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1

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. More than 60 million people in the ... brain, eyes, and other organs. You can get toxoplasmosis from Waste from an infected cat Eating contaminated ...

2

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... the parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, especially if they hunt animals or are fed raw meat. By eating ... up the toxoplasmosis parasite from the animals it hunts. If possible, have someone else take care of ...

3

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Epidemiology & Risk Factors Who gets it and how... Biology Stages of parasite development... Disease Signs and symptoms ... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

4

Toxoplasmosis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), one of the better known and more widespread zoonotic diseases, originated in wildlife species and is now well established as a human malady. Food- and waterborne zoonoses, such as toxoplasmosis, are receiving increasing attention as components of disease emergence and resurgence. Toxoplasmosis is transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated food or water, and nearly one-third of humanity has been exposed to this parasite. The role of wildlife in this transmission process is becoming more clearly known and is outlined in this report. This zoonotic disease also causes problems in wildlife species across the globe. Future generations of humans will continue to be jeopardized by toxoplasmosis infections in addition to many of the other zoonotic diseases that have emerged during the past century. Through monitoring toxoplasmosis infection levels in wildlife populations, we will be better able to predict future human infection levels of this important zoonotic disease.

Hill, Dolores E.; Dubey, J.P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles, III; Enright, Elizabeth A.

2014-01-01

5

Toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in immunocompetent subjects. The infection can be congenital or acquired. Ocular symptoms are variable according to the age of the subject. For instance, young children present with reduced visual acuity, strabismus, nystagmus, and leucocoria, while teenagers and adults complain of decreased vision, floaters, photophobia, pain, and hyperemia. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis typically affects the posterior pole, and the lesions can be solitary, multiple or satellite to a pigmented retinal scar. Active lesions present as grey-white focus of retinal necrosis with adjacent choroiditis, vasculitis, hemorrhage and vitreitis. Cicatrization occurs from the periphery towards the center, with variable pigmentary hyperplasia. Anterior uveitis is a common finding, with mutton-fat keratic precipitates, fibrine, cells and flare, iris nodules and posterior synechiae. Atypical presentations include punctate outer retinitis, neuroretinitis, papillitis, pseudo-multiple retinochoroiditis, intraocular inflammation without retinochoroiditis, unilateral pigmentary retinopathy, Fuchs'-like anterior uveitis, scleritis and multifocal or diffuse necrotizing retinitis. The laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on detection of antibodies and T. gondii DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Toxoplasmosis therapy includes specific medication and corticosteroids. There are several regimens, with different drug combinations. Medications include pirimetamine, sulfadiazine, clindamycin, trimethoprime-sulphamethoxazol, spiramycin, azithromycin, atovaquone, tetracycline and minocycline. The prognosis of ocular toxoplasmosis is usually good in immunocompetent individuals, as long as the central macula is not directly involved. PMID:16282146

Bonfioli, Adriana A; Orefice, Fernando

2005-01-01

6

TOXOPLASMOSIS  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii, an Apicomplexan, is a pathogen that can infect the central nervous system. Infection during pregnancy can result in a congenial infection with severe neurological sequela. In immune compromised individuals reactivation of latent neurological foci can result in encephalitis. Immune competent individuals infected with T. gondii are typically asymptomatic and maintain this infection for life. However, recent studies suggest that these asymptomatic infections may have effects on behavior and other physiological processes. T. gondii infects approximately one-third of the world population, making it one of the most successful parasitic organisms. Cats and other felidae serve as the definite host producing oocysts, an environmentally resistant life cycle stage found in cat feces, which can transmit the infection when ingested orally. A wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including humans, can serve as the intermediate host in which tissue cysts (containing bradyzoites) develop. Transmission also occurs due to ingestion of the tissue cysts. There are 3 predominant clonal lineages, termed types I, II and III and an association with higher pathogenicity with the Type I strains in humans has emerged. This chapter presents a review of the biology of this infection including the life cycle, transmission, epidemiology, parasite strains, and the host immune response. The major clinical outcomes of congenital infection, chorioretinitis, and encephalitis, and the possible association of infection of toxoplasmosis with neuropsychriatric disorders such as schizophrenia, are reviewed. PMID:23829904

Halonen, Sandra K.; Weiss, Louis M.

2014-01-01

7

Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

The objective of this investigation was to describe systems for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis implemented in European countries. In September 2004, a questionnaire, adapted from the evaluation criteria published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was sent to a panel of national correspondents in 35 countries in the European geographical area with knowledge of the epidemiological surveillance systems implemented in their countries. Where necessary, we updated the information until July 2007. Responses were received from 28 countries. Some 16 countries reported routine surveillance for toxoplasmosis. In 12 countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Scotland and Slovakia), surveillance was designed to detect only symptomatic toxoplasmosis, whether congenital or not. Four countries reported surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis, on a regional basis in Italy and on a national basis in Denmark, France and Germany. In conclusion, epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis needs to be improved in order to determine the true burden of disease and to assess the effectiveness of and the need for existing prevention programmes. PMID:18445459

Bénard, Antoine; Petersen, Eskild; Salamon, Roger; Chęne, Genevičve; Gilbert, Ruth; Salmi, Louis Rachid; for the European Toxo Prevention Study Group (EUROTOXO)

2008-01-01

8

Congenital toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... For example, toxoplasmosis infection can be passed from cats if you clean the cat box.) Call your health care provider if you ... risk for the infection. Pregnant women who have cats as house pets may be at higher risk. ...

9

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

10

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Cancer.gov

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was founded at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO), in Lyon, France, and is coordinated by Dr. Elio Riboli, Head of the School of Public Health at Imperial College, London. EPIC received substantial financial support from the Europe Against Cancer Program of the European Commission.

11

History and Prospects of Inequality between Europeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides the …rst study of inequality and poverty in the European Union from 1970 to 2040. The distribution of disposable in- come shows a large decrease of absolute poverty over the last decades, whereas inequality has not changed since 1980 after a fall in the 70s. The comparison between the two distributions of disposable income and fac- tor

Christian Morrisson; Fabrice Murtin

2003-01-01

12

Prospects for European Research and Development in Training & Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the prospects for research and development in the education and training fields offered by the European Communities. The position of the EC is explained in relation to the existing and forthcoming Framework Programmes of research and development. The 1987-91 Framework Programme has committed most of its funding to existing…

Whiting, John

2008-01-01

13

Congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, has three modes of transmission: oral intake of raw or undercooked meat or contaminated fruits and vegetables, ingestion of materials contaminated with cat feces, and transplacental infection. The focus of this article is congenital toxoplasmosis, which is transmitted to the fetus across the placenta. When primary infection of the mother occurs during pregnancy, there is a 40 percent chance of fetal infection; rate of transmission and severity of infection are related to gestational age at the time of infection. The brain and retina are often affected, and there can be a wide range of clinical disease. Amniocentesis or cordocentesis provides the most accurate diagnosis. At birth, 80-90 percent of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic. But further testing may reveal retinal and central nervous system abnormalities, and there is a risk of long-term sequelae. Chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, and convulsions are the typical presentation of classic congenital toxoplasmosis. Serology is the most common method of diagnosing neonatal infection, but more complex tests are also utilized. The prognosis for the untreated infant is poor; however, when antibiotic therapy is started early, the rate of sequelae is reduced significantly. PMID:12143899

Martin, S

2001-06-01

14

[Prospective study of pregnants and babies with risk of congenital toxoplasmosis in municipal district of Rio Grande do Sul].  

PubMed

This study followed up 2,126 pregnant women cared for at SUS day-care clinics (Public Health Insurance System) of the northwest of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After serological screening we performed a follow up of all pregnant women and their babies. Serologic tests included: IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG avidity levels, mice inoculation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also placentas and umbilical materials were tested using immunoperoxidase as well as clinical evaluation. Of all the pregnant women screened, 74.5% were reactive to toxoplasmosis, and 3.6% presented IgM seropositivity. At ophthalmic evaluation ten women had ocular lesions and one infant presented eye lesions and brain calcification. The presence of anti-T.gondii specific IgM throughout the entire pregnancy did not characterize acute phase infection, for this, complementary tests were necessary. The importance is underscored for attendance of the newborn of mothers presenting serology compatible with this infection even in the absence of signs and symptoms of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:12937726

Spalding, Sílvia Maria; Amendoeira, Maria Regina R; Ribeiro, Luis Carlos; Silveira, Cláudio; Garcia, Aparecida P; Camillo-Coura, Léa

2003-01-01

15

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

16

My Journey with Toxoplasmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes her fears and struggles as she came to terms, as an American expatriate in France, with a medical diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. This condition led to her birthing a son with Asperger's Syndrome. She tells of plunging herself into research to learn more about Toxoplasmosis, the number of things that could be seriously wrong with…

Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann

2006-01-01

17

Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... or systemic steroids may further reduce the inflammation. Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

18

Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Pregnant women who acquire infection from Toxoplasma gondii usually remain asymptomatic, although they can still transmit the infection to their fetuses with severe consequences. Given the asymptomatic nature of most Toxoplasma infections, primary prevention in pregnant women may lower the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. Both consumption of undercooked meat and unprotected contact with soil are independent risk factors for T. gondii seroconversion during pregnancy, while contact with cat litter may pose a risk in certain situations. However, many pregnant women lack knowledge of these risk factors. This article reviews toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy, with an emphasis on risk factors and appropriate counseling of pregnant women. PMID:15745715

Kravetz, Jeffrey D; Federman, Daniel G

2005-03-01

19

Use of dietary supplements in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition calibration study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Specific questions on dietary supplement use

G Skeie; T Braaten; A Hjartĺker; M Lentjes; P Amiano; P Jakszyn; V Pala; A Palanca; E M Niekerk; H Verhagen; K Avloniti; T Psaltopoulou; M Niravong; M Touvier; K Nimptsch; J Haubrock; L Walker; E A Spencer; N Roswall; A Olsen; P Wallström; S Nilsson; C Casagrande; G Deharveng; V Hellström; M-C Boutron-Ruault; A Tjřnneland; A M Joensen; F Clavel-Chapelon; A Trichopoulou; C Martinez; L Rodríguez; G Frasca; C Sacerdote; P H M Peeters; J Linseisen; A Schienkiewitz; A A Welch; J Manjer; P Ferrari; E Riboli; S Bingham; D Engeset; E Lund; N Slimani

2009-01-01

20

Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study.Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure.Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into

Madlen Schütze; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Jürgen Rehm; Tara Kehoe; Gerrit Gmel; Anja Olsen; Anne M Tjřnneland; Christina C Dahm; Kim Overvad; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Antonia Trichopoulou; Vasiliki Benetou; Dimosthenis Zylis; Rudolf Kaaks; Sabine Rohrmann; Domenico Palli; Franco Berrino; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Laudina Rodríguez; Antonio Agudo; María-José Sánchez; Miren Dorronsoro; Maria-Dolores Chirlaque; Aurelio Barricarte; Petra H Peeters; Carla H van Gils; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nick Wareham; Naomi E Allen; Timothy J Key; Paolo Boffetta; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Dora Romaguera; Petra A Wark; Elio Riboli; Manuela M Bergmann

2011-01-01

21

Toxoplasmosis – A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of 88 Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30–50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this ‘asymptomatic infection’ may also lead to development of other human pathologies. Aims of the Study The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Methods and Findings Prevalence data published between 1995–2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (p<0.1). For several obtained significant correlations between the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. Conclusions The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research. PMID:24662942

Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovi?ková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H.

2014-01-01

22

Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study  

E-print Network

with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation...

Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Veglia, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Luisa; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Cirera, Lluis; Quiros, Jose R; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Forsberg, Bertil; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Timothy J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Saracci, Rodolfo; Riboli, Elio

2007-02-15

23

Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant women who acquire infection from Toxoplasma gondii usually remain asymptomatic, although they can still transmit the infection to their fetuses with severe consequences. Given the asymptomatic nature of most Toxoplasma infections, primary prevention in pregnant women may lower the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. Both consumption of undercooked meat and unprotected contact with soil are independent risk factors for T.

Jeffrey D. Kravetz; Daniel G. Federman

2005-01-01

24

International interest withholding taxation: Prospects for a common European policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989 the European Union member states rejected a proposal to introduce a minimum interest withholding tax of 15 percent. Some Union member states, however, remain keenly interested in bringing about some minimum level of international taxation of interest income. This suggests that member states will be asked to reconsider the issue in the near future. This paper first examines

Harry Huizinga

1994-01-01

25

Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs  

PubMed Central

Background Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate whether treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin associated with a lack of monitoring for toxoplasmosis seroconversion affects the prognosis of patients. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study with 246 newborns (NB) at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis in Goiânia (Brazil) between October 2003 and October 2011. We analyzed the efficacy of maternal treatment with spiramycin. Results A total of 40.7% (66/162) of the neonates were born seriously infected. Vertical transmission associated with reactivation during pregnancy occurred in 5.5% (9/162) of the NB, with one showing severe infection (systemic). The presence of specific immunoglobulins (fetal IgM and NB IgA) suggested the worst prognosis. Treatment of pregnant women by spiramycin resulted in reduced vertical transmission. When infected pregnant women did not undergo proper treatment, the risk of severe infection (neural-optical) in NB was significantly increased. Fetal IgM was associated with ocular impairment in 48.0% (12/25) of the fetuses and neonatal IgA-specific was related to the neuro-ophthalmologic and systemic forms of the disease. When acute toxoplasmosis was identified in the postpartum period, a lack of monitoring of seronegative pregnant women resulted in a higher risk of severe congenital infection. Conclusion Treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin reduces the possibility of transmission of infection to the fetus. However, a lack of proper treatment is associated with the onset of the neural-optical form of congenital infection. Primary preventive measures should be increased for all pregnant women during the prenatal period and secondary prophylaxis through surveillance of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant woman should be introduced to reduce the severity of congenital infection in the environment. PMID:24438336

2014-01-01

26

Waterborne Toxoplasmosis, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Two waterborne outbreaks of toxoplasmosis have been described recently in southern Brazil. We present data from a community-based study of pregnant women in northeastern Brazil. Consumption of homemade ice was the only variable associated with seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio, 3.1, 95% confidence interval, 1.53–6.24). Our results suggest water as a source of infection with Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:17479893

Meyer-Cirkel, Vanessa; Moura, Rômulo César Sabóia; Gomide, Márcia; Queiroz, José Ajax Nogueira; Saweljew, Peter; Liesenfeld, Oliver

2007-01-01

27

Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35–74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g\\/day) and energy (kcal\\/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes

M C Ocké; N Larrańaga; S Grioni; S W van den Berg; P Ferrari; S Salvini; V Benetou; J Linseisen; E Wirfält; S Rinaldi; M Jenab; J Halkjćr; M U Jakobsen; M Niravong; F Clavel-Chapelon; R Kaaks; M Bergmann; E Moutsiou; A Trichopoulou; C Lauria; C Sacerdote; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; P H M Peeters; A Hjartĺker; C L Parr; M J Tormo; M J Sanchez; J Manjer; V Hellstrom; A Mulligan; E A Spencer; E Riboli; S Bingham; N Slimani

2009-01-01

28

Scintimammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: results of a prospective European multicentre trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of the trial was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of scintimmammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile\\u000a (99mTc-MIBI) in the detection of primary breast cancer and to verify its clinical usefulness. A total of 246 patients with a suspicious\\u000a breast mass or positive mammogram were included in this prospective European multicentre trial. At 5 min and 60 min (optional)\\u000a p.i. two lateral

H. Palmedo; H. J. Biersack; S. Lastoria; J. Maublant; E. Prats; H. E. Stegner; P. Bourgeois; R. Hustinx; A. J. W. Hilson; A. Bischof-Delaloye

1998-01-01

29

Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The association between alcohol consumption and GC has been investigated in numerous epidemiologic studies with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between alcohol consumption and GC risk. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which included

E. J. Duell; N. Travier; L. Lujan-Barroso; F. Clavel-Chapelon; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; S. Morois; D. Palli; V. Krogh; S. Panico; R. Tumino; C. Sacerdote; J. R. Quiros; E. Sanchez-Cantalejo; C. Navarro; A. B. Gurrea; M. Dorronsoro; K. T. Khaw; N. E. Allen; T. J. Key; H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita; M. M. Ros; M. E. Numans; P. H. M. Peeters; A. Trichopoulou; A. Naska; V. Dilis; B. Teucher; R. Kaaks; H. Boeing; M. Schutze; S. Regner; B. Lindkvist; I. Johansson; G. Hallmans; K. Overvad; R. Egeberg; A. Tjonneland; E. Lund; E. Weiderpass; T. Braaten; I. Romieu; P. Ferrari; M. Jenab; R. Stenling; D. Aune; T. Norat; E. Riboli; C. A. Gonzalez

2011-01-01

30

An Unseen Threat - Toxoplasmosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Twenty-first monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Why do doctors tell pregnant women not to clean the cat's litter box? It's because of Toxoplasmosis gondii, a parasite. Many of us are infected with T. gondii, and don't even know it, because the symptoms look like flu or other ailments and clear themselves up in a couple of weeks. But that is not the case for everyone.

2008-10-01

31

Dietary fat and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting re- sults with respect to an association of dietary fat with breast cancer. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between fat consumption and breast cancer. Design:Weprospectivelyinvestigatedfatconsumptioninalarge(n 319 826), geographically and culturally heterogeneous cohort of European women enrolled in the European Prospective Investiga- tion into Cancer and Nutrition who completed a dietary question- naire.

Sabina Sieri; Vittorio Krogh; Pietro Ferrari; Franco Berrino; Valeria Pala; Anne CM Thiébaut; Anne Tjřnneland; Anja Olsen; Kim Overvad; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Veronique Chajes; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Rudolf Kaaks; Jakob Linseisen; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; Androniki Naska; Pagona Lagiou; Salvatore Panico; Domenico Palli; Paolo Vineis; Rosario Tumino; Eiliv Lund; Merethe Kumle; Guri Skeie; Carlos A Gonzalez; Eva Ardanaz; Pilar Amiano; María José Tormo; Carmen Martínez-García; Jose R Quiros; Göran Berglund; Bo Gullberg; Göran Hallmans; Per Lenner; Timothy J Key; Francesca L Crowe; Sheila Bingham; Kay Tee Khaw; Sabina Rinaldi; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Teresa Norat; Elio Riboli

32

[Laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a world-wide spread parasitosis. The disease potentially highly affects two groups of patients: foetus and immunosuppressed patients. The determination of diagnosis and therapy on the basis of a single serum examination is very important; possible on the basis of a single serum sample. In most cases, it is possible to differentiate between recent and latent infections using a combination of suitable methods, which permit us to confirm particular antibody classes. In the presented paper the authors suggest diagnostic procedures for 4 groups of patients: pregnant, neonates with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis, immunodeficient patients and immunocompetent patients. The diagnostic methods consist of a combination of basic and supplemented diagnostic methods. Each patient's serum should be tested by basic tests which include the detection of total antibodies with CFT or IFT and specific classes of IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA. The potential activity of toxoplasma infection can be determined by supplementary methods of e.g. IgG avidity antibodies, establishment of IgA antibodies, western blotting method and monitoring of antibodies production. For each situation the authors present interpretations of suspected cases including proposals for clinicians. These procedures are suggested for practical use in laboratories of various diagnostic levels in order to help to the diagnostic procedures in a particular situation as well as for clinical evaluation of established results. (Fig. 4, Ref. 65). PMID:11039196

Ondriska, F; Jalili, N A; Catar, G

2000-01-01

33

Combined Work and Leisure Physical Activity and Risk of Stroke in Men and Women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Prospective Population Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies to date support a protective role of physical activity in reducing stroke risk. However, they were not able to take into account combined work and leisure activity. We prospectively followed up 22,602 men and women aged 40–79 years, who had no history of stroke and myocardial infarction at baseline, participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk. Participants

Phyo K. Myint; Robert N. Luben; Nicholas J. Wareham; Ailsa A. Welch; Sheila A. Bingham; Nicholas E. Day; Kay-Tee Khaw

2006-01-01

34

Alcohol intake and breast cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Most epidemiologic studies have suggested an increased risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol intake. Using data from\\u000a 274,688 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), we investigated\\u000a the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) based on Cox proportional hazard models were calculated using reported intake

Anne Tjřnneland; Jane Christensen; Anja Olsen; Connie Stripp; Birthe L. Thomsen; Kim Overvad; Petra H. M. Peeters; Carla H. van Gils; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Marga C. Ocké; Anne Thiebaut; Agnčs Fournier; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Franco Berrino; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Salvatore Panico; Paolo Vineis; Antonio Agudo; Eva Ardanaz; Carmen Martinez-Garcia; Pilar Amiano; Carmen Navarro; José R. Quirós; Tim J. Key; Gillian Reeves; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sheila Bingham; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Androniki Naska; Gabriele Nagel; Jenny Chang-Claude; Heiner Boeing; Petra H. Lahmann; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfält; Göran Hallmans; Ingegerd Johansson; Eiliv Lund; Guri Skeie; Anette Hjartĺker; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Rudolf Kaaks; Elio Riboli

2007-01-01

35

Prenatal management of 746 pregnancies at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

When infection with Toxoplasma gondii occurs during pregnancy, there is a risk that the parasite will cause severe congenital toxoplasmosis. We developed a method of diagnosing and treating congenital toxoplasmosis in utero. Diagnosis was based on the identification of maternal acute infection, followed by culture of fetal blood and amniotic fluid, testing of fetal blood for toxoplasma-specific IgM and nonspecific measures of infection, and ultrasound examination of the fetal brain. Treatment included the administration of antibiotics to all mothers with confirmed acute infection during pregnancy, with more intensive antibiotic treatment of those who had infected fetuses and who chose to continue the pregnancy. We report a prospective study of 746 documented cases of maternal toxoplasma infection, in which the infants were followed for at least three months. Infection was diagnosed antenatally in 39 of 42 fetuses. Twenty-four of the 39 pregnancies were terminated, and 15 were continued. All the mothers were treated with spiramycin throughout pregnancy; if fetal infection was demonstrated, pyrimethamine and either sulfadoxine or sulfadiazine were added to the regimen. Of the 15 fetuses with congenital toxoplasmosis who were carried to term, all but 2, who had chorioretinitis, remained clinically well during follow-up. We conclude that prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is practical and that prenatal therapy in women who wish to continue their pregnancies reduces the severity of the manifestations of the disease. PMID:3336419

Daffos, F; Forestier, F; Capella-Pavlovsky, M; Thulliez, P; Aufrant, C; Valenti, D; Cox, W L

1988-02-01

36

Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from case–control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and\\u000a risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into\\u000a Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary\\u000a questionnaire in 1992–2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident

Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Frederike L. Büchner; Hendriek C. Boshuizen; Antonio Agudo; Inger Torhild Gram; Christina C. Dahm; Kim Overvad; Rikke Egeberg; Anne Tjřnneland; Heiner Boeing; Annika Steffen; Rudolf Kaaks; Annekatrin Lukanova; Franco Berrino; Domenico Palli; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Eva Ardanaz; Miren Dorronsoro; José-Maria Huerta; Laudina Rodríguez; María-José Sánchez; Torgny Rasmuson; Göran Hallmans; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfält; Dagrun Engeset; Guri Skeie; Michael Katsoulis; Eleni Oikonomou; Antonia Trichopoulou; Petra H. M. Peeters; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nicholas Wareham; Naomi Allen; Tim Key; Paul Brennan; Isabelle Romieu; Nadia Slimani; Anne-Claire Vergnaud; Wei W. Xun; Paolo Vineis; Elio Riboli

2011-01-01

37

Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Two chimpanzees were given by mouth large numbers of viable oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii obtained from the faeces of experimentally infected cats. Before the experiment the first chimpanzee had a positive dye test reaction (1:250), an indication that it had undergone an earlier infection of toxoplasmosis; the serum antibody titres remained unchanged, no evidence of illness was found, and oocysts did not appear in its faeces during the subsequent six weeks. The second chimpanzee showed a negative dye test reaction before infection, and this converted to positive on the 7th day, rose to a peak on the 35th day, and remained high for six months. This animal appeared unwell during the first week, and on the 7th day its blood proved infective to mice; on the 40th day the lymph nodes became enlarged and biopsy specimens of a node and muscle in the 11th week were also infective to mice. No oocysts were passed in the faeces. The presumed cycle in the chimpanzee and in man and the relationships between Toxoplasma and Isospora are discussed. PMID:5575975

Draper, C. C.; Killick-Kendrick, R.; Hutchison, W. M.; Siim, J. Chr.; Garnham, P. C. C.

1971-01-01

38

[Two cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

Two cases of disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis of a pet mouse and a red panda are described. The pet mouse had a private owner; the red panda lived in a zoological garden in Saxony. At necropsy, both animals suffered from a systemic toxoplasmosis. A severe necrotizing hepatitis was the main histological feature in both animals. Parasitic cysts could be abundantly found in the liver, moderately in the brain and in a low number in other organs. With the PAS-reaction, cysts showed a weak staining in the mouse and a strong staining in the red panda. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry. PMID:22331331

Stief, B; Kiesow, C; Ellenberger, C

2012-01-01

39

Specific floater home ranges and prospective behaviour in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many bird species, floaters are present on the breeding grounds in one or more years before they breed. There is increasing evidence that they have specific home ranges in which they search for information about current and future breeding opportunities. We investigated the role of prospecting in a migratory European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) population. Radio-tracking showed that male starling floaters use specific home range areas during the breeding period. Nest-box observations demonstrated that non-parental nest intrusion is common in the starling and that it is significantly more frequent during the nestling than during the incubation period. In addition, small groups of nest boxes were more likely to be occupied by starlings if they had been put up during the preceding breeding season. The results suggest that floaters try to acquire information about local breeding communities. One specific type of information may be the location of potential breeding sites.

Tobler, Michael; Smith, Henrik G.

40

European offshore conference in London: a review of the prospects for the 1980's  

SciTech Connect

The financial Times has sponsored the second European offshore conference in London, with discussions devoted to government policies in the UK and in Norway, future prospects for offshore industry activities and technology, and markets for North Sea oil and gas. Licenses will continue to be available in the British sector to all comers, regardless of nationality. The two roles of BNOC, exploration and producing vs. trading, will be kept separate. In Norway, however, Statoil will play a key central role. Norway will impose heavier taxes than in the past. Discovery of a few more giant fields and construction of a new trunk pipeline also were discussed. Norway estimates that the North Sea oil reserves are perhaps as high as 40 billion bbl. Conventional recovery methods by gas and water injection are forecast for the larger fields, and only some smaller and marginal ones will see enhanced recovery methods applied.

Proust, M.

