acquired toxoplasmosis, congenital infection has been largely neglected so far. Here, we establish a mouse model of congenital ocular

Ibtissem Lahmar; Marie Guinard; Arnaud Sauer; Luc Marcellin; Tamer Abdelrahman; Michel Roux; Marc Mousli; Adnan Moussa; Hamouda Babba; Alexander W. Pfaff; Ermanno Candolfi



Factors affecting the adherence to an antenatal screening programme: an experience with toxoplasmosis screening in France.  


Monthly serological testing is mandatory in France for pregnant women not immune to toxoplasmosis. We assessed for the first time the adherence to this national programme, using data from antenatal tests for Toxoplasma antibodies collected by the Union of Health Insurance Services in the French Rhone-Alpes region. PMID:19317970

Cornu, C; Bissery, A; Malbos, C; Garwig, R; Cocherel, C; Ecochard, R; Peyron, F; Wallon, M



Determination of Genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Isolated from Patients with Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with human toxoplasmosis, we developed a sensitive approach for typing parasites grown from clinical samples by short-term in vitro culture. A newly described nested PCR assay was capable of amplifying genomic DNA from as few as five parasites in the presence of host tissues. Typing was based on DNA polymorphisms at




Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus).  


Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), an arboreal species of the tropical rainforests of South and Central America. In view of its specialized lifestyle and ecosystem and its low metabolic rate, B. tridactylus would seem to warrant further investigation in respect of its susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:11578142

Túry, E; Costa Messias, A; Belák, K; Gimeno, E J


Development and validation of a paediatric long-bone fracture classification. A prospective multicentre study in 13 European paediatric trauma centres  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to develop a child-specific classification system for long bone fractures and to examine its reliability and validity on the basis of a prospective multicentre study. Methods Using the sequentially developed classification system, three samples of between 30 and 185 paediatric limb fractures from a pool of 2308 fractures documented in two multicenter studies were analysed in a blinded fashion by eight orthopaedic surgeons, on a total of 5 occasions. Intra- and interobserver reliability and accuracy were calculated. Results The reliability improved with successive simplification of the classification. The final version resulted in an overall interobserver agreement of ? = 0.71 with no significant difference between experienced and less experienced raters. Conclusions In conclusion, the evaluation of the newly proposed classification system resulted in a reliable and routinely applicable system, for which training in its proper use may further improve the reliability. It can be recommended as a useful tool for clinical practice and offers the option for developing treatment recommendations and outcome predictions in the future.



Menstrual and reproductive factors in women, genetic variation in CYP17A1, and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.  


Menstrual and reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use have been investigated as pancreatic cancer risk factors in case-control and cohort studies, but results have been inconsistent. We conducted a prospective examination of menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use and pancreatic cancer risk (based on 304 cases) in 328,610 women from the EPIC cohort. Then, in a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort, we examined 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP17A1 (an essential gene in sex steroid metabolism) for association with pancreatic cancer in women and men (324 cases and 353 controls). Of all factors analyzed, only younger age at menarche (<12 vs. 13 years) was moderately associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the full cohort; however, this result was marginally significant (HR = 1.44; 95% CI = 0.99-2.10). CYP17A1 rs619824 was associated with HRT use (p value = 0.037) in control women; however, none of the SNPs alone, in combination, or as haplotypes were associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In conclusion, with the possible exception of an early age of menarche, none of the menstrual and reproductive factors, and none of the 12 common genetic variants we evaluated at the CYP17A1 locus makes a substantial contribution to pancreatic cancer susceptibility in the EPIC cohort. PMID:23015357

Duell, Eric J; Travier, Noémie; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Tumino, Rosario; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Ricceri, Fulvio; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Dorronsoro, Miren; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fragogeorgi, Eirini; Oikonomou, Eleni; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Canzian, Federico; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjřnneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Michaud, Dominique S; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas



Congenital toxoplasmosis in France in 2007: first results from a national surveillance system.  


When immunocompetent people become infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the disease is generally asymptomatic. However, transplacental transmission of T. gondii may lead to severe congenital infection including in utero abortion, foetal death, or neurological or ocular damage of the foetus. France has had a national programme to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis since 1978. However, although estimated seroprevalence in pregnant women has fallen from 84% in the 1960s to 44% in 2003, no reliable data have been available on the annual number of cases of congenital toxoplasmosis or the severity of infection. In 2006, the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance (Institut de Veille Sanitaire) and the National Reference Centre for Toxoplasmosis recommended that a national laboratory-based surveillance system be used for the surveillance of the disease. In 2007, 31 laboratories reported at least one congenital case through the surveillance system, giving a total of 272 cases. A total of 11 terminations of pregnancy were reported (six abortions and five foetal deaths). Of the live-born cases, 206 were asymptomatic, 28 were symptomatic and seven had a severe form of the disease. As there were 818,700 births in France and French overseas departments in 2007, the overall prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis observed that year was 3.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9 to 3.7) per 10,000 live births and the incidence rate of the disease at birth was 2.9 (95% CI: 2.5 to 3.2) per 10,000 live births; the estimated incidence rate of symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.5) cases per 10,000 live births. PMID:20587361

Villena, I; Ancelle, T; Delmas, C; Garcia, P; Brezin, A P; Thulliez, P; Wallon, M; King, L; Goulet, V



Unrecognized Ingestion of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts Leads to Congenital Toxoplasmosis and Causes Epidemics in North America  

PubMed Central

(See the Editorial Commentary by Linn, on pages 1090–1.) Background.?Congenital toxoplasmosis presents as severe, life-altering disease in North America. If mothers of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis could be identified by risks, it would provide strong support for educating pregnant women about risks, to eliminate this disease. Conversely, if not all risks are identifiable, undetectable risks are suggested. A new test detecting antibodies to sporozoites demonstrated that oocysts were the predominant source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 4 North American epidemics and in mothers of children in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS). This novel test offered the opportunity to determine whether risk factors or demographic characteristics could identify mothers infected with oocysts. Methods.?Acutely infected mothers and their congenitally infected infants were evaluated, including in-person interviews concerning risks and evaluation of perinatal maternal serum samples. Results.?Fifty-nine (78%) of 76 mothers of congenitally infected infants in NCCCTS had primary infection with oocysts. Only 49% of these mothers identified significant risk factors for sporozoite acquisition. Socioeconomic status, hometown size, maternal clinical presentations, and ethnicity were not reliable predictors. Conclusions.?Undetected contamination of food and water by oocysts frequently causes human infections in North America. Risks are often unrecognized by those infected. Demographic characteristics did not identify oocyst infections. Thus, although education programs describing hygienic measures may be beneficial, they will not suffice to prevent the suffering and economic consequences associated with congenital toxoplasmosis. Only a vaccine or implementation of systematic serologic testing of pregnant women and newborns, followed by treatment, will prevent most congenital toxoplasmosis in North America.

Boyer, Kenneth; Hill, Dolores; Mui, Ernest; Wroblewski, Kristen; Karrison, Theodore; Dubey, J. P.; Sautter, Mari; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Withers, Shawn; Swisher, Charles; Heydemann, Peter; Hosten, Tiffany; Babiarz, Jane; Lee, Daniel



The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to investigate the role of known risk factors in explaining educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, and included 242,095 women, 433 in situ and 4,469 invasive breast cancers. Reproductive history (age at first full term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviours were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. Higher invasive breast cancer risk was found among women with higher education (RII=1.22: 1.09,1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII=1.13: 0.84,1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII=1.11: 0.98,1.25), most of the association being explained by age at first full term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height contributed most of these factors. When all known risk factors were adjusted for, no association remained between education and invasive breast cancer risk. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancers and remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII=1.61: 1.07,2.41), especially among nulliparous women.

Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas



Disseminated toxoplasmosis in non-allografted patients with hematologic malignancies: report of two cases and literature review.  


Toxoplasmosis can be a severe opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and also among solid organ transplant and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. Patients with low-grade or chronic hematologic malignancies are treated with increasing immunosuppressive regimens and, therefore, represent an emerging population at risk for opportunistic diseases. We report here two cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis occurring in non-allografted hematologic patients with chronic lymphoproliferations. A review of 44 cases from the literature reveals that toxoplasmosis occurs increasingly in indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Aggressive lymphoproliferations, adenosine analogs, autologous HSCT, and the absence of chemoprophylaxis are the main risk factors for opportunistic toxoplasmosis. The central nervous system is the main organ involved. Fever is only present in half of all cases. Latent Toxoplasma cysts reactivation (LTCR) is the most common, but primary infection occurs in about 20 % of cases. Global mortality is over 50 %. PMID:23595587

Scerra, S; Coignard-Biehler, H; Lanternier, F; Suarez, F; Charlier-Woerther, C; Bougnoux, M-E; Gilquin, J; Lecuit, M; Hermine, O; Lortholary, O



Screening for Active Toxoplasmosis in Patients by DNA Hybridization with the ABGTg7 Probe in Blood Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the potential use of a specificToxoplasma gondiiDNA probe (ABGTg7). We applied a dot blot hybrid- ization assay to blood samples for the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT), acute toxoplasmic lymphadenop- athy (ATL), and disseminated toxoplasmosis in transplant recipients (TRs). We studied a total of 84 individuals: 38 patients and 46 controls. We found positive hybridization signals for 12



Modulation of immunity in mice with latent toxoplasmosis—the experimental support for the immunosuppression hypothesis of Toxoplasma -induced changes in reproduction of mice and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunosuppression hypothesis suggests that the increased sex ratio in mice and women with latent toxoplasmosis, retarded\\u000a embryonic growth in the early phases of pregnancy, prolonged pregnancy of Toxoplasma-infected women, and increased prevalence of toxoplasmosis in mothers of children with Down syndrome can be explained by the\\u000a presumed immunosuppressive effects of latent toxoplasmosis. Here, we searched for indices of immunosuppression

Šárka Ka?ková; Vladimír Holá?; Alena Zajícová; Petr Kodym; Jaroslav Flegr



Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs). Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs) within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs) recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF) and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i) selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii) designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii) gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i) appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator) with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii) rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii) providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos, celebrating achievements, incorporating social events and prizes within meetings, and providing a framework for exploitation of local data. Conclusions Many challenges associated with multi-country primary care research can be overcome by engendering strong, effective communication, commitment and involvement of all local researchers. The practical solutions identified and the lessons learned in implementing the GRACE-01 study may assist in establishing other international primary care clinical research platforms. Trial registration Identifier: NCT00353951



A natural outbreak of clinical toxoplasmosis in a backyard flock of guinea fowl in Mississippi.  


A case of a naturally occurring infection with Toxoplasma gondii in a backyard flock of guinea fowl in north Mississippi is reported. To our knowledge, this is the first worldwide report of a natural clinical infection in a flock of guinea fowl. This case was two of seven birds lost out of approximately 20 guinea fowl present in the flock. Birds reportedly exhibited lethargy prior to death. Necropsy examinations were performed on two of the dead birds. There were no gross lesions; however, intralesional protozoan cysts suggestive of T. gondii were observed microscopically. One of two guinea fowl demonstrated dramatic microscopic pathology consisting of variable multifocal necrosis, fibrin exudation, and inflammation of spleen, lung, and heart associated with protozoa cysts and tachyzoites compatible with toxoplasmosis. The bone marrow also exhibited multifocal necrosis and fibrin exudation, as well as marked erythroid and lesser granulocytic hyperplasia with intralesional protozoan cysts. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR. PMID:23397850

Jones, Kelli H; Wilson, Floyd D; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kiupel, Matti



Genetic Divergence of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Ocular Toxoplasmosis, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and the frequent occurrence of ocular disease in Brazil. To identify the genotypes of parasite strains associated with ocular disease, we compared 25 clinical and animal isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazil to previously characterized clonal lineages from North America and Europe. Multilocus nested polymerase chain reaction analysis was combined with direct sequencing of a polymorphic intron to classify strains by phylogenetic methods. The genotypes of T. gondii strains isolated from Brazil were highly divergent when compared to the previously described clonal lineages. Several new predominant genotypes were identified from different regions of Brazil, including 2 small outbreaks attributable to foodborne or waterborne infection. These findings show that the genetic makeup of T. gondii is more complex than previously recognized and suggest that unique or divergent genotypes may contribute to different clinical outcomes of toxoplasmosis in different localities.

Khan, Asis; Jordan, Catherine; Muccioli, Cristina; Vallochi, Adriana L.; Rizzo, Luiz V.; Belfort, Rubens; Vitor, Ricardo W.A.; Silveira, Claudio



Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult.  


Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima



Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI.

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima



Toxopain-1 Is Critical for Infection in a Novel Chicken Embryo Model of Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that cathepsins and specifically toxopain-1, a cathepsin B, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis. We found that inhibiting the expression of toxopain-1-specific mRNA and protein by >60% significantly decreased the capacity of the parasites to multiply and invade in vitro. To relate these in vitro results to the role of toxopain-1 in pathogenesis

Xuchu Que; Annette Wunderlich; Keith A. Joiner; Sharon L. Reed



Toxoplasma gondii antibody profile in HIV-infected pregnant women and the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women and to determine the association between serological profile\\u000a and the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. The study, conducted in a public maternity ward from May 2002 to April 2005, included\\u000a all HIV-infected women who delivered live infants during the 36 months, and,

E. G. Lago; G. S. Conrado; C. S. Piccoli; R. L. Carvalho; A. L. Bender



Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Hebron district, Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure the prevalence of toxoplasmosis, we tested 204 pregnant women for IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The study was conducted in Hebron district during the year 2005. The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was 27.9% while IgM seroprevalence was 17.6%; the seroprevalence of T. gondii increased with age. More women from

K. I. Nijem; S. Al-Amleh


Intravitreal ranibizumab for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization secondary to ocular toxoplasmosis.  


The purpose of the study was to report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to ocular toxoplasmosis in an 18-year-old female patient. She was treated with a single intravitreal injection of ranibizumab. The CNV resolved as confirmed by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The visual acuity improved to 20/30, which was maintained till the last follow-up visit at two years, without requisition of a repeat injection. PMID:21666322

Shah, Nikunj J; Shah, Urmi N


CD4+ T Cells in the Pathogenesis of Murine Ocular Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of CD4 T cells in the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis was investigated in murine models utilizing inbred C57BL\\/6 mice deficient either in CD4, CD8, or B cells (MT). Severe necrosis and inflammation with replicating parasites were observed in the eyes of control mice after primary ocular infection, and near-normal histology with few tachyzoites was observed in the eyes

Fangli Lu; Shiguang Huang; Lloyd H. Kasper



The temperature-sensitive mutants of Toxoplasma gondii and ocular toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of blindness caused by ocular toxoplasmosis supports efforts to improve our understanding for control of this disease. In this study, the involvement of CD8+, CD4+, B cell, and IL-10 gene in the immune response of primary ocular infection with the temperature-sensitive mutant (ts-4) of the RH Toxoplasma gondii strain, and in the protective immunity of ocular ts-4 vaccination

Fangli Lu; Shiguang Huang; Lloyd H. Kasper



Chicken Toxoplasmosis in Different Types of Breeding: A Seroprevalence Survey in Southern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Since the meat of chicken is considered one of the sources of the human infection, this study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging with semi-industrial and industrial chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Shiraz, Southern, Iran. 203 serum samples from free-ranging chickens of sub-urban districts, 50 serum samples of semi-industri al chickens which rearing in

Q. Asgari; F. Akrami Mohajeri; M. Kalantari; B. Esmaeilzadeh; A. Farzaneh; M. Moazeni; S. R. Ghalebi; F. Saremi; M. Zarifi Kalyani; M. H. Motazedian



Effect of immunosuppressive drug regimens on acute and chronic murine toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the potential risk of dissemination or reactivation of toxoplasmosis following the administration of immunosuppressive\\u000a therapy we examined the effect of corticoids, azathioprine, and cyclosporine given alone or in combination on the course of\\u000a murine acute and chronic toxoplasmic infection. Swiss Webster mice were infected perorally with a high-level inoculum of cysts\\u000a of the C strain of Toxoplasma gondii.

Marie Hélčne Sumyuen; Yves Jean François Garin; Francis Derouin



[Toxoplasmosis: a survey on meat products in Côte d'Ivoire].  


Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis that can cause severe problems under certain circumstances. Before the advent of the last-generation anti-retroviral drugs, estimation predicted that 50% of HIV-infected patients would develop toxoplasmosis (mainly central nervous system forms). It is the first clinical manifestation of AIDS in 20% of patients. This report describes an epidemiological survey on the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies in bushmeat and pork in the Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose was to determine how the parasite circulates among wild and domestic animals and to evaluate the risk of transmission to humans after ingestion of these meats. Fifteen samples of bushmeat were purchased on markets in 6 different cities. A total of 91 single samples of fresh pork raised at three different modern breeding facilities were collected from a slaughterhouse in Abidjan. Serological testing was performed on muscle fluid using an ELISA test (Pourquier Toxoplasma kit). No bushmeat sample was positive. Global seroprevalence in pork samples was 8.8% [range, 8.2-9.37]. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis measured in pork samples produced at modern livestock breeding facilities was lower than values reported in samples produced by traditional breeding in Africa. This finding suggests that the use of modern techniques excluding rodents (good hygiene) can reduce animal contamination. Curing (heat and smoking) may account for the absence of Toxoplasma antibodies in bushmeat. Public information campaigns concerning the risk of consuming meat containing cysts as well as raw vegetables contaminated with oocysts are needed to prevent transmission of toxoplasmosis. PMID:20099684

Prangé, A; Perret, C; Marié, J L; Calvet, F; Halos, L; Boireau, P; Davoust, B



Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii polysaccharides in human toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

A polysaccharide fraction from Toxoplasma gondii was adsorbed to polystyrene plates, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed (poly-ELISA) with peroxidase-labeled anti-immunoglobulin G and anti-immunoglobulin M antibodies. A comparison was made with a T. gondii total protein extract ELISA (protein ELISA) in serum samples presenting different toxoplasmosis serological patterns, as indicated by a battery of tests for toxoplasmosis. Very low titers and negative results were seen for immunoglobulin G poly-ELISA both for serum samples corresponding to ancient or transitional-period infections (serological patterns II and III) and for samples of recent or acute toxoplasmosis (pattern I). On the contrary, immunoglobulin M poly-ELISA furnished high titer results for pattern I sera, and a very close agreement of titers was seen between immunoglobulin M protein ELISA and immunoglobulin M poly-ELISA. When the polysaccharide fraction was added to pattern I sera, a complete blocking of immunoglobulin M antibody reactivity resulted only for poly-ELISA. In the same way, the total protein extract could completely block only reactivity for protein ELISA. In both cases, a limited decrease in titers was observed for respective heterologous assays.

Mineo, J R; Camargo, M E; Ferreira, A W



Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the residents of Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea.  


The seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis was surveyed among the residents of Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do by means of ELISA using a crude extract antigen of Toxoplasma gondii. The sera of 1,661 adult residents (866 males and 795 females) were collected and checked for IgG antibody titers, which showed 17.0% positive rate (282 sera). The positive rate was significantly different between the sex; 20.6% for males and 13.1% for females (P<0.05). The positive rates were higher in fifties of males (28.7%) and forties of females (20.0%). This positive rate of toxoplasmosis in Cheorwon-gun residents is regarded as the highest among the surveys of different geographical regions of Korea. This high positive rate may due in part to peculiar geographical locality of the surveyed area near the naturally well preserved demilitarized zone (DMZ) or presumably consumption of the pork imported from high endemic nations. Therefore, it is necessary to study further the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Cheorwon-gun. PMID:22949750

Ahn, Hye-Jin; Cho, Pyo Yun; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Kim, Tong-Soo; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Hong, Sung-Jong; Cha, Seok Ho; Nam, Ho-Woo



Maintained seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the residents of Jeju island, Korea.  


Seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis among the residents of Jeju island was surveyed and evaluated by ELISA with crude extract of Toxoplasma gondii. The sera of 2,348 residents (male 1,157 and female 1,191) were collected and checked for the IgG antibody titers, which showed 13.2% positive rate (309 sera). The positive rates were increasing gradually according to the age from 4.3% in teenage to 20.6% in seventies. The positive rates were significantly different between the sex by 16.2% for male and 10.2% for female (P<0.05). This positive rate of toxoplasmosis in Jeju island residents is regarded relatively higher than any other regions of Korea. And the high positive rate may be maintained continuously among Jeju island residents without any clear reasons until now but due to some parts peculiar socio-cultural tradition of Jeju island. Therefore, it is necessary to study further the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis of Jeju island. PMID:22072835

Hong, Sung-Jong; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Lee, Kyutaeg; Kim, Tong-Soo; Hong, Yeon-Pyo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hak-Yong; Ko, A-Ra; Kim, Yong-Joo; Nam, Ho-Woo



Maintained Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among the Residents of Jeju Island, Korea  

PubMed Central

Seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis among the residents of Jeju island was surveyed and evaluated by ELISA with crude extract of Toxoplasma gondii. The sera of 2,348 residents (male 1,157 and female 1,191) were collected and checked for the IgG antibody titers, which showed 13.2% positive rate (309 sera). The positive rates were increasing gradually according to the age from 4.3% in teenage to 20.6% in seventies. The positive rates were significantly different between the sex by 16.2% for male and 10.2% for female (P<0.05). This positive rate of toxoplasmosis in Jeju island residents is regarded relatively higher than any other regions of Korea. And the high positive rate may be maintained continuously among Jeju island residents without any clear reasons until now but due to some parts peculiar socio-cultural tradition of Jeju island. Therefore, it is necessary to study further the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis of Jeju island.

