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Sample records for toxoplasmosis european prospective

  1. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 16, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 517 Toxoplasmosis WHAT IS TOXOPLASMOSIS? HOW COMMON IS TOXO? HOW IS TOXO DIAGNOSED? ... TOXO BE PREVENTED? THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS TOXOPLASMOSIS? Toxoplasmosis (toxo) is an infection caused by the ...

  2. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monday-Friday Closed Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

  3. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. More than 60 million people in the ... brain, eyes, and other organs. You can get toxoplasmosis from Waste from an infected cat Eating contaminated ...

  4. Toxoplasmosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Dolores E.; Dubey, J.P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles, III; Enright, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), one of the better known and more widespread zoonotic diseases, originated in wildlife species and is now well established as a human malady. Food- and waterborne zoonoses, such as toxoplasmosis, are receiving increasing attention as components of disease emergence and resurgence. Toxoplasmosis is transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated food or water, and nearly one-third of humanity has been exposed to this parasite. The role of wildlife in this transmission process is becoming more clearly known and is outlined in this report. This zoonotic disease also causes problems in wildlife species across the globe. Future generations of humans will continue to be jeopardized by toxoplasmosis infections in addition to many of the other zoonotic diseases that have emerged during the past century. Through monitoring toxoplasmosis infection levels in wildlife populations, we will be better able to predict future human infection levels of this important zoonotic disease.

  5. Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, E.

    1998-01-01

    QUESTION: A 28-year-old patient is 3 months pregnant with her first child. She has heard about toxoplasmosis from her friends and asks if it is safe to keep her cat. How should I reply? ANSWER: Your patient does not have to give up her cat. She should be encouraged to take primary preventive measures. If toxoplasmosis serology is performed, a baseline should be done as early as possible with serial follow up in the second and third trimesters. Images p1827-a PMID:9789661

  6. TOXOPLASMOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Halonen, Sandra K.; Weiss, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an Apicomplexan, is a pathogen that can infect the central nervous system. Infection during pregnancy can result in a congenial infection with severe neurological sequela. In immune compromised individuals reactivation of latent neurological foci can result in encephalitis. Immune competent individuals infected with T. gondii are typically asymptomatic and maintain this infection for life. However, recent studies suggest that these asymptomatic infections may have effects on behavior and other physiological processes. T. gondii infects approximately one-third of the world population, making it one of the most successful parasitic organisms. Cats and other felidae serve as the definite host producing oocysts, an environmentally resistant life cycle stage found in cat feces, which can transmit the infection when ingested orally. A wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including humans, can serve as the intermediate host in which tissue cysts (containing bradyzoites) develop. Transmission also occurs due to ingestion of the tissue cysts. There are 3 predominant clonal lineages, termed types I, II and III and an association with higher pathogenicity with the Type I strains in humans has emerged. This chapter presents a review of the biology of this infection including the life cycle, transmission, epidemiology, parasite strains, and the host immune response. The major clinical outcomes of congenital infection, chorioretinitis, and encephalitis, and the possible association of infection of toxoplasmosis with neuropsychriatric disorders such as schizophrenia, are reviewed. PMID:23829904

  7. Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Antoine; Petersen, Eskild; Salamon, Roger; Chêne, Geneviève; Gilbert, Ruth; Salmi, Louis Rachid; for the European Toxo Prevention Study Group (EUROTOXO)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe systems for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis implemented in European countries. In September 2004, a questionnaire, adapted from the evaluation criteria published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was sent to a panel of national correspondents in 35 countries in the European geographical area with knowledge of the epidemiological surveillance systems implemented in their countries. Where necessary, we updated the information until July 2007. Responses were received from 28 countries. Some 16 countries reported routine surveillance for toxoplasmosis. In 12 countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Scotland and Slovakia), surveillance was designed to detect only symptomatic toxoplasmosis, whether congenital or not. Four countries reported surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis, on a regional basis in Italy and on a national basis in Denmark, France and Germany. In conclusion, epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis needs to be improved in order to determine the true burden of disease and to assess the effectiveness of and the need for existing prevention programmes. PMID:18445459

  8. Incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in southern Brazil: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mozzatto, Liége; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2003-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the incidence of congenital infection by Toxoplasma gondii and to describe neonatal and maternal characteristics regarding newborn infants treated at a teaching hospital in the town of Passo Fundo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Cord blood samples collected from 1,250 live newborns were analyzed. The laboratory diagnosis was established by the detection of Toxoplasma gondii IgM using an enzyme linked fluorescent assay. Gestational age, intrauterine growth, anthropometric measures, and prenatal characteristics were assessed. The incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis at birth was 8/10,000 (95%CI 0.2-44.5). Mean birthweight was 3,080 +/- 215.56 grams and mean gestational age was 38.43 +/- 1.88 weeks. With regard to prenatal care, 58% of the pregnant patients visited their doctors five times or more and 38.9% were serologically tested for toxoplasmosis in the first trimester of pregnancy. The incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was similar to that found in most studies conducted in our country and abroad. Our study sample is representative of the town of Passo Fundo and therefore it is possible to consider the frequency observed as the prevalence of the disease in this town during the study period. PMID:12870064

  9. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: recent acquisitions and new prospects].

    PubMed

    Russo, M; Carmellino, S

    1996-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis may develop after maternal primary infection during pregnancy. The infection is usually asymptomatic in pregnant women but poses a risk of severe effects on the fetus. In Italy the incidence is about 6 per thousand. The infection is transmitted to the fetus in approximately 50 percent of such cases. The risk of transmission rises with growing gestational age at the time of primary infection; on the contrary, the seriousness of the effect on the fetuses becomes less active with more advanced pregnancies. Infants with congenital toxoplasmosis are mostly asymptomatic at birth but long-term studies have indicated that up to 85% of them will develop serious sequelae as severe impairment of vision, mental retardation and deafness during the months or the years after the birth. Preventing congenital toxoplasmosis is fundamental. All seronegative women should be encouraged to observe good dietary and general health regulations until delivery. Today the diagnosis in the mother is more reliable because of the improvements in serological techniques. Moreover, it is possible to identify infected fetuses by prenatal procedures such as ultrasonography, amniocentesis and cordocentesis, of which the last two consent to detect the parasite and/or specific antibodies. Recently a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay has been developed for the detection of Toxoplasma in the amniotic fluid. Adequate serological screening of pregnant and prenatal diagnosis can be helpful in reducing the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis; furthermore abortion should be reserved only to cases with severe toxoplasmosis revealed by ultrasonography. Early recognition of pregnant infection and a specific treatment could reduce the parasitic colonization in the placenta by more than 60% and prevent infection in the fetus. If the fetal infection has already occurred, maternal treatment may modify the fetal disease. Spiramycin as immediate treatment of maternal primary infection is essential in preventing Toxoplasma transmission to the fetus. If the fetus results non-infected, spiramycin should be prolonged until delivery. If the fetus is infected, pyrimethamine-sulphadiazine combination should be given in repeated courses alternated with courses of spiramycin. However, there is an urgent need for more active and safer compounds; it would be useful to evaluate in the pregnant woman other potential therapeutic agents as atovaquone and azithromycin. PMID:14967966

  10. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during the 1975-85 decade. After the adjustment of the recession, European manufacturing industry is relatively more competitive and overall will experience a slower employment decline. Further, the growth of services will be limited by the effects of restrictive budgetary policies upon the development of public services. In all 5 countries, the main projected areas of employment growth are business and related services, tourism and leisure activities, and health care. Those occupations most likely to expand are the more highly qualified groups associated with the growth sectors. The main changes in the location of functions within the economic structure are likely to be the continuing contracting out of service functions within production industries to the service sector; and the growth of small relative to large enterprises. PMID:12281366

  11. Review on human toxoplasmosis in Malaysia: the past, present and prospective future.

    PubMed

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Abdullah, Khairul Anuar

    2004-03-01

    We reviewed various studies regarding human toxoplasmosis in Malaysia. They showed a varying prevalence of specific Toxoplasma antibodies among the Malaysian population. The Malays have shown the highest seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, by most studies, when compared to other races. Demographic profiles have shown that Toxoplasma seropositivity is higher in males than females, lower in people with higher incomes, higher in the unemployed and tends to increase with age. In general, the route of transmission, such as contact with a cat, consumption of undercooked meat and blood transfusion were shown to have no significant association with Toxoplasma seropositivity (p > 0.05). The immune status (CD4 cell count < 200 cell/mm3) was strongly associated with toxoplasmic encephalitis (p < 0.05). PMID:15272740

  12. Congenital toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... For example, toxoplasmosis infection can be passed from cats if you clean the cat's litter box.) Call your provider if you are ... risk for the infection. Pregnant women who have cats as house pets may be at higher risk. ...

  13. Prospects for European Research and Development in Training & Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the prospects for research and development in the education and training fields offered by the European Communities. The position of the EC is explained in relation to the existing and forthcoming Framework Programmes of research and development. The 1987-91 Framework Programme has committed most of its funding to existing…

  14. Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans and is most typically asymptomatic. However, primary infection in a pregnant woman can cause severe and disabling disease in the developing fetus. Recent developments have included increased understanding of the role of parasite genotype in determining infectivity and disease severity. Risk factors for acquisition of infection have been better defined, and the important role of foodborne transmission has been further delineated. In addition, strategies have emerged to decrease mother-to-child transmission through prompt identification of acutely infected pregnant women followed by appropriate treatment. Refined diagnostic tools, particularly the addition of immunoglobulin G avidity testing, allow for more accurate timing of maternal infection and hence better decision making during pregnancy. Congenitally infected children can be treated, beginning in utero and continuing through the first year of life, to ameliorate the severity of disease. However, despite these many advances in our understanding of congenital toxoplasmosis prevention and treatment, significant areas of study remain: we need better drugs, well defined strategies for screening of pregnant women, improved food safety, and improved diagnostic tests. PMID:25232475

  15. Toxoplasmosis and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Toxoplasmosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Should a ... breastfeed her infant if she had contracted a toxoplasmosis infection during her pregnancy? Yes. Among healthy women, ...

  16. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On ... Healthy people (nonpregnant) Most healthy people recover from toxoplasmosis without treatment. Persons who are ill can be ...

  17. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in renal patients.

    PubMed

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Leong, Teoh Hoe; Lee, Rogan; Init-Ithoi; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Yen, Tan Si

    2011-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important parasitic disease in immunosuppressed patients. This prospective study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence, associated risk factors and the incidence of clinically confirmed toxoplasmosis among renal patients at the University of Malaya Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. We interviewed 247 renal patients, each of whom answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis was observed in 126 (51%) renal patients. Race (Malays), marital status (married) and primary level of education, were all factors associated with a greater chance of Toxoplasma infection. A case of clinically confirned toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a renal transplant recipient as a result of immunosuppression. Based on the findings obtained, this preliminary study shows a high prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in renal patients. Risk factors may have significantly contributed to Toxoplasma acquisition in these patients. We recommend further studies be carried out to monitor for trends in toxoplasmosis among immunosuppressed patients. PMID:21710842

  18. Toxoplasmosis in Kosovo pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dentico, Pietro; Volpe, Anna; Putoto, Giovanni; Ramadani, Naser; Bertinato, Luigi; Berisha, Merita; Schinaia, Nicola; Quaglio, Gianluca; Maggi, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    This study presents the initial results of a collaborative project aimed at the evaluation of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in a population of Kosovar pregnant women. The serum samples of 334 pregnant women were tested to detect IgG, IgM, IgG avidity for toxoplasmosis. Data regarding age, occupation, area of origin and education were also obtained for the pregnant women examined; 97/334 (29.4%) resulted positive for IgG antibodies, four of whom (4.1%) were also positive for IgM, (1.2% of the total population examined). All four IgM-positive pregnant women also demonstrated low avidity tests. The rate of IgG seroprevalence found in our study was lower than that observed in various European countries, especially those of western Europe. Conversely, the percentage of recent infections was higher than expected. The higher rate of infections could be the result of a recent toxoplasmosis epidemic in Kosovo, most likely due to the altered hygienic conditions caused by the forced transfer of the ethnic-Albanian population from an area of low (Serbia) to high (Kosovo) toxoplasmosis prevalence. PMID:21617833

  19. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    PubMed

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. PMID:26852491

  20. My Journey with Toxoplasmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    The author describes her fears and struggles as she came to terms, as an American expatriate in France, with a medical diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. This condition led to her birthing a son with Asperger's Syndrome. She tells of plunging herself into research to learn more about Toxoplasmosis, the number of things that could be seriously wrong with

  1. My Journey with Toxoplasmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    The author describes her fears and struggles as she came to terms, as an American expatriate in France, with a medical diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. This condition led to her birthing a son with Asperger's Syndrome. She tells of plunging herself into research to learn more about Toxoplasmosis, the number of things that could be seriously wrong with…

  2. Veterinary vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Grzybowski, Marcin M; Długońska, Henryka

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of mammal and bird species. Common infection leads to high economic (e.g., abortions in sheep) and human (e.g., congenital toxoplasmosis or neurotoxoplasmosis in humans) losses. With one exception (Toxovax for sheep), there are no vaccines to prevent human or animal toxoplasmosis. The paper presents the current state and challenges in the development of a vaccine against toxoplasmosis, designed for farm animals either bred for consumption or commonly kept on farms and involved in parasite transmission. So far, the trials have mostly revolved around conventional vaccines and, compared with the research using laboratory animals (mainly mice), they have not been very numerous. However, the results obtained are promising and could be a good starting point for developing an effective vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis. PMID:24805159

  3. Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection gets worse. Toxoplasmosis in Kids With Weakened Immune Systems Kids whose immune systems are weakened (for example, by AIDS , cancer , or ... The infection can be reactivated, however, if the immune system becomes compromised by an HIV infection or cancer ...

  4. Toxoplasmosis – A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of 88 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovičková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30–50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this ‘asymptomatic infection’ may also lead to development of other human pathologies. Aims of the Study The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Methods and Findings Prevalence data published between 1995–2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (p<0.1). For several obtained significant correlations between the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. Conclusions The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research. PMID:24662942

  5. Immunopathogenesis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dupouy-Camet, Jean

    1997-01-01

    The immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is not completely understood. This paper will try to discuss the most frequently asked questions about the immunopathogeny of congenital toxoplasmosis: differential virulence of Toxoplasma isolates, genetic susceptibility to infection, facilitation of placental transfer, models of congenital toxoplasmosis, and transmission in seropositive hosts. Most published data suggest a role of the genetic background of the host and of the parasite. Models of congenital toxoplasmosis have been evaluated, but it appears that the conclusion drawn would be barely appropriate to understand the pathogenesis in pregnant women. PMID:18476164

  6. [Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients].

    PubMed

    Machala, L; Kodym, P; Malý, M; Geleneky, M; Beran, O; Jilich, D

    2015-06-01

    In humans, toxoplasmosis mostly occurs as a latent infection, but in immunocompromised individuals, the agent may reactivate and cause severe to life-threatening disease. HIV positive individuals and transplant recipients, in particular hematopoietic stem cell transplant and heart transplant recipients, are at highest risk. The disease most often affects the central nervous system but can involve any organ. Because of the alteration of the immune response in these patients, the serodiagnosis is not reliable and direct detection of the causative agent is needed--namely by microscopy and DNA PCR. If inadequately treated or left untreated, toxoplasmosis generally has a fatal prognosis in immunocompromised patients and therefore, the treatment must be started as early and energetically as possible. The gold standard both in the treatment of reactivation and secondary prophylaxis is the pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine combination while co-trimoxazole can be used in the primary prophylaxis for high-risk patients. PMID:26099608

  7. Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate whether treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin associated with a lack of monitoring for toxoplasmosis seroconversion affects the prognosis of patients. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study with 246 newborns (NB) at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis in Goiânia (Brazil) between October 2003 and October 2011. We analyzed the efficacy of maternal treatment with spiramycin. Results A total of 40.7% (66/162) of the neonates were born seriously infected. Vertical transmission associated with reactivation during pregnancy occurred in 5.5% (9/162) of the NB, with one showing severe infection (systemic). The presence of specific immunoglobulins (fetal IgM and NB IgA) suggested the worst prognosis. Treatment of pregnant women by spiramycin resulted in reduced vertical transmission. When infected pregnant women did not undergo proper treatment, the risk of severe infection (neural-optical) in NB was significantly increased. Fetal IgM was associated with ocular impairment in 48.0% (12/25) of the fetuses and neonatal IgA-specific was related to the neuro-ophthalmologic and systemic forms of the disease. When acute toxoplasmosis was identified in the postpartum period, a lack of monitoring of seronegative pregnant women resulted in a higher risk of severe congenital infection. Conclusion Treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin reduces the possibility of transmission of infection to the fetus. However, a lack of proper treatment is associated with the onset of the neural-optical form of congenital infection. Primary preventive measures should be increased for all pregnant women during the prenatal period and secondary prophylaxis through surveillance of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant woman should be introduced to reduce the severity of congenital infection in the environment. PMID:24438336

  8. European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) project: a multicentre and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Zavattero, Emanuele; Dediol, Emil; Uglešić, Vedran; Kovačič, Žiga; Vesnaver, Aleš; Konstantinović, Vitomir S; Petrović, Milan; Stephens, Jonny; Kanzaria, Amar; Bhatti, Nabeel; Holmes, Simon; Pechalova, Petia F; Bakardjiev, Angel G; Malanchuk, Vladislav A; Kopchak, Andrey V; Galteland, Pål; Mjøen, Even; Skjelbred, Per; Koudougou, Carine; Mouallem, Guillaume; Corre, Pierre; Løes, Sigbjørn; Lekven, Njål; Laverick, Sean; Gordon, Peter; Tamme, Tiia; Akermann, Stephanie; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Kommers, Sofie C; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the demographics, causes and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures managed at several European departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over one year. The following data were recorded: gender, age, aetiology, site of facial fractures, facial injury severity score, timing of intervention, length of hospital stay. Data for a total of 3396 patients (2655 males and 741 females) with 4155 fractures were recorded. The mean age differed from country to country, ranging between 29.9 and 43.9 years. Overall, the most frequent cause of injury was assault, which accounted for the injuries of 1309 patients; assaults and falls alternated as the most important aetiological factor in the various centres. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible with 1743 fractures, followed by orbital-zygomatic-maxillary (OZM) fractures. Condylar fractures were the most commonly observed mandibular fracture. The results of the EURMAT collaboration confirm the changing trend in maxillofacial trauma epidemiology in Europe, with trauma cases caused by assaults and falls now outnumbering those due to road traffic accidents. The progressive ageing of the European population, in addition to strict road and work legislation may have been responsible for this change. Men are still the most frequent victims of maxillofacial injuries. PMID:25457465

  9. Detection by PCR of Toxoplasma gondii in blood in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Lamoril, J; Molina, J M; de Gouvello, A; Garin, Y J; Deybach, J C; Modaï, J; Derouin, F

    1996-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was performed prospectively in the blood of 19 patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis. The B1 gene and TGR1E sequence were used as targets and results were confirmed by hybridisation. Controls consisted of 24 HIV infected patients with tissue culture proven T gondii parasitaemia and 57 HIV infected patients without toxoplasmosis. PCR was positive with both targets in 20 of 24 samples (84%) from patients with parasitaemia. Three of 57 samples (5%) from patients without toxoplasmosis were PCR positive with either target, but none was positive with both targets. Only three of the 19 patients (16%) with cerebral toxoplasmosis had a positive PCR with both targets before the start of specific treatment. PCR performed in blood is of little diagnostic value in cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis but could be useful in patients with disseminated infection. Images PMID:8666697

  10. Corticosteroids for ocular toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background Ocular infestation with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. Objectives The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids for ocular toxoplasmosis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 October 2012. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Eligible trials would have enrolled participants of any age who were immunocompetent and were diagnosed with active ocular toxoplasmosis. Included trials would have compared anti-parasitic therapy plus corticosteroids versus anti-parasitic therapy alone, or different doses or times of initiation of corticosteroids. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved from the electronic searches. We retrieved full-text articles of studies categorized as ‘unsure’ or ‘include’ after review of the abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text article. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Main results The electronic searches retrieved 368 titles and abstracts. We reviewed 20 full-text articles. We identified no trials eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Authors' conclusions Although research has identified wide variation in practices regarding use of corticosteroids, our systematic review did not identify evidence from randomized controlled trials for the role of corticosteroids in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis. Several questions remain unanswered by well-conducted randomized trials in this context, including whether use of corticosteroids is more effective than use of anti-parasitic therapy alone, when corticosteroids should be initiated in the treatment regimen (early versus late course of treatment), and which dosage and duration of steroid use is best. These questions are easily amenable to research using a randomized controlled design and they are ethical due to the absence of evidence to support or discourage use of corticosteroids for this condition. The question of foremost importance, however, is whether they should be used as adjunct therapy (that is, additional) to anti-parasitic agents. PMID:23633342

  11. Toxoplasmosis in animals and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T. gondii is one of the most studied parasites.It causes disease in virtually all warm blooded animals Many scientists use T. gondii to investigate problems in cell biology and genetics. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with biology. Chapter 2, which deals with toxoplasmosis...

  12. Specific floater home ranges and prospective behaviour in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobler, Michael; Smith, Henrik G.

    In many bird species, floaters are present on the breeding grounds in one or more years before they breed. There is increasing evidence that they have specific home ranges in which they search for information about current and future breeding opportunities. We investigated the role of prospecting in a migratory European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) population. Radio-tracking showed that male starling floaters use specific home range areas during the breeding period. Nest-box observations demonstrated that non-parental nest intrusion is common in the starling and that it is significantly more frequent during the nestling than during the incubation period. In addition, small groups of nest boxes were more likely to be occupied by starlings if they had been put up during the preceding breeding season. The results suggest that floaters try to acquire information about local breeding communities. One specific type of information may be the location of potential breeding sites.

  13. Alcohol intake and breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Scoccianti, Chiara; Chajès, Véronique; de Batlle, Jordi; Biessy, Carine; Dossus, Laure; Baglietto, Laura; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós García, José Ramón; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Duell, Eric J; Amiano, Pilar; Borgquist, Signe; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Murphy, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio

    2015-10-15

    Alcohol intake has been associated to breast cancer in pre and postmenopausal women; however results are inconclusive regarding tumor hormonal receptor status, and potential modifying factors like age at start drinking. Therefore, we investigated the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer using prospective observational data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Up to 334,850 women, aged 35-70 years at baseline, were recruited in ten European countries and followed up an average of 11 years. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. The study outcomes were the Hazard ratios (HR) of developing breast cancer according to hormonal receptor status. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Alcohol intake was significantly related to breast cancer risk, for each 10 g/day increase in alcohol intake the HR increased by 4.2% (95% CI: 2.7-5.8%). Taking 0 to 5 g/day as reference, alcohol intake of >5 to 15 g/day was related to a 5.9% increase in breast cancer risk (95% CI: 1-11%). Significant increasing trends were observed between alcohol intake and ER+/PR+, ER-/PR-, HER2- and ER-/PR-HER2- tumors. Breast cancer risk was stronger among women who started drinking prior to first full-time pregnancy. Overall, our results confirm the association between alcohol intake and both hormone receptor positive and hormone receptor negative breast tumors, suggesting that timing of exposure to alcohol drinking may affect the risk. Therefore, women should be advised to control their alcohol consumption. PMID:25677034

  14. CNS toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Rajoo; Radhan, Prabhu; Anand, Rajamani; Subramanian, Ilanchezhian; Santosham, Roy; Sai, Venakata

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious and life-threatening disease in humans with a high prevalence in immunocompromised persons. The disease has a wide spectrum, depending on the immune status of the person. A CNS manifestation of toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent person is very rare and often undetected. Our case of CNS toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent person emphasizes the radiological diagnosis, which was further confirmed by advanced microbiology technique. PMID:27141248

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Graduate Employment Prospects in European Labour Markets: A Study of Graduate Recruitment in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branine, Mohamed; Avramenko, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of higher education and the graduate labour markets in selected European countries (France, Germany, Spain and United Kingdom) in the context of the expectations of graduates and prospective employers, and respective recruitment and selection practices. Expectations of graduating students

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Graduate Employment Prospects in European Labour Markets: A Study of Graduate Recruitment in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branine, Mohamed; Avramenko, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of higher education and the graduate labour markets in selected European countries (France, Germany, Spain and United Kingdom) in the context of the expectations of graduates and prospective employers, and respective recruitment and selection practices. Expectations of graduating students…

  17. Ocular toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gagliuso, D J; Teich, S A; Friedman, A H; Orellana, J

    1990-01-01

    We describe 16 cases of ocular and, in some patients, associated CNS toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients. T gondii is commonly associated with infection in the immunocompromised host. The lesions are most often seen in the CNS and eyes; involvement in the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes may be observed. CNS involvement by toxoplasmosis may be an initial manifestation of AIDS and may be associated with discrete or diffuse lesions. CT scan and MR imaging may demonstrate a multitude of lesions often displaying the characteristic ring-shaped enhancement after contrast injection. Ocular involvement by toxoplasmosis, though less common than CNS involvement, is characterized by several features. These may be manifested as single or multifocal retinal lesions in one or both eyes or massive areas of retinal necrosis. Invariably these lesions are unassociated with a pre-existing retinochoroidal scar suggesting that the lesions are a manifestation of acquired rather than congenital disease. Presence of IgM antibodies may support this observation although antibody levels in AIDS patients may not reflect the magnitude of disease. Vitreous reaction is often minimal. Anterior uveitis has been reported in one case. Treatment of the ocular infection with pyrimethamine, clindamycin and sulfadiazine is effective in over 75% of patients. Once resolution of the ocular infection is observed, maintenance therapy is continued as relapses occur in the absence of treatment. Corticosteroid treatment is unnecessary and its use has been associated with the development of CMV retinitis. Other retinal infections in AIDS patients which should be considered in the differential diagnosis include CMV, herpetic-associated ARN and syphilis. Concomitant CMV and toxoplasmosis in the same eye have been seen. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C PMID:2095034

  18. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  19. Rib fractures predict incident limb fractures: results from the European prospective osteoporosis study.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A A; Silman, A J; Reeve, J; Kaptoge, S; O'Neill, T W

    2006-01-01

    Population studies suggest that rib fractures are associated with a reduction in bone mass. While much is known about the predictive risk of hip, spine and distal forearm fracture on the risk of future fracture, little is known about the impact of rib fracture. The aim of this study was to determine whether a recalled history of rib fracture was associated with an increased risk of future limb fracture. Men and women aged 50 years and over were recruited from population registers in 31 European centres for participation in a screening survey of osteoporosis (European Prospective Osteoporosis Study). Subjects were invited to complete an interviewer-administered questionnaire that included questions about previous fractures including rib fracture, the age of their first fracture and also the level of trauma. Lateral spine radiographs were performed and the presence of vertebral deformity was determined morphometrically. Following the baseline survey, subjects were followed prospectively by annual postal questionnaire to determine the occurrence of clinical fractures. The subjects included 6,344 men, with a mean age of 64.2 years, and 6,788 women, with a mean age of 63.6 years, who were followed for a median of 3 years (range 0.4-5.9 years), of whom 135 men (2.3%) and 101 women (1.6%) reported a previous low trauma rib fracture. In total, 138 men and 391 women sustained a limb fracture during follow-up. In women, after age adjustment, those with a recalled history of low trauma rib fracture had an increased risk of sustaining 'any' limb fracture [relative hazard (RH)=2.3; 95% CI 1.3, 4.0]. When stratified by fracture type the predictive risk was more marked for hip (RH=7.7; 95% CI 2.3, 25.9) and humerus fracture (RH=4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.6) than other sites (RH=1.6; 95% CI 0.6, 4.3). Additional adjustment for prevalent vertebral deformity and previous (non-rib) low trauma fractures at other sites slightly reduced the strength of the association between rib fracture and subsequent limb fracture. In men, after age adjustment, there was a small though non-significant association between recalled history of rib fracture and future limb fracture. Our data highlight the importance of rib fracture as a marker of bone fragility in women. PMID:15928803

  20. Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trepo, Elisabeth; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Boffetta, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Dik, Vincent K; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Hjartåker, Anette; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro Sanchez, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Lindkvist, Björn; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2014-10-01

    Intake of dairy products has been associated with risk of some cancers, but findings are often inconsistent and information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is limited, particularly from prospective settings. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk/cheese/yogurt) and their components (calcium/vitamin D/fats/protein), with first incident HCC (N(cases) = 191) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, including a nested case-control subset (N(cases) = 122) with the assessment of hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus infections status, liver damage and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels. For cohort analyses, multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For nested case-control analyses, conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% CI. A total of 477,206 participants were followed-up for an average of 11 years (person-years follow-up = 5,415,385). In the cohort study, a significant positive HCC risk association was observed for total dairy products (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.13-2.43; p(trend) = 0.012), milk (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.24; p(trend) = 0.049), and cheese (HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38; p(trend) = 0.101), but not yogurt (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.65-1.35). Dietary calcium, vitamin D, fat and protein from dairy sources were associated with increased HCC risk, whereas the same nutrients from nondairy sources showed inverse or null associations. In the nested case-control study, similar results were observed among hepatitis-free individuals. Results from this large prospective cohort study suggest that higher consumption of dairy products, particularly milk and cheese, may be associated with increased HCC risk. Validation of these findings in other populations is necessary. Potential biologic mechanisms require further exploration. PMID:24615266

  1. Plasma phyto-oestrogens and prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Travis, R C; Spencer, E A; Allen, N E; Appleby, P N; Roddam, A W; Overvad, K; Johnsen, N F; Olsen, A; Kaaks, R; Linseisen, J; Boeing, H; Nöthlings, U; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, M M; Sacerdote, C; Palli, D; Tumino, R; Berrino, F; Trichopoulou, A; Dilis, V; Trichopoulos, D; Chirlaque, M-D; Ardanaz, E; Larranaga, N; Gonzalez, C; Suárez, L R; Sánchez, M-J; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Hallmans, G; Stattin, P; Rinaldi, S; Slimani, N; Jenab, M; Riboli, E; Key, T J

    2009-01-01

    We examined plasma concentrations of phyto-oestrogens in relation to risk for subsequent prostate cancer in a case–control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Concentrations of isoflavones genistein, daidzein and equol, and that of lignans enterolactone and enterodiol, were measured in plasma samples for 950 prostate cancer cases and 1042 matched control participants. Relative risks (RRs) for prostate cancer in relation to plasma concentrations of these phyto-oestrogens were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Higher plasma concentrations of genistein were associated with lower risk of prostate cancer: RR among men in the highest vs the lowest fifth, 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.96, P trend=0.03). After adjustment for potential confounders this RR was 0.74 (95% CI 0.54–1.00, P trend=0.05). No statistically significant associations were observed for circulating concentrations of daidzein, equol, enterolactone or enterodiol in relation to overall risk for prostate cancer. There was no evidence of heterogeneity in these results by age at blood collection or country of recruitment, nor by cancer stage or grade. These results suggest that higher concentrations of circulating genistein may reduce the risk of prostate cancer but do not support an association with plasma lignans. PMID:19436304

  2. Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    PubMed

    Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Teucher, Birgit; Khn, Tilman; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Leenders, Max; Agudo, Antonio; Bergmann, Manuela M; Valanou, Elisavet; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Key, Timothy J; Crowe, Francesca L; Overvad, Kim; Sonestedt, Emily; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Wennberg, Maria; Jansson, Jan Hkan; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Agnoli, Claudia; Huerta, Jos Mara; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Tumino, Rosario; Altzibar, Jone M; Vineis, Paolo; Masala, Giovanna; Ferrari, Pietro; Muller, David C; Johansson, Mattias; Luisa Redondo, M; Tjnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Brustad, Magritt; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv

    2015-01-01

    Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cancer in relation to the intake of total fish, lean fish, and fatty fish in a large prospective cohort including ten European countries. More than 500,000 men and women completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1999 and were followed up for mortality until the end of 2010. 32,587 persons were reported dead since enrolment. Hazard ratios and their 99% confidence interval were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Fish consumption was examined using quintiles based on reported consumption, using moderate fish consumption (third quintile) as reference, and as continuous variables, using increments of 10 g/day. All analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. No association was seen for fish consumption and overall or cause-specific mortality for both the categorical and the continuous analyses, but there seemed to be a U-shaped trend (p < 0.000) with fatty fish consumption and total mortality and with total fish consumption and cancer mortality (p = 0.046). PMID:25377533

  3. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Allen, N E; Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Travis, R C; Roddam, A W; Tjønneland, A; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; Pischon, T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kiemeney, L; Tagliabue, G; Palli, D; Vineis, P; Tumino, R; Trichopoulou, A; Kassapa, C; Trichopoulos, D; Ardanaz, E; Larrañaga, N; Tormo, M-J; González, C A; Quirós, J R; Sánchez, M-J; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Manjer, J; Berglund, G; Stattin, P; Hallmans, G; Slimani, N; Ferrari, P; Rinaldi, S; Riboli, E

    2008-01-01

    We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were 2727 incident cases of prostate cancer, of which 1131 were known to be localised and 541 advanced-stage disease. A high intake of dairy protein was associated with an increased risk, with a hazard ratio for the top versus the bottom fifth of intake of 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–1.41, Ptrend=0.02). After calibration to allow for measurement error, we estimated that a 35-g day−1 increase in consumption of dairy protein was associated with an increase in the risk of prostate cancer of 32% (95% CI: 1–72%, Ptrend=0.04). Calcium from dairy products was also positively associated with risk, but not calcium from other foods. The results support the hypothesis that a high intake of protein or calcium from dairy products may increase the risk for prostate cancer. PMID:18382426

  4. Intracranial inflammatory granuloma caused by toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi Hua; Guo, Fu You; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2014-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serous parasitic zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii worldwide. Human beings acquire the disease by eating infected meat containing T. gondii cysts, by ingesting water or vegetables contaminated with oocysts shed in the feces of an infected cat, and by transmission from mother to fetus. Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the most serious complications in immunocompromised individuals such as HIV-infected patients, with a high mortality rate, whereas the incidence of cerebral toxoplasmosis is extremely rare in immunocompetent persons. Due to the low incidence and the high rate of misdiagnosis, cerebral toxoplasmosis was occasionally described in sporadic cases. (1) Furthermore, the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis is rather difficult because the clinical manifestations are non-specific and are not sufficiently characteristic for a definite diagnosis. It mimics several other infectious diseases or primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor. (2) In the present study, we reported an exceedingly rare cerebral toxoplasmosis with obvious space-occupying lesion occurring in the left temporal lobe of an immunocompetent adult patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of acquired cerebral toxoplasmosis in China. PMID:25175876

  5. Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis?

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Rima; Kieffer, Francois; Sautter, Mari; Hosten, Tiffany; Pelloux, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Evidence that prevention, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis is beneficial developed as follows: antiparasitic agents abrogate Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite growth, preventing destruction of infected, cultured, mammalian cells and cure active infections in experimental animals, including primates. They treat active infections in persons who are immune-compromised, limit destruction of retina by replicating parasites and thereby treat ocular toxoplasmosis and treat active infection in the fetus and infant. Outcomes of untreated congenital toxoplasmosis include adverse ocular and neurologic sequelae described in different countries and decades. Better outcomes are associated with treatment of infected infants throughout their first year of life. Shorter intervals between diagnosis and treatment in utero improve outcomes. A French approach for diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus and infant can prevent toxoplasmosis and limit adverse sequelae. In addition, new data demonstrate that this French approach results in favorable outcomes with some early gestation infections. A standardized approach to diagnosis and treatment during gestation has not yet been applied generally in the USA. Nonetheless, a small, similar experience confirms that this French approach is feasible, safe, and results in favorable outcomes in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study cohort. Prompt diagnosis, prevention and treatment reduce adverse sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:19430661

  6. Transmission of toxoplasmosis by renal transplant.

    PubMed

    Mejia, G; Leiderman, E; Builes, M; Henao, J; Arbelaez, M; Arango, J L; Borrero, J

    1983-05-01

    Two renal allograft recipients who had received their organs from the same cadaver donor developed acute toxoplasmosis shortly after transplantation. Neither of the recipients had serologic evidence of previous exposure to Toxoplasma gondii at the time of surgery, but the donor had a positive indirect fluorescent antibody test. One of the recipients died during the fourth week, and multiorgan involvement with toxoplasmosis was demonstrated at autopsy. No evidence of the parasite could be found in the transplanted kidney. In the second recipient the disease was suspected, serologically demonstrated, and successfully treated. We concluded that toxoplasmosis was transmitted by the donor's kidneys, although this mode of transmission was not completely proven. PMID:6342373

  7. Toxoplasmosis: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nissapatorn, V; Noor Azmi, M A; Cho, S M; Fong, M Y; Init, I; Rohela, M; Khairul Anuar, A; Quek, K F; Latt, H M

    2003-11-01

    A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was found to be 49%, in which 39%, 4% and 6% for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. We found the differences in Toxoplasma seroprevalence rates among the races were significant: the highest rate was in the Malays (55.7%), followed by the Indian (55.3%) and the Chinese (19.4%) (P<0.05) populations. An increase in Toxoplasma seroprevalence with increasing parity was detected (P<0.05). Women with no children had a prevalence of 39.7%, while women with one or more than two children had a prevalence of 44.2% and 62.9%, respectively. In this study, there was no significant association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and various possible risk factors in pregnant women (P>0.05). When multivariate analysis was performed, no significant association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and history of contact with cats, consumption of undercooked meat and blood transfusion was found (P>0.05). We did not find any newly diagnosed cases of acute acquired toxoplasmosis in pregnancy during the study period. PMID:14617462

  8. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis. PMID:1290073

  9. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; Dărăbuş, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians. PMID:24553077

  10. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and with complete information on diet, smoking, physical activity and body mass index, who were between 35 and 69 years old at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association of meat consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results As of June 2009, 26,344 deaths were observed. After multivariate adjustment, a high consumption of red meat was related to higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.28, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day), and the association was stronger for processed meat (HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.66, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day). After correction for measurement error, higher all-cause mortality remained significant only for processed meat (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25, per 50 g/d). We estimated that 3.3% (95% CI 1.5% to 5.0%) of deaths could be prevented if all participants had a processed meat consumption of less than 20 g/day. Significant associations with processed meat intake were observed for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and 'other causes of death'. The consumption of poultry was not related to all-cause mortality. Conclusions The results of our analysis support a moderate positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, in particular due to cardiovascular diseases, but also to cancer. PMID:23497300

  11. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid organ transplants Handling cat litter Eating contaminated soil Eating raw or undercooked meat (lamb, pork, and ... dog feces. Wash your hands thoroughly after touching soil that may be contaminated with animal feces. Pregnant ...

  12. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wash your hands thoroughly after handling raw meat, soil, sand or cats. Control flies and cockroaches as much as possible. They can spread contaminated soil or cat feces onto food. Use hot soapy ...

  13. Blood pressure and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weikert, Steffen; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Weikert, Cornelia; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Becker, Nikolaus; Linseisen, Jakob; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Mountokalakis, Theodore; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Verschuren, W M Monique; Ljungberg, Borje; Hallmans, Goran; Berglund, Goran; González, Carlos A; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, M J; Allen, Naomi; Roddam, Andrew; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2008-02-15

    Elevated blood pressure has been implicated as a risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but prospective studies were confined to men and did not consider the effect of antihypertensive medication. The authors examined the relation among blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, and RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Blood pressure was measured in 296,638 women and men, recruited in eight European countries during 1992-1998, 254,935 of whom provided information on antihypertensive medication. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 years, 250 cases of RCC were identified. Blood pressure was independently associated with risk of RCC. The relative risks for the highest versus the lowest category of systolic (>/=160 mmHg vs. <120 mmHg) and diastolic (>/=100 mmHg vs. <80 mmHg) blood pressures were 2.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.53, 4.02) and 2.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.54, 3.55). Risk estimates did not significantly differ according to sex or use of antihypertensive medication. Individuals taking antihypertensive drugs were not at a significantly increased risk unless blood pressure was poorly controlled. These results support the hypothesis that hypertension, rather than its medications, increases the risk of RCC in both sexes, while effective blood pressure control may lower the risk. PMID:18048375

  14. Relevance of and New Developments in Serology for Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Dard, Céline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a widespread parasitic disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii with a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. The biological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is often difficult and of paramount importance because clinical features are not sufficient to discriminate between toxoplasmosis and other illnesses. Serological tests are the most widely used biological tools for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis worldwide. This review focuses on the crucial role of serology in providing answers to the most important questions related to the epidemiology and diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in human pathology. Notwithstanding their undeniable importance, serological tools need to be continuously improved and the interpretation of the ensuing results remains complex in many circumstances. PMID:27167666

  15. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SAND FOX (VULPUS RUEPPELLII)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli) from United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, pancreas, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the heart. Ttachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-spe...

  16. RECURRENCE RATES OF OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Braakenburg, Arthur M.D.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Holland, Gary N.; Wu, Sheng; Yu, Fei; Rothova, Aniki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are higher during pregnancy among women of childbearing age. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods We reviewed medical records of all women seen at a university eye clinic (Utrecht, Netherlands) during episodes of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis that occurred while the women were of childbearing age (16–42 years). Each woman was sent a questionnaire requesting information regarding all pregnancies and episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis, whether or not episodes were observed at the eye clinic. Conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression was used to model incident rate ratios of recurrence during pregnant versus non-pregnant intervals, adjusted for potential confounders, including age at time of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis and interval since last episode of active disease, which are known to influence risk of recurrence. Results Questionnaires were returned by 50 (58%) of 86 women, 34 of whom had 69 pregnancies during 584 person-years of study. There were 128 episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis during the study period (6 during pregnancy). First episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis occurred between ages 9.6 and 38.5 years. Youngest age at pregnancy was 16.1 years; oldest age at childbirth was 40.9 years. Incident rate ratios for pregnant versus non-pregnant intervals were in the direction of lower recurrence rates during pregnancy, with point estimates of 0.54 and 0.75 under two different approaches, but ratios were not significantly different from the null value (p-values of 0.16 and 0.55). Conclusions Recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are likely not higher during pregnancy, in contrast to traditional beliefs. PMID:24412127

  17. Plasma antibodies to oral bacteria and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large European prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Dominique S.; Izard, Jacques; Wilhelm-Benartzi, Charlotte S.; You, Doo-Ho; Grote, Verena A; Tjønneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Racine, Antoine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Foerster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Siersema, Peter; Peeters, Petra HM; Lund, Eiliv; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José-María; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J. Ramón; Duell, Eric J.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Riboli, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Examine the relationship between antibodies to 25 oral bacteria and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Design We measured antibodies to oral bacteria in prediagnosis blood samples from 405 pancreatic cancer cases and 416 matched controls, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC). Analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression and additionally adjusted for smoking status and body mass index. Results Individuals with high levels of antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATTC 53978, a pathogenic periodontal bacteria, had a 2-fold higher risk of pancreatic cancer than individuals lower levels of these antibodies (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–4.36; >200 ng/ml vs ≤200 ng/ml). To explore the association with commensal (non-pathogenic) oral bacteria, we performed a cluster analysis and identified 2 groups of individuals, based on their antibody profiles. A cluster with overall higher levels of antibodies had a 45% lower risk of pancreatic cancer than a cluster with overall lower levels of antibodies (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36–0.83). Conclusion Periodontal disease might increase the risk for pancreatic cancer. Moreover, increased levels of antibodies against specific commensal oral bacteria, which can inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria, might reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Studies are needed to determine whether oral bacteria have direct effects on pancreatic cancer pathogenesis or serve as markers of the immune response. PMID:22990306

  18. Dietary intake of acrylamide and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

    PubMed Central

    Obón-Santacana, M; Kaaks, R; Slimani, N; Lujan-Barroso, L; Freisling, H; Ferrari, P; Dossus, L; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Baglietto, L; Fortner, R T; Boeing, H; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Overvad, K; Menéndez, V; Molina-Montes, E; Larrañaga, N; Chirlaque, M-D; Ardanaz, E; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Travis, R C; Lu, Y; Merritt, M A; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, V; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Sieri, S; Tumino, R; Sacerdote, C; Galasso, R; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Wirfält, E; Ericson, U; Idahl, A; Ohlson, N; Skeie, G; Gram, I T; Weiderpass, E; Onland-Moret, N C; Riboli, E; Duell, E J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between acrylamide intake and EC risk: for overall EC, for type-I EC, and in never smokers and never users of oral contraceptives (OCs). Smoking is a source of acrylamide, and OC use is a protective factor for EC risk. Methods: Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between acrylamide intake and EC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Acrylamide intake was estimated from the EU acrylamide monitoring database, which was matched with EPIC questionnaire-based food consumption data. Acrylamide intake was energy adjusted using the residual method. Results: No associations were observed between acrylamide intake and overall EC (n=1382) or type-I EC risk (n=627). We observed increasing relative risks for type-I EC with increasing acrylamide intake among women who both never smoked and were non-users of OCs (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.08–3.62; likelihood ratio test (LRT) P-value: 0.01, n=203). Conclusions: Dietary intake of acrylamide was not associated with overall or type-I EC risk; however, positive associations with type I were observed in women who were both non-users of OCs and never smokers. PMID:24937665

  19. Novel Interpretation of Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis According to Gestational Age at the Time of Maternal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Pratlong, Francine; Albaba, Sahar; Loubersac, Julie; Picot, Marie-Christine; Pretet, Vanessa; Issert, Eric; Boulot, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    From a prospective cohort of 344 women who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, 344 amniotic fluid, 264 placenta, and 216 cord blood samples were tested for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis using the same PCR assay. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the PCR assay using amniotic fluid were 86.3% and 97.2%, respectively, and both specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. Using placenta and cord blood, sensitivities were 79.5% and 21.2%, and specificities were 92% and 100%, respectively. In addition, the calculation of pretest and posttest probabilities and the use of logistic regression allowed us to obtain curves that give a dynamic interpretation of the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis according to gestational age at maternal infection, as represented by the three sample types (amniotic fluid, placenta, and cord blood). Two examples are cited here: for a maternal infection at 25 weeks of amenorrhea, a negative result of prenatal diagnosis allowed estimation of the probability of congenital toxoplasmosis at 5% instead of an a priori (pretest) risk estimate of 33%. For an infection at 10 weeks of amenorrhea associated with a pretest congenital toxoplasmosis risk of 7%, a positive PCR result using placenta at birth yields a risk increase to 43%, while a negative result damps down the risk to 0.02%. Thus, with a molecular diagnosis performing at a high level, and in spite of the persistence of false negatives, posttest risk curves using both negative and positive results prove highly informative, allowing a better assessment of the actual risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and finally an improved decision guide to treatment. PMID:23035201

  20. [Problems of congenital toxoplasmosis. Evolution over four decades].

    PubMed

    Couvreur, J

    1999-04-10

    EFFECT OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES: The development of reliable routine serology tests and the demonstration of the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in France led to mandatory prospective screening of pregnant women in 1978, followed by prenatal screening in 1985. In addition, in utero diagnosis, first on fetal blood and now with the reliable and safe method using polymerase chain reaction on amniotic fluid, formally identifies the parasite. THE SITUATION TODAY: A comparison of the experience of a specialized center in Paris during three different periods over the last 40 years showed that currently 71% of all cases of congenital toxoplasmosis are infraclinical at birth and only 5% are severe. Mean incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy is 1.48%, with a 40% risk of fetal contamination if no treatment is given. The risk of overt fetopathy predominantly concerns maternal infections occurring prior to 26 weeks gestation. IN UTERO TREATMENT: Positive PCR diagnosis on amniotic fluid imposes serial ultrasound examinations to identify any fetopathy and an in utero treatment by giving the mother the pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine combination. Biological results are favorable. POST-NATAL TREATMENT: Post-natal treatment is indicated even in latent forms and should be continued for the first year of life. The pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine combination is the only pharmaceutical regimen with well-proven efficacy. New compounds should allow better prophylaxis against maternofetal contamination or improved post-natal treatment. RECURRENCE: In 70% of the cases, serology tests become positive again, but are not associated with significantly increased risk of ocular recurrence. PMID:10230418

  1. The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to underline the future challenges for European marine research in terms of the integrated coastal zone management of these highly significant coastal zones. PMID:18061212

  2. Animals are key to human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Dirk; Däubener, Walter; Schares, Gereon; Groß, Uwe; Pleyer, Uwe; Lüder, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely sucessfull protozoal parasite which infects almost all mamalian species including humans. Approximately 30% of the human population worldwide is chronically infected with T. gondii. In general, human infection is asymptomatic but the parasite may induce severe disease in fetuses and immunocompromised patients. In addition, T. gondii may cause sight-threatening posterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients. Apart from few exceptions, humans acquire T. gondii from animals. Both, the oral uptake of T. gondii oocysts released by specific hosts, i.e. felidae, and of cysts persisting in muscle cells of animals result in human toxoplasmosis. In the present review, we discuss recent new data on the cell biology of T. gondii and parasite diversity in animals. In addition, we focus on the impact of these various parasite strains and their different virulence on the clinical outcome of human congenital toxoplasmosis and T. gondii uveitis. PMID:25240467

  3. [Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Niamey, Niger].