1980-07-10

41

Ethanol Intake and Risk of Lung Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors examined the association of ethanol intake at recruitment (1,119 cases) and mean lifelong ethanol intake (887 cases) with lung cancer. Information on baseline and past alcohol consumption, lifetime tobacco smoking, diet, and the anthropometric characteristics of 478,590 participants was collected between 1992 and 2000. Cox proportional hazards regression

Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen; Hendriek C. Boshuizen; John Whittaker; Antonio Agudo; Paolo Vineis; Paolo Boffetta; Majken K. Jensen; Anja Olsen; Kim Overvad; Anne Tjřnneland; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Manuela M Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Naomi E Allen; Timothy J Key; Sheila A Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Georgia Kyriazi; Stavroula Soukara; Antonia Trichopoulou; Salvatore Panico; Domenico Palli; Sabina Sieri; Rosario Tumino; Petra H M Peeters; H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Frederike L Büchner; Inger Torhild Gram; Eiliv Lund; Eva Ardanaz; María-Dolores Chirlaque; Miren Dorronsoro Iraeta; Maria-José Sánchez Pérez; José Ramón Quirós; Göran Berglund; Lars Janzon; Torgny Rasmuson; Lars Weinehall; Pietro Ferrari; Mazda Jenab; Teresa Norat; Elio Riboli

2006-01-01

42

What are the Future Prospects for the European Social Model?An Analysis of EU Equal Opportunities and Employment Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe aim of our article is to examine the future prospects of the European Social Model (ESM). First, the article defines the ESM as a mixture of hard law, soft law and underlying norms and values. Second, the article analyses the ESM on a more detailed level in the case of the law of equal opportunities and employment through a

Beryl Philine ter Haar; Paul Copeland

2010-01-01

43

Toxoplasmosis in animals and humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

T. gondii is one of the most studied parasites.It causes disease in virtually all warm blooded animals Many scientists use T. gondii to investigate problems in cell biology and genetics. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with biology. Chapter 2, which deals with toxoplasmosis...

44

Eating out of home: energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes in 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To assess the contribution of out-of-home (OH) energy and nutrient intake to total dietary intake, and to compare out- versus in-home nutrient patterns among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 participants aged between 35–74 years completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a software

P Orfanos; A Naska; A Trichopoulou; S Grioni; J M A Boer; M M E van Bakel; U Ericson; S Rohrmann; H Boeing; L Rodríguez; E Ardanaz; C Sacerdote; M C Giurdanella; E M Niekerk; P H M Peeters; J Manjer; B van Guelpen; G Deharveng; G Skeie; D Engeset; J Halkjćr; A M Jensen; A McTaggart; F Crowe; V Stratigakou; E Oikonomou; M Touvier; M Niravong; E Riboli; S Bingham; N Slimani

2009-01-01

45

Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

The current epidemiologic evidence suggests that men with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be at lower risk of developing prostate cancer, but little is known about its association with stage and grade of the disease. The association between self-reported diabetes mellitus at recruitment and risk of prostate cancer was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among 139,131 eligible men, 4,531 were diagnosed with prostate cancer over an average follow-up of 12 years. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for education, smoking status, body mass index, waist circumference, and physical activity. In a subset of men without prostate cancer, the cross-sectional association between circulating concentrations of androgens and insulin-like growth factor proteins with diabetes status was also investigated using linear regression models. Compared to men with no diabetes, men with diabetes had a 26% lower risk of prostate cancer (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.86). There was no evidence that the association differed by stage (p-heterogeneity, 0.19) or grade (p-heterogeneity, 0.48) of the disease, although the numbers were small in some disease subgroups. In a subset of 626 men with hormone measurements, circulating concentrations of androstenedione, total testosterone and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-three were lower in men with diabetes compared to men without diabetes. This large European study has confirmed an inverse association between self-reported diabetes mellitus and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. PMID:24862312

Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Rohrmann, Sabine; Nöthlings, Ute; Arriola, Larraitz; Gunter, Marc J; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J Ramón; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Molina-Montes, Esther; Gavrila Chervase, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay T; Wareham, Nick J; Roswall, Nina; Tjřnneland, Anne; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Malm, Johan; Orho-Melander, Marju; Johansson, Mattias; Stattin, Pär; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

2015-01-15

46

[Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patient].  

PubMed

Pulmonary toxoplasmosis occurs mainly in immunosuppressed patients and its diagnosis mainly relies upon biological confirmation of the parasite. We present the case of a 47 years patient in medullar aplasia after induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia that developed pulmonary infiltrates of parasitic origin. The diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis was established after identification of the parasite in brochioloalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and peripheral blood. Serological tests are of limited utility in immunosuppressed patients. We used classical methods for the diagnosis of parasitosis but they are being replaced by molecular methods. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allows a highly specific and sensitive diagnosis on any sample but it cannot be performed in any center. PMID:23077869

Rîp?, Carmen; Cojocaru, Ingrid; Luca, Mariana; Luca, C?t?lina Mihaela; Leon, Maria; Bahnea, Roxana-Gabriela

2012-01-01

47

Reproductive risk factors and endometrial cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer risk has been associated with reproductive factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, age at first and last birth, time since last birth and use of oral contraceptives (OCs)]. However, these factors are closely interrelated and whether they act independently still requires clarification. We conducted a study to examine the association of menstrual and reproductive variables with the risk of endometrial cancer among the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among the 302,618 women eligible for the study, 1,017 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in women with late menarche, early menopause, past OC use, high parity and a shorter time since last full-term pregnancy (FTP). No association was observed for duration of breast feeding after adjustment for number of FTP or for abortion (spontaneous or induced). After mutual adjustment, late age at menarche, early age at menopause and duration of OC use showed similar risk reductions of 7-8% per year of menstrual life, whereas the decreased risk associated with cumulative duration of FTPs was stronger (22% per year). In conclusion, our findings confirmed a reduction in risk of endometrial cancer with factors associated with a lower cumulative exposure to estrogen and/or higher exposure to progesterone, such as increasing number of FTPs and shorter menstrual lifespan and, therefore, support an important role of hormonal mechanisms in endometrial carcinogenesis. PMID:19924816

Dossus, Laure; Allen, Naomi; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bakken, Kjersti; Lund, Eiliv; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fournier, Agnes; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H M; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Duell, Eric; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Arriola, Larraitz; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Lukanova, Annie; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Mouw, Traci; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio

2010-07-15

48

Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

PubMed Central

We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142?251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were 2727 incident cases of prostate cancer, of which 1131 were known to be localised and 541 advanced-stage disease. A high intake of dairy protein was associated with an increased risk, with a hazard ratio for the top versus the bottom fifth of intake of 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–1.41, Ptrend=0.02). After calibration to allow for measurement error, we estimated that a 35-g?day?1 increase in consumption of dairy protein was associated with an increase in the risk of prostate cancer of 32% (95% CI: 1–72%, Ptrend=0.04). Calcium from dairy products was also positively associated with risk, but not calcium from other foods. The results support the hypothesis that a high intake of protein or calcium from dairy products may increase the risk for prostate cancer. PMID:18382426

Allen, N E; Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Travis, R C; Roddam, A W; Tjřnneland, A; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; Pischon, T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kiemeney, L; Tagliabue, G; Palli, D; Vineis, P; Tumino, R; Trichopoulou, A; Kassapa, C; Trichopoulos, D; Ardanaz, E; Larrańaga, N; Tormo, M-J; González, C A; Quirós, J R; Sánchez, M-J; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Manjer, J; Berglund, G; Stattin, P; Hallmans, G; Slimani, N; Ferrari, P; Rinaldi, S; Riboli, E

2008-01-01

49

Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.  

PubMed

Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cancer in relation to the intake of total fish, lean fish, and fatty fish in a large prospective cohort including ten European countries. More than 500,000 men and women completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1999 and were followed up for mortality until the end of 2010. 32,587 persons were reported dead since enrolment. Hazard ratios and their 99 % confidence interval were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Fish consumption was examined using quintiles based on reported consumption, using moderate fish consumption (third quintile) as reference, and as continuous variables, using increments of 10 g/day. All analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. No association was seen for fish consumption and overall or cause-specific mortality for both the categorical and the continuous analyses, but there seemed to be a U-shaped trend (p < 0.000) with fatty fish consumption and total mortality and with total fish consumption and cancer mortality (p = 0.046). PMID:25377533

Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Leenders, Max; Agudo, Antonio; Bergmann, Manuela M; Valanou, Elisavet; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Key, Timothy J; Crowe, Francesca L; Overvad, Kim; Sonestedt, Emily; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Wennberg, Maria; Jansson, Jan Hĺkan; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Agnoli, Claudia; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Tumino, Rosario; Altzibar, Jone M; Vineis, Paolo; Masala, Giovanna; Ferrari, Pietro; Muller, David C; Johansson, Mattias; Luisa Redondo, M; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Brustad, Magritt; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv

2014-11-01

50

Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A high consumption of fruit and vegetables is possi- bly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the findings to date are inconsistent. Objective: We examined the relation between self-reported usual consumption of fruit and vegetables and the incidence of CRC. Design: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 452,755 subjects (131,985 men

H Bas Bueno-De-Mesquita; Pietro Ferrari; Mazda Jenab; Martine M Ros; Corinne Casagrande; Anne Tjřnneland; Anja Olsen; Kim Overvad; Ole Thorlacius-Ussing; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Sophie Morois; Rudolf Kaaks; Jakob Linseisen; Heiner Boeing; Ute Nothlings; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Gesthimani Misirli; Domenico Palli; Sabina Sieri; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Carla H van Gils; Marga C Ocke ´; Eiliv Lund; Miren Dorronsoro; Carmen Navarro; Aurelio Barricarte; Goran Berglund; Jonas Manjer; Goran Hallmans; Richard Palmqvist; Sheila A Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Timothy J Key; Paolo Boffetta; Nadia Slimani; Sabina Rinaldi; Valentina Gallo; Teresa Norat; Elio Riboli

51

Total dietary carbohydrate, sugar, starch and fibre intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To describe dietary carbohydrate intakes and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects, aged between 35–74 years, were administered a standardized, 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g\\/day) of total carbohydrate, sugars, starch and fibre

A E Cust; M R Skilton; M M E van Bakel; J Halkjćr; A Olsen; C Agnoli; T Psaltopoulou; E Buurma; E Sonestedt; M D Chirlaque; S Rinaldi; A Tjřnneland; M K Jensen; F Clavel-Chapelon; M C Boutron-Ruault; R Kaaks; U Nöthlings; Y Chloptsios; D Zylis; A Mattiello; S Caini; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; G Skeie; C L Parr; E Molina-Montes; J Manjer; I Johansson; A McTaggart; T J Key; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani

2009-01-01

52

Intracranial inflammatory granuloma caused by toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a serous parasitic zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii worldwide. Human beings acquire the disease by eating infected meat containing T. gondii cysts, by ingesting water or vegetables contaminated with oocysts shed in the feces of an infected cat, and by transmission from mother to fetus. Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the most serious complications in immunocompromised individuals such as HIV-infected patients, with a high mortality rate, whereas the incidence of cerebral toxoplasmosis is extremely rare in immunocompetent persons. Due to the low incidence and the high rate of misdiagnosis, cerebral toxoplasmosis was occasionally described in sporadic cases. (1) Furthermore, the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis is rather difficult because the clinical manifestations are non-specific and are not sufficiently characteristic for a definite diagnosis. It mimics several other infectious diseases or primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor. (2) In the present study, we reported an exceedingly rare cerebral toxoplasmosis with obvious space-occupying lesion occurring in the left temporal lobe of an immunocompetent adult patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of acquired cerebral toxoplasmosis in China. PMID:25175876

Li, Zhi Hua; Guo, Fu You; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

2014-07-01

53

Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis?  

PubMed Central

Evidence that prevention, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis is beneficial developed as follows: antiparasitic agents abrogate Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite growth, preventing destruction of infected, cultured, mammalian cells and cure active infections in experimental animals, including primates. They treat active infections in persons who are immune-compromised, limit destruction of retina by replicating parasites and thereby treat ocular toxoplasmosis and treat active infection in the fetus and infant. Outcomes of untreated congenital toxoplasmosis include adverse ocular and neurologic sequelae described in different countries and decades. Better outcomes are associated with treatment of infected infants throughout their first year of life. Shorter intervals between diagnosis and treatment in utero improve outcomes. A French approach for diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus and infant can prevent toxoplasmosis and limit adverse sequelae. In addition, new data demonstrate that this French approach results in favorable outcomes with some early gestation infections. A standardized approach to diagnosis and treatment during gestation has not yet been applied generally in the USA. Nonetheless, a small, similar experience confirms that this French approach is feasible, safe, and results in favorable outcomes in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study cohort. Prompt diagnosis, prevention and treatment reduce adverse sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:19430661

McLeod, Rima; Kieffer, Francois; Sautter, Mari; Hosten, Tiffany; Pelloux, Herve

2009-01-01

54

Ethanol intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the association of baseline and lifetime ethanol intake with cancer of the pancreas in the European Prospective\\u000a Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Included in this analysis were 478,400 subjects, of whom detailed information on the intake of alcoholic beverages at baseline\\u000a and over lifetime was collected between 1992 and 2000. During a median follow-up time of 8.9

Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen; Alina Vrieling; Paolo Boffetta; Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon; Albert B. Lowenfels; Majken K. Jensen; Kim Overvad; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjonneland; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; G. Fagherazzi; Gesthimani Misirli; Pagona Lagiou; Antonia Trichopoulou; Rudolf Kaaks; Manuela M. Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Naomi Allen; Andrew Roddam; Domenico Palli; Valeria Pala; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Petra H. M. Peeters; Anette Hjartĺker; Eiliv Lund; Ma Luisa Redondo Cornejo; Antonio Agudo; Larraitz Arriola; Maria-José Sánchez; María-José Tormo; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Björn Lindkvist; Jonas Manjer; Ingegerd Johansson; Weimin Ye; Nadia Slimani; Eric J. Duell; Mazda Jenab; Dominique S. Michaud; Traci Mouw; Elio Riboli; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita

2009-01-01

55

Submacular hemorrhage secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a patient with congenital toxoplasmosis and submacular hemorrhage caused by a neovascular membrane who underwent an intravitreal injection of C3F8 and bevacizumab, and had a good visual recovery. PMID:24728255

Costa, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Gonçalves Dos Santos; Moncada, Francisco Javier Solano; Motta, Mário Martins dos Santos

2014-01-01

56

Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners  

MedlinePLUS

... are the symptoms of toxoplasmosis? Individuals with healthy immune systems: Most people who become infected with Toxoplasma do ... more. Rarely, eye disease occurs. Individuals with weakened immune systems: People with weakened immune systems may experience severe ...

57

Integration prospects of Central and East European countries from the purchasing power parity perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

After presenting the macroeconomic conditions in the group of 13 Central and East European countries and consequently their integration progress thus far, we proceed with testing of the purchasing power parity theory. By covering the period from January 1992 to December 2006, the standard unit root tests, SURADF methodology and time series cointegration analysis are employed on USD and European

Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah

58

Long-term weight change and breast cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)  

PubMed Central

We examined prospectively the association between weight change during adulthood and breast cancer risk, using data on 1358 incident cases that developed during 5.8 years of follow-up among 40?429 premenopausal and 57?923 postmenopausal women from six European countries, taking part in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios according to weight change (kg), defined as the weight difference between age at enrolment and age 20 adjusted for other risk factors. Changes in weight were not associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. In postmenopausal women, weight gain was positively associated with breast cancer risk only among noncurrent hormone replacement therapy (HRT) users (P-trend ?0.0002). Compared to women with a stable weight (±2?kg), the relative risk for women who gained 15–20?kg was 1.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–2.13). The pooled RR per weight gain increment of 5?kg was 1.08 (95% CI 1.04–1.12). Weight gain was not associated with breast cancer risk in current HRT users, although, overall, these women experienced a much higher risk of breast cancer compared with nonusers. Our findings suggest that large adult weight gain was a significant predictor of breast cancer in postmenopausal women not taking exogenous hormones. PMID:16136032

Lahmann, P H; Schulz, M; Hoffmann, K; Boeing, H; Tjřnneland, A; Olsen, A; Overvad, K; Key, T J; Allen, N E; Khaw, K-T; Bingham, S; Berglund, G; Wirfält, E; Berrino, F; Krogh, V; Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulos, D; Kaaks, R; Riboli, E

2005-01-01

59

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by toxo is an infection of the brain (encephalitis). Toxo can also infect other parts of the body. Toxo can lead to coma and death. The risk of toxo is highest when your CD4 cell ( T-cell ) counts are below 100. HOW COMMON IS TOXO? The toxo parasite is ...

60

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... solid organ transplants Handling cat litter Eating contaminated soil Eating raw or undercooked meat (lamb, pork, and ... dog feces. Wash your hands thoroughly after touching soil that may be contaminated with animal feces. Pregnant ...

61

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in children with malignancy.  

PubMed

The study aimed at the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in 73 children with malignancy; 31 with lymphoma (22 with Hodgkin's and 9 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) and 42 with leukemia (34 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 8 with acute myelogenic leukemia). In positive cases toxoplasmosis was manifested by any of the following; fever, lymph node enlargement, neurological manifestations and/or hepatosplenomegaly. The indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) for toxoplasmosis detected 4 (5.4%) positive cases with malignancy, 2 with Hodgkin's lymphoma, one with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and one with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) detected only one (1.4%) case with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA detected 6 (8.2%) positive cases, 3 with Hodgkin's lymphoma, one with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 2 cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of parasite DNA in blood (PCR) was the most useful in diagnosing toxoplasmosis with malignancy, as it was able to detect 9 (12.3%) positive cases; 5 (6.8%) with Hodgkin's lymphoma, one (1.4%) with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 3 (4.1%) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. No positive toxoplasmosis cases were detected with acute myelogenic leukemia by any of the above methods. PMID:10946513

Ramadan, N I; Abdel Latif, M M; Abdel Aaty, H E

2000-08-01

62

Grasp as a prospective European Space Agency Gamma Ray Astronomy mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GRASP (Gamma Ray Astronomy with Spectroscopy and Positioning) telescope, which is currently undergoing a Phase A study by the European Space Agency (ESA) as a possible future space mission, is designed to generate high-resolution images of the gamma-ray sky with high sensitivity and fine spectral resolution. The telescope employs a coded aperture mask and the capability to function as

B. McBreen; G. Bignami; G. Villa; A. J. Dean; D. Ramsden

1988-01-01

63

Dietary intakes and food sources of phenolic acids in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.  

PubMed

Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36,037 subjects aged 35-74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265·5 and 980·7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213·2 and 158·6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84·6-95·3% of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4·6-14·4%, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0·1-0·8% and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids ? 0·1% for all regions. An increasing south-north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55·3-80·7% of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases. PMID:23507418

Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rothwell, Joseph A; Scalbert, Augustin; Knaze, Viktoria; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Touillaud, Marina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Menéndez, Virginia; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Palli, Domenico; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sieri, Sabina; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Grote, Verena; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine; Peeters, Petra H M; Tjřnneland, Anne; Halkjćr, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Ericson, Ulrika; Wallström, Peter; Johansson, Ingegerd; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Wark, Petra; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

2013-10-01

64

ALOX12 in Human Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

ALOX12 is a gene encoding arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), a member of a nonheme lipoxygenase family of dioxygenases. ALOX12 catalyzes the addition of oxygen to arachidonic acid, producing 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which can be reduced to the eicosanoid 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). 12-HETE acts in diverse cellular processes, including catecholamine synthesis, vasoconstriction, neuronal function, and inflammation. Consistent with effects on these fundamental mechanisms, allelic variants of ALOX12 are associated with diseases including schizophrenia, atherosclerosis, and cancers, but the mechanisms have not been defined. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes morbidity and mortality and stimulates an innate and adaptive immune inflammatory reaction. Recently, it has been shown that a gene region known as Toxo1 is critical for susceptibility or resistance to T. gondii infection in rats. An orthologous gene region with ALOX12 centromeric is also present in humans. Here we report that the human ALOX12 gene has susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis (rs6502997 [P, <0.000309], rs312462 [P, <0.028499], rs6502998 [P, <0.029794], and rs434473 [P, <0.038516]). A human monocytic cell line was genetically engineered using lentivirus RNA interference to knock down ALOX12. In ALOX12 knockdown cells, ALOX12 RNA expression decreased and levels of the ALOX12 substrate, arachidonic acid, increased. ALOX12 knockdown attenuated the progression of T. gondii infection and resulted in greater parasite burdens but decreased consequent late cell death of the human monocytic cell line. These findings suggest that ALOX12 influences host responses to T. gondii infection in human cells. ALOX12 has been shown in other studies to be important in numerous diseases. Here we demonstrate the critical role ALOX12 plays in T. gondii infection in humans. PMID:24686056

Witola, William H.; Liu, Susan Ruosu; Montpetit, Alexandre; Welti, Ruth; Hypolite, Magali; Roth, Mary; Zhou, Ying; Mui, Ernest; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournie, Gilbert J.; Cavailles, Pierre; Bisanz, Cordelia; Boyer, Kenneth; Withers, Shawn; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Swisher, Charles N.; Heydemann, Peter T.; Rabiah, Peter; Muench, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

65

Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.  

PubMed

Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia. PMID:24784937

Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

2014-07-01

66

Congenital toxoplasmosis: 10-year follow up  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term follow up was begun in 1982 on offspring of mothers who acquired toxoplasmosis during gestation. The 114 newborns were subdivided into 3 groups: (1) 26 born to mothers with certain in- fection; (2) 51 born to mothers with probable infection, and (3) 37 born to mothers with doubtful infection. There were five infections in the first group (19.2%),

M. Mombrň; C. Perathoner; A. Leone; M. Nicocia; A. Moiraghi Ruggenini; C. Zotti; M. A. Lievre; C. Fabris

1995-01-01

67

TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SAND FOX (VULPUS RUEPPELLII)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli) from United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, pancreas, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the heart. Ttachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-spe...

68

Cytokine regulation of immunopathology in toxoplasmosis  

E-print Network

cause of ocular disease and is the most common cause of infection-associated eye disease in the immune Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important cause of central nervous system and ocular disease, both, hydrocephalus, as well as neurological and ocular disease of the newborn. Toxoplasmosis is also an important

Cai, Long

69

Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion for many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R&D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Ĺngström FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with electron energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in the sub-Ĺngström regime. As an option for generating brilliant photon beams at short wavelengths we also consider harmonic lasing that has recently attracted a significant attention.

Brinkmann, R.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Sekutowicz, J.; Yurkov, M. V.

2014-12-01

70

Programs for control of congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause miscarriage and neurological and/or eye damage to the fetus. Since Austria and France established the prenatal screening, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis has declined from 50% to 35% and 84% to 44%, respectively. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, have educational practices to reduce the risk of infection in seronegative pregnant women. In Brazil, prenatal screening is carried out in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Minas Gerais and the cities of Curitiba and Porto Alegre. In Londrina, state of Parana, the "Health Surveillance Program for Toxoplasmosis Acquired during Pregnancy and Congenital Toxoplasmosis" was established, which is based on serological screening, advising on prevention measures and quarterly serological monitoring in pregnant women that are initially seronegative, in addition to the monitoring of pregnant women and children with acute infection and case notification. In the first four years of implementation, the program evaluation showed a 63% reduction in the number of pregnant women and 42% in the number of children referred to reference services, resulting in the opening of vacancies for the care of patients with other diseases. As for medications, there was a 62% reduction in consumption of folic acid and 67% of sulfadiazine. Moreover, the definition of the protocols resulted in the standardization of care and safety for the decision-making by physicians. Therefore, as there are several protocols individualized in various departments and regions, the establishment of an ideal, consensual conduct with technical support, will result in implementing measures that will certainly save public resources, with the decrease in congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:22012297

Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Bittencourt, Laura Helena França de Barros; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

2011-01-01

71

The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.  

PubMed

Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to underline the future challenges for European marine research in terms of the integrated coastal zone management of these highly significant coastal zones. PMID:18061212

Dauvin, Jean-Claude

2008-01-01

72

Tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data regarding tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer (EC) is still inconclusive. We examined the association of tea and coffee consumption with EC risk among 442,143 men and women without cancer at baseline from 9 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Tea and coffee intakes were recorded using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationships between tea and coffee intake and EC risk. During a mean follow-up of 11.1 years, 339 participants developed EC, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 174 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the multivariable models, no significant associations between tea (mostly black tea), and coffee intake and risk of EC, EAC and ESCC were observed. In stratified analyses, among men coffee consumption was inversely related to ESCC (HR for comparison of extreme tertiles 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.88; p-trend=0.022), but not among women. In current smokers, a significant and inverse association was observed between ESCC risk and tea (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.93; p-trend=0.053) and coffee consumption (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.73; p-trend=0.011). However, no statistically significant findings were observed using the continuous variable (per 100 mL/d). These data did not show a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and EC, EAC and ESCC, although a decreased risk of ESCC among men and current smokers is suggested, but need to be confirmed in further prospective studies including more cases. PMID:24535727

Zamora-Ros, Raul; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Dik, Vincent K; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kuhn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Grioni, Sara; Palli, Domenico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Argüelles, Marcial; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Nilsson, Lena; Wallner, Bengt; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Peeters, Petra H M; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Freisling, Heinz; Stepien, Magdalena; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

2014-09-15

73

Glycated haemoglobin, diabetes, and mortality in men in Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC›Norfolk)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective To examine,the value of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration, a marker of blood glucose concentration, as a predictor of death from,cardiovascular,and all causes in men. Design Prospective population,study. Setting Norfolk cohort,of European,Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC›Norfolk). Subjects 4662 men,aged 45›79 years who,had had glycated haemoglobin,measured,at the baseline survey in 1995›7 who,were,followed,up to December 1999. Main outcome measures

Tee Khaw; Nicholas Wareham; Robert Luben; Sheila Bingham; Suzy Oakes; Ailsa Welch; Nicholas Day

2001-01-01

74

Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population: Multicentre, prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend?European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects. PMID:25219573

Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Jenab, Mazda; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjřnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Benetou, Vasiliki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Dik, Vincent K; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

2015-04-15

75

Results of a Peripheral Cutting Balloon Prospective Multicenter European Registry in Hemodialysis Vascular Access  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To report initial experience with the Peripheral Cutting Balloon (PCB) in treatment of failing hemodialysis shunts. Methods. A total of 190 patients (95 men, 95 women; average age 64.4 {+-} 11.9 years, range 32-87 years) who were treated with the PCB for pressure-resistant stenosis, restenosis or failed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the venous limb of an arteriovenous shunt were followed in seven European centers using a simple registry. The group consisted of 109 de novo lesions (57%) and 79 restenotic lesions (43%). Results. Technical success was achieved in 88.9% of cases. Primary patency was as follows (the results for whole group and simultaneous results for de novo lesions and restenoses are presented): 1 month (140 patients followed): 94%, 98%, and 93%; 3 months (116 patients followed): 93%, 98%, and 92%; 6 months (40 patients followed): 85%, 92%, and 79%; 12 months (27 patients followed): 74%, 87%, and 48%. No complication occurred. Patients experienced an equal or lower level of pain during the procedure compared with conventional PTA. Conclusion. The PCB proved to be successful in dilating pressure-resistant stenoses. We cannot conclude whether PCB angioplasty can lower the restenosis rate in hemodialysis access lesions, but the long-term patency for de novo lesions is high. A further randomized study is advisable.