Hong, Sung-Jong; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Lee, Kyutaeg; Kim, Tong-Soo; Hong, Yeon-Pyo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hak-Yong; Ko, A-Ra; Kim, Yong-Joo



The effectiveness of a prenatal education programme for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

A 10 min education programme was developed which, if effective in changing the behaviour of pregnant women, would eliminate or greatly reduce the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. It was taught in 26 randomly selected (case) prenatal classes offered to women early in their pregnancy. The remaining 26 (control) classes received routine class material which did not mention toxoplasmosis. A questionnaire was administered to all women prior to this early class (pre-test) and again after the last prenatal class, held just prior to delivery (post-test). Changes in pet, food and personal hygiene behaviour between the pre- and post-test were determined and a score calculated by adding points for change towards those behaviours recommended in the programme and subtracting points for change in the opposite direction. Cat owners in case classes had a significantly higher score in pet hygiene behaviour than those in control classes (P less than 0.05). No significant difference was found between the food or personal hygiene scores of women in case and control classes, possibly because of low power. However, although behaviours did not differ on the pre-test, women in case classes had significantly better cooking methods for roast beef and hamburger on the post-test (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.01 respectively). It is concluded that this programme is effective and should be offered to all women in order to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis incidence.

Carter, A. O.; Gelmon, S. B.; Wells, G. A.; Toepell, A. P.



Antibody response of HIV-infected patients to latent, cerebral and recently acquired toxoplasmosis.  


The aim of this longitudinal study with 626 HIV-infected patients was to evaluate the capability of serological tests in diagnosing the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV-infected patients, as well as the potential impact of various treatment regimes on serological results. Low IgG antibody levels and stable or declining titres predominated. IgM positivity occurred in ten patients (one seroconversion, seven latent, two cerebral toxoplasmosis). Complement fixation test (CFT) titres >or=1:32 imply that the relative risk of cerebral toxoplasmosis is 6.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-32.5) but with a predictive value of only 14.0% (95% CI 5.3-27.9). Values of specific antibodies are not biassed by antiretroviral treatment and/or prophylaxis for toxoplasmosis, and the detection of specific antibodies is very useful in the identification of T. gondii infection in the HIV-infected population, but the role of serology in predicting the clinical manifestation of T. gondii infection is limited. PMID:18688665

Machala, L; Malý, M; Hrdá, S; Rozsypal, H; Stanková, M; Kodym, P



Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with ovine toxoplasmosis in Northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

Serum samples of 930 sheep were tested by ELISA to assess the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to identify risk factors associated with the presence of toxoplasmosis in two regions of Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast Brazil), with different climatic conditions. The overall estimated prevalence was 22.1%, with 26.3% and 17.8% positive sheep in Leste Potiguar and Central Potiguar regions, respectively. Among the positive sheep, 18.1% had low-avidity IgG antibodies, suggesting the occurrence of recent toxoplasmosis. The risk factors for toxoplasmosis in sheep were: presence of cats (odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; confidence interval (CI) 95% = 1.11–2.16), age of the animals, with adults presenting a greater chance of infection (OR = 2.44; CI 95% = 1.58–3.75), and the use of running water (OR = 1.61; CI 95% = 1.25–2.09), characterizing the existence of transmission by sporulated oocysts of T. gondii in the environment.

Andrade, Milena M. Clementino; Carneiro, Mariangela; Medeiros, Andrea D.; Neto, Valter Andrade; Vitor, Ricardo W.A.



The complement-fixation test in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.  


We present serologic results on 26 patients with congenital toxoplasmosis and on 22 of their mothers. The infection was severe (central nervous system involvement) in 12 patients, 12 had only ocular manifestations, and two were asymptomatic. The dye test results were positive on all specimens, and were positive at a titer of 1:1,024 or higher if collected from patients younger than 2 years of age. The complement-fixation test (CFT) results were positive on all specimens from patients younger than 2 years of age and on 69% of specimens collected from older patients. These serologic results are contrasted with those obtained on two control groups: (1) 46 uninfected infants followed up after birth because of substantial antibody titers in their mothers during pregnancy; and (2) 190 infants and children tested because toxoplasmosis was tentatively included in the differential diagnosis of the current illness. In both control groups the positive results on the CFT were limited almost exclusively to cord blood specimens or specimens collected during the first 2 weeks of life. Lower CFT titers in follow-up specimens suggested that the antibodies were maternal in origin. These two tests are valuable in providing laboratory support for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, particularly the test for the comparatively short-lived complement-fixing antibody. PMID:835519

Kean, B H; Kimball, A C



Modulation of immunity in mice with latent toxoplasmosis--the experimental support for the immunosuppression hypothesis of Toxoplasma-induced changes in reproduction of mice and humans.  


The immunosuppression hypothesis suggests that the increased sex ratio in mice and women with latent toxoplasmosis, retarded embryonic growth in the early phases of pregnancy, prolonged pregnancy of Toxoplasma-infected women, and increased prevalence of toxoplasmosis in mothers of children with Down syndrome can be explained by the presumed immunosuppressive effects of latent toxoplasmosis. Here, we searched for indices of immunosuppression in mice experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Our results showed that mice in the early phase of latent infection exhibited temporarily increased production of interleukin (IL)-12 and decreased production of IL-10. In accordance with the immunosuppression hypothesis, the mice showed decreased production of IL-2 and nitric oxide and decreased proliferation reaction (synthesis of DNA) in the mixed lymphocyte culture in the early and also in the late phases of latent toxoplasmosis. Since about 30% of the world population are latently infected by T. gondii, the toxoplasmosis-associated immunosuppression might have serious public health consequences. PMID:20721578

Ka?ková, Sárka; Holá?, Vladimír; Zajícová, Alena; Kodym, Petr; Flegr, Jaroslav



Trends and Prospects of Electronic Home Working. Results of a Survey in Four Major European Countries (Tendances et Perspectives dans le Travail a Domicile par Ordinateur. Resultats d'une Enquete dans Quatre Pays Europeens).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a survey by four European countries on attitudes and acceptance of about 10,000 people questioned on electronic equipment and homeworking. Since new technology distance working can potentially change the lives of many Europeans, or even the ...



Immunodiagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid of cerebral toxoplasmosis and HIV-infected patients using Toxoplasma gondii excreted/secreted antigens.  


Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common neurologic opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. Excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) are the majority of the circulating antigens in sera from hosts with acute toxoplasmosis, and their usefulness as antigens has been shown. This study considered whether it could find anti-ESA antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and whether these antibodies can be markers of active infection. Samples of CSF from 270 HIV-infected patients were analyzed and divided into 3 groups according to the presence or absence of active toxoplasmosis. Group I: 99 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis; group II: 112 patients with other opportunistic neurologic diseases and seropositive for toxoplasmosis; and group III: 59 patients with other opportunistic neurologic diseases and seronegative for toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii ESA and a crude tachyzoite antigen were used as antigens using ELISA and immunoblotting. The statistical analysis was done using the F test and unpaired Student's t test. Crude tachyzoite antigen: mean ELISA-relative values ± standard error for CSF of groups I and II were 7.0 ± 0.27 and 3.9 ± 0.19, respectively. Variance analysis revealed that results of both groups of patients were statistically different (1.80, P = 0.0025). The difference between the mean results was 3.0 ± 0.3, and the Student's t test value was 9.41 (P = 0.0001). Samples from groups I and II were reactive by immunoblotting, with similar intensities. In ESA-ELISA, the mean for group I was 9.0 ± 0.39. Group II showed a mean value of 2.7 ± 0.12. Both groups were statistically different (9.16, P < 0.001). However, in ESA, the difference between the mean results was higher (6.2 ± 0.39) and the Student's t test value was 16.04 (P < 0.0001). Similar results were shown in immunoblotting where a CSF sample from group I reacted well with ESA, and the sample from a group II patient failed to do so. The mean ELISA-relative value of the control group (group III) was 0.5 ± 0.09 for the first antigen and 0.4 ± 0.22 for the second. ESA-ELISA and/or immunoblotting of CSF samples can be used for diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in association with clinical, serologic, and radiological information, thus providing a simple straightforward methodology, particularly suitable in countries with high prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in the general population. PMID:21907524

Meira, Cristina S; Vidal, José E; Costa-Silva, Thaís A; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L



Endochin-like quinolones are highly efficacious against acute and latent experimental toxoplasmosis.  


Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan pathogen that causes devastating ocular and central nervous system disease. We show that the endochin-like quinolone (ELQ) class of compounds contains extremely potent inhibitors of T. gondii growth in vitro and is effective against acute and latent toxoplasmosis in mice. We screened 50 ELQs against T. gondii and selected two lead compounds, ELQ-271 and ELQ-316, for evaluation. ELQ-271 and ELQ-316, have in vitro IC(50) values of 0.1 nM and 0.007 nM, respectively. ELQ-271 and ELQ-316 have ED(50) values of 0.14 mg/kg and 0.08 mg/kg when administered orally to mice with acute toxoplasmosis. Moreover, ELQ-271 and ELQ-316 are highly active against the cyst form of T. gondii in mice at low doses, reducing cyst burden by 76-88% after 16 d of treatment. To investigate the ELQ mechanism of action against T. gondii, we demonstrate that endochin and ELQ-271 inhibit cytochrome c reduction by the T. gondii cytochrome bc(1) complex at 8 nM and 31 nM, respectively. We also show that ELQ-271 inhibits the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome bc(1) complex, and an M221Q amino acid substitution in the Q(i) site of the protein leads to >100-fold resistance. We conclude that ELQ-271 and ELQ-316 are orally bioavailable drugs that are effective against acute and latent toxoplasmosis, likely acting as inhibitors of the Q(i) site of the T. gondii cytochrome bc(1) complex. PMID:23019377

Doggett, J Stone; Nilsen, Aaron; Forquer, Isaac; Wegmann, Keith W; Jones-Brando, Lorraine; Yolken, Robert H; Bordón, Claudia; Charman, Susan A; Katneni, Kasiram; Schultz, Tracey; Burrows, Jeremy N; Hinrichs, David J; Meunier, Brigitte; Carruthers, Vern B; Riscoe, Michael K



[Results of serological reactions in patients with presumptive diagnosis of toxoplasmosis].  


Even though Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous parasite that can effect most of human structures and organs, not all clinical manifestations suggestive of being produced by it are caused by this protozoon. For these reasons sera samples of patients suspected of having toxoplasmosis are sent to the laboratory for detecting specific antibodies which would facilitate the differential diagnosis. Thus, 716 sera from suspected patients, mainly from the Metropolitan Region of Chile, were sent to the Parasitology Laboratory of Chile University in order to carry out in them, specific serological tests for toxoplasmosis: indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), Sabin Feldman reaction (SFT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Were considered positive: IHAT and/or SFT with titers > or = 1:16 and CFT with titer > or = 1:5. The pathologies for demanding these serological tests were obstetrical problems 210 (29.3%), congenital problems 193 (27.0%), ophthalmopathies 81 (11.3%), adenopathies 77 (10.8%), AIDS 67 (9.4%), myocardiopathies 46 (6.4%) and miscellaneous 42 (5.9%). The positivity found in these sera was higher in ophthalmopathies (61.7%), followed by obstetrical problems, miscellaneous problems, myocardiopathies and AIDS (50.7-52.4%), less frequent was the positivity in adenopathies (35.1%) and congenital problems (23.1%). In general, the 43.7% of positivity for toxoplasmosis found in these patients is higher than the 37.0% found in the general population. High titers of IHAT and SFT plus positive CFT was found in 13-fold higher proportion than in the general population. PMID:1844141

Castro, M; Contreras, M C; Salinas, P


Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by using a whole-blood gamma interferon release assay.  


Congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns is generally subclinical, but infected infants are at risk of developing ocular lesions. Diagnosis at birth relies mainly on serological tests. Cell-mediated immunity plays the major role in resistance to infection but is not routinely investigated for diagnostic purposes. Here, we describe a simple test based on the gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) response after stimulation of whole blood by crude parasitic antigens. One milliliter of heparinized blood was centrifuged; plasma was kept for routine serological tests, and pellets were resuspended in culture medium. After 24 h of culture in the presence of crude Toxoplasma gondii antigen, the cells were centrifuged and the supernatant was assayed for IFN-gamma. For 62 infants under 1 year of age born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 94% (with positive results for 16 of 17 infected infants) and 98% (with negative results for 44 of 45 uninfected infants), respectively. The false-negative result was for a treated baby who gave positive results after the withdrawal of treatment. The false positive was obtained for a 3-month-old baby. For a cohort of 124 congenitally infected patients between 1 and 30 years of age, the sensitivity of the assay was 100%. We present a simple test based on IFN-gamma secretion to assess cell-mediated immunity in toxoplasmosis. As only 1 ml of blood is required to investigate humoral and cellular immunity, our assay is well adapted for the study of congenital toxoplasmosis in infants. Using purified antigens or recombinant peptides may improve the test performance. PMID:19923492

Chapey, Emmanuelle; Wallon, Martine; Debize, Gisčle; Rabilloud, Muriel; Peyron, François



Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis by Using a Whole-Blood Gamma Interferon Release Assay?  

PubMed Central

Congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns is generally subclinical, but infected infants are at risk of developing ocular lesions. Diagnosis at birth relies mainly on serological tests. Cell-mediated immunity plays the major role in resistance to infection but is not routinely investigated for diagnostic purposes. Here, we describe a simple test based on the gamma interferon (IFN-?) response after stimulation of whole blood by crude parasitic antigens. One milliliter of heparinized blood was centrifuged; plasma was kept for routine serological tests, and pellets were resuspended in culture medium. After 24 h of culture in the presence of crude Toxoplasma gondii antigen, the cells were centrifuged and the supernatant was assayed for IFN-?. For 62 infants under 1 year of age born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 94% (with positive results for 16 of 17 infected infants) and 98% (with negative results for 44 of 45 uninfected infants), respectively. The false-negative result was for a treated baby who gave positive results after the withdrawal of treatment. The false positive was obtained for a 3-month-old baby. For a cohort of 124 congenitally infected patients between 1 and 30 years of age, the sensitivity of the assay was 100%. We present a simple test based on IFN-? secretion to assess cell-mediated immunity in toxoplasmosis. As only 1 ml of blood is required to investigate humoral and cellular immunity, our assay is well adapted for the study of congenital toxoplasmosis in infants. Using purified antigens or recombinant peptides may improve the test performance.

Chapey, Emmanuelle; Wallon, Martine; Debize, Gisele; Rabilloud, Muriel; Peyron, Francois



Acute fatal toxoplasmosis in squirrels (Sciurus carolensis) with bradyzoites in visceral tissues.  


Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 3 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolensis) from Louisiana and Pennsylvania. The predominant lesion was multifocal necrosis in several organs, especially of the lymph nodes. Numerous Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were seen in lesions, and the diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by reaction with polyclonal T. gondii-specific antibodies. Tissue cysts were seen in several organs, including lung alveoli. The presence of tissue cysts in alveoli of pet squirrels maybe of public health concern if tissue cysts excreted in nasal secretions are swallowed by children. PMID:16884019

Dubey, J P; Hodgin, E C; Hamir, A N



Plasma Pyrimethamine Concentrations during Long-Term Treatment for Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Patients with AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady-stateplasmapyrimethaminelevelsweremeasuredbygaschromatography.Thespecimensweretaken from 74 adults with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection receiving pyrimethamine-containing drugs for prophylaxis or curative therapy of reactivated cerebral toxoplasmosis. During an overall treatment period of 1,049 months, 1,012 plasma samples were investigated. Pyrimethamine concentrations could be evaluatedin904plasmasamples.Theweeklydosageofpyrimethaminerangedfrom25to1,400mg;onepatient withseverediarrheareceived2,100mg\\/week.Steady-stateplasmapyrimethamineconcentrationswereachieved after 12 to 20 days. Pyrimethamine concentrations evidently increased with the weekly dosage given. Mean concentrations were 253 6151




Human toxoplasmosis: which biological diagnostic tests are best suited to which clinical situations?  


The Toxoplasma gondii parasite is a worldwide threat most particularly in fetal life and immunosuppression. In most clinical situations (except in some ocular cases), correct detection or identification of toxoplasmosis requires biological analysis. This article considers the laboratory tools that have been developed in this field since the discovery of the pathogen, with emphasis on the most recent tests and how they can or should be used in different clinical situations. The authors also discuss the requirements and pitfalls that one should be aware of when biologically investigating this intriguing parasitosis. PMID:24053275

Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Fricker Hidalgo, Hélčne; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé



Natural toxoplasma gondii infections in European brown hares and mountain hares in Finland: proportional mortality rate, antibody prevalence, and genetic characterization.  


In material examined postmortem in Finland from May 2006 to April 2009, acute generalized toxoplasmosis was the immunohistochemically confirmed cause of death in 14 (8.1%) of 173 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and four (2.7%) of 148 mountain hares (Lepus timidus). Sera from 116 of the European brown hares and 99 of the mountain hares were screened with a commercial direct agglutination test for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies at a dilution of 1:40. All sera from cases of fatal toxoplasmosis had high titers of antibodies reactive to T. gondii. In contrast, none of 107 European brown hares and four (4%) of 96 mountain hares that died of other causes were antibody-positive. The proportional mortality rates and the T. gondii antibody prevalences among noncases differed significantly between the two host species (P<0.05). Direct genetic characterization of the causative agent was performed on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of the hares with fatal toxoplasmosis. Based on the results with six microsatellite markers (B18, TUB2, TgM-A, W35, B17, and M33; all six in 15 cases and four in three cases), all the cases were caused by T. gondii genotype II; the size of the PCR product at the seventh marker (M48) varied (213-229 base pairs). The presence of T. gondii genotype II, which is endemic in Europe, is now confirmed in Finnish wildlife: Natural infections with T. gondii parasites belonging to this widespread genotype caused fatal generalized toxoplasmosis in the two species of wild hares. PMID:21270004

Jokelainen, Pikka; Isomursu, Marja; Näreaho, Anu; Oksanen, Antti



[Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous systems after allogeneic stem cell transplantation].  


Toxoplasmosis is a rare opportunistic protozoal infection, which may occur in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This disease originates almost exclusively from reactivation of latent infection in seropositive recipients. We present a case report of one patient with diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia undergoing two allogeneic stem cell transplantations at two years interval. The second transplantation was complicated by the development of the toxoplasmic encephalitis in early posttransplant course. The initial neurological symptoms included diplopia caused by the paresis of right side motor branches of the 3rd and 6th cranial nerves due to a compressive lesion in basal ganglia. Patient suddenly deteriorated after an epileptic seizure followed by a loss of consciousness, bilateral ptosis and right side mydriasis. Prolonged sopor and bilateral mydriasis appeared because of the further lesion progression in basal ganglia and compression of the 3rd cranial nerve. After targeted therapy of Toxoplasma gondii the patient's clinical status improved and she regained consciousness. Unfortunately, examination of bone marrow later revealed the relapse of leukemia. We compared risk factors of the latent reactivation of infection in immunocompromised patients with published data. It is of interest that the toxoplasmosis of the brain developed in this patient after the second transplantation. PMID:20518252

Pevná, Michaela; Vondrácek, Petr; Palásek, Ivo; Kerkovský, Milos; Korístek, Zden?k; Navrátil, Milan; Klabusay, Martin



Use of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Hybridization Probes To Evaluate Quantitative Real-Time PCR for Diagnosis of Ocular Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important cause of chorioretinitis in Europe and the United States. Ophthalmological examination and a good clinical response to adequate therapy mainly support ocular toxoplasmosis diagnosis. However, clinical diagnostic may be difficult in some atypical cases. In these cases, laboratory confirmation, based on detection of local specific antibodies and parasite DNA by conventional PCR, is therefore

Audrey Simon; Pierre Labalette; Isabelle Ordinaire; Emilie Frealle; Eduardo Dei-Cas; Daniel Camus; Laurence Delhaes



[Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: comparative evaluation of the Sabin-Feldman, indirect immunofluorescence and complement fixation tests].  


The AA. compared the indirect immunofluorescence test (IFI), with dye test and complement fixation test (CFT), used in diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. CFT sensitivity is slightly inferior to that of dye test and IFI; the later give strictly similar results especially at medium and high titers; IFI is more readily and safety performed and easier to interpret. PMID:800773

Moirachi Ruggenini, A; Sacco, T F; Nani, E


Polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: more than two decades of development and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasmosis, a protozoan disease caused by the coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases of humans. Although most infections are subclinical and asymptomatic, it\\u000a has a great importance with respect to immunocompromized hosts and congenitally infected newborns. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection has gained in great interest over the past decades with a wide

Rashad Abdul-Ghani



Genotypic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Human Toxoplasmosis in Spain: Direct Analysis from Clinical Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the different genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (strain types I, II, and III) associated with human toxoplasmosis in Spain. This determi- nation was made directly from primary clinical samples, obviating the previous process of isolation in mice or cell culture. A total of 34 isolates of T. gondii,




The national neonatal screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark: results from the initial four years, 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe the outcome of four years' nationwide neonatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in liveborn newborns. Methods Congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosed if specific Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in eluate from the PKU Guthrie filter paper card from a child. Infants diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis were examined for intracranial and retinal lesions and treated for three months with sulphadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid continuously. Results Eluates from PKU?cards from 262?912 newborns were analysed. The birth prevalence of congenital toxoplasma infection was 2.1 per 10?000 liveborns. Congenital toxoplasmosis was suspected in 96 infants and confirmed in 55. Forty seven children were examined for intracranial and retinal lesions soon after birth; 12 had clinical signs at this first examination. Of these, 5 had intracranial calcifications, 2 had retinochoroidal lesions, 4 had intracranial calcifications and retinochoroidal lesions, and 1 had hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, and retinochoroidal lesions. Ninety four eyes were examined soon after birth; there were central retinochoroidal lesions in 9. Two children had macular lesion of both eyes, five had macular lesions of one eye. At 1 year of age, 10/68 eyes had central lesions, and at 3 years of age, 5/32 had central lesions. Thus new retinochoroidal lesions developed in three eyes in the observation period. Conclusions Neonatal screening is feasible for diagnosing children with congenital toxoplasmosis at birth in low endemic areas. Retinochoroiditis with macular lesion was diagnosed in 9.6% of the eyes at birth and in 15.6% of the eyes examined at 3 years of age.