    PubMed

    Julvez, J; Magnaval, J F; Meynard, D; Perie, C; Baixench, M T

    1996-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of toxoplasmosis was carried out in Niamey, Niger, in 1992. Three hundred and seventy-one sera from 200 females and 171 males were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay for IgG. Using a cut-off value of 12 UI, 67 sera (18%) were positive. In this group detection of specific IgM by ELISA with immunocapture revealed 8 positive sera (11.9%). Seroprevalence of specific IgG was not correlated with ethnic origin or sex but did increase with age from 6.9% in subjects under 5 years to 34.9% in subjects 50 years and over. These findings are comparable with those from previous studies in similar climates and confirm that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis is higher in humid coastal regions than dry desert areas. PMID:8767792

  4. [Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Pittner, Y; Dufour, J-F; David, G; Boibieux, A; Peyramond, D

    2009-06-01

    We report the case of an atypical localization of a spinal cord "toxoplasmic abscess". The 46-year-old patient, HIV-1 positive, was admitted for acute urine retention and gait disorders. MRI revealed a T12-L1 medullary lesion suggesting a tumoral, inflammatory and infectious pathology. The radiological aspect and immunosuppression lead to the initiation of a treatment against Toxoplasma gondii, following the same treatment principles as for cerebral toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis can only be proved by data from autopsy or surgical biopsy, but toxoplasmosis PCR on CSF seems to be an interesting alternative to confirm the diagnosis. According to the literature, PCR is not sensitive enough as a diagnostic tool. Improvement after treatment supported the diagnosis confirmed by PCR. PMID:19304424

  5. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T.; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as ‘probably carcinogenic’ to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results, and could not further examine histological subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) sub-cohort of women (n=325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method, and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10μg/day) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histological EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/day. No associations, and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/day:1.02, 95%CI:0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1:0.97, 95%CI:0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. PMID:25300475

  6. Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population: multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Jenab, Mazda; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Benetou, Vasiliki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Dik, Vincent K; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-04-15

    Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend < 0.001]. The corresponding association of tea with HCC risk was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22-0.78, p-trend = 0.003). There was no compelling evidence of heterogeneity of these associations across strata of important HCC risk factors, including hepatitis B or hepatitis C status (available in a nested case-control study). The inverse, monotonic associations of coffee intake with HCC were apparent for caffeinated (p-trend = 0.009), but not decaffeinated (p-trend = 0.45) coffee for which, however, data were available for a fraction of subjects. Results from this multicentre, European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects. PMID:25219573

  7. Consumption of fish and meats and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Trichopolou, A.; Bamia, C.; Duarte-Salles, T.; Trepo, E.; Aleksandrova, K.; Nthlings, U.; Lukanova, A.; Lagiou, P.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Katzke, V. A.; Overvad, K.; Tjnneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Fagherazzi, G.; Bastide, N.; Panico, S.; Grioni, S.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, P. H.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Parr, C. L.; Jakszyn, P.; Snchez, M. J.; Barricarte, A.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.; Quirs, J. R.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background While higher intake of fish and lower consumption of red/processed meats have been suggested to play a protective role in the etiology of several cancers, prospective evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited, particularly in Western European populations. Methods The associations of fish and meats with HCC risk were analyzed in the EPIC cohort. Between 1992 and 2010, 191 incident HCC were identified among 477 206 participants. Baseline diet was assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for calibration. Multivariable proportional hazard regression was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In a nested casecontrol subset (HCC = 122), HBV/HCV status and liver function biomarkers were measured. Results HCC risk was inversely associated with intake of total fish (per 20 g/day increase, HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.740.95 and HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.690.97 before and after calibration, respectively). This inverse association was also suggested after adjusting for HBV/HCV status and liver function score (per 20-g/day increase, RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.661.11 and RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.501.09, respectively) in a nested casecontrol subset. Intakes of total meats or subgroups of red/processed meats, and poultry were not associated with HCC risk. Conclusions In this large European cohort, total fish intake is associated with lower HCC risk. PMID:23670094

  8. Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Cross, Amanda J; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI < 25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI < 25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI ≥ 25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people. PMID:26190646

  9. Ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran: 40 cases analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Seidali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Foroutan, Alireza; Ahmadabadi, Mehdinili; Zarei, Reza; Piri, Nilofar; Gordiz, Arzhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM To report ocular symptoms, funduscopic findings and demographic distribution of ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran METHODS In this cross-sectional study, a total of 40 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (24 female, 16 male) were enrolled. The distribution of symptoms and funduscopic findings were studied. RESULTS The patients' age was in the range of 13-52 with the most common age of 19 years old. Twenty-four patients were female (60.0%). The most common presenting sign was visual loss. There was anterior chamber (AC) inflammation in 23 patients (57.5%). Vitritis was presented in 36 patients (90.0%). In 35 patients (87.5%), the retinal lesion was central. In patients with peripheral lesion, 3 patients (60.0%) had flashing vs 12.5% chance of flashing in all patients. Older patients had larger lesion (P=0.04). CONCLUSION Ocular toxoplasmosis substantially varies among patients with different age, gender, status of immunity, site of lesion and other undetermined factors. One of ocular symptoms, flashing, may necessitate a more precise peripheral fundus examination. PMID:22553642

  10. A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel, and shipyard welders.

    PubMed Central

    Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Andersen, A; Anderson, K; Becker, N; Chang-Claude, J; Ferro, G; Gérin, M; Gray, C N; Hansen, K S

    1991-01-01

    A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies located in nine European countries has been assembled with the aim of investigating the relation of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. The observation period and the criteria for inclusion of welders varied from country to country. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort and observed numbers of deaths (and for some countries incident cancer cases) were compared with expected numbers calculated from national reference rates. Mortality and cancer incidence ratios were analysed by cause category, time since first exposure, duration of employment, and estimated cumulative dose to total fumes, chromium (Cr), Cr VI, and nickel (Ni). Overall a statistically significant excess was reported for mortality from lung cancer (116 observed v 86.81 expected deaths, SMR = 134). When analysed by type of welding an increasing pattern with time since first exposure was present for both mild steel and stainless steel welders, which was more noticeable for the subcohort of predominantly stainless steel welders. No clear relation was apparent between mortality from lung cancer and duration of exposure to or estimated cumulative dose of Ni or Cr. Whereas the patterns of lung cancer mortality in these results suggest that the risk of lung cancer is higher for stainless steel than mild steel welders the different level of risk for these two categories of welding exposure cannot be quantified with precision. The report of five deaths from pleural mesothelioma unrelated to the type of welding draws attention to the risk of exposure to asbestos in welding activities. PMID:2015204

  11. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Magdalena B; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Darren R; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Steffen, Annika; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Saieva, Calogero; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Arriola, Larraitz; Molina-Montes, Esther; Duell, Eric J; Santiuste, Carmen; Alonso de la Torre, Ramón; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Stocks, Tanja; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Börje; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2015-10-15

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 through to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment versus the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend  = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer. PMID:25866035

  12. Diarrhoea in a large prospective cohort of European travellers to resource-limited destinations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incidence rates of travellers' diarrhoea (TD) need to be updated and risk factors are insufficiently known. Methods Between July 2006 and January 2008 adult customers of our Centre for Travel Health travelling to a resource-limited country for the duration of 1 to 8 weeks were invited to participate in a prospective cohort study. They received one questionnaire pre-travel and a second one immediately post-travel. First two-week incidence rates were calculated for TD episodes and a risk assessment was made including demographic and travel-related variables, medical history and behavioural factors. Results Among the 3100 persons recruited, 2800 could be investigated, resulting in a participation rate of 89.2%. The first two-weeks incidence for classic TD was 26.2% (95%CI 24.5-27.8). The highest rates were found for Central Africa (29.6%, 95% CI 12.4-46.8), the Indian subcontinent (26.3%, 95%CI 2.3-30.2) and West Africa (21.5%, 95%CI 14.9-28.1). Median TD duration was 2 days (range 1-90). The majority treated TD with loperamide (57.6%), while a small proportion used probiotics (23.0%) and antibiotics (6.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis on any TD to determine risk factors showed that a resolved diarrhoeal episode experienced in the 4 months pre-travel (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.59-2.54), antidepressive comedication (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.17-3.80), allergic asthma (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.10-2.54), and reporting TD-independent fever (OR 6.56, 95%CI 3.06-14.04) were the most prominent risk factors of TD. Conclusions TD remains a frequent travel disease, but there is a decreasing trend in the incidence rate. Patients with a history of allergic asthma, pre-travel diarrhoea, or of TD-independent fever were more likely to develop TD while abroad. PMID:20684768

  13. Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Woo Kyo; Joo, Byung-Euk; Seo, Ji-hye; Mun, Jun Kyu; Kim, Juhyeon; Seo, Dae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a rare disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Though most patients with toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic, congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus can cause ocular involvement such as chorioretinitis and central nervous system disease including intracerebral calcification, nystagmus, hydrocephalus and microcephaly. Also, these brain lesions can cause seizure secondarily. Our patient was diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, based on toxoplasma-specific serologic test with typical clinical symptoms, including chorioretinitis, nystagmus, hydrocephalus and cerebral palsy. Her brain imaging findings revealed not only the multifocal encephalomalacia, but also multifocal cerebral calcification including intracerebral calcification in left perihippocampal region. Her epileptogenic zone was defined as mesial temporal lobe including hippocampus on left side by seizure semiology, electroencephalogram and neuroimaging including single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography. Her seizures were refractory to multiple anti-epileptic drugs. We report a patient with congenital toxoplasmosis who showed intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26157672

  14. Consumption of Dairy Products and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Neil; Norat, Teresa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Nailler, Laura; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Dik, Vincent K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Pérez, Maria José Sánchez; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Johansson, Ingegerd; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Fedirko, Veronika; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents. Materials and Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed), yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables. Results During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98). Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99) and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79–1.02) in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99); this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99), with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81–1.24). Conclusions Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products considered. PMID:24023767

  15. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajès, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Travis, Ruth C.; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors. This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models. There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers. Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men. PMID:27100409

  16. Endogenous sex hormones and endometrial cancer risk in women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Cust, Anne; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Peeters, Petra H; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Lahmann, Petra H; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Larrañaga, Nerea; Pera, Guillem; Tormo, Maria-José; Sánchez, Maria-José; Ramón Quirós, J; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Linseisen, Jakob; Schulz, Mandy; Boeing, Heiner; Lundin, Eva; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitiros; Naska, Androniki; Tumino, Rosario; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological data show that reproductive and hormonal factors are involved in the etiology of endometrial cancer, but there is little data on the association with endogenous sex hormone levels. We analyzed the association between prediagnostic serum concentrations of sex steroids and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using a nested case–control design of 247 incident endometrial cancer cases and 481 controls, matched on center, menopausal status, age, variables relating to blood collection, and, for premenopausal women, phase of menstrual cycle. Using conditional regression analysis, endometrial cancer risk among postmenopausal women was positively associated with increasing levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estrone, total estradiol, and free estradiol. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest versus lowest tertile were 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50–4.72; P=0.002 for a continuous linear trend) for estrone, 2.07 (95% CI 1.20–3.60; P=0.001) for estradiol, and 1.66 (95% CI 0.98–2.82; P=0.001) for free estradiol. For total and free testosterone, ORs for the highest versus lowest tertile were 1.44 (95% CI 0.88–2.36; P=0.05) and 2.05 (95% CI 1.23–3.42; P=0.005) respectively. Androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were not associated with risk. Sex hormone-binding globulin was significantly inversely associated with risk (OR for the highest versus lowest tertile was 0.57, 95% CI 0.34–0.95; P=0.004). In premenopausal women, serum sex hormone concentrations were not clearly associated with endometrial cancer risk, but numbers were too small to draw firm conclusions. In conclusion, relatively high blood concentrations of estrogens and free testosterone are associated with an increased endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:18509001

  17. Pre-diagnostic polyphenol intake and breast cancer survival: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Scalbert, Augustin; Tjønneland, Anne; Dossus, Laure; Johansen, Christoffer; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Ward, Heather; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; His, Mathilde; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Overvad, Kim; Lasheras, Cristina; Travier, Noémie; Sánchez, Maria-José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; van Gils, Carla; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Sund, Malin; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Pre-diagnostic usual diet was assessed using dietary questionnaires, and polyphenol intakes were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. We followed 11,782 breast cancer cases from time of diagnosis until death, end of follow-up or last day of contact. During a median of 6 years, 1482 women died (753 of breast cancer). We related polyphenol intake to all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with time since diagnosis as underlying time and strata for age and country. Among postmenopausal women, an intake of lignans in the highest versus lowest quartile was related to a 28 % lower risk of dying from breast (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 0.72, 95 % CI 0.53; 0.98). In contrast, in premenopausal women, a positive association between lignan intake and all-cause mortality was found (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 1.63, 95 % CI 1.03; 2.57). We found no association for other polyphenol classes. Intake of lignans before breast cancer diagnosis may be related to improved survival among postmenopausal women, but may on the contrary worsen the survival for premenopausal women. This suggests that the role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer survival is complex and may be dependent of menopausal status. PMID:26531755

  18. General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Annika; Huerta, José-Maria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, J Ramón; Ohlsson, Bodil; Johansson, Mattias; Wallner, Bengt; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-08-01

    General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist circumference (WC), relates to these cancers remains largely unexplored. Using measured anthropometric data from 391,456 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and 11 years of follow-up, we comprehensively assessed the association of anthropometric measures with risk of EAC, GCC and GNCC using multivariable proportional hazards regression. One hundred twenty-four incident EAC, 193 GCC and 224 GNCC were accrued. After mutual adjustment, BMI was unrelated to EAC, while WC showed a strong positive association (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.63-2.22 and HR = 3.76; 1.72-8.22, respectively). Hip circumference (HC) was inversely related to EAC after controlling for WC, while WC remained positively associated (HR = 0.35; 0.18-0.68, and HR=4.10; 1.94-8.63, respectively). BMI was not associated with GCC or GNCC. WC was related to higher risks of GCC after adjustment for BMI and more strongly after adjustment for HC (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.91; 1.09-3.37, and HR = 2.23; 1.28-3.90, respectively). Our study demonstrates that abdominal, rather than general, obesity is an indisputable risk factor for EAC and also provides evidence for a protective effect of gluteofemoral (subcutaneous) adipose tissue in EAC. Our study further shows that general obesity is not a risk factor for GCC and GNCC, while the role of abdominal obesity in GCC needs further investigation. PMID:25598323

  19. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajès, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors.This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models.There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers.Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men. PMID:27100409

  20. Hairy-cell leukemia and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Chrobák, L; Bostíková, D; Mirová, S; Hozák, A; Radochová, D

    1982-01-01

    Investigation for Toxoplasma gondii infection using complement fixation test and microprecipitation method in agar gel was performed in fifteen patients with clinically and morphologically typical hairy-cell leukemia. Positive complement fixation test was found in four patients. In three patients an initially high complement fixation titer or its considerable increase associated with positive microprecipitation in agar gel suggested a recent toxoplasmosis. The importance of search for Toxoplasma gondii infection in hairy-cell leukemia patients especially before splenectomy and the necessity of reinvestigation after splenectomy is stressed. PMID:7133241

  1. [Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Rabat, Morocco].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    El Mansouri B; Rhajaoui M; Sebti F; Amarir F; Laboudi M; Bchitou R; Hamad M; Lyagoubi M

    2007-10-01

    In Morocco, the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women living in Rabat, was estimated by analyzing antibodies (IgG, IgM) levels using an ELISA test. The analysis of 2456 serums at the Institut National d'Hygiène showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis is about 50.6%. According to the questionnaire, the lack of knowledge about this disease and soil contact could be the main causes of toxoplasmosis infection. The use of IgG avidity test has excluded a recent infection in 93.5% of pregnant women with IgM positive sera.

  2. [Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Rabat, Morocco].

    PubMed

    El Mansouri, B; Rhajaoui, M; Sebti, F; Amarir, F; Laboudi, M; Bchitou, R; Hamad, M; Lyagoubi, M

    2007-10-01

    In Morocco, the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women living in Rabat, was estimated by analyzing antibodies (IgG, IgM) levels using an ELISA test. The analysis of 2456 serums at the Institut National d'Hygiène showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis is about 50.6%. According to the questionnaire, the lack of knowledge about this disease and soil contact could be the main causes of toxoplasmosis infection. The use of IgG avidity test has excluded a recent infection in 93.5% of pregnant women with IgM positive sera. PMID:17982862

  3. Modeling seismic wave propagation across the European plate: structural models and numerical techniques, state-of-the-art and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Andrea; Danecek, Peter; Molinari, Irene; Postpischl, Luca; Schivardi, Renata; Serretti, Paola; Tondi, Maria Rosaria

    2010-05-01

    Together with the building and maintenance of observational and data banking infrastructures - i.e. an integrated organization of coordinated sensor networks, in conjunction with connected data banks and efficient data retrieval tools - a strategic vision for bolstering the future development of geophysics in Europe should also address the essential issue of improving our current ability to model coherently the propagation of seismic waves across the European plate. This impacts on fundamental matters, such as correctly locating earthquakes, imaging detailed earthquake source properties, modeling ground shaking, inferring geodynamic processes. To this extent, we both need detailed imaging of shallow and deep earth structure, and accurate modeling of seismic waves by numerical methods. Our current abilities appear somewhat limited, but emerging technologies may enable soon a significant leap towards better accuracy and reliability. To contribute to this debate, we present here the state-of-the-art of knowledge of earth structure and numerical wave modeling in the European plate, as the result of a comprehensive study towards the definition of a continental-scale reference model. Our model includes a description of crustal structure (EPcrust) merging information deriving from previous studies - large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness, density, and seismic parameters. This a priori crustal model improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies beneath the Alpine mobile belt, and fast lithospheric signatures under the two main Mediterranean subduction systems (Aegean and Tyrrhenian). We validate this new model through comparison of recorded seismograms with simulations based on numerical codes (SPECFEM3D). To ease and increase model usage, we also propose the adoption of a common exchange format for tomographic earth models based on JSON, a lightweight data-interchange format supported by most high-level programming languages, and provide tools for manipulating and visualising models, described in this standard format, in Google Earth and GEON IDV. In the next decade seismologists will be able to reap new possibilities offered by exciting progress in general computing power and algorithmic development in computational seismology. Structural models, still based on classical approaches and modeling just few parameters in each seismogram, will benefit from emerging techniques - such as full waveform fitting and fully nonlinear inversion - that are now just showing their potential. This will require extensive availability of supercomputing resources to earth scientists in Europe, as a tool to match the planned new massive data flow. We need to make sure that the whole apparatus, needed to fully exploit new data, will be widely accessible. To maximize the development, so as for instance to enable us to promptly model ground shaking after a major earthquake, we will also need a better coordination framework, that will enable us to share and amalgamate the abundant local information on earth structure - most often available but difficult to retrieve, merge and use. Comprehensive knowledge of earth structure and of best practices to model wave propagation can by all means be considered an enabling technology for further geophysical progress.

  4. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA) formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1) and a follow-up (visit 2) at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years) participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate) on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85%) were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P < .001) to 2.1 at visit 2. On the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, 88% and 76% of the treatments were rated very much improved or much improved by physicians and patients, respectively. Of the physicians, 95.6% rated this HA filler as very or fairly easy to use. Similarly, 92% of patients were very likely or quite likely to return for treatment; nearly all (98%) would recommend this treatment to friends. Transient (mean duration: 5.5 days) injection-site adverse events (AEs) occurred in 24 patients. Bruising was the most common AE. Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments. PMID:19712480

  5. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps).

    PubMed

    Barrows, Michelle

    2006-09-01

    Eleven of a group of 16 sugar gliders died acutely over a period of 2 to 3 weeks. Histopathologic examination revealed a protozoal infection with tachyzoites present in multiple organs, including the intestine, heart, brain, spleen, pancreas, adrenal gland, and kidney. Immunostaining confirmed disseminated toxoplasmosis. Marsupials are susceptible to toxoplasmosis. It was thought that the sugar gliders acquired the infection through foraging in wood chips used as a substrate that were contaminated with feline fecal material. PMID:16931382

  6. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with antia??T. gondiia??specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  7. Isolated cerebellar toxoplasmosis as a complication of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Pott, H; Castelo, A

    2013-01-01

    Isolated cerebellar mass lesion is an uncommon presentation of toxoplasmosis. The authors report one rare case in a 50-year-old HIV-infected male patient who presented with clipped speech, gait ataxia and incoordination. The cerebellar toxoplasmosis was suspected based on imaging findings, despite the atypical location. This case highlights the need for a high index of clinical suspicion among HIV-infected patients with neurological manifestations and suspicious neuroimaging findings. PMID:23512507

  8. Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies. PMID:22491772

  9. Toxoplasmosis: a history of clinical observations

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Louis M.; Dubey, Jitender. P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T. gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Janků. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T. gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations. PMID:19217908

  10. Association between consumption of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetes—insights from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The public health burden of type 2 diabetes has risen unabated over the past decades, fueled by obesity and lifestyle influences, including diet quality. Epidemiological evidence is accumulating for an inverse association between dairy product intake and type 2 diabetes risk; this is somewhat counterintuitive to the saturated fat and cardiometabolic disease paradigm. The present report reviews the contribution that the findings of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study have made to this debate, noting that types of dairy products, particularly fermented dairy products including yogurt, may be more relevant than overall dairy intake for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The EPIC study has contributed evidence through complementary approaches of a large prospective study across 8 European countries with heterogeneous dietary intakes assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (EPIC-InterAct study) and through a more detailed examination of diet assessed using a 7-day food diary (EPIC-Norfolk study). The implications of these findings are placed in the wider context, including the use of individual fatty acid blood biomarkers in the EPIC-InterAct study and an appraisal of current research gaps and suggestions for future research directions. PMID:26175485

  11. Association between consumption of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetes--insights from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer study.

    PubMed

    Forouhi, Nita G

    2015-08-01

    The public health burden of type 2 diabetes has risen unabated over the past decades, fueled by obesity and lifestyle influences, including diet quality. Epidemiological evidence is accumulating for an inverse association between dairy product intake and type 2 diabetes risk; this is somewhat counterintuitive to the saturated fat and cardiometabolic disease paradigm. The present report reviews the contribution that the findings of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study have made to this debate, noting that types of dairy products, particularly fermented dairy products including yogurt, may be more relevant than overall dairy intake for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The EPIC study has contributed evidence through complementary approaches of a large prospective study across 8 European countries with heterogeneous dietary intakes assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (EPIC-InterAct study) and through a more detailed examination of diet assessed using a 7-day food diary (EPIC-Norfolk study). The implications of these findings are placed in the wider context, including the use of individual fatty acid blood biomarkers in the EPIC-InterAct study and an appraisal of current research gaps and suggestions for future research directions. PMID:26175485

  12. Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kaňková, Šárka; Procházková, Lucie; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel; Springer, Drahomíra; Potluková, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, can induce various hormonal and behavioural alterations in infected hosts, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between latent toxoplasmosis and maternal AITD in pregnancy. Methods Cross-sectional study in 1248 consecutive pregnant women in the 9–12th gestational weeks. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and free thyroxine (FT4) were assessed by chemiluminescence; the Toxoplasma status was detected by the complement fixation test (CFT) and anti-Toxoplasma IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Overall, 22.5% of the women were positive for latent toxoplasmosis and 14.7% were screened positive for AITD. Women with latent toxoplasmosis had more often highly elevated TPOAb than the Toxoplasma-negative ones (p = 0.004), and latent toxoplasmosis was associated with decrease in serum TSH levels (p = 0.049). Moreover, we found a positive correlation between FT4 and the index of positivity for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (p = 0.033), which was even stronger in the TPOAb-positive Toxoplasma-positive women, (p = 0.014), as well as a positive correlation between FT4 and log2 CFT (p = 0.009). Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis was associated with a mild increase in thyroid hormone production in pregnancy. The observed Toxoplasma-associated changes in the parameters of AITD are mild and do not seem to be clinically relevant; however, they could provide new clues to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID:25350671

  13. Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather; Chapelais, Gaelle; Kuhnle, Gunter GC; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Phytoestrogens are a group of compounds found in plants that structurally resemble the hormone oestradiol, and thus have the potential to act as oestrogen agonists or antagonists. Their potential effects may alter the risk of breast cancer, but only a limited range of phytoestrogens has been examined in prospective cohort studies. Methods Serum and urine samples from 237 incident breast cancer cases and 952 control individuals (aged 45 to 75 years) in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort were analysed for seven phytoestrogens (daidzein, enterodiol, enterolactone, genistein, glycitein, o-desmethylangolensin, and equol) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Data on participants' diet, demographics, anthropometrics, and medical history were collected upon recruitment. All models were adjusted for weight, fat and energy intake, family history of breast cancer, social class, analytical batch, and factors related to oestrogen exposure. Results Urinary or serum phytoestrogens were not associated with protection from breast cancer in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort. Breast cancer risk was marginally increased with higher levels of total urinary isoflavones (odds ratio = 1.08 (95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 1.16), P = 0.055); among those with oestrogen receptor-positive tumours, the risk of breast cancer was increased with higher levels of urinary equol (odds ratio = 1.07 (95% confidence interval = 1.01 to 1.12), P = 0.013). Conclusion There was limited evidence of an association between phytoestrogen biomarkers and breast cancer risk in the present study. There was no indication of decreased likelihood of breast cancer with higher levels of phytoestrogen biomarkers, but the observation that some phytoestrogen biomarkers may be associated with greater risk of breast cancer warrants further study with greater statistical power. PMID:18419813

  14. Meat and heme iron intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero-digestive tract in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Annika; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Jakszyn, Paula; Amiano, Pilar; Quirós, J. Ramón; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, Peter D.; Peeters, Petra HM; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Skeie, Guri; Hallmanns, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Borgquist, Signe; Ericson, Ulrika; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Grote, Verena; Li, Kuanrong; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Pantzalis, Menelaos; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Naccarati, Alessio; Mouw, Traci; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Boeing, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence from prospective studies on intake of meat and fish and risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) is scarce. We prospectively investigated the association of meat and fish intake with risk of SCC of the UADT and the possible mechanism via heme iron in the large multi-center European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks of SCC of the UADT in relation to intake of total meat, as well as subtypes of meat, fish and heme iron among 348,738 individuals from 7 European countries. Results During an average follow-up of 11.8 years, a total of 682 incident cases of UADT SCC were accrued. Intake of processed meat was positively associated with risk of SCC of the UADT in the total cohort (highest versus lowest quintile: RR=1.41; 95% CI=1.03-1.94), however, in stratified analyses, this association was confined to the group of current smokers (highest versus lowest quintile: RR=1.89; 95% CI=1.22-2.93). Red meat, poultry, fish and heme iron were not consistently related to UADT SCC. Conclusion Higher intake of processed meat was positively associated with SCC of the UADT among smokers. Although this finding was stable in various sensitivity analyses, we cannot rule out residual confounding by smoking. Confirmation in future studies and identification of biological mechanisms is warranted. Impact Smokers may further increase their risk for SCC of the UADT if they additionally consume large amounts of processed meat. PMID:23033453

  15. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has been improved by the emergence of molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques have been useful for the genetic characterization of T. gondii. Serotyping methods based on polymorphic polypeptides have the potential to become the choice for typing T. gondii in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize conventional non-DNA-based diagnostic methods, and the DNA-based molecular techniques for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii. These techniques have provided foundations for further development of more effective and accurate detection of T. gondii infection. These advances will contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemiology, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26017718

  16. Successful treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis with clindamycin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Madi, Deepak; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Rao, Satish; Ramapuram, John T; Mahalingam, Soundarya

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis is generally a late complication of HIV infection and usually occurs in patients with CD4 + T-cell counts below 200/μl. Co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole) is the most common drug used in India for the treatment of AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis. Other alternative drugs used for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis are clindamycin plus pyrimethamine and clarithromycin with pyrimethamine.A 30-year-old male known case of retroviral disease presented to Kasturba Medical College, India, with complaints of fever, headache and vomiting. Computed tomography scan of his brain showed irregular ring enhancing lesion in the right basal ganglia. Toxoplasma serology revealed raised IgG antibody levels. Based on the CT features and serology, diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. He was treated with clindamycin alone as he had history of sulfonamide allergy. The patient was symptomatically better after 48 hours. After 21 days, repeat CT of brain was done which was normal. The patient showed good clinical improvement within 48 hours and the lesion resolved completely within 3 weeks. The authors recommend using clindamycin without pyrimethamine in resource poor settings and in patients who do not tolerate sulfa drugs. PMID:23074553

  17. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Åman, Per; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Pischon, Tobias; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cottet, Vanessa; Kühn, Tilman; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Bakken, Toril; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Asli, Lene Angell; Sánchez, Soledad; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Slimani, Nadia; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-05-28

    Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye. PMID:24521535

  18. Toxoplasmosis Update and Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Fayer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has a coccidian life cycle in the intestine of domestic and wild felids that includes a series of asexual and sexual stages and an oocyst stage that is shed in the feces. Oocysts complete their development outside the body, eventually becoming infective for about 350 species of vertebrates including cats and man. The effects of climate on oocyst survival and the physical and biological means of oocyst dispersal are discussed. Infectivity and pathogenicity for livestock species vary. Acute disease results from rapidly multiplying tachyzoites that may be transmitted by carnivorism, transfusion, vertical transmission and other routes. Patent infections may persist for the life of a host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. Bradyzoites initiate acute infection in other hosts after carnivorism or organ transplantation or in the same host after immunosuppression. Also discussed are: (a) prevalence of T. gondii in livestock as determined by digestion and serological techniques, (b) identification in humans as accomplished by isolation, serological and skin test techniques and (c) identification in cats as accomplished primarily by fecal examinations for oocysts infective for mice. Source of human infections, major outbreaks, treatment, effects on mental health and methods for preventing toxoplasmosis in man and livestock are listed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7337909

  19. Teaching by Satellite in a European Virtual Classroom. [and] Open Universities--Their Rationale, Characteristics and Prospects. ZIFF Papiere 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond; Holmberg, Borje

    The first of two papers in this publication is "Teaching by Satellite in a European Virtual Classroom" (Desmond Keegan). It describes the first accredited university course by satellite, a 1-year certificate course in safety and health at work offered by the University College Dublin. It discusses the enrollment of 219 students at 10 sites (the…

  20. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeffrey L.; Parise, Monica E.; Fiore, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings. PMID:24808246

  1. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Parise, Monica E; Fiore, Anthony E

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings. PMID:24808246

  2. First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuñez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castaño, Giovanny

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

  3. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Kumaon region of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Nautiyal, B L

    1991-07-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, 200 random serum samples were collected from the villages of Kumaon region of Uttar Pradesh (India). These samples were tested for antitoxoplasma antibodies using indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. Sera of 800 patients clinically suspected to have toxoplasmosis who attended a major hospital in New Delhi were also screened for these antibodies. The results showed that toxoplasma infection in Kumaon population is quite high (57%); the seroprevalence in women being as high as 77 per cent--the highest reported so far in India. The results indicate the need for urgent epidemiological measures. PMID:1959956

  4. Premarket evaluation of commercial toxoplasmosis indirect fluorescent-antibody reagents.

    PubMed Central

    Durham, T M; Colvin, H M

    1978-01-01

    The quality of commercial toxoplasmosis indirect fluorescent-antibody reagents was evaluated over a 6-year period. Seven manufacturers voluntarily submitted their products for evaluation in the Center for Disease Control Premarket Evaluation Program. Each product was tested in accordance with the Center for Disease Control performance and labeling specifications and evaluation methods. Only 49% of all of the products tested met the Center for Disease Control requirements. Performance criteria are outlined, and suggestions are offered to assist laboratorians in obtaining toxoplasmosis indirect fluorescent-antibody reagents of high quality. PMID:348717

  5. Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy: Essentials for Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Nicole Franzen; Tillett, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis and toxoplasmosis are foodborne illnesses that can have long-term consequences when contracted during pregnancy. Listeriosis is implicated in stillbirth, preterm labor, newborn sepsis, and meningitis, among other complications. Toxoplasmosis is associated with blindness, cognitive delays, seizures, and hearing loss, among other significant disabilities. Healthcare providers who understand the fundamentals of Listeria and Toxoplasma infection will have the tools to identify symptoms and high-risk behaviors, educate women to make safer decisions, and provide anticipatory guidance if a pregnant woman would become infected with either of these foodborne illnesses. PMID:27104604

  6. A prospective study of the effects of marital status and family relations on young children's adjustment among African American and European American families.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D S; Winslow, E B; Flanagan, C

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development prospectively, using an ethnically diverse sample of approximately 300 low-income families. We also were able to examine the moderating effects of ethnicity on child adjustment in always two-parent, to-be-divorced, already-divorced, and always single-parent families. Results indicated that to-be-divorced European American and African American families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for predivorce differences in child behavior problems, whereas rejecting parenting accounted for differences in problem behavior between always single-parent and always two-parent families. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of ethnicity in influencing young, low-income children's adjustment to different family structures. PMID:10368919

  7. Contribution of Neonatal Amniotic Fluid Testing to Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Filisetti, Denis; Villard, Odile; Escande, Benoît; Wafo, Estelle; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Delhaes, Laurence; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) on neonatal amniotic fluid samples from 488 mother-child pairs. Maternal infection during pregnancy was diagnosed and dated or could not be ruled out. Forty-six cases of CT were defined according to the European Research Network on CT classification system and case definitions. Neonatal amniotic fluid testing had an overall sensitivity of 54% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 39 to 69%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99 to 100%). Its sensitivity was 33% (95% CI, 13 to 59%) when antenatal diagnosis was positive and 68% (95% CI, 48 to 84%) when antenatal diagnosis was negative or lacking. This difference in sensitivity may have been due to treatment of antenatally diagnosed cases. Relative to postnatal serology, neonatal amniotic fluid testing allowed an earlier diagnosis to be made in 26% of the cases (95% CI, 9 to 51%). PMID:25694528

  8. Contribution of neonatal amniotic fluid testing to diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Filisetti, Denis; Yera, Hélène; Villard, Odile; Escande, Benoît; Wafo, Estelle; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Delhaes, Laurence; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) on neonatal amniotic fluid samples from 488 mother-child pairs. Maternal infection during pregnancy was diagnosed and dated or could not be ruled out. Forty-six cases of CT were defined according to the European Research Network on CT classification system and case definitions. Neonatal amniotic fluid testing had an overall sensitivity of 54% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 39 to 69%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99 to 100%). Its sensitivity was 33% (95% CI, 13 to 59%) when antenatal diagnosis was positive and 68% (95% CI, 48 to 84%) when antenatal diagnosis was negative or lacking. This difference in sensitivity may have been due to treatment of antenatally diagnosed cases. Relative to postnatal serology, neonatal amniotic fluid testing allowed an earlier diagnosis to be made in 26% of the cases (95% CI, 9 to 51%). PMID:25694528

  9. Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Nieters, Alexandra; ?uczy?ska, Anna; Becker, Susen; Becker, Nikolaus; Vermeulen, Roel; Overvad, Kim; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas.; Jeurnink, Suzanne M.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Snchez, Soledad; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Melin, Beatrice; Spth, Florentin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Brennan, Paul; Kelly, Rachel S.; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between prediagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive ?0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-cell NHL and B-cell NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM [high level: OR = 0.40 (95% CI = 0.210.79)] and B-cell NHL [intermediate level: OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.530.88); high level: OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.440.86)], largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL; intermediate level: OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.300.80); high level: OR = 0.13 (95% CI = 0.050.35)] risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared with matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found. PMID:25269801

  10. Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nieters, Alexandra; ?uczy?ska, Anna; Becker, Susen; Becker, Nikolaus; Vermeulen, Roel; Overvad, Kim; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Snchez, Soledad; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Melin, Beatrice; Spth, Florentin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Brennan, Paul; Kelly, Rachel S; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between prediagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20-100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive ?0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-cell NHL and B-cell NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM [high level: OR = 0.40 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79)] and B-cell NHL [intermediate level: OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.53-0.88); high level: OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.86)], largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL; intermediate level: OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.30-0.80); high level: OR = 0.13 (95% CI = 0.05-0.35)] risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared with matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found. PMID:25269801

  11. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described. PMID:23718784

  12. Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandão; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 ± 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 ± 14.7 years, P < 0.0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0.414, 95% CI 0.2231-0.7692, P = 0.007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT. PMID:23507508

  13. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. PMID:21679483

  14. Clinical and diagnostic management of toxoplasmosis in the immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Contini, C

    2008-06-01

    With the advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the natural course of HIV infection has markedly changed and opportunistic infections including toxoplasmosis have declined and modified in presentation, outcome and incidence. However, TE is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in resource-poor settings but also a common neurological complication in some countries despite the availability of HAART and effective prophylaxis. In most cases toxoplasmosis occurs in brain and toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is the most common presentation of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients with or without AIDS. The need of a definitive diagnosis is substantial because other brain diseases could share similar findings. Rapid and specific diagnosis is thus crucial as early treatment may improve the clinical outcome. Classical serological diagnosis is often inconclusive as immunodeficient individuals fail to produce significant titres of specific antibodies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has a high diagnostic value in the acute disease, but like many 'in-house' PCR assays, suffers from lack of standardization and variable performance according to the laboratory. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis can be improved by performing real-time PCR protocols. This article summarises the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures and management strategies for this condition. PMID:18693556

  15. The global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), which results from infection of pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii. Methods The authors systematically searched 9 major databases for published and unpublished sources and established direct contact with the authors of source materials. Searches were country-specific. To be included, studies had to report on the incidence of CT, on positivity to Toxoplasma-specific IgM in infants and pregnant women (including seroconversion results) or on positivity to Toxoplasma-specific IgG in the general population. Various modelling techniques were used, depending on the country-specific data available, to estimate the CT incidence and burden in each country. These data were then synthesized into an estimate of the global incidence of CT and of the global burden of CT in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Findings The global annual incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was estimated to be 190 100 cases (95% credible interval, CI: 179 300–206 300). This was equivalent to a burden of 1.20 million DALYs (95% CI: 0.76–1.90). High burdens were seen in South America and in some Middle Eastern and low-income countries. Conclusion Congenital toxoplasmosis poses a substantial burden of poor health globally. Toxoplasmosis should be included in future updates of the global burden of disease and the corresponding data should be used to support public health interventions to reduce disease burden. PMID:23825877

  16. Toxoplasmosis in Serbia: time for an action plan.

    PubMed

    Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B; Klun, I

    2010-09-01

    Known for a century, Toxoplasma gondii has been studied in Serbia half this time, ever since the introduction of the Sabin-Feldman test at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR) in 1959. However, despite 50 years of continuous efforts, exact data on the frequency of acute clinical disease, acute infections in pregnancy and congenital infection in the offspring are still lacking, due to the vague regulatory provision that toxoplasmosis is subject to reporting "in case of epidemiological indications". It is, however, clear that the major Toxoplasma-induced public health issue in Serbia, like elsewhere in Europe, is congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Continuous monitoring of particular patient groups showed a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of infection over the past two decades, and a consequently increased proportion of women susceptible to infection in pregnancy, suggesting a potential increase in the incidence of CT. Studies of risk factors for infection transmission have provided data to guide national health education campaigns. It is expected that the recent appointment of the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis as the focal point for the collection of data from the primary level, will provide the means for accurate assessment of the measure of the problem, which is a prerequisite of an evidence-based nation-wide prevention program. In the meantime, health education of all pregnant women, focused at risk factors of major local significance, is advocated as a sound and financially sustainable option to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21073140

  17. Paradoxical effect of clindamycin in experimental, acute toxoplasmosis in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M G; Lappin, M R; Rottman, J R; Tompkins, M B; English, R V; Bruce, A T; Jayawickrama, J

    1996-01-01

    Cats were experimentally inoculated parenterally with the ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii to characterize the efficacies of two different dosages of orally administered clindamycin hydrochloride in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Concentrations of clindamycin hydrochloride at levels previously suggested to be inhibitory to T. gondii replication in vitro were achieved in the serum and aqueous humor but not in the cerebrospinal fluid. Antibiotic therapy, initiated 7 days after inoculation, resulted in no significant difference in the morphometric severity of ocular posterior segment lesions compared with that in the control groups. Treatment appeared to blunt T. gondii-specific immunoglobulin M production but had no significant effect on immunoglobulin G titers. Paradoxically, clindamycin administration was associated with increased morbidity and mortality from hepatitis and interstitial pneumonia, which are characteristic of generalized toxoplasmosis. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha activity was detected at moderate levels in all groups of cats and correlated with the severity of clinical disease. The results of the study suggest that clindamycin, when administered at this specific time interval following inoculation, does not ameliorate ocular lesions and has a detrimental effect on the clinical course of acute, experimental toxoplasmosis in cats. The factors responsible for and the relevance of this detrimental effect to naturally occurring toxoplasmosis in humans and pet cats were not clear from the study but may relate to an antibiotic-associated decrease in the antitoxoplasmic activity of phagocytic cells responsible for the control of T. gondii. PMID:8726000

  18. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma patient

    PubMed Central

    Savsek, Lina; Opaskar, Tanja Ros

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic protozoal infection that has, until now, probably been an underestimated cause of encephalitis in patients with hematological malignancies, independent of stem cell or bone marrow transplant. T and B cell depleting regimens are probably an important risk factor for reactivation of a latent toxoplasma infection in these patients. Case report We describe a 62-year-old HIV-negative right-handed Caucasian female with systemic diffuse large B cell lymphoma who presented with sudden onset of high fever, headache, altered mental status, ataxia and findings of pancytopenia, a few days after receiving her final, 8th cycle of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy regimen. A progression of lymphoma to the central nervous system was suspected. MRI of the head revealed multiple on T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintense parenchymal lesions with mild surrounding edema, located in both cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres that demonstrated moderate gadolinium enhancement. The polymerase chain reaction on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF PCR) was positive for Toxoplasma gondii. The patient was diagnosed with toxoplasmic encephalitis and successfully treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine and folic acid. Due to the need for maintenance therapy with rituximab for lymphoma remission, the patient now continues with secondary prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis. Conclusions With this case report, we wish to emphasize the need to consider cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with hematological malignancies on immunosuppressive therapy when presenting with new neurologic deficits. In such patients, there are numerous differential diagnoses for cerebral toxoplasmosis, and the CNS lymphoma is the most difficult among all to distinguish it from. If left untreated, cerebral toxoplasmosis has a high mortality rate; therefore early recognition and treatment are of essential importance. PMID:27069454

  19. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034mg/d (range: 0-8531mg/d) for men and 970mg/d (0-6695mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233mg/d (0-3248mg/d) for men and 217 (0-2712mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  20. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk)

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A.; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N.; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W.; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034 mg/d (range: 0–8531 mg/d) for men and 970 mg/d (0–6695 mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233 mg/d (0–3248 mg/d) for men and 217 (0–2712 mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  1. Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tjønneland, Anne; Føns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramón Quirós, J; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as); Stattin, Pär; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case–control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76–1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96–1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. What's new? High dairy protein intake has previously been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The current study was nested in EPIC, and results from this first Europe-wide study suggest that while the C/T13910 lactase polymorphism is associated with milk intake, the variant has no large effect on prostate cancer risk. The data illustrate the challenges of applying mendelian randomisation to explore the relationship between dairy product consumption and cancer risk. Very large studies with both genetic and dietary data are thus needed for investigations using genetic proxies of nutritional exposures. PMID:22965418

  2. Estimation of the intake of anthocyanidins and their food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Mattiello, Amalia; Grioni, Sara; Crowe, Francesca; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina, Esther; Huerta, José María; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Peeters, Petra H M; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ardanaz, Eva; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Salvini, Simonetta; Amiano, Pilar; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-10-01

    Anthocyanidins are bioactive flavonoids with potential health-promoting effects. These may vary among single anthocyanidins considering differences in their bioavailability and some of the mechanisms involved. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of anthocyanidins, their food sources and the lifestyle factors (sex, age, BMI, smoking status, educational level and physisical activity) involved among twenty-seven centres in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthocyanidin intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven redefined centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin) was compiled using data from the US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded by adding recipes, estimated values and cooking factors. For men, the total anthocyanidin mean intake ranged from 19·83 (se 1·53) mg/d (Bilthoven, The Netherlands) to 64·88 (se 1·86) mg/d (Turin, Italy), whereas for women the range was 18·73 (se 2·80) mg/d (Granada, Spain) to 44·08 (se 2·45) mg/d (Turin, Italy). A clear south to north gradient intake was observed. Cyanidins and malvidins were the main anthocynidin contributors depending on the region and sex. Anthocyanidin intake was higher in non-obese older females, non-smokers, and increased with educational level and physical activity. The major food sources were fruits, wine, non-alcoholic beverages and some vegetables. The present study shows differences in both total and individual anthocyanidin intakes and various lifestyle factors throughout Europe, with some geographical variability in their food sources. PMID:21481290

  3. Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, R; Sacerdote, C; Ricceri, F; Weiderpass, E; Roswall, N; Buckland, G; St-Jules, D E; Overvad, K; Kyrø, C; Fagherazzi, G; Kvaskoff, M; Severi, G; Chang-Claude, J; Kaaks, R; Nöthlings, U; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulos, D; Palli, D; Grioni, S; Mattiello, A; Tumino, R; Gram, I T; Engeset, D; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Argüelles, M; Amiano, P; Ardanaz, E; Ericson, U; Lindkvist, B; Nilsson, L M; Kiemeney, L A; Ros, M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Knaze, V; Romieu, I; Scalbert, A; Brennan, P; Wark, P; Vineis, P; Riboli, E; González, C A

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: A cohort of 477 312 men and women mostly aged 35–70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases. Results: During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n=430) and non-aggressive (n=413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5–Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61–0.91; P-trend=0.009) and lignans (HRQ5–Q1 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96; P-trend=0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC. Conclusions: Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC. PMID:25121955

  4. Promoting health equity in European children: Design and methodology of the prospective EPHE (Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity) evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing health inequalities is a top priority of the public health agendas in Europe. The EPHE project aims to analyse the added value of a community-based interventional programme based on EPODE methodology, adapted for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in childhood obesity. The interventions that will be implemented by this project focus on four energy balance-related behaviours (fruit and vegetable consumption, tap water intake, physical inactivity, sleep duration) and their determinants. This article presents the design of the effect evaluation of the EPHE project. Methods/Design This is a prospective two-year follow-up evaluation study, which will collect data on the energy balance-related behaviours and potential environmental determinants of 6–8 year olds, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents. For this purpose a parental self-reported questionnaire is constructed. This assesses the socio-economic status of the parents (5 items) and the dietary (12 items), sedentary (2 items) and sleeping (4 items) behaviour of the child. Alongside potential family-environmental determinants are assessed. The EPHE parental questionnaire will be disseminated in schools of a selected medium-sized city in seven European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Portugal, Romania, The Netherlands). Discussion This study will evaluate the effects of the EPHE community-based interventional programmes. Furthermore, it will provide evidence for children’s specific energy balance-related behaviours and family environmental determinants related to socio-economic inequalities, in seven European countries. PMID:24690078

  5. Congenital transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, and toxoplasmosis in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Darrell H S; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Douglas, Davina; Read, Stanley; Bitnun, Ari

    2009-12-01

    We report a preterm infant with congenital HIV-1, CMV, and toxoplasmosis coinfection, whose mother succumbed to probable cerebral toxoplasmosis. Despite repeated neuroimaging, retinal examinations and infant serologic tests, during the first 36 days of life, there was no evidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. However, subsequent tests showed cerebral calcifications, bilateral chorioretinitis, antitoxoplasma IgM antibody, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:19779391

  6. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the future of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, Aize; Petersen, Eskild

    2014-04-01

    Despite large advances in the field of ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist in our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding infectious disease. Although ocular toxoplasmosis is considered to have a high health burden, still little is known about its exact prevalence and how it affects the quality of life. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis depends on local habits throughout the globe, and changes are likely in view of increased meat consumption in developing countries and demands for higher animal welfare in the Western world. Water is increasingly seen as an important risk factor and more studies are needed to quantitate and control the role of water exposure (drinking, swimming). Tools are now becoming available to study both the human host as well as parasite genetic factors in the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. Further research on the role of Toxoplasma strains as well as basic studies on parasite virulence is needed to explain why Toxoplasma associated eye disease is so severe in some countries, such as Brazil. Although genetic analysis of the parasite represents the gold standard, further developments in serotyping using peptide arrays may offer practical solutions to study the role of parasite strains in the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. More research is needed concerning the pathways whereby the parasite can infect the retina. Once in the retina further tissue damage may be due to parasite virulence factors or could be caused by an aberrant host immune response. Local intraocular immune responses are nowadays used for diagnostic procedures. Future developments may include the use of Raman technology or the direct visualization of a Toxoplasma cyst by optical coherence tomography (OCT). With the availability of ocular fluid specimens obtained for diagnostic purposes and the development of advanced proteomic techniques, a biomarker fingerprint that is unique for an eye with toxoplasmosis may become available. It is hoped that such a biomarker analysis may also be able to distinguish between acquired versus congenital disease. Recently developed mouse models of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis are extremely promising with regard to disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24131274

  7. Ga-67 citrate myocardial uptake in a patient with AIDS, toxoplasmosis, and myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Memel, D.S.; DeRogatis, A.J.; William, D.C. )

    1991-05-01

    A 38-year-old man with AIDS presented with fever of unknown origin, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Admission laboratory data revealed a positive toxoplasmosis titer in the blood. The initial chest x-ray showed small bilateral pleural effusions, a normal cardiac silhouette, no infiltrates, and no interstitial edema. Ga-67 imaging revealed markedly abnormal uptake in the myocardium. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis myocarditis was made based on laboratory and imaging data. The patient was treated for toxoplasmosis. No myocardial uptake of tracer was demonstrated on a follow-up Ga-67 scan, performed after completion of treatment for toxoplasmosis.