Peregrin, Jan H., E-mail: jape@medicon.cz; Rocek, Miloslav [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)

2007-04-15

76

Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed

N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajčs; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartĺker; A Tjřnneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham

2009-01-01

77

Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months' duration and chest pain of 1 week's duration. Further examination revealed multiple swollen lymph nodes, palpable on the top of the right collarbone and without tenderness. The chest X-ray, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography scan confirmed squamous carcinoma of the right lung. The Wright-stained bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid cytology diagnosis was positive for T. gondii and tachyzoites were detected. All of them were of free type (ectocytic), without intracellular parasites. Serological examination revealed that the anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies were positive. Unfortunately the patient did not continue treatment and was lost to follow-up. Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with lung cancer. Prompt recognition of T. gondii infection among cancer patients with subsequent targeted treatment of toxoplasmosis could help alleviate symptoms and improve survival. PMID:25653562

Lu, Nianhong; Liu, Caihong; Wang, Jiangyuan; Ding, Ying; Ai, Qing

2015-01-01

78

Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months’ duration and chest pain of 1 week’s duration. Further examination revealed multiple swollen lymph nodes, palpable on the top of the right collarbone and without tenderness. The chest X-ray, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography scan confirmed squamous carcinoma of the right lung. The Wright-stained bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid cytology diagnosis was positive for T. gondii and tachyzoites were detected. All of them were of free type (ectocytic), without intracellular parasites. Serological examination revealed that the anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies were positive. Unfortunately the patient did not continue treatment and was lost to follow-up. Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with lung cancer. Prompt recognition of T. gondii infection among cancer patients with subsequent targeted treatment of toxoplasmosis could help alleviate symptoms and improve survival. PMID:25653562

Lu, Nianhong; Liu, Caihong; Wang, Jiangyuan; Ding, Ying; Ai, Qing

2015-01-01

79

Selenium status is associated with colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation of cancer and nutrition cohort.  

PubMed

Suboptimal intakes of the micronutrient selenium (Se) are found in many parts of Europe. Low Se status may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We assessed Se status by measuring serum levels of Se and Selenoprotein P (SePP) and examined the association with CRC risk in a nested case-control design (966 CRC cases; 966 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Se was measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and SePP by immunoluminometric sandwich assay. Multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Respective mean Se and SePP levels were 84.0 ?g/L and 4.3 mg/L in cases and 85.6 ?g/L and 4.4 mg/L in controls. Higher Se concentrations were associated with a non-significant lower CRC risk (IRR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.03 per 25 ?g/L increase). However, sub-group analyses by sex showed a statistically significant association for women (p(trend) = 0.032; per 25 ?g/L Se increase, IRR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97) but not for men. Higher SePP concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk (p(trend) = 0.009; per 0.806 mg/L increase, IRR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.98) with the association more apparent in women (p(trend) = 0.004; IRR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94 per 0.806 mg/L increase) than men (p(trend) = 0.485; IRR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 per 0.806 mg/L increase). The findings indicate that Se status is suboptimal in many Europeans and suggest an inverse association between CRC risk and higher serum Se status, which is more evident in women. PMID:25042282

Hughes, David J; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Schomburg, Lutz; Méplan, Catherine; Freisling, Heinz; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Hybsier, Sandra; Becker, Niels-Peter; Czuban, Magdalena; Tjřnneland, Anne; Outzen, Malene; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Dagrun, Engeset; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Wennberg, Maria; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Vineis, Paolo; Naccarati, Alessio; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Overvad, Kim; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Cross, Amanda J; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Stepien, Magdalena; Kong, So Yeon; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Riboli, Elio; Hesketh, John E

2015-03-01

80

[Severe congenital toxoplasmosis secondary to toxoplasma reactivation in an HIV-infected mother].  

PubMed

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a potentially serious fetal infection associated with maternal seroconversion or a reactivation of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. We report the case of congenital toxoplasmosis with severe neurological injury with normal prenatal obstetric ultrasounds in a mother infected with HIV at the AIDS stage and previously immunized against toxoplasmosis. PMID:25482997

Calamy, L; Goudjil, F; Godineau, N; Bolot, P

2015-02-01

81

Acute toxoplasmosis-etiological factor for development of Hodgkin's lymphoma?  

PubMed

The case of an HIV-positive man treated for acute toxoplasmosis with no traces of malignancy is reported. A second lymph node extirpation was performed after 5 months, which identified the presence of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. This case suggests that toxoplasmosis may cause changes in the regulation of surrounding cells and induce neoplastic proliferation. PMID:23848412

Snopkova, Svatava; Pohanka, Miroslav; Polak, Pavel; Havlickova, Katerina; Jarkovsky, Ji?i; Moulis, Mojmir; Stroblova, Hana; Husa, Petr

2013-12-01

82

Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy  

E-print Network

Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy Sa´rka Kan kova´1, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim

Flegr, Jaroslav

83

Severe Acquired Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Adult Patients in French Guiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common presentation of symptomatic postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients is painless cervical adenopathy. Acute visceral manifestations are associated in rare cases. We report 16 cases of severe primary toxoplasmosis diagnosed in French Guiana during a 6.5-year period. All of the subjects were immunocompetent adults hospitalized with clinical presentations consisting of a marked, non- specific infectious syndrome accompanied

B. Carme; F. Bissuel; D. Ajzenberg; R. Bouyne; C. Aznar; M. Demar; S. Bichat; D. Louvel; A. M. Bourbigot; C. Peneau; P. Neron; M. L. Darde

2002-01-01

84

Prospective European-wide multicentre study on a blood based real-time PCR for the diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Background Acute schistosomiasis constitutes a rare but serious condition in individuals experiencing their first prepatent Schistosoma infection. To circumvent costly and time-consuming diagnostics, an early and rapid diagnosis is required. So far, classic diagnostic tools such as parasite microscopy or serology lack considerable sensitivity at this early stage of Schistosoma infection. To validate the use of a blood based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for the detection of Schistosoma DNA in patients with acute schistosomiasis who acquired their infection in various endemic regions we conducted a European-wide prospective study in 11 centres specialized in travel medicine and tropical medicine. Methods Patients with a history of recent travelling to schistosomiasis endemic regions and freshwater contacts, an episode of fever (body temperature ?38.5°C) and an absolute or relative eosinophil count of ?700/?l or 10%, were eligible for participation. PCR testing with DNA extracted from serum was compared with results from serology and microscopy. Results Of the 38 patients with acute schistosomiasis included into the study, PCR detected Schistosoma DNA in 35 patients at initial presentation (sensitivity 92%). In contrast, sensitivity of serology (enzyme immunoassay and/or immunofluorescence assay) or parasite microscopy was only 70% and 24%, respectively. Conclusion For the early diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis, real-time PCR for the detection of schistosoma DNA in serum is more sensitive than classic diagnostic tools such as serology or microscopy, irrespective of the region of infection. Generalization of the results to all Schistosoma species may be difficult as in the study presented here only eggs of S. mansoni were detected by microscopy. A minimum amount of two millilitre of serum is required for sufficient diagnostic accuracy. PMID:23363565

2013-01-01

85

[Toxoplasmosis. Diagnostic considerations. Results of various studies].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis as a human disease is briefly described. Concerned investigations developed in Cuba and some aspects of immunological tests performed in our country are pointed out. Results of studies conducted at the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology between 1974 and 1978 are disclosed, and an increase of the number of tests is evidenced. In the thesis work of Dr. G. Delgado it was proved the high sensitivity of the complement fixation test regarding toxoplasmin. For these reasons, it is desirable the decentralization of the laboratory diagnosis of this disease. PMID:7008108

González Ochoa, E; López Acosta, C; Cordovi Prado, R; Aguilera Espinosa, A E

1980-01-01

86

Toxoplasmosis: a serological survey in Ontario wildlife.  

PubMed

Sera from seven species of wild animals in Ontario were examined for antibody to Toxoplasma gondii using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Of 158 sera tested, 53% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 56% of the striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), 78% of the coyotes (Canis latrans), 33% of the black bears (Ursus americanus), 18% of the short tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and none of the field voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) had antibody. Antibody to T. gondii was present in sera from wild animals captured throughout southern Ontario. A positive linear correlation between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and age of fox pups was calculated (p < 0.005). PMID:16502687

Quinn, P J; Ramsden, R O; Johnston, D H

1976-10-01

87

Modeling seismic wave propagation across the European plate: structural models and numerical techniques, state-of-the-art and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Together with the building and maintenance of observational and data banking infrastructures - i.e. an integrated organization of coordinated sensor networks, in conjunction with connected data banks and efficient data retrieval tools - a strategic vision for bolstering the future development of geophysics in Europe should also address the essential issue of improving our current ability to model coherently the propagation of seismic waves across the European plate. This impacts on fundamental matters, such as correctly locating earthquakes, imaging detailed earthquake source properties, modeling ground shaking, inferring geodynamic processes. To this extent, we both need detailed imaging of shallow and deep earth structure, and accurate modeling of seismic waves by numerical methods. Our current abilities appear somewhat limited, but emerging technologies may enable soon a significant leap towards better accuracy and reliability. To contribute to this debate, we present here the state-of-the-art of knowledge of earth structure and numerical wave modeling in the European plate, as the result of a comprehensive study towards the definition of a continental-scale reference model. Our model includes a description of crustal structure (EPcrust) merging information deriving from previous studies - large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness, density, and seismic parameters. This a priori crustal model improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies beneath the Alpine mobile belt, and fast lithospheric signatures under the two main Mediterranean subduction systems (Aegean and Tyrrhenian). We validate this new model through comparison of recorded seismograms with simulations based on numerical codes (SPECFEM3D). To ease and increase model usage, we also propose the adoption of a common exchange format for tomographic earth models based on JSON, a lightweight data-interchange format supported by most high-level programming languages, and provide tools for manipulating and visualising models, described in this standard format, in Google Earth and GEON IDV. In the next decade seismologists will be able to reap new possibilities offered by exciting progress in general computing power and algorithmic development in computational seismology. Structural models, still based on classical approaches and modeling just few parameters in each seismogram, will benefit from emerging techniques - such as full waveform fitting and fully nonlinear inversion - that are now just showing their potential. This will require extensive availability of supercomputing resources to earth scientists in Europe, as a tool to match the planned new massive data flow. We need to make sure that the whole apparatus, needed to fully exploit new data, will be widely accessible. To maximize the development, so as for instance to enable us to promptly model ground shaking after a major earthquake, we will also need a better coordination framework, that will enable us to share and amalgamate the abundant local information on earth structure - most often available but difficult to retrieve, merge and use. Comprehensive knowledge of earth structure and of best practices to model wave propagation can by all means be considered an enabling technology for further geophysical progress.

Morelli, Andrea; Danecek, Peter; Molinari, Irene; Postpischl, Luca; Schivardi, Renata; Serretti, Paola; Tondi, Maria Rosaria

2010-05-01

88

Lifestyle factors and serum androgens among 636 middle aged men from seven countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the association between lifestyle and dietary factors and serum concentrations of androgens in middle-aged healthy\\u000a men.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the association of lifestyle factors with circulating concentrations of androstenedione\\u000a (A-dione), 3-?-androstanediol glucuronide (A-diol-g), testosterone (T), SHBG (sex hormone-binding globulin), and free testosterone\\u000a (FT) among 636 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Reiko Suzuki; Naomi E. Allen; Paul N. Appleby; Timothy J. Key; Laure Dossus; Anne Tjřnneland; Nina Fřns Johnsen; Kim Overvad; Carlotta Sacerdote; Domenico Palli; Vittorio Krogh; Rosario Tumino; Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen; Heiner Boeing; Antonia Trichopoulou; Georgios Makrygiannis; Gesthimani Misirli; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Anne M. May; María José Tormo Díaz; Maria-José Sánchez; Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea; Laudina Rodríguez Suárez; Genevieve Buckland; Nerea Larrańaga; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Sabina Rinaldi; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Elio Riboli; Rudolf Kaaks

2009-01-01

89

[Serological survey of animal toxoplasmosis in Senegal.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. We used modified direct agglutination test for the screening of the animals' sera collected in Senegal. In total, 419 animals' sera have been studied: 103 bovines, 43 sheep, 52 goats, 63 horses, 13 donkeys and 145 dogs. The collection of sera was performed in four different regions of Senegal: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou and Basse Casamance from 2011 to 2013. We have revealed antibodies in 13% of bovines, 16% of sheep, 15% of goats, 30% of horses, 23% of donkeys and 67% of dogs. Private dogs from villages were more often to have the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies compared to security society-owned dogs from Dakar. It may be explained by different meal consumed by dogs (factory-produced meal for dogs from Dakar vs. irregular sources for village dogs). Intense circulation of T. gondii in the studied zone may explain the unusually high seroprevalence among horses and donkeys. Tropical climate with high temperature and humidity is favorable for the conservation of oocysts of T. gondii. Results presented here may contribute to the evaluation of the risks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Senegal. PMID:25307881

Davoust, B; Mediannikov, O; Sambou, M; Roqueplo, C; Demoncheaux, J -P; Perret, C; Guillot, J; Blaga, R

2014-10-11

90

The Impact of Health Behaviours on Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Europeans and South Asians – A Prospective Analysis in the UK SABRE Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is consistent evidence on the impact of health behaviours on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in European populations. As South Asians in the UK have an excess risk of CVD and coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to Europeans, we investigated whether a similar association between combined health behaviours and risk of CVD and CHD among this high-risk group exists, and estimated the population impact. Methods and Findings In a prospective cohort of 1090 Europeans and 1006 South Asians (40–69 y) without prevalent CVD at baseline (1988–1990), followed up for 21 years to 2011, there were 601 incident CVD events [Europeans n = 255; South Asians n = 346] of which 520 were CHD events [n = 207 and 313 respectively]. Participants scored between 0 to 4 points for a composite score including four baseline healthy behaviours (non-smoker, moderate alcohol intake, physically active, frequent fruit/vegetable intake). Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident CHD in Europeans who had three, two, one, and zero compared to four health behaviours were 1.33 (0.78–2.29), 1.96 (1.15–3.33), 1.36 (0.74–2.48) and 2.45 (1.18–5.10), respectively, p-trend = 0.025. In South Asians, corresponding HRs were 2.88 (1.33–6.24), 2.28 (1.06–4.91), 3.36 (1.53–7.39) and 3.48 (1.38–8.81), p-trend = 0.022. The results were similar for incident CVD; Europeans HR 2.12 (1.14–3.94), p–trend = 0.014; South Asians HR 2.73 (1.20–6.21), p-trend = 0.018. The population attributable fraction in Europeans was 43% for CHD and 28% for CVD. In South Asians it was 63% and 51% respectively. Conclusions Lack of adherence to four combined health behaviours was associated with 2 to 3-fold increased risk of incident CVD in Europeans and South Asians. A substantial population impact in the South Asian group indicates important potential for disease prevention in this high-risk group by adherence to healthy behaviours. PMID:25730129

Eriksen, Anne; Tillin, Therese; O’Connor, Laura; Brage, Soren; Hughes, Alun; Mayet, Jamil; McKeigue, Paul; Whincup, Peter; Chaturvedi, Nish; Forouhi, Nita G.

2015-01-01

91

Toxoplasmosis of the spinal cord in an immunocompromised patient  

PubMed Central

We, herein, describe an HIV-positive patient with toxoplasmosis of the spinal cord. We also carried out a comprehensive literature review of this topic, with emphasis on the diagnostic tools and therapeutic approach. PMID:24892240

Martínez, Ernesto; Bolívar, Guillermo; Sánchez, Sandra; Carrascal, Edwin

2013-01-01

92

Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with antia??T. gondiia??specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

2002-01-01

93

Toxoplasmosis and Epilepsy — Systematic Review and Meta Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is an important, widespread, parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The chronic infection in immunocompetent patients, usually considered as asymptomatic, is now suspected to be a risk factor for various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to estimate the risk of epilepsy due to toxoplasmosis. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted of several databases and journals to identify studies published in English or French, without date restriction, which looked at toxoplasmosis (as exposure) and epilepsy (as disease) and met certain other inclusion criteria. The search was based on keywords and suitable combinations in English and French. Fixed and random effects models were used to determine odds ratios, and statistical significance was set at 5.0%. Principal findings Six studies were identified, with an estimated total of 2888 subjects, of whom 1280 had epilepsy (477 positive for toxoplasmosis) and 1608 did not (503 positive for toxoplasmosis). The common odds ratio (calculated) by random effects model was 2.25 (95% CI 1.27–3.9), p = 0.005. Conclusions Despite the limited number of studies, and a lack of high-quality data, toxoplasmosis should continue to be regarded as an epilepsy risk factor. More and better studies are needed to determine the real impact of this parasite on the occurrence of epilepsy. PMID:25695802

Ngoungou, Edgard B.; Bhalla, Devender; Nzoghe, Amandine; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Preux, Pierre-Marie

2015-01-01

94

Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies. PMID:22491772

Dardé, Marie-Laure

2012-01-01

95

Toxoplasmosis: a history of clinical observations  

PubMed Central

It has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T. gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Jank?. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T. gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations. PMID:19217908

Weiss, Louis M.; Dubey, Jitender. P.

2009-01-01

96

Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.  

PubMed

Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye. PMID:24521535

Kyrř, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Ĺman, Per; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Pischon, Tobias; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cottet, Vanessa; Kühn, Tilman; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Bakken, Toril; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Asli, Lene Angell; Sánchez, Soledad; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Slimani, Nadia; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tjřnneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard

2014-05-28

97

Antibiotics for human toxoplasmosis: a systematic review of randomized trials  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of different treatment regimens in clinical syndromes of toxoplasmosis were assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on the clinical entity of toxoplasmosis. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Fourteen randomized trials were included of which one was a non-comparative study. One well-designed trial showed that trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more effective than placebo for clinical recovery of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy in immunocompetent hosts. For toxoplasmic encephalopathy, efficacy of pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole were similar, whereas pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine versus pyrimathamine+clindamycin showed no difference, irrespective of the outcome. Intravitreal clindamycin+dexamethasone and conventional treatment with oral pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine had similar efficacy with regard to all outcome measures in ocular toxoplasmosis, and intravitreal therapy was found to be safe. Adverse effects seemed more common with pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine. Most trials for encephalitis and ocular manifestations had a high risk of bias and were of poor methodological quality. There were no trials evaluating drugs for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, or for congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine is an effective therapy for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis; trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole and pyrimethamine+clindamycin are possible alternatives. Treatment with either oral or intravitreal antibiotics seems reasonable for ocular toxoplasmosis. Overall, trial evidence for the efficacy of these drugs for toxoplasmosis is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed. PMID:23816507

Rajapakse, Senaka; Chrishan Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Deepika Fernando, Sumadhya

2013-01-01

98

Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, can induce various hormonal and behavioural alterations in infected hosts, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between latent toxoplasmosis and maternal AITD in pregnancy. Methods Cross-sectional study in 1248 consecutive pregnant women in the 9–12th gestational weeks. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and free thyroxine (FT4) were assessed by chemiluminescence; the Toxoplasma status was detected by the complement fixation test (CFT) and anti-Toxoplasma IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Overall, 22.5% of the women were positive for latent toxoplasmosis and 14.7% were screened positive for AITD. Women with latent toxoplasmosis had more often highly elevated TPOAb than the Toxoplasma-negative ones (p?=?0.004), and latent toxoplasmosis was associated with decrease in serum TSH levels (p?=?0.049). Moreover, we found a positive correlation between FT4 and the index of positivity for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (p?=?0.033), which was even stronger in the TPOAb-positive Toxoplasma-positive women, (p?=?0.014), as well as a positive correlation between FT4 and log2 CFT (p?=?0.009). Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis was associated with a mild increase in thyroid hormone production in pregnancy. The observed Toxoplasma-associated changes in the parameters of AITD are mild and do not seem to be clinically relevant; however, they could provide new clues to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID:25350671

Ka?ková, Šárka; Procházková, Lucie; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel; Springer, Drahomíra; Potluková, Eliška

2014-01-01

99

A prospective study of the effects of marital status and family relations on young children's adjustment among African American and European American families.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development prospectively, using an ethnically diverse sample of approximately 300 low-income families. We also were able to examine the moderating effects of ethnicity on child adjustment in always two-parent, to-be-divorced, already-divorced, and always single-parent families. Results indicated that to-be-divorced European American and African American families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for predivorce differences in child behavior problems, whereas rejecting parenting accounted for differences in problem behavior between always single-parent and always two-parent families. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of ethnicity in influencing young, low-income children's adjustment to different family structures. PMID:10368919

Shaw, D S; Winslow, E B; Flanagan, C

1999-01-01

100

Ecological-Level Associations Between Highly Processed Food Intakes and Plasma Phospholipid Elaidic Acid Concentrations: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine

Véronique Chajčs; Carine Biessy; Graham Byrnes; Genevičve Deharveng; Mitra Saadatian-Elahi; Mazda Jenab; Petra H. M. Peeters; Marga Ocké; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Ingegerd Johansson; Göran Hallmans; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfält; Paula Jakszyn; Carlos A. González; Jose-Maria Huerta; Carmen Martinez; Pilar Amiano; Laudina Rodriguez Suárez; Eva Ardanaz; Anne Tjřnneland; Jytte Halkjaer; Kim Overvad; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Franco Berrino; Valeria Pala; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Maria Santucci de Magistris; Elisabeth A. Spencer; Francesca L. Crowe; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Jakob Linseisen; Sabine Rohrmann; Heiner Boeing; Ute Nöethlings; Karina Standahl Olsen; Guri Skeie; Eiliv Lund; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimosthenis Zilis; Erifili Oustoglou; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Elio Riboli; Nadia Slimani

2011-01-01

101

Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – the EPIC-InterAct study  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including 8 countries with large geographical variation. Methods Using a case-cohort design, 11,245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N=15,798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. 24-h diet recall data from a subsample (N=2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. Results Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95 % CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22), (ptrend=0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect [HR (95% CI)] using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 ?g/day dietary vitamin D. Conclusion This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type-2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person. PMID:24253760

Abbas, Sascha; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Beulens, Joline WJ; Buijsse, Brian; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Masters, Tilman Kühn; Mattiello, Amalia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Saieva, Calogero; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

2014-01-01

102

A prospective view on European pharmaceutical research and development. Policy options to reduce fragmentation and increase competitiveness.  

PubMed

This article analyses 3 areas of policy that could reduce the fragmentation and improve the competitiveness of the European pharmaceutical sector. It argues that a potential solution to the issue of fragmentation of pharmaceutical research, development and innovation may be the development of policies at the European level, in those areas that European institutions have a competence. These areas may not necessarily rely exclusively on solving the issue of pricing and reimbursing pharmaceuticals as European Union (EU) Member States invoke the subsidiarity principle to claim policy exclusivity in this area. By contrast, policy areas where European institutions have a competence may include: i) a more intensified collaboration in science and technology policy (supporting the science base, identifying education needs for the future, collaborating in the development of new technologies and fostering university-industry collaboration); ii) support of research and development (R&D) by means of directly channelling funds into basic pharmaceutical research, avoiding duplication of the research effort, developing a set of research priorities, tackling the issue of technology transfer, promoting university-industry and cross-border collaborations or providing incentives that would induce private R&D activities in areas with large socioeconomic impact; and iii) an improvement in the environment for the financing of innovation in the EU, by means of selective use of tax policy at the national level (and where applicable, at the EU level), institutional reform in order to widen the pool of available funds for private investment, and the introduction of schemes that would encourage individuals and institutions to hold equity in innovative companies. The article identifies specific research, regulatory, medical and financing needs that require policy intervention, evaluates the possible dynamic implications of such interventions and highlights the benefits that may accrue from their implementation. PMID:10178646

Kanavos, P

1998-02-01

103

Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between prediagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20-100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive ?0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-cell NHL and B-cell NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM [high level: OR = 0.40 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79)] and B-cell NHL [intermediate level: OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.53-0.88); high level: OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.86)], largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL; intermediate level: OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.30-0.80); high level: OR = 0.13 (95% CI = 0.05-0.35)] risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared with matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found. PMID:25269801

Nieters, Alexandra; ?uczy?ska, Anna; Becker, Susen; Becker, Nikolaus; Vermeulen, Roel; Overvad, Kim; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Sánchez, María-José; Sánchez, Soledad; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Melin, Beatrice; Späth, Florentin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Brennan, Paul; Kelly, Rachel S; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolf

2014-12-01

104

Prevalent Vertebral Deformity Predicts Incident Hip though not distal Forearm Fracture: Results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The presence of a vertebral deformity increases the risk of subsequent spinal deformities. The aim of this analysis was to\\u000a determine whether the presence of vertebral deformity predicts incident hip and other limb fractures. Six thousand three hundred\\u000a and forty-four men and 6788 women aged 50 years and over were recruited from population registers in 31 European centers and

A. A. Ismail; W. Cockerill; C. Cooper; J. D. Finn; K. Abendroth; G. Parisi; D. Banzer; L. I. Benevolenskaya; A. K. Bhalla; J. Bruges Armas; J. B. Cannata; P. D. Delmas; J. Dequeker; G. Dilsen; R. Eastell; O. Ershova; J. A. Falch; B. Felsch; S. Havelka; K. Hoszowski; I. Jajic; U. Kragl; O. Johnell; A. Lopez Vaz; R. Lorenc; G. Lyritis; F. Marchand; P. Masaryk; C. Matthis; T. Miazgowski; H. A. P. Pols; G. Poor; A. Rapado; H. H. Raspe; D. M. Reid; W. Reisinger; J. Janott; C. Scheidt-Nave; J Stepan; C. Todd; K. Weber; A. D. Woolf; G. Ambrecht; W. Gowin; D. Felsenberg; M. Lunt; J. A. Kanis; J. Reeve; A. J. Silman; T. W. O’Neill

2001-01-01

105

It is not only the cat that did it: how to prevent and treat congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over one hundred years ago and was soon recognized as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection. But detailed understanding of its epidemiology emerged only after 1970 with the discovery of its life cycle. In the last ten years, high resolution molecular tools have allowed the characterization of various strain types with different virulence patterns, and current studies are exploring the distribution of these different genotypes. In parallel, sophisticated diagnostic tools have been developed and awareness of disease burden has led some European countries with high prevalence rates to implement screening of pregnant women. In this article, the screening options and therapies used to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis are dissected in the light of recent data from cohort studies and other epidemiological data. PMID:24119928

Robert-Gangneux, Florence

2014-01-01

106

Toxoplasmosis Update and Public Health Implications  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii has a coccidian life cycle in the intestine of domestic and wild felids that includes a series of asexual and sexual stages and an oocyst stage that is shed in the feces. Oocysts complete their development outside the body, eventually becoming infective for about 350 species of vertebrates including cats and man. The effects of climate on oocyst survival and the physical and biological means of oocyst dispersal are discussed. Infectivity and pathogenicity for livestock species vary. Acute disease results from rapidly multiplying tachyzoites that may be transmitted by carnivorism, transfusion, vertical transmission and other routes. Patent infections may persist for the life of a host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. Bradyzoites initiate acute infection in other hosts after carnivorism or organ transplantation or in the same host after immunosuppression. Also discussed are: (a) prevalence of T. gondii in livestock as determined by digestion and serological techniques, (b) identification in humans as accomplished by isolation, serological and skin test techniques and (c) identification in cats as accomplished primarily by fecal examinations for oocysts infective for mice. Source of human infections, major outbreaks, treatment, effects on mental health and methods for preventing toxoplasmosis in man and livestock are listed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7337909

Fayer, R.

1981-01-01

107

Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials.  