Schmidt, D R; Hogh, B; Andersen, O; Fuchs, J; Fledelius, H; Petersen, E



Anti-Toxoplasma antibody prevalence, primary infection rate, and risk factors in a study of toxoplasmosis in 4,466 pregnant women in Japan.  


Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by infection with Toxoplasma gondii and is prevalent worldwide under various climatic conditions. It is usually asymptomatic, but infection in pregnant women can pose serious health problems for the fetus. However, epidemiological information regarding toxoplasmosis in Japanese pregnant women is limited. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies, the primary infection rate, and the risk factors for toxoplasmosis in Japanese pregnant women. We measured anti-Toxoplasma antibody titers in 4,466 pregnant women over a period of 7.5 years and simultaneously conducted interviews to identify the risk factors for toxoplasmosis. The overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was 10.3%, and it was significantly higher in women aged above 35 years. The rate of primary Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy was estimated to be 0.25%. A possibility of infection in the later stages of pregnancy was identified for those women who were not infected in the early stages. A history of raw meat intake was identified to be a risk factor related to toxoplasmosis. Therefore, to lower the risk of toxoplasmosis, pregnant women should refrain from eating raw and undercooked meat and maintain personal hygiene. PMID:22205659

Sakikawa, Makiko; Noda, Shunichi; Hanaoka, Masachi; Nakayama, Hirotoshi; Hojo, Satoshi; Kakinoki, Shigeko; Nakata, Maki; Yasuda, Takashi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Kojima, Toshiyuki




Microsoft Academic Search

The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War \\

Montani Guido



Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans.  


Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that subjects with latent infection of the coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii have a higher concentration of testosterone than uninfected controls. Here, we searched for direct evidence of latent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration among a population of 174 female and 91 male students screened for Toxoplasma infection. We have found Toxoplasma-infected men to have a higher concentration of testosterone and Toxoplasma-infected women to have a lower concentration of testosterone than Toxoplasma-free controls. The opposite direction of the testosterone shift in men compared to women can explain the observed gender specificity of behavioural shifts in Toxoplasma-infected subjects. PMID:18205984

Flegr, J; Lindová, J; Kodym, P



Diagnosis of antigenic markers of acute toxoplasmosis by IgG avidity immunoblotting  

PubMed Central

To perform IgG avidity immunoblotting assay for detection of acute toxoplasmosis, 100 serum samples were collected from Tehran, Iran. The presence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were checked by commercial Trinity kit. Samples were categorized in acute and chronic phases of Toxoplasma gondii infection according to IgG avidity ELISA. IgG avidity immunoblotting was performed, and antigenic bands with molecular weights of 22, 25, 28, 30, 32, 42, 44, 49, 55, 60, 66, 69, 88, 106, 130 and 157 kDa were recognized as low avidity markers. The most prevalent antigen for low avidity was p22. It is concluded that IgG avidity immunoblotting could distinguish acute and chronic phases of T. gondii infection.

Ali-Heydari, Siamak; Keshavarz, Hossien; Shojaee, Saeedeh; Mohebali, Mehdi



"Blind periods" in screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Austria - a debate  

PubMed Central

Recent studies from Austria, France and Italy have shown that there is a poor adherence to the screening scheme for maternal Toxoplasma infections in pregnancy demonstrated by the fact that many recommended examinations are missed. This leads to undetected infections and limits our knowledge of incidence of the disease. We discuss the negative consequences of this situation on research on treatment effectiveness and the outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis. The responsible public health institutions should assume responsibility for appropriate surveillance of the screening programme and take measures to improve screening adherence during pregnancy. Screening should start as early as possible in pregnancy and the latest test should be done at delivery. Screening schedule should allow distinguishing infections from the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, as the risk of materno-foetal transmission and outcomes in case of foetal infections varies by time.



Identification and characterization of Toxoplasma gondii aspartic protease 1 as a novel vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can pose a serious threat to human health by causing toxoplasmosis. There are no drugs that target the chronic cyst stage of this infection; therefore, development of an effective vaccine would be an important advance. Aspartic proteases play essential roles in the T. gondii lifecycle. The parasite has four aspartic protease encoding genes, which are called toxomepsin 1, 2, 3 and 5 (TgASP1, 2, 3 and 5, respectively). Methods Bioinformatics approaches have enabled us to identify several promising linear-B cell epitopes and potential Th-cell epitopes on TgASP1, thus supporting its potential as a DNA vaccine against toxoplasmosis. We expressed TgASP1 in Escherichia coli and used the purified protein to immunize BALB/c mice. The antibodies obtained were used to determine where TgASP1 was localized in the parasite. We also made a TgASP1 DNA vaccine construct and evaluated it for the level of protection conferred to mice against infection with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. Results TgASP1 appears to be a membrane protein located primarily at the tip of the T. gondii tachyzoite. Investigation of its potential as a DNA vaccine showed that it elicited strong humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and that these responses were mediated by Th-1 cells. Mice immunized with the vaccine had greater levels of protection against mortality following challenge with T. gondii RH tachyzoites than did those immunized with PBS or the empty vector control. Conclusions TgASP1 is a novel candidate DNA vaccine that merits further investigation.



Toxoplasmosis and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Macropus rufus and Macropus giganteus in Argentina.  


Toxoplasma gondii infection is frequently asymptomatic; however, it can be severe or even fatal to some hosts. In this study, diagnosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis in one red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and one great grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) from the La Plata Zoo, Argentina and the isolation and molecular characterization of T. gondii are reported. Both male kangaroos showed depression and sudden death. Toxoplasma gondii infection was diagnosed by fresh examination, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, PCR and bioassay in mice. During fresh examination many protozoan cysts were observed in diaphragm, heart and hind limb muscles of M. rufus. Cysts were also observed in samples from M. giganteus, although in lower number. Cysts from both kangaroos stained strongly with T. gondii anti-serum by immunohistochemistry. The M. rufus showed more considerable histopathological lesions like non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, myositis and myocarditis. All mice inoculated with tissues from both kangaroos developed IFAT titers to T. gondii (titer >or=800) and brain cysts at necropsy. Both T. gondii isolates were maintained by mice passages and the M. rufus isolate was also maintained in cell culture. Toxoplasma gondii DNA from tissue samples was analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis using the markers 5'SAG2, 3'SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, c22-8, L358, PK1, c29-2 and Apico. Genotyping revealed that the T. gondii isolate from M. rufus was clonal type III and the isolate from M. giganteus was clonal type II. This is the first report of disseminated toxoplasmosis in M. rufus and M. giganteus in Argentina caused by genotypes of T. gondii considered non-virulent in a mouse model. PMID:20045255

Moré, G; Pardini, L; Basso, W; Machuca, M; Bacigalupe, D; Villanueva, M C; Schares, G; Venturini, M C; Venturini, L



Maternal Serologic Screening to Prevent Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Decision-Analytic Economic Model  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine a cost-minimizing option for congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States. Methodology/Principal Findings A decision-analytic and cost-minimization model was constructed to compare monthly maternal serological screening, prenatal treatment, and post-natal follow-up and treatment according to the current French (Paris) protocol, versus no systematic screening or perinatal treatment. Costs are based on published estimates of lifetime societal costs of developmental disabilities and current diagnostic and treatment costs. Probabilities are based on published results and clinical practice in the United States and France. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate robustness of results. Universal monthly maternal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis with follow-up and treatment, following the French protocol, is found to be cost-saving, with savings of $620 per child screened. Results are robust to changes in test costs, value of statistical life, seroprevalence in women of childbearing age, fetal loss due to amniocentesis, and to bivariate analysis of test costs and incidence of primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy. Given the parameters in this model and a maternal screening test cost of $12, screening is cost-saving for rates of congenital infection above 1 per 10,000 live births. If universal testing generates economies of scale in diagnostic tools—lowering test costs to about $2 per test—universal screening is cost-saving at rates of congenital infection well below the lowest reported rates in the United States of 1 per 10,000 live births. Conclusion/Significance Universal screening according to the French protocol is cost saving for the US population within broad parameters for costs and probabilities.

Stillwaggon, Eileen; Carrier, Christopher S.; Sautter, Mari; McLeod, Rima



European solar thermal market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first comprehensive study about the European solar thermal market came out in 1996. The European Solar Industry Federation (ESIF) had conducted it within the framework of the ALTENER program of the European Commission and published it with the title “Sun in Action.” Experts from 10 countries collated descriptions of the European and some non-European markets. The market data published

Gerhard Stryi-Hipp



European Central Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).


Asymptomatic diffuse "encephalitic" cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Opportunistic infections account for the majority of central nervous system lesions in adult immunosuppressed patients. In this setting, toxoplasmosis typically manifests as multiple abscesses readily seen on routine neuroimaging studies. Asymptomatic, widely disseminated Toxoplasma cysts without parenchymal reaction are also recognized. In contrast, widespread parasites in the brain parenchyma with an inflammatory “encephalitic” reaction and little or no necrosis have been reported in only four patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). We describe a 70 year old male with stage IV chronic lymphocytic leukemia complicated by aplastic anemia. Neurological examination and imaging revealed no significant abnormalities. At autopsy, the brain revealed multifocal cysts and free tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii with diffuse microglial nodules and no necrosis. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of the “encephalitic” form of toxoplasmosis in a non-AIDS patient.

Abedalthagafi, Malak; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Garvin, David; Cheson, Bruce; Ozdemirli, Metin



[Demonstration of specific IgM antibody in cases of suspect congenital toxoplasmosis: interpretation of results (author's transl)].  


From the aspect of laboratory Toxoplasmosis examination, a series of clinically and parasitologically confirmed cases of congenital Toxoplasmosis (CT) were selected. Serological findings (CFT, DT, IgM-IFAT) in infants and mothers were critically examined. The IgM titers in CT as a rule lay between 1:16 and 1:64, the highest recorded being 1:256. The serum IgM globulin levels showed no dependence on the high CFT titers. T recognize unspecific reactions amongst infants with positive IgM values, the serological testing of mothers was indispensable. It is also absolutely necessary with infants to repeatedly test serologically at intervals to clearly bring out the results of all the three serological reactions. The technical problems encountered for a definative diagnosis of CT and the clinical picture in the present critical examination are discussed. PMID:1014782

Werner, H; Schöning, C; Neuhaus, B; Maute, I



Waterborne toxoplasmosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Humans become infected with Toxoplasma gondii mainly by ingesting uncooked meat containing viable tissue cysts or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts from the feces of infected cats. Circumstantial evidence suggests that oocyst-induced infections in humans are clinically more severe...


Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in AIDS Patients in Brazil: Importance of Molecular and Immunological Methods Using Peripheral Blood Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral focal lesion in AIDS and still accounts for high morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Its occurrence is more frequent in patients with low CD4 T-cell counts. It is directly related to the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the population. Therefore, it is important to evaluate sensitive, less invasive, and rapid diagnostic tests.

Fabio A. Colombo; Augusto C. Penalva de Oliveira; Adrian V. Hernandez; Francisco Bonasser-Filho; Roberta S. Nogueira; Roberto Focaccia; Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola


Sequential recognition of antigenic markers of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite by pooled sera of mice with experimental toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate diagnosis of maternal toxoplasmosis can enhance the success of medical treatment and prevent congenital transmission.\\u000a The current diagnostic methods have many limits, and they poorly differentiate between recent and latent infections. The present\\u000a work was conducted to record the sequential recognition of antigenic markers of both Toxoplasma tachyzoites whole extract and glycosylinositolphospholipids (GIPLs)-enriched fraction by specific IgG and IgM,

Fayza Sayed Mohamed Habib; Nehad Mahmoud Ali; Azza Abdel-Salam El-kadery; Salwa Ahmed Soffar; Mona Gamal Abdel-Razek



Comparative Immunoglobulin G Antibody Profiles between Mother and Child (CGMC Test) for Early Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is rendered difficult when specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and\\/or IgA antibodies are absent in the blood of the newborn infant. Since maternal IgG antibodies can cross the placenta, determination of IgG antibodies in newborn infants has hitherto not been used routinely for the diagnosis of congenital infection. The aim of this study was to assess



[Serologic researches conducted towards toxoplasmosis in the department of microbiology of Jagiellonian university medical college in in 2005 year].  


Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common zoonotic infection among people. Mostly asymptomatic, in few cases it may be dangerous for men's health and life. A primary infection in pregnant women and in patients with immune deficiency is especially serious in results. Diagnostic tests, which enable to distinguish the latent phase of the infection from the active one play a preponderant role in the fight against toxoplasmosis. In the present research we have showed the analysis of the levels of specific antibodies during the 7T gondii infection. The aim of our study was to evaluate prevalence of T gondii and number of acute and chronic infections among patients examined by Department of Microbiology of Jagiellonian University Medical College in Cracow in 2005 year. Sabin-Feldmana dye test and enzyme immunoassay ELISA have been applied. The prevalence of T gondii antibodies in studied population were 59.5%. Chronic infections were showed in the group of 71.3% examined patients. Amount of acute toxoplasmosis infections estimated about 18.4%. PMID:20873490

Pityhiska-Kumik, Grazyna; Rewicka, Maria; Heczko, Piotr B



Seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in antenatal women with bad obstetric history in a tertiary-care hospital of Andhra Pradesh, India.  


Toxoplasmosis is a well-documented cause of bad obstetric history (BOH) and a major reason of congenitally-acquired infection. The study was conducted to determine the seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in women with BOH, attending the antenatal clinic of the Mamata General Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study subjects included 105 antenatal women with BOH and 105 antenatal women who had previous normal deliveries. A serological evaluation was carried out to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, using commercial diagnostic kits, by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The seropositivity for Toxoplasma was 49.52% in the study group compared to 12.38% in the control group. The difference in seropositivity was significant (p=0.00). The seroprevalence gradually increased with advancing age. Abortion (51.92%) was the commonest form of pregnancy wastage, followed by stillbirths (36.53%) and premature deliveries (7.69%). The seropositivity of toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in the study group than that in the control group, and the seropositivity played an important role in determining the foetal outcome. Considering the subclinical pattern of infection, routine serological test is recommended for all pregnant women for both IgG and IgM antibodies. PMID:22524124

Sarkar, Munmun Das; Anuradha, B; Sharma, Neelam; Roy, Rabindra Nath



Identification of Toxoplasma gondii in-vivo induced antigens by cDNA library immunoscreening with chronic toxoplasmosis sera.  


Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Chronically-infected individuals with a compromised immune system are at risk for reactivation of the disease. In-vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) is a promising method for the identification of antigens expressed in-vivo. The aim of the present study was to apply IVIAT to identify antigens which are expressed in-vivo during T. gondii infection using sera from individuals with chronic toxoplasmosis. Forty serum samples were pooled, pre-adsorped against three different preparations of antigens, from each in-vitro grown T. gondii and Escherichia coli XLBlue MRF', and then used to screen a T. gondii cDNA expression library. Sequencing of DNA inserts from positive clones showed eight open reading frames with high homology to T. gondii genes. Expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR showed that SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) and two hypothetical genes were up-regulated in-vivo relative to their expression levels in-vitro. These three proteins also showed high sensitivity and specificity when tested with individual serum samples. Five other proteins namely M16 domain peptidase, microneme protein, elongation factor 1-alpha, pre-mRNA-splicing factor and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein F had lower RNA expression in-vivo as compared to in-vitro. SRS3 and the two hypothetical proteins warrant further investigation into their roles in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis. PMID:23044055

Amerizadeh, Atefeh; Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Khoo, Boon Yin; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Karim, Izzati Zahidah Abdul; Saadatnia, Geita; Teh, Ai Ying; Noordin, Rahmah



Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain.  


Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was from a colony of 7 Bennet's wallabies that died over a 17-month period at a safari-zoological park in northeastern Spain. Only one of these wallabies was examined at necropsy. T. gondii-like organisms were detected by histological examination in several tissues and the diagnosis was confirmed through detection of T. gondii DNA by PCR. A nested PCR-based assay detected the 200- to 300-fold repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment of T. gondii in a sample of brain tissue. Genotyping analysis with 15 single-copy microsatellite markers was performed on this positive DNA sample and revealed an atypical genotype. Atypical genotypes are frequently associated with severe forms of toxoplasmosis in humans. The present report highlights the possible implications of the introduction of new atypical, more pathogenic T. gondii strains, to non-endemic areas. PMID:23523164

Fernández-Aguilar, X; Ajzenberg, D; Cabezón, O; Martínez-López, A; Darwich, L; Dubey, J P; Almería, S



European Dialogue: The Magazine for European Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new bimonthly magazine published by the European Commission is targeted at "decision-makers/opinion formers having an impact on European Integration" in the ten Central European and Baltic countries that have applied to join the EU. The electronic version of the first issue contains articles on humanitarian aid, membership negotiations, pensions, and economic forecasts.



Prospect Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many readers may be aware that trees grow in Brooklyn, few may be cognizant of the fact that, yes, a forest grows in Brooklyn. This urban forest just happens to be in the boroughÂs own lovely Prospect Park, designed by those giants of landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Often overlooked by some who are primarily concerned with that other large swath of green in the middle of Manhattan, Prospect Park contains a 90-acre meadow, a zoo, a celebrated performing arts festival, and a lake. Visitors to the Prospect Park Alliance website can learn all about these things, and also delve into the parkÂs history. Those planning a visit may wish to look at the ÂGeneral Info and ÂPlaces To Go sections for a selection of brief descriptions and photographs. For those seeking a historical perspective the ÂHistory & Nature area is delightful. Here visitors can learn about the parkÂs historical development and creation, and learn more about those individuals responsible for the parkÂs design and aesthetic appeal. Finally, visitors should look at the online exhibit ÂA Glimpse Of Prospect Park for a bit of visual perspective on the parkÂs history.

Prospect Park (New York, N.Y.)


A dedicated surveillance network for congenital toxoplasmosis in Greece, 2006-2009: assessment of the results  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Acute infections in pregnant women may be transmitted to the fetus and cause severe illness. The purpose of this study was to establish a dedicated surveillance network (DSN) for congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) in Greece, in order to assess the birth prevalence of CT. Methods A DSN of thirty clinicians was established for reporting CT cases from hospitals throughout Greece. The clinicians were selected on the basis that there was a high possibility the suspected cases would be referred to them from district hospitals or private clinics. Suspected cases of CT were reported on a monthly basis with a zero reporting card during a surveillance period from April 2006 to December 2009. A questionnaire was sent for any suspected case to record information including demographic parameters, clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory results. Serological and molecular confirmation of cases was performed by the Pasteur Hellenic Institute. All newborns suspected of CT received treatment and were serologically and clinically followed up for one year. Results The monthly response rate reached 100%, although only after reminders sent to 65% of the participant physicians. Sixty-three suspected CT cases were recorded by the DSN during the study period including fourteen confirmed and seven probable cases. Ten cases (47.6%) presented with symptoms at birth. Chorioretinitis was the most prominent manifestation, occurring in five symptomatic CT cases (50%). No other symptoms appeared by the end of the one year clinical follow up. No case was recorded by the existing surveillance system of the Hellenic Center of Disease Control and Prevention (HCDCP) during the same time period. Birth prevalence was estimated at 0.45, 0.51 and 0.51 per 10,000 births for 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively. The incidence rate of symptomatic CT at birth was estimated at 0.10 cases per 10,000 births per year in Greece (for the period 2007–2009). Conclusion The DSN for CT proved to be more sensitive than the classical notification system, easy in application and very efficient in reporting rare diseases such as CT. Similar DSNs could be used to provide useful information on other rare diseases.



Exploring the ecologic basis for extreme susceptibility of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) to fatal toxoplasmosis.  


Recent efforts by North American zoos to establish a genetically viable captive population of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) have been compromised by high newborn mortality (approximately 60%), primarily because of toxoplasmosis. The basis for this extreme susceptibility to toxoplasmosis is unknown. In the present study, the general health status of wild Pallas' cats in Mongolia was evaluated, including assessment of basal hematologic parameters and fecal corticoid metabolite concentrations. The prevalence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Mongolian Pallas' cats, local domestic cats, and prey species also was determined based on serology and/or polymerase chain reaction analysis. Biologic samples (blood, feces, and/or brain tissue) were obtained from 15 wild Pallas' cats, 15 domestic cats, and 45 prey animals (rodents and pikas) captured in Mongolia during the summers of 2000 and 2001. Comparative data were obtained from nine captive Pallas' cats maintained in North American zoos. Based on physical examinations, complete blood counts, and blood chemistry analyses, only minor differences were observed in the general health status of wild and captive Pallas' cats. Fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between populations, indicating that Pallas' cats in captivity and in the wild have similar basal adrenocortical activity. A pronounced difference (P < 0.01) in seroprevalence to T. gondii was observed between populations. Whereas all captive Pallas' cats exhibited elevated immunoglobulin titers (IgG > 2,048) to T. gondii, only two of 15 (13%) wild Pallas' cats were seropositive, with both cats having lower IgG titers (< 1,024). Furthermore, no evidence of exposure to this parasite was found in any of the Mongolian domestic cats or prey species. These findings suggest that wild Pallas' cats have minimal opportunity for exposure to T. gondii in their natural habitat and, typically, do not become infected with this parasite until being brought into captivity. Accordingly, maintenance of a viable captive population may require implementing effective strategies to prevent exposure of immunologically naive Pallas' cats to T. gondii and to reduce parasite transmission between seropositive females and their highly susceptible offspring. PMID:16456157

Brown, Meredith; Lappin, Michael R; Brown, Janine L; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Swanson, William F



Prevalence and risk factors associated to ovine toxoplasmosis in northeastern Brazil.  