  8. Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries. PMID:23292003

  9. Urine sample used for congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, I; Rodriguez, M; Domingo, C J; del Castillo, F; Juncosa, T; Alvar, J

    1996-01-01

    The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected infants can be difficult; serology is unreliable, and diagnosis must be based on the combination of symptomatology and direct demonstration of the parasite. Four infants suspected of having Toxoplasma gondii infection were studied by serological analysis, tissue culture, and PCR determination. T. gondii was isolated from the urine of one patient. The parasite was detected by PCR in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of three infants and in the urine in all patients. Because nested PCR proved to be a sensitive, relatively rapid, and specific method and because it can be applied to a variety of different clinical samples, PCR can be a valuable technique for the identification of T. gondii infections in children. The present study indicates that PCR examination of urine, a fluid never before used for diagnosis in this age group, may be valuable in diagnosing cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:8880481

  10. Trends, Productivity Losses, and Associated Medical Conditions Among Toxoplasmosis Deaths in the United States, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Patricia L.; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000–2010. A matched case–control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. PMID:25200264

  11. Preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xing-Xing; Wang, Lin; Chen, Zhao-Wu; Chen, He; Xu, Xiu-Cai; Zhang, Ai-Mei; Song, Xiao-Rong; Luo, Qing-Li; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Fu, Yu; Wang, Hua; Du, Jian; Cai, Yi-Hong; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Lu, Fang-Li; Wang, Yong; Shen, Ji-Long

    2013-08-01

    As one of food-borne parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis entails the risk of developing reactivation in immunocompromised patients. The synthetic dipeptide pidotimod is a potent immunostimulating agent that improves the immunodefenses in immunodepression. To investigate the efficacy of pidotimod as a preventive treatment, we used a murine model of reactivated toxoplasmosis with cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunosuppression. Pidotimod administration significantly restored the body weight and spleen organ index, increased survival time (from 70 to 90%), and decreased the parasitemia (from 80 to 35%) of CY-induced mice with reactivated toxoplasmosis. Cytokine profiles and CD4(+) T cells subpopulation analyses by Cytometric Bead Array and flow cytometry demonstrated that pidotimod treatment resulted in a significant upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) and Th1 cells (from 3.73 ± 0.39 to 5.88 ± 0.46%) after CY induction in infected mice. Additionally, histological findings and parasite DNA quantification revealed that mice administered with pidotimod had a remarkable reduction of parasite burden (two-log) and amelioration of histopathology in the brains. The in vitro studies showed that pidotimod significantly restored concanavalin A-induced splenocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants of splenocyte culture. It could be concluded that the administration of pidotimod in immunocompromised mice significantly increases the Th1-biased immune response, prolongs survival time, and ameliorates the load of parasites in the blood. This is the first report of the preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis. PMID:23774843

  12. Diclazuril Protects against Maternal Gastrointestinal Syndrome and Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.; Tobin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of foodborne, gastrointestinal and congenital syndrome with particularly severe or unknown health consequences. There is no safe and effective preventive or therapeutic modality against congenital toxoplasmosis or to eliminate the persistent chronic infection. Hypothesis Diclazuril to be safe in pregnancy and effective against gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Methods CD1 programmed pregnant mice were divided into groups and administered a diet containing diclazuril, or sham control. Treatments were initiated on Day 5 of pregnancy and continued until Day 16 when dams were euthanatized. On Day 8 of pregnancy dams were infected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of tachyzoites (0, 100, 300, 600) from Type II strain. Dams were monitored daily for distress, pain, and abortion and samples collected at the end of the experiments. Results Infected dams developed moderate to severe Toxoplasma related complications in tachyzoites dose dependent manner. Animals became anemic and showed hydrothorax, and ascities. Diclazuril effectively protected dams from ascities and anemia (p < 0.05). Infected dams showed splenomegaly, with massive infiltration of epithelioid cells compared with the protective effect of diclazuril in treated animals. Infected dams exhibited severe hepatitis (score 0 to 4 scale = 3.5 ± 0.01) with influx of inflammatory and plasma cells, dysplastic hepatocytes, multinucleated giant cell transformation and hepatic cells necrosis. Diclazuril treatment significantly protected dams from hepatitis, also in tachyzoites dose (100, 300, 600) dependent manner (respectively infected-treated versus infected controls, p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Colonic tissues were significantly shortened in length, with infiltration of lymphocytes, and macrophages and microabscess formations in the cryptic structures, with significant improvement in diclazuril treated animals. Additionally, the number of fetuses, fetal length and fetal weight were preserved in diclazuril treated dams. Conclusions This is the first report describing of diclazuril safety in pregnancy as well as efficacy against mild to moderate hepato-gastrointestinal syndrome in dams and fetal toxoplasmosis (Special issue, “Treatment of Liver Diseases”). PMID:24851194

  13. Predictors, Neuroimaging Characteristics and Long-Term Outcome of Severe European Tick-Borne Encephalitis: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lenhard, Thorsten; Ott, Daniela; Jakob, Nurith J.; Pham, Mirko; Bäumer, Philipp; Martinez-Torres, Francisco; Meyding-Lamadé, Uta

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) still represents a considerable medical and health economic problem in Europe and entails a potential threat to travellers. The aim of this study was to characterise the conditions of severe TBE by precisely recording its clinical variants, the related neuroimaging features, and the variant-specific long-term outcome and by identifying predictors for severe courses. Methods A cohort of 111 TBE patients (median age 51, range 17–75 years; 42% females) was analysed prospectively. Data were acquired from the department of neurology, University Hospital Heidelberg, and the infectious diseases registry of the Robert-Koch institute Berlin. Neurological status was ascertained by protocol at admission and discharge and the degree of disability was scored using the modified RANKIN Scale (mRS; clinical score addressing neurological disability, range from 0, healthy to 6, dead) at admission and at follow-up. Follow-up examination was conducted by means of a telephone interview. To identify independent predictors for severe TBE and functional outcome, modelled logistic regression was performed. MRI changes were correlated with infection variants. To assess alpha-motor neuron injury patterns, we used high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography (hrMRN). Analyses were performed at the Department of Neurology, University Hospital, University of Heidelberg from April 2004 through September 2014 Results Acute course: 3.6% of patients died during the acute infection. All patients with a lethal course suffered from meningoencephaloradiculitis (MER, 14.4% of the cohort), which is associated with a significantly higher risk of requiring intensive care (p = 0.004) and mechanical ventilation (p<0.001) than menigoencephalitis (ME, 27.9% of the cohort). At admission, both MER and ME groups were severely affected, with the MER group having a statistically higher mRS score (median of 5 in the MER groups versus 4 in the ME group; p<0.001). Long-term outcome: outcome for MER was considerably worse (median mRS = 4) than for ME (mRS = 1, p<0.0001) and meningitis (mRS = 0, 57.7% of the cohort). Risk factors: advanced age (p<0.001) and male gender (p = 0.043) are independent risk factors for a severe infection course. Furthermore, we identified pre-existing diabetes mellitus (p = 0.024) as an independent risk factor for MER. In MER, alpha-motor neuron injury accounts for the poor prognosis confirmed by hrMRN. Conclusion and Relevance These data provide critical information for neurologists and other health professionals to use in evaluating TBEV patients who live in or travel to endemic areas. This information can be used to classify clinical presentation and estimate infection-associated complications and individual prognosis. Furthermore, the risk for severe, disabling infections in older patients should prompt general practitioners to recommend and encourage vaccination to those patients living in or travelling to endemic areas. PMID:27111657

  14. Severe Acquired Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Adult Patients in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Carme, B.; Bissuel, F.; Ajzenberg, D.; Bouyne, R.; Aznar, C.; Demar, M.; Bichat, S.; Louvel, D.; Bourbigot, A. M.; Peneau, C.; Neron, P.; Dardé, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The most common presentation of symptomatic postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients is painless cervical adenopathy. Acute visceral manifestations are associated in rare cases. We report 16 cases of severe primary toxoplasmosis diagnosed in French Guiana during a 6.5-year period. All of the subjects were immunocompetent adults hospitalized with clinical presentations consisting of a marked, nonspecific infectious syndrome accompanied by an altered general status with at least one visceral localization, mainly pulmonary involvement (14 cases). Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. Recovery was rapid following specific antitoxoplasmosis treatment. Thirteen of the 16 patients had consumed game in the 2 weeks before the onset of the symptoms, and in eight cases the game was considered to have been undercooked. Toxoplasma strains, which were virulent in mice, were isolated from three patients. Microsatellite analysis showed that all of these isolates exhibited an atypical multilocus genotype, with one allele found only for isolates of this region. PMID:12409371

  15. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, Aize; Jongert, Erik

    2008-10-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with disappointing results of the currently available treatment options have led to a plea for more effective prevention. In this review we describe Toxoplasma as a hazard associated with the consumption of undercooked meat or meat products and provide an analysis of the various options to control the risk of human toxoplasmosis via this source. Monitoring and surveillance programs may be implemented for pre-harvest control of Toxoplasma infection of farm animals, with the reduction of environmental oocyst load as the most important milestone. Alternatively, Toxoplasma safe meat can be obtained through simple post-harvest decontamination procedures, whereby freezing the meat may currently be the best option, although new technologies using irradiation or high-pressure treatment may offer promising alternatives. Influence of culture, religion and food handling customs may predispose a certain type of meat as an important source of infection, indicating that prevention needs to be tailored according to social habits in different regions in the world. The rationale for more stringent control measures to prevent toxoplasmosis both from disease and economic points of view is emphasized. PMID:18694755

  16. Postnatal acquired toxoplasmosis patients in an infectious diseases reference center.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cassius Schnell Palhano; Neves, Elizabeth de Souza; Benchimol, Eliezer Israel; Moraes, Danielle Ribeiro de

    2008-10-01

    Infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, toxoplasmosis, is one of the most frequent zoonoses in the world; it normally affects both genders equally. Humans are one of several possible intermediate hosts, and the disease is oligosymptomatic in most cases. Vertical transmission is an important cause of fetal malformation and sequels in newborns. Approximately 10% of postnatal cases present multiple manifestations, ranging from low fever and mild lymphadenopathy to severe encephalitis. In moderate cases, lesions such as retinochoroiditis may emerge during acute infection or even years later. We analyzed 313 cases of toxoplasmosis from 1992 to 2004, including 261 acute cases. Most patients were women (68.1%), and 39% of these were pregnant. Among acute infection cases, 64.8% presented symptomatic disease; the most frequent manifestations were lymphadenomegaly (59.8%), fever (27.2%), headache (10.7%), asthenia (10%), weight loss (8.4%), myalgia (8%), retinochoroiditis (3.4%) and hepatosplenomegaly (1.5%). Although ocular lesions by T. gondii are well documented as a possible consequence of postnatal infection, two patients developed retinochoroiditis only two years after primary infection. This demonstrates the need for toxoplasmosis case surveillance, even long after acute manifestations. PMID:19219285

  17. A game-theoretic approach to valuating toxoplasmosis vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Sykes, David; Rychtář, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite often found in wild and domestic cats, and it is the cause of the disease toxoplasmosis. More than 60 million people in the United States carry the parasite, and the Centers for Disease Control have placed toxoplasmosis in their disease classification group Neglected Parasitic Infections as one of five parasitic diseases targeted as priorities for public health action. In recent years, there has been significant progress toward the development of a practical vaccine, so vaccination programs may soon be a viable approach to controlling the disease. Anticipating the availability of a toxoplasmosis vaccine, we are interested in determining when cat owners should vaccinate their own pets. We have created a mathematical model describing the conditions under which vaccination is advantageous. Our model can be used to predict the average vaccination level in the population. We find that there is a critical vaccine cost threshold above which no one will use the vaccine. A vaccine cost slightly below this threshold, however, results in high usage of the vaccine, and consequently in a significant reduction in population seroprevalence. Not surprisingly, we find that populations may achieve herd immunity only if the cost of vaccine is zero. PMID:26319752

  18. Real-world effectiveness of abatacept for rheumatoid arthritis treatment in European and Canadian populations: a 6-month interim analysis of the 2-year, observational, prospective ACTION study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discontinuation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment for lack or loss of initial response, tolerability issues, or development of antibodies against the therapeutic agent remains a challenge in clinical practice. Here we present a 6-month interim analysis of a 2-year prospective observational trial in Europe and Canada aiming to assess the real-world effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of intravenous abatacept for the treatment of moderate-to-severe RA. Methods ACTION (AbataCepT In rOutiNe clinical practice) is a prospective, observational study assessing effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of abatacept in patients with RA enrolled in Europe and Canada between May 2008 and January 2011. The patient population was divided into two groups: biologic naïve (‘first-line’) patients and patients who had previously failed treatment with at least one biologic agent (‘second-line’). Retention rates were calculated using Kaplan–Meier curve estimates. Effectiveness was measured using European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, the 28-item Disease Activity Score, the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and physical function, as assessed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported for all enrolled patients. Results Of 1138 consecutively enrolled patients, 1114 and 1079 patients were evaluable for retention and effectiveness, respectively. Overall, retention rates were 88.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.4, 90.4); 67.4% of patients achieved good/moderate EULAR response; 32.8% had a CDAI Low Disease Activity State (LDAS); and 44.7% a HAQ-DI response. Retention rates among first- and second-line patients were 93.0% (95% CI: 85.9, 96.6) and 88.1% (95% CI: 85.7, 90.0), respectively. The percentage of patients achieving CDAI LDAS was 40.0% (95% CI: 26.4, 53.6) for first- and 32.2% (95% CI: 28.4, 36.0) for second-line patients and the proportion achieving a HAQ-DI response was 60.3% (95% CI: 47.8, 72.9) versus 43.1% (95% CI: 39.0, 47.2), respectively. The incidence of SAEs was 4.7%. Conclusions Evidence from this 6-month interim analysis suggests that abatacept offers an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with RA, including those who have previously failed anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment. In addition, higher retention rates and effectiveness outcomes were observed when abatacept treatment was initiated earlier in the course of the disease. PMID:24410774

  19. Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Kragh Andersen, Per; Johansson, Mattias; Boeing, Heiner; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Sanchez, Carmen Navarro; Arriola, Larraitz; Wallström, Peter; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra; Beulens, Joline WJ; Nunes, Luciana; Gunter, Marc; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Brennan, Paul; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. Design The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Setting 23 centres in 10 countries. Participants 380 395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6 years on average. Main outcome measures 20 453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment. Results HRs comparing extreme drinkers (≥30 g/day in women and ≥60 g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1–4.9 g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60 years, drinking more than 30 g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60 g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women. Conclusions In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality. PMID:24993766

  20. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis. PMID:26038907

  1. ACUTE TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A BREASTFED INFANT WITH POSSIBLE TRANSMISSION BY WATER

    PubMed Central

    CAPOBIANGO, Jaqueline Dario; MITSUKA-BREGANÓ, Regina; MONICA, Thais Cabral; FERREIRA, Fernanda Pinto; REICHE, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii transmission via breastfeeding has been discussed; however, no cases have been confirmed to date. This article describes a case of acute toxoplasmosis diagnosed in a mother and her six-month-old breastfed infant. The study accounts for the possibility of breast milk transmission and directs both clinicians and pediatricians to the hypothesis that both patients acquired toxoplasmosis via water ingestion.

  2. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: value of the buffy coat for the detection of circulating Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Capderou, Elodie; Bertini, Rose-Laurence; Bailly, Sébastien; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Sterkers, Yvon; Touafek, Fériel; Bastien, Patrick; Pelloux, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of Toxoplasma tachyzoites circulating in blood using PCR is recommended for immunosuppressed patients at high risk for disseminated toxoplasmosis. Using a toxoplasmosis mouse model, we show that the sensitivity of detection is higher using buffy coat isolated from a large blood volume than using whole blood for this molecular monitoring. PMID:25957458

  3. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN WALLABIES (MACROPUS RUFOGRISEUS, MACROPUS EUGENII ): BLINDNESS, TREATMENT WITH ATOVAQUONE, AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Australasian marsupials, especially wallabies are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Three wallabies (1Tammar, Macropus eugenii no.1, and 2 Bennett’s, Macropus rufogriseus, no.2 and 3) imported from New Zealand to Pennsylvania were diagnosed to have toxoplasmosis after arrival in the US. ...

  4. APPLICATION OF ASSAYS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A COLONY OF WOOLLY MONKEYS (LAGOTHRIX LAGOTRICHA).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Toxoplasma gondii infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in New World primate species. Clinical abnormalities associated with toxoplasmosis can be nonspecific making it difficult to make a definitive antemortem diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Toxoplasmosis in New W...

  5. ExtaviJect® 30G device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis: a prospective European study

    PubMed Central

    Boeru, Gabriel; Milanov, Ivan; De Robertis, Francesca; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lang, Michael; Rojas-Farreras, Sònia; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The ExtaviJect® 30G autoinjector was developed to facilitate parenteral self-administration of interferon beta-1b (Extavia®), a first-line disease-modifying therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to assess patient compliance with treatment when using the autoinjector, patients’ and nurses’ experiences of using the device, its tolerability, and patient satisfaction. Methods This was a 12-week, real-world, prospective, observational, noninterventional study conducted in nine European countries. Questionnaires were used to measure patient compliance and to assess patients’ and nurses’ experiences. All adverse events were recorded by severity, including injection site reactions or pain. Patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9) and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) instruments, respectively. Results Of 582 patients enrolled, 568 (98%) received at least one injection and attended the first follow-up visit at 6 weeks, and 542 (93%) attended the second follow-up visit at 12 weeks. For the whole study, 548 of 568 (97%) patients were compliant with treatment. Among the various questions assessing whether the device was easy and quick to use accurately, without fear of the needle, 56%–98% of patients and 59%–98% of nurses were in agreement. There were nine serious adverse events (four disease-related) reported among the 227 (39%) patients reporting adverse events. Scores increased in the TSQM-9 convenience domain between weeks 6 and 12 (P=0.0009), and in the EQ-5D visual analog scale between baseline and week 12 (P<0.0001), indicating improvement in health-related quality of life. Conclusion ExtaviJect 30G was convenient to use and was associated with high levels of compliance. PMID:24255602

  6. Concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmann, S; Grote, V A; Becker, S; Rinaldi, S; Tjønneland, A; Roswall, N; Grønbæk, H; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Racine, A; Teucher, B; Boeing, H; Drogan, D; Dilis, V; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Palli, D; Tagliabue, G; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Mattiello, A; Rodríguez, L; Duell, E J; Molina-Montes, E; Dorronsoro, M; Huerta, J-M; Ardanaz, E; Jeurnink, S; Peeters, P H M; Lindkvist, B; Johansen, D; Sund, M; Ye, W; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Allen, N E; Crowe, F L; Fedirko, V; Jenab, M; Michaud, D S; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kaaks, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (BPs) regulate cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and may have a role in the aetiology of various cancers. Information on their role in pancreatic cancer is limited and was examined here in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Methods: Serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 422 cases and 422 controls matched on age, sex, study centre, recruitment date, and time since last meal. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Neither circulating levels of IGF-I (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.75–1.93 for top vs bottom quartile, P-trend 0.301), IGFBP-3 (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.66–1.51, P-trend 0.79), nor the molar IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio, an indicator of free IGF-I level (OR=1.22, 95% CI 0.75–1.97, P-trend 0.27), were statistically significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In a cross-classification, however, a high concentration of IGF-I with concurrently low levels of IGFBP-3 was related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR=1.72, 95% CI 1.05–2.83; P-interaction=0.154). Conclusion: On the basis of these results, circulating levels of components of the IGF axis do not appear to be the risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, on the basis of the results of a subanalysis, it cannot be excluded that a relatively large amount of IGF-1 together with very low levels of IGFBP-3 might still be associated with an increase in pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:22315049

  7. Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet: The European Prospective Mother–Child Study (NewGeneris)

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria; Agramunt, Silvia; Alexander, Jan; Brunborg, Gunnar; Chatzi, Leda; Fleming, Sarah; Fthenou, Eleni; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hardie, Laura J.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Merlo, Domenico F.; Nielsen, Jeanette K.; Rydberg, Per; Segerbäck, Dan; Sunyer, Jordi; Wright, John; Törnqvist, Margareta; Kleinjans, Jos C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. Objectives: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother–child study. Methods: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006–2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. Results: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was –132 g (95% CI: –207, –56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was –0.33 cm (95% CI: –0.61, –0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. If confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women. PMID:23092936

  8. Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Max; Leufkens, Anke M; Siersema, Peter D; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Vrieling, Alina; Hulshof, Paul J M; van Gils, Carla H; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Kyrø, Cecilie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagerhazzi, Guy; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Johnson, Theron; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Androulidaki, Anna; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bakker, Marije F; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Barricarte, Aurelio; María Huerta, José; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Key, Timothy J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Wark, Petra A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2014-12-15

    Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was examined in this case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, canthaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin) and vitamins A (retinol), C and E (α-, β- and γ- and δ-tocopherol) and dietary consumption of β-carotene and vitamins A, C and E were determined in 898 colon cancer cases, 501 rectal cancer cases and 1,399 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were performed to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). An association was observed between higher prediagnostic plasma retinol concentration and a lower risk of colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87, p for trend = 0.01), most notably proximal colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.77, p for trend = 0.01). Additionally, inverse associations for dietary β-carotene and dietary vitamins C and E with (distal) colon cancer were observed. Although other associations were suggested, there seems little evidence for a role of these selected compounds in preventing CRC through their antioxidative properties. PMID:24771392

  9. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aimée R.; Brennan, Paul; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larrañaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The current study sought to evaluate the extent to which HPV16 E6 antibodies are present before diagnosis of anogenital cancers within the same cohort. Methods Four hundred incident anogenital cancers (273 cervical, 24 anal, 67 vulvar, 12 vaginal, and 24 penile cancers) with prediagnostic blood samples (collected on average 3 and 8 years before diagnosis for cervix and noncervix cancers, respectively) and 718 matched controls were included. Plasma was analyzed for antibodies against HPV16 E6 and multiple other HPV proteins and genotypes and evaluated in relation to risk using unconditional logistic regression. Results HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in 29.2% of individuals (seven of 24 individuals) who later developed anal cancer compared with 0.6% of controls (four of 718 controls) who remained cancer free (odds ratio [OR], 75.9; 95% CI, 17.9 to 321). HPV16 E6 seropositivity was less common for cancers of the cervix (3.3%), vagina (8.3%), vulva (1.5%), and penis (8.3%). No associations were seen for non–type 16 HPV E6 antibodies, apart from anti-HPV58 E6 and anal cancer (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 33.1). HPV16 E6 seropositivity tended to increase in blood samples drawn closer in time to cancer diagnosis. Conclusion HPV16 E6 seropositivity is relatively common before diagnosis of anal cancer but rare for other HPV-related anogenital cancers. PMID:25667279

  10. The impact of childhood acute rotavirus gastroenteritis on the parents’ quality of life: prospective observational study in European primary care medical practices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rotavirus (RV) is the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. A Quality of Life study was conducted in primary care in three European countries as part of a larger epidemiological study (SPRIK) to investigate the impact of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) on affected children and their parents. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was linguistically validated in Spanish, Italian and Polish. The questionnaire was included in an observational multicentre prospective study of 302 children aged <5 years presenting to a general practitioner or paediatrician for RVGE at centres in Spain, Italy or Poland. RV infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing (n = 264). The questionnaire was validated and used to assess the emotional impact of paediatric RVGE on the parents. Results Questionnaire responses showed that acute RVGE in a child adversely affects the parents’ daily life as well as the child. Parents of children with RVGE experience worry, distress and impact on their daily activities. RVGE of greater clinical severity (assessed by the Vesikari scale) was associated with higher parental worries due to symptoms and greater changes in the child’s behaviour, and a trend to higher impact on parents’ daily activities and higher parental distress, together with a higher score on the symptom severity scale of the questionnaire. Conclusions Parents of a child with acute RVGE presenting to primary care experience worry, distress and disruptions to daily life as a result of the child’s illness. Prevention of this disease through prophylactic vaccination will improve the daily lives of parents and children. PMID:22650611

  11. Subtypes of fruit and vegetables, variety in consumption and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Max; Siersema, Peter D; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bastide, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ohlsson, Bodil; Jirström, Karin; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Romieu, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Inge; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2015-12-01

    Previously, a lower risk of colorectal cancer was observed with fruit and vegetable consumption in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition within a follow-up period of 9 years which was not fully supported by a recent meta-analysis. Therefore, we were interested in the relation with extended follow-up, also focusing on single subtypes and a variety of intake of fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed at baseline. After an average of 13 years of follow-up, 3,370 participants were diagnosed with colon or rectal cancer. Diet diversity scores were constructed to quantify variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. A lower risk of colon cancer was observed with higher self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetable combined (HR Q4 vs. Q1 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-1.01, p for trend 0.02), but no consistent association was observed for separate consumption of fruits and vegetables. No associations with risk of rectal cancer were observed. The few observed associations for some fruit and vegetable subtypes with colon cancer risk may have been due to chance. Variety in consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with a lower risk of colon or rectal cancer. Although a lower risk of colon cancer is suggested with high consumption of fruit and vegetables, this study does not support a clear inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and colon or rectal cancer beyond a follow-up of more than 10 years. Attenuation of the risk estimates from dietary changes over time cannot be excluded, but appears unlikely. PMID:26077137

  12. Five-year results from the prospective European multicentre cohort study on radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation for incompetent great saphenous veins

    PubMed Central

    Proebstle, T M; Alm, B J; Göckeritz, O; Wenzel, C; Noppeney, T; Lebard, C; Sessa, C; Creton, D; Pichot, O

    2015-01-01

    Background This was a prospective study of radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation (RFA) for the treatment of incompetent varicose great saphenous veins (GSVs). The present report describes long-term follow-up at 5 years. Methods The 5-year follow-up of this multicentre European study included assessment of the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and GSV occlusion and reflux on duplex imaging. Results A total of 225 patients had 295 GSVs treated by RFA, achieving an initial vein occlusion rate of 100 per cent. With 80·0 per cent compliance, Kaplan–Meier analyses showed a GSV occlusion rate of 91·9 per cent and a reflux-free rate of 94·9 per cent at 5 years. Among the 15 GSVs noted with reflux during follow-up, only three showed full recanalization of the GSV at 1 week, 6 months and 3 years. Of the 12 legs with partial recanalization, reflux originated at the saphenofemoral junction in ten, with a mean length of the patent segment of 5·8 (range 3·2–10) cm; only six patients were symptomatic. Mean(s.d.) VCSS scores improved from 3·9(2·1) at baseline to 0·6(1·2), 0·9(1·3) and 1·3(1·7) at 1, 3 and 5 years. Conclusion At 5 years RFA proved to be an efficient endovenous treatment for incompetent GSVs in terms of sustained clinical and anatomical success for the vast majority of treated patients. PMID:25627262

  13. Toxoplasmosis presented as a submental mass: a common disease, uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jian; Wang, Wei-Ya; Liu, Shi-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Submental mass secondary to toxoplasmosis is not common in clinical work. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is rarely considered by physicians. Here we describe a 50-year-old woman presented with a progressive, painful, submental and left neck swelling for 1 month. After having obtained an insufficient evidence from the fine-needle biopsy, the patient finally received an excisional biopsy which highly indicated the possibility of lymphadenopathy consistent with toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was finally established by a combination of the pathological criteria, together with the positive serological finding. According to review the clinical presentations, pathological characteristics, diagnostic standard and treatment of this disease, the article aims to remind otolaryngologists who are evaluating a neck mass should be aware of the infectious cause of lymphadenopathy and the possibility of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26045858

  14. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  15. Cutaneous manifestations of disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed dog.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jinelle A; Keller, Sonya L; Southorn, Erin P; Armstrong, Julie; Allen, Dana G; Peregrine, Andrew S; Dubey, J P

    2005-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old, castrated male, giant schnauzer was presented with alopecic pustular dermatitis. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia had been diagnosed 45 days previously. At the time of presentation, the dog was receiving prednisone, azathioprine, and cyclosporine. Cutaneous protozoosis was diagnosed, and postmortem examination revealed protozoa within cutaneous, cardiac, pancreatic, and pulmonary tissues. The protozoa divided by endodyogeny, had the morphology of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) tachyzoites, and stained positively with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies but not with antibodies to Neospora caninum or Sarcocystis neurona. Immunosuppression may have predisposed this dog to disseminated toxoplasmosis. PMID:15870255

  16. Current Therapy of Acquired Ocular Toxoplasmosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme Sturzeneker Cerqueira; Saraiva, Patricia Grativol Costa; Saraiva, Fábio Petersen

    2015-11-01

    Caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the most common form of posterior infectious uveitis. Combined antiparasitic therapy is the standard treatment for OT, but several other schemes have been proposed. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature on the treatment of OT and provide ophthalmologists with up-to-date information to help reduce OT-related visual morbidity. In conclusion, no ideal treatment scheme was identified; currently prescribed therapeutic schemes yield statistically similar functional outcomes. PMID:26226199

  17. The IFN-gamma +874T/A gene polymorphism is associated with retinochoroiditis toxoplasmosis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Maíra Cavalcanti de; Aleixo, Ana Luisa Quintella do Couto; Benchimol, Eliezer Israel; Leandro, Ana Cristina Câmara S; das Neves, Leandro Batista; Vicente, Regiane Trigueiro; Bonecini-Almeida, Maria da Glória; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2009-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis that generally produces an asymptomatic infection. In some cases, however, toxoplasmosis infection can lead to ocular damage. The immune system has a crucial role in both the course of the infection and in the evolution of toxoplasmosis disease. In particular, IFN-gamma plays an important role in resistance to toxoplasmosis. Polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines have been shown to have an association with susceptibility to parasitic diseases. The aim of this work was to analyse the occurrence of polymorphisms in the gene encoding IFN-gamma (+874T/A) among Toxoplasma gondii seropositive individuals, including those with ocular lesions caused by the parasite, from a rural population of Santa Rita de Cássia, Barra Mansa, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Further, we verified which of these polymorphisms could be related to susceptibility to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. This study included 34 individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis (ocular group) and 134 without ocular lesions (control group). The differences between A and T allele distributions were not statistically significant between the two groups. However, we observed that a higher frequency of individuals from the ocular group possessed the A/A genotype, when compared with the control group, suggesting that homozygocity for the A allele could enhance susceptibility to ocular toxoplasmosis in T. gondii infection. PMID:19547871

  18. Plasma and dietary carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol levels and the risk of gastric adenocarcinomas in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Jenab, M; Riboli, E; Ferrari, P; Friesen, M; Sabate, J; Norat, T; Slimani, N; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boeing, H; Schulz, M; Linseisen, J; Nagel, G; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Oikonomou, E; Berrino, F; Panico, S; Palli, D; Sacerdote, C; Tumino, R; Peeters, P H; Numans, M E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Büchner, F L; Lund, E; Pera, G; Chirlaque, M D; Sánchez, M-J; Arriola, L; Barricarte, A; Quirós, J R; Johansson, I; Johansson, A; Berglund, G; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Allen, N; Key, T; Carneiro, F; Save, V; Giudice, G Del; Plebani, M; Kaaks, R; Gonzalez, C A

    2006-01-01

    Despite declining incidence rates, gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of death worldwide. Its aetiology may involve dietary antioxidant micronutrients such as carotenoids and tocopherols. The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma levels of seven common carotenoids, their total plasma concentration, retinol and α- and γ-tocopherol, with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large cohort involving 10 countries. A secondary objective was to determine the association of total sum of carotenoids, retinol and α-tocopherol on GCs by anatomical subsite (cardia/noncardia) and histological subtype (diffuse/intestinal). Analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in prediagnostic plasma from 244 GC cases and 645 controls matched by age, gender, study centre and date of blood donation. Conditional logistic regression models adjusted by body mass index, total energy intake, smoking and Helicobacter pylori infection status were used to estimate relative cancer risks. After an average 3.2 years of follow-up, a negative association with GC risk was observed in the highest vs the lowest quartiles of plasma β-cryptoxanthin (odds ratio (OR)=0.53, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.30–0.94, Ptrend=0.006), zeaxanthin (OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.22–0.69, Ptrend=0.005), retinol (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.33–0.93, Ptrend=0.005) and lipid-unadjusted α-tocopherol (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37–0.94, Ptrend=0.022). For all analytes, no heterogeneity of risk estimates or significant associations were observed by anatomical subsite. In the diffuse histological subtype, an inverse association was observed with the highest vs lowest quartile of lipid-unadjusted α-tocopherol (OR=0.26, 95% CI=0.11–0.65, Ptrend=0.003). These results show that higher plasma concentrations of some carotenoids, retinol and α-tocopherol are associated with reduced risk of GC. PMID:16832408

  19. Patient-reported outcomes among patients using exenatide twice daily or insulin in clinical practice in six European countries: the CHOICE prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Improvements in the clinical condition of patients with type 2 diabetes are often accompanied by improvements in health-related quality of life and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs), but data assessing injectable treatment initiation from the patient’s perspective in routine clinical practice are lacking. We examined PROs in patients initiating injectable treatment in the CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy) study. Methods CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective observational study conducted in six European countries. Patients initiated exenatide twice daily (BID) or insulin based on a physician’s clinical judgement. Clinical and PRO data were collected at baseline (injectable therapy initiation) and after approximately 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The two treatment cohorts had different baseline characteristics; therefore, no statistical comparisons of endpoints between main cohorts were conducted. Results There were 2388 patients eligible for analysis (exenatide BID cohort, n = 1114; insulin cohort, n = 1274). Mean positive changes in Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) total score and EuroQoL5-Dimension (EQ-5D) index and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were observed in both cohorts with most changes observed during the first 6 months after injectable therapy initiation. Patients who experienced weight loss (≥1 kg) at 24 months appeared to have higher mean improvements in IWQOL-Lite total score than did patients with weight gain or no weight change. Patients who met the composite clinical endpoint of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0%, no weight gain (≤1 kg) and no hypoglycaemia generally experienced higher mean improvements in EQ-5D index and VAS scores (compared with patients who did not meet this endpoint) and Diabetes Health Profile-18 scores (versus the main cohorts). High levels of missing data were observed for all PRO measures in both cohorts compared with those for clinical outcomes. Conclusions These data from a clinical practice study support those from clinical trials, suggesting that PROs are not adversely affected, and may be improved, by injectable therapy initiation. PRO data may aid appropriate treatment selection for individual patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00635492 PMID:24369764

  20. Patterns of physical activity and ultrasound attenuation by heel bone among Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk): population based study

    PubMed Central

    Jakes, Rupert W; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila; Welch, Ailsa; Oakes, Suzy; Luben, Robert; Dalzell, Nicola; Reeve, Jonathan; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To study associations between patterns of physical activity and ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone in men and women. Design Cross sectional, population based study. Setting Norfolk. Participants 2296 men and 2914 women aged 45-74 registered with general practices participating in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC Norfolk). Results Self reported time spent in high impact physical activity was strongly and positively associated with ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone, independently of age, weight, and other confounding factors. Men who reported participating in ⩾2 hours/week of high impact activity had 8.44 dB/MHz (95% confidence interval 4.49 to 12.40) or 9.5%, higher ultrasound attenuation than men who reported no activity of this type. In women, the difference in ultrasound attenuation between those reporting any high impact activity and those reporting none was 2.41 dB/MHz (0.45 to 4.37) or 3.4% higher. In women this effect was similar in size to that of an age difference of four years. Moderate impact activity had no effect. However, climbing stairs was strongly independently associated with ultrasound attenuation in women (0.64 dB/MHz (0.19 to 1.09) for each additional five flights of stairs). There was a significant negative association in women between time spent watching television or video and heel bone ultrasound attenuation, which decreased by 0.08 dB/MHz (0.02 to 0.14) for each additional hour of viewing a week. Conclusions High impact physical activity is independently associated with ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone in men and women. As low ultrasound attenuation has been shown to predict increased risk of hip fracture, interventions to promote participation in high impact activities may help preserve bone density and reduce the risk of fracture. However, in older people such interventions may be inappropriate as they could increase the likelihood of falls. PMID:11159572

  1. Varicella-Like Cutaneous Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with Aplastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Stefan; Hadaschik, Eva; Dalpke, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C.; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Lehners, Nicola; Kapaun, Annette

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old patient with aplastic anemia presented with vesicular varicella-like skin lesions on her face, arms, legs, back, and abdomen. However, diagnosis for herpetic infection was negative. Findings of a skin biopsy led to a tentative histologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare finding in immunocompromised patients and might mimic other infectious diseases, and vesicular lesions associated with toxoplasmosis have not been reported previously. PMID:23390283

  2. Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Rideout, Bruce A.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Ledig, David B.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Dubey, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ‘Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is the most endangered corvid in the world, and intensive efforts are being made to reintroduce it to its former native range in Hawaii. We diagnosed Toxoplasma gondii infection in five free-ranging ‘Alala. One ‘Alala, recaptured from the wild because it was underweight and depressed, was treated with diclazuril (10 mg/kg) orally for 10 days. Antibodies were measured before and after treatment by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using whole T. gondii tachyzoites fixed in formalin and mercaptoethanol. The MAT titer decreased four-fold from an initial titer of 1:1,600 with remarkable improvement in physical condition. Lesions of toxoplasmosis also were seen in two partially scavenged carcasses and in a third fresh intact carcass. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed immunohistochemically by using anti-T. gondii specific serum. The organism was also cultured by bioassay in mice from tissues of one of these birds and the brain of a fifth ‘Alala that did not exhibit lesions. The life cycle of the parasite was experimentally completed in cats. This is the first record of toxoplasmosis in ‘Alala, and the parasite appears to pose a significant threat and management challenge to reintroduction programs for ‘Alala in Hawaii.

  3. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient on methotrexate and infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pulivarthi, Swaroopa; Reshi, Rwoof A; McGary, Carl T; Gurram, Murali Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a rare disease predominantly found in immunocompromised hosts. However, cerebral toxoplasmosis has not been frequently described in association with the use of immunosuppressive medications. We herein report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a 76-year-old Caucasian woman on methotrexate and infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis. The patient presented with right facial droop, slurred speech and difficulty walking. In addition to receiving methotrexate and infliximab and owning a cat, she had no other obvious risk factors. Imaging studies were not conclusive; however, brain biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Serology was positive for anti-toxoplasma immunoglobulin G. Cerebral toxoplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients under immunosuppressive medication who present with neurological manifestations. PMID:26028002

  4. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are lacking the necessary preventive behavior. A sizable portion have no sufficient knowledge for primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, health education at primary care is necessary to avert the potential toxoplasmosis related complications especially in the neonates. PMID:23985115

  5. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among People Having Close Contact with Animals

    PubMed Central

    Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Che Mat Seri, Nurul Asma Anati; Sharma, Reuben Sunil-Kumar; Andiappan, Hemah; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection and its risk association among people having close contact with animals. A total of 312 blood samples were collected from veterinary personnel (veterinarian, technicians, and students) and pet owners from veterinary clinics and hospitals in the area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. About 4 cc of blood samples drawn from agreed participants were processed for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies as well as avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA I, II, and III kits. Meanwhile, the demographic profiles and possible risk factors of these participants were also recorded in the standardized data collection sheets. Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in 62 (19.9%) participants being 7 (18.4%) in veterinarians, 15 (33.3%) in veterinary technicians, 29 (14.9%) in veterinary students, and 11 (31.4%) in pet owners. Of 19.9% Toxoplasma seropositive samples, 18.3% was positive for IgG antibody, 1.0% for IgM antibody, and 0.6% for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Of three different IgG avidity ELISA kits, ELISA III showed high avidity in all five seropositive samples (IgM and IgG/IgM antibodies) indicating chronic Toxoplasma infection which is consistent with no evidence of clinical toxoplasmosis diagnosed during the time of this study. Univariate analysis showed that age group, gender, study population, gardening, task performance, and working duration were significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity. Further analysis by multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age group of ≥30 years old (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18–0.63, p = 0.001) and working or study duration of >10 years having close contact with animals (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 1.80–14.24, p = 0.002) were identified as significant risks for Toxoplasma infection. Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive Toxoplasma screening and health surveillance program on toxoplasmosis should be implemented among people having close contact with animals in general and confirmed Toxoplasma seronegative individuals in particular to prevent seroconversion. PMID:25972863

  6. ACUTE TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A BREASTFED INFANT WITH POSSIBLE TRANSMISSION BY WATER.

    PubMed

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Monica, Thais Cabral; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii transmission via breastfeeding has been discussed; however, no cases have been confirmed to date. This article describes a case of acute toxoplasmosis diagnosed in a mother and her six-month-old breastfed infant. The study accounts for the possibility of breast milk transmission and directs both clinicians and pediatricians to the hypothesis that both patients acquired toxoplasmosis via water ingestion. PMID:27049709

  7. Atypical Presentation of Ocular Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report of Exudative Retinal Detachment and Choroidal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Yahya A.; Al-Dhibi, Hassan A.; Al-Abdullah, Abdulelah A.

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old healthy male presented with a chief complaint of blurred vision in the right eye for 1-week. Fundus examination indicated right exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia. The patient responded well to anti-toxoplasmosis medications and steroids. Exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia are atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. However, both conditions responded well to anti.parasitic therapy with steroid. PMID:26957857

  8. Atypical Presentation of Ocular Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report of Exudative Retinal Detachment and Choroidal Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrani, Yahya A; Al-Dhibi, Hassan A; Al-Abdullah, Abdulelah A

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old healthy male presented with a chief complaint of blurred vision in the right eye for 1-week. Fundus examination indicated right exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia. The patient responded well to anti-toxoplasmosis medications and steroids. Exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia are atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. However, both conditions responded well to anti.parasitic therapy with steroid. PMID:26957857

  9. A Nested Case–Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Abubakar, Mustapha; Jenab, Mazda; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E. N.; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Jakszyn, Paula; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Siersema, Peter D.; Peeters, Petra H.; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ericson, Ulrika; Palmqvist, Richard; Nyström, Hanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Freisling, Heinz; Kong, So Yeon; Tsilidis, Kostas; Muller, David C.; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown. Methods and Findings The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI) measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1) metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), (2) metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), and (4) metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men]) were used (instead of BMI) to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models with BMI used to define adiposity, compared with metabolically healthy/normal weight individuals, we observed a higher colorectal cancer risk among metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59, 95% CI 1.10–2.28) and metabolically unhealthy/overweight (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.01–1.94) participants, but not among metabolically healthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.65–1.42). Among the overweight individuals, lower colorectal cancer risk was observed for metabolically healthy/overweight individuals compared with metabolically unhealthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49–0.96). These associations were generally consistent when waist circumference was used as the measure of adiposity. To our knowledge, there is no universally accepted clinical definition for using C-peptide level as an indication of hyperinsulinaemia. Therefore, a possible limitation of our analysis was that the classification of individuals as being hyperinsulinaemic—based on their C-peptide level—was arbitrary. However, when we used quartiles or the median of C-peptide, instead of tertiles, as the cut-point of hyperinsulinaemia, a similar pattern of associations was observed. Conclusions These results support the idea that individuals with the metabolically healthy/overweight phenotype (with normal insulin levels) are at lower colorectal cancer risk than those with hyperinsulinaemia. The combination of anthropometric measures with metabolic parameters, such as C-peptide, may be useful for defining strata of the population at greater risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:27046222

  10. Ocular toxoplasmosis: recent aspects of pathophysiology and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Pleyer, Uwe; Schlüter, Dirk; Mänz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely successful opportunistic parasite which infects approximately one third of the human population worldwide. The impact of this parasite on human health becomes particularly manifest in congenital damage with infection and subsequent inflammation of neuronal tissues including the retina. Although advances in our understanding could be achieved in ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist on factors influencing the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding disease. We are only at the beginning of understanding the complex biology of this parasite and its mechanisms of invasion, virulence and interaction with the host's immune response. Since it is a preventable cause of blindness, it is necessary to assess factors that have the potential to control this disease in the future. This mini review will focus on recent advances in postnatal acquired ocular infection and the factors that may influence its prevalence and functional outcome. PMID:25248050

  11. Toxoplasmosis in livestock in Italy: an epidemiological update.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Scala, A

    2008-06-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of human being and other warm-blooded animals. It has been found worldwide from Alaska to Australia. Public health organizations repeatedly encourage the collection of accurate data about T. gondii in animals and humans due to its medical importance as a major source of parasitic zoonosis. For these reasons, epidemiological updates on toxoplasmosis in livestock are strongly advised also to plan control strategies. In the present paper, seroprevalence data on T. gondii that have been recorded in livestock from different Italian regions over the last 3 decades are reviewed, showing the high level of exposure of livestock to this parasite. PMID:18693559

  12. Laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jose G

    2002-02-15

    For the past 40 years, the Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute (TSL-PAMFRI) has been dedicated to the laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis. TSL-PAMFRI is the "brain child" of Jack S. Remington. Jack's ceaseless devotion to objectivity and uncompromising excellence has made TSL-PAMFRI the Toxoplasma reference laboratory for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Food and Drug Administration, and health care providers and clinical laboratories in the United States and other countries. Jack's leadership and vision created, defined, and significantly contributed to the development of laboratory methods for the diagnosis of the infection and diseases caused by T. gondii. A summary of the laboratory tests currently available at TSL-PAMFRI for the diagnosis of infection and disease caused by the parasite is presented here. PMID:11865443

  13. Toxoplasmosis in Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Inskeep, W; Gardiner, C H; Harris, R K; Dubey, J P; Goldston, R T

    1990-07-01

    A female Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and her calf were found beached on Picnic Island in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Despite therapy the animals died. Necropsy revealed severe pneumonia and lymphadenopathy in the mother and the calf, gastric ulcers and infection with the stomach digenean Braunina cordiformis in the mother, and a large, pale liver in the calf. Toxoplasma gondii was identified by light and electron microscopy and by immunohistochemistry in tissues of both animals. Toxoplasma gondii was associated with interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing adrenalitis, and cardiac myonecrosis in the mother and with lymphoid necrosis in both dolphins. The source of infection and the relationship to the recent dolphin beachings along the eastern seacoast of North America are unknown. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in cetaceans. PMID:2388360

  14. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on experimental toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Mady, Rasha F; El-Hadidy, Wessam; Elachy, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii protozoon. It is most commonly treated by pyrimethamine (PYR); however, this was intolerable by many patients. The aim of this study was to assess therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) alone and combined with pyrimethamine (PYR) compared to a previous combination of clindamycin (CLN) and (PYR). One hundred Albino mice were used in the current study and were equally divided into five groups: normal (I), infected untreated control (II); infected, treated with NSO-only (III); infected, treated with NSO + PYR (IV); and infected, treated with CLN + PYR (V). The virulent RH Toxoplasma strain was used in infection survival rates estimation, impression smears from liver and spleen, and histopathological and ultrastructural studies were done. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Interferon-γ and specific IgM were also measured in sera by ELISA. Results showed that NSO alone has no direct anti-Toxoplasma effect, whereas its combination with PYR produced potent effect that is comparable to CLN + PYR. It significantly increased the survival rate and decreased the parasite density and pathological insult in both liver and spleen. Also, significant increase in interferon-γ level denotes stimulation of cellular immunity. NSO + PYR combination markedly improved the antioxidant capacity of Toxoplasma infected mice compared to the infected untreated ones and to CLN/PYR. In conclusion, although NSO, if administered alone, has significant immunostimulant and antioxidant properties, it failed to decrease tachyzoite counts. Combination of NSO and PYR had synergistic effect in treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26446086

  15. Utility of Immunoblotting for Early Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis Seroconversion in Pregnant Women▿

    PubMed Central

    Jost, C.; Touafek, F.; Fekkar, A.; Courtin, R.; Ribeiro, M.; Mazier, D.; Paris, L.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii occurs mainly when a mother acquires the infection for the first time during pregnancy. It was recently shown that although early treatment of the primary infection during pregnancy has little or no impact on the fetomaternal transmission rate, it does reduce the incidence of sequelae in infected infants. Seroconversion is defined by the appearance of IgG. Commercial reagents continue to vary considerably in detecting low concentrations of antibodies, as during early seroconversion. We compared two routinely used immunoassays (IA) (Platelia and Elecsys Toxo IgG) and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) with a qualitative test based on immunoblot analysis (Toxo II IgG) (IB) to assess their abilities to diagnose seroconversion at its earliest stages. This prospective study was carried out between January and November 2010. It included 39 pregnant women with monthly follow-up who seroconverted during pregnancy. On first sera that were IgM positive but IgG negative (or equivocal) as detected by IA, IB diagnosed seroconversion twice as often as IIF (26/39 [66.7%] versus 13/39 [33.3%]; P < 0.001; χ2 test). Serum samples were retaken 2 to 5 weeks later for the other 13 cases (IgG negative by IB on first serum). Seroconversion was demonstrated as follows: IB for 5 cases where IA remained negative or equivocal, IB and IIF for 5 cases where IA remained negative or equivocal, IA for 2 cases, and no method for 1 case (a third sample was necessary). In summary, IB permitted toxoplasmosis seroconversion diagnosis before other means in 92.3% of cases (36/39) and thus earlier therapeutic intervention. PMID:21880851

  16. Higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis in victims of traffic accidents suggest increased risk of traffic accident in Toxoplasma-infected inhabitants of Istanbul and its suburbs.

    PubMed

    Kocazeybek, Bekir; Oner, Yasar Ali; Turksoy, Recep; Babur, Cahit; Cakan, Huseyin; Sahip, Nilgun; Unal, Ali; Ozaslan, Abdi; Kilic, Selcuk; Saribas, Suat; Aslan, Mustafa; Taylan, Aysegul; Koc, Sermet; Dirican, Ahmet; Uner, Huseyin Bulent; Oz, Vecdet; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Kucukbasmaci, Omer; Torun, Müzeyyen Mamal

    2009-05-30

    Reflexes of drivers who have toxoplasmosis have been shown to deteriorate from the actions of the parasitic cysts. The cysts can change the level of the neurotransmitters such as dopamine in the brain and by doing so extend the muscle response time and change personality profiles. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of the latent toxoplasmosis (LT) in the driver population who were either injured or died in traffic accidents reported in Istanbul and its suburbs. We compared the results with a control group and discussed the relationship between the LT and the traffic accidents. We included 218 (89.7%) non-fatal, 25 (10.3%) fatal cases in our study as study groups. A total 243 subjects, 234 (96%) male, 9 (4%) female (who were alcohol negative) compared with 191 (95.5%) male and 9 (4.5%) female subjects (control group) who had a traffic accident before but no history of toxoplasmosis were studied. Serologic tests, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG and IgM, and microimmunoflorescence (MIF) for IgG were used as the reference test, the Sabin-Feldman Dye test (SFDT) was used. According to serologic test results, LT seroprevalence in the study groups was 130 (53.5%) and in the control group 56 (28%) (p<0.0001). A LT was present in 126 out of 234 (53.8%) males in the study groups, and 54 out of 191 (28.3%) males in the control group (p<0.0001). In the 31-44 year age group, there was a significant difference with regard to toxoplasmosis between the study subjects and control groups (p<0.0001). This difference was statistically very significant in (recent and former) cases with middle-aged men (31-44 years old). The results of this retrospective study suggest that LT in drivers, especially those who are between 31 and 44 years might increase the risk for getting involved in a car accident. In a prospective study, Toxoplasma positive and negative subjects can be monitored before they are involved in a traffic accident to clarify the cause and result relationship. PMID:19356869

  17. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clères, France

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  18. Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet´s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical T. gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was one of a colony of...

  19. Knowledge of Toxoplasmosis among Doctors and Nurses Who Provide Prenatal Care in an Endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Laura Berriel; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes; da Silva, Marizete Pereira; Bueno, Wendy Fernandes; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; de Souza Neves, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a potentially severe infection and its prevention is most often based on serological screening in pregnant women. Many cases could be prevented by simple precautions during pregnancy. Aiming to assess the knowledge about toxoplasmosis among professionals working in antenatal care in a high prevalent region, a questionnaire was administered to 118 obstetric nurses and physicians attending at primary care units and hospitals. The questionnaire was self-completed and included questions on diagnosis, clinical issues, and prevention. Only 44% of total answers were corrected. Lower scores were observed among those with over 10 years of graduation, working in primary care units, and nurses. Errors were mainly observed in questions of prevention and diagnosis. As congenital toxoplasmosis is a mother-to-child (MTC) transmitted disease, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious and irreversible fetal damage. Thus, doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care must be appropriately trained on prophylactic, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis. The authors suggest that measures should be taken for continuing education regarding toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. PMID:21747644

  20. [Congenital toxoplasmosis. 5 cases of mother-to-child transmission of pre-pregnancy infection].

    PubMed

    Desmonts, G; Couvreur, J; Thulliez, P

    1990-09-29

    Five cases of congenital toxoplasmosis consecutive to a maternal toxoplasma infection that had preceded pregnancy were observed. One woman with normal immune system had developed a well-documented lymph node toxoplasmosis 2 months before conceiving. Four women had chronic toxoplasmosis diagnosed in the course of an immunosuppressive disease: Hodgkin's disease in 1 case, systemic lupus erythematosus in 2 cases and pancytopenia in 1 case. Toxoplasmosis had been recognized 3, 5 and 10 years respectively before conception in 3 women, and at an uncertain date in 1 woman. Three women had received corticosteroids during pregnancy, and 2 had undergone splenectomy. Among the 6 children (2 were twins), 1 presented with severe foetal disease at birth, 1 developed lethal systemic toxoplasmosis after birth, 1 showed hydrocephalus with therapeutically well-controlled chorioretinitis, 1 had isolated eye lesion and 2 had asymptomatic infection. The parasite seems to have been transmitted after the 20th week of pregnancy in all cases. The physiopathology of mother-to child toxoplasma transmission, the role played by maternal immunodeficiency and the practical implications of these exceptional cases are discussed. PMID:2146635

  1. Toxoplasmosis screening and risk factors amongst pregnant females in Natal, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; de Carvalho Xavier Holanda, Cecília Maria; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis results in systemic disease, and if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, the fetus may suffer substantial damage. Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in most states of northeastern Brazil. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant woman was studied in Natal, capital of Rio Grande do Norte State, in northeastern Brazil, from March to December 2007. The sera were tested for IgM and avidity of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence was high [126/190 (66.3%)]; prevalence increased with age indicating that in this setting most infections occur in adulthood (third decade of life). Only one pregnant woman was IgM positive and had high-avidity antibodies. The high percentage of pregnant women who are vulnerable to this parasite (33.1%) favors primary infection during pregnancy. Our studies show that direct contact with cats or dogs was highly associated with toxoplasmosis (odds ratio 2.72, P<0.001, 95% CI 1.46-5.02). The number of years in school (P<0.001), precarious socioeconomic status and limited knowledge about the disease (Ptoxoplasmosis infection. The pattern of risk factors for infection corroborate other studies in Brazil. PMID:19211119

  2. Knowledge of toxoplasmosis among doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care in an endemic region.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Laura Berriel; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes; da Silva, Marizete Pereira; Bueno, Wendy Fernandes; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; de Souza Neves, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a potentially severe infection and its prevention is most often based on serological screening in pregnant women. Many cases could be prevented by simple precautions during pregnancy. Aiming to assess the knowledge about toxoplasmosis among professionals working in antenatal care in a high prevalent region, a questionnaire was administered to 118 obstetric nurses and physicians attending at primary care units and hospitals. The questionnaire was self-completed and included questions on diagnosis, clinical issues, and prevention. Only 44% of total answers were corrected. Lower scores were observed among those with over 10 years of graduation, working in primary care units, and nurses. Errors were mainly observed in questions of prevention and diagnosis. As congenital toxoplasmosis is a mother-to-child (MTC) transmitted disease, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious and irreversible fetal damage. Thus, doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care must be appropriately trained on prophylactic, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis. The authors suggest that measures should be taken for continuing education regarding toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. PMID:21747644

  3. Preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis in pregnant adolescents in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy, it can be transmitted to the fetus causing severe lesions in the first two gestational trimesters. This study analyzed the main factors associated with the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis among pregnant adolescents in the city of Fortaleza in northeast Brazil. Methods It is a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2009 to November 2010, with a sample of 320 pregnant adolescents, ages ranging from 12 to 19 years old, receiving prenatal care in the Public Health Care System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model analyses were used to identify the association between preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis, and the independent variables and 95% confidence interval. Results We observed that 16.3% of the pregnant adolescents showed preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis. The factors positively associated to the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis were: age group between 12 and 14 years old (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.23-6.12) and more than two prenatal consultations (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.17-4.09). Conclusions Noteworthy is the importance of a serologic follow-up for pregnant adolescents with clearer and more precise information about risk factors and the importance of adopting preventive behaviors. Thus, it is necessary to establish educational measures for handling food and raising kittens during prenatal care. PMID:22272659

  4. The prospects for using (Q)SARs in a changing political environment--high expectations and a key role for the European Commission's joint research centre.