PubMed

This report describes toxoplasmosis lesions in Australian marsupials. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histopathological changes are summarized for 43 macropods, two common wombats, two koalas, six possums, 15 dasyurids, two numbats, eight bandicoots and one bilby. Animals either died suddenly without clinical signs or exhibited signs associated with respiratory, neurological or enteric disease. At necropsy, many marsupials had no visible lesions. Where present, common necropsy findings included pulmonary congestion, oedema and consolidation, adrenal enlargement and reddening, haemorrhage and ulceration of stomach and small intestine, and lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly. Microscopically, affected lungs showed interstitial pneumonia and macrophage accumulation. Myocardial, skeletal and smooth muscle necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation were common. Organs had focal necrosis and/or fibrosis and lymphoid infiltrates. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts were common in muscle and nervous tissue. Free tachyzoites were commonly present in areas of necrosis. Selected sections from four macropods, two koalas, two dasyurids, one wombat and one possum stained specifically with avidin-biotin complex and anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum. PMID:2246391

Canfield, P J; Hartley, W J; Dubey, J P

1990-08-01

108

First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuńez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castańo, Giovanny

2011-01-01

109

Estimation of measles reproduction ratios and prospects for elimination of measles by vaccination in some Western European countries.  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to estimate the measles reproduction ratio for eight Western European vaccination programmes. Because many plausible age-structured transmission patterns result in a similar description of the observations, it is not possible to estimate a unique value of the reproduction ratio. A method is developed to estimate bounds and confidence intervals for plausible values of the reproduction ratios using maximum likelihood methods. Lower and upper bounds for plausible values of the basic reproduction ratio are estimated to be 7.17 (95% CI 7.14-7.20) and 45.41 (95% CI 9.77-49.57), corresponding to lower and upper bounds on critical vaccine coverage of 86.6% and 98.1%. Of the eight evaluated vaccination programmes, four have vaccine coverage below the lower bound and allow measles to persist, and four have vaccine coverage at the upper bound and may eventually eliminate measles. PMID:11693506

Wallinga, J.; Lévy-Bruhl, D.; Gay, N. J.; Wachmann, C. H.

2001-01-01

110

Ly6Chigh Monocytes Control Cerebral Toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Cerebral infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by activation of resident cells and recruitment of immune cells from the periphery to the CNS. In this study, we show that a subset of myeloid cells, namely Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes that infiltrate the brain upon chronic T. gondii infection, plays a decisive role in host defense. Depletion of this monocyte subset resulted in elevated parasite load and decreased survival of infected mice, suggesting their crucial role. Notably, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes governed parasite control due to production of proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, inducible NO synthase, TNF, and reactive oxygen intermediate. Interestingly, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes were also able to produce the regulatory cytokine IL-10, revealing their dual feature. Moreover, we confirmed by adoptive transfer that the recruited monocytes further develop into two distinct subpopulations contributing to parasite control and profound host defense. The differentiated Ly6C(int)CCR2(+)F4/80(int) subset upregulated MHC I and MHC II molecules, suggesting dendritic cell properties such as interaction with T cells, whereas the Ly6C(neg)F4/80(high) cell subset displayed elevated phagocytic capacity while upregulating triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2. Finally, we have shown that the recruitment of Ly6C(high) monocytes to the CNS is regulated by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. These results indicate the critical importance of recruited Ly6C(high) monocytes upon cerebral toxoplasmosis and reveal the behavior of further differentiated myeloid-derived mononuclear cell subsets in parasite control and immune regulation of the CNS. PMID:25710908

Biswas, Aindrila; Bruder, Dunja; Wolf, Susanne A; Jeron, Andreas; Mack, Matthias; Heimesaat, Markus M; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

2015-04-01

111

Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described. PMID:23718784

Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

2013-01-01

112

Promoting health equity in European children: Design and methodology of the prospective EPHE (Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity) evaluation study  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing health inequalities is a top priority of the public health agendas in Europe. The EPHE project aims to analyse the added value of a community-based interventional programme based on EPODE methodology, adapted for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in childhood obesity. The interventions that will be implemented by this project focus on four energy balance-related behaviours (fruit and vegetable consumption, tap water intake, physical inactivity, sleep duration) and their determinants. This article presents the design of the effect evaluation of the EPHE project. Methods/Design This is a prospective two-year follow-up evaluation study, which will collect data on the energy balance-related behaviours and potential environmental determinants of 6–8 year olds, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents. For this purpose a parental self-reported questionnaire is constructed. This assesses the socio-economic status of the parents (5 items) and the dietary (12 items), sedentary (2 items) and sleeping (4 items) behaviour of the child. Alongside potential family-environmental determinants are assessed. The EPHE parental questionnaire will be disseminated in schools of a selected medium-sized city in seven European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Portugal, Romania, The Netherlands). Discussion This study will evaluate the effects of the EPHE community-based interventional programmes. Furthermore, it will provide evidence for children’s specific energy balance-related behaviours and family environmental determinants related to socio-economic inequalities, in seven European countries. PMID:24690078

2014-01-01

113

Ocular toxoplasmosis in the United States: recent and remote infections.  

PubMed

We tested all samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis sent to the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory from June 2004 through August 2010 for serologic evidence of recent Toxoplasma gondii infection. Of 205 patients aged 10-96 years, 11.7% had recent infection. Many people develop ocular disease soon after T. gondii infection. PMID:25301214

Jones, Jeffrey L; Bonetti, Valerie; Holland, Gary N; Press, Cindy; Sanislo, Steven R; Khurana, Rahul N; Montoya, Jose G

2015-01-15

114

Fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently congenitally acquired. PMID:3586212

Dubey, J P; Quinn, W J; Weinandy, D

1987-04-01

115

Fatal Neonatal Toxoplasmosis in a Bobcat (Lynx rufus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (Lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Although infection is common in wild Felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. In this case, the infection was apparently con- genitally acquired.

J. P. Dube; W. J. Quinn; D. Weinandy

116

Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) raised in captivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Manuls or Pallas' cats (Felis manul, syn. Otocolobus manul) are endangered wild cats from Central Asia kept and bred in many zoos. Despite good breeding success young cats frequently die from acute toxoplasmosis. From 1998 to 2002, a breeding pair in the Schonbrunn Zoo in Vienna, Austria, gave birth to 24 kittens ; 58 % of kittens died between

W. BASSO; R. EDELHOFER; W. ZENKER; K. MÖSTL; A. KÜBBER-HEISS; H. PROSL

2005-01-01

117

Recent developments in the prevention and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis vary considerably in degree, characteristics and time of onset. Options for prevention of the disease include the appropriate disposal of cat litter and the avoidance of ingestion of both contaminated food and undercooked meat by pregnant women. Immunisation of the domestic cat population is a consideration for the future. Alternatively, immunisation of sero-negative pregnant women

Gordon N Dutton

1989-01-01

118

Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants 100?166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 2.5-10 ?m (PMcoarse), and <10 ?m (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 ?g/m3 for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 ?g/m3 increase in PM2.5) and below 40 ?g/m3 for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 ?g/m3 increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values. PMID:24452269

2014-01-01

119

CDH1 gene polymorphisms, smoking, Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST).  

PubMed

Despite declining incidence rates, gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of death worldwide. E-Cadherin is an adhesion molecule that is thought to be involved in GC. Germline mutations in the E-Cadherin gene (CDH1) have been identified in hereditary diffuse GC. Also, a promoter polymorphism at position -160 C/A has been suggested to lead to transcriptional down regulation and has been shown to affect GC risk in some studies. However, very little information exists on the GC risk association of other CDH1 polymorphisms and it is unclear whether any associations may be different by GC anatomical sites or histological types. Thus, a case-control study (cases=245/controls=950) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort was conducted to assess the GC risk association of eight CDH1 gene polymorphisms. None of the CDH1 polymorphisms or haplotypes analysed were associated with GC risk and no differences of effect were observed by Helicobacter pylori infection status. However, three CDH1 polymorphisms in the same haplotype block, including the CDH1-160C/A, interacted with smoking to increase GC risk in smokers but not in never smokers. These findings should be confirmed in larger independent studies. PMID:18342503

Jenab, Mazda; McKay, James D; Ferrari, Pietro; Biessy, Carine; Laing, Stewart; Munar, Gabriel Maria Capella; Sala, Núria; Peńa, Salvador; Crusius, J B A; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken K; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Georgila, Christina; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Mattiello, Amalia; Vineis, Paolo; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Numans, Mattijs E; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Lund, Eiliv; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sanchez, Carmen Navarro; Quirós, José Ramón; Hallmans, Göran; Stenling, Roger; Manjer, Jonas; Régner, Sara; Key, Tim; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-tee; Slimani, Nadia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Boffetta, Paolo; Carneiro, Fátima; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos

2008-04-01

120

Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was examined in this case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids (?- and ?-carotene, canthaxanthin, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin) and vitamins A (retinol), C and E (?-, ?- and ?- and ?-tocopherol) and dietary consumption of ?-carotene and vitamins A, C and E were determined in 898 colon cancer cases, 501 rectal cancer cases and 1,399 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were performed to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). An association was observed between higher prediagnostic plasma retinol concentration and a lower risk of colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile?=?0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87, p for trend?=?0.01), most notably proximal colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile?=?0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.77, p for trend?=?0.01). Additionally, inverse associations for dietary ?-carotene and dietary vitamins C and E with (distal) colon cancer were observed. Although other associations were suggested, there seems little evidence for a role of these selected compounds in preventing CRC through their antioxidative properties. PMID:24771392

Leenders, Max; Leufkens, Anke M; Siersema, Peter D; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Vrieling, Alina; Hulshof, Paul J M; van Gils, Carla H; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Kyrř, Cecilie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagerhazzi, Guy; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Johnson, Theron; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Androulidaki, Anna; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bakker, Marije F; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Barricarte, Aurelio; María Huerta, José; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Key, Timothy J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Wark, Petra A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

2014-12-15

121

Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using

A Olsen; J Halkjćr; C H van Gils; B Buijsse; H Verhagen; M Jenab; M C Boutron-Ruault; U Ericson; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M Touvier; M Niravong; M Waaseth; G Skeie; K T Khaw; R Travis; P Ferrari; M J Sanchez; A Agudo; K Overvad; J Linseisen; C Weikert; C Sacerdote; A Evangelista; D Zylis; K Tsiotas; J Manjer; B van Guelpen; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham

2009-01-01

122

Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries  

PubMed Central

Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries. PMID:23292003

Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

2013-01-01

123

A large prospective European cohort study of patients treated with strontium ranelate and followed up over 3 years.  

PubMed

Strontium ranelate has been available as an osteoporosis treatment in Europe since 2004. This article describes a large European observational survey of the use of strontium ranelate in clinical daily practice. A retrospective observational registry included 32,446 women consulting for postmenopausal osteoporosis in seven countries. Within the registry, 12,046 women were receiving strontium ranelate and were followed up over 3 years. The baseline characteristics of the follow-up cohort were similar to those of the whole registry cohort (age, 68.9 ± 10.3 years; body mass index, 25.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); lumbar spine T-score, -2.57 ± 0.85 SD; femoral neck T-score, -2.11 ± 0.86 SD). At baseline, 77 % of patients had at least one risk factor for osteoporosis, and 46 % had a previous history of osteoporotic fracture. Mean duration of follow-up was 32.0 ± 9.7 months, and treatment duration was 25.2 ± 13.7 months (24,956 patient-years of treatment). Persistence with strontium ranelate was 80 % at 1 year, 68 % at 2 years, and 64 % at 32 months; most patients (about 80 %) reported rarely omitting a dose. At least one emergent adverse event was reported in 2,674 (22 %) patients, most frequently gastrointestinal side effects. The crude incidence of venous thromboembolic events was 2.1/1,000 patient-years. No cases of hypersensitivity reactions, such as drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Steven-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis, were reported. During follow-up, a fracture occurred in 890 patients (7 %); 429 of the fractures were nonvertebral fractures. Our observational survey over 32 months indicated good rates of adherence with strontium ranelate and confirmed its good safety profile in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:23455629

Audran, M; Jakob, F J; Palacios, S; Brandi, M-L; Bröll, H; Hamdy, N A T; McCloskey, E V

2013-09-01

124

Ga-67 citrate myocardial uptake in a patient with AIDS, toxoplasmosis, and myocarditis  

SciTech Connect

A 38-year-old man with AIDS presented with fever of unknown origin, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Admission laboratory data revealed a positive toxoplasmosis titer in the blood. The initial chest x-ray showed small bilateral pleural effusions, a normal cardiac silhouette, no infiltrates, and no interstitial edema. Ga-67 imaging revealed markedly abnormal uptake in the myocardium. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis myocarditis was made based on laboratory and imaging data. The patient was treated for toxoplasmosis. No myocardial uptake of tracer was demonstrated on a follow-up Ga-67 scan, performed after completion of treatment for toxoplasmosis.

Memel, D.S.; DeRogatis, A.J.; William, D.C. (St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY (USA))

1991-05-01

125

Congenital toxoplasmosis: evaluation of serological methods for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgA antibodies.  

PubMed

A study was carried out to evaluate the presence of serological markers for the immunodiagnosis of the vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis. We tested the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values (positive and negative) of different serological methods for the early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. In a prospective longitudinal study, 50 infants with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis were followed up in the ambulatory care centre of Congenital Infections at University Hospital in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, from 1 January 2004-30 September 2005. Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA), Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA) and Immune-Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT) were used to detect specific IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and a capture ELISA was used to detect specific IgA antibodies. The results showed that 28/50 infants were infected. During the neonatal period, IgM was detected in 39.3% (11/28) of those infected infants and IgA was detected in 21.4% (6/28). The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values (positive and negative) of each assay were, respectively: MEIA and ELFA: 60.9%, 100%, 100%, 55.0%; IFAT: 59.6%, 91.7%, 93.3%, 53.7%; IgA capture ELISA: 57.1%, 100%, 100%, 51.2%. The presence of specific IgM and IgA antibodies during the neonatal period was not frequent, although it was correlated with the most severe cases of congenital transmission. The results indicate that the absence of congenital disease markers (IgM and IgA) in newborns, even after confirming the absence with several techniques, does not constitute an exclusion criterion for toxoplasmosis. PMID:19547868

Rodrigues, I M X; Castro, A M; Gomes, M B F; Amaral, W N; Avelino, M M

2009-05-01

126

Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. Design The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Setting 23 centres in 10 countries. Participants 380?395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6?years on average. Main outcome measures 20?453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment. Results HRs comparing extreme drinkers (?30?g/day in women and ?60?g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1–4.9?g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60?years, drinking more than 30?g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60?g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women. Conclusions In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality. PMID:24993766

Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Kragh Andersen, Per; Johansson, Mattias; Boeing, Heiner; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Sanchez, Carmen Navarro; Arriola, Larraitz; Wallström, Peter; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra; Beulens, Joline WJ; Nunes, Luciana; Gunter, Marc; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Brennan, Paul; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

2014-01-01

127

Phytoestrogen exposure correlation with plasma estradiol in postmenopausal women in European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk may involve diet-gene interactions.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies investigating the relationship between phytoestrogens in diet, urine, or blood with plasma estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) have been inconclusive. We investigated the relationship among phytoestrogen exposure, polymorphisms in the ESR1, COMT, CYP19, and SHBG genes, and plasma estradiol and SHBG levels in 125 free-living postmenopausal women taking part in a cohort study (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk) using three different markers: dietary, urinary, and serum phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogen levels (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol, and enterolactone) in spot urine and serum were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Plasma estradiol and SHBG were measured by immunoassays. Adjusting for age and body mass index, urinary daidzein, genistein, glycitein, and serum daidzein and glycitein were negatively correlated with plasma estradiol (R = -0.199 to -0.277, P <0.03), with particularly strong associations found in the 18 women with CC genotype for ESR1 PvuII polymorphism (R = -0.597 to -0.834, P < 0.03). The negative correlations observed between isoflavones and estradiol in women as a whole became no longer significant when we excluded women with ESR1 PvuII CC genotype, indicating that the correlations observed were due mainly to this group of women. There was no relationship between dietary isoflavones and plasma estradiol and no association was found between any of the dietary, urinary, and serum phytoestrogen and plasma SHBG or between these factors and polymorphisms in CYP19, SHBG, and COMT. We conclude that higher isoflavone exposure is associated with lower plasma estradiol in postmenopausal women and that this preliminary study is suggestive of the involvement of diet-gene interactions. PMID:15668497

Low, Yen-Ling; Taylor, James I; Grace, Philip B; Dowsett, Mitch; Scollen, Serena; Dunning, Alison M; Mulligan, Angela A; Welch, Ailsa A; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Day, Nick E; Wareham, Nick J; Bingham, Sheila A

2005-01-01

128

ExtaviJect® 30G device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis: a prospective European study  

PubMed Central

Background The ExtaviJect® 30G autoinjector was developed to facilitate parenteral self-administration of interferon beta-1b (Extavia®), a first-line disease-modifying therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to assess patient compliance with treatment when using the autoinjector, patients’ and nurses’ experiences of using the device, its tolerability, and patient satisfaction. Methods This was a 12-week, real-world, prospective, observational, noninterventional study conducted in nine European countries. Questionnaires were used to measure patient compliance and to assess patients’ and nurses’ experiences. All adverse events were recorded by severity, including injection site reactions or pain. Patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9) and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) instruments, respectively. Results Of 582 patients enrolled, 568 (98%) received at least one injection and attended the first follow-up visit at 6 weeks, and 542 (93%) attended the second follow-up visit at 12 weeks. For the whole study, 548 of 568 (97%) patients were compliant with treatment. Among the various questions assessing whether the device was easy and quick to use accurately, without fear of the needle, 56%–98% of patients and 59%–98% of nurses were in agreement. There were nine serious adverse events (four disease-related) reported among the 227 (39%) patients reporting adverse events. Scores increased in the TSQM-9 convenience domain between weeks 6 and 12 (P=0.0009), and in the EQ-5D visual analog scale between baseline and week 12 (P<0.0001), indicating improvement in health-related quality of life. Conclusion ExtaviJect 30G was convenient to use and was associated with high levels of compliance. PMID:24255602

Boeru, Gabriel; Milanov, Ivan; De Robertis, Francesca; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lang, Michael; Rojas-Farreras, Sňnia; Tomlinson, Mark

2013-01-01

129

Five-year results from the prospective European multicentre cohort study on radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation for incompetent great saphenous veins  

PubMed Central

Background This was a prospective study of radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation (RFA) for the treatment of incompetent varicose great saphenous veins (GSVs). The present report describes long-term follow-up at 5 years. Methods The 5-year follow-up of this multicentre European study included assessment of the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and GSV occlusion and reflux on duplex imaging. Results A total of 225 patients had 295 GSVs treated by RFA, achieving an initial vein occlusion rate of 100 per cent. With 80·0 per cent compliance, Kaplan–Meier analyses showed a GSV occlusion rate of 91·9 per cent and a reflux-free rate of 94·9 per cent at 5 years. Among the 15 GSVs noted with reflux during follow-up, only three showed full recanalization of the GSV at 1 week, 6 months and 3 years. Of the 12 legs with partial recanalization, reflux originated at the saphenofemoral junction in ten, with a mean length of the patent segment of 5·8 (range 3·2–10) cm; only six patients were symptomatic. Mean(s.d.) VCSS scores improved from 3·9(2·1) at baseline to 0·6(1·2), 0·9(1·3) and 1·3(1·7) at 1, 3 and 5 years. Conclusion At 5 years RFA proved to be an efficient endovenous treatment for incompetent GSVs in terms of sustained clinical and anatomical success for the vast majority of treated patients. PMID:25627262

Proebstle, T M; Alm, B J; Göckeritz, O; Wenzel, C; Noppeney, T; Lebard, C; Sessa, C; Creton, D; Pichot, O

2015-01-01

130

The association of pattern of lifetime alcohol use and cause of death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited evidence for an association between the pattern of lifetime alcohol use and cause-specific risk of death. Methods Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated for different causes of death according to patterns of lifetime alcohol consumption using a competing risks approach: 111 953 men and 268 442 women from eight countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were included. Self-reported alcohol consumption at ages 20, 30, 40 or 50 years and at enrolment were used for the analysis; 26 411 deaths were observed during an average of 12.6 years of follow-up. Results The association between lifetime alcohol use and death from cardiovascular diseases was different from the association seen for alcohol-related cancers, digestive, respiratory, external and other causes. Heavy users (>5 drinks/day for men and >2.5 drinks/day for women), regardless of time of cessation, had a 2- to 5-times higher risk of dying due to alcohol-related cancers, compared with subjects with lifetime light use (?1 and ?0.5 drink/week for men and women, respectively). Compared with lifetime light users, men who used <5 drinks/day throughout their lifetime had a 24% lower cardiovascular disease mortality (95% confidence interval 2-41). The risk of death from coronary heart disease was also found to be 34–46% lower among women who were moderate to occasionally heavy alcohol users compared with light users. However, this relationship was only evident among men and women who had no chronic disease at enrolment. Conclusions Limiting alcohol use throughout life is associated with a lower risk of death, largely due to cardiovascular disease but also other causes. However, the potential health benefits of alcohol use are difficult to establish due to the possibility of selection bias and competing risks related to diseases occurring later in life. PMID:24415611

Bergmann, Manuela M; Rehm, Jürgen; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Drogan, Dagmar; Overvad, Kim; Tjřnneland, Anne; Halkjćr, Jytte; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolph; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Beulens, Joline WJ; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Duell, Eric J; Molina-Montes, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Arriola, Larraitz; Allen, Naomi E; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Romaguera, Dora; Wark, Petra A; Romieu, Isabelle; Nunes, Luciana; Riboli, Elio; Ferrari, Pietro

2013-01-01

131

Healthy lifestyle and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and prevention strategies are needed to reduce incidence worldwide. A healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) was generated to investigate the joint effect of modifiable lifestyle factors on postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The study included 242,918 postmenopausal women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, with detailed information on diet and lifestyle assessed at baseline. The HLIS was constructed from five factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0-4 to categories of each component, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviours. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression models. During 10.9 years of median follow-up, 7,756 incident breast cancer cases were identified. There was a 3% lower risk of breast cancer per point increase of the HLIS. Breast cancer risk was inversely associated with a high HLIS when fourth versus second (reference) categories were compared [adjusted HR?=?0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.83]. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a lower risk for hormone receptor double positive (adjusted HR?=?0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.98) and hormone receptor double negative breast cancer (adjusted HR?=?0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90). Findings suggest having a high score on an index of combined healthy behaviours reduces the risk of developing breast cancer among postmenopausal women. Programmes which engage women in long term health behaviours should be supported. PMID:25379993

McKenzie, Fiona; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Chajčs, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Batlle, Jordi; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Baglietto, Laura; Dartois, Laureen; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Rosso, Stefano; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romieu, Isabelle

2015-06-01

132

Invasive Candida infections in surgical patients in intensive care units: a prospective, multicentre survey initiated by the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) (2006-2008).  

PubMed

A prospective, observational, multicentre study of invasive candidosis (IC) in surgical patients in intensive care units (ICUs) was conducted from 2006 to 2008 in 72 ICUs in 14 European countries. A total of 779 patients (62.5% males, median age 63 years) with IC were included. The median rate of candidaemia was 9 per 1000 admissions. In 10.8% the infection was already present at the time of admission to ICU. Candida albicans accounted for 54% of the isolates, followed by Candida parapsilosis 18.5%, Candida glabrata 13.8%, Candida tropicalis 6%, Candida krusei 2.5%, and other species 5.3%. Infections due to C. krusei (57.9%) and C. glabrata (43.6%) had the highest crude mortality rate. The most common preceding surgery was abdominal (51.5%), followed by thoracic (20%) and neurosurgery (8.2%). Candida glabrata was more often isolated after abdominal surgery in patients ?60 years, and C. parapsilosis was more often isolated in neurosurgery and multiple trauma patients as well as children ?1 year of age. The most common first-line treatment was fluconazole (60%), followed by caspofungin (18.7%), liposomal amphotericin B (13%), voriconazole (4.8%) and other drugs (3.5%). Mortality in surgical patients with IC in ICU was 38.8%. Multivariate analysis showed that factors independently associated with mortality were: patient age ?60 years (hazard ratio (HR) 1.9, p 0.001), central venous catheter (HR 1.8, p 0.05), corticosteroids (HR 1.5, p 0.03), not receiving systemic antifungal treatment for IC (HR 2.8, p <0.0001), and not removing intravascular lines (HR 1.6, p 0.02). PMID:25636940

Klingspor, L; Tortorano, A M; Peman, J; Willinger, B; Hamal, P; Sendid, B; Velegraki, A; Kibbler, C; Meis, J F; Sabino, R; Ruhnke, M; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Salonen, J; Dóczi, I

2015-01-01

133

The relationship between fermented food intake and mortality risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between total and subtypes of bacterial fermented food intake (dairy products, cheese, vegetables and meat) and mortality due to all causes, total cancer and CVD. From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort, 34 409 Dutch men and women, aged 20-70 years who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline, were included. Baseline intakes of total and subtypes of fermented foods were measured with a validated FFQ. Data on the incidence and causes of death were obtained from the national mortality register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse mortality in relation to the quartiles of fermented food intake. After a mean follow-up of 15 (sd 2·5) years, 2436 deaths occurred (1216 from cancer and 727 from CVD). After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, education level, hypertension, smoking habit, BMI, and intakes of fruit, vegetables and alcohol, total fermented food intake was not found to be associated with mortality due to all causes (hazard ratio upper v. lowest quartile (HR(Q4 v. Q1)) 1·00, 95% CI 0·88, 1·13), cancer (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·02, 95% CI 0·86, 1·21) or CVD (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·04, 95 % CI 0·83, 1·30). Bacterial fermented foods mainly consisted of fermented dairy foods (78 %) and cheese (16%). None of the subtypes of fermented foods was consistently related to mortality, except for cheese which was moderately inversely associated with CVD mortality, and particularly stroke mortality (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 0·59, 95% CI 0·38, 0·92, P trend= 0·046). In conclusion, the present study provides no strong evidence that intake of fermented foods, particularly fermented dairy foods, is associated with mortality. PMID:25599866

Praagman, Jaike; Dalmeijer, Geertje W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Monique Verschuren, W M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Beulens, Joline W J

2015-02-01

134

[Ocular toxoplasmosis. Utilization of immunohistochemical reaction for diagnosis].  