In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from northeastern Brazil. A total of 932 ovine serum samples from 54 properties in 19 municipalities of the state of Sergipe were collected and assayed using indirect fluorescent antibody test. The assay used antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (IFAT-IgG) with a cutoff point of 1:64. We observed that 28.22% (263/932) of the ovine samples were serum-reactive. In a logistic regression, factors such as consumption of water directly from the source, consumption of water from a deep well, and age below 12 months were associated with protection; whereas factors such as presence of cats on the property, presence of slatted floor, and use of exchanged or borrowed breeding males were associated with infection. The studied area can be considered endemic for toxoplasmosis, so it is necessary to adopt preventive and control measures because this zoonotic infection poses risks to public health. PMID:23856735

Mendonça, Carlos Eduardo D'Alencar; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Guimarăes, Vitor Andrade Accioly; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias


Sequential recognition of antigenic markers of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite by pooled sera of mice with experimental toxoplasmosis.  


Accurate diagnosis of maternal toxoplasmosis can enhance the success of medical treatment and prevent congenital transmission. The current diagnostic methods have many limits, and they poorly differentiate between recent and latent infections. The present work was conducted to record the sequential recognition of antigenic markers of both Toxoplasma tachyzoites whole extract and glycosylinositolphospholipids (GIPLs)-enriched fraction by specific IgG and IgM, respectively, by immunoblotting analysis of the antigens against daily pooled serum samples from mice with experimentally induced recent and latent toxoplasmosis. IgG avidity immunoblotting was tested by using a wash with 6 M urea solution as antigen-antibody disrupting agent. Band of 10 kDa reacted exclusively with low-avidity IgG in pooled sera of mice with recent infection. Band of 39 kDa was a good marker for the infection; reacting with both low-avidity IgG in recent infection and with high-avidity IgG in latent one. Bands of 15, 23, 30, 60, 66, and 97 kDa reacted with variable avidity in both phases of infection. Two antigenic bands were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the GIPLs-enriched fraction of tachyzoite, the 14- and 30-kDa band. The 14-kDa band was recognized by IgM in pooled serum samples of recently infected mice only, while the 30-kDa band was recognized by serum samples of both recent and latent phases of infections. The study highlights the value of avidity immunoblotting assay to discriminate between recent and latent experimental toxoplasmosis. Further study must be carried on human to evaluate the values of the used technique. PMID:20859748

Habib, Fayza Sayed Mohamed; Ali, Nehad Mahmoud; El-Kadery, Azza Abdel-Salam; Soffar, Salwa Ahmed; Abdel-Razek, Mona Gamal



Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii-specific T cells recovered from vitreous fluid of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The mechanisms involved in reactivations of latent ocular\\u000a Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) infections in immunocompetent patients are poorly\\u000a understood. In view of the possible role of T cells in the\\u000a immunopathogenesis of the disease, ocular infiltrating T cells obtained\\u000a from patients with recurrent ocular toxoplasmosis were characterized\\u000a phenotypically and functionally. METHODS: Ocular infiltrating T cells were\\u000a recovered from vitreous fluid

Eric J. Feron; Vincent N. A. Klaren; Eddy A. Wierenga; Georges M. G. M. Verjans



Studies on the role of interleukin-12 in acute murine toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is important in the regulation of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The protective ability of IL-12 in SCID mice appears to be through its activity on natural killer (NK) cells to induce production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). In this study we assessed the role of IL-12 in the acute stage of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent mice. Administration of IL-12 to BALB/c mice infected with the virulent C56 strain of T. gondii remarkably delayed time to death. The protective activity of IL-12 was abrogated by administration of monoclonal antibodies to IFN-gamma or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and by depletion of NK cells using an antisera against asialoGM1. Whereas BALB/c mice infected with the ME49 strain of T. gondii survived infection, administration of anti-IL-12 to infected mice resulted in 100% mortality accompanied by decreased serum levels of IFN-gamma. Furthermore, this treatment significantly reversed the suppression of spleen cell proliferation to concanavalin A (Con A), which is associated with the acute stage of infection, and resulted in decreased ex vivo production of IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in response to Con A. Our results indicate an important role for IL-12 in mediating resistance to T. gondii during acute infection in immunocompetent mice, that NK cells are required for this protective activity, and that IL-12 is involved in the immunosuppression which accompanies this infection.

Hunter, C A; Candolfi, E; Subauste, C; Van Cleave, V; Remington, J S



Mollaret meningitis may be caused by reactivation of latent cerebral toxoplasmosis.  


Mollaret meningitis (MM) occurs mainly in females and is characterized by recurrent episodes of headache, transient neurological abnormalities, and the cerebrospinal fluid containing mononuclear cells. HSV-2 was usually identified as the causative agent. Recently, we found that recurrent headaches in non-HIV-infected subjects were due to acquired cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT). The aim of the study was therefore to focus on molecular pathomechanisms that may lead to reactivation of latent CT and manifest as MM. Literature data cited in this work were selected to illustrate that various factors may affect latent CNS Toxoplasma gondii infection/inflammation intensity and/or host defense mechanisms, i.e., the production of NO, cytokines, tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, mechanisms mediated by an IFN-gamma responsive gene family, limiting the availability of intracellular iron to T. gondii, and production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, finally inducing choroid plexitis and/or vasculitis. Examples of triggers revealing MM and accompanying disturbances of IFN-gamma-mediated immune responses that control HSV-2 and T. gondii include: female predominance (female mice are more susceptible to T. gondii infection than males); HSV-2 infection (increased IFN-gamma, IL-12); metaraminol (increased plasma catecholamine levels, changes in cytokine expression favoring T(H)2 cells responses); probably cholesterol contained in debris from ruptured epidermoid cysts (decreased NO; increased TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8). These irregularities induced by the triggers may be responsible for reactivation of latent CT and development of MM. Thus, subjects with MM should have test(s) for T. gondii infection performed obligatorily. PMID:19922380

Prandota, Joseph



Kinetics of parasite burdens in blood and tissues during murine toxoplasmosis.  


A sensitive real-time PCR technique was used to examine the distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in the blood and tissues of mice during acute and chronic infection. Groups of Swiss Albino mice, inoculated i.p. with 10(2) or 10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain as a typical type-1 strain, or fed 10 cysts of the Me49 strain as a typical type-2 strain, were killed at different time points post-infection (p.i.), and blood and organs including the lungs, brain and liver were harvested for DNA extraction. Toxoplasma DNA was quantified by a real-time PCR targeted at the 529bp gene fragment, with a detection limit of a single parasite per g/ml of tissue. The results showed a strain- and dose-dependent spread of Toxoplasma. In infection with type-1 parasites, in case of a high infective dose, Toxoplasma DNA was detected within 24h p.i. in all analyzed tissues including the brain. Conversely, in case of a low infective dose, parasitaemia was undetectable early p.i., at a time when Toxoplasma DNA was detected in the tissues, but reached very high levels as infection progressed. With both infective doses, pre-death parasite burdens were higher in the blood than in the tissues, whereas the same loads in the lungs suggest that reaching these Toxoplasma burdens may be critical for survival. In infection with Me49 parasites, steady high parasite burdens were noted up to the end of the experiment at d42 only in the brain, parasitaemia was low but detectable throughout, and Toxoplasma DNA was completely cleared only from the liver. These data are important to better understand the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, and also as baseline data for the experimental evaluation of novel chemotherapeutics. PMID:22613495

Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica; Djoki?, Vitomir; Vujani?, Marija; Zivkovi?, Tijana; Bobi?, Branko; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Slavi?, Ksenija; Klun, Ivana; Ivovi?, Vladimir



Population Pharmacokinetics of Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine in Children Treated for Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

The population pharmacokinetics of pyrimethamine (PYR) and sulfadoxine (SDX) for a group of 32 children with congenital toxoplasmosis was investigated by nonparametric modeling analysis. A one-compartment model was used as the structural model, and individual pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by Bayesian modeling. PYR (1.25 mg/kg of body weight) and SDX (25 mg/kg) were administered orally every 10 days for 1 year, with adjustment of the dose to body weight every 3 months. Drug concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A total of 101 measurements in serum were available for both drugs. Mean absorption rate constants, volumes of distribution, elimination rate constants, and half-lives were 0.915 h?1, 4.379 liters/kg, 0.00839 h?1, and 5.5 days for PYR and 1.659 h?1, 0.392 liters/kg, 0.00526 h?1, and 6.6 days for SDX, respectively. Wide interindividual variability was observed. The estimated minimum and maximum concentrations of PYR in serum differed 8- and 25-fold among patients, respectively, and those of SDX differed 4- and 5-fold, respectively. Increases in the concentration of PYR were observed for eight children, and increases in the SDX concentration were observed for seven children. Serum PYR-SDX concentrations are unpredictable even when the dose is standardized for body weight. The concentrations of the PYR-SDX combination that are most efficacious for children have not yet been established. A model such as ours, associated with long-term follow-up, is needed to study the correlation between exposure to these two drugs and clinical outcome in children.

Corvaisier, Stephane; Charpiat, Bruno; Mounier, Cyril; Wallon, Martine; Leboucher, Gilles; Al Kurdi, Mounzer; Chaulet, Jean-Francois; Peyron, Francois



Delayed maturation of immunoglobulin G avidity: implication for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.  


The low avidity of immunoglobulin G has been reported to be a useful marker of recent infection with Toxoplasma. Several investigators, however, have published discrepant result on the maturation of avidity over time. The aim of this study was to analyse persistent low avidity of immunoglobulin G in immunocompetent individuals and in pregnant women and how it could interfere in the flowchart of antenatal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in the latter group. An international literature search was conducted together with a retrospective study of a hospital database. Eleven publications that met the inclusion criteria reported delayed maturation of avidity at a frequency ranging from 0 to 66.6% of the patients. Examination of those publications demonstrated an important heterogeneity in the type of assay used, the calculation of avidity, the cutoff above which avidity was considered to be elevated, and the delay since infection after which indices are expected to be high. In the hospital database, persistent low avidity was found even after a median follow-up period of 6 years. Different factors could interfere with maturation of avidity, such as variations between individuals, the assay system used, and, possibly, the treatment administered. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that, in a pregnant woman, an acute infection cannot be reliably diagnosed solely on the basis of low avidity of immunoglobulin G. Further investigations and standardization of assays are urgently needed. Estimation of the time of infection remains difficult, especially in cases in which the samples are drawn late in pregnancy; the final estimate must be based on several tests repeated at intervals of weeks. PMID:17024503

Lefevre-Pettazzoni, M; Le Cam, S; Wallon, M; Peyron, F



Clinical pattern of ocular toxoplasmosis treated in a referral centre in Serbia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the clinical pattern of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in a referral centre in Serbia. Patients and methods The medical records of consecutive patients admitted for OT to the single referral centre for uveitis in Serbia between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. OT was diagnosed on the basis of typical fundus lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma. Results In a total of 457 uveitis patients, OT was the third leading cause, with 59 patients (12.9%). Most OT cases (73%) were monocular. An active primary retinal lesion was observed in 36% and recurrent OT in 64% patients. Localization of lesions was central/paracentral (44%), juxtapapillar (27%), peripheral (19%), and multifocal (10%). Other ocular manifestations of inflammation included vitritis (44%), anterior uveitis (19%), and retinal vasculitis (10%). Complications included choroidal neovascularization in two and exudative retinal detachment with cataract, glaucoma, and cystoid macular oedema in one patient each. The detection of Toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies in a single patient indicates a low rate of OT concomitant with acute infection. After treatment, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) increased significantly. However, 14 (24%) patients ended up legally blind in the affected eye, of which 2 (3%) with bilateral blindness, all with a very poor BCVA (0.047±0.055) at presentation. Visual impairment and treatment outcome were both associated with central localization of lesions (P<0.0001 and P=0.006, respectively). Conclusion OT is a significant cause of posterior uveitis in Serbia. Patients should be aware of the recurring nature of OT and react immediately if symptoms occur.

Kovacevic-Pavicevic, D; Radosavljevic, A; Ilic, A; Kovacevic, I; Djurkovic-Djakovic, O



Genetic and Epigenetic Factors at COL2A1 and ABCA4 Influence Clinical Outcome in Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background Primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can be transmitted to the fetus. At birth, infected infants may have intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus, and retinochoroiditis, and new ocular lesions can occur at any age after birth. Not all children who acquire infection in utero develop these clinical signs of disease. Whilst severity of disease is influenced by trimester in which infection is acquired by the mother, other factors including genetic predisposition may contribute. Methods and Findings In 457 mother-child pairs from Europe, and 149 child/parent trios from North America, we show that ocular and brain disease in congenital toxoplasmosis associate with polymorphisms in ABCA4 encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 4. Polymorphisms at COL2A1 encoding type II collagen associate only with ocular disease. Both loci showed unusual inheritance patterns for the disease allele when comparing outcomes in heterozygous affected children with outcomes in affected children of heterozygous mothers. Modeling suggested either an effect of mother's genotype, or parent-of-origin effects. Experimental studies showed that both ABCA4 and COL2A1 show isoform-specific epigenetic modifications consistent with imprinting. Conclusions These associations between clinical outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis and polymorphisms at ABCA4 and COL2A1 provide novel insight into the molecular pathways that can be affected by congenital infection with this parasite.

Jamieson, Sarra E.; de Roubaix, Lee-Anne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Mui, Ernest J.; Cordell, Heather J.; Kirisits, Michael J.; Miller, E. Nancy; Peacock, Christopher S.; Hargrave, Aubrey C.; Coyne, Jessica J.; Boyer, Kenneth; Bessieres, Marie-Helene; Buffolano, Wilma; Ferret, Nicole; Franck, Jacqueline; Kieffer, Francois; Meier, Paul; Nowakowska, Dorota E.; Paul, Malgorzata; Peyron, Francois; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Thulliez, Philippe; Wallon, Martine; Petersen, Eskild; McLeod, Rima; Gilbert, Ruth E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.



A rare case of feline congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection: fatal outcome of systemic toxoplasmosis for the mother and its kitten.  


This report describes a case of fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in a 2.5-year-old mixed breed pregnant cat and its kittens. The pregnant cat was presented to the gynecology clinic with symptoms of dystocia. The ultrasound examination revealed the presence of five fetuses in the uterus, three of which were not alive, and consequently a cesarean section was performed. However, the mother cat and the remaining two live kittens died two and ten days after cesarean section, respectively. Pathologically, severe alveolar edema, tachyzoite-like structures in the alveolar macrophages and multifocal necroses in the lungs of mother cat were observed. An intense Toxoplasma gondii immunopositive reaction was observed in the cytoplasms of alveolar macrophages, bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia, necrotic foci in the lungs, and Kupffer cells of the liver. PCR analyses amplified T. gondii DNA in tissue samples of the mother cat and kittens. The present study provides strong evidence for a transplacental transmission of T. gondii infection with deadly outcome for the mother cat, fetuses and kittens. As to the authors' knowledge, this report is the first case of fatal congenital toxoplasmosis in domestic cats in Turkey. PMID:23758036

Atmaca, Hasan Tarik; Dincel, Gungor Cagdas; Macun, Hasan Ceyhun; Terzi, Osman Safa; Uzunalioglu, Tuba; Kalender, Hakan; Kul, Oguz


Correlation of parasite load determined by quantitative PCR to clinical outcome in a heart transplant patient with disseminated toxoplasmosis.  


Disseminated toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in transplant recipients, which results either from reactivation of latent infection or from organ-transmitted primary infection. Preventive measures and diagnostic screening methods differ between countries and are related to the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma spp. in the general population. Here we report a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis in a heart transplant recipient with previous immunity that occurred after cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for the prevention of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was stopped. Quantitative PCR proved useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of Toxoplasma infection. Decreasing parasitic burdens in sequential samples of cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid correlated with a favorable outcome and allowed modulation of the immunosuppressive drug regimen. The duration of anti-Toxoplasma treatment and the need for maintenance prophylaxis are discussed, as well as prophylaxis for solid-organ transplant recipients. Although a rare event in heart transplant recipients, Toxoplasma reactivation must be investigated promptly, since early treatment improves the prognosis. PMID:20463167

Patrat-Delon, Solčne; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Lavoué, Sylvain; Lelong, Bernard; Guiguen, Claude; le Tulzo, Yves; Robert-Gangneux, Florence




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii infection was diagnosed in 3 species of Hawaiian birds, 2 Nene goose (Nesochen sankensis), 1 Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii), and 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii was found in sections of many organs of the...


Neuropathological changes and clinical features of autism spectrum disorder participants are similar to that reported in congenital and chronic cerebral toxoplasmosis in humans and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI\\/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients’ brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. gondii with largely yet unknown consequences. The aim of the study was therefore to compare brain abnormalities

Joseph Prandota



Comparison of mother and child antibodies that target high-molecular-mass Toxoplasma gondii antigens by immunoblotting improves neonatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.  


This retrospective study proposes a new reading of immunoblotting (IB) in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Our findings demonstrate that a three-IgM-band association at 75, 90, and 100 kDa called the IgM triplet increases the sensitivity to 95.8% when combined with prenatal and serological neonatal tests. PMID:22695159

L'Ollivier, Coralie; Wallon, Martine; Faucher, Benoit; Piarroux, Renaud; Peyron, François; Franck, Jacqueline



Comparison of Mother and Child Antibodies That Target High-Molecular-Mass Toxoplasma gondii Antigens by Immunoblotting Improves Neonatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study proposes a new reading of immunoblotting (IB) in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Our findings demonstrate that a three-IgM-band association at 75, 90, and 100 kDa called the IgM triplet increases the sensitivity to 95.8% when combined with prenatal and serological neonatal tests.

Wallon, Martine; Faucher, Benoit; Piarroux, Renaud; Peyron, Francois; Franck, Jacqueline



Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"…

Prandota, Joseph



Endemic avian toxoplasmosis on a farm in Illinois: clinical disease, diagnosis, biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus), and a goose (Anser anser)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clinical toxoplasmosis in chickens (Gallus domesticus) has been rarely reported in literature. Here we report that three chickens on a farm in Illinois developed neurological signs . One of these chickens was examined postmortem and it had non-suppurative encephalitis with numerous Toxoplasma gondi...


[Rudolf-Virchow Prize 1998. Award lecture. Toxoplasmosis: a model infection for studying systemic and intracerebral immune reactions].  


Toxoplasmosis has gained particular attention in the AIDS era as the most common opportunistic encephalitis in HIV-infected patients. Since there are important parallels between the human and rodent infection, experimental murine toxoplasmosis is widely used to study the immune reactions to this protozoal parasite. Oral application of low-virulent Toxoplasma (T.) gondii cysts leads to a biphasic disease characterized by an acute, generalized phase followed by a chronic stage confined to the brain, where an encephalitis with persistence of the parasite develops. Immunity to T. gondii is T cell mediated, and there is increasing evidence for a critical role of cytokines for an effective immune response. In order to address the functional role of interferon (IFN)-gamma in toxoplasmosis, we took advantage of mice lacking the IFN-gamma-receptor. Inactivation of the IFN-gamma-receptor rendered mice highly susceptible to T. gondii, and they died of a fulminant acute toxoplasmosis. Among the various organs affected, hepatitis was severe enough to cause death. In contrast to wild type animals, IFN-gamma-receptor-deficient mice were unable to activate their macrophages as evidenced by a lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen induction and the absence of an upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA transcripts, two macrophage effector molecules. These observations prompted the investigation of TNF- and TNF-receptor-mediated effects in toxoplasmosis by use of mice deficient in either the TNF-receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and/or the TNF-receptor type 2 (TNFR2). The lethal outcome of T. gondii-infected TNFR1/2- and TNFR1-deficient mice, but not of TNFR2-deficient and wild type animals, illustrated the important role of TNF-alpha and TNFR1-mediated signalling, respectively, in this infection. Histopathology attributed death of TNFR1- and TNFR1/2-deficient mice to a severe, necrotizing encephalitis. Unrestricted intracerebral parasite replication in these strains was associated with reduced numbers of iNOS+ leukocytes and a lack of iNOS mRNA induction in their brains as compared to resistant wild type and TNFR2-deficient mice. To precisely identify the cellular sources of cytokines in the brain, flow cytometry of leukocytes isolated from the brain, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis of cytokine mRNA transcripts of magnetically purified leukocyte populations were performed. These studies disclosed that both CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages recruited to the brain as well as resident cell populations of the CNS including neurons, astrocytes and microglia contributed to the intracerebral cytokine synthesis. Each population was characterized by a specific cytokine pattern. Interestingly, activation of brain cells is a hallmark of Toxoplasma encephalitis. The marked induction of a variety of immunologically important cell surface molecules as MHC class I and II antigens, cell adhesion molecules and their ligands on microglia points to a particular important role of this cell type for the immune response to T. gondii, since the expression of these molecules is a prerequisite for cellular interactions with T cells. The observation of a prominent interleukin (IL)-10 production in the T. gondii-infected brain initiated studies addressing the function of this powerful immunosuppressive mediator in chronic Toxoplasma encephalitis. Neutralization experiments revealed that IL-10 facilitates persistence of the parasite in the brain by downregulating the intracerebral immune response. On the other hand, IL-10 may exert a regulatory role and may be necessary to prevent immunopathological effects of an uncontrolled immune response. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate the important role of the cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and their receptors, respectively, for an effective control of T. gondii. In the CNS, the target organ of the parasite, a PMID:10095413

Deckert-Schlüter, M



Experimental Prospect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first conference of this series the three of the lepton mixing angles are known. The non-zero value of the third mixing angle (?13) has been reported by ?e appearance in accelerator ?? beam and by ? disappearance in reactor experiments. The observation of the ?e appearance in ?? beam is the first clear evidence of the flavor oscillations. The results also show that neutrino oscillations phenomena can be described by three-generation scheme to the first approximation, where mixing of neutrinos can be described by three angles and one complex phase. There are two main issues to be investigated by neutrino oscillation experiments. One is the study of CP violation in lepton secto. Namely, the measurement of CP violating complex phase ? and the studies of the nature of CP violation phenomena in lepton sector. The other is search for neutrinos beyond three generations. There are indications of the existence of additional neutrinos, which should be tested by definitive experiments. The number of neutrino species has important implications not only in particle physics but also in physics of early Universe. Also many fundamental natures of neutrinos remain to be studied, such as absolute values of masses, nature of the particle (Majorana or Dirac particle). This article concentrates on the future experimental prospects on the study of neutrino physics by means of neutrino oscillation.