    PubMed

    Worth, A P; Van Leeuwen, C J; Hartung, T

    2004-01-01

    Recent policy developments in the European union (EU) and within the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have placed increased emphasis on the use of structure-activity relationships (SARs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), collectively referred to as (Q)SARs, within various regulatory programmes for the assessment of chemicals and products. The most significant example within the EU is the European commission's proposal (of 29 October 2003) to introduce a new system for managing chemicals (called REACH), which calls for an increased use of (Q)SARs and other non-animal methods, especially for the assessment of low production volume chemicals. Another development within the EU is the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which foresees the phasing out of animal testing on cosmetics, combined with the imposition of marketing bans on cosmetics that have been tested on animals after certain deadlines. At the same time, the Existing Chemicals programme within the OECD is investigating ways of increasing the use of chemical category approaches, which depend heavily on the use of (Q)SARs, activity-activity relationships and read-across. Such developments are placing an enormous challenge on industry, regulatory bodies, and on the European commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), which is responsible for providing independent scientific advice to policy makers in the European Commission and the Member States. This paper reviews the different scientific and regulatory purposes for which reliable (Q)SARs could be used, and describes the current work of the JRC in providing scientific support for the development, validation and implementation of (Q)SARs. PMID:15669693

  5. Prophylaxis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Effects of spiramycin on placental infection.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, J; Desmonts, G; Thulliez, P

    1988-07-01

    The results of parasitological investigation of the placenta for toxoplasma in 223 cases with documented congenital toxoplasmosis were analysed according to whether the mother had been treated, or not, with spiramycin during pregnancy. The investigation was negative in 10-11% of the cases when the mother had not been treated or had been inadequately treated; in 25% of the cases with a treatment of 3 g spiramycin day; and in 50% with spiramycin plus the combination of pyrimethamine with sulphonamide. This series is compared with a previous group of 321 women whose placental investigation was negative in 50% of untreated cases and 81% of treated women. The treatment categories are not directly comparable, because it is not possible to have a randomly assigned 'no treatment' group, for ethical reasons. Correlation between spiramycin treatment and negative results of mouse inoculation of placental material suggests that spiramycin might decrease the risk of materno-fetal transmission of toxoplasma by reducing the severity and duration of toxoplasmic placentitis. Current use of spiramycin in infected pregnant women is recommended because of its activity and lack of side effects. The dosage must not be lower than 3 g/day. Additional pyrimethamine plus sulphonamide should be restricted to selected cases with fetal abnormality diagnosed during pregnancy. Some data on pharmacology of spiramycin in mothers, placentas and fetuses are reviewed. They suggest that monitoring of maternal serum antibody titres for a dosage more adapted to individual cases may be desirable. PMID:3182443

  6. Toxoplasmosis in Mexico: epidemiological situation in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortazar, Ivonne; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia del S; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico. PMID:25923887

  7. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN MEXICO: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

    PubMed Central

    HERNÁNDEZ-CORTAZAR, Ivonne; ACOSTA-VIANA, Karla Y.; ORTEGA-PACHECO, Antonio; GUZMAN-MARIN, Eugenia del S.; AGUILAR-CABALLERO, Armando J.; JIMÉNEZ-COELLO, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico. PMID:25923887

  8. Toxoplasma Serotype Is Associated With Development of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Shobab, Leila; Pleyer, Uwe; Johnsen, Joerdis; Metzner, Sylvia; James, Erick R.; Torun, N.; Fay, Michael P.; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Grigg, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Worldwide, ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the principal cause of posterior uveitis, a severe, life-altering disease. A Toxoplasma gondii enzyme-linked immunoassay that detects strain-specific antibodies present in serum was used to correlate serotype with disease. Methods. Toxoplasma serotypes in consecutive serum samples from German uveitis patients with OT were compared with non-OT seropositive patients with noninfectious autoimmune posterior uveitis. OT patients were tested for association of parasite serotype with age, gender, location, clinical onset, size, visual acuity, or number of lesions (mean follow-up, 3.8 years) to determine association with recurrences. Results. A novel, nonreactive (NR) serotype was detected more frequently in serum samples of OT patients (50/114, 44%) than in non-OT patients (4/56, 7%) (odds ratio, 10.0; 95% confidence interval 3.4–40.8; P < .0001). Non-OT patients were predominantly infected with Type II strains (39/56; 70%), consistent with expected frequencies in Central Europe. Among OT patients, those with NR serotypes experienced more frequent recurrences (P = .037). Polymerase chain reaction detected parasite DNA in 8/60 OT aqueous humor specimens but failed to identify Type II strain alleles. Conclusions. Toxoplasma NR and Type II serotypes predominate in German OT patients. The NR serotype is associated with OT recurrences, underscoring the value of screening for management of disease. PMID:23878321

  9. Toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Johnson, James E; Hanson, Margaret A; Pierce, Virginia

    2014-06-01

    A near-full-term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. Within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. Both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex and medulla associated with protozoal tissue cysts. Protozoa in brain and kidneys were identified as Toxoplasma gondii based on immunoreactivity to T. gondii polyclonal antibodies that stain both tachyzoites and tissue cysts and BAG1 T. gondii antibodies that are bradyzoite specific. The tissue cysts exhibited intense positivity to T. gondii and mild immunoreactivity to Neospora caninum antibodies. The dam had a high antibody titer (1 : 12,800) to T. gondii and low titer (1 : 100) to N. caninum using their respective agglutination tests. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in alpaca. PMID:25000722

  10. Toxoplasmosis in military personnel involved in jungle operations.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Barrios, Patricia; Cardona, Nestor; Álvarez, Catalina; Herrera, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Tropical diseases, mainly leishmaniasis and malaria, increased among Colombian military personnel due to intensive operations in the jungle in the last ten years; as a result the Colombian army developed important preventive strategies for malaria and leishmaniasis. However, no knowledge exists about toxoplasmosis, an emergent disease in military personnel. We compared the prevalence of IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA and of parasitaemia by a real time PCR assay, in 500 professional soldiers that operated in the jungle with a group of 501 soldiers working in an urban zone (Bogotá). We found that the prevalence was significantly different between both groups of soldiers (80% in soldiers operating in jungle vs. 45% in urban soldiers, adjusted OR 11.4; CI 95%: 3.8-34; p<0.0001). All soldiers operating in the jungle drink unboiled and chlorine untreated lake or river water. In urban soldiers, these risk factors along with eating wild animal meat or eating tigrillo (little spotted cat) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence. Characteristic toxoplasmic choriorretinal lesions were found in 4 soldiers that operated in the jungle (0.8%) and in one urban soldier (0.19%). All soldiers before being deployed in jungle operations should be tested for Toxoplasma antibodies and to receive adequate health information about the routine use of personnel filters to purify their water for consumption. PMID:22178449

  11. Serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection: Recommendations from the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Villard, O; Cimon, B; L'Ollivier, C; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis manifests no clinical signs in 80% of cases in immunocompetent patient, causing immunization characterized by the persistence of cysts, particularly in brain, muscles, and retina. Assessing the serological status, based on testing for serum toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, is essential in cases that are increasingly at risk for the more severe disease forms, such as congenital or ocular toxoplasmosis. This disease also exposes immunosuppressed patients to reactivation, which can lead to more widespread forms and increased mortality. By interpreting the serological results, we can estimate the risk of contamination or reactivation and define appropriate prophylactic and preventive measures, such as hygienic and dietetic, therapeutic, biological, and clinical follow-up, according to the clinical context. We hereby propose practical approaches based on serological data, resulting from a consensus of a group of experts from the French National Reference Center Network for Toxoplasmosis, according to both routine and specific clinical situations. PMID:26458281

  12. Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2014-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials. PMID:25104952

  13. Toxoplasmosis complications and novel therapeutic synergism combination of diclazuril plus atovaquone

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of foodborne disease, congenital complication, and morbidity. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to encounter congenital and persisting toxoplasmosis. The hypothesis was: combination diclazuril plus atovaquone to exert a novel therapeutic synergy to prevent toxoplasmosis syndromes. Methods: Pregnant dams were treated with diclazuril and atovaquone monotherapy or combination therapy and infected i.p with Toxoplasma tachyzoites. Results: Infected dams developed severe toxoplasmosis associated syndrome with increases in the abdominal adiposity surrounding uteri, gansterointestinal and other internal organs and excessive weight gain. Numerous organisms along with infiltration of inflammatory cells were detected scattered into adipose tissues. Combination therapy (p < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril (p < 0.05) protected dams from inflammatory fat and excess weight gains. This was consistent with pancreatitis development in infected dams (versus normal p < 0.05) with infiltration of inflammatory cells, degeneration and necrosis of pancreatic cells followed by the degeneration and loss of islets. Combination and monotherapy protected dams from these inflammatory and pathological aspects of pancreatitis. Infected dams exhibited severe colitis, and colonic tissues significantly shortened in length. Brush border epithelial cells were replaced with infiltration of lymphocytes, granulocytes, and microabscess formations into cryptic microstructures. Combination therapy synergistically preserved colonic structure and normalized pathological damages (p < 0.001) and to a lesser degree diclazuril monotherapy protected dams from colitis (p < 0.05) and gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Other complications included severe splenitis (p < 0.001) and hepatitis (p < 0.001) which were normalized with combination therapy. Conclusion: Combination diclazuril plus atovaquone was safe and with a novel therapeutic synergism protected dams and fetuses from toxoplasmosis. PMID:25309522

  14. Value of PCR for evaluating occurrence of parasitemia in immunocompromised patients with cerebral and extracerebral toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa K el-S; Roth, A; Roth, B; Arasteh, K N; Janitschke, K

    1994-01-01

    PCR was used to evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii parasitemia by detection of the B1 gene in blood samples in two groups of immunosuppressed patients (148 subjects) suspected of having cerebral or extracerebral infection, respectively. Group I consisted of 52 patients with AIDS with suspected cerebral toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis was clinically proven in 15 cases. Parasitemia was detected by PCR in only two of these patients (13.3%), both showing evidence of disseminated infection. Group II consisted of 96 immunocompromised patients, either with AIDS or receiving iatrogenic immunosuppressive therapy. Of these patients, 65 (34 with AIDS and 31 others) showed abnormalities only in chest radiography and were first screened for the presence of Toxoplasma DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Blood was then analyzed when the parasite was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The remaining 31 subjects (22 with AIDS and 9 others) were suspected of having extracerebral, pulmonary, or disseminated toxoplasmosis, and blood was studied directly in these cases. Among the nine patients with clinically diagnosed extracerebral infection in group II, the parasite was detected by PCR in the blood of five patients (55.5%), all having pulmonary toxoplasmosis. If all patients with clinical manifestations of extracerebral toxoplasmosis (from both groups) who had not received antitoxoplasma therapy when the samples were collected are considered, PCR detected parasitemia in seven of the nine cases (77.8%). The present study indicates that examination of blood by PCR may be valuable in cases of extracerebral toxoplasmosis because of the disseminated nature of the disease. Since most cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis result from the local reactivation of latent brain cysts, detection of parasitemia by PCR is useful only in cases associated with severe cerebral infection or dissemination of this disease. Images PMID:7852576

  15. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Velsquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/l and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  16. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  17. Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S

    2001-09-14

    We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone. PMID:11532360

  18. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  19. IMRT credentialing for prospective trials using institutional virtual phantoms: results of a joint European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer and Radiological Physics Center project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) credentialing for a EORTC study was performed using an anthropomorphic head phantom from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC; RPCPH). Institutions were retrospectively requested to irradiate their institutional phantom (INSTPH) using the same treatment plan in the framework of a Virtual Phantom Project (VPP) for IMRT credentialing. Materials and methods CT data set of the institutional phantom and measured 2D dose matrices were requested from centers and sent to a dedicated secure EORTC uploader. Data from the RPCPH and INSTPH were thereafter centrally analyzed and inter-compared by the QA team using commercially available software (RIT; ver.5.2; Colorado Springs, USA). Results Eighteen institutions participated to the VPP. The measurements of 6 (33%) institutions could not be analyzed centrally. All other centers passed both the VPP and the RPC ±7%/4 mm credentialing criteria. At the 5%/5 mm gamma criteria (90% of pixels passing), 11(92%) as compared to 12 (100%) centers pass the credentialing process with RPCPH and INSTPH (p = 0.29), respectively. The corresponding pass rate for the 3%/3 mm gamma criteria (90% of pixels passing) was 2 (17%) and 9 (75%; p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusions IMRT dosimetry gamma evaluations in a single plane for a H&N prospective trial using the INSTPH measurements showed agreement at the gamma index criteria of ±5%/5 mm (90% of pixels passing) for a small number of VPP measurements. Using more stringent, criteria, the RPCPH and INSTPH comparison showed disagreement. More data is warranted and urgently required within the framework of prospective studies. PMID:24885438

  20. Feline immunodeficiency virus predisposes cats to acute generalized toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M. G.; Rottman, J. B.; English, R. V.; Lappin, M. R.; Tompkins, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a pre-existing, clinically asymptomatic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection on a primary challenge with Toxoplasma gondii. Parenteral challenge of FIV-infected cats with tachyzoites of the ME49 strain of T. gondii caused a precipitous drop in all lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, and B cells) and generalized severe toxoplasmosis. The predominant postmortem lesions included acute and often fatal interstitial pneumonia, dominated histologically by macrophages, and multifocal to coalescing hepatic necrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed numerous T. gondii antigen and tachyzoites in macrophages and other cell types in the lung lesions. The proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to specific (T. gondii antigen) and nonspecific (Concanavalin A) mitogens was defective in the dually infected cats, suggesting marked immunosuppression. In contrast to the dually infected cats, cats infected only with T. gondii developed a transient, mild clinical disease characterized by anorexia, lethargy, and multifocal chorioretinitis. Lymphocyte changes in T. gondii-infected cats included an early pan-lymphopenia followed by reestablishment of all lymphocyte subset profiles. These cats also showed a reduced proliferative response to Concanavalin A at 1 week after challenge, but a measurable in vivo response to T. gondii antigens, as evidenced by in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in the absence of a mitogenic stimulus. These results show that infection of cats with FIV-NCSU, markedly enhances their susceptibility to a primary T. gondii infection and provides a model to study the mechanisms of the underlying immunological defect(s) occurring early after HIV infection that may predispose individuals to development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and associated diseases. Images Figure 4 PMID:8238262

  1. Toxoplasmosis in allo-SCT patients: risk factors and outcomes at a transplantation center with a low incidence.

    PubMed

    Mulanovich, V E; Ahmed, S I; Öztürk, T; Khokhar, F A; Kontoyiannis, D P; de Lima, M

    2011-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis in allo-SCT patients is rare in the United States but has a mortality of 60-90%. In this retrospective study, we identified patients with definite and probable toxoplasmosis after allo-SCT at our institution from 1994 to 2009 using ICD-9 codes and the pathology database. Of 3626 patients who underwent allogeneic SCT, we identified 8 with definite toxoplasmosis and 1 with probable toxoplasmosis, an incidence of 0.25%. International patients had a significantly higher incidence of toxoplasmosis than did US patients (1.6 versus 0.15% (P=0.002)). Three patients presented with toxoplasmosis <30 days after transplantation and six developed toxoplasmosis within 100 days of starting high-dose corticosteroids. Two patients were diagnosed postmortem. Six of the remaining seven patients died despite ≥2 weeks of therapy. Co-morbidities, particularly infections, were the primary cause of death in one case and a contributing factor in the remaining six cases. On the basis of these results, we conclude that all allo-SCT patients from countries with high Toxoplasma seropositivity and seropositive patients from the United States should undergo serial PCR screening during the first month after transplantation and during corticosteroid use. All patients who test positive should undergo preemptive therapy. PMID:20436521

  2. Retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis in a patient with cerebral post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease of Hodgkin's type: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ruchi; Thumann, Gabrielle; Souteyrand, George; Kuerten, David; Coupland, Sarah E

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a relatively rare complication in renal transplant patients and can pose diagnostic challenges, especially when it manifests as an ocular inflammation. Authors hereby report an unusual case of a 57-year-old male who developed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis after 15 years of renal transplant, the diagnoses of which were challenging as the patient was also a known case of cerebral post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) of Hodgkin's type, which misled the ophthalmologists towards a clinical diagnosis of ocular PTLD. Histopathology examination of the enucleated eye revealed numerous toxoplasmosis cysts within the retina and choroid. No ocular PTLD was observed. PMID:26239296

  3. Novel Synergistic Protective Efficacy of Atovaquone and Diclazuril on Fetal-Maternal Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2014-01-01

    Over 1 billion people globally are estimated to be infected with Toxoplasma gondii with severe or unknown consequences and no safe and effective therapies are available against congenital or persistent chronic infection. We propose that atovaquone and diclazuril synergistically protect against fetal-maternal toxoplasmosis. Methods Programmed pregnant mice were treated with atovaquone and diclazuril monotherapy, or combined (atovaquone + diclazuril) therapy and infected with tachyzoites (0, 300, 600) and the course of infection was studied. Results Infected dams with low dose (300) developed moderate toxoplasmosis complications and treatments were similarly effective with minor differences between monotherapies. In contrast, major differences were observed amongst varied treatments during high-dose (600) infection and severe related- toxoplasmosis complications as follows. Dams developed hydrothorax, ascities and excess weight gain. Combined therapy (P < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril monotherapy (P < 0.05) protected dams from excess weight, hydrothorax, and ascities. Infected dams exhibited splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and severe hepatitis. Combined therapy synergistically normalized pathology (P < 0.001) and to a lesser degree monotherapy (diclazuril P < 0.01, and atovaquone P < 0.05) protected dams from hepatitis and splemomegaly. Additionally, behavioral response to pain stimuli and fetal weight and fetal numbers were significantly preserved in treated dams Conclusions This is the first report describing combined atovaquone and diclazuril therapy (a) to be safe in pregnancy, (b) to exert novel synergistic effects, and (c) to protect dams and their nested fetuses against adverse effects of severe toxoplasmosis. PMID:25210646

  4. An overview of seventy years of research (1944–2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reviews toxoplasmosis research in Colombia, beginning with the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1944. Here we summarize prevalence of T. gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. g...

  5. ACUTE VISCERAL TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DIK-DIK (MADOQUA GUENTHERI SMITHI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 2 captive dik-dik (Madoqua guentheri smithi) in the Houston Zoo. Both animals became ill suddenly and died in spite of supportive therapy. Toxoplasma gondii was identified in tissues of both animals immunohistochemically, and antibodies to T. gondii were found ...

  6. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in mentally retarded patients in Iranian rehabilitation centers.

    PubMed

    Ezatpour, Behrouz; Zibaie, Mohammad; Rahmati, Hessam; Pournia, Yadollah; Azami, Mehdi; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Azadpour, Mozhgan; Ghalesefidi, Maryam Jamshidian

    2015-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common causes of latent infections in humans and animals. Although T. gondii infection is widely prevalent in the world, most acquired cases of the disease are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and its severe effects on the fetus. There have been many reports about the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody among different groups of people in Iran; however the epidemiological data in mentally retarded patients are rare. The present study was conducted on 158 mentally retarded persons (94 males, 64 females) in the rehabilitation centers of Khoramabad from autumn 2012 to winter 2013. The overall prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody was 30.4 % (48 cases). There were no significant difference between sex and toxoplasmosis (p > 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant difference between age and toxoplasmosis, nevertheless the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the patients less than 10-years-old had significantly the lowest rate. The highest infection rates were found in the two age groups of 10-19 and ≥30 years old. Our results showed that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the mentally retarded persons in the rehabilitation centers of Khorramabad was similar to the prevalence in pregnant women in this city. Therefore, the disease does not cause additional danger to this group of women. PMID:25698852

  7. The Experiences and Recommendations of Families with Children Who Have Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jillian; Mortimer, Tamara; Mish, Sandra; Kerns, Kimberly; Jagdis, Frank; MacMath, Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis infections are usually asymptomatic in health hosts, but can cause serious, sometimes life threatening, sequelae in infants when the mother acquires an acute infection during pregnancy and the parasite is transmitted via the placenta to the developing fetus. This article is part of a comprehensive research project investigating the…

  8. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Intellectual Disability Children in Rehabilitation Centers of Northern Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, M.; Ziaei, H.; Daryani, A.; Ajami, A.

    2007-01-01

    Serological studies revealed that toxoplasmosis has world wide distribution. Although the infection by "Toxoplasma gondii" is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and…

  9. Cutaneous acquired toxoplasmosis in a child: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rand, Andrew J; Buck, Andrew B; Love, Porcia B; Prose, Neil S; Selim, M Angelica

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare and diagnostically challenging entity. Today, the acquired form occurs predominantly in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus or after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report a case of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a 6-year-old girl after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for immune-mediated encephalopathy, first manifesting at 16 months of age. In the post-transplant setting, she developed a rash consisting of approximately 8 scattered 3–4-mm round, erythematous macules and papules on her back, abdomen, and right shoulder. Sections from a biopsy of a lesion on the back revealed numerous spherules tightly packed within small cystic structures in the epidermis. The diagnosis of cutaneous toxoplasmosis was confirmed by an immunohistochemical stain for Toxoplasma gondii and polymerase chain reaction on the peripheral blood for the T. gondii genome. This case should raise awareness that acquired toxoplasmosis with cutaneous involvement can occur in the pediatric population, particularly in immunocompromised patients after stem cell transplantation. Early diagnosis and treatment of this life-threatening opportunistic infection may improve patient outcomes. PMID:24614207

  10. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus).

    PubMed

    Túry, E; Costa Messias, A; Belák, K; Gimeno, E J

    2001-01-01

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), an arboreal species of the tropical rainforests of South and Central America. In view of its specialized lifestyle and ecosystem and its low metabolic rate, B. tridactylus would seem to warrant further investigation in respect of its susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:11578142

  11. Tc-99m colloid lung uptake in a rare case of toxoplasmosis with liver involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Tal, I.; Kaynan, A.

    1984-06-01

    Intensive lung accumulation of colloid (Tc-99m phytate) was demonstrated in a child suffering from acquired toxoplasmosis with a rare manifestation of severe liver damage. The possible mechanism and clinical importance of colloid lung concentration in this case is briefly discussed, including a review of the literature on this subject.

  12. LETHAL TOXOPLASMOSIS IN AN AVIARY OF KAKARIKIS (CYANORAMPHUS SPP.) IN AUSTRALIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small outbreak of fatal toxoplasmosis is described in 6 kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.) in an aviary in Australia. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, and lungs. Protozoal tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclona...

  13. DISSEMINATED TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A MEDITERRANEAN PREGNANT RISSO'S DOLPHIN (GRAMPUS GRISEUS) WITH TRANSPLACENTAL FETAL INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) dam and its fetus based on pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and the structure of the parasite. The dolphin was stranded alive on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and died a few hrs later. At necropsy the ...

  14. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Intellectual Disability Children in Rehabilitation Centers of Northern Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, M.; Ziaei, H.; Daryani, A.; Ajami, A.

    2007-01-01

    Serological studies revealed that toxoplasmosis has world wide distribution. Although the infection by "Toxoplasma gondii" is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and

  15. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a v...

  16. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women: High seroprevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Yobi, Doudou; Piarroux, Renaud; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Franck, Jacqueline; Situakibanza, Hypolite; Muhindo, Hypolite; Mitashi, Patrick; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andreia; Van Sprundel, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, as well as the proportion of acutely infected and risk factors in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods Thirty maternities in Kinshasa were randomly selected and women attending antenatal consultation were invited to participate. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat) and a venous blood sample was taken. Sera were analysed for total immunoglobulins (Ig) by VIDAS Toxo Competition using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. IgM was determined by VIDIA Toxo IgM and IgG avidity by VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. Results A total of 781 women were included. Median age was 28 years old (IQR: 8.5). And 627 women (80.3%; 95% CI: 77.5-83.1) were found to be positive to total Ig and 17 out of 387 (4.4%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.4) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for 2 (11.8%) women, intermediate for 2 (11.8%) and high for 13 women (76.4%). There was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and any risk factors assessed. Conclusion In Kinshasa, toxoplasmosis endemicity is highly prevalent. One woman out of twenty five had a recent toxoplasmosis infection and 20% were not protected against primo-infection, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. PMID:24144134

  17. The association of coffee intake with liver cancer risk is mediated by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury: data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition123

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Drogan, Dagmar; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Pischon, Tobias; Tsilidis, Kostas; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Bouton-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Tsironis, Christos; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Saitakis, George; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lukic, Marko; Braaten, Tonje; Quirós, J Ramón; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez, María-José; Chilarque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanas, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Wallström, Peter; Ohlsson, Bodil; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Assi, Nada; Murphy, Neil; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Background: Higher coffee intake has been purportedly related to a lower risk of liver cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this association may be accounted for by specific biological mechanisms. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating roles of inflammatory, metabolic, liver injury, and iron metabolism biomarkers on the association between coffee intake and the primary form of liver cancer—hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design: We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition among 125 incident HCC cases matched to 250 controls using an incidence-density sampling procedure. The association of coffee intake with HCC risk was evaluated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression that accounted for smoking, alcohol consumption, hepatitis infection, and other established liver cancer risk factors. The mediating effects of 21 biomarkers were evaluated on the basis of percentage changes and associated 95% CIs in the estimated regression coefficients of models with and without adjustment for biomarkers individually and in combination. Results: The multivariable-adjusted RR of having ≥4 cups (600 mL) coffee/d compared with <2 cups (300 mL)/d was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P-trend = 0.006). A statistically significant attenuation of the association between coffee intake and HCC risk and thereby suspected mediation was confirmed for the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 and for the biomarkers of hepatocellular injury glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total bilirubin, which—in combination—attenuated the regression coefficients by 72% (95% CI: 7%, 239%). Of the investigated biomarkers, IL-6, AST, and GGT produced the highest change in the regression coefficients: 40%, 56%, and 60%, respectively. Conclusion: These data suggest that the inverse association of coffee intake with HCC risk was partly accounted for by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury. PMID:26561631

  18. European Mistletoe

    MedlinePlus

    ... T U V W X Y Z European Mistletoe Share: On This Page Introduction What the Science ... and Cautions For More Information Key References european_mistletoe.jpg © Steven Foster Common Names: European mistletoe, mistletoe ...

  19. Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised Patients: a 3-Year Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV+; the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  20. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p < 0.001). Keeping pet cats was not common and poorly associated with infections (OR = 1.15, p ≥ 0.64). Consumption of undercooked meat was reported frequently and only slight risk was associated with sheep/goat meat (OR = 1.39, p = 0.15). Eating outside the home at restaurants was reported for the first time to be related to a higher risk of infection (OR = 2.69, p < 0.001). Several possible risk factors were suggested through odds ratios calculation and overall knowledge of toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age. PMID:26924348

  1. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients: a 3-year multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV(+); the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  2. Clinical Effectiveness of Hymenoptera Venom Immunotherapy: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Interest Group on Insect Venom Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ruëff, Franziska; Przybilla, Bernhard; Biló, Maria Beatrice; Müller, Ulrich; Scheipl, Fabian; Seitz, Michael J.; Aberer, Werner; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Bonifazi, Floriano; Campi, Paolo; Darsow, Ulf; Haeberli, Gabrielle; Hawranek, Thomas; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Lang, Roland; Quercia, Oliviero; Reider, Norbert; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Severino, Maurizio; Sturm, Gunter Johannes; Treudler, Regina; Wüthrich, Brunello

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment failure during venom immunotherapy (VIT) may be associated with a variety of risk factors. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentration (BTC) and of other parameters with the frequency of VIT failure during the maintenance phase. Methods In this observational prospective multicenter study, we followed 357 patients with established honey bee or vespid venom allergy after the maintenance dose of VIT had been reached. In all patients, VIT effectiveness was either verified by sting challenge (n = 154) or patient self-reporting of the outcome of a field sting (n = 203). Data were collected on BTC, age, gender, preventive use of anti-allergic drugs (oral antihistamines and/or corticosteroids) right after a field sting, venom dose, antihypertensive medication, type of venom, side effects during VIT, severity of index sting reaction preceding VIT, and duration of VIT. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. Results 22 patients (6.2%) developed generalized symptoms during sting challenge or after a field sting. A strong association between the frequency of VIT failure and BTC could be excluded. Due to wide confidence bands, however, weaker effects (odds ratios <3) of BTC were still possible, and were also suggested by a selective analysis of patients who had a sting challenge. The most important factor associated with VIT failure was a honey bee venom allergy. Preventive use of anti-allergic drugs may be associated with a higher protection rate. Interpretation It is unlikely that an elevated BTC has a strong negative effect on the rate of treatment failures. The magnitude of the latter, however, may depend on the method of effectiveness assessment. Failure rate is higher in patients suffering from bee venom allergy. PMID:23700415

  3. Differentially methylated microRNAs in prediagnostic samples of subjects who developed breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC-Italy) cohort.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Francesca; Ferrero, Giulio; Polidoro, Silvia; Fiorito, Giovanni; Campanella, Gianluca; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Frasca, Graziella; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Naccarati, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    The crosstalk between microRNAs (miRNAs) and other epigenetic factors may lead to novel hypotheses about carcinogenesis identifying new targets for research. Because a single miRNA can regulate multiple downstream target genes, its altered expression may potentially be a sensitive biomarker to detect early malignant transformation and improve diagnosis and prognosis. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that altered methylation of miRNA encoding genes, associated with deregulated mature miRNA expression, may be related to dietary and lifestyle factors and may contribute to cancer development. In a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort (EPIC-Italy), we analysed DNA methylation levels of miRNA encoding genes (2191 CpG probes related to 517 genes) that are present in the Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip array in prediagnostic peripheral white blood cells of subjects who developed colorectal cancer (CRC, n = 159) or breast cancer (BC, n = 166) and matched subjects who remained clinically healthy. In the whole cohort, several differentially methylated miRNA genes were observed in association with age, sex, smoking habits and physical activity. Interestingly, in the case-control study, eight differentially methylated miRNAs were identified in subjects who went on to develop BC (miR-328, miR-675, miR-1307, miR-1286, miR-1275, miR-1910, miR-24-1 and miR-548a-1; all Bonferroni-adjusted P < 0.05). No significant associations were found with CRC. Assuming that altered methylation of miRNAs detectable in blood may be present before diagnosis, it may represent a biomarker for early detection or risk of cancer and may help to understand the cascade of events preceding tumour onset. PMID:26168820

  4. Recurrent headaches may be caused by cerebral toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Prandota, Joseph; Gryglas, Anna; Fuglewicz, Aleksander; Żesławska-Faleńczyk, Agata; Ujma-Czapska, Barbara; Szenborn, Leszek; Mierzwa, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To establish seroprevalence and provide characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii (TG) infection in children with recurrent headaches. METHODS: The study was performed in 178 children aged 7-17 years admitted consecutively to the Department of Pediatric Neurology from November 2009 to July 2011. The children were surveyed with a questionnaire with the help and assistance of their parents and blood samples taken on admission were studied for the presence of specific anti-TG IgM, IgG antibodies and IgG avidity using enzyme immunoassay Platelia Toxo IgM, IgG. RESULTS: The study showed that 19 children (8 boys, 11 girls; 8-17 years old, mean age 14.36 years) had high serum anti-TG IgG antibody levels (range: 32.2 > 240 UI/mL, mean 120.18 UI/mL; positive value for IgG was ≥ 9 UI/mL). The avidity index (AI) ranged from 0.202 to 0.925 (scale: ≥ 0.5 high AI). The results for IgM antibodies were all negative and the obtained results ranged from 0.113 to 0.25 U/mL (mean = 0.191 IU/mL) and all values below 0.8 IU/mL were considered negative. The most frequent complaints found in the seropositive patients were headaches that affected the frontal (13 children), occipital (4) and parietal areas (5). Headaches usually had a pulsating (in 7 patients) and squeezing (6) character and rarely were piercing, dull or expanding. Interestingly, 8 children did not feel discomfort during the headaches, probably because they did not have sufficiently increased intracranial pressure yet. The headaches usually appeared 1-2 times/mo, lasted for 2-6 h, and had a mean intensity of 5.5 points in a 10 point subjective scale. The comorbidities included epilepsy (5 patients), various infections in 3 children (chronic eustachitis, chronic rhinitis, chronic purulent tonsillitis, streptococcal pharyngitis, meningitis, allergic diseases), disturbances of behavior, deficits of attention, and ocular and motor concentration disorders in 1 child. The electroencephalographic and neuroimaging studies performed in our patients had a very limited value in establishing cerebral toxoplasmosis. CONCLUSION: Ten point six seven percent of the studied children had markedly increased serum anti-TG IgG antibodies and high AI indicated chronic infestation. It is suggested that tests for TG infection should be introduced to routine diagnostics in patients with recurrent headaches. PMID:25254186

  5. Risk of second primary malignancies in women with breast cancer: Results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Fasanelli, Francesca; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Vagliano, Liliana; Masala, Giovanna; Quirós, J Ramón; Travier, Noemie; Sánchez, María-José; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kvaskoff, Marina; Dossus, Laure; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Adarakis, George; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc; Kadi, Mai; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2015-08-15

    Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer are at increased risk of second primary cancers, and the identification of risk factors for the latter may have clinical implications. We have followed-up for 11 years 10,045 women with invasive breast cancer from a European cohort, and identified 492 second primary cancers, including 140 contralateral breast cancers. Expected and observed cases and Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) were estimated using Aalen-Johansen Markovian methods. Information on various risk factors was obtained from detailed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the role of risk factors. Women with breast cancer had a 30% excess risk for second malignancies (95% confidence interval-CI 18-42) after excluding contralateral breast cancers. Risk was particularly elevated for colorectal cancer (SIR, 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.00), lymphoma (SIR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.40), melanoma (2.12; 1.63-2.70), endometrium (2.18; 1.75-2.70) and kidney cancers (2.40; 1.57-3.52). Risk of second malignancies was positively associated with age at first cancer, body mass index and smoking status, while it was inversely associated with education, post-menopausal status and a history of full-term pregnancy. We describe in a large cohort of women with breast cancer a 30% excess of second primaries. Among risk factors for breast cancer, a history of full-term pregnancy was inversely associated with the risk of second primary cancer. PMID:25650288

  6. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)123456

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian’an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Results: Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which suggests that efforts to encourage even small increases in activity in inactive individuals may be beneficial to public health. PMID:25733647

  7. Focal brain lesions in patients with AIDS: aetiologies and corresponding radiological patterns in a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, H; Arendt, G; Hefter, H; Neuen-Jacob, E; Dörries, K; Aulich, A; Kahn, T

    1995-01-01

    We report the results of a hospital-based study of 188 consecutive patients seropositive for the human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who presented in a 4-year period (1988-1991) with possible signs or symptoms of first-ever central nervous system disease. Confirmed diagnoses were cerebral toxoplasmosis in 47 patients (25.0%), HIV-1 encephalopathy in 19 (10.1%), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) in 9 (4.8%), cerebral lymphoma in 1 (0.5%), and other conditions in 9 patients (4.8%). Seventy-three subjects (38.8%) showed focal brain lesions on initial computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, which were assessed prospectively. Positive predictivity for toxoplasmosis was 100% if multiple lesions occurred in combination with mass effect or contrast enhancement (23 patients), or if at least one space-occupying or enhancing lesion was located in the basal ganglia or the thalamus (26 patients). Solitary lesions with mass effect or contrast enhancement were seen in 26 patients and were caused by cerebral toxoplasmosis in 22 (84.6%). Eight of the 9 PML patients presented with one or more non-enhancing, non-mass lesions, although the predictive value of this pattern was low (47.1% for PML). Thus, in our epidemiological context, certain imaging findings in HIV-1-seropositive patients were highly predictive of cerebral toxoplasmosis. This may differ from findings from other parts of the world where cerebral toxoplasmosis may be less prevalent among HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:7707092

  8. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the Zoo of Clères, France

    PubMed Central

    Rigoulet, Jacques; Hennache, Alain; Lagourette, Pierre; George, Catherine; Longeart, Loïc; Le Net, Jean-Loïc; Dubey, Jitender P.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunostaining with polyclonal rabbit T. gondii antibodies and by transmission electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the bar-shouldered dove is a new host record for T. gondii. PMID:25407506

  9. Levels of pyrimethamine in sera and cerebrospinal and ventricular fluids from infants treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, R; Mack, D; Foss, R; Boyer, K; Withers, S; Levin, S; Hubbell, J

    1992-01-01

    Pyrimethamine levels in sera, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and ventricular fluid were measured by using reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The specimens were from 37 infants receiving pyrimethamine for treatment of suspect or proven congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine half-life in serum was 64 +/- 12 h when determined by study of terminal-phase kinetics of samples obtained from nine babies. This half-life was significantly different (P = 0.008) from the pyrimethamine half-life (33 +/- 12 h) determined by terminal-phase kinetics for two babies of the same age taking phenobarbital. Serum pyrimethamine levels at various intervals after dosages of pyrimethamine were also lower for infants receiving phenobarbital. Levels measured in sera from babies taking the same dose of pyrimethamine throughout their first year of life did not appear to vary significantly over time or at different ages (P greater than 0.05). Mean +/- standard deviation serum levels 4 h after a pyrimethamine dose were 1.297 +/- 0.54 micrograms/ml for babies taking 1 mg of pyrimethamine per kg of body weight daily and 0.7 +/- 0.26 microgram/ml for babies taking 1 mg/kg each Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Levels in CSF were approximately 10 to 25% of concomitant levels in serum. Serum folate levels for infants who took 0.64 to 1.7 mg leukovorin per kg ranged from 33 to 663 ng/ml. To determine whether the levels of pyrimethamine in serum and CSF of treated infants were in a range that affected the most virulent, rapidly replicating, and standard laboratory strain of Toxoplasma gondii, effects of various concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine on replication of T. gondii in vitro were assessed. The levels of the antimicrobial agents effective in vitro were in the range of levels of pyrimethamine achieved in sera and CSF. Although folinic acid could inhibit the therapeutic effect of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in vitro, inhibition was noted only at levels (> or = 4,800 ng/ml) that were considerably higher than the folate levels found in the treated infants' sera. PMID:1510391

  10. Multicentric comparative assessment of the bio-evolution Toxoplasma gondii detection kit with eight laboratory-developed PCR assays for molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Filisetti, Denis; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Yera, Hélène; Candolfi, Ermano; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid is an essential tool for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and is currently essentially based on the use of PCR. Although some consensus is emerging, this molecular diagnosis suffers from a lack of standardization and an extreme diversity of laboratory-developed methods. Commercial kits for the detection of T. gondii by PCR were recently developed and offer certain advantages; however, they must be assessed in comparison with optimized reference PCR assays. The present multicentric study aimed to compare the performances of the Bio-Evolution T. gondii detection kit and laboratory-developed PCR assays set up in eight proficient centers in France. The study compared 157 amniotic fluid samples and found concordances of 99% and 100% using 76 T. gondii-infected samples and 81 uninfected samples, respectively. Moreover, taking into account the classification of the European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis, the overall diagnostic sensitivity of all assays was identical and calculated to be 86% (54/63); specificity was 100% for all assays. Finally, the relative quantification results were in good agreement between the kit and the laboratory-developed assays. The good performances of this commercial kit are probably in part linked to the use of a number of good practices: detection in multiplicate, amplification of the repetitive DNA target rep529, and the use of an internal control for the detection of PCR inhibitors. The only drawbacks noted at the time of the study were the absence of uracil-N-glycosylase and small defects in the reliability of the production of different reagents. PMID:25339393

  11. Multicentric Comparative Assessment of the Bio-Evolution Toxoplasma gondii Detection Kit with Eight Laboratory-Developed PCR Assays for Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Filisetti, Denis; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Yera, Hélène; Candolfi, Ermano

    2014-01-01

    The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid is an essential tool for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and is currently essentially based on the use of PCR. Although some consensus is emerging, this molecular diagnosis suffers from a lack of standardization and an extreme diversity of laboratory-developed methods. Commercial kits for the detection of T. gondii by PCR were recently developed and offer certain advantages; however, they must be assessed in comparison with optimized reference PCR assays. The present multicentric study aimed to compare the performances of the Bio-Evolution T. gondii detection kit and laboratory-developed PCR assays set up in eight proficient centers in France. The study compared 157 amniotic fluid samples and found concordances of 99% and 100% using 76 T. gondii-infected samples and 81 uninfected samples, respectively. Moreover, taking into account the classification of the European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis, the overall diagnostic sensitivity of all assays was identical and calculated to be 86% (54/63); specificity was 100% for all assays. Finally, the relative quantification results were in good agreement between the kit and the laboratory-developed assays. The good performances of this commercial kit are probably in part linked to the use of a number of good practices: detection in multiplicate, amplification of the repetitive DNA target rep529, and the use of an internal control for the detection of PCR inhibitors. The only drawbacks noted at the time of the study were the absence of uracil-N-glycosylase and small defects in the reliability of the production of different reagents. PMID:25339393

  12. Increased risk of traffic accidents in subjects with latent toxoplasmosis: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Havlcek, Jan; Kodym, Petr; Mal, Marek; Smahel, Zbyn?k

    2002-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 3060% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations. Methods The seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in subjects involved in traffic accidents (N = 146) and in the general population living in the same area (N = 446) was compared by a Mantel-Haenszel test for age-stratified data. Correlation between relative risk of traffic accidents and level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre was evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. Results A higher seroprevalence was found in the traffic accident set than in the general population (Chi2MH = 21.45, p < 0.0001). The value of the odds ratio (OR) suggests that subjects with latent toxoplasmosis had a 2.65 (C.I.95= 1.764.01) times higher risk of an accident than the toxoplasmosis-negative subjects. The OR significantly increased with level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre (p < 0.0001), being low (OR = 1.86, C.I.95 = 1.143.03) for the 99 subjects with low antibody titres (8 and 16), higher (OR = 4.78, C.I.95 = 2.399.59) for the 37 subjects with moderate titres (32 and 64), and very high (OR = 16.03, C.I.95 = 1.89135.66) for the 6 subjects with titres higher than 64. Conclusion The subjects with latent toxoplasmosis have significantly increased risk of traffic accidents than the noninfected subjects. Relative risk of traffic accidents decreases with the duration of infection. These results suggest that 'asymptomatic' acquired toxoplasmosis might in fact represent a serious and highly underestimated public health problem, as well as an economic problem. PMID:12095427

  13. The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, J F

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the spectrum of adverse ocular effects which result from maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasma infection; further, to record the long-term visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these 2 major causes of fetal infection. STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A series of 55 patients with congenital infection have been studied prospectively on a long-term basis. The study group included a cohort of 34 cases with congenital rubella syndrome demonstrated by virus isolation, and 21 cases with a clinical diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and serologic confirmation. All patients had specific disease-related ocular defects. Rubella patients were first identified during or following the last major rubella epidemic in 1963-1964, and some have been followed serially since that time. A separate study group of representative toxoplasmosis patients presented for examination and diagnosis at varying time periods between 1967 and 1991. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: This study confirms that a broad spectrum of fetal injury may result from intrauterine infection and that both persistent and delayed-onset effects may continue or occur as late as 30 years after original infection. Many factors contribute to the varied outcome of prenatal infection, the 2 most important being the presence of maternal immunity during early gestation and the stage of gestation during which fetal exposure occurs in a nonimmune mother. RUBELLA: As a criteria of inclusion, all 34 rubella patients in this study exhibited one or more ocular defects at the time of birth or in the immediate neonatal period. Cataracts were present in 29 (85%) of the 34, of which 21 (63%) were bilateral. Microphthalmia, the next most frequent defect, was present in 28 (82%) of the 34 infants and was bilateral in 22 (65%). Glaucoma was recorded in 11 cases (29%) and presented either as a transient occurrence with early cloudy cornea in microphthalmic eyes (4 patients), as the infantile type with progressive buphthalmos (1 patient), or as a later-onset, aphakic glaucoma many months or years following cataract aspiration in 11 eyes of 6 patients. Rubella retinopathy was present in the majority of patients, although an accurate estimate of its incidence or laterality was not possible because of the frequency of cataracts and nystagmus and the difficulty in obtaining adequate fundus examination. TOXOPLASMOSIS: Twenty-one patients with congenital toxoplasmosis have been examined and followed for varying time periods, 7 for 20 years or more. The major reason for initial examination was parental awareness of an ocular deviation. Twelve children (57%) presented between the ages of 3 months and 4 years with an initial diagnosis of strabismus, 9 of whom had minor complaints or were diagnosed as part of routine examinations. All cases in this study have had evidence of retinochoroiditis, the primary ocular pathology of congenital toxoplasmosis. Two patients had chronic and recurrent inflammation with progressive vitreal traction bands, retinal detachments, and bilateral blindness. Macular lesions were always associated with central vision loss; however, over a period of years visual acuity gradually improved in several patients. Individuals with more severe ocular involvement were also afflicted with the most extensive central nervous system deficits, which occurred following exposure during the earliest weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital infection due to rubella virus has been almost completely eradicated in the United States, the long-term survivors from the prevaccination period continue to experience major complications from their early ocular and cerebral defects. They may be afflicted by the persistence of virus in their affected organs and the development of late manifestations of their congenital infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be the source of major defects for 3,000 to 4,100 infants in the United States each year; the spectrum of defects is wide and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of little consequence. Effective solutions for either the prevention or treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis have not been developed in this country but are under intensive and continuing investigation. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20A FIGURE 20B FIGURE 20C FIGURE 20D FIGURE 20E FIGURE 20F FIGURE 20G FIGURE 20H FIGURE 20J FIGURE 20K FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24B FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:10360309

  14. Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal.

    PubMed

    Flegr, J; Klapilová, K; Kaňková, S

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects about 30% of the human population. Common sources of infection are oocysts in cat faeces contaminating drinking water or unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, and organ transplants from infected donors containing tissue cysts. However, very often, it is not possible to identify any potential source of infection in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Here we present a hypothesis suggesting that toxoplasmosis is transmitted from infected men to noninfected women during unprotected sexual intercourse, which can result in the most serious form of disease, congenital toxoplasmosis. Arguments for the hypothesis: (1) Toxoplasma tachyzoites are present in the seminal fluid and tissue of the testes of various animals including humans. In some species infection of females by artificial insemination with semen from infected males has been observed. (2) Up to two thirds of Toxoplasma infections in pregnant women cannot be explained by the known risk factors. (3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child-bearing age covaries with the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in particular countries. (4) In some countries, an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25-35 years. This second peak of infection could be associated with women having regular unprotected sex after marriage. (5) Toxoplasmosis triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2-3 years earlier in men than in women. However, this difference in the onset can be found only between Toxoplasma-infected patients. The increased onset of schizophrenia in infected women could be associated with the already mentioned second peak of toxoplasmosis incidence. (6) The prevalence of toxoplasmosis decreases in developed countries in last 20 years. This trend could be a result of decrease in promiscuity and increase in safe sex practices, both associated with the AIDS pandemics. (7) In women, probability of being Toxoplasma-infected correlates positively with the amount of unprotected sex with the child's father before the conception. Evidence against the hypothesis: Questionnaire study showed negative association between Toxoplasma infection and the number of earlier partners with whom the woman had unprotected sex. If our hypothesis turns out to be true, then sexual route of transmission, even if rare, could be responsible for a large part of cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. Women should be warned that having unprotected sex with men of positive or unknown toxoplasmosis status should be avoided during pregnancy. PMID:24986706

  15. Association of Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Active Toxoplasmosis in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Gharib, Atoosa; Fahimzad, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and an unusual disease in children. Case Presentation: Herein we have reported a 7- year- old girl with a large necrotic skin ulcer on the chest caused by systemic form of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and simultaneous active toxoplasmosis diagnosed by PCR on lymph node specimen. There were few reports showing a role for toxoplasma infection to cause some malignancies such as lymphoma in adults. Conclusions: Based to our knowledge, this has been the first report of simultaneous systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma and active toxoplasmosis, documented by positive PCR on tissue biopsy in a child. This case report has suggested more attention to the accompanying Toxoplasma gondii infection as a probable cause of some types of lymphomas. PMID:26478795

  16. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration. PMID:25835092

  17. Congenital toxoplasmosis among premature infants with different clinical pictures in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, K F; el Fakahany, A F; Arafa, M A; Salama, M M; Morsy, T A

    1994-12-01

    No doubt, toxoplasmosis is a prevalent infection in all the Arab countries. However, the incidence differs from one country to another and even within the same country. Congenital toxoplasmosis is the most important form of the infection. In the present study, some 78 premature infants with different clinical pictures were examined for Toxoplasma IgG (by IHAT and ELISA) and Toxoplasma IgM (by ELISA). The results showed Toxoplasma IgG ranging between 32.1% (IHAT) and 46.2% (ELISA) while IgM (ELISA) was 23.1%. The highest positivity rate was among those suffering jaundice and the lowest was among those suffering fever of unknown origin. Protection of women particularly pregnant ones, from Toxoplasma infection is a must. PMID:7844430

  18. Toxopain-1 Is Critical for Infection in a Novel Chicken Embryo Model of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Que, Xuchu; Wunderlich, Annette; Joiner, Keith A.; Reed, Sharon L.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cathepsins and specifically toxopain-1, a cathepsin B, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis. We found that inhibiting the expression of toxopain-1-specific mRNA and protein by >60% significantly decreased the capacity of the parasites to multiply and invade in vitro. To relate these in vitro results to the role of toxopain-1 in pathogenesis in vivo, we developed a novel chicken embryo model of congenital toxoplasmosis. Inhibiting either toxopain-1 expression or specific cysteine proteinase activity significantly reduced congenital infection of chicken embryos, as determined by histopathology and by the number of parasites quantified by real-time PCR. Our new model provides key in vivo validation for the hypothesis that toxopain-1 is a potential drug target in Toxoplasma gondii and also provides a new animal model for rapid, inexpensive screening of antiparasitic compounds. PMID:15102804

  19. Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

    2012-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

  20. Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borna, Sedigheh; Shariat, Mamak; Fallahi, Mohaddese; Janani, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly. Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages. Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. We selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ≥1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women. Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; and using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); and using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7). Conclusion: In Iran, screening of toxoplasma is not routinely performed yet, while the incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors. PMID:24639709

  1. Evaluation of the Liaison Automated Testing System for Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Hayde, Michael; Pollak, Arnold; Herkner, Kurt R.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a worldwide health problem, and different screening strategies exist. Testing of toxoplasma-specific antibodies in infants identifies congenital toxoplasmosis during the first year of life. However, experience with commercial available immunoassays is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the performance and analytical characteristics of the Liaison diagnostic system in infants. In a retrospective study, serum Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were measured in samples from 333 infants, including 212 noninfected infants and 121 infants with congenital toxoplasmosis. A total of 1,157 umbilical cord blood and peripheral serum samples were analyzed. Liaison toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies and the IgG avidity index were compared to the infection status of the infant, determined by the Sabin-Feldman dye test and immunosorbent agglutination assay—IgM. All noninfected infants were seronegative by Liaison IgG within the first year of life. The Liaison system showed a sensitivity of 81.8%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value of 100.0%, a negative predictive value of 90.6%, and overall agreement of 84.4% by comparison with the dye test. Overall agreement of both IgM test systems was 96.0%. In this study cohort, avidity did not show a potential diagnostic benefit for the detection of congenital infection. In conclusion, the Liaison system is a valuable tool to monitor the serologic course of infants at risk. A final serologic confirmatory test is recommended to improve the rate of detection of congenital toxoplasmosis at 1 year of life. Protocols of routine follow-up testing in infants and accurate diagnostic tools after acute gestational infections are needed to improve medical care. PMID:23015644

  2. HLA-DQA1/B1 alleles as putative susceptibility markers in congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Paulo Tadashi; Targa, Lília Spaleta; Yamamoto, Lidia; Rodrigues, Jonatas Cristian; Kanunfre, Kelly Aparecida; Okay, Thelma Suely

    2016-05-18

    Host and parasite genotypes are among the factors associated with congenital toxoplasmosis pathogenesis. As HLA class II molecules play a key role in the immune system regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HLA-DQA1/B1 alleles are associated with susceptibility or protection to congenital toxoplasmosis. One hundred and twenty-two fetuses with and 103 without toxoplasmosis were studied. The two study groups were comparable according to a number of socio-demographic and genetic variables. HLA alleles were typed by PCR-SSP. In the HLA-DQA1 region, the allele frequencies showed that *01:03 and *03:02 alleles could confer susceptibility (OR= 3.06, p = 0.0002 and OR= 9.60, p= 0.0001, respectively) as they were more frequent among infected fetuses. Regarding the HLA-DQB1 region, the *05:04 allele could confer susceptibility (OR = 6.95, p < 0.0001). Of the 122 infected fetuses, 10 presented susceptibility haplotypes contrasting with only one in the non-infected group. This difference was not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparison (OR = 9.37, p=0.011). In the casuistic, there were two severely damaged fetuses with high parasite loads determined in amniotic fluid samples and HLA-DQA1 susceptibility alleles. In the present study, a discriminatory potential of HLA-DQA1/B1 alleles to identify susceptibility to congenital toxoplasmosis and the most severe cases has been shown. PMID:26856406

  3. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

  4. Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mahdi; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokri, Azar

    2014-12-01

    Although toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals is generally asymptomatic, in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS, cancer, and transplant patients), it can lead to serious pathological effects. This study included a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in immunocompromised patients in Iran. Electronic English and Persian databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], IranMedex, and IranDoc), parasitology congresses, and projects and theses of Iranian medical universities, were systematically searched from 1997 to 2013 (published or unpublished data). In this paper, several studies that used serological methods for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis were selected. Analysis of seroprevalence estimates was pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Twenty-two studies, comprising 2,805 individuals, were included in the meta-analysis. Overall seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in Iranian immunocompromised patients was 50.01% (95% confidence interval, 43.85 to 56.17); however, there was significant heterogeneity among study groups. The results showed that seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmosis among transplant recipients, HIV/AIDS, and cancer patients in Iran was 55.1%, 50.05%, and 45.06%, respectively. In addition, IgM seroprevalence rate was estimated to be 4.85% (95% confidence interval, 2.22 to 8.41). This systematic review and meta-analysis identified a high seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection among immunocompromised patients (50%). Consideration of management, design and provision of appropriate control measures of toxoplasmosis is highly recommended. PMID:25500647