PubMed

The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis is based primarily on clinical presentation and laboratory tests described else where. Eventually, unusual clinical presentation, as well unusual pathologic findings occur, mainly in immunosuppressed individuals. The authors report a case of a female patient from Paraná with a progressive ocular disease, for at least three years, without definite diagnosis. After an exhaustive clinical and laboratory investigation, as well empiric medical treatment, without success, it was decided to enucleate the atrofic organ and to proceed to a histologic examination. It revealed a cronic and inspecific inflammatory process without any specific agent. However the immunohistochemical technique was able to detect Toxoplasma gondii antigens in the ocular tissue. This technique provides an alternative method for the diagnosis of unusual forms of toxoplasmosis. PMID:9163976

Corręa, M C; Duarte, M I; da Silva, M A; Amato, V S; Amato, J G; Amato Neto, V

1996-01-01

135

Urine sample used for congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis by PCR.  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected infants can be difficult; serology is unreliable, and diagnosis must be based on the combination of symptomatology and direct demonstration of the parasite. Four infants suspected of having Toxoplasma gondii infection were studied by serological analysis, tissue culture, and PCR determination. T. gondii was isolated from the urine of one patient. The parasite was detected by PCR in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of three infants and in the urine in all patients. Because nested PCR proved to be a sensitive, relatively rapid, and specific method and because it can be applied to a variety of different clinical samples, PCR can be a valuable technique for the identification of T. gondii infections in children. The present study indicates that PCR examination of urine, a fluid never before used for diagnosis in this age group, may be valuable in diagnosing cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:8880481

Fuentes, I; Rodriguez, M; Domingo, C J; del Castillo, F; Juncosa, T; Alvar, J

1996-01-01

136

Synthesis and evaluation of some pyrimidine analogs against toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Some pyrimidine analogs were synthesized to be evaluated for their antitoxoplasma effects in animal experiments. Results\\u000a were assessed by studying parasite density, estimation of serum Toxoplasma antigen, studying the ultrastructural changes of the parasite, and the histopathological changes of the affected organs and\\u000a inhibitory activity for

M. N. S. Saudi; M. R. Gaafar; M. Z. El-Azzouni; M. A. Ibrahim; M. M. Eissa

2008-01-01

137

Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%), jaundice (13.8%), and microcephaly (6.9%). During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein?200mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p=0.0325). Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases), developmental delay (31.0%), motor deficit (13.8%), convulsion (27.5%), and attention deficit (10.3%). All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences. PMID:24662141

Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Breganó, Regina Mitsuka; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

2014-01-01

138

Diclazuril Protects against Maternal Gastrointestinal Syndrome and Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of foodborne, gastrointestinal and congenital syndrome with particularly severe or unknown health consequences. There is no safe and effective preventive or therapeutic modality against congenital toxoplasmosis or to eliminate the persistent chronic infection. Hypothesis Diclazuril to be safe in pregnancy and effective against gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Methods CD1 programmed pregnant mice were divided into groups and administered a diet containing diclazuril, or sham control. Treatments were initiated on Day 5 of pregnancy and continued until Day 16 when dams were euthanatized. On Day 8 of pregnancy dams were infected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of tachyzoites (0, 100, 300, 600) from Type II strain. Dams were monitored daily for distress, pain, and abortion and samples collected at the end of the experiments. Results Infected dams developed moderate to severe Toxoplasma related complications in tachyzoites dose dependent manner. Animals became anemic and showed hydrothorax, and ascities. Diclazuril effectively protected dams from ascities and anemia (p < 0.05). Infected dams showed splenomegaly, with massive infiltration of epithelioid cells compared with the protective effect of diclazuril in treated animals. Infected dams exhibited severe hepatitis (score 0 to 4 scale = 3.5 ± 0.01) with influx of inflammatory and plasma cells, dysplastic hepatocytes, multinucleated giant cell transformation and hepatic cells necrosis. Diclazuril treatment significantly protected dams from hepatitis, also in tachyzoites dose (100, 300, 600) dependent manner (respectively infected-treated versus infected controls, p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Colonic tissues were significantly shortened in length, with infiltration of lymphocytes, and macrophages and microabscess formations in the cryptic structures, with significant improvement in diclazuril treated animals. Additionally, the number of fetuses, fetal length and fetal weight were preserved in diclazuril treated dams. Conclusions This is the first report describing of diclazuril safety in pregnancy as well as efficacy against mild to moderate hepato-gastrointestinal syndrome in dams and fetal toxoplasmosis (Special issue, “Treatment of Liver Diseases”). PMID:24851194

Oz, Helieh S.; Tobin, Thomas

2014-01-01

139

Toxoplasmosis in a red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus).  

PubMed

A red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), clinically exhibiting intermittent seizures, was examined by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study. Microscopically, the woodpecker had protozoal meningoencephalitis. Toxoplasma gondii was identified by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of the SAG2 locus disclosed that the T gondii detected was the Type III genotype. This is apparently the first report of clinical neural toxoplasmosis in any species in the order Piciformes. PMID:18251416

Gerhold, Richard W; Yabsley, Michael J

2007-12-01

140

A prospective study on a cohort of horses and ponies selected for participation in the European Eventing Championship: reasons for withdrawal and predictive value of fitness tests  

PubMed Central

Background Eventing is generally recognized as a challenging equestrian discipline and wastage figures for this discipline are relatively high. There is a need for information that provides insight into the causes of wastage and withdrawal from competition, for animal welfare and economic reasons. The aim of the present investigation was to conduct a prospective study following the entire national selection of event horses (n?=?20) and ponies (n?=?9) in the Netherlands that prepared for the European Championship in 2010 (ponies) and 2011 (horses), noting causes of withdrawal and monitoring fitness using standardized exercise tests (SETs), with heart rate (HR; beats/min), speed (V; m/s) and plasma lactate concentrations (LA; mmol/L) as measured parameters. Results In SET-I, performed at the beginning of the season, horses (n?=?17) had a mean VLA4 (V at LA 4 mmol/L) of 10.3?±?0.4 m/s with a mean V200 (V at 200 beats/min) of 11.4?±?0.8 m/s and ponies (n?=?9) a mean VLA4 of 7.8?±?0.9 m/s and V200 of 9.6?±?0.7 m/s. Before SET-II, performed six weeks before the European Championship, 16/20 horses and 6/9 ponies were withdrawn. The most common reason for withdrawal was locomotor injury (9/16 horses, 4/6 ponies; P?European Championship because of locomotor injuries. Field tests were useful in assessing the potential injury risk, as individuals with better fitness indices (good performers) were less likely to become injured than average performers. Furthermore, monitoring of training sessions showed predictive value for future injuries, as horses withdrawn because of injury later on showed already higher peak HRs during condition training than horses that stayed sound. Therefore the increase in peak HR seemed to precede visible lameness in a horse. PMID:24034152

2013-01-01

141

TOXOPLASMOSIS IN WALLABIES (MACROPUS RUFOGRISEUS, MACROPUS EUGENII ): BLINDNESS, TREATMENT WITH ATOVAQUONE, AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Australasian marsupials, especially wallabies are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Three wallabies (1Tammar, Macropus eugenii no.1, and 2 Bennett’s, Macropus rufogriseus, no.2 and 3) imported from New Zealand to Pennsylvania were diagnosed to have toxoplasmosis after arrival in the US. ...

142

APPLICATION OF ASSAYS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A COLONY OF WOOLLY MONKEYS (LAGOTHRIX LAGOTRICHA).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Toxoplasma gondii infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in New World primate species. Clinical abnormalities associated with toxoplasmosis can be nonspecific making it difficult to make a definitive antemortem diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Toxoplasmosis in New W...

143

Association of Ocular Toxoplasmosis with Type I Toxoplasma gondii Strains: Direct Genotyping from Peripheral Blood Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular toxoplasmosis is a recurrent disease caused by an obligatory intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, and can affect patients with no evident immunodeficiency. The factors promoting development of ocular toxoplasmosis are not well established. In animal models, there are recognized highly virulent strains (type I) and avirulent strains (types II and III) (12, 13, 16). It is not clear whether the

Karolina Switaj; Adam Master; Piotr Karol Borkowski; Magdalena Skrzypczak; Jacek Wojciechowicz; Piotr Zaborowski

2006-01-01

144

Association between latent toxoplasmosis and cognition in adults: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Latent infection from Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is widespread worldwide and has been associated with cognitive deficits in some but not all animal models and in humans. We tested the hypothesis that latent toxoplasmosis is associated with decreased cognitive function in a large cross-sectional dataset, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). There were 4178 participants aged 20-59 years, of whom 19·1% had IgG antibodies against T. gondii. Two ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models adjusted for the NHANES complex sampling design and weighted to represent the US population were estimated for simple reaction time, processing speed and short-term memory or attention. The first model included only main effects of latent toxoplasmosis and demographic control variables, and the second added interaction terms between latent toxoplasmosis and the poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), educational attainment and race-ethnicity. We also used multivariate models to assess all three cognitive outcomes in the same model. Although the models evaluating main effects only demonstrated no association between latent toxoplasmosis and the cognitive outcomes, significant interactions between latent toxoplasmosis and the PIR, between latent toxoplasmosis and educational attainment, and between latent toxoplasmosis and race-ethnicity indicated that latent toxoplasmosis may adversely affect cognitive function in certain groups. PMID:25377129

Gale, S D; Brown, B L; Erickson, L D; Berrett, A; Hedges, D W

2015-04-01

145

Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clčres, France  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clčres (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

146

Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequately predicted by anthropometry, and to identify anthropometric measures alone, or in combination to predict overall adiposity and specific adipose tissue compartments, independently of age and body size (height). Methods In a sub-study of 1,192 participants of the German EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohorts, whole-body MRI was performed to determine adipose and muscle tissue compartments. Additional anthropometric measurements of BMI, WC and HC were taken. Results After adjusting for age and height, BMI, WC and HC were better predictors of total body volume (TBV), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than for VAT, coronary adipose tissue (CAT) and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT). In both sexes, BMI was the best predictor for TBV (men: r?=?0.72 [0.68–0.76], women: r?=?0.80 [0.77–0.83]) and SMT (men: r?=?0.52 [0.45–0.57], women: r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]). WC was the best predictor variable for TAT (r?=?0.48 [0.41–0.54]), VAT (r?=?0.44 [0.37–0.50]) and CAT (r?=?0.34 [0.26–0.41]) (men), and for VAT (r?=?0.42 [0.35–0.49]) and CAT (r?=?0.29 [0.22–0.37]) (women). BMI was the best predictor for TAT (r?=?0.49 [0.43–0.55]) (women). HC was the best predictor for SAT (men (r?=?0.39 [0.32–0.45]) and women (r?=?0.52 [0.46–0.58])). Conclusions Especially the volumes of internal body fat compartments are poorly predicted by anthropometry. A possible implication may be that associations of chronic disease risks with the sizes of internal body fat as measured by BMI, WC and HC may be strongly underestimated. PMID:24626110

Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Hüsing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

2014-01-01

147

Acute fatal toxoplasmosis in a Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major).  

PubMed

A juvenile male Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), found dead at a bird feeding station in central Norway in September 2011, was examined postmortem. Its lungs were consolidated and edematous, and its spleen was enlarged. The main histopathologic diagnoses included acute protozoal necrotizing interstitial pneumonia, splenitis, and hepatitis. Toxoplasma gondii parasites were identified with immunohistochemistry in all examined organs: lung, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen. Direct multilocus genotyping of the parasites revealed that the woodpecker was killed by a T. gondii strain belonging to genotype II. This is the first report of naturally acquired fatal generalized toxoplasmosis in a Dendrocopos species. PMID:24171576

Jokelainen, Pikka; Vikřren, Turid

2014-01-01

148

Systemic toxoplasmosis in a five-month-old beaver, (Castor canadensis).  

PubMed

A 5-mo-old orphan beaver, Castor canadensis, died of severe systemic toxoplasmosis during rehabilitation. Histologic lesions included lymphohistiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, and interstitial pneumonia with multinucleated cells. Intracytoplasmic cysts containing tachyzoites and bradyzoites identified as Toxoplasma gondii by immunohisto-chemistry were present in macrophages, type-II pneumocytes, and endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal morbillivirus antibody and transmission electron microscopy of lung revealed no evidence of concurrent paramyxoviral infection, as commonly found in carnivores with toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis may affect young beavers in rehabilitation and zoological settings. PMID:15193086

Forzán, María J; Frasca, Salvatore

2004-03-01

149

Simple hemagglutination inhibition test for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

A simple hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has been developed and evaluated. A total of 84 human and 120 mouse serum samples were tested by the newly developed HI test and compared with an immunoglobulin G-indirect fluorescent antibody test. Statistical analysis of serum titers obtained by using the HI test and the immunoglobulin G-indirect fluorescent antibody test showed a correlation coefficient of 0.89. The diagnostic efficacy of HI when compared with the immunoglobulin G-indirect fluorescent antibody diagnostic test results was 96.43% for human sera and 100% for mouse sera. The unique hemagglutination antigen, derived from Toxoplasma gondii (Rh strain) exotoxin, spontaneously binds with mouse or rat erythrocytes, causing the hemagglutination reaction. In this study, 2, 4, or 8 hemagglutinating units of T. gondii exotoxin was used with Swiss/Webster mouse erythrocytes as an indicator for the HI assay. The results indicate that 8 hemagglutinating units is optimal because this concentration has the least unexplained variability. T. gondii exotoxin was stable for at least 18 months at -70 degrees C. The Toxoplasma HI test we report in this paper is shown to be a fast, easy, highly specific, and sensitive test for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. PMID:3882745

Chang, G N; Nemzek, J A; Tjostem, J L; Gabrielson, D A

1985-02-01

150

Effect of clindamycin in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the antitoxoplasma activity of clindamycin in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis. METHODS: Rates of survival and mean survival times of Swiss Webster mice infected intraperitoneally with 106-102 tachyzoites of the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii treated with clindamycin or sulfamethoxazole (positive control) or untreated (negative control) were compared. Survivors were submitted to examination of untreated brain tissue preparations, intraperitoneal and peroral subinoculations of brain tissue homogenates into fresh mice, and to pathohistology, including immunohistochemistry, of brain and lungs. RESULTS: The effect of clindamycin treatment (400 mg/kg/day) on infected Swiss Webster mice was inoculum size dependent, ranging from no survivals in animals infected with 106 parasites, to 100% survivals with an inoculum of 102. Treatment initiated 24 h before and at time of infection prolonged mean survival times comparably to sulfamethoxazole, and significantly when compared to untreated controls. In contrast, treatment initiated 48 h postinfection with an inoculum of 106 did not postpone death. In the clindamycin-treated survivors, there was no biological or histologic evidence for the persistence of toxoplasma. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained show that at an appropriate parasite dose/drug dose ratio, clindamycin is strongly toxoplasmacidal in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:11864081

Vukovi?, Dragana; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, Olgica; Kovacevi?, Sanja; Bobi?, Branko; Nikoli?, Aleksandra; Todorovi?, Vera; Babi?, Dragan

1997-02-01

151

Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ‘Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is the most endangered corvid in the world, and intensive efforts are being made to reintroduce it to its former native range in Hawaii. We diagnosed Toxoplasma gondii infection in five free-ranging ‘Alala. One ‘Alala, recaptured from the wild because it was underweight and depressed, was treated with diclazuril (10 mg/kg) orally for 10 days. Antibodies were measured before and after treatment by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using whole T. gondii tachyzoites fixed in formalin and mercaptoethanol. The MAT titer decreased four-fold from an initial titer of 1:1,600 with remarkable improvement in physical condition. Lesions of toxoplasmosis also were seen in two partially scavenged carcasses and in a third fresh intact carcass. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed immunohistochemically by using anti-T. gondii specific serum. The organism was also cultured by bioassay in mice from tissues of one of these birds and the brain of a fifth ‘Alala that did not exhibit lesions. The life cycle of the parasite was experimentally completed in cats. This is the first record of toxoplasmosis in ‘Alala, and the parasite appears to pose a significant threat and management challenge to reintroduction programs for ‘Alala in Hawaii.

Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Rideout, Bruce A.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Ledig, David B.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Dubey, J.P.

2000-01-01

152

Great efficacy of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium against acute murine toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify more effective and less toxic drugs to treat animal toxoplasmosis. Methods Efficacy of seven kinds of sulfonamides against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in an acute murine model was evaluated. The mice used throughout the study were randomly assigned to many groups (10 mice each), which either remained uninfected or were infected intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii (strains RH and CN). All groups were then treated with different sulfonamides and the optimal treatment protocol was determined candidates. Sulfadiazine-sodium (SD) was used for comparison. Results The optimal therapy involved gavaging mice twice per day with 250 mg/kg bw of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium (SPZ) for five days. Using this protocol, the average survival time and the time-point of 50% fatalities were prolonged significantly compared with SD treatment. Treatment with SPZ protected 40% of mice from death, and the heart and kidney tissue of these animals was parasite-free, as determined by nested-PCR. SPZ showed excellent therapeutic effects in the treatment of T. gondii in an acute murine model and is therefore a promising drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of T. gondii in animals. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effective drug sulfachloropyrazine may be the new therapeutic options against animal toxoplasmosis. PMID:23569838

Zeng, Yan-Bo; Zhu, Shun-Hai; Dong, Hui; Han, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Lian-Lian; Wang, Quan; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Qi-Ping; Ma, Wei-Jiao; Huang, Bing

2012-01-01

153

Prospective payment, prospective challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stineman MG. Prospective payment, prospective challenge. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1802-5. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has implemented an inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system (IRF-PPS) based on case-mix groups (CMGs). The CMGs, now almost identical in structure to the Functional Independence Measure[ndash ]Function-Related Groups (FIM-FRGs), will measure patients' functional severity by the FIM[trade ] instrument, rather than

Margaret G. Stineman

2002-01-01

154

Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the Zoo of Clčres, France  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clčres (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunostaining with polyclonal rabbit T. gondii antibodies and by transmission electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the bar-shouldered dove is a new host record for T. gondii. PMID:25407506

Rigoulet, Jacques; Hennache, Alain; Lagourette, Pierre; George, Catherine; Longeart, Loďc; Le Net, Jean-Loďc; Dubey, Jitender P.

2014-01-01

155

Severe congenital toxoplasmosis: a case report and strain characterization.  

PubMed

We report a fatal congenital toxoplasmosis case in an Iranian woman in the south of Iran. A pregnant mother had been admitted at the 15th week of her pregnancy on account of a febrile illness, symptoms of common cold, and enlargement of submandibular lymph nodes. Serological testing of the mother's serum revealed positive IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Amniotic fluid was taken and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with a direct amplification of the Toxoplasma URPT gene which was found to be positive. Sequencing and analysis of PCR product revealed that the isolate has the most similarity with type I of Toxoplasma gondii. Fetal scan showed anomaly in fetus including mild hydrocephaly. Termination of the pregnancy was suggested by the physician and pregnancy was terminated 178 days after conception. PMID:25685568

Sarkari, Bahador; Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh

2015-01-01

156

Severe Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report and Strain Characterization  

PubMed Central

We report a fatal congenital toxoplasmosis case in an Iranian woman in the south of Iran. A pregnant mother had been admitted at the 15th week of her pregnancy on account of a febrile illness, symptoms of common cold, and enlargement of submandibular lymph nodes. Serological testing of the mother's serum revealed positive IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Amniotic fluid was taken and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with a direct amplification of the Toxoplasma URPT gene which was found to be positive. Sequencing and analysis of PCR product revealed that the isolate has the most similarity with type I of Toxoplasma gondii. Fetal scan showed anomaly in fetus including mild hydrocephaly. Termination of the pregnancy was suggested by the physician and pregnancy was terminated 178 days after conception. PMID:25685568

Sarkari, Bahador; Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh

2015-01-01

157

Toxoplasmosis in wild mammals from the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was determined in wild mammals in the Czech Republic from 1981 to 1990. The biological prevalence of T. gondii was < 1% in insectivores (n = 578), 12% in carnivores (n = 112), 1% in rodents except muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) (n = 5,163), 24% in muskrats (n = 437), 5% in lagomorphs (n = 293), 0% in ruminants (n = 456), and 2% in wild boars (Sus scrofa) (n = 136). The seroprevalence (Sabin-Feldman dye test, titre > or = 1:4) of T. gondii was 15% in ruminants (n = 421), and 15% in wild boars (n = 124). Antibodies to T. gondii also were found in four of 10 carnivores. Toxoplasmosis is a common infection in wild mammals from the Czech Republic, but its prevalence varies considerable according to taxonomic groups and different localities where wild mammals live. PMID:9249693

Hejlícek, K; Literák, I; Nezval, J

1997-07-01

158

Seroreactivity to and avidity for recombinant antigens in toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

To improve serodiagnostic methods for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, a new test system has been developed and evaluated based on the use of recombinant antigens. Five recombinant Toxoplasma gondii antigens (ROP1, MAG1, SAG1, GRA7, and GRA8) were cloned in Escherichia coli, purified, and applied directly onto nitrocellulose membranes in a line assay (recomLine Toxoplasma). A panel of 102 sera from 25 pregnant women with supposed recent toxoplasmosis and from two symptomatic children was compared to a panel of 71 sera from individuals with past infection. Both panels were analyzed using a recombinant line assay for immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies and a reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Within the IgM-positive samples, antibodies against ROP1 were predominant regardless of the infection state. In IgG analysis a characteristic antibody pattern was found for very recent infections. This pattern changed to a different one during the time course of infection: antibodies against GRA7 and GRA8 were characteristic for very early IgG, whereas antibodies against SAG1 and MAG1 appeared significantly later. These results were further confirmed by determination of the IgG antibody avidity for every single recombinant antigen. In the time course of infection, IgG antibodies against the early recognized antigens matured significantly earlier than those directed against the later antigens did. The IgA patterns did not give reliable information about the infection time points. The data revealed that the recombinant line assay provides valuable information on the actual state of infection, especially during the early infection time points. PMID:16085916

Pfrepper, Klaus-Ingmar; Enders, Gisela; Gohl, Marion; Krczal, Doris; Hlobil, Harald; Wassenberg, Doris; Soutschek, Erwin

2005-08-01

159

Early aqueous humor analysis in patients with human ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

To evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of a panel of laboratory tests for ocular toxoplasmosis performed at the time of presentation, paired samples of aqueous humor and serum were collected from 49 consecutive episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis with a clinical course of less than 3 weeks. Total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The avidity of T. gondii-specific IgG was determined, and DNA extracted from aqueous humor was amplified for detection of a glycoprotein B gene sequence of T. gondii. The diagnosis was confirmed for 73% (36 of 49) of the patients; this rate rose to 79.5% if data from a later analysis of aqueous humor derived from five of the negative patients were included. The analysis of serum (detection of T. gondii-specific IgM and analysis of consecutive serum samples) alone did not contribute to the diagnosis. Calculation of local antibody production lacked diagnostic sensitivity when it was determined less than 3 weeks after the manifestation of clinical symptoms (28 of 49 patients [57%]), but this rose to 70% after an analysis of a second aqueous humor sample. The antibody avidity index attained diagnostic significance in only 8 of 43 instances (19%), and T. gondii DNA was amplified from no more than 6 of 39 (16%) aqueous humor samples. However, T. gondii-specific IgA was found within the aqueous humors of 11 of 43 patients (26%); measurement of the T. gondii-specific IgA level thus contributed substantially to the diagnostic sensitivity of the laboratory tests. PMID:10698986

Garweg, J G; Jacquier, P; Boehnke, M

2000-03-01

160

The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To study the spectrum of adverse ocular effects which result from maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasma infection; further, to record the long-term visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these 2 major causes of fetal infection. STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A series of 55 patients with congenital infection have been studied prospectively on a long-term basis. The study group included a cohort of 34 cases with congenital rubella syndrome demonstrated by virus isolation, and 21 cases with a clinical diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and serologic confirmation. All patients had specific disease-related ocular defects. Rubella patients were first identified during or following the last major rubella epidemic in 1963-1964, and some have been followed serially since that time. A separate study group of representative toxoplasmosis patients presented for examination and diagnosis at varying time periods between 1967 and 1991. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: This study confirms that a broad spectrum of fetal injury may result from intrauterine infection and that both persistent and delayed-onset effects may continue or occur as late as 30 years after original infection. Many factors contribute to the varied outcome of prenatal infection, the 2 most important being the presence of maternal immunity during early gestation and the stage of gestation during which fetal exposure occurs in a nonimmune mother. RUBELLA: As a criteria of inclusion, all 34 rubella patients in this study exhibited one or more ocular defects at the time of birth or in the immediate neonatal period. Cataracts were present in 29 (85%) of the 34, of which 21 (63%) were bilateral. Microphthalmia, the next most frequent defect, was present in 28 (82%) of the 34 infants and was bilateral in 22 (65%). Glaucoma was recorded in 11 cases (29%) and presented either as a transient occurrence with early cloudy cornea in microphthalmic eyes (4 patients), as the infantile type with progressive buphthalmos (1 patient), or as a later-onset, aphakic glaucoma many months or years following cataract aspiration in 11 eyes of 6 patients. Rubella retinopathy was present in the majority of patients, although an accurate estimate of its incidence or laterality was not possible because of the frequency of cataracts and nystagmus and the difficulty in obtaining adequate fundus examination. TOXOPLASMOSIS: Twenty-one patients with congenital toxoplasmosis have been examined and followed for varying time periods, 7 for 20 years or more. The major reason for initial examination was parental awareness of an ocular deviation. Twelve children (57%) presented between the ages of 3 months and 4 years with an initial diagnosis of strabismus, 9 of whom had minor complaints or were diagnosed as part of routine examinations. All cases in this study have had evidence of retinochoroiditis, the primary ocular pathology of congenital toxoplasmosis. Two patients had chronic and recurrent inflammation with progressive vitreal traction bands, retinal detachments, and bilateral blindness. Macular lesions were always associated with central vision loss; however, over a period of years visual acuity gradually improved in several patients. Individuals with more severe ocular involvement were also afflicted with the most extensive central nervous system deficits, which occurred following exposure during the earliest weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital infection due to rubella virus has been almost completely eradicated in the United States, the long-term survivors from the prevaccination period continue to experience major complications from their early ocular and cerebral defects. They may be afflicted by the persistence of virus in their affected organs and the development of late manifestations of their congenital infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be the source of major defects for 3,000 to 4,100 infants in the United States each year; the spectrum of defects is wide and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of

O'Neill, J F

1998-01-01

161

Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Practices Among Pregnant Women in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can lead to severe illness in the fetus. Many T. gondii infections are preventable by simple hygienic measures. Methods: We surveyed pregnant women in the US to determine their knowledge about toxoplasmosis and their practices to prevent infection. Volunteer obstetricians selected to be demographically representative of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recruited the participants. Results: Of 403 women responding to the survey, 48% indicated that they had heard or seen information about toxoplasmosis; however, only 7% were aware of being tested for the disease. Forty percent of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection, but 21% thought that a poison causes it. The highest level of knowledge was about cats and T. gondii ; 61% responded that the organism is shed in the feces of infected cats and 60% responded that people could acquire toxoplasmosis by changing cat litter. There was a low level of knowledge about other risk factors; only 30% of the women were aware that T. gondii may be found in raw or undercooked meat. Nevertheless, a high percentage of women indicated that they do not eat undercooked meat during pregnancy and that they practice good hygienic measures such as washing their hands after handling raw meat, gardening or changing cat litter. Conclusion: Except for the risk of transmission from cats, knowledge among pregnant women about toxoplasmosis is low. However, toxoplasmosis-preventive practices are generally good, suggesting that providers should continue to offer education about practices that help prevent foodborne diseases in general as well as information about preventing toxoplasmosis specifically. PMID:15022874

Ogunmodede, Folashade; Scheftel, Joni; Kirkland, Elizabeth; Lopez, Adriana; Schulkin, Jay; Lynfield, Ruth

2003-01-01

162

Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet´s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical T. gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was one of a colony of...