Nishikawa, Koichiro



Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and…

Prandota, Joseph



European space transport systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present and future European space transport systems are discussed. The development of the ARIANE 1-4 family is briefly reviewed, and the space transport competition between Europe and the United States is described. The HM60 and European propulsion technology are discussed, giving the characteristics of various engines. The features of the future European cargo rocket ARIANE 5P are outlined, and the need for orbital maneuvering vehicles in low earth orbit is discussed.

Lo, R. E.


Assessing the Impact of Carbon Tax Differentiation in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent do the welfare costs associated with the implementation of the Burden Sharing Agreement in the European Union depend on sectoral allocation of emissions rights? What are the prospects for strategic climate policy to favor domestic production? This paper attempts to answer those questions using a CGE model featuring a detailed representation of the European economies. First, numerical

Mustafa H. Babiker; Patrick Criqui; A. Denny Ellerman; John M. Reilly; Laurent L. Viguier



Enhancing Europe's capabilities in space research and technology: Towards a European Space Board  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proposed implementation of a European space policy and the prospect of several major undertakings in the space domain the European Union should decide to set up a high-level independent body and confer on it the authority and means to provide expert advice on space-related subjects to its institutions, policy makers and agencies, as well as to the space

J.-C. Worms; N. Walter



Education and European Integration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews implications for education and training of the movement toward integration among European Community nations and the end of Communist governments. Discusses common concerns for new Europe, including data sharing, teacher training, educational quality, disadvantaged learners, demographic and employment trends, European Studies curricula,…

Lowe, John



European Hemp Industry 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from market surveys conducted by the European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA) in 2001, 2002 and 2003 on hemp production, processing and products. In 2003, the area under hemp cultivation in the European Union (EU) has reached 18,000 ha. The average yield of dry hemp stalks was 6 t\\/ha in 2001 and 2002. Seventy percent to 80%

Michael Karus




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This course provides an introduction to leading theories of regional integration. The theories covered include classics such as neofunctionalism and (liberal) inter- governmentalism but constructivist as well as comparative perspectives on the European Union will also be treated. The theories will be applied to cases of horizontal, vertical and sectoral integration in the European Union. Objectives Students will gain

Dirk Leuffen


European media law  

Microsoft Academic Search

European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual Media Services Directive 2007, a supranational and interrelated regime lays an extensive groundwork on which

O. Castendyk; E. Dommering; A. Scheuer



Application of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and enzootic abortion of ewes.  


Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydophila abortus are the 2 most common infectious causes of ovine abortion worldwide. These obligate intracellular pathogens are associated with severe placentitis leading to abortion or stillbirth in pregnant ewes, and resulting in significant economic losses. The objectives of the current study were the development, validation, and application of a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay capable of quantifying the burden of infection by T. gondii and C. abortus in material submitted for diagnostic purposes. The validation was carried out using samples from ewes experimentally infected with these organisms. Based on the numbers of genome copies detected, an arbitrary cutoff level was established to correlate with significant pathological changes sufficient to give rise to abortion. When the PCR assay was applied to samples from 66 Irish farms with naturally occurring outbreaks of ovine abortion, toxoplasmosis and enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) accounted for 14% and 20% of the farms, respectively, while on 6% of the farms, there was evidence of dual infection. When standard diagnostic techniques including histopathological examination, serological analysis, chlamydial antigen detection, and bacteriological culture, were used on samples from the same farms, toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 17% of farms, and EAE in 12%; dual infection was diagnosed on 3% of the farms. In general, good agreement was found between the PCR and the standard methods. The duplex real-time PCR assay developed in this study has proved to be a very sensitive and rapid tool that might provide a valuable addition to the methods currently available for routine diagnosis of ovine abortions. PMID:22807509

Gutierrez, Jorge; O'Donovan, James; Proctor, Aisling; Brady, Colm; Marques, Patricia X; Worrall, Sheila; Nally, Jarlath E; McElroy, Maire; Bassett, Hugh; Fagan, John; Maley, Stephen; Buxton, David; Sammin, Donal; Markey, Bryan K



European Commission: Public Opinion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some Scout Report readers might be wondering "How do Europeans feel about the euro?" or even "What do Europeans think about the effectiveness of different energy policies?" All of the answers to these questions (and many more) can be found on the European Commission's Public Opinion site. The site contains the results from surveys conducted with Europeans on their attitudes towards alcohol, the role of the European Union in formulating security policy, and a number of other topics. Visitors will definitely want to make their way to the Eurobarometer Interactive Search System, which allows them to choose a subject or country which is of interest to them. Visitors should also take a look at their very fine "Qualitative Studies" section, which includes reports such as "The Future of Europe" and "Integrating Gender Mainstreaming into Employment Policies". Needless to say, summaries of the reports are available in a wide range of languages, including Dutch, German, Italian, and French.


European Geography Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

European Geography Test is a collection of challenging Web-based geography exams that survey students' knowledge of European topography, European urban geography, and general map skills. Currently, this site hosts seven tests, which are available in English, Swedish, Spanish, and Dutch. Tests are divided into three different learning levels, and the focus and objectives for each test are clearly stated. The tests employ interactive maps, photographic images, pull-down menus, radio buttons, and fill-in forms to ask students a series of multiple choice, true or false, and matching questions. The questions included in European Geography Test were developed as part of an inter-university project for DGXXII of the European Commission by a consortium of instructors in the UK, Sweden, Belgium, Spain, and The Netherlands. Note: users must register at the site to take the free tests; registration requires name, email address, age, and country of residence.


Accelerating GDP Growth, Improved Prospects for European Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external conditions facing the transition economies slightly improved on balance during the year 2004. The eight new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe (NMS-8) recorded higher GDP growth (5% on average) than in the previous year, largely thanks to expanding domestic demand - in particular of investment (Czech Republic, Hungary and Latvia) and of private consumption (Poland,

Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Gabor Hunya; Jari Jumpponen; Jatta Kinnunen; Sebastian Leitner; Zdenek Lukas; Anton Mihailov; Leon Podkaminer; Josef Pöschl; Sandor Richter; Tauno Tiusanen; Waltraut Urban; Hermine Vidovic



European multicentre study to define disease activity criteria for systemic sclerosis.* I. Clinical and epidemiological features of 290 patients from 19 centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate the existence of differences among European referral centres for systemic sclerosis (SSc) in the pattern of attendance and referral and in the clinical and therapeutical approaches.METHODSIn 1995 the European Scleroderma Study Group initiated a multicentre prospective one year study whose aim was to define the disease activity criteria in SSc. During the study period each participating European centre

A Della Rossa; G Valentini; S Bombardieri; W Bencivelli; A J Silman; S DAngelo; M Matucci Cerinic; J F Belch; C M Black; R Becvar; P Bruhlman; F Cozzi; L Czirják; A A Drosos; B Dziankowska; C Ferri; A Gabrielli; R Giacomelli; G Hayem; M Inanc; N J McHugh; H Nielsen; R Scorza; E Tirri; F H J van den Hoogen; P G Vlachoyiannopoulos



Acute toxoplasmosis in three wild arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from Svalbard; one with co-infections of Salmonella Enteritidis PT1 and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 2b.  


Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in three wild arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) that were found dead in the same locality on Svalbard (Norway). The animals included one adult female and two 4-months-old pups. The adult fox was severely jaundiced. Necropsy revealed multifocal, acute, necrotizing hepatitis, acute interstitial pneumonia, and scattered foci of brain gliosis, often associated with Toxoplasma tachyzoites. One pup also had Toxoplasma-associated meningitis. In addition, the latter animal was infected with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 2b and Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 1 (PT1), which may have contributed to the severity of the Toxoplasma infection in this animal. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed by positive immunohistochemistry and detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum of all foxes. The animals were negative for Neospora caninum, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus, and rabies virus on immunolabelling of tissue sections and smears. PMID:15563924

Sřrensen, K K; Mřrk, T; Sigurdardóttir, O G; Asbakk, K; Akerstedt, J; Bergsjř, B; Fuglei, E



The European Spallation Source  

SciTech Connect

In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al



The European Values Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious minds want to know: "What exactly do Europeans believe?" It's an important and interesting question, and the directors and researchers in charge of the European Values Study (EVS) have been looking into this subject since the early 1980s. Based in the Netherlands the EVS concerns itself with asking Europeans about religion and morality, politics, work and leisure, and relationships. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their work and view previous and current surveys. While visitors do not have access to the raw data on the site, they can look at the questionnaires and read publications based on this research.


Decreased level of psychobiological factor novelty seeking and lower intelligence in men latently infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii Dopamine, a missing link between schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii, a parasitic protozoan, infects about 30–60% of people worldwide. The latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. life-long presence of cysts in the brain and muscular tissues, has no effect on human health. However, infected subjects score worse in psychomotor performance tests and have different personality profiles than Toxoplasma-negative subjects. The mechanism of this effect is unknown; however, it is supposed that

Jaroslav Flegr; Marek Preiss; Ji??? Klose; Jan Havl???ek; Martina Vitáková; Petr Kodym



The role of latent toxoplasmosis in the aetiopathogenesis of schizophrenia--the risk factor or an indication of a contact with cat?  


We assessed IgG antibody to Toxoplasma gondii in 300 inpatients with schizophrenia (SG), 150 outpatients with anxiety and depressive disorders (PCG), and 150 healthy blood donors (HCG). Seropositivity rates were 60.7% for SG, 36.7% for PCG, and 45.3% for HCG (p<0.001). The seropositivity rate for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies in SG was significantly higher that in PCG (chi2 = 23.11, OR = 2.66, p = 0.001) and HCG (chi2 = 9.52, OR = 1.86, p = 0.002). Among SG, 85% of those who reported close cat contact had IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Close cat contacts were reported by 59% of SG, 6% of PCG, and 9% of HCG (p<0.001). There was a nonsignificant positive association between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia for people with a contact with a cat (OR = 2.221, p = 0.127, CI95 = 0.796-6.192), and significant negative association between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia for people without contact with a cat (OR = 0.532, p = 0.009, CI95 = 0.332-0.854). Close cat contact (OR = 2.679, p<0.001), 51-65-year age group (OR = 1.703, p<0.001) and education [illiterate+primary (OR = 6.146, p<0.001) and high school (OR = 1.974, p = 0.023)] were detected as independent risk factors in multivariate logistic regression. The effect of toxoplasmosis on risk of schizophrenia disappeared in the complex model analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. In conclusion, our data suggest that the toxoplasmosis has no direct effect on the risk of schizophrenia in Turkey but is just an indication of previous contacts with a cat. PMID:20608474

Yuksel, Pelin; Alpay, Nihat; Babur, Cahit; Bayar, Reha; Saribas, Suat; Karakose, Ali Riza; Aksoy, Cana; Aslan, Mustafa; Mehmetali, Seyfi; Kilic, Selcuk; Balcioglu, Ibrahim; Hamanca, Ozlem; Dirican, Ahmet; Kucukbasmaci, Omer; Oner, Ali; Torun, Muzeyyen Mamal; Kocazeybek, Bekir



Immunological Studies of Chronic Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Up-Regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Transforming Growth Factor   and a Protective Role for Interleukin6  

Microsoft Academic Search

A murine model was used to characterize the local immune and inflammatory response during ocular toxoplasmosis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, normally expressed at low levels in immune- privileged sites such as the eye, was up-regulated during infection as determined by competitive reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and immunocytochemistry for both b2-microglobulin and the MHC class I heavy chain. However, the

R. E. Lyons; J. P. Anthony; D. J. P. Ferguson; N. Byrne; J. Alexander; F. Roberts; C. W. Roberts



Prospects of inertial confinement fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present status of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is briefly reviewed, emphasizing the National Ignition Facility (NIF) project in the US and the Megajoule project in France. Critical aspects of target performance such as symmetry and stability of capsule implosions and interaction physics in hohlraum targets are discussed. The advantages of heavy-ion beam drivers and corresponding research programs are pointed out with reference to the long-term prospects for ICF power production. The new concept of the fast ignition of precompressed fuel by petawatt, picosecond laser pulses is also covered. The laser plasma group at the Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) is one of the European institutes funded by EURATOM for an ICF keep-in-touch activity, and we highlight results obtained at MPQ relevant to the recent progress of ICF.

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.



European psychotraumatology - alongside the recent European history  

PubMed Central

This article outlines a personal reflection of experiences within the field of traumatic stress, especially in relation to specific events, which affected the author's professional life. Conclusions for further challenges for European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) are delineated. ESTSS's role in the global network of traumatic stress societies is discussed. This is a personal view of Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, president of ESTSS on behalf of the 20th birthday of ESTSS.

Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte



European Navy: Can it Complete European Political and Economic Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the euro-crisis of the year 2011 threatening to fracture the European Union, the timing may seem wrong for makers of policy and sailors to imagine a unitary European Navy within a comprehensive European defense policy. But as Europeans explore the li...

I. P. Tranbarger



The European Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project to design, build and operate an European Solar 4-meter class telescope to be located in the Canary Islands, with the participation of institutions from fifteen European countries gathered around the consortium EAST (European Association for Solar Telescopes). The project main objective up to the present has been the development of the conceptual design study (DS) of a large aperture Solar Telescope. The study has demonstrated the scientific, technical and financial feasibility of EST. The DS has been possible thanks to the co-financing allocated specifically by the EU and the combined efforts of all the participant institutions. Different existing alternatives have been analysed for all telescope systems and subsystems, and decisions have been taken on the ones that are most compatible with the scientific goals and the technical strategies. The present status of some subsystems is reviewed in this paper.

Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.; EST Team


European Space Agency (ESA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international organization whose task is `to provide for and to promote, for exclusively peaceful purposes, cooperation among European states in space research and technology and their space applications'....

Murdin, P.



Ethics and European security  

SciTech Connect

The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

Paskins, B.



European space programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful European Space Agency (ESA) programs include the Ariane launcher development, the Meteosat meteorological satellites and the Intelsat 6, ECS (European Communications Satellite) series of communications satellites. The ESA's policy of placing contracts with industrial companies in its 13 member countries has contributed to the strategic development of European high technology in the world market. The ESA's long-term programs, in addition to the Ariane launcher and Columbus/Hermes space-station/spaceplane programs, include participation in the International Space Station program, the Data Relay Satellite system and a variety of space applications programs. Two high-performance satellites to be placed in polar orbits will contribute to European environmental and climate variation studies and, together with the Polar Platform sector of the Columbus program, will drive the establishment and development of new institutions, industrial structures and infrastructure.

Luton, J.-M.



Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.




Microsoft Academic Search

The European XFEL will be a free electron laser based on self amplified spontaneous emission in the X-ray regime. The FEL\\u000a is driven by a superconducting 17.5 GeV linear accelerator, followed by 5 separate undulators both for SASE FEL radiation\\u000a and incoherent radiation. Start of operation is foreseen for 2013. This paper presents the layout of the European XFEL, with

W. Decking


Key Competences for Lifelong Learning: The Case of Prospective Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aims to determine the level of prospective teachers in terms of lifelong learning key competences. Lifelong learning is an extensive educational approach receiving much attention not only by educational politics of European Union but also by the rest of the world. Lifelong learning competence requires an active and constant usage of…

Sahin, Mehmet; Akbasli, Sait; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar



IgG4 specific to Toxoplasma gondii excretory/secretory antigens in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid support the cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosis in HIV-infected patients.  


Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common neurological opportunistic disease manifested in HIV infected patients. Excretory/secretory antigens (ESA) are serological markers for the diagnosis of reactivation of the infection in HIV-infected patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. Immunosuppressed patients develop high antibody titers for ESA. However, little is known about the humoral response for these antigens. The present study analyzed the profile of antibody recognition against ESA in comparison with tachyzoite lysate antigen (TLA) in 265 sera and 270 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from infected patients with Toxoplasma gondii and or HIV and in sera of 50 healthy individuals. The samples of sera and CSF were organized in 8 groups. The sera sample groups were: Group I - Se/CT/AIDS (patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS) with 58 samples; Group II - Se/ONinf/AIDS/PosT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/positive toxoplasmosis) with 49 samples; Group III - Se/ONinf/AIDS/NegT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/negative toxoplasmosis) with 58 samples; Group IV - Se/PosT/NegHIV (individuals with asymptomatic toxoplasmosis/negative HIV) with 50 samples and Group V - Se/NegT/NegHIV (healthy individuals/negative toxoplasmosis and HIV) with 50 samples. The CSF sample groups were: Group VI - CSF/CT/AIDS (patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS) with 99 samples; Group VII - CSF/ONinf/AIDS/PosT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/positive toxoplasmosis) with 112 samples, and Group VIII - CSF/ONinf/AIDS/NegT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/negative toxoplasmosis) with 59 samples. Levels of IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG and subclasses were determined by ELISA against TLA and ESA antigens. IgM, IgA or IgE antibodies against ESA or TLA were not detected in sera from patients with toxoplasmosis suggesting that all patients were in chronic phase of the infection. High levels of IgG1 against TLA were found in sera samples from groups I, II and IV and in CSF samples from groups VI and VII; whereas IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were not detected in the same sera or CSF sample groups. However, patients from groups I and VI, that had tachyzoites circulating in blood and CSF respectively, produced a mix of IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against ESA. IgG2 against ESA were predominant in serum from patients with the latent (non-active) T. gondii infection/HIV negative and in CSF samples from patients with other neuroinfections and positive toxoplasmosis (groups IV and VII, respectively). IgG4 levels against ESA were found to be significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.005) higher in patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis (groups I and VI, respectively) in comparison with groups II, IV and VII. This data suggest that IgG4 can be valuable for supporting the diagnosis of focal brain lesions, caused by T. gondii infection, in HIV-infected patients. This approach might be useful, mainly when molecular investigation to detect parasites is not available. PMID:23811152

Meira, Cristina S; Vidal, José E; Costa-Silva, Thais A; Motoie, Gabriela; Gava, Ricardo; Hiramoto, Roberto M; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L



East European Scientific Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Electronic computer control system created; Camera for X-ray structural studies invented; Development and prospects of photogrammetry in Hungary; 1968-1969 research plan of the Polish Academy of Sciences; and Plan for scientific development to 1...



European Union Scandal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the recent high-level corruption scandal in the European Union. Last Tuesday, the European Commission -- the executive body that initiates and implements EU legislation -- resigned en masse, plunging the supranational organization into unprecedented political chaos. All 20 commissioners, led by commission President Jacques Santer of Luxembourg, abdicated their positions the day after the release of a scathing report by the Committee of Independent Experts. The independent panel of experts, who were appointed by the European Parliament, had investigated allegations of bureaucratic malfeasance perpetrated by the European Commission. The committee's report collectively accused the commission of financial "fraud, mismanagement, and nepotism." In the wake of the incriminating report and subsequent resignations, EU foreign ministers are scrambling to find successors for the commissioners to placate the bewildered European citizenry and return to business as usual. This political upheaval happened at a crucial transitional time in the EU's 42-year history, undermining its credibility at a time when it plans to expand into eastern Europe. The current tumult occurred just three months after launching a new unified currency, seven weeks before the new Treaty of Amsterdam commences, and three months before the next European Parliamentary elections, which will determine the future composition of the EU's 626-member assembly. During the next two days, distracted leaders from all fifteen EU member states will meet in Berlin to discuss the reconstruction of the European Commission and formulate a seven-year budget for the entire EU, an organization with about 18,000 officials who administer nearly $100 billion annually. The eight resources discussed provide news, commentary, and analysis.

Osmond, Andrew.


Migraine associated with patent foramen ovale may be caused by reactivation of cerebral toxoplasmosis triggered by arterial blood oxygen desaturation.  