  5. Evaluation of Cystoid Change Phenotypes in Ocular Toxoplasmosis Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qing; Keane, Pearse A.; Stübiger, Nicole; Joussen, Antonia M.; Sadda, Srinivas R.; Heussen, Florian M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To present unique cystoid changes occurring in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis observed in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Forty-six patients (80 eyes) with a diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis, who underwent volume OCT examination between January 2005 and October 2012, were retrospectively collected. Review of clinical examination findings, fundus photographs, fluorescein angiograms (FA) and OCT image sets obtained at initial visits and follow-up. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of cystoid space phenotypes visualized using OCT. Results Of the 80 eyes included, 17 eyes (15 patients) demonstrated cystoid changes in the macula on OCT. Six eyes (7.5%) had cystoid macular edema (CME), 2 eyes (2.5%) had huge outer retinal cystoid space (HORC), 12 eyes (15%) had cystoid degeneration and additional 3 eyes (3.75%) had outer retinal tubulation due to age related macular degeneration. In one eye with HORC, the lesion was seen in the photoreceptor outer segment, accompanied by photoreceptor elongation and splitting. Three eyes presented with paravascular cystoid degeneration in the inner retina without other macular OCT abnormality. Conclusions In this study, different phenotypes of cystoid spaces seen in eyes with ocular toxoplasmosis using spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) were demonstrated. CME presented as an uncommon feature, consistently with previous findings. Identification of rare morphological cystoid features (HORC with/without photoreceptor enlongation or splitting) on clinical examination had provided evidence to previous experimental models, which may also expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. Cystoid degeneration in the inner retina next to the retinal vessels in otherwise “normal” looking macula was observed, which may suggest more often clinical evaluation for those patients. Further studies are needed to verify the relevance of cystoid features seen on SD-OCT in assisting with the diagnosis and management of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:24505261

  6. Multiplex PCR for diagnosis of AIDS-related central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, T C; Storch, G A

    1997-01-01

    A nested multiplex PCR assay was designed for the simultaneous detection of Epstein-Barr virus and Toxoplasma gondii DNA from the cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patients. T. gondii DNA was detected in 8 of 8 patients with Toxoplasma encephalitis and in 0 of 6 patients without toxoplasmosis, and Epstein-Barr virus DNA was found in 9 of 14 patients with central nervous system lymphoma and in 2 of 38 patients without disease. PMID:8968922

  7. Isolation and Biological and Molecular Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Canine Cutaneous Toxoplasmosis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Ludmila R.; Sozigan, Rita K. B.; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Carvalho, Fernando R.; Mota, Caroline M.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Marcili, Arlei

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare manifestation. This study represents a case report of an immunosuppressed dog that developed nodular dermal lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The isolate (TgDgBr20) was characterized as mouse virulent and was genotyped as type BrI (ToxoDB genotype 6) using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and as Africa 1 through microsatellite analysis. PMID:25253796

  8. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M; Camus, Alvin C; Bonde, Robert K; Dubey, Jitender P; Reif, John S

    2012-11-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. PMID:23135141

  9. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    PubMed

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. PMID:27101764

  10. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sobiecki, Jakub G.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Key, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. PMID:27101764

  11. Urine pH is an indicator of dietary acid-base load, fruit and vegetables and meat intakes: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk population study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-06-01

    Evidence exists that a more acidic diet is detrimental to bone health. Although more precise methods exist for measurement of acid-base balance, urine pH reflects acid-base balance and is readily measurable but has not been related to habitual dietary intake in general populations. The present study investigated the relationship between urine pH and dietary acid-base load (potential renal acid load; PRAL) and its contributory food groups (fruit and vegetables, meats, cereal and dairy foods). There were 22,034 men and women aged 39-78 years living in Norfolk (UK) with casual urine samples and dietary intakes from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk FFQ. A sub-study (n 363) compared pH in casual samples and 24 h urine and intakes from a 7 d diary and the FFQ. A more alkaline diet (low PRAL), high fruit and vegetable intake and lower consumption of meat was significantly associated with a more alkaline urine pH before and after adjustment for age, BMI, physical activity and smoking habit and also after excluding for urinary protein, glucose, ketones, diagnosed high blood pressure and diuretic medication. In the sub-study the strongest relationship was found between the 24 h urine and the 7 d diary. In conclusion, a more alkaline diet, higher fruit and vegetable and lower meat intake were related to more alkaline urine with a magnitude similar to intervention studies. As urine pH relates to dietary acid-base load its use to monitor change in consumption of fruit and vegetables, in individuals, warrants further investigation. PMID:18042305

  12. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children. PMID:26195187

  13. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira/, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-01-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p < 0.0001; odds ratio: 4.73, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-10.2). Surprisingly, a high prevalence of antibodies against TgERP was detected in human specimens, suggesting the possibility of a continuous contamination of drinking water with T. gondii oocysts in this endemic setting. These findings and the new proposed approach to investigate and analyse endemic toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale. PMID:26560984

  14. Evolution of cytokine profile during the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Meira, Cristina da Silva; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia; Vidal, José Ernesto; Motoie, Gabriela; Costa-Silva, Thaís Alves da; Gava, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    This study was to follow IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 modulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV/cerebral toxoplasmosis patients (CT) during specific treatment. The results were compared with two other groups: HIV patients that had CT at least one year before (P/CT) and individuals with chronic toxoplasmosis (CHR). Blood samples (63) collected from three groups were analyzed. CT, 15 patients (3 blood samples collected one day before Toxoplasma gondii treatment; 7 and 15days during the treatment). P/CT, 5 patients (one blood sample collected at least, one year after the treatment). CHR, 13 individuals with chronic toxoplasmosis (one blood sample). Cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA after PBMC stimulation with T. gondii antigen. CT patients had low IFN-γ; discrete increase at 7th and 15th days; and the levels were recovered in cured patients (P/CT). CT patients had high TNF-α in the beginning of the treatment. TNF-α levels decrease during the treatment (7th and 15th) and in those patients who were treated (P/CT). IL-10 levels were almost similar in CT and P/CT groups but low when compared with CHR individuals. The evolution of the infection was correlated to restoration of IFN-γ response and a decrease of the inflammation. The evaluation of the immune response can provide valuable information and better monitoring of patients during specific treatment. PMID:26177476

  15. A decade of discoveries in veterinary protozoology changes our concept of "subclinical" toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Milton M

    2005-09-30

    One of the most compelling topics to emerge from the last decade of veterinary protozoology is disease caused by a zoonotic pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, in otherwise healthy people. These findings may catch the health professions by surprise, because veterinary and medical courses and textbooks typically emphasize that T. gondii infections are subclinical, unless acquired in utero or the patient has a serious immunosuppressive condition. Nevertheless, numerous reports in the last decade associate toxoplasmosis with lymphadenopathy, fever, weakness and debilitation, ophthalmitis, and severe multisystemic infections in people who do not have immunosuppressive conditions. Toxoplasmosis in rodents causes altered behavior, and similar mental aberrations are coming to light in humans; recent studies associate T. gondii infection with personality shifts and increased likelihood of reduced intelligence or schizophrenia. These conditions reduce the quality of life of individuals, and may exact a significant economic burden upon society. Of course, toxoplasmosis continues to cause serious conditions in AIDS patients and congenitally infected people, as well as abortions and encephalitis in domestic and wild animals. Environmental contamination is heavy enough to extend into marine wildlife. It is time for the health professions to amend teaching curricula regarding T. gondii. Veterinary parasitologists should lead the way in developing methods to reduce the prevalence of T. gondii in food animals. Public health policies should prohibit the practice of allowing pet cats to roam. Organizations and individuals that feed feral cats are unwittingly contributing to the dissemination of T. gondii, by sustaining artificially dense populations of a definitive host of this protozoal parasite. PMID:16095840

  16. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-11-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p < 0.0001; odds ratio: 4.73, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-10.2). Surprisingly, a high prevalence of antibodies against TgERP was detected in human specimens, suggesting the possibility of a continuous contamination of drinking water with T. gondii oocysts in this endemic setting. These findings and the new proposed approach to investigate and analyse endemic toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale. PMID:26560984

  17. [RELEVANT PRINCIPLES IN THE DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT, AND PREVENTION OF TOXOPLASMOSIS DURING PREGNANCY].

    PubMed

    Merzlova, N B; Serova, I A; Yagodina, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective survey of the prevalence of TORCH infections among pregnant women was performed in the perinatal center, M. A. Tverye Military Sanitary Unit Nine (Perm), in June 2010 to December 2013. The survey covered 2060 women: they were all examined for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Toxoplasma. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in 28.68% (591/2060); 98.62% were found to have antibodies to herpes simplex; antibodies to cytomegalovirus were identified in 87.13% (1795/2060). Acute maternal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed by seroconversion or determination of IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, in the presence of a low avidity index and a four-fold increase in antibody titers, by simultaneously studying paired serum samples obtained at a 2-week interval. To confirm fetal infection, amniotic fluid PCR examination should be performed after 18 weeks' gestation. No consensus of opinion as to the principles of treatment for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women makes relevant the long-term results of antibacterial and antiprotozoal treatment cycles varying in duration and intensity. The prevention of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women ensures the principle of a mother's personal responsibility for infection safety of a newborn infant, which is informationally provided in health and safety fundamentals course and pregravid preparation schools. PMID:26720963

  18. Toxoplasmosis-serological evidence and associated risk factors among pregnant women in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ling, Lau Yee; Chandeying, Verapol

    2011-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite in pregnant women. This case-controlled study assessed the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in 640 pregnant women in southern Thailand and identified their associated risk factors. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 181 (28.3%). Of this, 138 (21.6%) were positive for only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, 43 (6.7%) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies, and none were positive for IgM antibody. Multivariate analysis revealed that increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-2.67), living outside Songkhla province (adjusted OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.08-2.24), parity (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.01-2.68), contact with cats (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.20-2.43), and drinking of unclean water (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.08-2.68) were factors associated with Toxoplasma seroprevalence. On the basis of the results obtained, a health surveillance program should be initiated as a primary preventive measure for congenital toxoplasmosis and focus on educating women of the child-bearing age group to avoid contact with cats and to strictly practice personal hygiene. PMID:21813842

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with ovine toxoplasmosis in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Milena M. Clementino; Carneiro, Mariangela; Medeiros, Andrea D.; Neto, Valter Andrade; Vitor, Ricardo W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Serum samples of 930 sheep were tested by ELISA to assess the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to identify risk factors associated with the presence of toxoplasmosis in two regions of Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast Brazil), with different climatic conditions. The overall estimated prevalence was 22.1%, with 26.3% and 17.8% positive sheep in Leste Potiguar and Central Potiguar regions, respectively. Among the positive sheep, 18.1% had low-avidity IgG antibodies, suggesting the occurrence of recent toxoplasmosis. The risk factors for toxoplasmosis in sheep were: presence of cats (odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; confidence interval (CI) 95% = 1.11–2.16), age of the animals, with adults presenting a greater chance of infection (OR = 2.44; CI 95% = 1.58–3.75), and the use of running water (OR = 1.61; CI 95% = 1.25–2.09), characterizing the existence of transmission by sporulated oocysts of T. gondii in the environment. PMID:23707895

  20. Seroprevalence and Sources of Toxoplasmosis among Orang Asli (Indigenous) Communities in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Amir, Noor Farah Hani; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Mahmud, Rohela

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the current seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among indigenous communities in Peninsular Malaysia and relate its association with epidemiological data. Overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 37.0% with 31.0% immunoglobulin (Ig) G, 1.8% IgM, and 4.2% seropositivity for both anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that age above 12 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75–4.04, P < 0.001), using untreated river and mountain water supplies (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.01–2.40, P = 0.050), and close proximity with cats (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.10–1.76, P = 0.010) were factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among these communities who live in poor socioeconomic conditions, a comprehensive health surveillance program and screening should be initiated among women of childbearing age and pregnant women during the antenatal period for early diagnosis and treatment. The role of domestic cats and environmental contamination with oocyst in soil and water has to be highlighted and addressed in future prevention strategies for these communities. PMID:21976569

  1. [The Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; del Castillo Martín, F; Fuentes Corripio, I; Goncé Mellgren, A; Fortuny Guasch, C; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; González-Tomé, M I; Couceiro Gianzo, J A; Neth, O; Ramos Amador, J T

    2013-08-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is the result of transplacental fetal infection by Toxoplasma gondii after the primary maternal infection. The severity of the disease depends on the gestational age at transmission. First trimester infections are more severe, but less frequent, than third trimester infections. Acute maternal infection is diagnosed by seroconversion or by the detection of IgM antibodies and a low IgG avidity test. In these cases, spiramycin should be initiated to prevent transmission to the fetus. For identification of fetal infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of amniotic fluid after 18 weeks gestation should be performed. If fetal infection is confirmed, the mothers should be treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid. Most infants infected in utero are born with no obvious signs of toxoplasmosis, but up to 80% developed learning and visual disabilities later in life. Neonatal diagnosis with IgM/IgA antibodies or blood/cerebrospinal fluid PCR may be difficult because false-negative results frequently occur. In these cases diagnosis is possible by demonstrating a rise in IgG titers during follow-up or by the detection of antibodies beyond one year of age. Early treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine may improve the ophthalmologic and neurological outcome. Congenital toxoplasmosis is a preventable disease. Pre-pregnancy screening and appropriate counseling regarding prevention measures in seronegative women may prevent fetal infection. PMID:23352717

  2. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Mimicking Subacute Meningitis in HIV-Infected Patients; a Cohort Study from Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ganiem, A. Rizal; Dian, Sofiati; Indriati, Agnes; Chaidir, Lidya; Wisaksana, Rudi; Sturm, Patrick; Melchers, Willem; van der Ven, Andre; Parwati, Ida; van Crevel, Reinout

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-associated subacute meningitis is mostly caused by tuberculosis or cryptococcosis, but often no etiology can be established. In the absence of CT or MRI of the brain, toxoplasmosis is generally not considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed cerebrospinal fluid real time PCR and serological testing for Toxoplasma gondii in archived samples from a well-characterized cohort of 64 HIV-infected patients presenting with subacute meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. Neuroradiology was only available for 6 patients. At time of presentation, patients mostly had newly diagnosed and advanced HIV infection (median CD4 count 22 cells/mL), with only 17.2% taking ART, and 9.4% PJP-prophylaxis. CSF PCR for T. Gondii was positive in 21 patients (32.8%). Circulating toxoplasma IgG was present in 77.2% of patients tested, including all in whom the PCR of CSF was positive for T. Gondii. Clinically, in the absence of neuroradiology, toxoplasmosis was difficult to distinguish from tuberculosis or cryptococcal meningitis, although CSF abnormalities were less pronounced. Mortality among patients with a positive CSF T. Gondii PCR was 81%, 2.16-fold higher (95% CI 1.04–4.47) compared to those with a negative PCR. Conclusions/Significance Toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected subacute meningitis in settings where neuroradiology is not available. PMID:23326616

  3. [Cerebral toxoplasmosis during AIDS in the infectious diseases department of Point-G Teaching Hospital, Bamako, Mali].

    PubMed

    Goïta, D; Karambe, M; Dembélé, J P; Sogoba, D; Sidibé, A F; Diaby, S; Cisse, I A; Fongoro, S; Dao, S

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is common opportunistic infections of central nervous system in AIDS. It occurs most often in case of severe immunosuppression. The aim of this study is to investigate the general characteristics of cerebral toxoplasmosis during HIV infection and AIDS in hospital area in Bamako. It is a retrospective study of 5 years (form January 2001 to December 2005), conducted in the infectious diseases department of Point G Teaching Hospital of Bamako. It concerned all patients infected with HIV, hospitalized for cerebral toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was based on clinical, C T and therapeutic arguments. A total of 745 patients investigated, 26 met cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnostic criteria (14 men and 12 women). The rate of cerebral toxoplasmosis in the study population was 3.5%. The average age was 38.1 years (18-58 years). Focused neurological deficit (73.07%), intracranial hypertension signs (69.20%), meningeal syndrome (15.40%), seizures (57.69%) and consciousness disorders (30.80%) were the clinical characteristics. Hypodensity with or without peripheral enhancement images (93.75%) were found on CT. The average rate of CD4 T cells was 98.7cells/mm3 (5-473 cells/mm3). Oropharyngeal candidiasis in 61.53% of cases, intestinal cryptosporidiosis (11.53%), herpes zoster (3.84%) and Pott's disease (3.84%) were the opportunistic infections associated. Cotrimoxazole was used in 88.46% of patients and 3 patients (11.54%) received the standard treatment (Sulfadiazine-Pyrimethamine). Antitoxoplasmic treatment led to a clinical improvement in 84.61% and 4 deaths (15.39%). were recorded. The technical platform for etiological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is not available at the Point-G Teaching Hospital, so in case of encephalitis signs in a HIV positive patient, CT should be urgently perform and a treatment trial must begin without delay. PMID:22765969

  4. Cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis related with IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Cristina S.; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L.; Vidal, José E.; de Mattos, Cinara C. Brandão; Motoie, Gabriela; Costa-Silva, Thais A.; Gava, Ricardo; Frederico, Fábio B.; de Mattos, Luiz C.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the synthesis of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in chronically infected patients which developed the symptomatic disease as cerebral or ocular toxoplasmosis. Blood from 61 individuals were divided into four groups: Cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS patients (CT/AIDS group) (n = 15), ocular toxoplasmosis patients (OT group) (n = 23), chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR group) (n = 13) and healthy individuals (HI group) (n = 10). OT, CHR, and HI groups were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative. The diagnosis was made by laboratorial (PCR and ELISA) and clinical subjects. For cytokine determination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of each patient were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 activities were determined by ELISA. Patients from CT/AIDS and OT groups had low levels of IFN-γ when were compared with those from CHR group. These data suggest the low resistance to develop ocular lesions by the low ability to produce IFN-γ against the parasite. The same patients, which developed ocular or cerebral toxoplasmosis had higher TNF-α levels than CHR individuals. High TNF-α synthesis contribute to the inflammatory response and damage of the choroid and retina in OT patients and in AIDS patients caused a high inflammatory response as the TNF-α synthesis is not affected since monocytes are the major source this cytokine in response to soluble T. gondii antigens. IL-10 levels were almost similar in CT/AIDS and OT patients but low when compared with CHR individuals. The deviation to Th2 immune response including the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 may promote the parasite's survival causing the tissue immune destruction. IL-10 production in T. gondii-infected brains may support the persistence of parasites as down-regulating the intracerebral immune response. All these indicate that OT and CT/AIDS patients produced low levels of IL-10 (Th2 response) and IFN-γ (Th1 response). They produced high TNF-α suggesting a high inflammatory response triggered by the parasite. PMID:25352834

  5. Prospects for European Integration: Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizikaci, Fatma

    2005-01-01

    The development of higher education and research constitutes a possible pathway to innovation and global competitiveness. Nation states, however, often seek the quickest adaptations, with minimum investment, ignoring essential political and structural changes. Turkey maintains its highly centralized system of higher education observing the…

  6. Prospects for European Integration: Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizikaci, Fatma

    2005-01-01

    The development of higher education and research constitutes a possible pathway to innovation and global competitiveness. Nation states, however, often seek the quickest adaptations, with minimum investment, ignoring essential political and structural changes. Turkey maintains its highly centralized system of higher education observing the

  7. Transplacental toxoplasmosis in naturally-infected white-tailed deer: isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from foetuses of different gestational ages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical toxoplasmosis is most severe in congenitally-infected hosts. In humans, transmission of Toxoplasma gondii from the mother to the foetus is considered to be most efficient during the last trimester of pregnancy but clinical congenital toxoplasmosis is more severe if the transmission occurs d...

  8. Recombinant ROP2, ROP4, GRA4 and SAG1 antigen-cocktails as possible tools for immunoprophylaxis of toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Brzostek, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed foodborne zoonosis caused by a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent humans, toxoplasmosis is a serious clinical and veterinary problem often leading to lethal damage in an infected host. In order to overcome the exceptionally strong clinical and socio-economic impact of Toxoplasma infection, the construction of an effective vaccine inducing full immunoprotection against the parasite is an urgent issue. In the last two decades many live attenuated, subunit and DNA-based vaccines against toxoplasmosis have been studied, however only partial protection conferred by vaccination against chronic as well as acute infection has been achieved. Among various immunization strategies, no viable subunit vaccines based on recombinant secretory (ROP2, ROP4 and GRA4) and surface (SAG1) T. gondii proteins have been found as attractive tools for further studies. This is due to their high, but still partial, protective efficacy correlated with the induction of cellular and humoral immune responses. PMID:22892593

  9. Vaccination with Recombinant Microneme Proteins Confers Protection against Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pinzan, Camila Figueiredo; Sardinha-Silva, Aline; Almeida, Fausto; Lai, Livia; Lopes, Carla Duque; Lourenço, Elaine Vicente; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Matthews, Stephen; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is an important public health problem and veterinary concern. Although there is no vaccine for human toxoplasmosis, many attempts have been made to develop one. Promising vaccine candidates utilize proteins, or their genes, from microneme organelle of T. gondii that are involved in the initial stages of host cell invasion by the parasite. In the present study, we used different recombinant microneme proteins (TgMIC1, TgMIC4, or TgMIC6) or combinations of these proteins (TgMIC1-4 and TgMIC1-4-6) to evaluate the immune response and protection against experimental toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice. Vaccination with recombinant TgMIC1, TgMIC4, or TgMIC6 alone conferred partial protection, as demonstrated by reduced brain cyst burden and mortality rates after challenge. Immunization with TgMIC1-4 or TgMIC1-4-6 vaccines provided the most effective protection, since 70% and 80% of mice, respectively, survived to the acute phase of infection. In addition, these vaccinated mice, in comparison to non-vaccinated ones, showed reduced parasite burden by 59% and 68%, respectively. The protective effect was related to the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by vaccination and included the release of Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12, antigen-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, and production of antigen-specific serum antibodies. Our results demonstrate that microneme proteins are potential vaccines against T. gondii, since their inoculation prevents or decreases the deleterious effects of the infection. PMID:26575028

  10. Toxoplasmosis in Italian pregnant women: results of a survey on perception of foodborne risks.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Marotta, Valentina; Sattanino, Giuseppe; Griglio, Bartolomeo

    2009-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis, an infection by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is a significant cause of fetal and neonatal mortality when acquired in utero and an important contributor to early and later childhood morbidity. Data present in the scientific literature are not univocal regarding the foodborne risk factors for T. gondii infection and the processing methods able to neutralize the parasite in food. We conducted a Delphi survey among experts to inquire as to their opinion on controversial issues regarding T. gondii risk factors, and we compared their position with that of a group of pregnant women in order to gather data for writing information guidelines on food safety during pregnancy. Between May 2005 and March 2006, we sent a questionnaire to 34 Italian experts in clinical medicine and food safety asking them to rank the risk of toxoplasmosis for different food items. We then compared their position with the results of the survey on T. gondii risk perception of pregnant women conducted in our Local Health Unit on the same issues. The risk as perceived by pregnant women and clinical experts appeared to be higher than that of food safety experts. The apparent overestimation of the risk in the group of pregnant women may induce erroneous or overcautious behaviors toward food safety and may induce women to exclude from their diet foods that are in fact not a risk for toxoplasmosis. The information collected with this study will contribute to the food safety information campaign for pregnant women and health professionals, although more studies on risk factors for T. gondii infection are recommended. PMID:19343964

  11. Fatal extraintestinal toxoplasmosis in a young male cat with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Tamara M; Blois, Shauna; Vince, Andrew R

    2016-05-01

    A 22-month-old indoor/outdoor neutered male domestic short-haired cat had a history of progressive lethargy, vomiting, and decreased appetite. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular hyperechoic mass in the mid-abdomen. He was unresponsive to symptomatic medical management and was euthanized after 3 days of hospitalization. A diagnosis of disseminated extraintestinal toxoplasmosis was made based on the finding of intracytoplasmic protozoan parasites on histopathological examination of mesenteric lymph nodes, hepatic and intestinal samples, and on immunohistochemistry. PMID:27152033

  12. Identification of soluble and membrane antigenic markers of acquired toxoplasmosis by immunoblot.

    PubMed

    Khammari, I; Saghrouni, F; Lakhal, S; Bougmiza, I; Bouratbine, A; Ben Said, M; Boukadida, J

    2014-12-01

    The overall performance of quantitative assays in the detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG is satisfactory, but discrepancies between assays are not uncommon especially when IgG concentrations are close to the limit of detection of the tests. The purpose of our study was to identify soluble and membrane antigens extracted from Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites by immunoblot to select the most relevant antigenic bands to be used for qualitative serodiagnosis of acquired toxoplasmosis. We selected five relevant bands (98, 36, 33, 32 and 21 kDa) with soluble antigens and four relevant bands (42, 35, 32 and 30 kDa) with membrane antigens which gave high sensitivity and/or specificity in immunodiagnosis. The association on the same blot of at least three of the five relevant bands in the soluble antigen immunoblot showed the highest sensitivity/specificity (97.4%/99.0%, respectively). Our results indicate that immunoblot using soluble tachyzoite extract with simultaneous detection of at least three of the five bands (98, 36, 33, 32 and 21 kDa) represents a valuable test for serodiagnosis of acquired toxoplasmosis and should be further evaluated as a confirmatory test for sera which give discrepant results in quantitative assays. PMID:25384440

  13. Epizootic disseminated toxoplasmosis in captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Juan-Salls, C; Prats, N; Lpez, S; Domingo, M; Marco, A J; Morn, J F

    1997-01-01

    Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in seven captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) according to clinicopathologic findings and immunohistochemistry. Five of nine meerkats died during an outbreak in late 1994. These included four kits (2.5 to 4.5 months old) and a 4-year-old meerkat. Two other meerkats, both adults, died in 1992 and 1995. Respiratory insufficiency (4/7) and incoordination (3/7) were the most consistent clinical signs. although two of seven meerkats died unexpectedly. At necropsy, the lungs were reddened and noncollapsed (6/7), and had multiple pale round foci (4/7). Yellow foci of necrosis in mesenteric lymph nodes (4/7), splenomegaly (3/7), and hydropericardium (3/7) were other common gross findings. Microscopically, interstitial pneumonia was present in all seven meerkats, being acute to subacute in six of them. Type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia, aggregates of foamy macrophages, and giant cells were consistently seen. Multifocal to locally extensive necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes (4/7), mild to severe multifocal necrotizing hepatitis (5/6), and mild nonsuppurative encephalitis (4/6) were also seen. Toxoplasma-like organisms were consistently associated with these lesions and were stained by the avidin biotin peroxidase procedure with an antiserum that does not cross-react with Neospora caninum. Meerkats were most likely infected after an oral, primary exposure to Toxoplasma. Several observations indicate that meerkats may be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis. PMID:9150539

  14. Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic New Zealand birds.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; Burrows, Elizabeth; Roe, Wendi

    2014-03-01

    Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic New Zealand avian species are reported. Between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), and one North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. On gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. Histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of the kiwi while the kaka and kereru showed severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In the kiwi, protozoal organisms were present within both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver and within the epithelial cells and macrophages of the interstitium of the lungs in the kaka and two kereru. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue of the liver, lungs, or both. Genotyping of up to seven markers revealed that an atypical Type II isolate of Toxoplasma gondii was present in at least three of the cases. This study provides evidence that T. gondii can cause mortality in these endemic species and suggests further research is needed to determine the full extent of morbidity and mortality caused by this parasite in New Zealand's unique avifauna. PMID:24758132

  15. The Unexpected Role for the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor on Susceptibility to Experimental Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Yuriko; de Dios Rosado, Juan; Vega, Libia; Elizondo, Guillermo; Estrada-Muñiz, Elizabeth; Saavedra, Rafael; Juárez, Imelda; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is part of a signaling system that is mainly triggered by xenobiotic agents. Increasing evidence suggests that AhR may regulate immunity to infections. To determine the role of AhR in the outcome of toxoplasmosis, we used AhR−/− and wild-type (WT) mice. Following an intraperitoneal infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), AhR−/− mice succumbed significantly faster than WT mice and displayed greater liver damage as well as higher serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO), and IgE but lower IL-10 secretion. Interestingly, lower numbers of cysts were found in their brains. Increased mortality was associated with reduced expression of GATA-3, IL-10, and 5-LOX mRNA in spleen cells but higher expression of IFN-γ mRNA. Additionally, peritoneal exudate cells from AhR−/− mice produced higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ but lower TLR2 expression than WT mice. These findings suggest a role for AhR in limiting the inflammatory response during toxoplasmosis. PMID:20111744

  16. Toxoplasmosis May Lead to Road Kills of Persian Leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Golestan National Park, Iran.

    PubMed

    Namroodi, Somayeh; Gholami, Alireza; Shariat-Bahadori, Ehsan

    2016-04-28

    Three Persian leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) that died from car accidents in Golestan National Park, Iran, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii and rabies virus infection. Acute T. gondii infection was diagnosed in two Persian leopards; no rabies virus was detected. Acute toxoplasmosis may be a factor in Persian leopard road kills. PMID:26981691

  17. Unexpected Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis by 16S and D2 Large-Subunit Ribosomal DNA PCR and Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kvich, Lasse; Eickhardt, Steffen; Omland, Lars H.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes severe opportunistic infections. Here, we report an unexpected diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was diagnosed by 16S and D2 large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing of a cerebral biopsy specimen and confirmed by T. gondii-specific PCR and immunohistochemistry. The patient was later diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25854484

  18. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  19. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health. PMID:25651689

  20. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  1. Recombinant Dense Granular Protein (GRA5) for Detection of Human Toxoplasmosis by Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Xiao Teng; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Andiappan, Hemah

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5) in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5) was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp.). PMID:24987700

  2. Chronic Toxoplasmosis Modulates the Induction of Contact Hypersensitivity by TNCB in Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of chronic toxoplasmosis and atopic dermatitis (AD) were combined to clarify the effect of opportunistic Toxoplasma gondii infection on the development of AD. AD was induced as a chronic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) with repeated challenge of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on the dorsal skin of mice. TNCB induced skin thickness increases in both normal and toxoplasmic mice. The changing patterns were different from the sigmoidal which saturated at 20 days in normal mice to the convex saturated at 12 days in toxoplasmic mice with the crossing at 18 days. Compared to normal mice, toxoplasmic mice presented CHS more severely in earlier times and then moderately in later times. These data suggest that host immune modification by T. gondii infection enhances CHS in early times of atopic stimulation but soothes the reaction of CHS in later times in mouse model. PMID:26797445

  3. Comparative host-parasite relationships in ovine toxoplasmosis and bovine neosporosis and strategies for vaccination.

    PubMed

    Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Maley, Stephen W; Wright, Stephen E; Buxton, David

    2007-07-26

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are important causes of reproductive loss in ruminant species worldwide. Both parasites cause disease during pregnancy that may result in foetal death or birth of live congenitally infected offspring. T. gondii is also an important human pathogen with the main risk groups including pregnant women and immuno-compromised individuals, although clinical disease has also been observed in outbreaks among immuno-competent people. While the two parasites are closely related there are distinct differences between the two in their interactions with different host species and subsequent clinical outcome. This paper discusses the respective host-parasite relationships in ovine toxoplasmosis and bovine neosporosis and how the immune response may be host-protective, parasite-protective or contribute to disease pathogenesis, and how this knowledge may help in the development of more effective and targeted vaccination strategies. PMID:17367899

  4. Toxoplasmosis Infection and Cognitive Deficit after Electroconvulsive Treatment (ECT), Is There a Connection?

    PubMed Central

    E. Berg, John

    2012-01-01

    Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) has developed over 70 years to a modern, effective way of lifting depressive moods. Memory loss and visual acuity after electroconvulsive treatment is the only remaining relevant criticism of the treatment modality when considering the overall rate of remission from this treatment compared to all other treatment modalities. A depressive state impedes memory, and memory improves on several qualities of cognition after treatment. However, the comparison of a person’s memory ability from the months before depression started to the level after a course of ECT is never performed, for obvious reasons. Some infectious diseases are known to influence memory negatively through effects on the dopamine receptors. More specifically, former toxoplasmosis infection may be a factor. Preliminary data on titres of toxoplasma IgG may indicate a connection to the development of long-standing memory problems after ECT. PMID:24600630

  5. Observational study to assess pregnant women’s knowledge and behaviour to prevent toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) can negatively affect pregnancy outcomes, but can be prevented by simple precautions of pregnant women. Literature suggests that pregnant women are not always adequately informed by their care provider about preventable infectious diseases and most pregnant women have a low level of knowledge regarding these topics. There is not much information about the actual risk behaviour of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge and risk behaviour related to toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and CMV infection prevention in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional survey among pregnant women from twenty midwifery practices across the Netherlands that participated in the DELIVER study, between October 2010 and December 2010. The questionnaire items covered respondents’ knowledge of preventive practices in general, risk behaviour, and sources of received information. Results Of the 1,097 respondents (response 66.0%), 75.3% had heard, read or seen information about toxoplasmosis, 61.7% about listeriosis and 12.5% about CMV. The majority reported having heard about these infections from their care providers or read about these in printed media or on the Internet. Respondents showed limited knowledge about preventive practices for toxoplasmosis, listeriosis or CMV infection. Regarding toxoplasmosis, risk behaviour was more prevalent among respondents who had a high level of education, had the Dutch nationality, did not take folic acid during their first trimester, and had ever worked in a children day-care setting. Regarding listeriosis, risk behaviour was more prevalent among respondents who where in their third trimester. Regarding CMV infections, risk behaviour was less prevalent among respondents who were in their third trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion Of the respondents, a substantial part did not have knowledge about preventive practices to avoid listeriosis, toxoplasmosis and CMV infections during pregnancy. Many pregnant women are appropriately avoiding risk behaviour, without knowing what they are avoiding. Advising pregnant women about behaviours and life-style habits to prevent infectious diseases remains important and information about preventive practices need to be complete and adequate. However, it may be less important to give pregnant women specific infectious diseases information. More attention towards CMV is necessary. PMID:23627427

  6. Use of IgG in Oral Fluid To Monitor Infants with Suspected Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Chapey, Emmanuelle; Meroni, Valeria; Kieffer, François; Bollani, Lina; Ecochard, René; Garcia, Patricia; Wallon, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Infants born to mothers who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of sequelae. In the case of a negative work-up at birth, congenital infection can be ruled out only by monitoring the disappearance of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) transmitted through the placenta, which can be achieved by regular blood sampling during the first year. To alleviate the discomfort of this follow-up, we developed an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect specific IgG diffusing passively from the blood through the gingival epithelium by collecting oral fluid on microsponges. To assess the feasibility of the test, 212 patients were first enrolled. Levels of specific IgG in oral fluid were significantly higher in seropositive (n = 195) than in seronegative (n = 17) patients (mean optical densities, 1.145 ± 0.99 versus 0.092 ± 0.127; P < 0.0001). In a population of 93 patients <15 months of age born to mothers who displayed toxoplasmic infection during pregnancy, 70 were free of congenital infection and were followed up until their serology turned negative, and 23 were congenitally infected. The same patterns of IgG were observed in the oral fluid and sera in each group. Using a cutoff of 0.04 (optical density value), the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 67.9% and 80.3%, respectively, and the probability of not having a congenital infection when the test on oral fluid was negative was 99%. Although the performance of the test needs to be improved, oral fluid sampling appears to be a promising tool for monitoring infants with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:25651923

  7. Value of Prenatal Diagnosis and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Retrospective Study of 110 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Gavinet, Marie-Françoise; Ancelle, Thierry; Raymond, Josette; Tourte-Schaefer, Claudine; Dupouy-Camet, Jean

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed the files of 110 women with Toxoplasma seroconversion during pregnancy. Prenatal diagnosis was attempted for 94 women by amniotic fluid sampling. Toxoplasma gondii was detected by PCR, with or without tissue culture and mouse inoculation. The early neonatal diagnostic procedure included placental testing by PCR and/or mouse inoculation, cord blood serological testing, and comparison of maternal and newborn antibodies by Western blotting (WB). Serological follow-up of the infants was conducted during the first year of life or until the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) could be ruled out. Congenital infection was diagnosed in 27 individuals (20 live births) in the prenatal and/or neonatal period. The sensitivity and specificity of prenatal diagnosis were 81 and 100%, respectively. Placental examination was positive for 66.7% of individuals with CT and was always negative for neonates without CT. Cord blood serology detected immunoglobulin M (IgM) and/or IgA in 80% of infected newborns, with respective specificities of 91.2 and 87.7%. By WB we detected bands on IgG and IgM blots recognized by the newborn serum but not by the maternal serum (neosynthesized IgG and/or IgM) for 88.2% of infected infants within the first 2 months of life with a specificity of 100%. Early postnatal diagnosis was negative for 2 of the 20 neonates with CT. Both of these newborns had a negative prenatal diagnosis and were asymptomatic, suggesting a very low parasite load. In conclusion, despite the use of advanced methods, some cases of congenital toxoplasmosis cannot be detected early, which underlines the importance of careful follow-up of newborns who are at risk. PMID:10449471

  8. Subretinal Fluid in Eyes with Active Ocular Toxoplasmosis Observed Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qing; Heussen, Florian M.; Keane, Pearse A.; Stübiger, Nicole; Sadda, Srinivas R.; Pleyer, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical finding of subretinal fluid (SRF) in the posterior pole by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Design Retrospective case series. Participants Thirty-eight eyes from 39 patients with active OT. Methods Eyes with active OT which underwent SD-OCT were reviewed. SRFs in the posterior pole were further analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Presence of SRF; its accompanying features, e.g. retinal necrosis, cystoid macular edema (CME), choroidal neovascularization (CNV); and longitudinal changes of SRF, including maximum height and total volume before and after treatment. Results SRF presented in 45.5% (or 15/33) of eyes with typical active OT and in 51.3% (or 20/39) of eyes with active OT. The mean maximum height and total volume of SRF were 161.0 (range: 23–478) µm and 0.47 (range: 0.005–4.12) mm3, respectively. For 12 eyes with SRF related to active retinal necrosis, SRF was observed with complete absorption after conventional anti-toxoplasmosis treatment. The mean duration for observation of SRF clearance was 33.8 (range: 7–84) days. The mean rate of SRF clearance was 0.0128 (range: 0.0002–0.0665) mm3/day. Conclusions SRF (i.e., serous retinal detachment) is a common feature in patients with active OT when SD-OCT is performed. The majority of SRF was associated with retinal necrosis and reacted well to conventional therapy, regardless of total fluid volume. However, SRF accompanying with CME or CNV responded less favorably or remained refractory to conventional or combined intravitreal treatment, even when the SRF was small in size. PMID:26010656

  9. Efficacy of the Bunium persicum (Boiss) Essential Oil against Acute Toxoplasmosis in Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    TAVAKOLI KARESHK, Amir; KEYHANI, Amir; MAHMOUDVAND, Hossein; TAVAKOLI OLIAEI, Razieh; ASADI, Arash; ANDISHMAND, Moazameh; AZZIZIAN, Hossein; BABAEI, Zahra; ZIA-ALI, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the in vivo activity of Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil on infected mice with acute toxoplasmosis. Methods: To evaluate prophylactic effects, male NMRI mice received B. persicum essential oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg for 14 days. After 24 h mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1×104 tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain. In order to investigate therapeutic effects, mice were infected and then received B. persicum oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/kg two times a day for 5 days. The time/mean time of death in all infected mice and the number of tachyzoites from infected mice were recorded. Results: The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 8 and 9 days after oral administration of B. persicum oil at the concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively (P<0.05). In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. In addition, B. persicum significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzoites compared with control group. The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 6 and 7 days after oral administration of B. persicum essential oil at the concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively. In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. B. persicum especially at the concentration of 0.1 ml/kg significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzoites compared with control group. Conclusion: The results showed the potential of B. persicum essential oil as a natural source for the production of new prophylactic agent for use in toxoplasmosis. PMID:26811730

  10. Maternal Serologic Screening to Prevent Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Decision-Analytic Economic Model

    PubMed Central

    Stillwaggon, Eileen; Carrier, Christopher S.; Sautter, Mari; McLeod, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine a cost-minimizing option for congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States. Methodology/Principal Findings A decision-analytic and cost-minimization model was constructed to compare monthly maternal serological screening, prenatal treatment, and post-natal follow-up and treatment according to the current French (Paris) protocol, versus no systematic screening or perinatal treatment. Costs are based on published estimates of lifetime societal costs of developmental disabilities and current diagnostic and treatment costs. Probabilities are based on published results and clinical practice in the United States and France. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate robustness of results. Universal monthly maternal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis with follow-up and treatment, following the French protocol, is found to be cost-saving, with savings of $620 per child screened. Results are robust to changes in test costs, value of statistical life, seroprevalence in women of childbearing age, fetal loss due to amniocentesis, and to bivariate analysis of test costs and incidence of primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy. Given the parameters in this model and a maternal screening test cost of $12, screening is cost-saving for rates of congenital infection above 1 per 10,000 live births. If universal testing generates economies of scale in diagnostic tools—lowering test costs to about $2 per test—universal screening is cost-saving at rates of congenital infection well below the lowest reported rates in the United States of 1 per 10,000 live births. Conclusion/Significance Universal screening according to the French protocol is cost saving for the US population within broad parameters for costs and probabilities. PMID:21980546

  11. Toxoplasmosis and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Macropus rufus and Macropus giganteus in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moré, G; Pardini, L; Basso, W; Machuca, M; Bacigalupe, D; Villanueva, M C; Schares, G; Venturini, M C; Venturini, L

    2010-04-19

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is frequently asymptomatic; however, it can be severe or even fatal to some hosts. In this study, diagnosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis in one red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and one great grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) from the La Plata Zoo, Argentina and the isolation and molecular characterization of T. gondii are reported. Both male kangaroos showed depression and sudden death. Toxoplasma gondii infection was diagnosed by fresh examination, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, PCR and bioassay in mice. During fresh examination many protozoan cysts were observed in diaphragm, heart and hind limb muscles of M. rufus. Cysts were also observed in samples from M. giganteus, although in lower number. Cysts from both kangaroos stained strongly with T. gondii anti-serum by immunohistochemistry. The M. rufus showed more considerable histopathological lesions like non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, myositis and myocarditis. All mice inoculated with tissues from both kangaroos developed IFAT titers to T. gondii (titer >or=800) and brain cysts at necropsy. Both T. gondii isolates were maintained by mice passages and the M. rufus isolate was also maintained in cell culture. Toxoplasma gondii DNA from tissue samples was analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis using the markers 5'SAG2, 3'SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, c22-8, L358, PK1, c29-2 and Apico. Genotyping revealed that the T. gondii isolate from M. rufus was clonal type III and the isolate from M. giganteus was clonal type II. This is the first report of disseminated toxoplasmosis in M. rufus and M. giganteus in Argentina caused by genotypes of T. gondii considered non-virulent in a mouse model. PMID:20045255

  12. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Amany M.; Ahmed, Azza K.; Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26537040

  13. Identification and characterization of Toxoplasma gondii aspartic protease 1 as a novel vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can pose a serious threat to human health by causing toxoplasmosis. There are no drugs that target the chronic cyst stage of this infection; therefore, development of an effective vaccine would be an important advance. Aspartic proteases play essential roles in the T. gondii lifecycle. The parasite has four aspartic protease encoding genes, which are called toxomepsin 1, 2, 3 and 5 (TgASP1, 2, 3 and 5, respectively). Methods Bioinformatics approaches have enabled us to identify several promising linear-B cell epitopes and potential Th-cell epitopes on TgASP1, thus supporting its potential as a DNA vaccine against toxoplasmosis. We expressed TgASP1 in Escherichia coli and used the purified protein to immunize BALB/c mice. The antibodies obtained were used to determine where TgASP1 was localized in the parasite. We also made a TgASP1 DNA vaccine construct and evaluated it for the level of protection conferred to mice against infection with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. Results TgASP1 appears to be a membrane protein located primarily at the tip of the T. gondii tachyzoite. Investigation of its potential as a DNA vaccine showed that it elicited strong humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and that these responses were mediated by Th-1 cells. Mice immunized with the vaccine had greater levels of protection against mortality following challenge with T. gondii RH tachyzoites than did those immunized with PBS or the empty vector control. Conclusions TgASP1 is a novel candidate DNA vaccine that merits further investigation. PMID:23768047

  14. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Amany M; Ahmed, Azza K; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26537040

  15. Impact of Technological and Structural Change on Employment. Prospective Analysis 2020. Synthesis Report. Report to the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament. Technical Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    The possible impact of technological and structural change on employment in the European Union (EU) over the next 20 years was examined through an exploration of the following alternative policy-driven scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) concentrated technology policy (increases in innovation and research and development [R&D] efforts are

  16. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... infects cats and can be found in the soil. The infection can be acquired by ingesting contaminated ... fruits and vegetables that are grown in contaminated soil, from the soil itself, from contaminated water, and ...

  17. Waterborne toxoplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans become infected with Toxoplasma gondii mainly by ingesting uncooked meat containing viable tissue cysts or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts from the feces of infected cats. Circumstantial evidence suggests that oocyst-induced infections in humans are clinically more severe...

  18. First isolation and genetic characterization of a Toxoplasma gondii strain from a symptomatic human case of congenital toxoplasmosis in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Costache, Carmen Anca; Colosi, Horaţiu Alexandru; Blaga, Ligia; Györke, Adriana; Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Colosi, Ioana Alina; Ajzenberg, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Very limited data exists on the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii from Eastern Europe. We present the first Romanian case of symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis in which the T. gondii strain was isolated after inoculation in mice of a cerebrospinal fluid sample from a living neonate. The T. gondii strain was genotyped with 15 microsatellite markers distributed on 10 of the 14 chromosomes of T. gondii. The strain had a type II genotype. PMID:23537840

  19. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates and toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in stray cats of İzmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Hüseyin; Döşkaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H Gökhan; Caner, Ayşe; İz, Sultan Gülce; Döşkaya, Aysu Değirmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Çağdaş; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçalı, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of İzmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in İzmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42-48% and 33.4-34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P = 0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in İzmir. PMID:25127360

  20. Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates and Toxoplasmosis Seroprevalence in Stray Cats of İzmir, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Can, Hüseyin; Döşkaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H. Gökhan; Caner, Ayşe; İz, Sultan Gülce; Döşkaya, Aysu Değirmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Çağdaş; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçalı, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of İzmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in İzmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42–48% and 33.4–34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P = 0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in İzmir. PMID:25127360

  1. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from autopsy proven cases of AIDS associated cerebral toxoplasmosis in South India.