163

Evaluation of serological markers for the immunodiagnosis of acute acquired toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The detection of specific IgM antibodies has been the most frequently used serological marker for diagnosing recent toxoplasmosis. However, the persistence of specific IgM antibodies in some patients and the use of tests with a low specificity have complicated the interpretation of serological results when toxoplasmosis is suspected. The purpose of the present study was to determine the value of newer serological techniques in the diagnosis of acute acquired toxoplasmosis. Sixty-four sera, 31 from patients with Toxoplasma gondii infection and 33 from patients with latent infection, were tested. Anti-T. gondii IgA was measured by two antibody capture ELISA tests (Platelia Toxo IgA and ETI-TOXOK A) and an automated direct ELISA (IMx Toxo IgA); all three assays detected antibody levels compatible with a recent infection in sera from all 31 patients with acute toxoplasmosis. However, significant levels of IgA were also detected with high frequency by all three assays in sera from patients with latent infection. IgE antibodies detected by IgE immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) were present in 26 (84%) of 31 patients with acute toxoplasmosis and in sera from two subjects with latent infection taken >1 year after the beginning of the clinical symptoms of infection. Thirty (97%) of 31 patients with a recent T. gondii infection and 15 (45%) of 33 subjects with latent infection had an AC/HS pattern compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. The avidity of T. gondii IgG was evaluated by two methods. One method was based on the titration of each serum sample and calculation of the titres, in the absence and presence of urea, in relation to a defined cut-off value. In the other method, a single serum dilution was used and the absorbances of the reactions in the presence and absence of urea were compared. The titration method was more sensitive for diagnosing recent primary infection; all 31 sera from patients with acute toxoplasmosis had avidity indices compatible with acute toxoplasmosis by the titration method, whereas with the single dilution method, sera from four patients had equivocal results. In the 33 individuals with latent infection, similar results were obtained with the two avidity methods; only one serum sample had a non-compatible avidity value with the titration method. The results obtained in the present study show that the current serological markers used for diagnosing acute acquired toxoplasmosis have significant limitations. The data suggest that determination of the avidity of T. gondii-specific IgG by the titration method in patients with detectable IgM antibodies defines most accurately the stage of infection by T. gondii. PMID:11192507

Suzuki, L A; Rocha, R J; Rossi, C L

2001-01-01

164

Preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis in pregnant adolescents in the state of Ceara, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background When toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy, it can be transmitted to the fetus causing severe lesions in the first two gestational trimesters. This study analyzed the main factors associated with the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis among pregnant adolescents in the city of Fortaleza in northeast Brazil. Methods It is a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2009 to November 2010, with a sample of 320 pregnant adolescents, ages ranging from 12 to 19 years old, receiving prenatal care in the Public Health Care System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model analyses were used to identify the association between preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis, and the independent variables and 95% confidence interval. Results We observed that 16.3% of the pregnant adolescents showed preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis. The factors positively associated to the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis were: age group between 12 and 14 years old (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.23-6.12) and more than two prenatal consultations (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.17-4.09). Conclusions Noteworthy is the importance of a serologic follow-up for pregnant adolescents with clearer and more precise information about risk factors and the importance of adopting preventive behaviors. Thus, it is necessary to establish educational measures for handling food and raising kittens during prenatal care. PMID:22272659

2012-01-01

165

Evolving patterns in the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy: data from a prospective Central European multicenter study with proposal of a new histologic scoring system.  

PubMed

Histologic examination of gastric biopsies is crucial for determining the cause of gastritis. This prospective multicenter study was undertaken to investigate different histologic parameters arguing in favor or against the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy and to correlate findings with patient's symptoms and endoscopic findings. A total of 1123 individuals aged 15-93 years participated in a prospective multicenter study (histoGERD trial). Diagnosis of Helicobacter gastritis was made following the Updated Sydney System. Diagnosis of reactive gastropathy was based upon Dixon's parameters of foveolar hyperplasia, smooth muscle fibers in the lamina propria and vasodilatation and congestion of mucosal capillaries. Including paucity of acute and chronic inflammatory cells in analysis, a new score with visual analog scales for the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy was developed. All three histologic parameters in favor of the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy were positively associated with the endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis (p < 0.001), yet negatively with Helicobacter infection (p < 0.001). In contrast, presence of acute and chronic inflammatory cells in lamina propria was positively associated with Helicobacter infection (p < 0.001), yet not with the endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis. Our score demonstrated strong association between histologic and endoscopic diagnoses (p < 0.001), yet not with patient's symptoms. In conclusion, our data prove foveolar hyperplasia, smooth muscle fibers and vasodilatation and congestion as key histologic parameters for the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy. The proposed score may enhance the diagnostic accuracy. It should be validated in future studies. PMID:25238940

Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Schmack, Bertram; Bordel, Hartmut; Höfler, Bernd; Eherer, Andreas; Schulz, Tilman; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord

2014-12-01

166

Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon  

PubMed Central

Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials. PMID:25104952

Oz, Helieh S.

2014-01-01

167

Eccentric target sign in cerebral toxoplasmosis: neuropathological correlate to the imaging feature.  

PubMed

Cerebral toxoplasmosis remains one of the most common focal brain lesions in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diagnosis is a challenge because on cranial imaging it closely mimics central nervous system lymphoma, primary and metastatic central nervous system (CNS) tumors, or other intracranial infections like tuberculoma or abscesses. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature on postcontrast T1-weighted sequences considered pathognomonic of toxoplasmosis is the "eccentric target sign." The pathological correlate of this imaging sign has been speculative. Herein we correlate the underlying histopathology to the MR feature of eccentric target sign in a patient with autopsy-proven HIV/AIDS-related cerebral toxoplasmosis. The central enhancing core of the target seen on MRI was produced by a leash of inflamed vessels extending down the length of the sulcus that was surrounded by concentric zones of necrosis and a wall composed of histiocytes and proliferating blood vessels, with impaired permeability producing the peripheral enhancing rim. PMID:20512900

Kumar, G G Sharath; Mahadevan, A; Guruprasad, A S; Kovoor, Jerry M E; Satishchandra, P; Nath, Avindra; Ranga, Udaykumar; Shankar, S K

2010-06-01

168

Review for disease of the year: differential diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis is mainly clinical, based in the presence of focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis often associated with a preexistent chorioretinal scar, and variable involvement of the vitreous, retinal blood vessels, optic nerve, and anterior segment of the eye. Recognition of this clinical spectrum of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is crucial, but other infectious, noninfectious, and neoplastic entities should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Investigations such as serological tests, polymerase chain reaction of ocular fluids, and assessment of intraocular antibody synthesis are helpful in uncertain cases. This article provides an overview of the differential diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis, focusing on the most important entities to be considered and emphasizing distinctive features of each one of them in the clinical setting. Ocular toxoplasmosis has multiple clinical manifestations, which partially overlap with those of other entities and these should be carefully considered when making the differential diagnosis, particularly in less typical cases. PMID:21595533

Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Dodds, Emilio M; Oréfice, Fernando

2011-06-01

169

Toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus.  

PubMed

A near-full-term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. Within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. Both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex and medulla associated with protozoal tissue cysts. Protozoa in brain and kidneys were identified as Toxoplasma gondii based on immunoreactivity to T. gondii polyclonal antibodies that stain both tachyzoites and tissue cysts and BAG1 T. gondii antibodies that are bradyzoite specific. The tissue cysts exhibited intense positivity to T. gondii and mild immunoreactivity to Neospora caninum antibodies. The dam had a high antibody titer (1 : 12,800) to T. gondii and low titer (1 : 100) to N. caninum using their respective agglutination tests. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in alpaca. PMID:25000722

Dubey, Jitender P; Johnson, James E; Hanson, Margaret A; Pierce, Virginia

2014-06-01

170

IMRT credentialing for prospective trials using institutional virtual phantoms: results of a joint European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer and Radiological Physics Center project  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) credentialing for a EORTC study was performed using an anthropomorphic head phantom from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC; RPCPH). Institutions were retrospectively requested to irradiate their institutional phantom (INSTPH) using the same treatment plan in the framework of a Virtual Phantom Project (VPP) for IMRT credentialing. Materials and methods CT data set of the institutional phantom and measured 2D dose matrices were requested from centers and sent to a dedicated secure EORTC uploader. Data from the RPCPH and INSTPH were thereafter centrally analyzed and inter-compared by the QA team using commercially available software (RIT; ver.5.2; Colorado Springs, USA). Results Eighteen institutions participated to the VPP. The measurements of 6 (33%) institutions could not be analyzed centrally. All other centers passed both the VPP and the RPC ±7%/4 mm credentialing criteria. At the 5%/5 mm gamma criteria (90% of pixels passing), 11(92%) as compared to 12 (100%) centers pass the credentialing process with RPCPH and INSTPH (p?=?0.29), respectively. The corresponding pass rate for the 3%/3 mm gamma criteria (90% of pixels passing) was 2 (17%) and 9 (75%; p?=?0.01), respectively. Conclusions IMRT dosimetry gamma evaluations in a single plane for a H&N prospective trial using the INSTPH measurements showed agreement at the gamma index criteria of ±5%/5 mm (90% of pixels passing) for a small number of VPP measurements. Using more stringent, criteria, the RPCPH and INSTPH comparison showed disagreement. More data is warranted and urgently required within the framework of prospective studies. PMID:24885438

2014-01-01

171

Predominantly periventricular necrotizing encephalitis due to toxoplasmosis: two unusual cases and review of literature.  

PubMed

Ventriculitis or periventriculitis as a predominant pattern of tissue involvement in cerebral toxoplasmosis was always a rare event, even at the height of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) era. Ventriculitis on premortem neuroimaging or at autopsy in AIDS patients chiefly led to differential diagnoses of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) or cytomegalovirus ventriculitis, not toxoplasmosis. Usually cerebral toxoplasmosis manifests as multifocal, necrotizing, hemorrhagic foci of cerebritis or abscesses. We report two non-AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis that presented with predominant ventriculitis/periventriculitis, with diagnosis in both cases made only at postmortem examination. A 90-year-old woman, with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and large granular lymphocytic leukemia diagnosed 2 1/2 years prior, presented with altered mental status. Neuroimaging revealed a necrotic 5.4 × 4.6 × 3.5 cm mass extending across corpus callosum and involving both periventricular frontal horn regions, diagnosed as "butterfly" glioblastoma or possible PCNSL. No consideration of infection was raised, care was withdrawn. A 44-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) treated with prednisone presented with fever and generalized malaise with rapid progression to agitation and confusion. Infection was suspected, but never confirmed on extensive premortem workup. Brain autopsy in both patients revealed severe necrotizing toxoplasmosis virtually confined to periventricular regions. In the first case, necrosis extended across the corpus callosum. Large numbers of organisms were found microscopically, reflecting their immunocompromised, and untreated, status. Cerebral toxoplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnosis when encountering patients with necrotizing ventriculitis, even in the non-AIDS immunosuppressed population. PMID:23993307

Lummus, Seth; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K

2014-01-01

172

Toxoplasmosis complications and novel therapeutic synergism combination of diclazuril plus atovaquone  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of foodborne disease, congenital complication, and morbidity. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to encounter congenital and persisting toxoplasmosis. The hypothesis was: combination diclazuril plus atovaquone to exert a novel therapeutic synergy to prevent toxoplasmosis syndromes. Methods: Pregnant dams were treated with diclazuril and atovaquone monotherapy or combination therapy and infected i.p with Toxoplasma tachyzoites. Results: Infected dams developed severe toxoplasmosis associated syndrome with increases in the abdominal adiposity surrounding uteri, gansterointestinal and other internal organs and excessive weight gain. Numerous organisms along with infiltration of inflammatory cells were detected scattered into adipose tissues. Combination therapy (p < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril (p < 0.05) protected dams from inflammatory fat and excess weight gains. This was consistent with pancreatitis development in infected dams (versus normal p < 0.05) with infiltration of inflammatory cells, degeneration and necrosis of pancreatic cells followed by the degeneration and loss of islets. Combination and monotherapy protected dams from these inflammatory and pathological aspects of pancreatitis. Infected dams exhibited severe colitis, and colonic tissues significantly shortened in length. Brush border epithelial cells were replaced with infiltration of lymphocytes, granulocytes, and microabscess formations into cryptic microstructures. Combination therapy synergistically preserved colonic structure and normalized pathological damages (p < 0.001) and to a lesser degree diclazuril monotherapy protected dams from colitis (p < 0.05) and gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Other complications included severe splenitis (p < 0.001) and hepatitis (p < 0.001) which were normalized with combination therapy. Conclusion: Combination diclazuril plus atovaquone was safe and with a novel therapeutic synergism protected dams and fetuses from toxoplasmosis. PMID:25309522

Oz, Helieh S.

2014-01-01

173

Toxoplasmosis-serological evidence and associated risk factors among pregnant women in southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite in pregnant women. This case-controlled study assessed the\\u000d\\u000aseroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in 640 pregnant women in southern Thailand and identified their associated risk\\u000d\\u000afactors. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 181 (28.3%). Of this, 138 (21.6%) were positive for only anti-\\u000d\\u000aToxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, 43 (6.7%) were positive for both IgG and

V. Nissapatorn; C. Suwanrath; N. Sawangjaroen; L. Y. Ling; V. Chandeying

2011-01-01

174

The Association of Genome-Wide Variation with the Risk of Incident Heart Failure in Adults of European and African Ancestry: A Prospective Meta-Analysis from the CHARGE Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Although genetic factors contribute to the onset of heart failure (HF), no large-scale genome-wide investigation of HF risk has been published to date. We investigated the association of 2,478,304 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with incident HF by meta-analyzing data from 4 community-based prospective cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Methods and Results Eligible participants for these analyses were of European or African ancestry and free of clinical HF at baseline. Each study independently conducted genome-wide scans and imputed data to the ~2.5 million SNPs in HapMap. Within each study, Cox proportional hazards regression models provided age- and sex-adjusted estimates of the association between each variant and time to incident HF. Fixed-effect meta-analyses combined results for each SNP from the 4 cohorts to produce an overall association estimate and p-value. A genome-wide significance p-value threshold was set a priori at 5.0×10?7. During a mean follow-up of 11.5 years, 2,526 incident HF events (12%) occurred in 20,926 European-ancestry participants. The meta-analysis identified a genome-wide significant locus at chromosomal position 15q22 (1.4×10?8), which was 58.8 kb from USP3. Among 2,895 African-ancestry participants, 466 incident HF events (16%) occurred during a mean follow-up of 13.7 years. One genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q14 (6.7×10?8), which was 6.3 kb from LRIG3. Conclusions We identified 2 loci that were associated with incident HF and exceeded genome-wide significance. The findings merit replication in other community-based settings of incident HF. PMID:20445134

Smith, Nicholas L.; Felix, Janine F.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Demissie, Serkalem; Glazer, Nicole L.; Loehr, Laura R.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Lumley, Thomas; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Lieb, Wolfgang; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Bis, Joshua C.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Benjamin, Emelia; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Haritunians, Talin; Couper, David; Murabito, Joanne; Wang, Ying A.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Gottdiener, John S.; Chang, Patricia P.; Wang, Thomas J.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Hofman, Albert; Heckbert, Susan R.; Fox, Ervin R.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Willerson, James T.; Levy, Daniel; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

2010-01-01

175

Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

176

Development and validation of a paediatric long-bone fracture classification. A prospective multicentre study in 13 European paediatric trauma centres  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to develop a child-specific classification system for long bone fractures and to examine its reliability and validity on the basis of a prospective multicentre study. Methods Using the sequentially developed classification system, three samples of between 30 and 185 paediatric limb fractures from a pool of 2308 fractures documented in two multicenter studies were analysed in a blinded fashion by eight orthopaedic surgeons, on a total of 5 occasions. Intra- and interobserver reliability and accuracy were calculated. Results The reliability improved with successive simplification of the classification. The final version resulted in an overall interobserver agreement of ? = 0.71 with no significant difference between experienced and less experienced raters. Conclusions In conclusion, the evaluation of the newly proposed classification system resulted in a reliable and routinely applicable system, for which training in its proper use may further improve the reliability. It can be recommended as a useful tool for clinical practice and offers the option for developing treatment recommendations and outcome predictions in the future. PMID:21548939

2011-01-01

177

Chimeric Antigens of Toxoplasma gondii: Toward Standardization of Toxoplasmosis Serodiagnosis Using Recombinant Products  

PubMed Central

We have evaluated the diagnostic utility of six antigenic regions of the Toxoplasma gondii MIC2, MIC3, M2AP, GRA3, GRA7, and SAG1 gene products, assembled in recombinant chimeric antigens by genetic engineering, in order to replace the soluble, whole-cell tachyzoite extract in serological assays. Serum samples from 100 adults with acquired T. gondii infection and from 30 infants born to mothers with primary toxoplasmosis contracted during pregnancy, of whom 20 were congenitally infected, were included. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against epitopes carried by chimeric antigens were measured by performing parallel enzyme immunoassays (recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [Rec-ELISAs]), and the results obtained by standard commercial assays with the whole-cell Toxoplasma antigen and assays with the chimeric antigens were compared. Our results demonstrate that IgG and IgM Rec-ELISAs with individual chimeric antigens have performance characteristics comparable to those of the corresponding commercial assays. Furthermore, we show that IgM-capture assays based on chimeric antigens improve the ability to diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis postnatally compared with the ability to diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis by the use of standard assays. The use of recombinant chimeric antigens is effective in distinguishing T. gondii-infected individuals from T. gondii-uninfected individuals and shows that immunoassays based on recombinant products could provide the basis for standardized commercial tests for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. PMID:16757610

Beghetto, Elisa; Spadoni, Andrea; Bruno, Luca; Buffolano, Wilma; Gargano, Nicola

2006-01-01

178

Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women: High seroprevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, as well as the proportion of acutely infected and risk factors in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods Thirty maternities in Kinshasa were randomly selected and women attending antenatal consultation were invited to participate. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat) and a venous blood sample was taken. Sera were analysed for total immunoglobulins (Ig) by VIDAS Toxo Competition using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. IgM was determined by VIDIA Toxo IgM and IgG avidity by VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. Results A total of 781 women were included. Median age was 28 years old (IQR: 8.5). And 627 women (80.3%; 95% CI: 77.5-83.1) were found to be positive to total Ig and 17 out of 387 (4.4%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.4) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for 2 (11.8%) women, intermediate for 2 (11.8%) and high for 13 women (76.4%). There was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and any risk factors assessed. Conclusion In Kinshasa, toxoplasmosis endemicity is highly prevalent. One woman out of twenty five had a recent toxoplasmosis infection and 20% were not protected against primo-infection, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. PMID:24144134

Yobi, Doudou; Piarroux, Renaud; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Franck, Jacqueline; Situakibanza, Hypolite; Muhindo, Hypolite; Mitashi, Patrick; Inocęncio da Luz, Raquel Andreia; Van Sprundel, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

2014-01-01

179

Seroepidemiological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Intellectual Disability Children in Rehabilitation Centers of Northern Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serological studies revealed that toxoplasmosis has world wide distribution. Although the infection by "Toxoplasma gondii" is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and…

Sharif, M.; Ziaei, H.; Daryani, A.; Ajami, A.

2007-01-01

180

The Experiences and Recommendations of Families with Children Who Have Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toxoplasmosis infections are usually asymptomatic in health hosts, but can cause serious, sometimes life threatening, sequelae in infants when the mother acquires an acute infection during pregnancy and the parasite is transmitted via the placenta to the developing fetus. This article is part of a comprehensive research project investigating the…

Roberts, Jillian; Mortimer, Tamara; Mish, Sandra; Kerns, Kimberly; Jagdis, Frank; MacMath, Sheryl

2005-01-01

181

Congenital toxoplasmosis: candidate host immune genes relevant for vertical transmission and pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of vertebrate hosts, including humans. Transplacental passage of the parasite leads to congenital toxoplasmosis. A primary infection during the first weeks of gestation causes vertical transmission at low rate, although it causes major damage to the embryo. Transmission frequency increases to near 80% by the end of pregnancy, but the proportion of ill newborns is

L B Ortiz-Alegría; H Caballero-Ortega; I Cańedo-Solares; C P Rico-Torres; A Sahagún-Ruiz; M E Medina-Escutia; D Correa

2010-01-01

182

FATAL TOXOPLASMOSIS AND CONCURRENT CALODIUM HEPATICUM INFECTION IN KOREAN SUIRRELS (TANIAS SIBERICUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four Korean squirrels (Tanias siberius) imported in Spain from People’s Republic of China died two days after their arrivel at a pet shop. They had neurological signs associated with generalized toxoplasmosis involving brain, lungs, liver, and the heart. Toxoplasma gondii–like tachyzoites and tis...

183

TOXOPLASMOSIS, DISTEMPER, AND HERPESVIRUS INFECTION IN A SKUNK (Mephitis mephitis) LU  

Microsoft Academic Search

A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) showing abnormal behavior had histopathologic lesions of toxoplasmosis and canine distemper in addition to intranuclear, eosinophilic inclusions in the reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen, liver and lung. The inclusions,on electron microscopic examination, were compatible with herpesvirus infection.

RICHARD W. DITERS; SVEND W. NIELSEN

184

Determination of Genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Isolated from Patients with Toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with human toxoplasmosis, we developed a sensitive approach for typing parasites grown from clinical samples by short-term in vitro culture. A newly described nested PCR assay was capable of amplifying genomic DNA from as few as five parasites in the presence of host tissues. Typing was based on DNA polymorphisms at

DANIEL K. HOWE; STEPHANIE HONORE; FRANCIS DEROUIN; L. DAVID SIBLEY

1997-01-01

185

FOLIA PARASITOLOGICA 41: 122-126, 1994 Influence of chronic toxoplasmosis on some human personality  

E-print Network

with Cattell's personality questionnaire and then tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection with a delayed type, 12844 Prague, Czech Republic Key words: Toxoplasma, toxoplasmosis, behaviour, personality factors was tested on the toxoplasma-human model. Three hundred and thirty-eight (338) people were assessed

Flegr, Jaroslav

186

Treatment protocol determines the efficacy of clindamycin in acute murine toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the contribution to the efficacy of clindamycin in acute murine toxoplasmosis of treatment protocol variables, groups of Swiss Webster mice inoculated intraperitoneally with 102 RH strain Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were treated with peroral clindamycin at 25, 50 and 400 mg\\/kgBM per day for 1, 2 and 3 weeks. While the lowest drug dose applied for a single week

T. Nikoli?; O. Djurkovi?-Djakovi?; B. Bobi?; A. Nikoli?; D. Babi?

1999-01-01

187

ACUTE FATAL TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SQUIRRELS (SCIURUS CAROLENSIS) WITH BRADYZOITES IN VISCERAL TISSUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 3 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolensis) from Louisiana and Pennsylvania. The predominant lesion was multifocal necrosis in several organs, especially of the lymph nodes. Numerous Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were seen in lesions and the diagnosis was confirmed imm...

188

Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in mentally retarded patients in Iranian rehabilitation centers.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common causes of latent infections in humans and animals. Although T. gondii infection is widely prevalent in the world, most acquired cases of the disease are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and its severe effects on the fetus. There have been many reports about the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody among different groups of people in Iran; however the epidemiological data in mentally retarded patients are rare. The present study was conducted on 158 mentally retarded persons (94 males, 64 females) in the rehabilitation centers of Khoramabad from autumn 2012 to winter 2013. The overall prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody was 30.4 % (48 cases). There were no significant difference between sex and toxoplasmosis (p > 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant difference between age and toxoplasmosis, nevertheless the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the patients less than 10-years-old had significantly the lowest rate. The highest infection rates were found in the two age groups of 10-19 and ?30 years old. Our results showed that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the mentally retarded persons in the rehabilitation centers of Khorramabad was similar to the prevalence in pregnant women in this city. Therefore, the disease does not cause additional danger to this group of women. PMID:25698852

Ezatpour, Behrouz; Zibaie, Mohammad; Rahmati, Hessam; Pournia, Yadollah; Azami, Mehdi; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Azadpour, Mozhgan; Ghalesefidi, Maryam Jamshidian

2015-03-01

189

Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women  

E-print Network

Flegr1 , Stpánka Hrdá1 and Petr Kodym2 1 Department of Parasitology, Charles University, Vinicná 7, 128 Toxoplasma-positive women (p = 0.04), suggesting that slow and cumulative effects of latent toxoplasmosis, sometimes even resulting in the death of the patient, usually occur only after severe damage to the immune

Flegr, Jaroslav

190

Novel Synergistic Protective Efficacy of Atovaquone and Diclazuril on Fetal-Maternal Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Over 1 billion people globally are estimated to be infected with Toxoplasma gondii with severe or unknown consequences and no safe and effective therapies are available against congenital or persistent chronic infection. We propose that atovaquone and diclazuril synergistically protect against fetal-maternal toxoplasmosis. Methods Programmed pregnant mice were treated with atovaquone and diclazuril monotherapy, or combined (atovaquone + diclazuril) therapy and infected with tachyzoites (0, 300, 600) and the course of infection was studied. Results Infected dams with low dose (300) developed moderate toxoplasmosis complications and treatments were similarly effective with minor differences between monotherapies. In contrast, major differences were observed amongst varied treatments during high-dose (600) infection and severe related- toxoplasmosis complications as follows. Dams developed hydrothorax, ascities and excess weight gain. Combined therapy (P < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril monotherapy (P < 0.05) protected dams from excess weight, hydrothorax, and ascities. Infected dams exhibited splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and severe hepatitis. Combined therapy synergistically normalized pathology (P < 0.001) and to a lesser degree monotherapy (diclazuril P < 0.01, and atovaquone P < 0.05) protected dams from hepatitis and splemomegaly. Additionally, behavioral response to pain stimuli and fetal weight and fetal numbers were significantly preserved in treated dams Conclusions This is the first report describing combined atovaquone and diclazuril therapy (a) to be safe in pregnancy, (b) to exert novel synergistic effects, and (c) to protect dams and their nested fetuses against adverse effects of severe toxoplasmosis. PMID:25210646

Oz, Helieh S.

2014-01-01

191

Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus).  

PubMed

Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), an arboreal species of the tropical rainforests of South and Central America. In view of its specialized lifestyle and ecosystem and its low metabolic rate, B. tridactylus would seem to warrant further investigation in respect of its susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:11578142

Túry, E; Costa Messias, A; Belák, K; Gimeno, E J

2001-01-01

192

Acute Disseminated Toxoplasmosis in a Captive Three-toed Sloth ( Bradypus tridactylus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), an arboreal species of the tropical rainforests of South and Central America. In view of its specialized lifestyle and ecosystem and its low metabolic rate, B. tridactylus would seem to warrant further investigation in respect of its susceptibility toToxoplasma gondii .

E. Tuúry; A. Costa Messias; K. Belák; E. J. Gimeno

2001-01-01

193

Toxoplasmosis surveillance during pregnancy and quality assurance of methods in Hungary.  

PubMed

In Hungary, screening programs have been performed for the early detection of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in three different counties. The results of a screening program performed in the town of Szeged are discussed in details. The pregnant women are screened by serological and molecular biological methods (anti-Toxoplasma CFT, IgG, IgM, anti-P30 IgA ELISA, IgG avidity test, PCR amplification). The women are first screened within the first 16 weeks of gestation. Seronegative cases are retested for seroconversion in every second month. Appropriate treatment is immediately started both in the mothers suspicious of acute toxoplasmosis and in their offspring. The urine samples of the babies are examined by nested PCR specific to B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii. No cases of congenital toxoplasmosis have been detected among the screened and treated children so far. Thus, we consider the program as highly successful for screening of congenital toxoplasmosis. To insure the quality of the applied laboratory diagnostic methods, the QualiCont Company organizes two quality control investigations yearly in the laboratories involved. PMID:16416382

Szénási, Zsusanna; Horváth, Katalin; Sárkány, Erika; Melles, Marta

2005-01-01

194

PCR Assay Using Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Brazilian AIDS patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the incidence of opportunistic infections in the central nervous system in AIDS patients. However, neurological abnormalities still remain important causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In Brazil, cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS patients. For these reasons, early, inexpensive, and sensitive diagnostic tests must be evaluated. The

Fabio Antonio Colombo; Augusto C. Penalva de Oliveira; Roberto Focaccia; Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola

2004-01-01

195

Poorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes or the  

E-print Network

scores in the learning tests but showed higher spontaneous activity in the wheel running test. HoweverPoorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes of manipulative activity of the parasite aimed to increase the probability of its transmission to the definitive

Flegr, Jaroslav

196

Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans  

E-print Network

Sex-dependent toxoplasmosis-associated differences in testosterone concentration in humans J. FLEGR infection of the coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii have a higher concentration of testosterone than in testosterone concentration among a population of 174 female and 91 male students screened for Toxoplasma

Flegr, Jaroslav

197

Seroepidemiological study of toxoplasmosis in intellectual disability children in rehabilitation centers of northern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serological studies revealed that toxoplasmosis has world wide distribution. Although the infection by Toxoplasma gondii is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and its severe effects on the fetus. There have been many reports

M. Sharif; H. Ziaei; A. Daryani; A. Ajami

2007-01-01

198

DISSEMINATED TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A MEDITERRANEAN PREGNANT RISSO'S DOLPHIN (GRAMPUS GRISEUS) WITH TRANSPLACENTAL FETAL INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) dam and its fetus based on pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and the structure of the parasite. The dolphin was stranded alive on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and died a few hrs later. At necropsy the ...