Approximately two billion people worldwide are chronically infected with T. gondii and yet with largely unknown consequences. On the other hand, several authors reported an association between migraine and patent foramen ovale (PFO), and different types of headaches, including migraine, may be precipitated by various diseased states or medications associated with marked immune irregularities, which sometimes cause reactivation of latent cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT). Recently, in a group of 104 subjects with migraine, 46 individuals (44.2%) were found to be seropositive for T. gondii. PFO, atrial septal defects, as well as pulmonary right-to-left shunts are usually associated with a various degree of arterial blood oxygen desaturation. Hypoxia is associated with an increase in the generation of several proinflammatory cytokines and other inflammation mediators, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-6, IL-8, chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, CC-chemokine receptor 2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1), acute-phase protein gene expressions, COX-2 gene transcription, induction of iNOS, and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, hypoxia markedly decreased T-lymphocyte IL-2 mRNA, a key cytokine responsible for B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion, and ischemic tissues demonstrated intravascular neutrophil accumulation, vascular damage, and increased vascular wall permeability. Interestingly, T. gondii activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 already at physiologically relevant oxygen levels and requires HIF1 for growth and survival. These abnormalities may cause imbalance in the host/T. gondii immune system, which finally results in the reactivation of CT. In addition, hypoxia may participate in paradoxical microembolism because arterial oxygen desaturation enhances expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, an important factor which suppresses fibrinolysis, and this effect may be further amplified by a decreased expression of plasminogen activators, finally causing blood hypercoagulability and paradoxical microembolism. In summary, further studies are required to verify the above-presented pathomechanisms probably responsible for the association between PFO and the development of migraine. It is possible that some migraineurs with PFO may benefit from evaluation and treatment of toxoplasmosis in the future once more information is known. PMID:20199198

Prandota, Joseph



On the economic prospects of nuclear fusion with tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of cost and construction energy estimation for tokamak fusion power stations conforming to the present stage of fusion development is described. The method is based on first-wall heat load constraints rather than Beta limitations, which, however, might eventually be the more critical of the two. It is used to discuss the economic efficiency of pure fusion, with particular reference to the European study entitled Environmental Impact and Economic Prospects of Nuclear Fusion (1986). It is shown that the claims made therein for the economic prospects of pure fusion with tokamaks, when discussed on the basis of the present-day technology, do not stand up to critical examination. A fusion-fission hybrid, however, could afford more positive prospects. Support for the stated method is derived when it is properly applied for cost estimation of advanced gas-cooled and Magnox reactors, the two examples presented by the European study to disprove it.

Pfirsch, D.; Schmitter, K. H.



Comparison of nutrients in the food composition tables available in the nine European countries participating in EPIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food composition tables were studied from nine European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. They were compared from the point view of availability, definition, analytical methods, and mode of expression of the nutrients of interest for EPIC, and it was seen that

G Deharveng; UR Charrondičre; N Slimani; DAT Southgate; E Riboli



European Universe Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.



WFPDB: European Plate Archives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) gives an inventory of all wide-field (>~ 1 sq. deg) photographic observations archived in astronomical institutions over the world. So it facilitates and stimulates their use and preservation as a valuable source of information for future investigations in astronomy. At present WFPDB manages plate-index information for 25% of all existing plates providing on-line access from Sofia ( and in CDS, Strasbourg. Here we present the new development of WFPDB as an instrument for searching of long term brightness variations of different sky objects stressing on the European photographic plate collections (from existing 2 million wide-field plates more than 55% are in Europe: Germany, Russia, Ukraine, Italy, Czech Republic, etc.). We comment examples of digitization (with flatbed scanners) of the European plate archives in Sonneberg, Pulkovo, Asiago, Byurakan, Bamberg, etc. and virtual links of WFPDB with European AVO, ADS, IBVS.

Tsvetkov, Milcho



Toxoplasma gondii immune mapped protein-1 (TgIMP1) is a novel vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis.  


Immune mapped protein1 (IMP1) is a new protective protein in apicomplexan parasites, and exists in Toxoplasma gondii. In the present study, a DNA vaccine expressing IMP1 of T. gondii was constructed and the immune response induced in BALB/c mice was evaluated. The coding sequence of IMP1 was inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA 3.1(+), resulting a recombinant plasmid pcDNA-IMP1, which was used to immunize BALB/c mice intramuscularly. After immunization, the immune response was evaluated using lymphoproliferative assay, and cytokine and antibody measurements. The mice were challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain 14th day after the last immunization to observe the survival time. The results showed that the group immunized with pcDNA-IMP1 developed a high level of specific antibody responses against Escherichia coli expressed recombinant TgIMP1, with high IgG antibody titers, predominance of IgG2a production, a strong lymphoproliferative response, and significant levels of IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 production compared with the control groups. These results demonstrate that pcDNA-IMP1 could elicit strong humoral and Th1 immune responses. Immunized mice showed a significantly (15.8 ± 6 days) prolonged survival time compared with control mice, which died within 7 days of challenge infection. These results suggest that IMP1 is a promising vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. PMID:22310204

Cui, Xia; Lei, Tao; Yang, Daoyu; Hao, Pan; Li, Bo; Liu, Qun



NALP1 influences susceptibility to human congenital toxoplasmosis, proinflammatory cytokine response, and fate of Toxoplasma gondii-infected monocytic cells.  


NALP1 is a member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family of proteins that form inflammasomes. Upon cellular infection or stress, inflammasomes are activated, triggering maturation of proinflammatory cytokines and downstream cellular signaling mediated through the MyD88 adaptor. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that stimulates production of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines that are important in innate immunity. In this study, susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis were identified in the NALP1 gene. To investigate the role of the NALP1 inflammasome during infection with T. gondii, we genetically engineered a human monocytic cell line for NALP1 gene knockdown by RNA interference. NALP1 silencing attenuated progression of T. gondii infection, with accelerated host cell death and eventual cell disintegration. In line with this observation, upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-18, and IL-12 upon T. gondii infection was not observed in monocytic cells with NALP1 knockdown. These findings suggest that the NALP1 inflammasome is critical for mediating innate immune responses to T. gondii infection and pathogenesis. Although there have been recent advances in understanding the potent activity of inflammasomes in directing innate immune responses to disease, this is the first report, to our knowledge, on the crucial role of the NALP1 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of T. gondii infections in humans. PMID:21098108

Witola, William H; Mui, Ernest; Hargrave, Aubrey; Liu, Susan; Hypolite, Magali; Montpetit, Alexandre; Cavailles, Pierre; Bisanz, Cordelia; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournié, Gilbert J; McLeod, Rima



European Forest Institute: Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This European Forest Institute (EFI) is "An independent non-governmental organization conducting European forest research." This website provides information about EFI's mission, research goals, strategies and programs. Site users can view information about on-going and completed projects in any of the four EFI research programs which include: Forest Ecology and Management, Forest Products Markets and Socio-Economics, Policy Analysis, and Forest Resources and Information. EFI also provides a search engine for locating specific research projects as well as information about how to propose an EFI project.


Eastern European Cinema.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a structure for a course that highlights the best cinemas of Eastern European countries, in order to acquaint students with cinematic traditions of the region. Discusses course activities, coursework and evaluation, and resources. Advocates structuring the course around the film of experience of Eastern Europe, and presents and discusses…

Iordanova, Dina



European cities: Towards a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article puts forth the thesis that European cities are increasingly influenced by recreation, changing the essential quality of the urban space. I begin by setting out a theoretical framework in which cities are seen as specific places used as a resource by mobile individuals in a specific \\

Mathis Stock



European Televised Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on the analysis of a week of programmes on European television channels. In the news programmes an under-representation of women among the journalists as well as in the news items themselves may be observed. If women are predominant in commercials, they appear there mainly as housewives, whose decisions to purchase a product need to be guided

Gabriel Thoveron



European Polistes venom allergy.  


The American Polistes species venom mixture--that of P. annularis, P. fuscatus, P. metricus and P. exclamans--was the only commercially available mixture for diagnosis and therapy until 1996. However, these species of Polistes are not present in Europe, where P. dominulus and P. gallicus and to a lesser extent P. nimphus are widespread. The aim of this study was to assess the allergenic differences among the commercial American mix, P. dominulus and P. gallicus venom in European patients and therefore to verify if this mixture is suitable for diagnosis in these patients. We carried out skin tests, radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) and RAST inhibition in Italian patients with adverse reactions to Polistes stings. RAST inhibition results demonstrated that cross-reactivity between the American and European species is only partial and that P. dominulus and P. gallicus venoms have exclusive allergens. Skin tests and direct RAST confirmed these results and also showed that European Polistes venom is more suitable than the American mix in Italian patients. Moreover, we found a high rate of cross-reactivity between P. dominulus and P. gallicus. To conclude, P. dominulus and/or P. gallicus venoms are necessary for diagnosis and therefore in the therapy of European patients. PMID:16792585

Severino, M G; Campi, P; Macchia, D; Manfredi, M; Turillazzi, S; Spadolini, I; Bilň, M B; Bonifazi, F



Efficiency in European banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the established literature on modelling the cost characteristics of banking markets by applying the flexible Fourier functional form and stochastic cost frontier methodologies to estimate scale economies, X-inefficiencies and technical change for a large sample of European banks between 1989 and 1997. The results reveal that scale economies are widespread for smallest banks and those in the

Y. Altunba?; E. P. M. Gardener; P. Molyneux; B. Moore



The European Parliament and the Europeanization of Green Parties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europeanization’, or the adaptation of national political actors to European integration, has increased the professionalization of European Green parties. Previous studies of this phenomenon’s effects on the Greens have not fully accounted for the processes behind this form of party development. Using a qualitative adaptation of Harmel and Janda’s (1994) model of party change as a foundation, this article develops

Eric H. Hines



Ante-mortem diagnosis, diarrhea, oocyst shedding, treatment, isolation, and genetic typing of Toxoplasma gondii associated with clinical toxoplasmosis in a naturally infected cat.  


Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and other animals, but clinical disease is relatively rare. It is unknown whether the severity of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent hosts is due to the parasite strain, host variability, or to other factors. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic variability among T. gondii isolates from apparently healthy and sick hosts. Whether T. gondii genetic makeup plays a part in the pathogenesis of clinical feline toxoplasmosis is uncertain because little is known of genetic typing of strains associated with clinical feline toxoplasmosis. A 6-mo-old domestic male cat was hospitalized because of lethargy, anorexia, fever, and diarrhea. Numerous (6 million in 1 sample) T. gondii oocysts were found in feces of the cat and antibodies to T. gondii (titer 1:800) were found in its serum by the modified agglutination test. The cat was medicated orally with Clindamycin for 10 days; it became asymptomatic after 10 days and was discharged from the hospital. Viable T. gondii (designated TgCatUs9) was isolated from feces (oocysts) by bioassays in mice. Genetic typing using the DNA extracted from the brains of infected mice and 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers revealed Type II allele at the SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, and PK1 loci and Type I at the L358 and Apico loci; therefore, this isolate belongs to the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype no. 4, which is grouped into the Type 12 lineage that is dominant in wildlife from North America. To our knowledge, this is the first T. gondii isolate characterized genetically from a sick cat in the USA. PMID:22924914

Dubey, J P; Prowell, M



Towards the European Education Metathesaurus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to offer a "common language" to all of the parties involved in European cooperation in education, the European Education Metathesaurus is the set made up of the European Education Thesaurus (the third edition of the EUDISED Thesaurus) and the indexing languages that will be attached to it, whether sub-thesauri, specialized vocabularies,…

Roulin, Corentin


Diet and hip fractures among elderly Europeans in the EPIC cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Evidence on the role of diet during adulthood and beyond on fracture occurrence is limited. We investigated diet and hip fracture incidence in a population of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study.Subjects\\/Methods:29 122 volunteers (10 538 men, 18 584 women) aged 60 years and above (mean age: 64.3) from five countries were followed

V Benetou; P Orfanos; D Zylis; S Sieri; P Contiero; R Tumino; M C Giurdanella; P H M Peeters; J Linseisen; A Nieters; H Boeing; C Weikert; U Pettersson; I Johansson; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; M Dorronsoro; P Boffetta; A Trichopoulou



Harmonization of European neurology education: The junior doctor's perspective.  


The objective of this article, written by executives of the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees (EAYNT), is to illustrate the status quo of neurology training in Europe and give an outlook on ongoing efforts and prospects for junior neurologists. The European Union is an economic and political union that currently encompasses 27 member states with more than 500 million inhabitants (or 7.3% of the world population) (interested readers are referred to Countries of the European Union act as a single market with free movement of citizens, goods, services, and finances. As a consequence, a diploma and postgraduate training obtained in one EU country will be automatically recognized by all other EU member states. At the Lisbon European Council in March 2000, the Heads of State or Government signed a treaty that expresses their ambition of making Europe "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" ( More than 1.6 million physicians in all the different medical specialties are represented by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). The UEMS was founded in 1958 and the objectives include the study, promotion, and harmonization of the highest level of training of medical specialists, medical practice, and health care within the European Union. The European Board of Neurology (UEMS-EBN; is in charge of the implementation of the UEMS policy regarding neurology. PMID:24166962

Macerollo, Antonella; Struhal, Walter; Sellner, Johann



European Environment Agency (EEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Environment Agency (EEA) Website contains a huge selection of online environmental information, data, and reports pertaining to all fifteen EU states, as well as Iceland, Lichtenstein, and Norway. Information is organized by themes, and the site employs a powerful multilingual search feature. Themes include environmental issues, sectors and activities, information related to specific media, regions, and actions for environmental improvement. The site also contains EEA publications and reports, as well as a data service providing access to data sets covering at least all EU member states. Finally, the European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET) provides a network which "facilitates co-operation and flow of data and information between EIONET partners and with the EEA." The EEA Website is a large, research-oriented repository of information.


The European Nucleotide Archive  

PubMed Central

The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; is Europe’s primary nucleotide-sequence repository. The ENA consists of three main databases: the Sequence Read Archive (SRA), the Trace Archive and EMBL-Bank. The objective of ENA is to support and promote the use of nucleotide sequencing as an experimental research platform by providing data submission, archive, search and download services. In this article, we outline these services and describe major changes and improvements introduced during 2010. These include extended EMBL-Bank and SRA-data submission services, extended ENA Browser functionality, support for submitting data to the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA) through SRA, and the launch of a new sequence similarity search service.

Leinonen, Rasko; Akhtar, Ruth; Birney, Ewan; Bower, Lawrence; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Cheng, Ying; Cleland, Iain; Faruque, Nadeem; Goodgame, Neil; Gibson, Richard; Hoad, Gemma; Jang, Mikyung; Pakseresht, Nima; Plaister, Sheila; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Reddy, Kethi; Sobhany, Siamak; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Vaughan, Robert; Zalunin, Vadim; Cochrane, Guy



A surge in the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the residents of islands in Gangwha-gun, Incheon, Korea.  


Seroepidemiological changes of Toxoplasma gondii infection among the residents of the islands of Gangwha-gun, Incheon for 2 years were surveyed and evaluated by ELISA using a crude extract antigen. In 2010, sera of 919 adult residents in Gyodong-myeon and 313 adults in Samsan-myeon were collected and checked for IgG antibody titers, which showed 14.5% (133 sera) and 19.8% (62 sera) positive rates, respectively. In 2011, sera of 955 adults in Gyodong-myeon and 341 adults in Samsan-myeon were examined, which showed an increase of positive rates to 23.8% (227 sera) and 31.7% (108 sera), respectively. Totally, the seroprevalence of the first year was 15.8% and it increased rapidly to 25.8% in the second year. The positive rates of both sexes increased simultaneously with the significant ratio of males to females by 1.7-2.2 fold (P<0.05). In both myeons, 661 sera were collected every year and showed changes in optical density (OD) in 177 sera; newly found as positives in 73 persons (11.0%), negative conversion in 10 persons (1.5%), and maintained or increased in 94 persons (14.2%). This rapid increase in the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Gangwha islands may be due to in part peculiar changes in the toxoplasmic environment of the islands and presumably the consumption of the pork bred domestically within the islands or imported from high endemic nations. It is necessary to find out symptomatic toxoplasmic patients and confirm the risk factors for further infection in the islands of Gangwha-gun. PMID:22949745

Yang, Zhaoshou; Cho, Pyo Yun; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Kim, Tong-Soo; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Hong, Sung-Jong; Cha, Seok Ho; Nam, Ho-Woo



Aqueous Humor and Serum Immunoblotting for Immunoglobulin Types G, A, M, and E in Cases of Human Ocular Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare the local and systemic Toxoplasma-specific humoral immune responses in individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). To this end, paired aqueous humor and serum samples from 46 individuals with active OT and from 30 individuals without inflammatory eye disease (controls) were analyzed by immunoblotting for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, IgM, and IgE directed against 20- to 120-kDa antigens. The presence in the aqueous humor of a unique band, or of at least three bands that were at least three times more intense in aqueous humor than in serum, was taken as evidence of local antibody production. IgG bands were detected in 98% of the aqueous humor samples, while IgA bands were detected in 76%, IgM bands were detected in 8%, and IgE bands were not detected in any. Evidence of local production of specific antibodies was found in 32 cases (70%) (IgG in 23 [50%]; IgA in 16 [35%]). In 10 instances (22%), routine laboratory tests were not indicative of OT. In 14 cases (30%), no local antibody production was detected by immunoblotting; 3 of these cases yielded evidence of local antibody production according to the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient. Local antibody production was revealed for 7 of the 30 controls (23%). Hence, the sensitivity of immunoblotting for IgG and IgA is 70%, and the specificity is 77%. We conclude that immunoblotting for local specific IgG and IgA supports the clinical diagnosis of OT in 70% of cases. In 22% of these, the diagnosis is not confirmed by other laboratory tests. Hence, immunoblotting increases the sensitivity of routine laboratory tests and should be considered for samples that register negative by such tests.

Garweg, Justus G.; Garweg, Silvia-Daniela L.; Flueckiger, Franziska; Jacquier, Patrick; Boehnke, Matthias



Evidence for associations between the purinergic receptor P2X(7) (P2RX7) and toxoplasmosis.  


Congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection can result in intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus and retinochoroiditis. Acquired infection is commonly associated with ocular disease. Pathology is characterized by strong proinflammatory responses. Ligation of ATP by purinergic receptor P2X(7), encoded by P2RX7, stimulates proinflammatory cytokines and can lead directly to killing of intracellular pathogens. To determine whether P2X(7) has a role in susceptibility to congenital toxoplasmosis, we examined polymorphisms at P2RX7 in 149 child/parent trios from North America. We found association (FBAT Z-scores +/-2.429; P=0.015) between the derived C(+)G(-) allele (f=0.68; OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.14-3.75) at single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1718119 (1068T>C; Thr-348-Ala), and a second synonymous variant rs1621388 in linkage disequilibrium with it, and clinical signs of disease per se. Analysis of clinical subgroups showed no association with hydrocephalus, with effect sizes for associations with retinal disease and brain calcifications enhanced (OR=3.0-4.25; 0.004

Jamieson, S E; Peixoto-Rangel, A L; Hargrave, A C; Roubaix, L-A de; Mui, E J; Boulter, N R; Miller, E N; Fuller, S J; Wiley, J S; Castellucci, L; Boyer, K; Peixe, R G; Kirisits, M J; Elias, L de Souza; Coyne, J J; Correa-Oliveira, R; Sautter, M; Smith, N C; Lees, M P; Swisher, C N; Heydemann, P; Noble, A G; Patel, D; Bardo, D; Burrowes, D; McLone, D; Roizen, N; Withers, S; Bahia-Oliveira, L M G; McLeod, R; Blackwell, J M



Evidence for associations between the purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2RX7) and toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection can result in intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus, and retinochoroiditis. Acquired infection is commonly associated with ocular disease. Pathology is characterized by strong pro-inflammatory responses. Ligation of ATP by purinergic receptor P2X7, encoded by P2RX7, stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokines and can lead directly to killing of intracellular pathogens. To determine whether P2X7 plays a role in susceptibility to congenital toxoplasmosis, we examined polymorphisms at P2RX7 in 149 child/parent trios from North America. We found association (FBAT Z scores ±2.429; P= 0.015) between the derived C(+)G(?) allele (f= 0.68; OR= 2.06; 95% CI: 1.14–3.75) at SNP rs1718119 (1068T>C; Thr-348-Ala), and a second synonymous variant rs1621388 in linkage disequilibrium with it, and clinical signs of disease per se. Analysis of clinical sub-groups showed no association with hydrocephalus, with effect sizes for associations with retinal disease and brain calcifications enhanced (OR=3.0 to 4.25; 0.004

Jamieson, Sarra E.; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L.; Hargrave, Aubrey C.; de Roubaix, Lee-Anne; Mui, Ernest J.; Boulter, Nicola R.; Miller, E. Nancy; Fuller, Stephen J.; Wiley, James S.; Castellucci, Lea; Boyer, Kenneth; Peixe, Ricardo Guerra; Kirisits, Michael J.; de Souza Elias, Liliani; Coyne, Jessica J.; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Sautter, Mari; Smith, Nicholas C.; Lees, Michael P.; Swisher, Charles N.; Heydemann, Peter; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Patel, Dushyant; Bardo, Dianna; Burrowes, Delilah; McLone, David; Roizen, Nancy; Withers, Shawn; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M. G.; McLeod, Rima; Blackwell, Jenefer M.



Effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection kinetics on trophoblast cell population in Calomys callosus, a model of congenital toxoplasmosis.  


This work evaluated the kinetics of events that occur in the placenta of Calomys callosus after Toxoplasma gondii infection. Animals on the first day of pregnancy (dop) and virgin nonpregnant females were perorally infected with 20 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49. After 100 days of infection, the virgin animals were mated and received an additional 20 cysts on the first dop. The placentas and the embryos from both acutely and chronically infected animals were analyzed up to day 20 of pregnancy by morphological and immunocytochemical assays. Noninfected and infected animals exhibited placenta with normal morphology. From the seventh dop and infection onwards, liver and spleen cells of the infected animals contained several parasitophorous vacuoles. On the 13th day, the maternal blood present at the placental blood spaces contained T. gondii-infected leukocytes. Infected placental cells were only seen on the 15th dop, being the trophoblast giant cells, the first cell type to contain signs of the parasite internalization, followed by labyrinth zone cells 24 h later and spongiotrophoblast cells only after the 19th dop. Fetal liver and brain were infected by T. gondii concomitantly to the labyrinth cell infection. No signals of infection were observed on placentas and embryos from chronically infected animals. Therefore, considering the sequence of events leading to the infection of the various organs, it could be hypothesized that the placenta is infected later on during pregnancy, which may be related to the defense roles played by this structure. However, trophoblast giant cells are unable to completely stop the progression of T. gondii infection towards the fetal tissues. C. callosus was demonstrated to be a suitable experimental model to study the dynamics of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:12438390

Ferro, E A V; Silva, D A O; Bevilacqua, E; Mineo, J R



ERPA: European Research Papers Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ERPA, the European Research Papers Archive, provides a common interface for searching a database of online working papers relevant to European integration. Contributors to the archive include the Robert Schuman Centre of the Academy of European Law at the European University Institute, the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, the Jean Monnet Working Papers Series at Harvard Law School, and the European Communities Studies Association-Austria. Users can select either a short form to search recent additions to the archive or a long form to either or to also access the many advanced search options, including full-text searches.