    PubMed

    Vijaykumar, B R; Lekshmi, Swathi U; Sai Kant, R; Vaigundan, D; Mahadevan, Anita; Rajendran, C; Shankar, S K; Jayshree, R S

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) infection can be devastating in the immunodeficient causing high morbidity and mortality. Due to limited availability of both diagnostic facilities and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), toxoplasmosis continues to be a significant problem amongst Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients in India. While scanty literature is available on T. gondii isolates in animals in India, little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite in humans. Therefore, the present study investigated the genetic diversity of T. gondii in 25 confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis developing on the background of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/AIDS. PCR DNA sequencing was performed at four important genetic loci of T. gondii: BTUB, GRA6, alternative SAG2 (alt SAG2) and SAG3 on DNA from tissues obtained at postmortem. The amplified products from all the cases were successfully sequenced except at one locus for one case. Results of the present study suggest that majority of the patients (22/25; 88%) in South India are infected with strains that are recombinants of type II/III and/or strains representing T. gondii different from the archetypal lineages I, II, and III. In addition, clonal types III, MAS, and MAS variant genotypes were encountered. No clonal type I or II was seen in the present study. In addition, variants were observed at alt SAG2 and SAG3 but BTUB and GRA6 were highly conserved. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed mainly at two loci which are coding for surface antigens at alt SAG2 and SAG3. In conclusion, the present study reveals genetic diversity in India amongst strains of T. gondii from clinical cases of toxoplasmosis which is in accordance with other recent studies showing a high rate of genetic diversity in this parasite across the globe. There is a need to genotype T. gondii from different forms of toxoplasmosis in humans in India. PMID:26802459

  2. An elevated blood glucose level and increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women with latent toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Kankova, Sarka; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    About 30-50% of the world human population are infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908). Latent toxoplasmosis has many specific behavioural and physiological effects on the human body and influences the course of pregnancy, including secondary sex ratio of children of infected mothers. It was suggested that an increased concentration of glucose could be the proximate cause of increased sex ratio. There are some indirect indications of possible association between toxoplasmosis and certain forms of diabetes. Here we searched for a possible link between latent toxoplasmosis and the level of glucose in the blood. In a cross-sectional study, we found that pregnant women with latent toxoplasmosis had significantly higher blood glucose levels during the oral glucose tolerance test (n = 191, p = 0.010; the level of fasting plasma glucose: mean = 5.04 mmol/l vs mean = 4.88 mmol/l; blood glucose level at 1 hour mean = 7.73 mmol/l vs mean = 6.89 mmol/l and blood glucose level at two hours mean = 6.43 mmol/l vs mean = 5.74 mmol/l) and higher prevalence (19.5 %) of gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 532, p = 0.033, odds ratio = 1.78) in the 24-28th gestational weeks than T. gondii-free women (12.0 %). Increased level of glucose and increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus could have considerable clinical impact as contributors to the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in T. gondii-infected women. Our results also brought the first empirical support for the hypothesis that the glucose concentration may play a role in T. gondii-associated offspring sex ratio shifts. PMID:26447941

  3. Screening for active toxoplasmosis in patients by DNA hybridization with the ABGTg7 probe in blood samples.

    PubMed Central

    Angel, S O; Matrajt, M; Margarit, J; Nigro, M; Illescas, E; Pszenny, V; Amendoeira, M R; Guarnera, E; Garberi, J C

    1997-01-01

    We report the potential use of a specific Toxoplasma gondii DNA probe (ABGTg7). We applied a dot blot hybridization assay to blood samples for the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT), acute toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy (ATL), and disseminated toxoplasmosis in transplant recipients (TRs). We studied a total of 84 individuals: 38 patients and 46 controls. We found positive hybridization signals for 12 (66.7%) of 18 patients with confirmed CT, 9 (52.9%) of 17 patients with ATL, and 2 (66.7%) of 3 TRs. PCR assays were performed in parallel for patients with ATL, resulting in T. gondii DNA detection for 10 patients (58.8%). A comparative study between dot blot and PCR assays performed with the blood of mice that had been experimentally infected with tachyzoites gave similar results: 60 and 70% positive results, respectively. Finally, the sum of positive values obtained by both DNA tests (dot blot assay plus PCR) increased the rate of positivity for ATL patients to 76.4%. These results demonstrate that the T. gondii ABGTg7 repetitive DNA element is an additional useful resource for diagnosing Toxoplasma parasitemia in patients with CT and ATL and in TRs. Thus, our ABGTg7-based dot blot test may lead to an improvement in T. gondii detection methods in patients with acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:9041395

  4. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Antenatal Women with Bad Obstetric History in a Tertiary-care Hospital of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, B.; Sharma, Neelam; Roy, Rabindra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well-documented cause of bad obstetric history (BOH) and a major reason of congenitally-acquired infection. The study was conducted to determine the seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in women with BOH, attending the antenatal clinic of the Mamata General Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study subjects included 105 antenatal women with BOH and 105 antenatal women who had previous normal deliveries. A serological evaluation was carried out to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, using commercial diagnostic kits, by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The seropositivity for Toxoplasma was 49.52% in the study group compared to 12.38% in the control group. The difference in seropositivity was significant (p=0.00). The seroprevalence gradually increased with advancing age. Abortion (51.92%) was the commonest form of pregnancy wastage, followed by stillbirths (36.53%) and premature deliveries (7.69%). The seropositivity of toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in the study group than that in the control group, and the seropositivity played an important role in determining the foetal outcome. Considering the subclinical pattern of infection, routine serological test is recommended for all pregnant women for both IgG and IgM antibodies. PMID:22524124

  5. Association of a NOD2 Gene Polymorphism and T-Helper 17 Cells With Presumed Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Míriam S.; Béla, Samantha R.; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L.; Fakiola, Michaela; Cruz, Ariane G.; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Quites, Humberto F.; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M. G.; Peixe, Ricardo G.; Campos, Wesley R.; Higino-Rocha, Anna C.; Miller, Nancy E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Antonelli, Lis R.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2013-01-01

    Retinochoroiditis manifests in patients infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we assessed 30 sibships and 89 parent/case trios of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis (POT) to evaluate associations with polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within the NOD2 gene were genotyped. The family-based association test showed that the tag-SNP rs3135499 is associated with retinochoroiditis (P = .039). We then characterized the cellular immune response of 59 cases of POT and 4 cases of active ocular toxoplasmosis (AOT). We found no differences in levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 produced by T-helper 1 cells when comparing patients with AOT or POT to asymptomatic individuals. Unexpectedly, we found an increased interleukin 17A (IL-17A) production in patients with POT or OAT. In patients with POT or AOT, the main cellular source of IL-17A was CD4+CD45RO+T-bet−IFN-γ− T-helper 17 cells. Altogether, our results suggest that NOD2 influences the production of IL-17A by CD4+ T lymphocytes and might contribute to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:23100559

  6. Toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis and brucellosis in stray dogs housed at the shelter in Umuarama municipality, Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are diseases with worldwide distribution. Among stray dogs, these zoonoses are facilitated by direct contact with other animal species, by the habit of scavenging garbage and hunting in search of food, drinking standing water, smelling other animals’ urine, licking female genitalia and the sexual act itself. The objective of this study was to detect antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella canis and anti-Brucella abortus in stray dogs housed in shelters at Umuarama city, Paraná, Brazil. In order to detect toxoplasmosis, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed, agglutination microscopic (MAT) test for leptospirosis and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and buffered acidified antigen (BAA) tests for brucellosis. Results Of the 175 serum samples analyzed, 70.85% were considered positive for toxoplasmosis by IFA, 20% by MAT for leptospirosis and 2.85% by AGID for Brucella canis. Conclusions The serological results of this study showed that stray dogs housed at the private shelter are potential carriers of these three different zoonoses and contribute to the spread and maintenance of these etiologic agents in the urban area of Umuarama (PR), Brazil. PMID:24066949

  7. Sero-epidemiology of equine toxoplasmosis using a latex agglutination test in the three metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saqib, M; Hussain, M H; Sajid, M S; Mansoor, M K; Asi, M N; Fadya, A A K; Zohaib, A; Sial, A U R; Muhammad, G; Ullah, I

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious threat for livestock in addition to being of zoonotic significance. In this study, serodiagnosis of equine toxoplasmosis was conducted in a randomly selected population from the 3 metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan. To this end, 272 draught equines were screened using a commercial latex agglutination assay kit. Association of probable risk factors of equine toxoplasmosis was also documented. A total of 91 (33.5%) equines were found sero-positive for Toxoplama (T.) gondii having antibody titers ranging between 1:32 to 1:612. The highest rates of seropositive cases were observed in donkeys (58.7%) followed by mules (28.6%) and horses (23.5%). Age, sex and species of draught equines were found not to be statistically (p>0.05) associated with the distribution of T. gondii antibodies. The results of the study provided a baseline data for the exposure of equine population in this area. In addition, it is recommended that the contiguous population of domestic ruminants and possible reservoirs such as feral cats should be screened in order to explore the potential risk for the human population in Pakistan. PMID:26691256

  8. Usefulness of Stereotactic biopsy and neuroimaging in management of HIV-1 clade C associated focal brain lesions with special focus on cerebral toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Shyam Babu, C; Satishchandra, P; Mahadevan, A; Shibu Pillai, V; Ravishankar, S; Sidappa, N; Udaykumar, Ranga; Ravi, V; Shankar, SK

    2015-01-01

    Background Focal brain lesions (FBL) in HIV/AIDS frequently pose a diagnostic dilemma as the etiology varies from infective (tuberculoma, toxoplasmosis and tuberculous abscesses) to neoplastic lesions like lymphoma. For determining etiology, advanced neuroimaging techniques, serological and molecular biological tests have been evolved with varying sensitivities/specificities. Stereotactic biopsy (STB) of the lesions is reserved for lesions unresponsive to appropriate therapy. Objective & Methods In this study, the diagnostic yield of neuroimaging [Cranial CT (n=25), MRI (n=24), and Th 201/99 Tc SPECT scan (n=18)] is compared with histopathological diagnosis obtained by STB (n=21) or autopsy (n=4) in 25 HIV-1 subtype C seropositive individuals with FBL identified by neuroimaging with special reference to cerebral toxoplasmosis in an eighteen month study period (2006–2007). Results & conclusion Cerebral toxoplasmosis was the most frequent cause of FBL (21/25, 84%), followed by one case each of tuberculoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), the last two diagnosed at autopsy. Of the 21 cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, definitive diagnosis with histopathological confirmation was available in 14/21 (66.6%), with indirect evidence suggesting probable toxoplasmosis in seven, all of whom responded to antitoxoplasma therapy. CT and MRI had comparable specificities (75%), while MRI had marginally higher sensitivity (85% versus 80.9%) in detecting multiple lesions. The positive predictive value of both CT and MRI were identical (94.4%), suggesting that CT maybe a cost effective screening tool in resource restricted settings, for evaluating FBL. Sensitivity of 99Tc SPECT scan for diagnosing inflammatory lesions was 75% but failed to differentiate PCNSL from toxoplasmosis. This study is the first of its kind from India analysing FBL with specific focus on cerebral toxoplasmosis in the setting of HIV-1 subtype C. PMID:23153789

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Kyrgyzstan: Seroprevalence, Risk Factor Analysis, and Estimate of Congenital and AIDS-Related Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Bodosheva, Aigerim; Kuttubaev, Omurbek; Hehl, Adrian B.; Tanner, Isabelle; Ziadinov, Iskender; Torgerson, Paul R.; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG) against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8–7.8) (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9–6.5), and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5–21.7) (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1–19.3), respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked meat, as well as cat ownership, had no significant influence on the risk for seropositivity. Conclusions We present a first seroprevalence analysis for human T. gondii infection in the Kyrgyz Republic. Based on these data we estimate that 173 (95% CI 136–216) Kyrgyz children will be born annually to mothers who seroconverted to toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. In addition, between 350 and 1,000 HIV-infected persons are currently estimated to be seropositive for toxoplasmosis. Taken together, this suggests a substantial impact of congenital and AIDS-related symptomatic toxoplasmosis on morbidity and mortality in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:23409201

  10. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  11. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in rural and urban communities from Los Rios Region, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Munoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Campbell, Christopher; Berg, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a prevalent protozoan infection with a complex lifecycle and wide profile of risk factors. The impact of congenital infection is well documented; however, there is increasing evidence of a much broader range of potential health outcomes and the need to improve our understanding of the transmission patterns and infection sources in the overall population. This study examined the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in distinct community types from a highly endemic area of Chile. Methods A cross-sectional serosurvey was carried out in households from urban slums, rural villages, and farms which included collection of blood samples, as well as data on sociodemographic, behavioral, and spatial variables. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. Avidity index was obtained for IgG-positive samples. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to identify associations with relevant risk factors. Results Crude seroprevalence was 55.9% (95% CI: 52.6–59.1%) with no difference by community type. Results are indicative of early exposure to the parasite, including 40% of 13- to 17-year olds who were already seropositive. Sociodemographic factors associated with seropositivity included age, occupations, and income. However, sex modified the effect of occupation as well as of income. Practices associated with increased seropositivity were consumption of sheep and locally produced vegetables as well as cleaning household barns or sheds. Boiling water for household use was a protective factor. Living on a sloped terrain without vegetation was a protective factor, while living in an area with high flow accumulation index was a risk factor. Conclusions Seroprevalence of infection was high in both rural and urban slum communities with unique risk factor profiles for each community type. Findings highlight the role of the household and the community environment as influential factors in the epidemiology of the infection. Increasing awareness is needed at the health care and public health levels to establish disease burden and options for suitable control programs. PMID:26968154

  12. The Present Situation and the Future Prospects of Apprenticeship Training in the European Union. Contribution for the FORCE Seminar in Dublin on 30.09.94 with Participants from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. European Report. CEDEFOP Panorama. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart

    Until the present, in those countries where it exists, a craft apprenticeship is a precondition for access to a profession or authorization to set up one's own business. With the spread of advanced technical training schools, technical colleges, and universities in the Member States of the European Community, a decline in the attractiveness of…

  13. Triclosan and triclosan-loaded liposomal nanoparticles in the treatment of acute experimental toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    El-Zawawy, Lobna A; El-Said, Doaa; Mossallam, Shereen F; Ramadan, Heba S; Younis, Salwa S

    2015-02-01

    Efficacy of triclosan (TS) and TS-loaded liposomes against the virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) was evaluated. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with 10(4) tachyzoites of RH HXGPRT(-) strain of T. gondii, then were orally treated with 150 mg/kg TS or 100 mg/kg TS liposomes twice daily for 4 days. Mice mortality, peritoneal and liver parasite burdens, viability, infectivity and ultrastructural changes of peritoneal tachyzoites of infected treated mice were studied, in comparison with those of infected non-treated controls. Drug safety was biochemically assessed by measuring liver enzymes and thyroxin. Both TS and TS liposomes induced significant reduction in mice mortality, parasite burden, viability and infectivity of tachyzoites harvested from infected treated mice. Scanning electron microscopy of treated tachyzoites showed distorted shapes, reduced sizes, irregularities, surface protrusions, erosions and peeling besides apical region distortion. Transmission electron microscopy showed that treated tachyzoites were intracellularly distorted, had cytoplasmic vacuolation, discontinuous plasma membranes, nuclear abnormalities and disrupted internal structures. Besides, in TS liposomes-treated subgroup, most tachyzoites were seen intracellularly with complete disintegration of the parasite plasma and nuclear membranes, with complete destruction of the internal structures. Biochemical safety of TS and TS liposomes was proven. Accordingly, TS can be considered as a promising alternative to the standard therapy for treating acute murine toxoplasmosis. Liposomal formulation of TS enhanced its efficacy and allowed its use in a lower dose. PMID:25499511

  14. Chronic murine toxoplasmosis is defined by subtle changes in neuronal connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Parlog, Alexandru; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Weller, Marianna; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Mawrin, Christian; Korte, Martin; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies correlate chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection with behavioral changes in rodents; additionally, seropositivity in humans is reported to be associated with behavioral and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study we investigated whether the described behavioral changes in a murine model of chronic toxoplasmosis are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity and brain neuronal circuitry. In mice chronically infected with T. gondii, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data analysis displayed the presence of heterogeneous lesions scattered throughout all brain areas. However, a higher density of lesions was observed within specific regions such as the somatosensory cortex (SSC). Further histopathological examination of these brain areas indicated the presence of activated resident glia and recruited immune cells accompanied by limited alterations of neuronal viability. In vivo diffusion-tensor MRI analysis of neuronal fiber density within the infected regions revealed connectivity abnormalities in the SSC. Altered fiber density was confirmed by morphological analysis of individual, pyramidal and granule neurons, showing a reduction in dendritic arbor and spine density within the SSC, as well as in the hippocampus. Evaluation of synapse efficacy revealed diminished levels of two key synaptic proteins, PSD95 and synaptophysin, within the same brain areas, indicating deficits in functionality of the synaptic neurotransmission in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. gondii infection in a murine model results in synaptic deficits within brain structures leading to disturbances in the morphology of noninfected neurons and modified brain connectivity, suggesting a potential explanation for the behavioral and neuropsychiatric alterations. PMID:24524910

  15. HUMAN TOXOPLASMOSIS OUTBREAKS AND THE AGENT INFECTING FORM. FINDINGS FROM A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Luciana Regina; Ekman, Claudio Cesar Jaguaribe; Andrade jR, Heitor Franco de; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide highly prevalent zoonotic infection, is transmitted either by the oocysts, from water and soil, or the tissue cysts, in raw or undercooked infected meat, of Toxoplasma gondii. An ongoing debate is whether there are differences between the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the outbreaks due to one or the other infective form of the agent. We performed a systematic review, recovering 437 reported outbreaks of which 38 were selected. They were complete reports containing ascribed Toxoplasma infecting form, and clinical and demographic data. There was no gender or age group selection in the outbreaks, which were described more often in the Americas. A large number of individuals were affected when oocysts, associated with soil and water contaminated with cat feces, were considered the transmission source. Onset of symptoms occurred early when the infection was ascribed to meat tissue cysts (11.4 ± 6.7 days) with sharpened temporal distribution of cases, while a broader and prolonged appearance of new cases was observed when oocysts in water were the source of the infection (20 ± 7 days, p < 0.001). Such information may be useful in the design and implementation of control strategies. PMID:26603222

  16. Prevalence and risk factors associated to ovine toxoplasmosis in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Carlos Eduardo D'Alencar; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Guimarães, Vitor Andrade Accioly; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from northeastern Brazil. A total of 932 ovine serum samples from 54 properties in 19 municipalities of the state of Sergipe were collected and assayed using indirect fluorescent antibody test. The assay used antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (IFAT-IgG) with a cutoff point of 1:64. We observed that 28.22% (263/932) of the ovine samples were serum-reactive. In a logistic regression, factors such as consumption of water directly from the source, consumption of water from a deep well, and age below 12 months were associated with protection; whereas factors such as presence of cats on the property, presence of slatted floor, and use of exchanged or borrowed breeding males were associated with infection. The studied area can be considered endemic for toxoplasmosis, so it is necessary to adopt preventive and control measures because this zoonotic infection poses risks to public health. PMID:23856735

  17. HUMAN TOXOPLASMOSIS OUTBREAKS AND THE AGENT INFECTING FORM. FINDINGS FROM A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    MEIRELES, Luciana Regina; EKMAN, Claudio Cesar Jaguaribe; de ANDRADE, Heitor Franco; LUNA, Expedito José de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide highly prevalent zoonotic infection, is transmitted either by the oocysts, from water and soil, or the tissue cysts, in raw or undercooked infected meat, of Toxoplasma gondii. An ongoing debate is whether there are differences between the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the outbreaks due to one or the other infective form of the agent. We performed a systematic review, recovering 437 reported outbreaks of which 38 were selected. They were complete reports containing ascribedToxoplasma infecting form, and clinical and demographic data. There was no gender or age group selection in the outbreaks, which were described more often in the Americas. A large number of individuals were affected when oocysts, associated with soil and water contaminated with cat feces, were considered the transmission source. Onset of symptoms occurred early when the infection was ascribed to meat tissue cysts (11.4 ± 6.7 days) with sharpened temporal distribution of cases, while a broader and prolonged appearance of new cases was observed when oocysts in water were the source of the infection (20 ± 7 days, p < 0.001). Such information may be useful in the design and implementation of control strategies. PMID:26603222

  18. Toxoplasma gondii protease inhibitor-1 (TgPI-1) is a novel vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Cuppari, Anahi Fernandez; Sanchez, Vanesa; Ledesma, Bibiana; Frank, Fernanda M; Goldman, Alejandra; Angel, Sergio O; Martin, Valentina

    2008-09-15

    The Toxoplasma gondii serin protease inhibitor-1 (TgPI-1) is a dense granule antigen that showed to specifically inhibit trypsin, chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase, suggesting a possible modulatory role during the parasite invasion process and on the development of the innate immune response. To study the immune-protective value of TgPI-1, C3H/HeN mice were immunized with a recombinant form of the antigen rTgPI-1 combined with alum. All immunized mice produced specific anti-rTgPI-1 immunoglobulins, with high IgG antibody titers and a mixed IgG(1)/IgG(2a) response, with predominance of IgG(1) production. The cellular immune response was associated with the production of IFN-gamma and IL-10 cytokines. Vaccinated mice displayed significant protection against an oral challenge either after a lethal infection with Me49 cysts (90% survival vs. 50%) and also after a non-lethal infection (58% reduction in brain parasite load) compared to the non-vaccinated control group. In conclusion, rTgPI-1 elicits a strong specific immune response providing partial protection against both T. gondii acute and chronic infection, so it would be a good candidate in a vaccine against toxoplasmosis, which could be combined with other relevant parasite antigens. PMID:18675873

  19. In Vitro and in Vivo Effects of Nitrofurantoin on Experimental Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Jin, ChunMei; Kim, SungYeon; Park, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes toxoplasmosis, which has very few therapeutic treatment options. The most effective therapy is a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine; however, their utility is limited because of drug toxicity and serious side effects. For these reasons, new drugs with lower toxicity are urgently needed. In this study, the compound, (Z)-1-[(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)methyleneamino]-imidazolidine-2,4-dione (nitrofurantoin), showed anti-T. gondii effects in vitro and in vivo. In HeLa cells, the selectivity of nitrofurantoin was 2.3, which was greater than that of pyrimethamine (0.9). In T. gondii-infected female ICR mice, the inhibition rate of T. gondii growth in the peritoneal cavity was 44.7% compared to the negative control group after 4-day treatment with 100 mg/kg of nitrofurantoin. In addition, hematology indicators showed that T. gondii infection-induced serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, biochemical parameters involved in liver injury, were reduced by nitrofurantoin significantly. Moreover, nitrofurantoin exerted significant effects on the index of antioxidant status, i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). The nitrofurantoin-treated group inhibited the T. gondii-induced MDA levels while alleviating the decrease in GSH levels. Thus, nitrofurantoin is a potential anti-T. gondii candidate for clinical application. PMID:27180573

  20. Metabolomic Profiling of Mice Serum during Toxoplasmosis Progression Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chun-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Elsheikha, Hany M.; Zhao, Yu; Suo, Xun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of the molecular changes associated with disease is essential for identifying new routes to improved therapeutics and diagnostic tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes in the metabolic profile of mouse sera during T. gondii infection. We carried out untargeted metabolomic analysis of sera collected from female BALB/c mice experimentally infected with the T. gondii Pru strain (Genotype II). Serum samples were collected at 7, 14 and 21 day post infection (DPI) from infected and control mice and were subjected to liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS)-based global metabolomics analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 79 differentially expressed metabolites in ESI+ mode and 74 in ESI− mode in sera of T. gondii-infected mice compared to the control mice. Further principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) identified 19 dysregulated metabolites (5 in ESI+ mode and 14 in ESI− mode) related to the metabolism of amino acids and energy metabolism. The potential utility of these metabolites as diagnostic biomarkers was validated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. These findings provide putative metabolite biomarkers for future study and allow for hypothesis generation about the pathophysiology of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26785939

  1. Metabolomic Profiling of Mice Serum during Toxoplasmosis Progression Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Elsheikha, Hany M; Zhao, Yu; Suo, Xun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of the molecular changes associated with disease is essential for identifying new routes to improved therapeutics and diagnostic tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes in the metabolic profile of mouse sera during T. gondii infection. We carried out untargeted metabolomic analysis of sera collected from female BALB/c mice experimentally infected with the T. gondii Pru strain (Genotype II). Serum samples were collected at 7, 14 and 21 day post infection (DPI) from infected and control mice and were subjected to liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS)-based global metabolomics analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 79 differentially expressed metabolites in ESI+?mode and 74 in ESI- mode in sera of T. gondii-infected mice compared to the control mice. Further principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) identified 19 dysregulated metabolites (5 in ESI+?mode and 14 in ESI- mode) related to the metabolism of amino acids and energy metabolism. The potential utility of these metabolites as diagnostic biomarkers was validated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. These findings provide putative metabolite biomarkers for future study and allow for hypothesis generation about the pathophysiology of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26785939

  2. In Vitro and in Vivo Effects of Nitrofurantoin on Experimental Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Jin, ChunMei; Kim, SungYeon; Park, Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes toxoplasmosis, which has very few therapeutic treatment options. The most effective therapy is a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine; however, their utility is limited because of drug toxicity and serious side effects. For these reasons, new drugs with lower toxicity are urgently needed. In this study, the compound, (Z)-1-[(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)methyleneamino]-imidazolidine-2,4-dione (nitrofurantoin), showed anti-T. gondii effects in vitro and in vivo. In HeLa cells, the selectivity of nitrofurantoin was 2.3, which was greater than that of pyrimethamine (0.9). In T. gondii-infected female ICR mice, the inhibition rate of T. gondii growth in the peritoneal cavity was 44.7% compared to the negative control group after 4-day treatment with 100 mg/kg of nitrofurantoin. In addition, hematology indicators showed that T. gondii infection-induced serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, biochemical parameters involved in liver injury, were reduced by nitrofurantoin significantly. Moreover, nitrofurantoin exerted significant effects on the index of antioxidant status, i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). The nitrofurantoin-treated group inhibited the T. gondii-induced MDA levels while alleviating the decrease in GSH levels. Thus, nitrofurantoin is a potential anti-T. gondii candidate for clinical application. PMID:27180573

  3. Partial protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in mice elicited by recombinant Toxoplasma gondii malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Yanping; Yin, Litian; Liu, Yisheng; Wang, Yanjuan; Zheng, Kuiyang; Cao, Jianping

    2016-02-10

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and wildlife, sometimes causing serious clinical presentations. Currently, no viable vaccine or effective drug strategies exist to prevent and control toxoplasmosis. T. gondii malate dehydrogenase (TgMDH) is a crucial enzyme in cellular redox reactions and has been shown to be an immunogenic compound that could be a potential vaccine candidate. Here, we investigate the protective efficacy of recombinant TgMDH (rTgMDH) against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. All mice were vaccinated via the nasal route. We determined the optimal vaccination dose by monitoring systemic and mucosal immune responses. The results showed that mice vaccinated with 30?g of rTgMDH produced the highest antibody titers in serum, a strong lymphoproliferative response, marked increases in their levels of IL-2 and IFN-?, and significantly greater levels of specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in mucosal washes. In addition, the vaccinated mice were orally challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain 2 weeks after the final vaccination. Compared to the control group, we found that vaccination with rTgMDH increased the survival rate of infected mice by 47% and also significantly reduced the tachyzoite loads in their liver (by 58%) and brain (by 41%). Therefore, the rTgMDH protein triggers a strong systemic and mucosal immune response and provides partial protection against T. gondii infection. PMID:26514423

  4. Molecular markers of susceptibility to ocular toxoplasmosis, host and guest behaving badly

    PubMed Central

    Vallochi, Adriana Lima; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Falcai, Angela; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Kalil, Jorge; Silveira, Cludio; Belfort, Rubens; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii results in retinochoroiditis in 6% to 20% of immunocompetent individuals. The outcome of infection is the result of a set of interactions involving host genetic background, environmental, and social factors, and the genetic background of the parasite, all of which can be further modified by additional infections or even reinfection. Genes that encode several components of the immune system exhibit polymorphisms in their regulatory and coding regions that affect level and type of expression in response to stimuli, directing the immune response into different pathways. These variant alleles have been associated with susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases and with severity of pathology. We have investigated polymorphisms in several of these genes, identified as candidates for progression to retinochoroiditis caused by toxoplasmosis, namely chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), and TLR4. Furthermore, because interleukin-12 (IL-12) has been shown to be fundamental both in mice and in man to control a protective response against T. gondii, molecules that have a key function in IL-12 production will be emphasized in this review, in addition to discussing the importance of the genetic background of the parasite in the establishment of ocular disease. PMID:19668438

  5. Guanabenz repurposed as an antiparasitic with activity against acute and latent toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Benmerzouga, Imaan; Checkley, Lisa A; Ferdig, Michael T; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Wek, Ronald C; Sullivan, William J

    2015-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that persists as a chronic infection. Toxoplasma evades immunity by forming tissue cysts, which reactivate to cause life-threatening disease during immune suppression. There is an urgent need to identify drugs capable of targeting these latent tissue cysts, which tend to form in the brain. We previously showed that translational control is critical during infections with both replicative and latent forms of Toxoplasma. Here we report that guanabenz, an FDA-approved drug that interferes with translational control, has antiparasitic activity against replicative stages of Toxoplasma and the related apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum (a malaria agent). We also found that inhibition of translational control interfered with tissue cyst biology in vitro. Toxoplasma bradyzoites present in these abnormal cysts were diminished and misconfigured, surrounded by empty space not seen in normal cysts. These findings prompted analysis of the efficacy of guanabenz in vivo by using established mouse models of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. In addition to protecting mice from lethal doses of Toxoplasma, guanabenz has a remarkable ability to reduce the number of brain cysts in chronically infected mice. Our findings suggest that guanabenz can be repurposed into an effective antiparasitic with a unique ability to reduce tissue cysts in the brain. PMID:26303803

  6. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge among pregnant and postpartum women attended in public health units in Niterói, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Millar, Patricia Riddell; Moura, Fernanda Loureiro de; Bastos, Otílio Machado Pereira; Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia de; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented. PMID:25229225

  7. TOXOPLASMOSIS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE AMONG PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN ATTENDED IN PUBLIC HEALTH UNITS IN NITERÓI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Patricia Riddell; de Moura, Fernanda Loureiro; Bastos, Otílio Machado Pereira; de Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented. PMID:25229225

  8. The rural-urban effect on spatial genetic structure of type II Toxoplasma gondii strains involved in human congenital toxoplasmosis, France, 2002-2009.

    PubMed

    Ajzenberg, Daniel; Collinet, Frédéric; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Devillard, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis involves Toxoplasma gondii type II strains in 95% of cases in France. We used spatial principal component analysis (sPCA) and 15 microsatellite markers to investigate the spatial genetic structure of type II strains involved in 240 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in France from 2002 through 2009. Mailing addresses of patients were geo-referenced a posteriori in decimal degrees and categorized into urban or rural areas of residence. No spatial genetic structure was found for type II strains that infected mothers who were living in urban areas, but a global spatial genetic structure was found for those that infected mothers who were living in a rural environment. Our results suggest that sources of infection by T. gondii are different in rural and urban areas in France, and advocate for targeted messages in the prevention of toxoplasmosis according to the type of residence of susceptible people. PMID:26305624

  9. Adverse Socioeconomic Conditions and Oocyst-Related Factors Are Associated with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Population-Based Study in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carellos, Ericka Viana Machado; de Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; da Silva, Fabiana Maria; Loures, Ivy Rosa Coelho; de Andrade, Juliana Queiroz; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Objective Congenital toxoplasmosis is a public health problem in Brazil. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais which is the second largest Brazilian State based on number of inhabitants, and its territorial extension is larger than that of France. Methods: Population-based case-control study to assess the association between congenital toxoplasmosis and maternal exposure to infection risk factors. The study included mothers/children participating in the Minas Gerais Newborn Screening Program. The cases consisted of 175 mothers of infected children, and the controls consisted of 278 mothers of children without suspected infection. The associations were assessed through binomial logistic regression with p≤0.05. Results The variables associated with lower probability of toxoplasmosis were: older mother age (OR = 0.89; CI95% = 0.85–0.93), higher level of education (OR = 0.85; CI95% = 0.78–0.92), access to potable water (OR = 0.21; CI95% = 0.08–0.51), and home with flush toilet (OR = 0.18; CI95% = 0.04–078). The variables associated with higher probability of infection were: cats in the neighborhood (OR = 2.27; CI95% = 1.27–4.06), owning or visiting homes with domestic cats (OR = 1.90; CI95% = 1.09–3.31), handling the soil (OR = 2.29; CI95% = 1.32–3.96), and eating fresh meat not previously frozen (OR = 3.97; CI95% = 2.17–7.25). After stratification according region of residence (rural or urban/peri-urban), home with flush toilet and consumption of treated water were protective against the disease only in the rural stratum. Conclusions In Minas Gerais, congenital toxoplasmosis has been associated with poor socioeconomic conditions. Considering maternal exposure to sources of Toxoplasma gondii, the predominating risk factors were those related to the ingestion of oocysts. It is expected that these results will contribute to development of a program for prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis adapted to the reality of the population of Minas Gerais. The differences between populations living in rural and urban areas regarding the main risk factors for toxoplasmosis point to the need of considering regional specificities in planning strategies to control congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24523920

  10. A prospective epidemiological study of new incident GISTs during two consecutive years in Rhône Alpes region: incidence and molecular distribution of GIST in a European region

    PubMed Central

    Cassier, P A; Ducimetière, F; Lurkin, A; Ranchère-Vince, D; Scoazec, J-Y; Bringuier, P-P; Decouvelaere, A-V; Méeus, P; Cellier, D; Blay, J-Y; Ray-Coquard, I

    2010-01-01

    Background: Preliminary data indicate that the molecular epidemiology of localised gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) may be different from that of advanced GIST. We sought to investigate the molecular epidemiology of sarcomas, including GIST, in the Rhone-Alpes region in France. Patients and methods: A prospective and exhaustive study in the Rhone-Alpes Region in France to assess the precise incidence of primary sarcomas with systematic centralised pathological review and molecular analysis was conducted for 2 consecutive years. Results: Among 760 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoma, 131 (17%) had a GIST. The majority of patients had gastric primaries (61%). Mutational analysis could be performed in 106 tumour samples (74%), and 71 (67%) had exon 11 mutations. PDGFRA mutations were found in 16% of cases, which is twice as high as previously reported for advanced GIST. Conclusion: Data indicate that PDGFRA mutations in localised GIST may be twice as high as what was previously reported in patients with advanced disease. This finding may have important consequences for patients offered adjuvant imatinib, although most of these tumours are in the low-risk group. PMID:20588273

  11. Auranofin Is Highly Efficacious against Toxoplasma gondii In Vitro and in an In Vivo Experimental Model of Acute Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Rosa M.; Chaparro, Juan D.; Capparelli, Edmund; Reed, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The mainstay of toxoplasmosis treatment targets the folate biosynthetic pathways and has not changed for the last 50 years. The activity of these chemotherapeutic agents is restricted to one lifecycle stage of Toxoplasma gondii, they have significant toxicity, and the impending threat of emerging resistance to these agents makes the discovery of new therapies a priority. We now demonstrate that auranofin, an orally administered gold containing compound that was FDA approved for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has activity against Toxoplasma gondii in vitro (IC50 = 0.28 µM) and in vivo (1 mg/kg). Methods/Principal Findings Replication within human foreskin fibroblasts of RH tachyzoites was inhibited by auranofin. At 0.4 µM, auranofin inhibited replication, as measured by percent infected fibroblasts at 24 hrs, (10.94% vs. 24.66% of controls; p = 0.0003) with no effect on parasite invasion (16.95% vs. 12.91% p = 0.4331). After 18 hrs, 62% of extracellular parasites treated with auranofin were non-viable compared to control using an ATP viability assay (p = 0.0003). In vivo, a previously standardized chicken embryo model of acute toxoplasmosis was used. Fourteen day old chicken embryos were injected through the chorioallantoic vein with 1×104 tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain. The treatment group received one dose of auranofin at the time of inoculation (1 mg/kg estimated body weight). On day 5, auranofin-treated chicken embryos were 100% protected against death (p = 0.0002) and had a significantly reduced parasite load as determined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and by the number of parasites quantified by real-time PCR. Conclusions These results reveal in vitro and in vivo activity of auranofin against T. gondii, suggesting that it may be an effective alternative treatment for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25079790

  12. Severe hepatitis resulting from toxoplasmosis in a barred owl (Strix varia) from Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mikaelian, I; Dubey, J P; Martineau, D

    1997-01-01

    A female adult barred owl (Strix varia) had been hurt by a car. Its general status declined gradually within 2 wk with anorexia and inactivity. Necropsy examination revealed marked multifocal pale areas in liver, emaciation, and mild airsacculitis and pericarditis. Histopathologic examination revealed severe acute multifocal hepatic necrosis with numerous protozoal tachyzoites within necrotic foci and in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and macrophages. These tachyzoites stained with an indirect immunohistochemistry method for Toxoplasma gondii antigens. This is the first reported case of hepatitis resulting from toxoplasmosis in a raptor. PMID:9356724

  13. The performance of four molecular methods for the laboratory diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in amniotic fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Leandro Emídio; Kanunfre, Kelly Aparecida; Shimokawa, Paulo Tadashi; Targa, Lília Spaleta; Rodrigues, Jonatas Cristian; Domingues, Wilson; Yamamoto, Lidia; Okay, Thelma Suely

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: Toxoplasmosis may be life-threatening in fetuses and in immune-deficient patients. Conventional laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on the presence of IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies; however, molecular techniques have emerged as alternative tools due to their increased sensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 4 PCR-based methods for the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. One hundred pregnant women who seroconverted during pregnancy were included in the study. The definition of cases was based on a 12-month follow-up of the infants. Methods: Amniotic fluid samples were submitted to DNA extraction and amplification by the following 4 Toxoplasma techniques performed with parasite B1 gene primers: conventional PCR, nested-PCR, multiplex-nested-PCR, and real-time PCR. Seven parameters were analyzed, sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and efficiency (Ef). Results: Fifty-nine of the 100 infants had toxoplasmosis; 42 (71.2%) had IgM antibodies at birth but were asymptomatic, and the remaining 17 cases had non-detectable IgM antibodies but high IgG antibody titers that were associated with retinochoroiditis in 8 (13.5%) cases, abnormal cranial ultrasound in 5 (8.5%) cases, and signs/symptoms suggestive of infection in 4 (6.8%) cases. The conventional PCR assay detected 50 cases (9 false-negatives), nested-PCR detected 58 cases (1 false-negative and 4 false-positives), multiplex-nested-PCR detected 57 cases (2 false-negatives), and real-time-PCR detected 58 cases (1 false-negative). Conclusions: The real-time PCR assay was the best-performing technique based on the parameters of Se (98.3%), Sp (100%), PPV (100%), NPV (97.6%), PLR (∞), NLR (0.017), and Ef (99%). PMID:24142364

  14. Prospect redux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemoud, S.; Ustin, S. L.; Verdebout, J.; Schmuck, G.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.

    1995-01-01

    The remote estimation of leaf biochemical content from spaceborne platforms has been the subject of many studies aimed at better understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The major ecological processes involved in exchange of matter and energy, like photosynthesis, primary production, evaportranspiration, respiration, and decomposition can be related to plant properties e.g., chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose and lignin contents. As leaves represent the most important plant surfaces interacting with solar energy, a top priority has been to relate optical properties to biochemical constituents. Two different approaches have been considered: first, statistical correlations between the leaf reflectance (or transmittance) and biochemical content, and second, physically based models of leaf scattering and absorption developed using the laws of optics. Recently reviewed by Verdebout et al., the development of models of leaf optical properties has resulted in better understanding of the interaction of light with plant leaves. Present radiative transfer models mainly use chlorophyll and/or water contents as input parameters to calculate leaf reflectance. Inversion of these models allows to retrieve these constituents from spectrophotometric measurements. Conel et al. recently proposed a two-stream Kubelka-Munk model to analyze the influence of protein, cellulose, lignin, and starch on leaf reflectance, but in fact, the estimation of leaf biochemistry from remote sensing is still an open question. In order to clarify it, a laboratory experiment associating visible/infrared spectra of plan leaves both with physical measurements and biochemical analyses was conducted at the Joint Research Center during the summer of 1993. This unique data set has been used to upgrade the PROSPECT model, by including leaf biochemistry.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii: protective immunity induced by rhoptry protein 9 (TgROP9) against acute toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Li, Zhong-Yuan; Petersen, Eskild; Huang, Si-Yang; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 9 (ROP9) is involved in the early stages of host invasion, and contains B cell epitopes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding TgROP9 gene against acute T. gondii infection in mice. A DNA vaccine (pVAX-ROP9) encoding TgROP9 inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pVAX I was constructed, and the efficacy of intramuscular vaccination of Kunming mice with pVAX-ROP9 was analyzed. Mice immunized with pVAX-ROP9 induced a high level of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies, as well as a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with predominance of IgG2a production. Also, injection of pVAX-ROP9 induced a specific lymphocyte proliferative responses and Th1-type cellular immune response with production of IFN-γ and interleukin-2. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly increased in mice immunized with pVAX-ROP9, compared to empty vector, PBS or blank controls. Immunization with pVAX-ROP9 significantly (P<0.05) prolonged survival time (12.9±2.9days) after challenge infection with the virulent T. gondii RH strain (Type I), compared with the control groups which died within 6days. DNA vaccination with pVAX-ROP9 triggered strong humoral and cellular responses, and induced effective protection in mice against acute T. gondii infection, indicating that TgROP9 is a promising vaccine candidate against acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:24602875

  16. Amniocentesis for the detection of congenital toxoplasmosis: results from the nationwide Austrian prenatal screening program.

    PubMed

    Prusa, A-R; Kasper, D C; Pollak, A; Olischar, M; Gleiss, A; Hayde, M

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) influences therapeutical management in pregnant women and their offspring. In Austria, a nationwide serological healthcare program to identify potential maternal toxoplasma infections during pregnancy exists. We assessed the clinical use of amniocentesis for toxoplasma-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on amniotic fluid to detect CT. Data on serology, amniocentesis, PCR, complications, treatment, and paediatric clinical outcome were collected retrospectively among the birth cohort 1992-2008. There were 1386 women with amniocentesis, but only in 707 cases (51%) was acute maternal infection confirmed serologically. A high proportion (49%) of amniocenteses with negative PCR results in women with chronic infection or seronegativity were performed without clinical justification for the women or their foetuses. The positive and negative predictive values of PCR were 94.4% and 99.3%, respectively. Thirty-nine foetuses with CT, including four deaths, were reported. The five PCR-negative but infected infants were identified by the serological and clinical follow-up program. Thirty percent of amniocenteses were performed in the third trimester, and gestational age or treatment did not influence PCR sensitivity. Amniocentesis is indicated in women with acute maternal infection, and facilitated targeted therapies in pregnant women and their offspring. In women with late toxoplasma infection, negative amniotic fluid PCR made treatment of infants unnecessary. Serological and clinical follow-up of infants is important to confirm the infection status of the infant. Recommendations, based on our 17-year experience, to improve the current diagnostic strategies and to reduce unnecessary amniocentesis, are given. PMID:25596783

  17. Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii phosphoglycerate mutase 2 confers protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Long; Wen, Li-Min; Pei, Yan-Jiang; Wang, Fen; Yin, Li-Tian; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Guo, Rui; Wang, Chun-Fang; Yin, Guo-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses worldwide. It has a high incidence and can result in severe disease in humans and livestock. Effective vaccines are needed to limit and prevent infection with Toxoplasma gondii. In this study, we evaluated the immuno-protective efficacy of a recombinant Toxoplasma gondii phosphoglycerate mutase 2 (rTgPGAM 2) against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. We report that the mice nasally immunised with rTgPGAM 2 displayed significantly higher levels of special IgG antibodies against rTgPGAM 2 (including IgG1, IgG2a and IgAs) and cytokines (including IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4) in their blood sera and supernatant of cultured spleen cells compared to those of control animals. In addition, an increased number of spleen lymphocytes and enhanced lymphocyte proliferative responses were observed in the rTgPGAM 2-immunised mice. After chronic infection and lethal challenge with the highly virulent T. gondii RH strain by oral gavage, the survival time of the rTgPGAM 2-immunised mice was longer (P < 0.01) and the survival rate (70%) was higher compared with the control mice (P < 0.01). The reduction rate of brain and liver tachyzoites in rTgPGAM 2-vaccinated mice reached approximately 57% and 69% compared with those of the control mice (P < 0.01). These results suggest that rTgPGAM 2 can generate protective immunity against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice and may be a promising antigen in the further development of an effective vaccine against T. gondii infection. PMID:26984115

  18. Europeans: an endangered species?

    PubMed

    Von Cube, A

    1986-10-01

    Below replacement fertility has become the norm in 21 of Europe's 27 countries. Their average total fertility rate is 1.69. This trend has raised concerns about insufficient numbers in the economically active population and prospective personnel shortages in the military. In the Federal Republic of Germany, fertility has been below replacement for the past 17 years and its 1985 total fertility rate of 1.28 is a record low. Only a few European countries (Bulgaria, France, and Romania) have explicitly pronatalist policies. Other nations (Belgium, Finland, Luxembourg, and the German Democratic Republic) have instituted a progressive system of child allowances, increasing payments with each additional birth. Ironically, policies that seek to promote social opportunities for women, such as participation in the labor force, are likely to reduce fertility even farther. Without increased services such as reasonably priced housing, child care centers, and economic incentives to compensate women for lost opportunity costs in the labor market, policies that seek to increase fertility will not succeed. Policy options that were once available to increase fertility (for example, prohibiting abortion) are no longer socially acceptable. New policies will have to be developed through research on the determinants of fertility behavior in postindustrial societies. PMID:12315251

  19. A rare case of feline congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection: fatal outcome of systemic toxoplasmosis for the mother and its kitten.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Hasan Tarik; Dincel, Gungor Cagdas; Macun, Hasan Ceyhun; Terzi, Osman Safa; Uzunalioglu, Tuba; Kalender, Hakan; Kul, Oguz

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a case of fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in a 2.5-year-old mixed breed pregnant cat and its kittens. The pregnant cat was presented to the gynecology clinic with symptoms of dystocia. The ultrasound examination revealed the presence of five fetuses in the uterus, three of which were not alive, and consequently a cesarean section was performed. However, the mother cat and the remaining two live kittens died two and ten days after cesarean section, respectively. Pathologically, severe alveolar edema, tachyzoite-like structures in the alveolar macrophages and multifocal necroses in the lungs of mother cat were observed. An intense Toxoplasma gondii immunopositive reaction was observed in the cytoplasms of alveolar macrophages, bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia, necrotic foci in the lungs, and Kupffer cells of the liver. PCR analyses amplified T. gondii DNA in tissue samples of the mother cat and kittens. The present study provides strong evidence for a transplacental transmission of T. gondii infection with deadly outcome for the mother cat, fetuses and kittens. As to the authors' knowledge, this report is the first case of fatal congenital toxoplasmosis in domestic cats in Turkey. PMID:23758036

  20. Evaluation of Pichia pastoris–Expressed Recombinant Rhoptry Protein 2 of Toxoplasma gondii for Its Application in Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Phooi Yee; Fong, Mun Yik; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lau, Yee Ling

    2011-01-01

    Rhoptry protein 2 (ROP2) of Toxoplasma gondii is a rhoptry-secreted protein that plays a critical role in parasitophorous vacuole membrane formation during invasion. In previous studies, ROP2 has been shown to be efficient in triggering humoral and cell-mediated responses. High immunogenicity of ROP2 makes it a potential candidate for diagnosis and vaccination against toxoplasmosis. In this study, the ROP2 gene was cloned into pPICZα A expression vector and extracellularly expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, which has numerous advantages over other expression systems for eukaryotic proteins expression. The effectiveness of the secreted recombinant ROP2 as a diagnosis agent was assessed by Western Blot with 200 human serum samples. Recombinant ROP2 reacted with toxoplasmosis-positive human serum samples and yielded an overall sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 95%. However, recombinant ROP2 is a better marker for detection of IgG (91.7%) rather than IgM (80%). PMID:21896809

  1. The rat Toxo1 locus directs toxoplasmosis outcome and controls parasite proliferation and spreading by macrophage-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cavaillès, Pierre; Sergent, Véronique; Bisanz, Cordelia; Papapietro, Olivier; Colacios, Céline; Mas, Magali; Subra, Jean-François; Lagrange, Dominique; Calise, Maryline; Appolinaire, Sylvie; Faraut, Thomas; Druet, Philippe; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Bessieres, Marie-Hélène; Pipy, Bernard; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournié, Gilbert J.

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a healthcare problem in pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. Like humans, rats usually develop a subclinical chronic infection. LEW rats exhibit total resistance to Toxoplasma gondii infection, which is expressed in a dominant mode. A genome-wide search carried out in a cohort of F2 progeny of susceptible BN and resistant LEW rats led to identify on chromosome 10 a major locus of control, which we called Toxo1. Using reciprocal BN and LEW lines congenic for chromosome 10 genomic regions from the other strain, Toxo1 was found to govern the issue of T. gondii infection whatever the remaining genome. Analyzes of rats characterized by genomic recombination within Toxo1, reduced the interval down to a 1.7-cM region syntenic to human 17p13. In vitro studies showed that the Toxo1-mediated refractoriness to T. gondii infection is associated with the ability of the macrophage to impede the proliferation of the parasite within the parasitophorous vacuole. In contrast, proliferation was observed in fibroblasts whatever the genomic origin of Toxo1. Furthermore, ex vivo studies indicate that macrophage controls parasitic infection spreading by a Toxo1-mediated mechanism. This forward genetics approach should ultimately unravel a major pathway of innate resistance to toxoplasmosis and possibly to other apicomplexan parasitic diseases. PMID:16407112

  2. Genetic and Epigenetic Factors at COL2A1 and ABCA4 Influence Clinical Outcome in Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Sarra E.; de Roubaix, Lee-Anne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Mui, Ernest J.; Cordell, Heather J.; Kirisits, Michael J.; Miller, E. Nancy; Peacock, Christopher S.; Hargrave, Aubrey C.; Coyne, Jessica J.; Boyer, Kenneth; Bessieres, Marie-Hélène; Buffolano, Wilma; Ferret, Nicole; Franck, Jacqueline; Kieffer, François; Meier, Paul; Nowakowska, Dorota E.; Paul, Malgorzata; Peyron, François; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Thulliez, Philippe; Wallon, Martine; Petersen, Eskild; McLeod, Rima; Gilbert, Ruth E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can be transmitted to the fetus. At birth, infected infants may have intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus, and retinochoroiditis, and new ocular lesions can occur at any age after birth. Not all children who acquire infection in utero develop these clinical signs of disease. Whilst severity of disease is influenced by trimester in which infection is acquired by the mother, other factors including genetic predisposition may contribute. Methods and Findings In 457 mother-child pairs from Europe, and 149 child/parent trios from North America, we show that ocular and brain disease in congenital toxoplasmosis associate with polymorphisms in ABCA4 encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 4. Polymorphisms at COL2A1 encoding type II collagen associate only with ocular disease. Both loci showed unusual inheritance patterns for the disease allele when comparing outcomes in heterozygous affected children with outcomes in affected children of heterozygous mothers. Modeling suggested either an effect of mother's genotype, or parent-of-origin effects. Experimental studies showed that both ABCA4 and COL2A1 show isoform-specific epigenetic modifications consistent with imprinting. Conclusions These associations between clinical outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis and polymorphisms at ABCA4 and COL2A1 provide novel insight into the molecular pathways that can be affected by congenital infection with this parasite. PMID:18523590

  3. Evaluation of a recombinant rhoptry protein 2 enzyme-linked immunoassay for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Pagliari, Sthefany; Pasquali, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi; Nino, Beatriz; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Monica, Thaís Cabral; Tschurtschenthaler, Nely Norder; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an enzyme-linked immunoassay with recombinant rhoptry protein 2 (ELISA-rROP2) for its ability to detectToxoplasma gondii ROP2-specific IgG in samples from pregnant women. The study included 236 samples that were divided into groups according to serological screening profiles for toxoplasmosis: unexposed (n = 65), probable acute infection (n = 48), possible acute infection (n = 58) and exposed to the parasite (n = 65). When an indirect immunofluorescence assay forT. gondii-specific IgG was considered as a reference test, the ELISA-rROP2 had a sensitivity of 61.8%, specificity of 62.8%, predictive positive value of 76.6% and predictive negative value of 45.4% (p = 0.0002). The ELISA-rROP2 reacted with 62.5% of the samples from pregnant women with probable acute infection and 40% of the samples from pregnant women with previous exposure (p = 0.0180). Seropositivity was observed in 50/57 (87.7%) pregnant women with possible infection. The results underscored that T. gondii rROP2 is recognised by specific IgG antibodies in both the acute and chronic phases of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy. However, the sensitivity of the ELISA-rROP2 was higher in the pregnant women with probable and possible acute infections and IgM reactivity. PMID:26517651

  4. Evaluation of a recombinant rhoptry protein 2 enzyme-linked immunoassay for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Pagliari, Sthefany; Pasquali, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi; Nino, Beatriz; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Monica, Thaís Cabral; Tschurtschenthaler, Nely Norder; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an enzyme-linked immunoassay with recombinant rhoptry protein 2 (ELISA-rROP2) for its ability to detect Toxoplasma gondii ROP2-specific IgG in samples from pregnant women. The study included 236 samples that were divided into groups according to serological screening profiles for toxoplasmosis: unexposed (n = 65), probable acute infection (n = 48), possible acute infection (n = 58) and exposed to the parasite (n = 65). When an indirect immunofluorescence assay forT. gondii-specific IgG was considered as a reference test, the ELISA-rROP2 had a sensitivity of 61.8%, specificity of 62.8%, predictive positive value of 76.6% and predictive negative value of 45.4% (p = 0.0002). The ELISA-rROP2 reacted with 62.5% of the samples from pregnant women with probable acute infection and 40% of the samples from pregnant women with previous exposure (p = 0.0180). Seropositivity was observed in 50/57 (87.7%) pregnant women with possible infection. The results underscored that T. gondii rROP2 is recognised by specific IgG antibodies in both the acute and chronic phases of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy. However, the sensitivity of the ELISA-rROP2 was higher in the pregnant women with probable and possible acute infections and IgM reactivity. PMID:26517651

  5. Unusual presentation of primary toxoplasmosis infection in a kidney-transplant patient complicated by an acute left-ventricular failure

    PubMed Central

    Hébraud, Benjamin; Kamar, Nassim; Borde, Jean-Sébastien; Bessières, Marie-Hélène; Galinier, Michel; Rostaing, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    Although primary toxoplasmosis is a rare event following kidney transplantation, it can be life threatening. This report describes this complication. The patient presented with high-grade fever, haemolytic anaemia and haemophagocytic-syndrome-related pancytopaenia. Toxoplasma gondii diagnosis was ascertained by blood and bone-marrow PCR assays. After 6 weeks with Clindamycin plus pyrimethamine therapies and despite negativation of T. gondii blood PCR assay, the patient developed left-ventricular failure. After adding sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim, ramipril, digoxine, bisoprolol and spironolactone, he progressively recovered. Anti-T. gondii therapy was continued for 6 months. Four years later he received a third kidney allograft: at that time anti-T. gondii antibodies had become negative. The outcome was uneventful despite immunosuppression but with inclusion of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis. More than 3 years after the third kidney transplantation the patient has had no toxoplasmosis reactivation. This case report highlights that T. gondii can be the cause of myocarditis in a renal transplant recipient. PMID:19020669

  6. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

  7. Identification of an atypical strain of Toxoplasma gondii as the cause of a waterborne outbreak of toxoplasmosis in Santa IsabeldoIvai, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified an atypical strain of Toxoplasmagondii as the causative agent of the 2001 outbreak of toxoplasmosis in Santa Isabel do Ivai, Brazil, which resulted in approximately 426 human infections. The epidemic clone was isolated from multiple water filters collected from a cistern linked ep...

  8. Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"…

  9. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  10. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN 3 SPECIES OF HAWAIIAN BIRDS, NEN GOOSE (NESOCHEN SANDKENSIS), ERCKELS FRANCOLIA (FRANCOLINUS ERCKERLII), AND RED-FOOTED BOOBY (SULA SULA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection was diagnosed in 3 species of Hawaiian birds, 2 Nene goose (Nesochen sankensis), 1 Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii), and 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii was found in sections of many organs of the...

  11. Ante-mortem diagnosis, diarrhea, oocyst shedding, treatment, isolation and genetic typing of Toxoplasma gondii associated with clinical Toxoplasmosis in a naturally-infected cat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and other animals but clinical disease is relatively rare. It is unknown whether the severity of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent hosts is due to the parasite strain, host variability, or to other factors. Recently, attention has been focused on the ...

  12. Endemic avian toxoplasmosis on a farm in Illinois: clinical disease, diagnosis, biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus), and a goose (Anser anser)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical toxoplasmosis in chickens (Gallus domesticus) has been rarely reported in literature. Here we report that three chickens on a farm in Illinois developed neurological signs . One of these chickens was examined postmortem and it had non-suppurative encephalitis with numerous Toxoplasma gondi...