199

LETHAL TOXOPLASMOSIS IN AN AVIARY OF KAKARIKIS (CYANORAMPHUS SPP.) IN AUSTRALIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A small outbreak of fatal toxoplasmosis is described in 6 kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.) in an aviary in Australia. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, and lungs. Protozoal tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclona...

200

Cutaneous Acquired Toxoplasmosis in a Child: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

: Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare and diagnostically challenging entity. Today, the acquired form occurs predominantly in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus or after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report a case of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a 6-year-old girl after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for immune-mediated encephalopathy, first manifesting at 16 months of age. In the post-transplant setting, she developed a rash consisting of approximately 8 scattered 3-4-mm round, erythematous macules and papules on her back, abdomen, and right shoulder. Sections from a biopsy of a lesion on the back revealed numerous spherules tightly packed within small cystic structures in the epidermis. The diagnosis of cutaneous toxoplasmosis was confirmed by an immunohistochemical stain for Toxoplasma gondii and polymerase chain reaction on the peripheral blood for the T. gondii genome. This case should raise awareness that acquired toxoplasmosis with cutaneous involvement can occur in the pediatric population, particularly in immunocompromised patients after stem cell transplantation. Early diagnosis and treatment of this life-threatening opportunistic infection may improve patient outcomes. PMID:24614207

Rand, Andrew J; Buck, Andrew B; Love, Porcia B; Prose, Neil S; Selim, M Angelica

2014-03-01

201

Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)123456  

PubMed Central

Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (>30), and WC (?102 cm for men, ?88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Results: Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which suggests that efforts to encourage even small increases in activity in inactive individuals may be beneficial to public health. PMID:25733647

Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian’an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Řstergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjřnneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Fřns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnčs; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Sřren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

2015-01-01

202

[Simultaneous occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patients with suspected toxoplasmosis or borreliosis].  

PubMed

In 1995-1997 the frequency of concurrent antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Borrelia burgdorferi was assessed in two groups of patients with different clinical symptoms. In 485 subjects the dermatological form (erythema migrans) of borreliosis was suspected, 877 subjects had clinical symptoms suggesting the nodular form of toxoplasmosis. The group of 485 subjects with suspected borreliosis comprised 199 (41%) subjects with the diagnosis confirmed by the serological finding and 286 (59%) subjects were serologically negative. During concurrent examination for toxoplasmosis a statistically significantly higher incidence of antitoxoplasmatic antibodies was recorded in patients with suspected borreliosis but without detected antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi (29%) than in the group with both types of antibodies (11.5%), p < 0.001. The expected values of the incidence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in the population (25%) were however not substantially surpassed by the actual values. In the group of 877 patients with suspected toxoplasmosis there were 114 subjects (13%) with acute toxoplasmosis, 300 subjects (34%) with anamnestic titres suggesting the chronic form of infection and 463 (53%) subjects where the infection with toxoplasmosis was not confirmed by serological tests. In the whole group, regardless whether the acute or chronic form of infection was involved, but also in the group without antitoxoplasmatic antibodies a significantly elevated number of subjects with antiborrelia antibodies (18-25%) was recorded as compared with the expected values of the incidence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in the population (10%), p < 0.001. In the discussion the authors deal with the possible causes of these phenomena. PMID:9919818

Tolarová, V; Suchánková, E

1998-12-01

203

Unrecognized Ingestion of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts Leads to Congenital Toxoplasmosis and Causes Epidemics in North America  

PubMed Central

(See the Editorial Commentary by Linn, on pages 1090–1.) Background.?Congenital toxoplasmosis presents as severe, life-altering disease in North America. If mothers of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis could be identified by risks, it would provide strong support for educating pregnant women about risks, to eliminate this disease. Conversely, if not all risks are identifiable, undetectable risks are suggested. A new test detecting antibodies to sporozoites demonstrated that oocysts were the predominant source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 4 North American epidemics and in mothers of children in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS). This novel test offered the opportunity to determine whether risk factors or demographic characteristics could identify mothers infected with oocysts. Methods.?Acutely infected mothers and their congenitally infected infants were evaluated, including in-person interviews concerning risks and evaluation of perinatal maternal serum samples. Results.?Fifty-nine (78%) of 76 mothers of congenitally infected infants in NCCCTS had primary infection with oocysts. Only 49% of these mothers identified significant risk factors for sporozoite acquisition. Socioeconomic status, hometown size, maternal clinical presentations, and ethnicity were not reliable predictors. Conclusions.?Undetected contamination of food and water by oocysts frequently causes human infections in North America. Risks are often unrecognized by those infected. Demographic characteristics did not identify oocyst infections. Thus, although education programs describing hygienic measures may be beneficial, they will not suffice to prevent the suffering and economic consequences associated with congenital toxoplasmosis. Only a vaccine or implementation of systematic serologic testing of pregnant women and newborns, followed by treatment, will prevent most congenital toxoplasmosis in North America. PMID:22021924

Boyer, Kenneth; Hill, Dolores; Mui, Ernest; Wroblewski, Kristen; Karrison, Theodore; Dubey, J. P.; Sautter, Mari; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Withers, Shawn; Swisher, Charles; Heydemann, Peter; Hosten, Tiffany; Babiarz, Jane; Lee, Daniel

2011-01-01

204

Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including humans. It belongs to  

E-print Network

Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including or transplant therapy or individuals that are positive for HIV. Biology Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan

Wood, Marcelo A.

205

Multicentric comparative assessment of the bio-evolution Toxoplasma gondii detection kit with eight laboratory-developed PCR assays for molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid is an essential tool for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and is currently essentially based on the use of PCR. Although some consensus is emerging, this molecular diagnosis suffers from a lack of standardization and an extreme diversity of laboratory-developed methods. Commercial kits for the detection of T. gondii by PCR were recently developed and offer certain advantages; however, they must be assessed in comparison with optimized reference PCR assays. The present multicentric study aimed to compare the performances of the Bio-Evolution T. gondii detection kit and laboratory-developed PCR assays set up in eight proficient centers in France. The study compared 157 amniotic fluid samples and found concordances of 99% and 100% using 76 T. gondii-infected samples and 81 uninfected samples, respectively. Moreover, taking into account the classification of the European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis, the overall diagnostic sensitivity of all assays was identical and calculated to be 86% (54/63); specificity was 100% for all assays. Finally, the relative quantification results were in good agreement between the kit and the laboratory-developed assays. The good performances of this commercial kit are probably in part linked to the use of a number of good practices: detection in multiplicate, amplification of the repetitive DNA target rep529, and the use of an internal control for the detection of PCR inhibitors. The only drawbacks noted at the time of the study were the absence of uracil-N-glycosylase and small defects in the reliability of the production of different reagents. PMID:25339393

Filisetti, Denis; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frédéric; Delhaes, Laurence; Pelloux, Hervé; Touafek, Fériel; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Yera, Hélčne; Candolfi, Ermano; Bastien, Patrick

2015-01-01

206

Synergistic effect of clindamycin and atovaquone in acute murine toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The effect of clindamycin (CLI) combined with autovaquone (ATO) was examined in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis. Swiss Webster mice intraperitoneally infected with 10(2) or 10(4) tachyzoites of the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii were perorally treated with either drug alone (for ATO, 5, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of body weight/day; for CLI, 25, 50, or 400 mg/kg/day) or both combined (for ATO plus CLI, respectively, 5 plus 25, 25 plus 25, 25 plus 50, 50 plus 50, or 100 plus 400 mg/kg/day) starting with day 1 for 14 days. Survival was monitored during 7 weeks. Residual infection was assessed by a bioassay of representative 4-week survivors and by parasite DNA detection by PCR for representative 7-week survivors. An effect of treatment was shown in all treatment groups compared to untreated control mice (P = 0.0000). Among mice infected with 10(2) parasites, ATO and CLI at any dose combination protected significantly more animals than ATO alone (P = 0.0000), but compared to CLI alone, given its good effect, the combined drugs were no more effective (P > 0.05). For mice infected with 10(4) parasites, the drugs combined at the lowest and highest doses (5 plus 25 and 100 plus 400 mg/kg/day) were, similarly, more effective than ATO alone (P = 0.035 and 0.000, respectively) but not than CLI alone (P > 0. 05). However, treatment with ATO plus CLI at 25 plus 25, 25 plus 50, and 50 plus 50 mg/kg/day protected 20, 33, and 78% of mice, respectively, compared to virtually no survivals among those treated with either drug alone (P < 0.0005), thus demonstrating a significant synergistic effect of ATO and CLI against T. gondii. Furthermore, the dose of ATO at a given dose of CLI was shown to be critical to the effect. Moreover, the absence of residual infection in some survivors shows the potential of this drug combination to eliminate the parasite. PMID:10471572

Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O; Nikoli?, T; Robert-Gangneux, F; Bobi?, B; Nikoli?, A

1999-09-01

207

Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis at birth: what is the value of testing for IgM and IgA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommandations vary on the best combination of tests to use for the diagnosis of subclinical congenital toxoplasmosis at\\u000a birth. The diagnostic accuracy of IgM and IgA tests was assessed in the context of routine clinical practice on 233 newborns\\u000a with congenital toxoplasmosis and 661 healthy controls. IgM\\/IgA sensibility and specificity were compared in cord and postnatal\\u000a samples. Both tests were

M. Wallon; D. Dunn; D. Slimani; V. Girault; F. Gay-Andrieu; F. Peyron

1999-01-01

208

Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults. PMID:25590622

Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

2015-01-01

209

Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and Latent Toxoplasmosis and Demographic Variables on Cognitive Function in Young to Middle-Aged Adults  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer’s disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States’ National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis – both of which appear to be common in the general population – appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults. PMID:25590622

Gale, Shawn D.; Erickson, Lance D.; Brown, Bruce L.; Hedges, Dawson W.

2015-01-01

210

Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.  

PubMed

Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (?- and ?-carotene, lycopene, ?-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), ?- and ?-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma ?-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend?=?0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend?=?0.06) and ?-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend?=?0.08. For ?- and ?-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and ?-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of ?-carotene, zeaxanthin and ?-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted. PMID:25175624

Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjřnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castańo, José María Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

2015-03-15

211

Levels of pyrimethamine in sera and cerebrospinal and ventricular fluids from infants treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis Study Group.  

PubMed Central

Pyrimethamine levels in sera, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and ventricular fluid were measured by using reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The specimens were from 37 infants receiving pyrimethamine for treatment of suspect or proven congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine half-life in serum was 64 +/- 12 h when determined by study of terminal-phase kinetics of samples obtained from nine babies. This half-life was significantly different (P = 0.008) from the pyrimethamine half-life (33 +/- 12 h) determined by terminal-phase kinetics for two babies of the same age taking phenobarbital. Serum pyrimethamine levels at various intervals after dosages of pyrimethamine were also lower for infants receiving phenobarbital. Levels measured in sera from babies taking the same dose of pyrimethamine throughout their first year of life did not appear to vary significantly over time or at different ages (P greater than 0.05). Mean +/- standard deviation serum levels 4 h after a pyrimethamine dose were 1.297 +/- 0.54 micrograms/ml for babies taking 1 mg of pyrimethamine per kg of body weight daily and 0.7 +/- 0.26 microgram/ml for babies taking 1 mg/kg each Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Levels in CSF were approximately 10 to 25% of concomitant levels in serum. Serum folate levels for infants who took 0.64 to 1.7 mg leukovorin per kg ranged from 33 to 663 ng/ml. To determine whether the levels of pyrimethamine in serum and CSF of treated infants were in a range that affected the most virulent, rapidly replicating, and standard laboratory strain of Toxoplasma gondii, effects of various concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine on replication of T. gondii in vitro were assessed. The levels of the antimicrobial agents effective in vitro were in the range of levels of pyrimethamine achieved in sera and CSF. Although folinic acid could inhibit the therapeutic effect of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in vitro, inhibition was noted only at levels (> or = 4,800 ng/ml) that were considerably higher than the folate levels found in the treated infants' sera. PMID:1510391

McLeod, R; Mack, D; Foss, R; Boyer, K; Withers, S; Levin, S; Hubbell, J

1992-01-01

212

Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration. PMID:25835092

García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

2015-05-01

213

Toxoplasmosis of Spinal Cord in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patient Presenting as Paraparesis: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Although brain has been the most common site for toxoplasma infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, involvement of spinal cord by toxoplasma has been rarely found. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis can present as acute onset weakness in both lower limbs associated with sensory and bladder dysfunction. A presumptive diagnosis can be made in patients with CD4 count <100/mm3 based on a positive serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, no recent prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis, intramedullary ring enhancing lesion in spinal cord supported by similar lesions in brain parenchyma. Institutions of antitoxoplasma treatment in such patients result in prompt clinical response and therefore avoiding the need of unnecessary invasive diagnostic tests. Here, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in immunocompromised patient presenting as myelopathy who showed significant clinical improvement after starting antitoxoplasma treatment. Hence toxoplasmic myelitis should be considered in toxoplasma seropositive immunocompromised patients presenting as myelopathy and imaging studies showing ring enhancing intramedullary lesion. PMID:25538456

Agrawal, Sachin R; Singh, Vinita; Ingale, Sheetal; Jain, Ajeet Prasad

2014-01-01

214

[Medullary aplasia during treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis in a twin pregnancy].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of a patient who in the 24th week of a twin pregnancy became sero-positive for toxoplasmosis. This was diagnosed by cordocentesis as being infected, and the treatment was therefore started with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine and folic acid at the 28th week of pregnancy. At 35 weeks, the patient had an acute medullary aplasia due to the absence of the folates. The mother's state was improved rapidly by giving her folinic acid and the twins were normal haematologically. In this case, the authors point out how important the folates are in a pregnancy, especially in twin pregnancies, and point out the precautions that have to be taken when treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine is started for congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:8228015

Switala, I; Dufour, P; Ducloy, A S; Vinatier, D; Bernardi, C; Monnier, J C; Plantier, I; Fortier, B

1993-01-01

215

Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

2012-01-01

216

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. PMID:23135141

Bossart, Gregory D; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M; Camus, Alvin C; Bonde, Robert K; Dubey, Jitender P; Reif, John S

2012-11-01

217

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

2012-01-01

218

Isolation and biological and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from canine cutaneous toxoplasmosis in Brazil.  

PubMed

Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare manifestation. This study represents a case report of an immunosuppressed dog that developed nodular dermal lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The isolate (TgDgBr20) was characterized as mouse virulent and was genotyped as type BrI (ToxoDB genotype 6) using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and as Africa 1 through microsatellite analysis. PMID:25253796

Pena, Hilda F J; Moroz, Ludmila R; Sozigan, Rita K B; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Carvalho, Fernando R; Mota, Caroline M; Mineo, Tiago W P; Marcili, Arlei

2014-12-01

219

Effect of immunosuppressive drug regimens on acute and chronic murine toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the potential risk of dissemination or reactivation of toxoplasmosis following the administration of immunosuppressive\\u000a therapy we examined the effect of corticoids, azathioprine, and cyclosporine given alone or in combination on the course of\\u000a murine acute and chronic toxoplasmic infection. Swiss Webster mice were infected perorally with a high-level inoculum of cysts\\u000a of the C strain of Toxoplasma gondii.

Marie Hélčne Sumyuen; Yves Jean François Garin; Francis Derouin

1996-01-01

220

Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates and Toxoplasmosis Seroprevalence in Stray Cats of ?zmir, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T. gondii strains circulating in stray cats of ?zmir (Western Turkey). A secondary objective was to determine toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in this cat population. Tissues obtained from 100 deceased stray cats were bioassayed and isolated strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. In addition, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was analyzed in 1121 cat sera collected from several large veterinary clinics in ?zmir. Among the 22 isolates, 19 were Type II (86.3%), two were Type III (9%) and one was Africa 1 genotype (4.5%). The overall seropositivity rates in cats were 42–48% and 33.4–34.4% according to IFA and ELISA, respectively. Seroprevalence in deceased cats was significantly higher than in healthy cats (P?=?0.0033). Finding both the major clonal Type II lineage together with the Type III lineage also found in Middle East, and an atypical genotype, Africa 1 appears consistent with the specific geographic location of Turkey between three continents and raises the possibility of transportation of these strains between continents through trade routes or long distance migratory birds. In addition, the first large study of toxoplasma seroprevalence in a stray cat population was also reported. The relatively high seropositivity rates and the variety of T. gondii genotypes confirm the local stray cat population as a risk factor for human toxoplasmosis in ?zmir. PMID:25127360

Can, Hüseyin; Dö?kaya, Mert; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Özdemir, H. Gökhan; Caner, Ay?e; ?z, Sultan Gülce; Dö?kaya, Aysu De?irmenci; Atalay, Esra; Çetinkaya, Ça?da?; Ürgen, Saygun; Karaçal?, Sabire; Ün, Cemal; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Gürüz, Yüksel

2014-01-01

221

Seroprevalence and Sources of Toxoplasmosis among Orang Asli (Indigenous) Communities in Peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to evaluate the current seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among indigenous communities in Peninsular Malaysia and relate its association with epidemiological data. Overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 37.0% with 31.0% immunoglobulin (Ig) G, 1.8% IgM, and 4.2% seropositivity for both anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that age above 12 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval

R. Ngui; Y. A. L. Lim; N. F. H. Amir; V. Nissapatorn; R. Mahmud

2011-01-01

222

Alcohol and European transformation.  

PubMed

Against the background of papers and discussions from the East-West seminar at the European Conference on Health, Society and Alcohol, the differences and similarities in eastern and western European transformation processes are discussed. After some remarks on the general nature of eastern transition and western integration, the two sides of Europe are compared with respect to various alcohol-specific issues. It will be shown that the ongoing transition touches alcohol-related phenomena on a broad spectrum, and no single characterization (e.g. commercialization and the rise of market interests) is sufficient alone. The changing balance between state, markets and civil society provides, however, an interesting perspective for comparing alcohol-related changes in various European societies. Finally, the prospects for a common European alcohol agenda are discussed briefly from the point of view of international mobilization on the dimensions of state, markets and civil society. There are signs of increased cooperation along all dimensions, but an all-European alcohol agenda seems unlikely. PMID:9167285

Simpura, J

1997-03-01

223

Anaphylactic reaction to intravenous corticosteroids in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction This case report presents for the first time an acute systemic allergic reaction to corticosteroids in a patient with ocular toxoplasmosis after treatment with intravenous cortisone, and discusses alternative treatments. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian woman with an anaphylactic reaction after intravenous injection of prednisolone-21-hydrogensuccinate (Solu-Decortin® H) given for the treatment of toxoplasmosis-associated chorioretinitis. Immediately after the injection, she developed an acute erythema of the legs and abdomen, angioedema, hypotension (blood pressure 80/40mmHg), tachycardia (heart rate 140/minute), hyperthermia (38.8°C), and respiratory distress. Allergological examinations showed a positive skin-prick test to prednisolone and methylprednisolone. In addition, an oral exposure test with dexamethasone (Fortecortin®) and betamethasone (Celestamine®) was conducted to find alternative corticosteroids for future treatments. After oral application, no local or systemic reactions were observed for these two substances. Conclusions This case report demonstrates that systemic allergic reactions are possible in patients with uveitis or other inflammatory ophthalmological conditions treated with intravenous corticosteroids. Intravenous administration of cortisone, for example, in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis, should always be conducted with caution because of a possible allergic reaction. For patients who react to a particular steroid, it is necessary to undergo allergological testing to confirm that the compound in question is indeed allergenic, and to identify other corticosteroids that are safe for future anti-inflammatory treatments. PMID:24694257

2014-01-01

224

Toxoplasmosis-Serological Evidence and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women in Southern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite in pregnant women. This case-controlled study assessed the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in 640 pregnant women in southern Thailand and identified their associated risk factors. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 181 (28.3%). Of this, 138 (21.6%) were positive for only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, 43 (6.7%) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies, and none were positive for IgM antibody. Multivariate analysis revealed that increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–2.67), living outside Songkhla province (adjusted OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.08–2.24), parity (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.01–2.68), contact with cats (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.20–2.43), and drinking of unclean water (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.08–2.68) were factors associated with Toxoplasma seroprevalence. On the basis of the results obtained, a health surveillance program should be initiated as a primary preventive measure for congenital toxoplasmosis and focus on educating women of the child-bearing age group to avoid contact with cats and to strictly practice personal hygiene. PMID:21813842

Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ling, Lau Yee; Chandeying, Verapol

2011-01-01

225

Toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis and brucellosis in stray dogs housed at the shelter in Umuarama municipality, Paraná, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are diseases with worldwide distribution. Among stray dogs, these zoonoses are facilitated by direct contact with other animal species, by the habit of scavenging garbage and hunting in search of food, drinking standing water, smelling other animals’ urine, licking female genitalia and the sexual act itself. The objective of this study was to detect antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella canis and anti-Brucella abortus in stray dogs housed in shelters at Umuarama city, Paraná, Brazil. In order to detect toxoplasmosis, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed, agglutination microscopic (MAT) test for leptospirosis and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and buffered acidified antigen (BAA) tests for brucellosis. Results Of the 175 serum samples analyzed, 70.85% were considered positive for toxoplasmosis by IFA, 20% by MAT for leptospirosis and 2.85% by AGID for Brucella canis. Conclusions The serological results of this study showed that stray dogs housed at the private shelter are potential carriers of these three different zoonoses and contribute to the spread and maintenance of these etiologic agents in the urban area of Umuarama (PR), Brazil. PMID:24066949

2013-01-01

226

Toxoplasmosis prevention and testing in pregnancy, survey of obstetrician-gynaecologists.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women can lead to congenital disease with severe neurological and ocular complications in the foetus. In 2006, we surveyed US obstetrician-gynaecologists to determine their knowledge and practices about toxoplasmosis prevention and testing. Questionnaires were mailed (four mailings) to a random sample of 1200 of the 33,354 members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Of the 1200 surveyed, 502 (42%) responded. The respondents were similar to all ACOG members by gender, region of the country and practice type (P > 0.5), and age (respondents were slightly younger, mean 46 years versus 47 years). To prevent toxoplasmosis, most respondents indicated that they counsel pregnant women about cat litter (99.6%), but fewer counselled about eating undercooked meat (77.6%), handling raw meat (67.4%), gardening (65.4%) or washing fruits and vegetables (34.2%). Many (73.2%) respondents were not aware that some Toxoplasma IgM tests have had a high false positive rate, and most (91.2%) had not heard of the avidity test, which can help determine the timing of Toxoplasma gondii infection in relation to pregnancy. There is a need for more education about T. gondii serological testing, particularly the Toxoplasma avidity test. US obstetrician-gynaecologists are providing beneficial counselling to their patients, but could provide more information about undercooked meat and soil risks. PMID:19744302

Jones, J L; Krueger, A; Schulkin, J; Schantz, P M

2010-02-01

227

The effectiveness of a prenatal education programme for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

A 10 min education programme was developed which, if effective in changing the behaviour of pregnant women, would eliminate or greatly reduce the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. It was taught in 26 randomly selected (case) prenatal classes offered to women early in their pregnancy. The remaining 26 (control) classes received routine class material which did not mention toxoplasmosis. A questionnaire was administered to all women prior to this early class (pre-test) and again after the last prenatal class, held just prior to delivery (post-test). Changes in pet, food and personal hygiene behaviour between the pre- and post-test were determined and a score calculated by adding points for change towards those behaviours recommended in the programme and subtracting points for change in the opposite direction. Cat owners in case classes had a significantly higher score in pet hygiene behaviour than those in control classes (P less than 0.05). No significant difference was found between the food or personal hygiene scores of women in case and control classes, possibly because of low power. However, although behaviours did not differ on the pre-test, women in case classes had significantly better cooking methods for roast beef and hamburger on the post-test (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.01 respectively). It is concluded that this programme is effective and should be offered to all women in order to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis incidence. PMID:2606162

Carter, A. O.; Gelmon, S. B.; Wells, G. A.; Toepell, A. P.

1989-01-01

228

Prospects for European Integration: Turkish Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of higher education and research constitutes a possible pathway to innovation and global competitiveness. Nation states, however, often seek the quickest adaptations, with minimum investment, ignoring essential political and structural changes. Turkey maintains its highly centralized system of higher education observing the…

Mizikaci, Fatma

2005-01-01

229

Cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis related with IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-10 levels  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the synthesis of Interferon gamma (IFN-?), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-?), and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in chronically infected patients which developed the symptomatic disease as cerebral or ocular toxoplasmosis. Blood from 61 individuals were divided into four groups: Cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS patients (CT/AIDS group) (n = 15), ocular toxoplasmosis patients (OT group) (n = 23), chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR group) (n = 13) and healthy individuals (HI group) (n = 10). OT, CHR, and HI groups were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative. The diagnosis was made by laboratorial (PCR and ELISA) and clinical subjects. For cytokine determination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of each patient were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-10 activities were determined by ELISA. Patients from CT/AIDS and OT groups had low levels of IFN-? when were compared with those from CHR group. These data suggest the low resistance to develop ocular lesions by the low ability to produce IFN-? against the parasite. The same patients, which developed ocular or cerebral toxoplasmosis had higher TNF-? levels than CHR individuals. High TNF-? synthesis contribute to the inflammatory response and damage of the choroid and retina in OT patients and in AIDS patients caused a high inflammatory response as the TNF-? synthesis is not affected since monocytes are the major source this cytokine in response to soluble T. gondii antigens. IL-10 levels were almost similar in CT/AIDS and OT patients but low when compared with CHR individuals. The deviation to Th2 immune response including the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 may promote the parasite's survival causing the tissue immune destruction. IL-10 production in T. gondii-infected brains may support the persistence of parasites as down-regulating the intracerebral immune response. All these indicate that OT and CT/AIDS patients produced low levels of IL-10 (Th2 response) and IFN-? (Th1 response). They produced high TNF-? suggesting a high inflammatory response triggered by the parasite. PMID:25352834

Meira, Cristina S.; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L.; Vidal, José E.; de Mattos, Cinara C. Brandăo; Motoie, Gabriela; Costa-Silva, Thais A.; Gava, Ricardo; Frederico, Fábio B.; de Mattos, Luiz C.