Telemedicine and European law.  


A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues. PMID:15074761

Callens, Stefaan



The European Spallation Source  

SciTech Connect

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.



European Environmental Education Newsletter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by professionals at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany), the European Environmental Education Newsletter strives "to provide further insights into the subject matter of environmental education and on matters related to sustainability, with an international flavor." To that end, the newsletter provides updates of current events as well as announcements of upcoming meetings, educational materials, and publications, with an emphasis on Europe.




Microsoft Academic Search

The European X-ray Free Electron Laser XFEL is a 4th generation synchrotron radiation facility based on the SASE FEL concept and the superconducting TESLA technology for the linear accelerator. This multi-user facility will provide photon beams in a wavelength regime from 0.1nm to 5nm in three FEL beam lines and hard X-rays in two spontaneous radiation beam lines, serving in

R. Brinkmann


European Monetary Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EMU site was created by a group of students at the King's Hospital Secondary School in Palmerston, Dublin, Ireland. Their site discusses the potential positive and negative effects of the EMU, popular opinion on the Euro, and the possible side effects for Ireland, which will join, when its neighbor Britain does not join. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.


Sense of Coherence and Mortality in Men and Women in the EPIC-Norfolk United Kingdom Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that a personality disposition defined by a strong sense of coherence is associated with a reduced risk of mortality. The authors prospectively examined, for ?6 years, the relation between a strong sense of coherence and mortality due to all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer among 20,579 participants aged 41-80 years from the European Prospective Investigation

Paul Surtees; Nicholas Wainwright; Robert Luben; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nicholas Day


Occupational exposures contribute to educational inequalities in lung cancer incidence among men: Evidence from the EPIC prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent occupational exposures may explain socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer incidence after adjusting for smoking and dietary factors. Analyses were based on a subsampie of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study), a prospective cohort. The analyses included 703 incident lung cancer cases among men in Denmark,

G. Menvielle; H. C. Boshuizen; A. E. Kunst; P. Vineis; S. O. Dalton; M. M. Bergmann; S. Hermann; F. Veglia; P. Ferrari; K. Overvad; O. Raaschou-Nielsen; A. Tjřnneland; R. Kaaks; J. Linseisen; D. Palli; V. Krogh; R. Tumino; L. Rodriguez; A. Agudo; M. J. Sánchez; J. M. A. Arozena; L. Cirera; E. Ardanaz; S. Bingham; K. T. Khaw; P. Boffetta; E. J. Duell; N. Slimani; V. Gallo; E. Riboli; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita



On the economic prospects of nuclear fusion with tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

A method to estimate the cost and construction energy of tokamak fusion power stations based on the present, early stage of fusion development is described. The method is based on first-wall heat load constraints rather than beta limitations, which could eventually be the more critical of the two. The economic efficiency of pure fusion is discussed, with particular reference to a European study. It is shown that the claims made therein for the economic prospects of pure fusion with tokamaks, when discussed on the basis of present-day technology do not stand up to critical examination. A fusion-fission hybrid, however, could afford more positive prospects.

Pfirsch, D.; Schmitter, K.H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.))



[Influence of standardization upon the results of serological analysis of toxoplasmosis (author's transl)].  


It is the purpose of this paper to determine whether the decline of the serologically verified acute Toxoplasma gondii infections observed since the late sixties and found in literature has been caused by epidemiological factors or whether the standardization of serological methods (10) introducted in 1966/66 for the determination of antibodies specific to Toxoplasma gondii has been responsible. The paper is based on material of the prospective study, "Pregnancy and child development" supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Mainly six laboratories did the serological analysis for antibodies against T. gondii from 1964 to 1970. The following results were obtained: 1. Laboratories using the standardization observed a decline of the highly positive dilution starting in 1968 (Fig. 1, Table 1). 2. The proportion of the samples positive in the dye test did not change (Fig. 1). 3. The proportion of sera reacting in the complement fixation test (CFT) with a dilution of 1:5 increased. But after introduction of the standardization more sera were analyzed by both the dye and complement fixation tests than before (Table 2, Fig. 2). 4. The proportion of sera found positive by the complement fixation test increased slightly up to 1968 (Fig. 3). 5. Differences in the age structure (Fig. 4) or dietary habits of the group (Fig. 5) did not cause the changes in titer. 6. Therefore the standardization was introduced a considerable proportion of the sera showing dye test results of more than 1:1000 reacted negatively to the complement fixation test (Table 4). These cases were probably not acute infections. 7. When the standardization was introduced the difference between results of first and second analysis decreased for sera with titers smaller then 1:256 (increased of reliability) (Table 5, Fig. 7). 8. Complement fixation titer show an analogous behavior. (Table 7 and 8). The results detained above show that the decrease, observed since 1969, of the cases of acute Toxoplasma infections verified by serological methods is not caused by epidemiological but rather by methodical factors. PMID:1015035

Berger, J; Piekarski, G



Higher perceived dominance in Toxoplasma infected men--a new evidence for role of increased level of testosterone in toxoplasmosis-associated changes in human behavior.  


Toxoplasma is parasite of cats that uses any warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It is known to induce shifts in behavior, physiology and even morphology of its intermediate hosts, including humans. The lower second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D ratio) in infected man and women, and higher height in infected man suggest that sex steroid hormones like testosterone could play a role in these shifts. Here, we searched for another indirect indication for a higher postnatal testosterone level, i.e. increased perceived dominance and masculinity in infected men. We showed portrait pictures of 89 male students of which 18 were Toxoplasma-infected to 109 female students. When we statistically corrected for age, men with latent toxoplasmosis were perceived as more dominant (p=0.009) and masculine (p=0.052). These results support the idea that the higher level of testosterone could be responsible for at least some of the toxoplasmosis-associated shifts in human and animal behavior. PMID:17435678

Hodková, Hana; Kolbeková, Petra; Skallová, Anna; Lindová, Jitka; Flegr, Jaroslav



Autism spectrum disorders may be due to cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with chronic neuroinflammation causing persistent hypercytokinemia that resulted in an increased lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and depressed metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and extreme changes in the weight resulting in obesity or wasting. Data presented in this review suggest that environmental triggering factors

Joseph Prandota



Researching the European Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the European Union's official and comprehensive guide for scholars and researchers studying its institutions. Users will find information on document access, treaties and institutions, legislation, and EU publishing operations. The site also provides overviews of official and related institutions and the legislative process in the Union. Researchers will be especially interested in the sections on Legislative Documents and Print Research Tools, Using Annual Reports and Informational Documents, and Bibliographic and Other Guides. The synoptic tables of basic documents, quick visual guides to the documents described on the site and their availability, are additional valuable tools.



European Space Agency: Rosetta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rosetta is the European Space Agency's comet exploration spacecraft. Materials presented here describe the space craft and its mission, which is to rendezvous with and orbit Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and soft-land an instrument package on the comet's nucleus. En route to the comet, it will perform fly-bys of two asteroids, Steins and Lutetia. Topics include a mission summary, background science, information on the orbiter and lander, and a mission schedule. An image gallery is also provided that contains pictures of the spacecraft, imagery taken by the spacecraft, pictures of the launch, and others.


Eastern European risk management  

SciTech Connect

Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

Honey, J.A. (American Nuclear Insurers, Farmington, CT (United States))



Influences Determining European Coal Seam Gas Deliverability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technically the coal basins of Europe have generated significant Gas In Place figures that has historically generated investor's interest in the development of this potential coal seam gas (CSG) resource. In the early 1980's, a wave of international, principally American, companies arrived, established themselves, drilled and then left with a poor record of success and disappointed investors. Recently a second wave of investment started after 2002, with the smaller companies leading the charge but have the lesson been learned from the past failures? To select a CSG investment project the common European approach has been to: 1. Find an old mining region; 2. Look to see if it had a coal mine methane gas problem; 3. Look for the non-mined coal seams; and 4. Peg the land. This method is perhaps the reason why the history of CSG exploration in Europe is such a disappointment as generally the coal mining regions of Europe do not have commercial CSG reservoir attributes. As a result, investors and governments have lost confidence that CSG will be a commercial success in Europe. New European specific principles for the determination of commercial CSG prospects have had to be delineated that allow for the selection of coal basins that have a strong technical case for deliverability. This will result in the return of investor confidence.

Clark, G.



EIOP: European Integration Online Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Community Studies Association Austria provides this new working paper archive to house peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary working papers in the field of European integration research, including legal studies, political science, economics, and history. At present eleven papers are available, including "Democracy and Governance in the European Union," "The Economic Consequences of a Large EMU--Results of Macroeconomic Model Simulations," and "The Making of a Polity: The Struggle Over European Integration." Though English is the preferred language for papers, papers in German may also be included; abstracts are presented in both languages. A mailing list is available for those wishing to be informed when new papers are posted.



Brief Communication: Latent toxoplasmosis and salivary testosterone concentration--important confounding factors in second to fourth digit ratio studies.  


A sexually dimorphic characteristic, the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D ratio), has been shown to reflect the prenatal concentration of sex steroid hormones and to correlate with many personality, physiological, and life history traits. The correlations are usually stronger for the right than the left hand. Most studies have shown that the 2D:4D ratio does not vary with age or postnatal concentration of sex steroid hormones. Recently, a strong association between left hand 2D:4D ratio and infection with a common human parasite Toxoplasma has been reported. We hypothesized that the confounding effect of Toxoplasma infection on left hand 2D:4D ratio could be responsible for the stronger association between different traits and right hand rather than left hand 2D:4D ratio. This confounding effect of toxoplasmosis could also be responsible for the difficulty in finding an association between 2D:4D ratio and age or postnatal steroid hormone concentration. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the association between sex and age and 2D:4D ratio in a population of 194 female and 106 male students with and without controlling for the confounding variables of Toxoplasma infection and testosterone concentration. Our results showed that the relationship between age and sex and 2D:4D ratio increased sharply when Toxoplasma infection and testosterone concentration were controlled. These results suggest that left hand 2D:4D ratio is more susceptible to postnatal influences and that the confounding factors of Toxoplasma infection, testosterone concentration and possibly also age, should be controlled in future 2D:4D ratio studies. Because of a stronger 2D:4D dimorphism in Toxoplasma-infected than Toxoplasma-free subjects, we predict that 2D:4D ratio dimorphism as well as right hand/left hand 2D:4D ratio dimorphism will be higher in countries with a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection than in those with a low prevalence. PMID:18615572

Flegr, Jaroslav; Lindová, Jitka; Pivońková, Vera; Havlícek, Jan



The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

Ramirez, Teresita R.


The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

Ramirez, Teresita R.


New European Programmes for the New European College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for further education (FE) college managers and program teams throughout the United Kingdom (UK), provides guidance for conducting the following activities: incorporating new European Union (EU) policies/programs into FE college curricula; ensuring maximum access to the full range of European curriculum activities…

Murray, Alan


European television: politics and broadcasting in the European Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper takes the European media revolution as its starting point and traces the history of the European Community's (EC's) first major legislation on audiovisual internationalization and deregulation-the `television without frontiers' directive on broadcasting. Specifically, the aims of the EC's audiovisual policy are characterized as tenuously resolving two conflicting models of broadcast regulation-the trusteeship model and the marketplace model. An

Mitch Baranowski



Digitising inequality: the cul-de-sac of women's work in European services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the skills and development prospects of women working in European services. Skills are increasingly job-specific, including the relational skills necessary to the delivery of customer service. Formal training is declining and being replaced by informal learning techniques. Opportunities to acquire comprehensive or transferable skills are rare, as are women's progression opportunities in the ‘knowledge society’.

Juliet Webster



Hip geometry, bone mineral distribution, and bone strength in European men and women: the EPOS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) have been shown previously to relate, independently of each other, to risk of hip fracture. We used Lunar DPX “?” versions of hip strength analysis (HSA) and hip axis length (HAL) software to analyze scans from ten representative age-stratified population samples in the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS). All 1617 subjects were >50

N Crabtree; M Lunt; G Holt; H Kroger; H Burger; S Grazio; K.-T Khaw; R. S Lorenc; J Nijs; J Stepan; J. A Falch; T Miazgowski; P Raptou; H. A. P Pols; J Dequeker; S Havelka; K Hoszowski; I Jajic; S Czekalski; G Lyritis; A. J Silman; J Reeve



The Epistemological Fog in Realising Learning to Learn in European Curriculum Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The European Union is concerned about the economic prospects of its member states as they have to compete against newly emerging economies with lower wages and high ambitions. Part of the strategy to deal with this economic shadow is to create a knowledge economy, but in order to achieve this, a shift to a competence-based curriculum model is…

Leat, David; Thomas, Ulrike; Reid, Anna



Clinical Utility of the PCA3 Urine Assay in European Men Scheduled for Repeat Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) assay has shown promise as an aid in prostate cancer (pCA) diagnosis in identifying men with a high probability of a positive (repeat) biopsy. Objective: This study evaluated the clinical utility of the PROGENSA PCA3 assay. Design, setting, and participants: This European prospective, multicentre study enrolled men with one or two negative biopsies

Alexander Haese; Alexandre de la Taille; Hendrik van Poppel; Michael Marberger; Arnulf Stenzl; Peter F. A. Mulders; Hartwig Huland; Clement-Claude Abbou; Mesut Remzi; Martina Tinzl; Susan Feyerabend; Alexander B. Stillebroer; Martijn P. M. Q. van Gils; Jack A. Schalken


The EPIC nutrient database project (ENDB): a first attempt to standardize nutrient databases across the 10 European countries participating in the EPIC study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:This paper describes the ad hoc methodological concepts and procedures developed to improve the comparability of Nutrient databases (NDBs) across the 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This was required because there is currently no European reference NDB available.Design:A large network involving national compilers, nutritionists and experts on food chemistry and computer

N Slimani; G Deharveng; I Unwin; D A T Southgate; J Vignat; G Skeie; S Salvini; M Parpinel; A Mřller; J Ireland; W Becker; A Farran; S Westenbrink; E Vasilopoulou; J Unwin; Ĺ Borgejordet; S Rohrmann; S Church; P Gnagnarella; C Casagrande; M van Bakel; M Niravong; M C Boutron-Ruault; C Stripp; A Tjřnneland; A Trichopoulou; K Georga; S Nilsson; I Mattisson; J Ray; H Boeing; M Ocké; P H M Peeters; P Jakszyn; P Amiano; D Engeset; E Lund; M Santucci de Magistris; C Sacerdote; A Welch; S Bingham; A F Subar; E Riboli



An American Construction of European Education Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.



The European Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation I will describe the current status of the European Solar Telescope (EST) project. The EST design has a 4-m aperture to achieve both a large photon collection and very high spatial resolution. It includes a multi-conjugate adaptive system integrated in the light path for diffraction-limited imaging. The optical train is optimized to minimize instrumental polarization and to keep it nearly constant as the telescope tracks the sky. A suite of visible and infrared instruments are planned with a light distribution system that accomodates full interoperability and simultaneous usage. The science drivers emphasize combined observations at multiple heights in the atmosphere to build a connected view of solar magnetism from the photosphere to the corona.

Socas-Navarro, H.



European Training Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working in conjunction with a host of other inter-governmental agencies, the European Training Foundation (ETF) is committed to "developing a range of quality of education and training systems" across Europe and into Asia. First-time visitors to the site will want to take a look at their "About the ETF" area to learn more about their mission, and then proceed to the "Themes" area, which contains basic information about their work in such areas as adult learning and online education. As might be expected from such an organization, their publications area is a real treasure-trove for policy analysts and others, as it contains works on "best practices" and overviews of educational systems throughout the region. In keeping with the strong emphasis place on vocational education, the site also contains a number of related events and conferences that will be of great interest as well.


European project ISAWARE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As air traffic is increasing, the probability of encountering 'surveillance' alerts during flight is also increasing. In order to ensure safety, new on board systems need to be developed to provide the crew with a better 'situation awareness' (SA) about its external environment and potential hazards. In addition, the means to manage the data generated by these new systems needs to be build up. Despite the tremendous amount of information, crew workload must not increase. This is where the ISAWARE project comes in with the Integrated Situation Awareness System (ISAS) concept. ISAWARE (Increasing Safety through collision Avoidance WARning intEgration) is a project partly funded by the European Community, executed by a well balanced composition of several European aerospace companies (airframers, a helicopter manufacturer, avionics suppliers, airlines), one research laboratory and one university. The overall objective of the ISAWARE project is to conduct research into the potential improvements to flight safety that can be achieved by providing the pilot with complete predictive situation awareness during all phases of the flight. The Integrated Situational Awareness System (ISAS) merges data from different safety systems concerning terrain, traffic, weather and other. The system ensures the alerts consistency, prioritises alerts and anticipates threats along a predicted trajectory earlier than current systems can provide. The second main axis of the research is the development of synthetic vision displays (PFD, ND and HUD) to enhance the Human-Machine Interface (HMI). The key focus of the project is the development of a ground-based demonstrator rig which is interfaced to a dynamic flight simulator. This rig is used for the evaluation of the ISAWARE concept by a representative range of active airline crews.

Kaiser, Jochen; Smietanski, Guillaume; Kubbat, Wolfgang



European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina




Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of the European economies has affected and will continue to affect almost every aspect of both domestic and international affairs of Balkan countries. Growth of intra-European trade, massive international financial flows, and the activities of multinational corporations are tying national economies more tightly to one another, thus making integration an important feature of the EU. Almost all economists and

Sasha Obradovic




Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses alternative perspectives on competition and industrial policies (IP) in theory and in practice and critically assesses recent European IP in this context. It develops a new framework for IP that emphasises the sustainability of value creation at the firm, meso and national levels, and explores its implications for IP in general and European IP in particular. It

Christos N. Pitelis



Market forces in European soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates high revenues for participating clubs. This paper studies the effects of these changes on the closeness of

Marco Haan; Ruud H. Koning; Arjen van Witteloostuijn



Blue Cards, Blue Prospects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the European Commission has proposed to introduce a new mi- gration policy instrument - Blue Cards - to attract highly skilled workers from abroad by lifting labour market restrictions, offering financial and housing ben- efits. The excludability character of human capital suggests that what is benefi- cial for receiving countries might be harmful for sending countries. This article investigates

dArtis Kancs; Pavel Ciaian



European Science Notes. Volume 39, Number 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

European Science Notes (ESN) is a monthly publication with brief articles on recent developments in European scientific research. The value of ESN articles to Americans is to call attention to current developments in European science and technology and to...

L. E. Shaffer



Significant reduction of brain cysts caused by Toxoplasma gondii after treatment with spiramycin coadministered with metronidazole in a mouse model of chronic toxoplasmosis.  


Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that generates latent cysts in the brain; reactivation of these cysts may lead to fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis, for which treatment remains unsuccessful. We assessed spiramycin pharmacokinetics coadministered with metronidazole, the eradication of brain cysts and the in vitro reactivation. Male BALB/c mice were fed 1,000 tachyzoites orally to develop chronic toxoplasmosis. Four weeks later, infected mice underwent different treatments: (i) infected untreated mice (n = 9), which received vehicle only; (ii) a spiramycin-only group (n = 9), 400 mg/kg daily for 7 days; (iii) a metronidazole-only group (n = 9), 500 mg/kg daily for 7 days; and (iv) a combination group (n = 9), which received both spiramycin (400 mg/kg) and metronidazole (500 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. An uninfected control group (n = 10) was administered vehicle only. After treatment, the brain cysts were counted, brain homogenates were cultured in confluent Vero cells, and cysts and tachyzoites were counted after 1 week. Separately, pharmacokinetic profiles (plasma and brain) were assessed after a single dose of spiramycin (400 mg/kg), metronidazole (500 mg/kg), or both. Metronidazole treatment increased the brain spiramycin area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ? (AUC(0-?)) by 67% without affecting its plasma disposition. Metronidazole plasma and brain AUC(0-?) values were reduced 9 and 62%, respectively, after spiramycin coadministration. Enhanced spiramycin brain exposure after coadministration reduced brain cysts 15-fold (79 ± 23 for the combination treatment versus 1,198 ± 153 for the untreated control group [P < 0.05]) and 10-fold versus the spiramycin-only group (768 ± 125). Metronidazole alone showed no effect (1,028 ± 149). Tachyzoites were absent in the brain. Spiramycin reduced in vitro reactivation. Metronidazole increased spiramycin brain penetration, causing a significant reduction of T. gondii brain cysts, with potential clinical translatability for chronic toxoplasmosis treatment. PMID:22271863

Chew, Wai Kit; Segarra, Ignacio; Ambu, Stephen; Mak, Joon Wah



Significant Reduction of Brain Cysts Caused by Toxoplasma gondii after Treatment with Spiramycin Coadministered with Metronidazole in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that generates latent cysts in the brain; reactivation of these cysts may lead to fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis, for which treatment remains unsuccessful. We assessed spiramycin pharmacokinetics coadministered with metronidazole, the eradication of brain cysts and the in vitro reactivation. Male BALB/c mice were fed 1,000 tachyzoites orally to develop chronic toxoplasmosis. Four weeks later, infected mice underwent different treatments: (i) infected untreated mice (n = 9), which received vehicle only; (ii) a spiramycin-only group (n = 9), 400 mg/kg daily for 7 days; (iii) a metronidazole-only group (n = 9), 500 mg/kg daily for 7 days; and (iv) a combination group (n = 9), which received both spiramycin (400 mg/kg) and metronidazole (500 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. An uninfected control group (n = 10) was administered vehicle only. After treatment, the brain cysts were counted, brain homogenates were cultured in confluent Vero cells, and cysts and tachyzoites were counted after 1 week. Separately, pharmacokinetic profiles (plasma and brain) were assessed after a single dose of spiramycin (400 mg/kg), metronidazole (500 mg/kg), or both. Metronidazole treatment increased the brain spiramycin area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ? (AUC0–?) by 67% without affecting its plasma disposition. Metronidazole plasma and brain AUC0–? values were reduced 9 and 62%, respectively, after spiramycin coadministration. Enhanced spiramycin brain exposure after coadministration reduced brain cysts 15-fold (79 ± 23 for the combination treatment versus 1,198 ± 153 for the untreated control group [P < 0.05]) and 10-fold versus the spiramycin-only group (768 ± 125). Metronidazole alone showed no effect (1,028 ± 149). Tachyzoites were absent in the brain. Spiramycin reduced in vitro reactivation. Metronidazole increased spiramycin brain penetration, causing a significant reduction of T. gondii brain cysts, with potential clinical translatability for chronic toxoplasmosis treatment.