  13. Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"

  14. Toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recent...

  15. MHC Class I Chain-Related Gene A Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium with HLA-B and HLA-C Alleles in Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Ayo, Christiane Maria; Camargo, Ana Vitória da Silveira; Frederico, Fábio Batista; Siqueira, Rubens Camargo; Previato, Mariana; Murata, Fernando Henrique Antunes; Silveira-Carvalho, Aparecida Perpétuo; Barbosa, Amanda Pires; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara de Cássia; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether polymorphisms of the MICA (major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A) gene are associated with eye lesions due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in a group of immunocompetent patients from southeastern Brazil. The study enrolled 297 patients with serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Participants were classified into two distinct groups after conducting fundoscopic exams according to the presence (n = 148) or absence (n = 149) of ocular scars/lesions due to toxoplasmosis. The group of patients with scars/lesions was further subdivided into two groups according to the type of the ocular manifestation observed: primary (n = 120) or recurrent (n = 28). Genotyping of the MICA and HLA alleles was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide technique (PCR-SSO; One Lambda®) and the MICA-129 polymorphism (rs1051792) was identified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP). Significant associations involving MICA polymorphisms were not found. Although the MICA*002~HLA-B*35 haplotype was associated with increased risk of developing ocular toxoplasmosis (P-value = 0.04; OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.05–4.60), and the MICA*008~HLA-C*07 haplotype was associated with protection against the development of manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis (P-value = 0.009; OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.22–0.76), these associations were not statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. MICA polymorphisms do not appear to influence the development of ocular lesions in patients diagnosed with toxoplasmosis in this study population. PMID:26672749

  16. Toxoplasma gondii Protein Disulfide Isomerase (TgPDI) Is a Novel Vaccine Candidate against Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Long; Li, Ya-Qing; Yin, Li-Tian; Meng, Xiao-Li; Guo, Min; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Liu, Hong-Li; Liu, Juan-Juan; Yin, Guo-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including both mammals and birds. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) localises to the surface of T. gondii tachyzoites and modulates the interactions between parasite and host cells. In this study, the protective efficacy of recombinant T. gondii PDI (rTgPDI) as a vaccine candidate against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice was evaluated. rTgPDI was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Five groups of animals (10 animals/group) were immunised with 10, 20, 30, 40 μg of rTgPDI per mouse or with PBS as a control group. All immunisations were performed via the nasal route at 1, 14 and 21 days. Two weeks after the last immunisation, the immune responses were evaluated by lymphoproliferative assays and by cytokine and antibody measurements. The immunised mice were challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain on the 14th day after the last immunisation. Following the challenge, the tachyzoite loads in tissues were assessed, and animal survival time was recorded. Our results showed that the group immunised with 30 μg rTgPDI showed significantly higher levels of specific antibodies against the recombinant protein, a strong lymphoproliferative response and significantly higher levels of IgG2a, IFN-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-2 and IL-4 production compared with other doses and control groups. While no changes in IL-10 levels were detected. After being challenged with T. gondii tachyzoites, the numbers of tachyzoites in brain and liver tissues from the rTgPDI group were significantly reduced compared with those of the control group, and the survival time of the mice in the rTgPDI group was longer than that of mice in the control group. Our results showed that immunisation with rTgPDI elicited a protective immune reaction and suggested that rTgPDI might represent a promising vaccine candidate for combating toxoplasmosis. PMID:23967128

  17. Effect of Propranolol Alone and in Combination with Pyrimethamine on Acute Murine Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Mahbobeh; Daryani, Ahmad; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammadali; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sharif, Mehdi; Sarvi, Shahabeddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasmosis is a public health problem worldwide. This complication principally affects immunodeficient patients and pregnant women. Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite, causing severe illness among and death of high-risk individuals and treatment is becoming increasingly difficult owing to side effects and low efficacies of drugs. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the anti-Toxoplasma gondii efficacy of propranolol in vivo. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in two separate pre-treatment and post-treatment groups. In each group, 18 female Balb/c mice in six subgroups (n = 3) were used to assess the anti-Toxoplasma effect of propranolol at 2 and 3 mg/kg/day, pyrimethamine at 50 mg/kg/day, propranolol at 2 and 3 mg/kg/day plus pyrimethamine, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; as negative control). Treatment was performed 4, 24, and 48 hours before and after an intraperitoneal challenge of 1 × 103 tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain of T. gondii, in pre-treatment and post-treatment groups. Mice peritoneal exudates were collected on the seventh day after the challenge and parasite numbers were recorded as percent of growth inhibition and survival rate. Results: In the pre-treatment group, results showed that propranolol at 2 and 3 mg/kg combined with pyrimethamine was more effective in inhibiting growth of tachyzoites (86% and 98%, respectively) when compared with propranolol at 2 and 3 mg/kg (37% and 39%, respectively) and pyrimethamine (41%) alone. In the post-treatment group, all combined treatments significantly reduced parasite load. The growth inhibition of tachyzoites in mice receiving propranolol (2 and 3 mg/kg) was 75% and 51%, with the mean tachyzoites count being 1526 ± 171.4 and 2948 ± 1452.8, respectively, compared with pyrimethamine treatment outcome, which represents 99.9% growth inhibition. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the promising prophylactic and therapeutic effects of propranolol against T. gondii infection. Propranolol also increases the efficacy of pyrimethamine in combination therapies. PMID:26487920

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and…

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and

  20. European utilities requirements for future reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Roch, M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect for future nuclear power plants has led the utilities of seven European countries to launch an effort to define the requirements that should be common to all utilities for the next reactors to be built in Europe. These requirements will ultimately be part of a four-volume document and will cover all aspects of a plant: performance, grid connection, codes and standards, materials, quality assurance, cost, and, of course, safety. The seven European countries - France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, and Belgium - issued revision A of Vols 1 and 2 in Nov. 1994, which deal with all the general requirements, not specific to any design, originally issued in March 1994. Comments were requested from most of the nuclear utilities as well as from reactor vendors worldwide. This gave rise to an enormous number of comments, which were duly considered by the European Union. The relevant ones were incorporated into revision B of Vols. 1 and 2, which was issued in Nov 1995, the objective of this revision B being essentially to gain approval from the safety authorities. A particular aspect of the European approach resides in the fact that these European requirements will have to be discussed and agreed on by at least nine safety authorities, i.e., the authorities of the seven counties that launched revision B, plus the authorities of two newcomers, Finland and Sweden, which have just applied for European Union membership.

  1. Comparative Immunoglobulin G Antibody Profiles between Mother and Child (CGMC Test) for Early Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Uwe; Lüder, Carsten G. K.; Hendgen, Vera; Heeg, Cornelia; Sauer, Irmtraud; Weidner, Andrea; Krczal, Doris; Enders, Gisela

    2000-01-01

    Early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is rendered difficult when specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and/or IgA antibodies are absent in the blood of the newborn infant. Since maternal IgG antibodies can cross the placenta, determination of IgG antibodies in newborn infants has hitherto not been used routinely for the diagnosis of congenital infection. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of an immunoblot assay which compares the early IgG profiles between the mother and her child (comparative IgG profile between mother and child; CGMC test) directed against a total cell lysate of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. Serum samples from 97 newborn infants at risk of toxoplasma infection were obtained from umbilical cord blood at birth or postnatally until 3 months of life and were directly compared with serum samples from the respective mothers. Congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosed only when IgG-reactive protein bands that were present in any newborn serum samples were absent in the corresponding maternal serum sample. Congenital infection was defined by conventional serological assays when IgM and/or IgA antibodies were present in newborn infant blood or when IgG titers rose within the first 12 months or were persistently stable for more than 8 months. Using these criteria, congenital infection was definitely confirmed in 11 cases. Three additional cases were diagnosed based on indicative data. The CGMC test, which was performed without knowledge of the results of conventional serologal assays, had sensitivity and specificity of 82.4 and 93.0%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values of 73.7 and 95.7%, respectively. When true positives and true negatives were considered, the comparative IgG profile had a ratio of 90.9% true results. The CGMC test thus is useful as an additional assay for the rapid diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis when paired serum samples from mother and child are available. PMID:11015373

  2. [Research on antibodies anti toxoplasma gondii in intraocular fluids (Aqueous and vitreous humor) from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, in the City of Belém, Pará State].

    PubMed

    Carmo, Ediclei Lima do; Almeida, Edmundo Frota; Bichara, Cléa Nazaré; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2005-01-01

    Tests were performed for antibodies IgG, IgM and IgA anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum and intraocular fluids (Aqueous and vitreous humor) from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. By the results obtained, it was verified that intraocular IgG and IgA anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies can be important markers for the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:15717105

  3. Detection of anti-toxoplasma immunoglobulin A antibodies by Platelia-Toxo IgA directed against P30 and by IMx Toxo IgA for diagnosis of acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Decoster, A; Gontier, P; Dehecq, E; Demory, J L; Duhamel, M

    1995-01-01

    Platelia-Toxo IgA and IMx Toxo IgA assays were used with 260 serum samples, of which 93 were from seroconverted patients, 58 were from 21 congenitally infected children, and 109 were from uninfected patients, to detect anti-P30 immunoglobulin A antibodies. Because of its enhanced sensitivity, Platelia-Toxo IgA is more efficient in diagnosing acute or congenital toxoplasmosis. IMx Toxo IgA must not be used to diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:7559982

  4. Performance of Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of the Amniotic Fluid of Pregnant Women for Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Congenital infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious damage that can be diagnosed in utero or at birth, although most infants are asymptomatic at birth. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis considerably improves the prognosis and outcome for infected infants. For this reason, an assay for the quick, sensitive, and safe diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis is desirable. Goal To systematically review the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the amniotic fluid of pregnant women with recent serological toxoplasmosis diagnoses for the diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis. Method A systematic literature review was conducted via a search of electronic databases; the literature included primary studies of the diagnostic accuracy of PCR analysis of amniotic fluid from pregnant women who seroconverted during pregnancy. The PCR test was compared to a gold standard for diagnosis. Results A total of 1.269 summaries were obtained from the electronic database and reviewed, and 20 studies, comprising 4.171 samples, met the established inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The following results were obtained: studies about PCR assays for fetal toxoplasmosis are generally susceptible to bias; reports of the tests’ use lack critical information; the protocols varied among studies; the heterogeneity among studies was concentrated in the tests’ sensitivity; there was evidence that the sensitivity of the tests increases with time, as represented by the trimester; and there was more heterogeneity among studies in which there was more time between maternal diagnosis and fetal testing. The sensitivity of the method, if performed up to five weeks after maternal diagnosis, was 87% and specificity was 99%. Conclusion The global sensitivity heterogeneity of the PCR test in this review was 66.5% (I2). The tests show low evidence of heterogeneity with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 99% when performed up to five weeks after maternal diagnosis. The test has a known performance and could be recommended for use up to five weeks after maternal diagnosis, when there is suspicion of fetal toxoplasmosis. PMID:27055272

  5. Comparative Assessment of a Commercial Kit and Two Laboratory-Developed PCR Assays for Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Morelle, Christelle; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection that may cause severe disease and is regarded as a serious health problem in France. Detection of the parasite by molecular methods is crucial for diagnosing the disease. The extreme diversity of methods and performances of Toxoplasma PCR assays makes the use of commercial PCR kits an attractive alternative, as they offer a chance for standardization. We compared the performances of three molecular methods for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in amniotic fluid: a commercial method using nested PCR and two laboratory-developed methods, one using conventional PCR and the other one real-time PCR. This evaluation was based upon a T. gondii DNA serial dilution assay, three amniotic fluid samples spiked with T. gondii at different concentrations, and a clinical cohort of 33 amniotic fluid samples. The T. gondii DNA serial dilution assay showed a much lower sensitivity for the commercial kit than for the laboratory-developed methods. Moreover, out of 12 proven congenital toxoplasmosis cases, 91.7% were detected by the laboratory-developed assays, whereas only 50% were detected by the commercial kit. A lack of sensitivity of the method, partly due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, was the main drawback of the commercial method. This study emphasizes that commercial PCR diagnostic kits do not systematically perform better than carefully optimized laboratory-developed methods. There is a need for thorough evaluation of such kits by proficient groups, as well as for performance standards that commercial kits can be tested against to improve confidence in those selected by health care providers. PMID:23035184

  6. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human. PMID:27124472

  7. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human. PMID:27124472

  8. Experimental ovine toxoplasmosis: influence of the gestational stage on the clinical course, lesion development and parasite distribution.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Pablo; Fuertes, Miguel; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Ferre, Ignacio; Fernández, Miguel; Ferreras, M Carmen; Moreno-Gonzalo, Javier; González-Lanza, Camino; Pereira-Bueno, Juana; Katzer, Frank; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Pérez, Valentín; Benavides, Julio

    2016-01-01

    The relation between gestational age and foetal death risk in ovine toxoplasmosis is already known, but the mechanisms involved are not yet clear. In order to study how the stage of gestation influences these mechanisms, pregnant sheep of the same age and genetic background were orally dosed with 50 oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii (M4 isolate) at days 40 (G1), 90 (G2) and 120 (G3) of gestation. In each group, four animals were culled on the second, third and fourth week post infection (pi) in order to evaluate parasite load and distribution, and lesions in target organs. Ewes from G1 showed a longer period of hyperthermia than the other groups. Abortions occurred in all groups. While in G2 they were more frequent during the acute phase of the disease, in G3 they mainly occurred after day 20 pi. After challenge, parasite and lesions in the placentas and foetuses were detected from day 19 pi in G3 while in G2 or G1 they were only detected at day 26 pi. However, after initial detection at day 19 pi, parasite burden, measured through RT-PCR, in placenta or foetus of G3 did not increase significantly and, at in the third week pi it was lower than that measured in foetal liver or placenta from G1 to G3 respectively. These results show that the period of gestation clearly influences the parasite multiplication and development of lesions in the placenta and foetus and, as a consequence, the clinical course in ovine toxoplasmosis. PMID:26983883

  9. Diversity and evolution of methods and practices for the molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in France: a 4-year survey.

    PubMed

    Sterkers, Y; Varlet-Marie, E; Marty, P; Bastien, P

    2010-10-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is currently based upon molecular biology using a sample of amniotic fluid. The vast majority of centres globally (and all centres in France) performing this diagnosis use 'in house' or laboratory-developed PCR assays. This may be the source of considerable inter-laboratory variation in the performances of the assays, hampering any valuable comparison of data among different centres. The present study was based upon questionnaires that were sent to 21-25 centres between 2002 and 2005 enquiring about methods and practices of the PCR-based prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. An extreme diversity of PCR methods and practices was observed. Thus, in 2005, 35 PCR methods, differing in one of the main steps of the whole process, were reported as being in use for routine diagnosis, with nine centres using two or three methods. We provide comprehensive information on the extraction methods, DNA targets, primer pairs and detection methods used for this diagnosis, as well as their evolution, during the period of study. Interestingly, in this period (2002-2005), a rapid progression of the number of laboratories using real-time PCR technology, which increased from four to 19, was observed. We also studied general PCR practices concerning, for example, the number of reaction tubes used for each biological sample and the inclusion of controls. The return of information in a yearly report provided the opportunity for writing proposals aiming to improve laboratory practices for this diagnosis at the national level. The high diversity of methods and practices currently used emphasizes the need for external quality assessment of the performances of the molecular diagnostic methods. PMID:19886905

  10. Alternative treatment approach to cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: experience from a resource-poor setting.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Rama Prosad; Goswami, Rudra Prosad; Rahman, Mehebubar; Ray, Yogiraj; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The current standard treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis (pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine) often encounters problems of poor tolerability, adverse effects, frequent dropouts and non-availability of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine in some parts of India. We have had to use the combination of two effective alternative agents for toxoplasmosis, cotrimoxazole and clindamycin, on compassionate grounds. This retrospective observational study reports superior efficacy and better tolerability of cotrimoxazole/clindamycin compared to the recommended regimen. Primary end-point (complete response) was defined as more than 50% improvement of clinical status or more than 50% decrease in the size of brain lesions after two weeks of treatment initiation. Complete response occurred more commonly with cotrimoxazole/clindamycin than with pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine group (80% vs. 31.25%, respectively, relative risk 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-5.43). There was a trend towards higher on-treatment mortality in the pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine group in comparison to the cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (mortality rate 37.5% in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine vs 12% in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin, p = 0.07, relative risk = 3.125, 95% confidence interval: 0.91-10.75). Overall, 62.5% (10/16) of patients on pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine suffered drug-related adverse reactions compared to 24% (6/25) on cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (p = 0.02, relative risk = 2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-5.76). The commonest complication of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine was severe thrombocytopenia with major bleeding (4/16, 25%). We propose that the new combination chemotherapy, which is widely available, effective and safe, can be used in developing countries. PMID:25411350

  11. European biofuel plan snagged

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-12-16

    European Commission proposals for a directive aimed at boosting production of biofuels have been set back by the European Parliament and will not be implemented on the January 1, 1993 deadline. Furthermore, the commission has agreed to carry out an environmental impact study on biofuels. European industrial ethanol, fatty acid, and glycerin producers oppose the directive proposals fearing distortions in their markets.

  12. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,…

  13. The Relationship between Life Goals and Fields of Study among Young European Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Gabaldon, Daniel; Mora, Jose-Gines; Vila, Luis E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships among life goals, job prospects and fields of study for a sample of young European higher education graduates. The results show that there is a characteristic pattern for each field of study with regard to the variables used. Graduates in a given field have similar life goals and job prospects, as well as a…

  14. Neutron bomb and European defense

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  15. Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Šlapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation. PMID:25463314

  16. Toxoplasma Gondii Infection of Chicken Embryos Causes Retinal Changes and Modulates HSP90B1 Gene Expression: A Promising Ocular Toxoplasmosis Model.

    PubMed

    Nasaré, Alex M; Tedesco, Roberto C; Cristovam, Priscila C; Cenedese, Marcos A; Galisteo, Andrés J; Andrade, Heitor F; Gomes, José Álvaro P; Guimarães, Érik V; Barbosa, Helene S; Alonso, Luis G

    2015-12-01

    HSP90B1 is a gene that codifies heat shock protein 108 (HSP108) that belongs to a group of proteins induced under stress situation, and it has close relation with the nervous system, especially in the retina. Toxoplasma gondii causes ocular toxoplasmosis that has been associated with a late manifestation of the congenital toxoplasmosis although experimental models show that morphological alterations are already present during embryological development. Here, we used 18 eyes of Gallus domesticus embryos in 7th and 20th embryonic days to establish a model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, experimentally infected in its fifth day correlating with HSP90B1 gene expression. Embryos' eyes were histologically evaluated, and gene expression was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our data showed parasite present in the choroid, unusual migration of retinal pigment epithelium, and chorioretinal scars, and a tendency to a lower expression of the HSP90B1 gene upon experimental infection. This is a promising model to better understand T. gondii etiopathogeny. PMID:26716020

  17. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii: DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded autopsy tissues from AIDS patients who died by severe disseminated toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Bastos da Silva, Inara; Batista, Tatiana Pimental de Andrade; Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Kanamura, Cristina Takami; Ferreira, Isabelle Martins Ribeiro; Vidal, Jose Ernesto; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the genetic features of Toxoplasma gondii isolated directly in autopsies of HIV-infected patients who died with severe disseminated toxoplasmosis. This retrospective analysis was conducted in a cohort of 15 HIV-infected patients with clinical and laboratory data. They had previous cerebral toxoplasmosis at least 6 months before the disseminated toxoplasmosis episode. The hypothesis was that they were infected with highly virulent parasites due to the condition in which they died. T. gondii genotyping was done directly in DNA extracted from 30 autopsy brain and lung samples (2 per patient) and mutilocus PCR-RFLP genotyping was done using 12 molecular markers. The 30 clinical samples were genotyped successfully in 8 or more loci and six suggestive genotypes were identified. One of them was Toxo DB #11, previously identified in different domestic animals and virulent in experimental animals. The other five suggestive genotypes identified in 14 patients were not described. TgHuDis1 was the most frequent and was determined in 8 patients. TgHuDis3 and TgHuDis5 were identified in two patients each. TgHuDis2 and TgHuDis4 have been identified in one patient each. These suggestive genotypes could be considered as virulent, since they caused severe tissue damage and had similar characteristics as Toxo # DB 11. PMID:26969767

  18. Toxoplasma Gondii Infection of Chicken Embryos Causes Retinal Changes and Modulates HSP90B1 Gene Expression: A Promising Ocular Toxoplasmosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Nasaré, Alex M.; Tedesco, Roberto C.; Cristovam, Priscila C.; Cenedese, Marcos A.; Galisteo, Andrés J.; Andrade, Heitor F.; Gomes, José Álvaro P.; Guimarães, Érik V.; Barbosa, Helene S.; Alonso, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    HSP90B1 is a gene that codifies heat shock protein 108 (HSP108) that belongs to a group of proteins induced under stress situation, and it has close relation with the nervous system, especially in the retina. Toxoplasma gondii causes ocular toxoplasmosis that has been associated with a late manifestation of the congenital toxoplasmosis although experimental models show that morphological alterations are already present during embryological development. Here, we used 18 eyes of Gallus domesticus embryos in 7th and 20th embryonic days to establish a model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, experimentally infected in its fifth day correlating with HSP90B1 gene expression. Embryos’ eyes were histologically evaluated, and gene expression was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our data showed parasite present in the choroid, unusual migration of retinal pigment epithelium, and chorioretinal scars, and a tendency to a lower expression of the HSP90B1 gene upon experimental infection. This is a promising model to better understand T. gondii etiopathogeny. PMID:26716020

  19. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo da Silva, Marcos; Clare Vinaud, Marina; de Castro, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease. Objective To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH) from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. Methods A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG), Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%. Results The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62–72.86). The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74–67.32). The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3–7.3) suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4–45.6). Conclusions These results show an elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of T. gondii in the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. PMID:26558622

  20. Seroepidemiological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed zoonosis. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat, which is among the main risk factors for acquiring human infection, is a popular tradition in Ethiopia. However, studies on toxoplasmosis in food animals used for human consumption in Ethiopia are very scarce. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the seroprevalence and the risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep in Ambo, Ada’a-Liben and Fentale districts of Central Ethiopia. Sera from 1130 sheep were analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii specific IgG antibodies using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the P30 antigen. A questionnaire was administered to assess potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. Association of seroprevalence with potential risk factors related to altitude, host and farm characteristics were analyzed by univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results Overall flock and animal level seroprevalences were 70.48% (160/227; 95% CI: 64.51, 76.46) and 31.59% (357/1130; 95% CI: 28.88, 34.31), respectively. The multivariable logistic regression model indicated that the probability of acquiring T. gondii was higher in sheep from highland (2300 – 3200 meters above sea level) [Odds ratio (OR) = 4.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65, 6.36; P < 0.001] and midland (OR = 4.54, 95% CI: 2.76, 7.49; P < 0.001) than from lowland (<1500 meters above sea level), in females than in males (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.43, P = 0.033), in adult than in young animals (OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.97, 4.35, P < 0.001), in small than in large flocks (OR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.26, 8.86, P = 0.016), and in sheep that were given tap water (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 1.07, 15.42, P = 0.039) and river water (OR = 4.18, 95% CI: 1.54, 11.35, P = 0.005) than in those that drunk water from mixed sources (i.e., river, well, lake and pond). Conclusions The high flock and animal level seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep is a good marker of the potential risk for human infections. Altitude, sex, age, flock size and source of water were identified as important risk factors to acquire the infection. Public education and awareness training are imperative in order to alleviate the danger posed to consumers. Further detailed studies to assess the impact of infections are warranted. PMID:23768427

  1. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    PubMed

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

  2. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  3. Serological screening and toxoplasmosis exposure factors among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Ching; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Su, Kua-Eyre; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Gil, Vilfrido; da Conceicao dos Reis Ferreira, Maria; de Carvalho, Jose Manuel; Cruz, Claudina; Lin, Yu-Kuan; Tseng, Lian-Fen; Sao, Ke-Yun; Chang, Wen-Cheun; Lan, Hung-Shue; Chou, Shing-Hsien

    2007-02-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (DRSTP) from November 2003 to March 2004 was determined by detection of serum anti-T. gondii antibodies. A short questionnaire interview for pregnant women was performed to investigate risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, including consumption of raw meat or unwashed vegetables, drinking unboiled water and keeping pets (cats and dogs). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was high (75.2%; 375/499). The older age group of > or =35 years had a significantly higher seroprevalence (85.7%; 54/63) than that of the younger age group of 15-25 years (70.4%; 178/253) (odds ratio 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.4; P=0.01). No significant difference in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found between the pregnant women with and without exposure to the risk factors studied. However, among pregnant women with high antibody titers of > or =1:1024, it seemed likely that continual contact with pets and consumption of oocyst-contaminated water or raw unwashed vegetables rather than tissue cysts in meat was the primary route of infection. The incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in unborn babies should be intensively monitored in the DRSTP. PMID:17113117

  4. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.In the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT.Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable.In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment. PMID:26945416

  5. The past and present role of the Sabin-Feldman dye test in the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Reiter-Owona, I.; Petersen, E.; Joynson, D.; Aspöck, H.; Dardé, M. L.; Disko, R.; Dreazen, O.; Dumon, H.; Grillo, R.; Gross, U.; Hayde, M.; Holliman, R.; Ho-Yen, D. O.; Janitschke, K.; Jenum, P. A.; Naser, K.; Olszewski, M.; Thulliez, P.; Seitz, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    The dye test for the detection of Toxoplasma-specific antibodies was first described by Sabin and Feldman 50 years ago. The test is highly specific and sensitive and considerable information is available on the development and persistence of dye test antibodies after primary Toxoplasma infection. However, the test uses live Toxoplasma gondii and is now only employed in a few laboratories. It is still the reference method for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and a multicentre study comparing dye test results between different laboratories was much needed. We report in this article the results of a multicentre evaluation of the test involving nineteen laboratories in eight countries. The study revealed overall satisfactory standardization between the laboratories, but there were differences in the test protocols, the use of reference/standard preparations and the interpretation of results. There is still no agreement on the level of dye test values which reflect infection with the parasite, and conversion from titres to international units (IUs) did not improve standardization. However, the results indicated that a value of > 4 IU or a titre of 1:16 met the definition of positivity of most participants. We recommend that the dye test be retained as a reference method and that interlaboratory standardization be improved by the use of a common protocol and the expression of results in titres. PMID:10612889

  6. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy. In the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment. PMID:26945416

  7. Detection of Murine Toxoplasmosis Using Magnetic Bead-Based Serum Peptide Profiling by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiping; Jin, Hongtao; Li, Lixia; Shang, Limin; Zhao, Yongkun; Wei, Feng; Liu, Yanjing; Qian, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Establishment of a rapid, highly specific, and accurate method for diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection is essential to control and prevent zoonotic toxoplasmosis. In this study, a novel diagnostic strategy using magnetic bead-based serum peptide profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed. The serum peptides (samples I, II, and III) from T. gondii RH strain-infected mice at days 3, 6, and 9 post-infection (p.i.), and healthy mice were enriched by the optimized magnetic bead-based hydrophobic interaction (MB-HIC8). The mass spectrograms were acquired by MALDI-TOF MS, and analyzed by ClinProTools bioinformatics software from Bruker Daltonics. The diagnostic models from T. gondii RH-infected serum peptide profiling of samples I, II, and III were produced by genetic algorithms, and verified by cross-validation. The sample II model could correctly recognize T. gondii RH strain infection in mice at days 3, 6, and 9 p.i. with a sensitivity of 91.1% and a specificity of 96.7%., and also detect T. gondii ME49 strain-infected serum samples at days 3, 6, 9, and 12 p.i. with a sensitivity of 91.7%. The results of the present study suggest that serum peptide profiling by MALDI-TOF MS is a novel potential tool for the clinical diagnosis of acute T. gondii infection. PMID:22448678

  8. Mitogen- and antigen-specific proliferation of T cells in murine toxoplasmosis is inhibited by reactive nitrogen intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    Candolfi, E; Hunter, C A; Remington, J S

    1994-01-01

    Acute and chronic infections with Toxoplasma gondii result in a nonspecific suppression of immunologic function in mice and humans. Proliferation of spleen cells in response to concanavalin A (ConA) and toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA) was studied during the course of infection in mice susceptible (CBA/Ca) and resistant (BALB/c) to development of toxoplasmic encephalitis to determine if reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) are involved in the suppression of the proliferative responses. Maximal suppression of proliferation of spleen cells in response to ConA and TLA was observed on days 7 and 14 after infection and correlated with elevated levels of nitrite in spleen cell culture supernatants. By day 68 postinfection in BALB/c mice, proliferative responses returned to normal levels, whereas in CBA/Ca mice, they remained suppressed. The addition of an inhibitor of production of RNI (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine) increased proliferation of spleen cells in response to both ConA and TLA at days 7, 14, and 21 after infection. Depletion of adherent cells from spleen cell preparations obtained from acutely infected mice followed by their repletion with adherent spleen cells from uninfected mice resulted in increased proliferation of spleen cells from infected mice and a significant decrease in nitrite in the cultures. These results indicate that production of RNI by macrophages contributes significantly to the suppression of the spleen cell proliferation observed in the acute stage of toxoplasmosis. PMID:8168967

  9. Social determinants of tuberculosis in Europe: a prospective ecological study.

    PubMed

    Ploubidis, George B; Palmer, Melissa J; Blackmore, Charlotte; Lim, Tek-Ang; Manissero, Davide; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan C

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered to be a disease of poverty, since its incidence is exacerbated by socioeconomic factors, inconsistent or partial treatment practices, and immigration from endemic countries. A prospective country level study, using a comprehensive dataset of TB incidence and prevalence taken from countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, was conducted. We employed quintile regression to investigate the prospective association between baseline (measured in 2000) and a nation's wealth, level of egalitarianism, migration rate, health-related lifestyle and social capital with TB incidence and prevalence over a 10-yr period (2000-2009). We found that ∼50% of TB variation is accounted for by a nation's wealth and level of egalitarianism. We observed a negative prospective association between logged gross domestic product and TB rates, and a positive prospective association between income inequality and TB. National income levels per capita and income inequality are important predictors for TB incidence and prevalence in the WHO European region. They account for 50% of country-level variation, indicating the importance of a combined absolute and relative socioeconomic disadvantage in the development of TB. These findings also provide a tool for forecasting potential fluctuations in the level of TB epidemics in the WHO European region, with respect to socioeconomic changes. PMID:22267772

  10. The European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, M.; Bousson, S.; Calaga, R.; Danared, H.; Devanz, G.; Duperrier, R.; Eguia, J.; Eshraqi, M.; Gammino, S.; Hahn, H.; Jansson, A.; Oyon, C.; Pape-Møller, S.; Peggs, S.; Ponton, A.; Rathsman, K.; Ruber, R.; Satogata, T.; Trahern, G.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  11. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  12. The impact of lowering the cut-off value on the sensitivity of the Platelia Elisa IgG (Bio-Rad) test for toxoplasmosis diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mouri, Oussama; Kendjo, Eric; Touafek, Feriel; Fekkar, Arnaud; Konte, Ousmane; Imbert, Sebastien; Courtin, Régis; Mazier, Dominique; Paris, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Determining specific immune status against Toxoplasma gondii is essential for assessing the risk of reactivation in immunocompromised patients or defining serological monitoring and appropriate prophylactic measures during pregnancy. In France, toxoplasmosis serological screening requires systematic testing for IgM and IgG antibodies. The Platelia Toxo IgG and IgM test (Bio-Rad) is one of the most widely used tests for anti-toxoplasmic antibody detection. We performed a study on 384 sera, including 123 IgG negative (<6 IU/mL) and 261 IgG equivocal (6–9 IU/mL) sera tested with Platelia Toxo IgG and collected during routine screening at Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France to determine the best-performing IgG titer cut-off value. Out of these 383 sera, 298 were IgM negative by Platelia Toxo IgM and 86 were IgM positive. All sera were also tested against Toxo IgG II LD BIO western blot test as confirmation. Our results indicated that an IgG titer cut-off value of ≥4.4 IU/mL for the Platelia Toxo IgG met the definition of positivity, a value significantly lower than that indicated by the manufacturers. In the presence of IgM antibodies, the IgG titer cut-off decreased significantly to a value ≥0.2 IU/mL. This latter cut-off also allowed adequate diagnosis of proven toxoplasmosis seroconversion in 76.7% of cases (33/43). Our findings may improve toxoplasmosis care by reducing therapeutic intervention time and eliminating the need for further serological monitoring. PMID:26187780

  13. European Stroke Science Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  14. European Elder (Elderberry)

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for more information. European elder is a tree native to Europe and parts of Asia and ... used as a supplement. Parts of the elder tree—such as the berries and flowers—have historically ...

  15. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  16. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  17. Partial protective effect of intranasal immunization with recombinant Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 17 against toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Tie-E; Yin, Li-Tian; Pang, Min; Guan, Li; Liu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Zheng, Guo-Ping; Yin, Guo-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a variety of mammals, including humans. An effective vaccine for this parasite is therefore needed. In this study, RH strain T. gondii rhoptry protein 17 was expressed in bacteria as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the recombinant proteins (rTgROP17) were purified via GST-affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were nasally immunised with rTgROP17, and induction of immune responses and protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections were investigated. The results revealed that mice immunised with rTgROP17 produced high levels of specific anti-rTgROP17 IgGs and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response of IgG2a predominance. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-γand IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, and enhanced lymphoproliferation (stimulation index, SI) in the mice immunised with rTgROP17. Strong mucosal immune responses with increased secretion of TgROP17-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes were also observed in these mice. The vaccinated mice displayed apparent protection against chronic RH strain infection as evidenced by their lower liver and brain parasite burdens (59.17% and 49.08%, respectively) than those of the controls. The vaccinated mice also exhibited significant protection against lethal infection of the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%) compared to the controls. Our data demonstrate that rTgROP17 can trigger strong systemic and mucosal immune responses against T. gondii and that ROP17 is a promising candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25255141

  18. A chloroplast-derived Toxoplasma gondii GRA4 antigen used as an oral vaccine protects against toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Del L Yácono, María; Farran, Inmaculada; Becher, Melina L; Sander, Valeria; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Martín, Valentina; Veramendi, Jon; Clemente, Marina

    2012-12-01

    The parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, the causal agent of toxoplasmosis, can infect most mammals and birds. In human medicine, T. gondii can cause complications in pregnant women and immunodeficient individuals, while in veterinary medicine, T. gondii infection has economic importance due to abortion and neonatal loss in livestock. Thus, the development of an effective anti-Toxoplasma vaccine would be of great value. In this study, we analysed the expression of T. gondii GRA4 antigen by chloroplast transformation (chlGRA4) in tobacco plants and evaluated the humoral and cellular responses and the grade of protection after oral administration of chlGRA4 in a murine model. The Western blot analysis revealed a specific 34-kDa band mainly present in the insoluble fractions. The chlGRA4 accumulation levels were approximately 6 μg/g of fresh weight (equivalent to 0.2% of total protein). Oral immunization with chlGRA4 resulted in a decrease of 59% in the brain cyst load of mice compared to control mice. ChlGRA4 immunization elicited both a mucosal immune response characterized by the production of specific IgA, and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 secretion by mesenteric lymph node cells, and a systemic response in terms of GRA4-specific serum antibodies and secretion of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 by splenocytes. Our results indicate that oral administration of chlGRA4 promotes the elicitation of both mucosal and systemic balanced Th1/Th2 responses that control Toxoplasma infection, reducing parasite loads. PMID:23020088

  19. Pathological changes in acute experimental toxoplasmosis with Toxoplasma gondii strains obtained from human cases of congenital disease.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Breno Veloso; Noviello, Maria de Lourdes Meirelles; Cunha, Mariana Maciel; Tavares, Alice Thomaz; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2015-09-01

    There is a lack of studies using Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from human patients. Here, we present a pathological study of three strains obtained from human cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil using inbred mice after oral infection with 10 tissue cysts. Multiplex-nested PCR-RFLP of eleven loci revealed atypical genotypes commonly found in Brazil: toxodb #8 for TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains and toxodb #11 for the TgCTBr9 strain. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were evaluated for survival and histological changes during the acute phase of the disease. All mice inoculated with the non-virulent TgCTBR5 strain survived after 30 days, although irreversible tissue damage was found. In contrast, no mice were resistant to infection with the highly virulent TgCTBR9 strain. The TgCTBr16 strain resulted in 80% survival in mice. However, this strain presented low infectivity, especially by the oral route of infection. Despite being identified with the same genotype, TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains showed biological differences. Histopathologic analysis revealed liver and lungs to be the most affected organs, and the pattern of tissue injury was similar to that found in mice inoculated perorally with strains belonging to clonal genotypes. However, there was a variation in the intensity of ileum lesions according to T. gondii strain and mouse lineage. C57BL/6 mice showed higher susceptibility than BALB/c for histological lesions. Taken together, these results revealed that the pathogenesis of T. gondii strains belonging to atypical genotypes can induce similar tissue damage to those from clonal genotypes, although intrinsic aspects of the strains seem critical to the induction of ileitis in the infected host. PMID:26072201

  20. Evidence for associations between the purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2RX7) and toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Sarra E.; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L.; Hargrave, Aubrey C.; de Roubaix, Lee-Anne; Mui, Ernest J.; Boulter, Nicola R.; Miller, E. Nancy; Fuller, Stephen J.; Wiley, James S.; Castellucci, Léa; Boyer, Kenneth; Peixe, Ricardo Guerra; Kirisits, Michael J.; de Souza Elias, Liliani; Coyne, Jessica J.; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Sautter, Mari; Smith, Nicholas C.; Lees, Michael P.; Swisher, Charles N.; Heydemann, Peter; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Patel, Dushyant; Bardo, Dianna; Burrowes, Delilah; McLone, David; Roizen, Nancy; Withers, Shawn; Bahia-Oliveira, Lílian M. G.; McLeod, Rima; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection can result in intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus, and retinochoroiditis. Acquired infection is commonly associated with ocular disease. Pathology is characterized by strong pro-inflammatory responses. Ligation of ATP by purinergic receptor P2X7, encoded by P2RX7, stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokines and can lead directly to killing of intracellular pathogens. To determine whether P2X7 plays a role in susceptibility to congenital toxoplasmosis, we examined polymorphisms at P2RX7 in 149 child/parent trios from North America. We found association (FBAT Z scores ±2.429; P= 0.015) between the derived C(+)G(−) allele (f= 0.68; OR= 2.06; 95% CI: 1.14–3.75) at SNP rs1718119 (1068T>C; Thr-348-Ala), and a second synonymous variant rs1621388 in linkage disequilibrium with it, and clinical signs of disease per se. Analysis of clinical sub-groups showed no association with hydrocephalus, with effect sizes for associations with retinal disease and brain calcifications enhanced (OR=3.0 to 4.25; 0.004

  1. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23293164

  2. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Verma, Shiv Kumar; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Dudley, Mike; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Hill, Dolores; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-05-01

    Wild birds are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they can serve as reservoir hosts, and vectors of zoonotic pathogens including Toxoplasma gondii. Canada goose (Branta canadensis) is the most widespread geese in North America. Little is known concerning T. gondii infection in both migratory, and local resident populations of Canada geese. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence, isolation, and genetic characterization of viable T. gondii isolates from a migratory population of Canada geese. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 12 of 169 Canada geese using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). The hearts of 12 seropositive geese were bioassayed in mice for isolation of T. gondii. Viable parasites were isolated from eight. One isolate was obtained from a seropositive goose by both bioassays in mice, and in a cat; the cat fed infected heart excreted T. gondii oocysts. Additionally, one isolate was obtained from a pool of four seronegative (<1:25) geese by bioassay in a cat. The T. gondii isolates were further propagated in cell culture, and DNA extracted from cell culture-derived tachyzoites were characterized using 10 polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) genetic markers (SAG1, 5' and 3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). The results revealed five different genotypes. ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1 (type II) in one isolate, genotype #2 (type III) in four isolates, genotype #4 in two isolates, and two new genotypes (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #266 in one isolate and #267 in one isolate) were identified. These results indicate genetic diversity of T. gondii strains in the Canada geese, and this migratory bird might provide a mechanism of T. gondii transmission at great distances from where an infection was acquired. PMID:26796021

  3. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) with fatal toxoplasmosis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Basso, W; Moré, G; Quiroga, M A; Pardini, L; Bacigalupe, D; Venturini, L; Valenzuela, M C; Balducchi, D; Maksimov, P; Schares, G; Venturini, M C

    2009-05-12

    In this study, the diagnosis of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in three captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the zoo of La Plata, Argentina and the invitro isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii are reported. The animals showed depression, dyspnea and hypothermia, and also ataxia in one case, and died within 1-5 days. The main histopathological lesions included interstitial pneumonia, non-suppurative inflammatory changes and focal necrosis in liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Tachyzoites or tissue cysts were present in lung, liver, spleen, brain, striated muscle, kidney, intestine and mesenteric lymph node sections, and stained strongly with T. gondii antiserum in immunohistochemical analysis. T. gondii was isolated in Swiss mice and in bovine monocytes cultures from tissues of one of the meerkats. The isolate was cryopreserved and it was named TG-Suricata-1. T. gondii DNA was demonstrated in tissues of all three animals and in tachyzoites isolated in cell cultures. The PCR-RFLP analysis of markers based in the loci 3'-SAG2, 5'-SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, c22-8, L358, PK1, c29-2 and Apico of T. gondii produced patterns corresponding to the clonal type III. Type III strains of T. gondii possess no or only little virulence in the mouse model, however their association with virulence in other animal species is uncertain. In the present case, T. gondii of the clonal lineage III was responsible for fatal cases in S. suricatta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from S. suricatta. PMID:19201541

  4. Partial Protective Effect of Intranasal Immunization with Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry Protein 17 against Toxoplasmosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Tie-E; Yin, Li-Tian; Pang, Min; Guan, Li; Liu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Zheng, Guo-Ping; Yin, Guo-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a variety of mammals, including humans. An effective vaccine for this parasite is therefore needed. In this study, RH strain T. gondii rhoptry protein 17 was expressed in bacteria as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the recombinant proteins (rTgROP17) were purified via GST-affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were nasally immunised with rTgROP17, and induction of immune responses and protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections were investigated. The results revealed that mice immunised with rTgROP17 produced high levels of specific anti-rTgROP17 IgGs and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response of IgG2a predominance. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-γand IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, and enhanced lymphoproliferation (stimulation index, SI) in the mice immunised with rTgROP17. Strong mucosal immune responses with increased secretion of TgROP17-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes were also observed in these mice. The vaccinated mice displayed apparent protection against chronic RH strain infection as evidenced by their lower liver and brain parasite burdens (59.17% and 49.08%, respectively) than those of the controls. The vaccinated mice also exhibited significant protection against lethal infection of the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%) compared to the controls. Our data demonstrate that rTgROP17 can trigger strong systemic and mucosal immune responses against T. gondii and that ROP17 is a promising candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25255141

  5. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. PMID:25101562

  6. European Education, European Citizenship? On the Role of Education in Constructing Europeanness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollikainen, Aaro

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) education programs in fostering a sense of European citizenship. Addresses the five meanings given to the concept of European citizenship: (1) recognition of European heritage; (2) EU loyalty; (3) right of free movement; (4) political participation; and (5) active citizenship. (CMK)

  7. Determination of parasitic load in different tissues of murine toxoplasmosis after immunization by excretory-secretory antigens using Real time QPCR.

    PubMed

    Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Dadimoghaddam, Yousef; Souteh, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Khalilian, Alireza; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Farazmand, Touraj; Kalani, Hamed; Rasouli, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    Excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs) of Toxoplasma gondii are one of the candidates for immunization against toxoplasmosis. For evaluation of immunization, we determined the kinetics of the distribution of Toxoplasma and parasite load in different tissues of mice immunized by ESAs. In this experimental study, 36 mice in case (n=18) and control (n=18) groups were immunized with ESAs and PBS, respectively. After 2weeks, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Toxoplasma virulent RH strain. Blood and different tissues (brain, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and muscle) were collected daily after challenge (1, 2, 3 and last day before death). Parasite load was calculated using Real time QPCR targeted at the B1 gene. ESAs as vaccine in different tissues showed various effects. However, infected mice which received the vaccine in comparison with control group, displayed a drastically decreasing in parasite burden, in their blood and tissues (P=0.000). These results indicated that ESAs with reduction of parasite load in different tissues of host could be evaluable candidate for the development of immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis. PMID:24852216

  8. Seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors for toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs from sub-tropical arid parts of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Ahmed, H; Irum, S; Qayyum, M

    2014-12-01

    Pet cats and dogs are an important source of human toxoplasmosis because of their intimate relationship with humans. Present study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs in northern sub-tropical arid region of Pakistan where no such work has been previously conducted. For this study 420 cats and 408 dogs visiting different pet clinics and veterinary hospitals were screened for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA technique. Epidemiological information regarding age, sex, area, outdoor access and hunting practice was obtained from the owners by questionnaire interview. Overall seroprevalence in cats and dogs was 26.43% (111/420) and 28.43% (116/408) respectively. IgG antibodies were found in 23.33% (98) cats and 25.49% (104) dogs while IgM antibodies were found in 3.57% (15) cats and 3.92% (16) dogs. Seroprevalence was significantly high in cats and dogs older than one year. No significant difference was recorded between males and females. Cats and dogs from rural areas showed higher prevalence. Dogs which had access to outside also showed high seroprevalence. The present study indicates that Toxoplasma gondii is widespread in pet animals in Pakistan which may have important implication for public health. PMID:25776604

  9. Direct Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Ocular Fluid Samples from 20 Patients with Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Predominance of Type II in France▿

    PubMed Central

    Fekkar, A.; Ajzenberg, D.; Bodaghi, B.; Touafek, F.; Le Hoang, P.; Delmas, J.; Robert, P. Y.; Dardé, M. L.; Mazier, D.; Paris, L.

    2011-01-01

    We report the direct genotyping analysis of Toxoplasma gondii in ocular samples collected from 20 patients, as well as associated clinical and epidemiological data. This work was aimed at better understanding the impact of genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii strains on toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. For this purpose, we studied the aqueous humor (AH) or vitreous humor (VH) of 20 patients presenting with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in 2 hospitals in France. Genetic characterization was obtained with microsatellite markers in a multiplex PCR assay. In contrast to the results of previous studies, we found no association between atypical Toxoplasma gondii genotypes and the occurrence of OT. Considering the local epidemiological data, our OT patients seemed to be infected more frequently by ordinary type II strains found in the environment. In conclusion, direct genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strains from aqueous or vitreous humor showed a predominance of the type II genotype in ocular toxoplasmosis; this may be due to a high exposure rate of this genotype in humans. PMID:21248092

  10. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; de Souza, Diogo Benchimol; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Fábio Conceição; de Melo, João Cardoso; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis. PMID:25742268

  11. Multisystemic toxoplasmosis associated with a type II-like Toxoplasma gondii strain in a New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Slapeta, Jan

    2014-09-15

    We report the first confirmed case of toxoplasmosis in an Australian pinniped. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the brain of a free-ranging subadult New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hypophysitis, posterior uveitis, retrobulbar cellulitis, and myocarditis associated with protozoan cysts and tachyzoites. The emaciated seal stranded moribund on a beach in northern Sydney in New South Wales. Histopathology coupled with specific immunohistochemistry and PCR assays confirmed the presence of T. gondii. The T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified in this study has an identical genotype as the type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) based on the direct sequencing and virtual RFLP of multilocus DNA markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Direct sequencing of T. gondii B1 DNA marker from the T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified a type II-like strain, based on presence of non-archetypal B1 gene polymorphisms previously reported as unique to Australia. This study suggests that T. gondii oocysts originating from mainland Australia, which has a large population of feral cats, may act as a disease threat to native marine fauna. Therefore, emerging toxoplasmosis in the Arctic has a relevant parallel in the Southern Ocean within Australian waters with yet unknown relevance to Antarctica. PMID:25123611

  12. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  13. Thailand's oil prospects brighten

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that oil exploration and development looks brighter in Thailand while gas prospects are mixed. Thai Shell Exploration and Production Co. Ltd. hopes to bring on stream in 1993 a rarity for Thailand; a commercial oil discovery in the Gulf of Thailand. Meantime, Thailand's top E and P player, Unocal Thailand, has outlined its upstream spending plans and activity for the year.

  14. Prospects for interstellar travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, John H.

    A detailed introduction is presented to the problems of interstellar space travel. The general topics discussed include: basics of travel in space, advanced propulsion methods; relativity and interstellar travel; relativistic drives and problems; starships as systems; missions; astrogation, observation, and communication; technological requirements and hazards; biological requirements; personal, social, and political considerations; interstellar life and civilizations; long-term prospects.

  15. The European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN) database.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ramin; Luca, Gianina; Baumann, Christian R; Bassetti, Claudio L; Bruni, Oliviero; Canellas, Francesca; Dauvilliers, Yves; Del Rio-Villegas, Rafael; Feketeova, Eva; Ferri, Raffaele; Geisler, Peter; Högl, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Kornum, Birgitte R; Lecendreux, Michel; Martins-da-Silva, Antonio; Mathis, Johannes; Mayer, Geert; Paiva, Teresa; Partinen, Markku; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Plazzi, Guiseppe; Santamaria, Joan; Sonka, Karel; Riha, Renata; Tafti, Mehdi; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Young, Peter; Lammers, Gert Jan; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2016-06-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare disease with an estimated prevalence of 0.02% in European populations. Narcolepsy shares many features of rare disorders, in particular the lack of awareness of the disease with serious consequences for healthcare supply. Similar to other rare diseases, only a few European countries have registered narcolepsy cases in databases of the International Classification of Diseases or in registries of the European health authorities. A promising approach to identify disease-specific adverse health effects and needs in healthcare delivery in the field of rare diseases is to establish a distributed expert network. A first and important step is to create a database that allows collection, storage and dissemination of data on narcolepsy in a comprehensive and systematic way. Here, the first prospective web-based European narcolepsy database hosted by the European Narcolepsy Network is introduced. The database structure, standardization of data acquisition and quality control procedures are described, and an overview provided of the first 1079 patients from 18 European specialized centres. Due to its standardization this continuously increasing data pool is most promising to provide a better insight into many unsolved aspects of narcolepsy and related disorders, including clear phenotype characterization of subtypes of narcolepsy, more precise epidemiological data and knowledge on the natural history of narcolepsy, expectations about treatment effects, identification of post-marketing medication side-effects, and will contribute to improve clinical trial designs and provide facilities to further develop phase III trials. PMID:26809504

  16. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  17. European Polistes venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Severino, M G; Campi, P; Macchia, D; Manfredi, M; Turillazzi, S; Spadolini, I; Bilò, M B; Bonifazi, F

    2006-07-01

    The American Polistes species venom mixture--that of P. annularis, P. fuscatus, P. metricus and P. exclamans--was the only commercially available mixture for diagnosis and therapy until 1996. However, these species of Polistes are not present in Europe, where P. dominulus and P. gallicus and to a lesser extent P. nimphus are widespread. The aim of this study was to assess the allergenic differences among the commercial American mix, P. dominulus and P. gallicus venom in European patients and therefore to verify if this mixture is suitable for diagnosis in these patients. We carried out skin tests, radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) and RAST inhibition in Italian patients with adverse reactions to Polistes stings. RAST inhibition results demonstrated that cross-reactivity between the American and European species is only partial and that P. dominulus and P. gallicus venoms have exclusive allergens. Skin tests and direct RAST confirmed these results and also showed that European Polistes venom is more suitable than the American mix in Italian patients. Moreover, we found a high rate of cross-reactivity between P. dominulus and P. gallicus. To conclude, P. dominulus and/or P. gallicus venoms are necessary for diagnosis and therefore in the therapy of European patients. PMID:16792585

  18. European Green Crab

    The European green crab (Carcinus maenas), has invaded fisheries in Northern California and in British Columbia, where it may compete with the much more valuable Dungeness crab. The CD it holds in its claws is a database for the USGS Pacific Coast Estuarine Information System, just one source used t...

  19. Eastern European Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iordanova, Dina

    1999-01-01

    Presents a structure for a course that highlights the best cinemas of Eastern European countries, in order to acquaint students with cinematic traditions of the region. Discusses course activities, coursework and evaluation, and resources. Advocates structuring the course around the film of experience of Eastern Europe, and presents and discusses…

  20. The European Economic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchart, Kelvin

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that social studies students need to realize the relationship of the European Economic Community to the United States in order to understand the trade bonds that exist between us. Briefly reviews the history of the Community, outlines its Common Agricultural Policy, and provides situations for classroom role playing. (JDH)

  1. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  2. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  3. Eastern European Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iordanova, Dina

    1999-01-01

    Presents a structure for a course that highlights the best cinemas of Eastern European countries, in order to acquaint students with cinematic traditions of the region. Discusses course activities, coursework and evaluation, and resources. Advocates structuring the course around the film of experience of Eastern Europe, and presents and discusses

  4. Brief Communication: Latent toxoplasmosis and salivary testosterone concentration--important confounding factors in second to fourth digit ratio studies.

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Lindová, Jitka; Pivoñková, Vera; Havlícek, Jan

    2008-12-01

    A sexually dimorphic characteristic, the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D ratio), has been shown to reflect the prenatal concentration of sex steroid hormones and to correlate with many personality, physiological, and life history traits. The correlations are usually stronger for the right than the left hand. Most studies have shown that the 2D:4D ratio does not vary with age or postnatal concentration of sex steroid hormones. Recently, a strong association between left hand 2D:4D ratio and infection with a common human parasite Toxoplasma has been reported. We hypothesized that the confounding effect of Toxoplasma infection on left hand 2D:4D ratio could be responsible for the stronger association between different traits and right hand rather than left hand 2D:4D ratio. This confounding effect of toxoplasmosis could also be responsible for the difficulty in finding an association between 2D:4D ratio and age or postnatal steroid hormone concentration. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the association between sex and age and 2D:4D ratio in a population of 194 female and 106 male students with and without controlling for the confounding variables of Toxoplasma infection and testosterone concentration. Our results showed that the relationship between age and sex and 2D:4D ratio increased sharply when Toxoplasma infection and testosterone concentration were controlled. These results suggest that left hand 2D:4D ratio is more susceptible to postnatal influences and that the confounding factors of Toxoplasma infection, testosterone concentration and possibly also age, should be controlled in future 2D:4D ratio studies. Because of a stronger 2D:4D dimorphism in Toxoplasma-infected than Toxoplasma-free subjects, we predict that 2D:4D ratio dimorphism as well as right hand/left hand 2D:4D ratio dimorphism will be higher in countries with a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection than in those with a low prevalence. PMID:18615572

  5. Scientists attack European MRI rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-08-01

    A report by the European Science Foundation (ESF) has sharply criticized a European Union (EU) directive on electromagnetic fields, arguing that limits on workers' exposure will have "potentially disastrous" consequences for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  6. [Problems and limitations of conventional and innovative methods for the diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals].

    PubMed

    Piergili Fioretti, D

    2004-06-01

    Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is useful for human and animal health. Several techniques are employed for the diagnosis in feline and canine population. Coprological tests for the detection of oocysts in cat faeces are of little significance owing to short patency (15 days). Histological examinations of biological samples show a lack of reliability when the animals are infected with few parasites; the mouse inoculation is the most reliable method even if the detection of cysts in mice brain require 40 days. However tachyzoites of virulent strains can be isolated from peritoneal exudate 3-4 days after inoculation. Samples inoculation in cell cultures (VERO, human fibroblasts) requires specialized laboratories and fails if non viable parasites are present due to tissutal autolysis. Serological tests are the most used diagnostic methods; Dye test and IFAT that require intact tachyzoites are more sensitive and specific compared to IHA, LA, ELISA because, during the infection, the first significant increase of IgM and IgG antibodies was observed against cuticolar antigens. A PCR to identify T. gondii DNA in canine and feline biological samples was developed. The B1 PCR performed on blood samples was less sensitive than when it was performed on other biological fluids requiring 100 tachyzoites, instead of 10. Aqueous humor PCR results could be negative if the infection is low grade or is restricted to the posterior segment or the animal was previously treated with anti-Toxoplasma drugs. SNC disease may be also difficult to diagnose because an high serum IgG titer may be associated with locally production or leakage from serum through a compromised blood-CSF barrier. AB1 PCR was successfully applied for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma abortion in ewes requiring only 10 parasites in placental cotyledon samples; the test compared with mouse inoculation showed similar sensitivity. Discrepancies may have been due to a low and focal distribution of parasites in the tissues or to the presence of non viable parasites if the tissues are autolysed. In regard to diagnostic methods adaptable to slaughter testing, several serological tests have been studied (IFAT, ELISA, IHA) for detection of IgG in sheep, pigs, cattle using also recombinant antigens (gene fragments H4 and H11) to lack the cross reactivity. The problem is the antibodies fall to near background levels as the infection became chronic (6-10 months p.-i.). A highly sensitive and specific method (Toxo Taq Man) has been developed to detect and quantitate T. gondii burden in animal tissue samples (0.1 pg of T. gondii genomic DNA, which is equivalent to 1 bradyzoite) using T. gondii ITS1-derived primers and a fluorogenic probe via Real-Time PCR. This assay is compatible with automation technology for potential slaughterhouse use. The diagnosis of acute infection in human pregnancy is difficult since IgM antibodies can be detected for a very long time after the acute phase; an IgA increase is of more diagnostic value because can be detected only for 6-7 months while the short kinetics of IgE can be useful only to date the infection precisely. In addition an IgG seroconversion is essential for the diagnosis. Among the most reliable tests, IgG avidity test is useful when a single serum sample, in the first months of gestation, is available, but low avidity results may persist for as long as 1 year. For this purpose a panel of serologic tests must be performed (ELISA, EIA, ISAGA, IgG avidity, IFAT, Dye test) for IgM, IgA, IgG and IgE. The serological diagnosis of prenatal infection is difficult since maternal IgG are passively transferred in utero to the foetus and caution must be exercised in interpretation of IgM or IgA results. A technique of Western blots of paired maternal and baby sera for evidencing different bands in the blots of two sera was developed for this purpose (specificity 97-100%, sensitivity 96-98%). The most reliable methods for prenatal diagnosis are PCR, mouse inoculation and cultural techniques performed on amniotic fluid, foetal blood and peripheral maternal blood in pregnants serologically positive. PCR (targets B1, SAG-1, rDNA) with amniotic fluid performed from 18 weeks of gestation is more sensitive and more rapid than conventional diagnostic procedures. PCR has been successfully used to diagnose Toxoplasma encephalitis in immunocompromised patients (cerebral biopsy is the only diagnostic method) and in ocular toxoplasmosis. In this evenience it is useful the study of IgG, IgM, IgA profile of paired serum and aqueous humor (Western blots). PMID:15305712

  7. Harmonization of European neurology education: the junior doctor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Macerollo, Antonella; Struhal, Walter; Sellner, Johann

    2013-10-29

    The objective of this article, written by executives of the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees (EAYNT), is to illustrate the status quo of neurology training in Europe and give an outlook on ongoing efforts and prospects for junior neurologists. The European Union is an economic and political union that currently encompasses 27 member states with more than 500 million inhabitants (or 7.3% of the world population) (interested readers are referred to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union). Countries of the European Union act as a single market with free movement of citizens, goods, services, and finances. As a consequence, a diploma and postgraduate training obtained in one EU country will be automatically recognized by all other EU member states. At the Lisbon European Council in March 2000, the Heads of State or Government signed a treaty that expresses their ambition of making Europe "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisbon_Strategy). More than 1.6 million physicians in all the different medical specialties are represented by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). The UEMS was founded in 1958 and the objectives include the study, promotion, and harmonization of the highest level of training of medical specialists, medical practice, and health care within the European Union. The European Board of Neurology (UEMS-EBN; www.uems-neuroboard.org) is in charge of the implementation of the UEMS policy regarding neurology. PMID:24166962

  8. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  9. Towards a European Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halls, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    Described the efforts of international agencies - among them are the Organization for European Cooperation and Development, the Council for Cultural Cooperation of the Council of Europe, and the Directorate for Research, Science and Education of the European Economic Communities - to develop a European education system. (RK)

  10. A retrospective and prospective study of megaesophagus in the parma wallaby (Macropus parma) at the San Diego Zoo, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Pye, Geoffrey W; Smith, Joseph A; Papendick, Rebecca; Ivy, Jamie A; Hamlin-Andrus, Chris

    2012-06-01

    At the San Diego Zoo (California, USA), 22 cases of megaesophagus were diagnosed in the parma wallaby (Macropus parma), yielding a prevalence of 21.1%. Parma wallabies often have no clinical signs until severe and chronic dilation of the esophagus is present. Clinical signs of advanced disease include weight loss, swelling of the cervical region, regurgitation without reswallowing of ingesta, short flight distance, depression, collapse, dyspnea, and sudden death. Retrospective and prospective studies at the San Diego Zoo and a multi-institutional survey in the United States were used to try to determine the cause of megaesophagus. The retrospective study did not identify an etiology. The prospective study revealed megaesophagus and severely delayed esophageal transit time in eight of eight animals. Myasthenia gravis, lead toxicosis, toxoplasmosis, and thyroid disease were eliminated as possible causes. Of 286 living and dead parma wallabies surveyed at other institutions, three cases of esophageal diverticulum and one case of megaesophagus were reported. The cause of megaesophagus in parma wallabies was not determined. PMID:22779236

  11. A retrospective and prospective study of megaesophagus in the parma wallaby (Macropus parma) at the San Diego Zoo, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Pye, Geoffrey W; Smith, Joseph A; Papendick, Rebecca; Ivy, Jamie A; Hamlin-Andrus, Chris

    2012-03-01

    At the San Diego Zoo (California, USA), 22 cases of megaesophagus were diagnosed in the parma wallaby (Macropus parma); a prevalence of 21.1%. Parma wallabies often have no clinical signs until severe and chronic dilation of the esophagus is present. Clinical signs of advanced disease include weight loss, swelling of the cervical region, regurgitation without reswallowing of ingesta, short flight distance, depression, collapse, dyspnea, and sudden death. Retrospective and prospective studies at the San Diego Zoo and a multi-institutional survey in the United States were used to try to determine the cause of megaesophagus. The retrospective study did not identify an etiology. The prospective study revealed megaesophagus and severely delayed esophageal transit time in eight of eight animals. Myasthenia gravis, lead toxicosis, toxoplasmosis, and thyroid disease were eliminated as possible causes. Of 286 living and dead parma wallabies surveyed at other institutions, three cases of esophageal diverticulum and one case of megaesophagus were reported. The cause of megaesophagus in parma wallabies was not determined. PMID:22448514

  12. Education and European integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, John

    1992-11-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss the implications for education and training of the movement towards integration in Europe in the historic context of the creation of a single market within the European Community (EC) and the end of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. The experience of the EC is used to illustrate trends and problems in the development of international cooperation in education and training. Common concerns and priorities throughout the new Europe are then identified and discussed. These include the pursuit of quality in schooling, efforts to serve the interests of disadvantaged learners, and the treatment of European Studies in the curriculum, including the improvement of the teaching of foreign languages.

  13. Prospecting for lunar resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much larger than elsewhere in a region. (4) We are developing a strategy that represents a comprehensive, integrated program to prospect for resources throughout the solar system. The plan involves a hierarchy of surface exploration techniques. At the base is a huge swarm (thousands to millions) of microrobots equipped with sensors to identify targeted resources. The tiny robots work in consort with sophisticated all- terrain rovers that serve as communication links and make detailed observations at promising locations identified by the microrobots.

  14. Telemedicine and European law.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues. PMID:15074761

  15. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast between the igneous rocks and the sediments in archaeological context, thus the use of less sensitive instruments works fine for these conditions. Surveys in archaeological sites in Mexico during last 30 years have provided enough evidence that the best conditions to apply magnetic prospection is in lacustrine environment where the ancient inhabitants used igneous rocks as building material. These conditions has been more common than expected in the Trans volcanic Belt where most of the lakes were densely occupied in ancient times. Because most lakes were surrounded by quite recent volcanos, it was pretty common to use the basaltic and andesitic rocks to build the archaeological structures. In this contribution some of the most successful applications of the magnetic technique in archaeology will be shown to illustrate the possibilities of the magnetometry in archaeological prospection.

  16. A long-lasting protective immunity against chronic toxoplasmosis in mice induced by recombinant rhoptry proteins encapsulated in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Wang, Meng; Dong, Hu; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Guo, Hui-Chen; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals is a worldwide zoonosis. Prevention and control of toxoplasmosis based on vaccination is one of the promising strategies. In the present study, recombinant T. gondii rhoptry proteins 38 and 18 (TgROP38 and TgROP18) were encapsulated into poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) (1:1), respectively, to obtain the stable water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion. Female Kunming mice were then immunized with the protein vaccines twice at a 2-week interval. Eight weeks after the second immunization, 10 mice from each group were challenged with T. gondii PRU strain (genotype II). The entrapment rates of PLG-rROP38 and PLG-rROP18 ranged from 65.5 to 77.7% and 58.1 to 72.3%, respectively. Immunization of mice with rROP38 and rROP18 proteins encapsulated into PLG microparticles elicited strongly humoral and cell-mediated responses against T. gondii, associated with relatively high levels of total IgG, IgG2a isotype, and IFN-γ, as well as the mixed Th1/Th2 immunity responses. Immunization with various protein vaccines induced significant reduction of the brain cysts after chronic infection with the T. gondii PRU strain, and the most effective protection was achieved in the PLG-rROP38-rROP18-immunized mice, with a cyst reduction of 81.3%. The findings of the present study indicated that recombinant rhoptry antigens encapsulated in PLG could maintain the protein immunogenicity in an extended period and elicit effective protection against chronic T. gondii infection, which has implications for the development of long-lasting vaccines against chronic toxoplasmosis in animals. PMID:26243574

  17. IgA and IgG1 reactivities assessed by flow cytometry mirror clinical aspects of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Laura Néspoli Nassar Pansini; de Castro Zacche Tonini, Aline; Barros, Geisa Baptista; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela A; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; do Valle Antonelli, Lis Ribeiro; Machado, Anderson Silva; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Ferro, Eloísa A V; Mineo, José Roberto; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Lemos, Elenice Moreira

    2016-01-01

    This study intended to apply the flow cytometric analysis of IgA and IgG reactivity and intracytoplasmic cytokine analysis to understand and decode the clinical aspects of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis. The Toxoplasma gondii-infected infants (TOXO) were subdivided according to their clinical aspects based on the absence (NRL), presence of active (ARL), active/cicatricial (ACRL) or cicatricial retinochoroidal lesions (CRL) and compared to non-infected controls (NI). The reactivity of anti-T. gondii IgG subclasses resembles the clinical aspects of ocular lesions. IgG and IgG1 discriminate infants with cicatricial lesions (ACRL and CRL) from both ARL and NLR. IgG2 and IgG3 are particularly higher in ACRL and CRL as compared to NLR. No differences were observed when IgG4 reactivity was evaluated. Thus, the results indicated that the reactivity patterns of IgA, IgG and IgG subclasses are able to discriminate ARL, ACRL and CRL from NLR or NI. IgA and IgG subclasses are relevant serological biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic applicability, respectively. Moreover, IgA and IgG1 were closely related to cytokine production by innate/adaptive immunity cells. IgA reactivity was directly associated to TNF-α-derived from neutrophils, monocytes and CD8(+) T-cells, while IgG1 was inversely correlated with IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells but positively correlated with IL-10(+) B-cells. These findings provide insights on the relationship between the cytokine production by innate/adaptive immunity and the antibody pattern of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition, the present study supports the use of flow cytometric serology as a potential tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of ocular lesions in T. gondii-infected infants in the clinical setting. PMID:26592658

  18. Evaluation of Immunoprotection Conferred by the Subunit Vaccines of GRA2 and GRA5 against Acute Toxoplasmosis in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Ching, Xiao T; Fong, Mun Y; Lau, Yee L

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite. Severe symptoms occur in the immunocompromised patients and pregnant women leading to fatality and abortions respectively. Vaccination development is essential to control the disease. The T. gondii dense granule antigen 2 and 5 (GRA2 and GRA5) have been targeted in this study because these proteins are essential to the development of parasitophorous vacuole (PV), a specialized compartment formed within the infected host cell. PV is resistance to host cell endosomes and lysosomes thereby protecting the invaded parasite. Recombinant dense granular proteins, GRA2 (rGRA2) and GRA5 (rGRA5) were cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli, BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The potential of these purified antigens as subunit vaccine candidates against toxoplasmosis were evaluated through subcutaneous injection of BALB/c mice followed by immunological characterization (humoral- and cellular-mediated) and lethal challenge against virulent T. gondii RH strain in BALB/c mice. Results obtained demonstrated that rGRA2 and rGRA5 elicited humoral and cellular-mediated immunity in the mice. High level of IgG antibody was produced with the isotype IgG2a/IgG1 ratio of ≈0.87 (p < 0.001). Significant increase (p < 0.05) in the level of four cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10) was obtained. The antibody and cytokine results suggest that a mix mode of Th1/Th2-immunity was elicited with predominant Th1-immune response inducing partial protection against T. gondii acute infection in BALB/c mice. Our findings indicated that both GRA2 and GRA5 are potential candidates for vaccine development against T. gondii acute infection. PMID:27199938

  19. Evaluation of Immunoprotection Conferred by the Subunit Vaccines of GRA2 and GRA5 against Acute Toxoplasmosis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Xiao T.; Fong, Mun Y.; Lau, Yee L.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite. Severe symptoms occur in the immunocompromised patients and pregnant women leading to fatality and abortions respectively. Vaccination development is essential to control the disease. The T. gondii dense granule antigen 2 and 5 (GRA2 and GRA5) have been targeted in this study because these proteins are essential to the development of parasitophorous vacuole (PV), a specialized compartment formed within the infected host cell. PV is resistance to host cell endosomes and lysosomes thereby protecting the invaded parasite. Recombinant dense granular proteins, GRA2 (rGRA2) and GRA5 (rGRA5) were cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli, BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The potential of these purified antigens as subunit vaccine candidates against toxoplasmosis were evaluated through subcutaneous injection of BALB/c mice followed by immunological characterization (humoral- and cellular-mediated) and lethal challenge against virulent T. gondii RH strain in BALB/c mice. Results obtained demonstrated that rGRA2 and rGRA5 elicited humoral and cellular-mediated immunity in the mice. High level of IgG antibody was produced with the isotype IgG2a/IgG1 ratio of ≈0.87 (p < 0.001). Significant increase (p < 0.05) in the level of four cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10) was obtained. The antibody and cytokine results suggest that a mix mode of Th1/Th2-immunity was elicited with predominant Th1-immune response inducing partial protection against T. gondii acute infection in BALB/c mice. Our findings indicated that both GRA2 and GRA5 are potential candidates for vaccine development against T. gondii acute infection. PMID:27199938

  20. Influences Determining European Coal Seam Gas Deliverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.

    2009-04-01

    Technically the coal basins of Europe have generated significant Gas In Place figures that has historically generated investor's interest in the development of this potential coal seam gas (CSG) resource. In the early 1980's, a wave of international, principally American, companies arrived, established themselves, drilled and then left with a poor record of success and disappointed investors. Recently a second wave of investment started after 2002, with the smaller companies leading the charge but have the lesson been learned from the past failures? To select a CSG investment project the common European approach has been to: 1. Find an old mining region; 2. Look to see if it had a coal mine methane gas problem; 3. Look for the non-mined coal seams; and 4. Peg the land. This method is perhaps the reason why the history of CSG exploration in Europe is such a disappointment as generally the coal mining regions of Europe do not have commercial CSG reservoir attributes. As a result, investors and governments have lost confidence that CSG will be a commercial success in Europe. New European specific principles for the determination of commercial CSG prospects have had to be delineated that allow for the selection of coal basins that have a strong technical case for deliverability. This will result in the return of investor confidence.

  1. The Epistemological Fog in Realising Learning to Learn in European Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leat, David; Thomas, Ulrike; Reid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The European Union is concerned about the economic prospects of its member states as they have to compete against newly emerging economies with lower wages and high ambitions. Part of the strategy to deal with this economic shadow is to create a knowledge economy, but in order to achieve this, a shift to a competence-based curriculum model is seen…

  2. Children and ICT European Initiatives and Policies on Protecting Children Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojniak, Justyna; Majorek, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the opportunities of use information and communication technologies for the education purposes. It presents key assumptions of the European Union policy concerning innovative methods of training and the prospects for their further development. As nowadays one can observe increasing activity of the children and young people in…

  3. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  4. Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, A J C; Gilbert, R E; Buffolano, W; Zufferey, J; Petersen, E; Jenum, P A; Foulon, W; Semprini, A E; Dunn, D T

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the odds ratio and population attributable fraction associated with food and environmental risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Design Case-control study. Setting Six large European cities. Participants Pregnant women with acute infection (cases) detected by seroconversion or positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM were compared with pregnant women seronegative for toxoplasma (controls). Main outcome measures Odds ratios for acute infection adjusted for confounding variables; the population attributable fraction for risk factors. Results Risk factors most strongly predictive of acute infection in pregnant women were eating undercooked lamb, beef, or game, contact with soil, and travel outside Europe and the United States and Canada. Contact with cats was not a risk factor. Between 30% and 63% of infections in different centres were attributed to consumption of undercooked or cured meat products and 6% to 17% to soil contact. Conclusions Inadequately cooked or cured meat is the main risk factor for infection with toxoplasma in all centres. Preventive strategies should aim to reduce prevalence of infection in meat, improve labelling of meat according to farming and processing methods, and improve the quality and consistency of health information given to pregnant women. PMID:10894691

  5. Prospective memory: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D; Wilson, A George

    2015-03-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here, we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall". PMID:25101562

  6. Prospective bonding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

    1981-07-01

    Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

  7. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  8. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  9. Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

  10. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... gloves when gardening and during any contact with soil or sand because it might be contaminated with ... and warm water after gardening or contact with soil or sand. Teach children the importance of washing ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toxoplasma . Cats and kittens prefer litter boxes, garden soils, and sandboxes for elimination, and you may be ... Fruits and vegetables may have contact with contaminated soil or water also, and you can be infected ...

  12. Neosporosis, Toxoplasmosis, Sarcocystosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are related coccidian parasites that can cause abortion and neonatal mortality in animals. In addition, T. gondii and certain species of Sarcocystis are zoonotic. This paper reviews information on etiology, diagnosis, control and prevention...

  13. Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent throughout the world. This chapter discusses modes of transmission, the epidemiology of T. gondii infection worldwide and in Brazil, and methods of prevention and control....

  14. Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a revierw of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in cats and dogs. Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite of all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondi...

  15. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the intestinal tracts of many animals, particularly cats. Infectious organisms are shed in cat feces, and are introduced into the body by ... is prudent for pregnant women to avoid handling cat litter boxes, cat feces, sandboxes, and any insects ...

  16. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school desegregation situation…

  17. Prospect Theory and Coercive Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite many applications of prospect theory's concepts to explain political and strategic phenomena, formal analyses of strategic problems using prospect theory are rare. Using Fearon's model of bargaining, Tversky and Kahneman's value function, and an existing probability weighting function, I construct a model that demonstrates the differences…

  18. Prospects at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs.

  19. A New Impetus for European Youth. European Commission White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    Despite their highly divergent situations, young people largely share the same values, ambitions, and difficulties. Despite the more complex social and economic context in which young Europeans are currently living, they are well equipped to adapt. National and European policymakers must facilitate this process of change by making young people…

  20. Optranet: a European project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanjean, Marie

    2003-10-01

    In a situation where curricula did not adjust at the required pace and many students are getting attracted out of science and technology, the shortage of skilled workers at the technician and engineer level is known to be a threat to development. In spite of a serious crisis in 2001, the trend of an increased presence of optical technologies remains unchanged and is bound to remain part of the landscape for decades. The level of investment required and the markets make Europe the best scale to plan for unified curricula and a global analysis of the human resources needs. There is no agreement on the definition of a trained optician, and European countries differ in the way they educate opticians, source of a lack of clarity and visibility which is detrimental to attracting good students and to the job market. Through its closely work with companies, OPTRANET will propose measures to enhance the adequacy and the visibility of the training offer.

  1. SAGE - European ozonesonde comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, R.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Between February and December 1979, 30 correlative comparisons were conducted of ozone profiles derived from the satellite sensor SAGE and those derived from balloon-borne ozonesondes launched in Europe. The mean absolute differences between SAGE and the European sondes when ozone mixing ratio is used as the basis of comparison are listed, and ozone comparisons made at four stations in Europe are plotted as ozone mixing ratio versus altitude. The agreement is considered quite reasonable. Also shown is an April 2, 1979 Garmisch comparison where the time and space differences were very small. The agreement is found to be remarkable. For example, the ratio of SAGE to ozonesonde values at 13 out of 17 levels between 12.5 and 28.5 km lies in the range 0.92-1.06.

  2. Photovoltaic prospects in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, M. R.

    The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

  3. Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

  4. Very long baseline interferometry - Current status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, R. E.

    The basic principles, capabilities, and implementation of VLBI for astronomical observations at radio wavelengths are briefly reviewed. It is shown that earth-based VLBI networks can provide resolution of about 0.3 marcsec for observations of stellar coronae, the Galactic center, nearby active galactic nuclei, or the cores of distant quasars and radio galaxies. The instruments of the present European and U.S. VLBI networks are listed; planned improvements are discussed; and the prospects for space-based VLBI are considered, including the Soviet Radioastron project, the Japanese VSOP satellite, and ESA/NASA proposals for the launch of a 25-m dish antenna early in the 21st century.

  5. Adult Education and European Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negt, Oskar

    2008-01-01

    Europe is coming together. This is a historic project; for the first time in modern history, will and consciousness are used for bringing political, social and cultural unity to the European continent. In this process lifelong learning and hence adult education are gaining in importance. The European project takes place in an age characterised by…

  6. European Nations Seek Compatible Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    1999-01-01

    After developing independently of each other for centuries, European higher-education systems are beginning serious efforts to "harmonize" their systems. The goal is to promote European integration and economic growth by making academic standards and degrees compatible across national boundaries. The Bologna Declaration of May 1999 formalizes the

  7. What Audience for European Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendelbo, Harald Arni

    This discussion of the audience for European television argues that satellite television has taken an upside-down approach, i.e., it has begun by focusing on the hardware, and then the software, before checking to see if there would be a user at the end of the line willing to pay for the whole operation. "European television" is then defined as

  8. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European…

  9. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  10. Impairment of the cellular immune response in acute murine toxoplasmosis: regulation of interleukin 2 production and macrophage-mediated inhibitory effects.

    PubMed Central

    Haque, S; Khan, I; Haque, A; Kasper, L

    1994-01-01

    Depression of the cellular immune response to Toxoplasma gondii has been reported in both mice and humans. The present study was undertaken to determine the kinetics and mechanism of the observed downregulation of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production during experimental murine toxoplasmosis. For these investigations, the cell-mediated immune response to the wild type (PTg) was compared with that to the less-virulent mutant parasite (PTgB), which is deficient in the major surface antigen, p30 (SAG-1). Spleen cells from infected A/J mice failed to proliferate in response to Toxoplasma antigens during the first week of infection. Both PTg- and PTgB-infected A/J mice exhibited a significant reduction in the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced lymphoproliferative response. Further, the response of splenocytes from mice infected with the wild-type parasite was significantly diminished compared with that of mice infected with PTgB. The lymphoproliferative response to Con A reached its nadir at day 7 and remained below control levels for at least 14 days postinfection. By day 21 postinfection, the response to Con A and to Toxoplasma antigens was restored to the level observed prior to day 7. Con A-stimulated culture supernatants of spleen cells from mice on day 7 postinfection contained significantly less IL-2 than normal mice. There was no significant difference in the numbers of binding sites or capacity of high-affinity IL-2 receptors between infected and normal mouse splenocytes as determined by Scatchard analysis. Exogenous IL-2 at different concentrations failed to restore the proliferative response of lymphocytes from infected mice to Con A. Adherent macrophages from 7-day-infected mice were able to suppress IL-2 production by normal splenocytes following stimulation with Con A. The inhibitory activity mediated by infected cells was reversed by the antibody to IL-10 but not transforming growth factor beta. There were insignificant levels of nitric oxide production in both infected and normal splenocytes. These results indicate that during acute murine toxoplasmosis, there is a well-defined period (day 7) during which both the T-cell mitogen and parasite antigen-associated lymphoproliferative response are reduced. Further, there is a reduction in the production of IL-2 and an increase in IL-10, which appear to mediate, in part, the observed downregulation of immunity to T. gondii. PMID:8005679

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success. PMID:23800302

  12. European Citizenship and European Union Expansion: Perspectives on Europeanness and Citizenship Education from Britain and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Chris; Busher, Hugh; Lawson, Tony; Acun, Ismail; Goz, Nur Leman

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some perspectives on citizenship education in Turkey and Britain in the context of current contested discourses on the nature of European identity and of the European Union (EU). It is based on data collected during an EU-funded student teacher exchange programme between three universities in Turkey and Leicester University…

  13. Prospective FORSCOM Energy Intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Wells, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Army's Forces Command (FORSCOM) has seen its energy intensity (MBtu/ksf building floor space) drop from 118.8 in 1985 to 95.9 in 2000. Executive Order 13123 requires that energy intensity be reduced by 35% relative to 1985 by 2010. Thus, FORSCOM must further reduce its energy intensity to 77.2 by the end of this decade. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential impact on FORSCOM?s energy intensity in 2010 from key planned or prospective changes to the installation energy-related infrastructure. This includes changes from the natural turnover of certain energy-related equipment, ongoing or currently planned programs, and retrofit with cost-effective energy efficiency measures. The study results indicate that the combination of currently planned infrastructure changes coupled with cost-effective energy efficiency measures would allow FORSCOM to meet its energy goals. This paper describes these infrastructure changes, documents the analytical approach, and presents the results from the study.

  14. German energy technology prospects.

    PubMed

    Popp, M

    1982-12-24

    After more than 25 years of development of nuclear power and almost 10 years of research and development in numerous areas of nonnuclear energy, there is now a good basis for judging the future prospects of energy technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany. The development of nuclear power has provided an important and economically advantageous new source of energy. Further efforts are needed to establish the nuclear fuel cycle in all stages and to exploit the potential of advanced reactors. In all other areas of energy technology, including energy conservation, new energy sources, and coal, economics has turned out to be the key problem, even at today's energy prices. Opportunities to overcome these economic problems through additional R & D are limited. There is some potential for special applications, and there are many technologies that could contribute to the energy supply of developing countries. In general, however, progress in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources will depend on the degree to which energy policy measures can improve their economic basis. For some technologies, such as solar thermal power stations and coal liquefaction, large-scale economic deployment cannot be foreseen today. Instead of establishing costly demonstration projects, emphasis will be put on improving key components of these technologies with the aim of having the most advanced technology available when the economic parameters are more favorable. PMID:17770150

  15. Prospects of photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-01-01

    Commercially available high-resolution three-dimensional optical imaging modalities—including confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography—have fundamentally impacted biomedicine. Unfortunately, such tools cannot penetrate biological tissue deeper than the optical transport mean free path (∼1 mm in the skin). Photoacoustic tomography, which combines strong optical contrast and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality, has broken through this fundamental depth limitation and achieved superdepth high-resolution optical imaging. In parallel, radio frequency-or microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography is being actively developed to combine radio frequency or microwave contrast with ultrasonic resolution. In this Vision 20∕20 article, the prospects of photoacoustic tomography are envisaged in the following aspects: (1) photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption emerging as a mainstream technology, (2) melanoma detection using photoacoustic microscopy, (3) photoacoustic endoscopy, (4) simultaneous functional and molecular photoacoustic tomography, (5) photoacoustic tomography of gene expression, (6) Doppler photoacoustic tomography for flow measurement, (7) photoacoustic tomography of metabolic rate of oxygen, (8) photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes, (9) multiscale photoacoustic imaging in vivo with common signal origins, (10) simultaneous photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography of the breast, (11) photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography of the brain, and (12) low-background thermoacoustic molecular imaging. PMID:19175133

  16. European Community deskbook. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, R.; Muylie, K.J.

    1999-04-01

    Since the first edition of the European Community Deskbook was published in 1992, much has changed at the institutional and regulatory levels within the European Community. Two new treaties -- the Maastrich and Amsterdam treaties -- have resulted in major transfers of power from member states to European institutions, and the EC has fundamentally modified its environmental regulatory scheme by replacing vague existing directives with more prescriptive and enforceable directives and regulations and by imposing legislation in previously unregulated areas, such as product take-back regulations.

  17. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: Seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lehmann, T; Lautner, F; Kwok, O C H; Gamble, H R

    2015-11-30

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chickens. In the present study 90 Toxoplasma gondii seronegative, sentinel chickens were placed on three (30 each) swine farms in New England in November, 2003. Chickens were bled monthly and their sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Chickens that seroconverted were euthanized and their tissues were bioassayed in mice, cats, or both. Over the course of the experiment (7 months), 31 of 71 chickens seroconverted (MAT 1:100 or higher). Tissues of 26 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in both cats and mice; viable T. gondii was isolated, by bioassay in mice, from hearts (whole) of all 26 chickens, brains (whole) of 3 chickens and leg muscles (25 g) of 11 chickens; 21 of 26 cats fed 250 g of muscle from seropositive chickens excreted T. gondii oocysts. Results indicated that the density of T. gondii in poultry muscle is low but heart is the tissue of choice for isolation of viable parasites. PMID:26391819

  18. Severe South American Ocular Toxoplasmosis Is Associated with Decreased Ifn-γ/Il-17a and Increased Il-6/Il-13 Intraocular Levels

    PubMed Central

    de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sauer, Arnaud; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Bourcier, Tristan; Brunet, Julie; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Ballonzoli, Laurent; Villard, Odile; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Sundar, Natarajan; Grigg, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    In a cross sectional study, 19 French and 23 Colombian cases of confirmed active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) were evaluated. The objective was to compare clinical, parasitological and immunological responses and relate them to the infecting strains. A complete ocular examination was performed in each patient. The infecting strain was characterized by genotyping when intraocular Toxoplasma DNA was detectable, as well as by peptide-specific serotyping for each patient. To characterize the immune response, we assessed Toxoplasma protein recognition patterns by intraocular antibodies and the intraocular profile of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Significant differences were found for size of active lesions, unilateral macular involvement, unilateral visual impairment, vitreous inflammation, synechiae, and vasculitis, with higher values observed throughout for Colombian patients. Multilocus PCR-DNA sequence genotyping was only successful in three Colombian patients revealing one type I and two atypical strains. The Colombian OT patients possessed heterogeneous atypical serotypes whereas the French were uniformly reactive to type II strain peptides. The protein patterns recognized by intraocular antibodies and the cytokine patterns were strikingly different between the two populations. Intraocular IFN-γ and IL-17 expression was lower, while higher levels of IL-13 and IL-6 were detected in aqueous humor of Colombian patients. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that South American strains may cause more severe OT due to an inhibition of the protective effect of IFN-γ. PMID:24278490

  19. IgG western blot for confirmatory diagnosis of equivocal cases of toxoplasmosis by EIA-IgG and fluorescent antibody test.

    PubMed

    Khammari, Imen; Saghrouni, Fatma; Yaacoub, Alia; Gaied Meksi, Sondoss; Ach, Hinda; Garma, Lamia; Fathallah, Akila; Ben Saïd, Moncef

    2013-08-01

    The performance values of available techniques used in serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis are satisfactory but they raise problems of equivocal and discordant results for very low IgG titers. Recently marketed, LDBio-Toxo II IgG Western blot (IB) showed an excellent correlation with the dye test. We estimated the proportion of equivocal and discordant results between the enzyme immunoassay Platelia Toxo IgG (EIA-IgG) and fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and assessed the usefulness of the IB as a confirmatory test. Out of 2,136 sera collected from pregnant women, 1,644 (77.0%) tested unequivocally positive and 407 (19.0%) were negative in both EIA-IgG and FAT. The remaining 85 (4%) sera showed equivocal or discordant results. Among them, 73 (85.9%) were positive and 12 (14.1%) were negative in IB. Forty-one (89.1%) equivocal sera in EIA-IgG and 46 (86.8%) equivocal sera in FAT were positive in IB. Reducing the cut-off values of both screening techniques improved significantly their sensitivity in detecting very low IgG titers at the expense of their specificity. In conclusion, equivocal results in routine-used techniques and their discordance in determination of the immune status in pregnancy women were not uncommon. IB test appeard to be highly useful in these situations as a confirmatory technique. PMID:24039295

  20. IgG Western Blot for Confirmatory Diagnosis of Equivocal Cases of Toxoplasmosis by EIA-IgG and Fluorescent Antibody Test

    PubMed Central

    Saghrouni, Fatma; Yaacoub, Alia; Gaied Meksi, Sondoss; Ach, Hinda; Garma, Lamia; Fathallah, Akila; Ben Saïd, Moncef

    2013-01-01

    The performance values of available techniques used in serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis are satisfactory but they raise problems of equivocal and discordant results for very low IgG titers. Recently marketed, LDBio-Toxo II IgG Western blot (IB) showed an excellent correlation with the dye test. We estimated the proportion of equivocal and discordant results between the enzyme immunoassay Platelia Toxo IgG (EIA-IgG) and fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and assessed the usefulness of the IB as a confirmatory test. Out of 2,136 sera collected from pregnant women, 1,644 (77.0%) tested unequivocally positive and 407 (19.0%) were negative in both EIA-IgG and FAT. The remaining 85 (4%) sera showed equivocal or discordant results. Among them, 73 (85.9%) were positive and 12 (14.1%) were negative in IB. Forty-one (89.1%) equivocal sera in EIA-IgG and 46 (86.8%) equivocal sera in FAT were positive in IB. Reducing the cut-off values of both screening techniques improved significantly their sensitivity in detecting very low IgG titers at the expense of their specificity. In conclusion, equivocal results in routine-used techniques and their discordance in determination of the immune status in pregnancy women were not uncommon. IB test appeard to be highly useful in these situations as a confirmatory technique. PMID:24039295

  1. A maternal screening program for congenital toxoplasmosis in Quindio, Colombia and application of mathematical models to estimate incidences using age-stratified data.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Marin, J E; Montoya-de-Londono, M T; Castano-Osorio, J C

    1997-08-01

    We studied 937 pregnant women from Quindio, Colombia for the presence of specific anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect immunofluorescence antibody technique (IFAT-IgG). Specific anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies detected using the immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAgA-IgM) were investigated in patients with high titers in the IFAT-IgG (dilutions > or = 1:1,024). We used mathematical models based on the age prevalence results of the IFAT-IgG to estimate the number of seroconversions and these were compared with the results predicted by the IgM based-incidence results. We found 15 positive cases by ISAgA-IgM and we were able to follow the children of six mothers from this group in which we found one case of congenital toxoplasmosis with the development of a retinal scar despite prenatal and postnatal treatment. The estimation of new cases for the annual total of pregnancies (approximately 8,000) in the Quindio region was 30-120 according to the ISAgA-IgM results and 57-85 using mathematical models. Thus, mathematical models based on age prevalence can give useful estimations of the magnitude of the problem. PMID:9288813

  2. Platelia-Toxo IgA, a new kit for early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by detection of anti-P30 immunoglobulin A antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Decoster, A; Slizewicz, B; Simon, J; Bazin, C; Darcy, F; Vittu, G; Boulanger, C; Champeau, Y; Demory, J L; Duhamel, M

    1991-01-01

    With the aim of achieving earlier diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, anti-P30 immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were assayed by using a Platelia-Toxo IgA kit with samples from 72 children born to mothers who seroconverted during pregnancy. A total of 148 serum samples and 1 cerebrospinal fluid samples were from 23 congenitally infected children (2 serum samples were collected from fetuses), and 74 serum samples were from 49 uninfected children. Among the 23 infected children, anti-P30 IgA antibodies were present in all infants either at birth or in the following weeks, whereas anti-P30 IgM antibodies were present in 13 from the 23 infected children either at birth or in the following weeks. Serum samples collected in utero from two infected children were also tested. One of these samples was positive for both anti-P30 IgA and anti-P30 IgM antibodies, whereas both children were negative at birth for these antibodies. Neither anti-P30 IgA nor anti-P30 IgM antibodies were detected in 47 of 49 uninfected children. These results suggest that detection of anti-P30 IgA antibodies by the Platelia-Toxo IgA kit is a very effective method for early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasma infection. PMID:1939586

  3. Resolution in Electromagnetic Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) signals are commonly used in geophysical exploration of the shallow subsurface. Sensitivity to conductivity implies they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of porous media. However, low-frequency EM wavefields are diffusive, and have significantly larger wavelengths compared to seismic signals of equal frequency. The wavelength of a 30 Hz sinusoid propagating with seismic velocity 3000 m/s is 100 m, whereas an analogous EM signal diffusing through a conductive body of 0.1 S/m (clayey shale) has wavelength 1825 m. The larger wavelength has implications for resolution of the EM prospecting method. We are investigating resolving power of the EM method via theoretical and numerical experiments. Normal incidence plane wave reflection/transmission by a thin geologic bed is amenable to analytic solution. Responses are calculated for beds that are conductive or resistive relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate the classic seismic resolution/detection limit of bed thickness ~1/8 wavelength is not achieved. EM responses for point or line current sources recorded by general acquisition geometries are calculated with a 3D finite-difference algorithm. These exhibit greater variability which may allow inference of bed thickness. We also examine composite responses of two point scatterers with separation when illuminated by an incident EM field. This is analogous to the Rayleigh resolution problem of estimating angular separation between two light sources. The First Born Approximation implies that perturbations in permittivity, permeability, and conductivity have different scattering patterns, which may be indicators of EM medium properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. North European Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland image a collage of older continental fragments and intervening basins that have been welded together in Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola orogenies. The Lapland-Kola orogen record the collision of Baltica and Laurentia during the compilation of the Columbia supercontinent. The collisional structures were overprinted by extension associated with the dispersal of Columbia. The Russian Arctic line 1-AR focuses on the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover of the Barents Sea Basin. The line images the transition from Paleoproterozoic Baltica to Neoproterozoic Barentsia. As part of the Rodinia supercontinent formation, Baltica collided with Barentsia resulting in Timanide orogeny. During the break-up of Rodinia an aborted rift was formed within the Barentsia. Later peripheral tectonic events modified the interior parts of Barentsia that acted first as a back arc basin and later as a foreland basin to the Uralian and Caledonian orogen during the formation of the Pangea supercontinent.

  5. European MEMS foundries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  6. European strategies for mental health.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The most recent developments of strategies and policies in the mental health field in Europe are related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health signed by all the Ministers of Health of all Member States in the European Region (2005). The Action Plan proposes ways and means of developing comprehensive mental health policies, listing 12 areas in which challenges are indicated and detailed actions are required. Afterwards the Green Paper on Mental Health has been launched by the European Commission for the definition of an European strategy. The more precise European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being has been presented in 2008. Many other international bodies (OECD, Council of Europe, etc.) have actively worked to stress the mental health issue. All are clearly referring to the Italian model, started 30 years ago. PMID:19567979

  7. [European general practice research agenda].

    PubMed

    Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koskela, Tuomas

    2014-01-01

    The EGPRN (European General Practice Research Network) research agenda is a review compiling the strengths and areas of development of European general practice, based on a systematic literature survey and its versatile analysis. The research agenda is a framework paper sharpening the definition and functions of general practice as well as its significance for researchers and decisionmakers. The agenda is useful in structuring the research, evaluation of research needs, strengthening of infrastructure and strategic planning of new research. PMID:24961062

  8. Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

  9. Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n"=713, ages 9-11years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.

  10. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Results of the HDR-ALLO study – a prospective clinical trial by the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante de Médula Osea (GEL/TAMO) and the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sureda, Anna; Canals, Carme; Arranz, Reyes; Caballero, Dolores; Ribera, Josep Maria; Brune, Mats; Passweg, Jacob; Martino, Rodrigo; Valcárcel, David; Besalduch, Joan; Duarte, Rafael; León, Angel; Pascual, Maria Jesus; García-Noblejas, Ana; Corral, Lucia López; Xicoy, Bianca; Sierra, Jordi; Schmitz, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a highly curable disease with modern chemotherapy protocols, some patients are primary refractory or relapse after first-line chemotherapy or even after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. We investigated the potential role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in this setting. Design and Methods In this phase II study 92 patients with relapsed Hodgkin’s lymphoma and an HLA-identical sibling, a matched unrelated donor or a one antigen mismatched, unrelated donor were treated with salvage chemotherapy followed by reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation. Fourteen patients showed refractory disease and died from progressive lymphoma with a median overall survival after trial entry of 10 months (range, 6–17). Seventy-eight patients proceeded to allograft (unrelated donors, n=23). Fifty were allografted in complete or partial remission and 28 in stable disease. Fludarabine (150 mg/m2 iv) and melphalan (140 mg/m2 iv) were used as the conditioning regimen. Anti-thymocyte globulin was additionally used as graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis for recipients of grafts from unrelated donors. Results The non-relapse mortality rate was 8% at 100 days and 15% at 1 year. Relapse was the major cause of failure. The progression-free survival rate was 47% at 1 year and 18% at 4 years from trial entry. For the allografted population, the progression-free survival rate was 48% at 1 year and 24% at 4 years. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with a lower incidence of relapse. Patients allografted in complete remission had a significantly better outcome. The overall survival rate was 71% at 1 year and 43% at 4 years. Conclusions Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can result in long-term progression-free survival in heavily pre-treated patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The reduced intensity conditioning approach significantly reduced non-relapse mortality; the high relapse rate represents the major remaining challenge in this setting. The HDR-Allo trial was registered in the European Clinical Trials Database (EUDRACT, https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/) with number 02-0036 PMID:21993674

  11. Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis: Clinical Characteristics and Visual Outcome in a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Curi, André Luiz Land; Benchimol, Eliezer Israel; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To ascertain the clinical features and visual outcome of toxoplasma retinochoroiditis in a large series of cases. Subjects and Methods Two hundred and thirty subjects diagnosed with active toxoplasma retinochoroiditis were prospectively followed for periods ranging from 269 to 1976 days. All patients presented with active retinochoroiditis and positive IgG T. gondii serology at the beginning of the study and received a standardized drug treatment for toxoplasmosis, both in the first episode and in the subsequent recurrences. Results The group involved 118 (51.3%) men and 112 (48.7%) women, with ages ranging from 14 to 77 years, mean of 32.4 years (SD = 11.38). Primary retinochoroidal lesions were observed in 52 (22.6%) cases and active retinochoroiditis combined with old scars in 178 (77.4%) subjects at the beginning of the study. A hundred sixty-two recurrent episodes in 104 (45.2%) patients were observed during follow-up. New subclinical retinochoroidal lesions were detected in 23 of 162 (14.2%) recurrences episodes during the follow-up. Posterior segment complications were observed in 73 (31.7%) subjects. Retinochoroidal lesions adjacent to the optic nerve and in the macular area were observed in 27 of 40 (67.5%) cases of severe visual impairment (VA = 20/200 or worse). Conclusion Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis in this population had a high recurrence rate after an active episode. Severe visual impairment was associated with location of the retinochoroidal scar, recurrences and posterior segment complications. It is crucial to consider the location of the lesion in studies analyzing visual prognosis as a measure for treatment effectiveness and prevention strategies. PMID:27136081

  12. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Functionality and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Diverse structural, functional and valuable polysaccharides are synthesized by bacteria of all taxa and secreted into the external environment. These polysaccharides are referred to as exopolysaccharides and they may either be homopolymeric or heteropolymeric in composition and of diverse high molecular weights (10 to 1000 kDa). The material properties of exopolysaccharides have revolutionized the industrial and medical sectors due to their retinue of functional applications and prospects. These applications have been extensive in areas such as pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmeceutical, herbicides and insecticides among others, while prospects includes uses as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunomodulation, anticancer and as bioflocculants. Due to the extensive applications of bacterial exopolysaccharides, this overview provides basic information on their physiologic and morphologic functions as well as their applications and prospects in the medical and industrial sectors. PMID:23203046

  13. How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviäkangas, P.

    2010-09-01

    To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

  14. A European survey on biobanks: trends and issues.

    PubMed

    Zika, E; Paci, D; Braun, A; Rijkers-Defrasne, S; Deschnes, M; Fortier, I; Laage-Hellman, J; Scerri, C A; Ibarreta, D

    2011-01-01

    Biobanks have recently gained great significance for research and personalised medicine, being recognised as a crucial infrastructure. At the same time, the widely varied practices in biobanking may also pose a barrier to cross-border research and collaboration by limiting access to samples and data. Nevertheless, the extent of the actual activities and the impact of the level of networking and harmonisation have not been fully assessed. To address these issues and to obtain missing knowledge on the extent of biobanking in Europe, the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, in collaboration with the European Science and Technology Observatory (ESTO), conducted a survey among European biobanks. In total, 126 biobanks from 23 countries responded to the survey. Most of them are small or medium-sized public collections set up either for population-based or disease-specific research purposes. The survey indicated a limited networking among the infrastructures. The large majority of them are stand-alone collections and only about half indicated to have a policy for cross-border sharing of samples. Yet, scientific collaborations based on the use of each biobank appear to be prominent. Significant variability was found in terms of consent requirements and related procedures as well as for privacy and data protection issues among the biobanks surveyed. To help promote networking of biobanks and thus maximise public health benefits, at least some degree of harmonisation should be achieved. PMID:20395653

  15. Towards further harmonisation? Migration policy in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Collinson, S

    1994-06-01

    This paper considers the prospects for an extensive harmonization of migration policy in the European Union (EU), and the likelihood of a cohesive Union migration policy developing in the years ahead. It begins by reviewing the development of policy coordination and integration to date, and then considers divergent trends in specific issue areas and current patterns of multilateral cooperation, both within western Europe and throughout Europe as a whole. Migration policy in Europe is currently a complex mosaic of cooperative agreements between Union member states and third countries, as well as within the Union itself. Different spheres of cooperation seem to be emerging, with the greatest integration being achieved with respect to policies directly connected to the completion of the internal market and the eventual functioning of the European Economic Area (EEA), first within the Schengen grouping, second within the European Union, and third within the newly-established EEA. The integration of broader areas of immigration policy in the EU context will probably transpire more slowly and less comprehensively as member states move toward a general alignment of shared interests rather than any extensive harmonization. Cooperation with third countries is likely to remain flexible. Thus, even with the existing EU membership, it is unlikely that a fully cohesive Union migration policy will emerge, at least in the short to medium term. PMID:12288192

  16. Human Spaceflight: Achievements, Benefits and Future Opportunities from a European Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard; Seibert, Günther

    2004-06-01

    The past achievements, benefits and future opportunities of human spaceflight are discussed from a European perspective. Earlier work performed on the Skylab, Salyut, Shuttle, Spacelab, and Mir orbital facilities is reviewed, together with the prospects for new research on the International Space Station (ISS). Major scientific benefits are expected from the ISS in the areas of life science research (including human physiology and medicine) physical sciences, and fundamental physics.

  17. The Distribution of Toxoplasma gondii Cysts in the Brain of a Mouse with Latent Toxoplasmosis: Implications for the Behavioral Manipulation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Berenreiterová, Miroslava; Flegr, Jaroslav; Kuběna, Aleš A.; Němec, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Background The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii reportedly manipulates rodent behavior to enhance the likelihood of transmission to its definitive cat host. The proximate mechanisms underlying this adaptive manipulation remain largely unclear, though a growing body of evidence suggests that the parasite-entrained dysregulation of dopamine metabolism plays a central role. Paradoxically, the distribution of the parasite in the brain has received only scant attention. Methodology/Principal Findings The distributions of T. gondii cysts and histopathological lesions in the brains of CD1 mice with latent toxoplasmosis were analyzed using standard histological techniques. Mice were infected per orally with 10 tissue cysts of the avirulent HIF strain of T. gondii at six months of age and examined 18 weeks later. The cysts were distributed throughout the brain and selective tropism of the parasite toward a particular functional system was not observed. Importantly, the cysts were not preferentially associated with the dopaminergic system and absent from the hypothalamic defensive system. The striking interindividual differences in the total parasite load and cyst distribution indicate a probabilistic nature of brain infestation. Still, some brain regions were consistently more infected than others. These included the olfactory bulb, the entorhinal, somatosensory, motor and orbital, frontal association and visual cortices, and, importantly, the hippocampus and the amygdala. By contrast, a consistently low incidence of tissue cysts was recorded in the cerebellum, the pontine nuclei, the caudate putamen and virtually all compact masses of myelinated axons. Numerous perivascular and leptomeningeal infiltrations of inflammatory cells were observed, but they were not associated with intracellular cysts. Conclusion/Significance The observed pattern of T. gondii distribution stems from uneven brain colonization during acute infection and explains numerous behavioral abnormalities observed in the chronically infected rodents. Thus, the parasite can effectively change behavioral phenotype of infected hosts despite the absence of well targeted tropism. PMID:22194951

  18. Arms control and European security

    SciTech Connect

    Auton, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    In October 1987 on the eve of the Washington summit, the Committee on Atlantic Studies, a group of European and North American scholars established in 1964 to promote transatlantic dialogue, met in Toronto to discuss the implications of the new arms control for European security. This book is the fruit of that meeting. Incorporating subsequent developments, up to Grobachev's December 1988 speech to the U.N., it provides a timely assessment of arms control issues from a variety of European and North American perspectives. The contributors to this volume council caution, suggesting that while progress is possible, it will probably be slow. This volume stresses the interplay of strategic and regional arms control. It includes analyses of nuclear, conventional, and naval arms control questions and embodies a broader a broader conception of arms control. The book links arms control to such political measures as confidence-building, conflict avoidance and superpower agreement to the neutrality of particular states.

  19. ALMA European Project Scientist Appointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T.

    2007-06-01

    The new ALMA European Project Scientist is Dr. Leo