Chew, Wai Kit; Ambu, Stephen; Mak, Joon Wah



European Southern Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organization comprised of 14 member countries. Its headquarters are in Germany, but they have three observatories in Chile as well. Their website is loaded with information and visitors shouldn't miss going on the "Virtual Tours", on the far right side of the homepage. The tours are of the three observatories in Chile, and offer almost 360 degree views of beautiful, yet sparse landscapes. The tour of La Silla has two particularly beautiful views, "La Silla Moonlight" and "La Silla Sunset". Visitors interested in seeing a panning of an artist's 3D rendering of the Orion Nebula must go to the "Video" link on the left hand menu on the homepage. There are over 1400 videos to choose from, so for those not into the Orion Nebula, never fear, there are plenty of other video choices. Finally, visitors must go to the "Top 100 Images" link on the right side of the homepage to see amazing and gorgeous images taken from the ESO's various observatories.



Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.



Flat and depressed colorectal tumours in a southern Swedish population: a prospective chromoendoscopic and histopathological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flat and depressed colorectal tumours are common in Japan but are very rare or non- existent in Western countries. Aims: To study the occurrence of flat colorectal tumours in a southern Swedish population. Methods: In this prospective study, 371 consecutive European patients were examined by high reso- lution video colonoscopy combined with chromoendoscopy. The nature of the lesions was

S Tsuda; B Veress; E Tóth; F-T Fork



Occupation and risk of lymphoma: a multicentre prospective cohort study (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesEvidence suggests that certain occupations and related exposures may increase the risk of malignant lymphoma. Farming, printing and paper industry, wood processing, meat handling and processing, welding, shoe and leather manufacturing and teaching profession are among the categories that have been implicated in previous studies. The relationship between occupation and malignant lymphoma has been investigated in a large European prospective

David Neasham; Ahlem Sifi; Kaspar Rene Nielsen; Kim Overvad; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Anne Tjřnneland; Aurelio Barricarte; Carlos A González; Carmen Navarro; Laudina Rodriguez Suarez; Ruth C Travis; Tim Key; Jakob Linseisen; Rudolf Kaaks; Paolo Crosignani; Franco Berrino; Stefano Rosso; Amalia Mattiello; R C H Vermeulen; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Göran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Sophia Zackrisson; Goran Hallmans; Beatrice Malmer; Sheila Bingham; Kay Tee Khaw; Manuela M Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; Giovanna Masala; Rosario Tumino; Eiliv Lund; Nadia Slimani; Pietro Ferrari; Paolo Boffetta; Paolo Vineis; Elio Riboli



Toxoplasmosis in Greater Victoria.  

PubMed Central

Titres of antibody to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 596 inhabitants of Greater Victoria who were either patients at two hospitals or healthy volunteers. The survey included 404 women of childbearing age, 305 of whom had just given birth. The proportion of persons with antibody to T. gondii at a titre of 1:8 or greater as determined by a methylene blue dye test was 28%. Titration of IgM antibody specific to T. gondii by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, performed in the serum samples with a titre of 1:8 or greater by the dye test, indicated that 3% of the 596 patients had recently acquired infection with T. gondii. The proportion of women with antibody to T. gondii among those who had just given birth was 25%, but the proportion among women aged 31 to 35 years who had just given birth was 37%.

Karim, K. A.; Trust, T. J.



Laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii is diagnosed by (i) detection of the parasite directly in patients' specimens using histological or immunological methods, (ii) isolation of T. gondii from blood, body fluids or tissue by inoculation in laboratory mice or on tissue culture cells, or (iii) serological methods for determination of a significant, T. gondii-specific, antibody titre rise or of T.

A. M. van Loon



Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women  


... meat preparation. For Whole Cuts of Meat (excluding poultry) Cook to at least 145° F (63° C) ... before carving or consuming. For Ground Meat (excluding poultry) Cook to at least 160° F (71° C); ...


Neosporosis, Toxoplasmosis, Sarcocystosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are related coccidian parasites that can cause abortion and neonatal mortality in animals. In addition, T. gondii and certain species of Sarcocystis are zoonotic. This paper reviews information on etiology, diagnosis, control and prevention...


Toxoplasmosis and Breastfeeding  


... it is theoretically possible that she could transmit Toxoplasma gondii to the infant through her breast milk. Immune suppressed women could have circulating Toxoplasma for even longer periods of time. However, the ...


Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a revierw of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in cats and dogs. Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite of all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondi...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Humans become infected with Toxoplasma gondii mainly by ingesting uncooked meat containing viable tissue cysts or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts from the feces of infected cats. Circumstantial evidence suggests that oocyst-induced infections in humans are clinically more severe...


Toxoplasmosis: Prevention & Control  


... or sand because it might be contaminated with cat feces that contain Toxoplasma . Wash hands with soap ... else clean the litter box. (CDC Photo) Feed cats only canned or dried commercial food or well- ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Humans become infected with Toxoplasma gondii mainly by ingesting uncooked meat containing viable tissue cysts or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts from feces of infected cats. Circumstantial evidence suggests that oocyst-induced infections are more severe clinically in humans tha...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that infects virtually all species of warm blooded animals, including people. Domestic cats and other Felidae are the definitive hosts. All nonfeline hosts are intermediate hosts. There are three infectious stages: sporozoites i...


Toxoplasmosis (and HIV)  


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European pain management discussion forum.  


Queries from European physicians about analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from the author are presented. Topics addressed in this issue pertain to epidural injection for painful central lumbar stenosis and epicondolysis. PMID:23216190

Breivik, Harald



Relative efficiency of European airports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data envelopment analysis, efficiency ratios for European airports are determined. It appears that most airports are operating under increasing returns to scale. This is also reflected in the most productive scale size determined for the airports.

Eric Pels; Peter Nijkamp; Piet Rietveld



European Standards for Automatic Sprinklers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

European Automatic Sprinkler Standards were developed by the Comite Europeen des Assurances, and international association of insurance organizations of Western Europe, based on a detailed analysis of reliable fire statistics on sprinkler-protected proper...

P. Kirchhoff



North European Transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland image a collage of older continental fragments and intervening basins that have been welded together in Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola orogenies. The Lapland-Kola orogen record the collision of Baltica and Laurentia during the compilation of the Columbia supercontinent. The collisional structures were overprinted by extension associated with the dispersal of Columbia. The Russian Arctic line 1-AR focuses on the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover of the Barents Sea Basin. The line images the transition from Paleoproterozoic Baltica to Neoproterozoic Barentsia. As part of the Rodinia supercontinent formation, Baltica collided with Barentsia resulting in Timanide orogeny. During the break-up of Rodinia an aborted rift was formed within the Barentsia. Later peripheral tectonic events modified the interior parts of Barentsia that acted first as a back arc basin and later as a foreland basin to the Uralian and Caledonian orogen during the formation of the Pangea supercontinent.

Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara



Evaluation of a commercial IgE ELISA in comparison with IgA and IgM ELISAs, IgG avidity assay and complement fixation for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis.  


A panel of sera from patients with known case histories representative of acute toxoplasmosis (primarily lymphadenopathy, n = 106), latent toxoplasmosis (asymptomatic, n = 368) and negative samples (n = 54) was used to evaluate the capacity of five serological tests to differentiate among patients with acute or latent toxoplasmosis and non-infected individuals. Positive IgA, IgE and IgM ELISA results and low IgG avidity and complement fixation test (CFT) titres of >or=256 were considered to be indicative of acute toxoplasmosis. The most sensitive methods were IgM ELISA (98.1%) and CFT (97.1%), albeit with low specificity (65.0% and 64.5%, respectively) and positive predictive values (43.3% and 42.7%, respectively). IgG avidity assay and IgE ELISA had the highest specificity (97.7% and 91.7%, respectively) and the highest positive predictive values (89.4% and 75.6%, respectively). The best association between serological results and clinical findings was obtained with IgE ELISA (86%, as expressed via Youden's index). In a subset of 259 samples categorised by the period between the onset of clinical symptoms and sampling, >50% of patients had enlarged lymph nodes for <4 months, despite a broad range of differences. However, IgM remained positive for 12-18 months, IgA for 6-9 months and IgE for 4-6 months. IgG avidity remained low for a maximum of 4 months, after which avidity increased despite the persistence of enlarged lymph nodes and a positive IgE assay. Detection of IgE appears to be a highly specific test for confirming the acute nature of Toxoplasma infections that have been detected by other sensitive methods. PMID:17184286

Kodym, P; Machala, L; Rohácová, H; Sirocká, B; Malý, M



Yahoo! Groups: EuropeanArchaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This moderated mailing list is intended for a discussion of European prehistoric and historic archaeology, from the Early Paleolithic period through the 1800s. EuropeanArchaeology is a general purpose academic list that is designed to include book and article announcements, field school announcements, discuss new discoveries, theories and interpretations, and related topics. At the site, users can subscribe to the list and read the discussion logs.


The European Soil Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In Europe, as in the rest of the world, a thorough knowledge of soil use and soil protection is of vital importance. The European Commission, in particular its Directorates General of Agriculture (DGVI), Environment (DGXI) and Research (DGXII), has supported several programmes with this objective in mind. The publication of the 1:1,000,000-scale Soil Map of the European Communities (EC)

Christine Le Bas; D. King; M. Jamagne; J. Daroussin


[Frequency of HIV-1, rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, simple herpes virus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Chagas disease and HTLV I/II infection in pregnant women of State of Mato Grosso do Sul].  


It was aimed to estimate the frequency of syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, HTLV I/II, simple herpes virus, HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus in pregnant women and to evaluate the relationship between age and the frequency of the infections studied. A transversal study of 32,512 pregnant women submitted to pre-natal screening in the period of November 2002 to October 2003. The frequency of the tried infections among the pregnant women were 0.2% of HIV-1, 0.03% of rubella, 0.8% of syphilis, 0.4% of toxoplasmosis, 0.05% of cytomegalovirus, 0.02% of simple herpes virus, 0.3% of HBsAg, 0.1% of hepatitis C, 0.1% of HTLV and 0.1% of Chagas disease. There was significative statistical association between age and prenatal infection of rubella, cytomegalovirus, Chagas disease and herpes virus. The rates of frequency of rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease and cytomegalovirus in pregnant women studied were lower than the compared rates. PMID:17568885

Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Senefonte, Flávio Renato de Almeida; Lopes, Alessandro Henrique Antunes; de Morais, Orlando Oliveira; Souza Júnior, Virgílio Gonçalves; Maia, Tamara Lemos; Duarte, Geraldo


Whither Europeanization? Concept Stretching and Substantive Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the concept of Europeanization in the light of recent research on the impact of the European Union politics and policy. Conceptual analysis is preliminary to empirical analysis. Accordingly, I examine the risk of 'concept stretching', discuss extension and intension of Europeanization, and propose a taxonomy to 'unpack' the concept and organize empirical research. The explanation of Europeanization

Claudio M. Radaelli



European football and the European union: Governance, participation and social cohesion — towards a policy research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the changing relationship of European football to the European Union (EU). Given technological, commercial, financial and organizational changes in the political economy of elite European football, and given the application of European law to sports bodies epitomised by the Bosman ruling, this article begins to outline a policy research agenda. Debates within the European Commission have centred

Adam Brown



[Investigation of combined effectiveness of spiramycin and beta-glucan in mice models of acute toxoplasmosis and determination of IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-? levels].  


Toxoplasmosis which is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has a high risk of fetal infection development if the infection occurs during pregnancy. Treatment with oral spiramycin is recommended during pregnancy in order to prevent the transmission of protozoa to fetus and development of infection. Since beta- glucan is known to stimulate the immune system and increase the phagocytic activity of the cells, it has been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory effect on many infectious diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of beta-glucan alone and in combination with spiramycin and to determinate the levels of interlökin (IL)-10, IL-12 and tumor nekrosis factor (TNF)-? in mice experimentally infected with T.gondii. For this purpose, four experimental groups each consisting of eight BALB/c mice, were formed with the approval of Ethics Committee for the Animal Experiments. All the mice were infected with 2 ml of suspension containing 2 x 102/ml of trophozoite prepared from T.gondii RH strain (Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Parasitology Laboratory of Communicable Diseases Research Department, Ankara, Turkey), by intraperitoneal injection. Twenty-four hours after the infection, beta-glucan (3 mg/day) was given to the beta-glucan group, spiramycin (200 mg/kg/day) to the spiramycin group, beta-glucan (3 mg/day) plus spiramycin (200 mg/kg/day) to the beta-glucan-spiramycin (BG-S) group by oral gavage. The fourth group which was the control group was infected but untreated. The above administration was carried out for seven days. On the 8th day, under anaesthesia, 1 ml normal saline was given into the peritoneum, drawn back later and the number of trophozoites in 1 ml of peritoneal fluid was determined by counting them on the Thoma slide. Moreover, by drawing the heart blood; IL-10, IL-12, TNF-? levels were determined in serum samples by ELISA method (eBioscience Platinum, Austria). The number of trophozoites in the BG-S group was found significantly lower than the number of trophozoites in control, beta-glucan and spiramycin groups (p< 0.05). There was no significant difference between the beta-glucan and spiramycin groups, however the number of trophozoites in both groups was significantly lower than the number of trophozoites in the control group (p< 0.05). There was a certain decrease in IL-10 level in spiramycin and BG-S groups, compared to the control group, in addition when IL-10 levels in spiramycin and BG-S groups were compared with BG group, a significant decrease was noticed (p< 0.05). There was no difference in IL-12 levels between the groups, while there was a certain decrease in TNF-? level in beta-glucan, spiramycin, BG-S group in comparison to the control group. Within the reach of our literature survey, this study is the first research in which the effectiveness of the combination of beta-glucan and spiramycin in the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis was investigated. The results of our study suggested that there might be synergy between beta-glucan and spiramycin in the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:22951656

Büyükbaba Boral, Ozden; Sönmez Tamer, Gülden; Keçeli Özcan, Sema; Sönmez, Ne?e; I?sever, Halim; Tekeli, Fatma



The European Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS): integrating early recognition and intervention in Europe  

PubMed Central

This paper provides the rationale and design of the European Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS), the first European prospective transnational field study of the prodrome and moderating risk/resilience factors of psychosis. As different health systems provide different structures of care, prevention programmes will only be successfully implemented and sustained system-wide, if they can be adapted to the system's special opportunities and needs. EPOS will provide a sound data base for a future evidence-based prevention of psychosis. Data on the recruitment of subjects and on the distribution of the four clinical criteria for an at-risk mental state for psychosis are given.




European security framework for healthcare.  


eHealth and telemedicine services are promising business areas in Europe. It is clear that eHealth products and services will be sold and ordered from a distance and over national borderlines in the future. However, there are many barriers to overcome. For both national and pan-European eHealth and telemedicine applications a common security framework is needed. These frameworks set security requirements needed for cross-border eHealth services. The next step is to build a security infrastructure which is independent of technical platforms. Most of the European eHealth platforms are regional or territorial. Some countries are looking for a Public Key Infrastructure, but no large scale solutions do exist in healthcare. There is no clear candidate solution for European-wide interoperable eHealth platform. Gross-platform integration seems to be the most practical integration method at a European level in the short run. The use of Internet as a European integration platform is a promising solution in the long run. PMID:15061534

Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Pohjonen, Hanna



Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success.



Pregnancy loss and risk of cardiovascular disease: a prospective population-based cohort study (EPIC-Heidelberg)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine whether pregnancy loss (miscarriage, abortion or stillbirth) is associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.DesignPopulation-based prospective cohort study.SettingThe European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort in Heidelberg, Germany (mean follow-up 10.8 years).ParticipantsAll 11 518 women who had ever been pregnant (aged 35–66).ResultsOut of the participants, 2876 (25%) had at least one miscarriage,

Elham Kharazmi; Laure Dossus; Sabine Rohrmann; Rudolf Kaaks



Quality of life after anterior mediastinal mass resection: a prospective study comparing open with robotic-assisted thoracoscopic resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To prospectively evaluate quality of life (QoL) evolution after robotic-assisted thoracoscopic or open anterior mediastinal tumour resection with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QoL Questionnaire-C30 and the lung cancer-specific module, LC-13. Methods: From January 2004 to December 2008, QoL was prospectively recorded in all patients undergoing surgery for mediastinal tumours. A total of 14

Bram Balduyck; Jeroen M. Hendriks; Patrick Lauwers; Rudy Mercelis; Pieter Ten Broecke; Paul Van Schil



Arms control and European security  

SciTech Connect

In October 1987 on the eve of the Washington summit, the Committee on Atlantic Studies, a group of European and North American scholars established in 1964 to promote transatlantic dialogue, met in Toronto to discuss the implications of the new arms control for European security. This book is the fruit of that meeting. Incorporating subsequent developments, up to Grobachev's December 1988 speech to the U.N., it provides a timely assessment of arms control issues from a variety of European and North American perspectives. The contributors to this volume council caution, suggesting that while progress is possible, it will probably be slow. This volume stresses the interplay of strategic and regional arms control. It includes analyses of nuclear, conventional, and naval arms control questions and embodies a broader a broader conception of arms control. The book links arms control to such political measures as confidence-building, conflict avoidance and superpower agreement to the neutrality of particular states.

Auton, G.P.



["Medical devices and European regulations"].  


In order to put on the European Market, the medical devices shall be in conformity with two European Directives transcribed in national regulation: Directive 90/385/CEE--20 June 1990: concerning the implantable active medical devices, mandatory since the 1/01/95; Directive 93/42/CEE--13 June 1993: concerning the medical devices, applicable since the 1/01/95 and mandatory the 14/06/98. Both impose the conformity to essential requirements which can be proved by different procedures of evaluation verified by notify bodies. Then, the CE mark, technical passport, can be apposed. To demonstrate this conformity, the manufacturers can use harmonized european standards without obligation. The "Safety clause" allows to follow the "well-founded" of the CE marking and the national systems of vigilance to register and evaluate the incidents and to define corrective actions. PMID:9181704

Fleur, F



European Register of Marine Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the European Register of Marine Species, an EU-funded marine biodiversity research consortium involving research groups in nine European nations. An ultimate goal of the project was to "produce a register of marine species in Europe, linked with a bibliography of identification guides, register of taxonomic experts, locations of collections of reference specimens, and an Information Pack on European marine biodiversity (based on this project's results)." The site links to brief and full checklists for numerous taxa including information on genus, higher taxon, authority, specific epithet, distribution, and more. From the species pages, site users can link to information about the checklists, identification guides, and taxonomic hierarchy. The homepage provides links to information about project participants, project background, and a simple map illustrating the geographic scope of the project. This site is also reviewed in the April 2, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.


Needs for care among patients with schizophrenia in six European countries: a one-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This article compares needs for care among patients with schizophrenia across six European countries and examines how this relates to the diversity of psychiatric systems in Europe. METHODS: A one-year prospective cohort study was set up. Inclusion criteria for patients were: a clinical lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 (F20) diagnostic criteria for research, age between 18 and

Viviane Kovess-Masféty; Durk Wiersma; Miguel Xavier; José Miguel Caldas de Almeida; Mauro G Carta; Jacques Dubuis; Elisabeth Lacalmontie; Jacques Pellet; Jean-Luc Roelandt; Francisco Torres-Gonzalez; Berta Moreno Kustner; Dermot Walsh



ALMA European Project Scientist Appointed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ALMA European Project Scientist is Dr. Leonardo Testi. He took up the appointment in May 2007. Leonardo Testi received his Ph.D. from the University of Florence in 1997. Subsequently he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory of Caltech. In 1998 he joined staff of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, and later on of INAF, for which he also served on the Science Council. Leonardo has been chair of the European ALMA Science Advisory committee and a member of the ALMA Science Advisory committee, so he well knows the details of the project as well as the science that can be carried out with ALMA.

Wilson, T.



European Union a New Babylon?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

Mesch, F.



Western European Specialists Section (WESS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by the University of Virginia Library, is devoted to research into Western European history, literature, culture, and politics. The site provides links to well-maintained, quality sites in the aforementioned fields, including regional and historical resources, Websites on contemporary Europe, e-texts and e-text collections, guides to Library Resources, and book review sites. In addition, WESS offers an online newsletter which features articles of particular relevance to Western European subject specialists. WESS is part of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a division of the American Library Association.