2014-01-01

230

Seroprevalence of toxoplasma-specific antibodies in patients suspected to have active toxoplasmosis: A cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and distribution of anti-toxoplasma-specific IgM and IgG tantibodies in patients suspected to have toxoplasmosis and investigate for any association between IgM and IgG antibodies and some toxoplasmosis risk factors as well. Materials and Methods: In a comparative cross-sectional study, 70 patients suspected to had active toxoplasmosis and 30 control volunteers, who gave informed consent, entered the study. In each group, patient age, sex, signs of appearance, education level, residency status (urban / rural), occupation, frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, abortion history, and some risk factors (Direct cat exposure, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption) were recorded. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (EUROIMMUN®, United Kingdom) were used for the evaluation of anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies according to the manufacturer's instructions. All analyses were done using SPSS-20. Results: The frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies like: Direct cat exposures, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption were not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05). The history of previous abortions in women in the toxoplasmosis-suspected group was significantly higher than that in the controls (31.4% versus 6.7%; P = 0.009). Conclusion: The frequency of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in toxoplasmosis suspected in the toxoplasmosis and control groups was not statistically significant. PMID:25538922

Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Jafarnezghad, Gholam-Abbas; Akbari, Mojtaba

2014-01-01

231

Assessment of laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background The different laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis have variable sensitivity and specificity. There is no evidence to prove that maternal treatment reduces the risk of fetal infection. The purpose of this study was to assess methods for the confirmation of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy, and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on clinical manifestations of the disease in newborns (NB). Methods This was a community-based, cross-sectional study of acute toxoplasmosis in newborns at risk of acquiring congenital infection. Participating newborns were born in the Clinical Hospital Maternity Ward of the Federal University of Goiás. Eligible participants were divided into 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 44 newborns born to mothers treated with spiramycin during pregnancy and group 2 consisted of 24 newborns born to mothers not treated with spiramycin during pregnancy because the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was not performed. The sensitivity and specifity of PCR for T. gondii DNA in peripheral blood and serological testing for specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA, and the effects of maternal spiramycin treatment on these parameters, were determined by associating test results with clinical manifestations of disease. Results The sensitivity of the markers (T. gondii DNA detected by PCR, and the presence of specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA) for congenital toxoplasmosis was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (31.6, 68.4, 36.8% and 3.7, 25.9, 11.1% respectively). Even with a low PCR sensitivity, the group 2 results indicate the importance of developing new techniques for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns. Within group 1, 70.4% of the infected newborns were asymptomatic and, in group 2, 68.4% showed clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis. Conclusions The higher proportion of infants without clinical symptoms in group 1 (70.4%) suggests the maternal treatment with spiramycin delays fetal infection, reducing the clinical sequelae of the disease in newborns. Given the low sensitivity of the tests used, when there is suspicion of congenital transmission several serological and parasitological tests are required in order to confirm or exclude congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns. PMID:24961630

2014-01-01

232

[Evaluation of the toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in pregnant women and creating a diagnostic algorithm].  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoon is widely distributed around the world and can infect all mammals and birds. While acquired toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in healthy subjects, acute infection during pregnancy may lead to abortion, stillbirth, fetal neurological and ocular damages. For the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis it is recommended that a screening programme and a diagnostic algorithm in pregnant women should be implemented while considering the cost effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and the actual risk of T.gondii transmission during pregnancy in a certain area. The aims of this study were to detect the T.gondii seropositivity in the pregnant women admitted to our hospital and to create a diagnostic algorithm in order to solve the problems arising from interpretation of the serological test results. A total of 6140 women aged 15-49 years who were admitted to our hospital between April 1st, 2010 to July 31st, 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. In the serum samples, T.gondii IgM, IgG and IgG avidity tests were performed by VIDAS automated analyzer using TOXO IgM, TOXO IgG II and TOXO IgG avidity kits (bioMerieux, France). It was noted that, both T.gondii IgM and IgG tests were requested from 4758 (77.5%) of the pregnant women, while only IgM test from 1382 (22.5%) cases. Sole IgM positivity was found as 0.2% (11/6140), IgG as 26.4% (1278/4758) and both IgM + IgG as 0.9% (44/4758). T.gondii IgG avidity tests were requested from 12 of 44 women who were found both IgM and IgG positive and eight of them revealed high avidity and four low avidity. Avidity test was ordered for the 91 (7.1%) of 1278 sole IgG positive cases and four of them were found to have low avidity. IgG avidity test was ordered for 554 (16.2%) of IgM and/or IgG negative subjects, however, the test was not performed according to rejection criteria of the laboratory. It was noticed that no re-testing was requested for none of the seronegative cases (3428/4758; 72%) during their follow-up. In our study, total Toxoplasma seropositivity rate among pregnant women was detected as 28% (1330/4758), showing statistically significant increase (p< 0.05) with age. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in the seropositivity rate between the years (2010-2013). Following the evaluation of the test orders, the problems related to test orders and interpretation of the test results were determined and a diagnostic algorithm to be used in our hospital, was established to minimize such problems in toxoplasma serology. It was concluded that a diagnostic algorithm related to toxoplasmosis serology should be implemented for the appropriate evaluation of the risk of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Such an approach is necessary to support the clinical diagnosis and to minimize the anxiety in pregnant women about congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24819265

Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Toyran, Alparslan; Cetin, Feyza; Coskun, Feride Alaca; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Aksoy, Altan

2014-04-01

233

Acute fatal toxoplasmosis in squirrels (Sciurus carolensis) with bradyzoites in visceral tissues.  

PubMed

Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 3 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolensis) from Louisiana and Pennsylvania. The predominant lesion was multifocal necrosis in several organs, especially of the lymph nodes. Numerous Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were seen in lesions, and the diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by reaction with polyclonal T. gondii-specific antibodies. Tissue cysts were seen in several organs, including lung alveoli. The presence of tissue cysts in alveoli of pet squirrels maybe of public health concern if tissue cysts excreted in nasal secretions are swallowed by children. PMID:16884019

Dubey, J P; Hodgin, E C; Hamir, A N

2006-06-01

234

Fatal toxoplasmosis and concurrent Calodium hepaticum infection in Korean squirrels (Tanias sibericus).  

PubMed

Four Korean squirrels (Tanias siberius) imported in Spain from People's Republic of China died 2 days after their arrival at a pet shop. They had neurological signs associated with generalized toxoplasmosis involving brain, lungs, liver, and the heart. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites and tissue cysts were found in organs of all four squirrels. The protozoa stained positively with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies and were ultrastructurally similar to T. gondii. Calodium (Capillaria) hepaticum infection was found in the liver of one squirrel. PMID:16406358

Carrasco, L; Raya, A I; Núńez, A; Gómez-Laguna, J; Hernández, S; Dubey, J P

2006-04-15

235

A probable outbreak of toxoplasmosis among boarding school students in Turkey.  

PubMed

In total, 171 students from a boarding school in Izmir, Turkey, with mild and non-specific symptoms of toxoplasmosis, were screened during September-October 2002. All 171 students were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM. Of 43 students tested, 40 (93%) had low IgG avidity. None showed evidence of ophthalmic involvement. The data suggest that T. gondii may spread rapidly in close living conditions, possibly following exposure to cat litter. This is the largest recent outbreak of toxoplamosis described in the medical literature. PMID:16774565

Doganci, L; Tanyuksel, M; Araz, E R; Besirbellioglu, B A; Erdem, U; Ozoguz, C A; Yucel, N; Ciftcioglu, A

2006-07-01

236

Prospect Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many readers may be aware that trees grow in Brooklyn, few may be cognizant of the fact that, yes, a forest grows in Brooklyn. This urban forest just happens to be in the boroughâ??s own lovely Prospect Park, designed by those giants of landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Often overlooked by some who are primarily concerned with that other large swath of green in the middle of Manhattan, Prospect Park contains a 90-acre meadow, a zoo, a celebrated performing arts festival, and a lake. Visitors to the Prospect Park Alliance website can learn all about these things, and also delve into the parkâ??s history. Those planning a visit may wish to look at the â??General Infoâ?ť and â??Places To Goâ?ť sections for a selection of brief descriptions and photographs. For those seeking a historical perspective the â??History & Natureâ?ť area is delightful. Here visitors can learn about the parkâ??s historical development and creation, and learn more about those individuals responsible for the parkâ??s design and aesthetic appeal. Finally, visitors should look at the online exhibit â??A Glimpse Of Prospect Parkâ?ť for a bit of visual perspective on the parkâ??s history.

Prospect Park (New York, N.Y.)

237

Biofuels, Climate Policy and the European Vehicle Fleet  

E-print Network

We examine the effect of biofuels mandates and climate policy on the European vehicle fleet, considering the prospects for diesel and gasoline vehicles. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, ...

Rausch, Sebastian

238

Genotypic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Human Toxoplasmosis in Spain: Direct Analysis from Clinical Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the different genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (strain types I, II, and III) associated with human toxoplasmosis in Spain. This determi- nation was made directly from primary clinical samples, obviating the previous process of isolation in mice or cell culture. A total of 34 isolates of T. gondii,

ISABEL FUENTES; JOSE M. RUBIO; CARMEN RAMIREZ; JORGE ALVAR

2001-01-01

239

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: comparative value of fetal blood and amniotic fluid using serological techniques and cultures.  

PubMed

The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is mainly based on biological tests performed on fetal blood and amniotic fluid. We studied the performance of neonatal diagnosis procedures and the results of fetal blood and amniotic fluid analysis. Of 127 women who contracted toxoplasmosis and underwent prenatal diagnosis, the postnatal serological follow-up was long enough to definitively diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis in 19 cases and to exclude it in 27 cases. Prenatal diagnosis allowed the detection of 94.7 per cent (18/19) of the infected fetuses. The sensitivities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were equivalent, 88.2 per cent (15/17) and 87.5 per cent (14/16), respectively. In fetal blood, biological techniques were positive in 12/16 cases and in 2/16 cases, serological tests were the only positive sign. The specificities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were respectively 100 per cent (23/23) and 86.3 per cent (19/22) (three false-positive serological results). These results, added to the lower morbidity of amniocentesis compared with cordocentesis, might lead to cordocentesis being abandoned in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:9316127

Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Pelloux, H; Muet, F; Racinet, C; Bost, M; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

1997-09-01

240

Spinal cord toxoplasmosis as an unusual presentation of AIDS: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Approximately 10% of patients with AIDS present with some neurological deficit as their initial complaint, and up to 80% will have CNS involvement during the course of their disease. Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS, but appears to be an uncommon cause of spinal cord disease. The incidence of myelopathy may be as high as 20%, with 50% of the cases reported post-mortem. We present a unique case of spinal cord disease as the initial presentation of AIDS. We also present a comprehensive literature review of this topic, its diagnosis and treatment. This is a retrospective chart review case report. After a detailed case presentation, several diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this unique case are thoroughly discussed. Although spinal cord toxoplasmosis is uncommon, it has been suggested that most patients with AIDS that present with evolving myelopathy, characterized by extremity weakness, sensory involvement, spinal cord enlargement, enhancing lesions in brain or spinal cord CT or MRI, have toxoplasmic myelitis. PMID:21373318

Fuentes, Carmen R.; Colon-Rolon, Lissandra; Masvidal, Daniel

2010-01-01

241

Toxoplasmosis in a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and two American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus).  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and 2 American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). The woodchuck was euthanized by a wildlife rescue organization in New York after progressive clinical signs of head tilt, circling, and rapid weight loss. Necropsy examination revealed acute subdural hemorrhage over the right cerebral hemisphere. Histologic lesions included meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. Protozoal cysts were present in affected and unaffected neuroparenchyma. The squirrels were found dead, emaciated, and moderately infested with fleas near a park in northern Indiana. In both squirrels, the lungs were consolidated with numerous nodules up to 2 mm in diameter. Histologically, pneumonia and encephalitis were associated with intracellular and free protozoa. Additional histologic lesions included multifocal lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa in both squirrels. The protozoa were positive with Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunohistochemistry and had ultrastructural features consistent with T. gondii in both squirrels. A real-time polymerase chain reaction test using T. gondii-specific probes demonstrated protozoal DNA in the lung, brain, and kidney of the squirrels and in the brain and heart of the woodchuck. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in woodchucks or American red squirrels. Because rodents are common near urban settlements, this finding underscores their role as important intermediate hosts for T. gondii. PMID:17998563

Bangari, Dinesh S; Mouser, Pamela; Miller, Margaret A; Stevenson, Gregory W; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Thacker, H Leon

2007-11-01

242

Epizootic disseminated toxoplasmosis in captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta).  

PubMed

Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in seven captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) according to clinicopathologic findings and immunohistochemistry. Five of nine meerkats died during an outbreak in late 1994. These included four kits (2.5 to 4.5 months old) and a 4-year-old meerkat. Two other meerkats, both adults, died in 1992 and 1995. Respiratory insufficiency (4/7) and incoordination (3/7) were the most consistent clinical signs. although two of seven meerkats died unexpectedly. At necropsy, the lungs were reddened and noncollapsed (6/7), and had multiple pale round foci (4/7). Yellow foci of necrosis in mesenteric lymph nodes (4/7), splenomegaly (3/7), and hydropericardium (3/7) were other common gross findings. Microscopically, interstitial pneumonia was present in all seven meerkats, being acute to subacute in six of them. Type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia, aggregates of foamy macrophages, and giant cells were consistently seen. Multifocal to locally extensive necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes (4/7), mild to severe multifocal necrotizing hepatitis (5/6), and mild nonsuppurative encephalitis (4/6) were also seen. Toxoplasma-like organisms were consistently associated with these lesions and were stained by the avidin biotin peroxidase procedure with an antiserum that does not cross-react with Neospora caninum. Meerkats were most likely infected after an oral, primary exposure to Toxoplasma. Several observations indicate that meerkats may be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis. PMID:9150539

Juan-Sallés, C; Prats, N; López, S; Domingo, M; Marco, A J; Morán, J F

1997-01-01

243

Immediate rather than delayed memory impairment in older adults with latent toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects one third of the world population, but its effect on memory remains ambiguous. To examine a potential relationship of the infection with immediate and delayed memory, a population-based study was conducted in 4485 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 60years and older. Serum anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme immune assay and verbal memory was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the East Boston Memory Test. The prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis was 41%; in one way analysis of variance, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody levels significantly differed across tertiles for immediate (P=0.006) but not delayed memory scores (P=0.22). In multinomial logistic regression adjusting for covariates, Toxoplasma seropositivity was associated with lower immediate memory performance (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.97 for medium tertile and OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.98 for highest tertile in reference to the lowest tertile), especially in non-Hispanic Whites (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.88 for medium tertile and OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.87 for highest tertile in reference to the lowest tertile). However, no relationship with delayed memory was observed. In conclusion, latent toxoplasmosis is widespread in older adults and may primarily affect immediate rather than delayed memory, particularly in White Americans. PMID:25499468

Mendy, Angelico; Vieira, Edgar R; Albatineh, Ahmed N; Gasana, Janvier

2015-03-01

244

Influence of latent toxoplasmosis on the secondary sex ratio in mice.  

PubMed

The sex ratio may be influenced by many factors, such as stress and immunosuppression, age of parents, parity and sex of preceding siblings. In animal systems, parasitism often changes the sex ratio of infected hosts, which can increase the probability of their transmission. The most common human protozoan parasite in developed countries, Toxoplasma gondii (prevalence 20%-80%), is known to change the behaviour of its intermediate hosts, thereby increasing the probability of transmission to its definitive host (the cat) by predation. The intermediate hosts, which under natural conditions are rodents, serve as the vector for Toxoplasma. Therefore, we speculate that Toxoplasma can alter the secondary sex ratio (i.e. male to female ratio in the offspring) of infected females to increase the proportion of (congenitally infected) male offspring, which are the more migratory sex in most rodent species. Here we studied the sex ratio of experimentally infected laboratory mice, expressed here as the proportion of males in the litter. In accordance with our hypothesis and results of previous retrospective cohort studies on human subjects, mice with toxoplasmosis produced a higher sex ratio than controls, in the early phase of latent infection. In the later phase of infection, mice with congenital toxoplasmosis had a lower sex ratio than controls, which is in accord with the Trivers-Willard hypothesis of sex ratio manipulation, suggesting that females in poor physical condition give birth to more female offspring. PMID:17651529

Kanková, S; Kodym, P; Frynta, D; Vavrinová, R; Kubena, A; Flegr, J

2007-11-01

245

Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic New Zealand birds.  

PubMed

Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic New Zealand avian species are reported. Between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), and one North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. On gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. Histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of the kiwi while the kaka and kereru showed severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In the kiwi, protozoal organisms were present within both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver and within the epithelial cells and macrophages of the interstitium of the lungs in the kaka and two kereru. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue of the liver, lungs, or both. Genotyping of up to seven markers revealed that an atypical Type II isolate of Toxoplasma gondii was present in at least three of the cases. This study provides evidence that T. gondii can cause mortality in these endemic species and suggests further research is needed to determine the full extent of morbidity and mortality caused by this parasite in New Zealand's unique avifauna. PMID:24758132

Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; Burrows, Elizabeth; Roe, Wendi

2014-03-01

246

European Mistletoe  

MedlinePLUS

... for more information. European mistletoe is a semiparasitic plant that grows on several types of trees in ... and even death. American mistletoe is unsafe for medicinal use. In countries where commercial mistletoe is available ...

247

Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany. PMID:25037927

Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

2014-10-01

248

European Community.  

PubMed

The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

1987-05-01

249

Impact of Technological and Structural Change on Employment. Prospective Analysis 2020. Synthesis Report. Report to the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament. Technical Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possible impact of technological and structural change on employment in the European Union (EU) over the next 20 years was examined through an exploration of the following alternative policy-driven scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) concentrated technology policy (increases in innovation and research and development [R&D] efforts are…

2001

250

Prospective Optimization  

PubMed Central

Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

2014-01-01

251

Prospective Optimization.  

PubMed

Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J

2014-05-01

252

Observational study to assess pregnant women’s knowledge and behaviour to prevent toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) can negatively affect pregnancy outcomes, but can be prevented by simple precautions of pregnant women. Literature suggests that pregnant women are not always adequately informed by their care provider about preventable infectious diseases and most pregnant women have a low level of knowledge regarding these topics. There is not much information about the actual risk behaviour of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge and risk behaviour related to toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and CMV infection prevention in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional survey among pregnant women from twenty midwifery practices across the Netherlands that participated in the DELIVER study, between October 2010 and December 2010. The questionnaire items covered respondents’ knowledge of preventive practices in general, risk behaviour, and sources of received information. Results Of the 1,097 respondents (response 66.0%), 75.3% had heard, read or seen information about toxoplasmosis, 61.7% about listeriosis and 12.5% about CMV. The majority reported having heard about these infections from their care providers or read about these in printed media or on the Internet. Respondents showed limited knowledge about preventive practices for toxoplasmosis, listeriosis or CMV infection. Regarding toxoplasmosis, risk behaviour was more prevalent among respondents who had a high level of education, had the Dutch nationality, did not take folic acid during their first trimester, and had ever worked in a children day-care setting. Regarding listeriosis, risk behaviour was more prevalent among respondents who where in their third trimester. Regarding CMV infections, risk behaviour was less prevalent among respondents who were in their third trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion Of the respondents, a substantial part did not have knowledge about preventive practices to avoid listeriosis, toxoplasmosis and CMV infections during pregnancy. Many pregnant women are appropriately avoiding risk behaviour, without knowing what they are avoiding. Advising pregnant women about behaviours and life-style habits to prevent infectious diseases remains important and information about preventive practices need to be complete and adequate. However, it may be less important to give pregnant women specific infectious diseases information. More attention towards CMV is necessary. PMID:23627427

2013-01-01

253

Common Core History for Young Europeans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A required core contemporary history course is proposed for Europe's senior pupils, needed because of prospects for European integration. The course could be shaped by pairing three fundamental ideas with related conflicts: Reformation/30 Years War, Enlightenment/French Revolution and Napoleanic Wars, and Nationalism/World Wars I and II. (IAH)

Rogers, Peter

1993-01-01

254

CNS toxoplasmosis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a clinical-pathological-radiological review of 12 cases.  

PubMed Central

From January 1981 to January 1983 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed in 90 patients admitted to Kings County Hospital-Downstate Medical Center. CNS involvement occurred in 18 patients of whom 12 had toxoplasmosis confirmed by biopsy or necropsy. Pathological specimens from these 12 patients were notable for a marked diminution or absence of cellular inflammation. Each patient had elevated serological studies for toxoplasma. AIDS presented with symptoms referable to CNS toxoplasma in eight patients. In the remaining four patients, toxoplasma was found late in the course of the illness. CT showed either ring enhancing lesions or solid nodules. The course was uniformly fatal, though patients treated continuously with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine survived longer. Images PMID:3746305

Farkash, A E; Maccabee, P J; Sher, J H; Landesman, S H; Hotson, G

1986-01-01

255

Congenital toxoplasmosis from a mother with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case report.  

PubMed

A 33-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was suspected of being primarily infected with Toxoplasma gondii at 12 weeks of gestation (GW). Although acetylspiramycin was started at 17 GW, the T. gondii DNA gene was detected in the amniotic fluid at 18 GW. Chemotherapy was changed to pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine from 20 GW, but was changed back to acetylspiramycin after 2 weeks because of vomiting. Acetylspiramycin was continued until her delivery. DM was controlled well during the pregnancy. An asymptomatic male baby was born by cesarean section at 37 GW, and was treated with acetylspiramycin for 4 weeks because the polymerase chain reaction results of umbilical cord blood were positive. He has developed normally until the present, that is, 6 months of age. Herein, we describe a case report in which symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis was avoided in a pregnant woman with an immunosuppressive risk due to prompt chemotherapy. PMID:25164320

Sato, Shimpei; Nishida, Masakazu; Nasu, Kaei; Narahara, Hisashi; Norose, Kazumi; Aosai, Fumie

2014-11-01

256

Treatment protocol determines the efficacy of clindamycin in acute murine toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

To determine the contribution to the efficacy of clindamycin in acute murine toxoplasmosis of treatment protocol variables, groups of Swiss Webster mice inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(2) RH strain Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were treated with peroral clindamycin at 25, 50 and 400 mg/kgBM per day for 1, 2 and 3 weeks. While the lowest drug dose applied for a single week prolonged survival time as compared to untreated animals, not even the highest dose applied for 1 or 2 weeks completely prevented mortality. Conversely, 100% protection was achieved with 3-week treatment courses at both 50 and 400 mg/kg per day. While both survival rates and survival times increased in parallel with the drug dose and treatment duration, the latter was shown to be critical to the outcome, suggesting the use of clindamycin as an antitoxoplasmic agent should be as a prolonged course. PMID:10221418

Nikoli?, T; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O; Bobi?, B; Nikoli?, A; Babi?, D

1999-02-01

257

Müller cell activation and photoreceptor depletion in a mice model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Müller glial cells are critically involved in retinal inflammatory processes. Here, we investigate the activation of Müller cells in a model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Four weeks after infection, retinal sections were studied immunohistochemically using the markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Müller cells showed strong up-regulation of both markers, as well as a deteriorated morphology in all infected retinas. Moreover, cell density and color intensity of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of photoreceptors were decreased. Our results indicate that the severe retinal damage and loss of vision observed in human OT may be not only directly caused by infection but rather mediated by infection induced reactive gliosis. PMID:24929147

Lahmar, Ibtissem; Pfaff, Alexander W; Marcellin, Luc; Sauer, Arnaud; Moussa, Adnane; Babba, Hamouda; Candolfi, Ermanno

2014-09-01

258

Toxoplasmosis: antitoxoplasma IgG antibody levels in patients with lymphoid neoplasia in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The serum samples of 50 patients with lymphoid neoplasia, and of 112 control subjects from the normal population were analysed for the presence of antitoxoplasma IgG antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. There was no significant difference between the prevalence rate of antitoxoplasma IgG antibodies in the control subjects (69%) and the patients with lymphoid neoplasia (66%). The prevalence of antitoxoplasma IgG antibody levels of 75 international units (i.u.) per ml and above was significantly higher in the patients (48%) than in the control subjects (18%). Antitoxoplasma IgG antibody levels of 150 i.u. and above per ml indicating active toxoplasmosis were present in 13 (26%) out of the 50 patients with lymphoid neoplasia. None of the sera from the control subjects had antitoxoplasma IgG antibody level up to 150 i.u. per ml of serum. PMID:7653402

Ekweozor, C C; Okpala, L E; Bamgboye, A E; Jegede, O

1994-12-01

259

Recombinant Dense Granular Protein (GRA5) for Detection of Human Toxoplasmosis by Western Blot  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5) in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5) was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp.). PMID:24987700

Ching, Xiao Teng; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Andiappan, Hemah

2014-01-01

260

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of punctate outer retinal toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Punctate outer retinal toxoplasmosis is a recognized phenotype of this common ocular parasite. We present a case presenting with poor visual acuity, but with prompt treatment regaining excellent vision by the final time point. Imaging demonstrates progression of an active lesion adjacent to an inactive retinal scar with color photography, fluorescein angiography, and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). SD-OCT imaging of the chorioretinal scar demonstrated alternating hypertrophy and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium along with a discrete break in Bruch’s membrane. At baseline, the active lesion demonstrated a large collection of inflammatory subretinal fluid adjacent to an area of active retinitis. Over time, the subretinal material was found to resolve, there was restoration of the foveal anatomy, and the area of retinitis progressed into a chorioretinal scar. PMID:24843310

Lujan, Brandon J.

2014-01-01

261

Recombinant dense granular protein (GRA5) for detection of human toxoplasmosis by Western blot.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5) in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5) was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp.). PMID:24987700

Ching, Xiao Teng; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Andiappan, Hemah

2014-01-01

262

Diagnosis of antigenic markers of acute toxoplasmosis by IgG avidity immunoblotting  

PubMed Central

To perform IgG avidity immunoblotting assay for detection of acute toxoplasmosis, 100 serum samples were collected from Tehran, Iran. The presence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were checked by commercial Trinity kit. Samples were categorized in acute and chronic phases of Toxoplasma gondii infection according to IgG avidity ELISA. IgG avidity immunoblotting was performed, and antigenic bands with molecular weights of 22, 25, 28, 30, 32, 42, 44, 49, 55, 60, 66, 69, 88, 106, 130 and 157 kDa were recognized as low avidity markers. The most prevalent antigen for low avidity was p22. It is concluded that IgG avidity immunoblotting could distinguish acute and chronic phases of T. gondii infection. PMID:23688778

Ali-Heydari, Siamak; Keshavarz, Hossien; Shojaee, Saeedeh; Mohebali, Mehdi

2013-01-01

263

Use of IgG in oral fluid to monitor infants with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Infants born to mothers who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of sequelae. In the case of a negative work-up at birth, congenital infection can be ruled out only by monitoring the disappearance of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) transmitted through the placenta, which can be achieved by regular blood sampling during the first year. To alleviate the discomfort of this follow-up, we developed an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect specific IgG diffusing passively from the blood through the gingival epithelium by collecting oral fluid on microsponges. To assess the feasibility of the test, 212 patients were first enrolled. Levels of specific IgG in oral fluid were significantly higher in seropositive (n = 195) than in seronegative (n = 17) patients (mean optical densities, 1.145 ± 0.99 versus 0.092 ± 0.127; P < 0.0001). In a population of 93 patients <15 months of age born to mothers who displayed toxoplasmic infection during pregnancy, 70 were free of congenital infection and were followed up until their serology turned negative, and 23 were congenitally infected. The same patterns of IgG were observed in the oral fluid and sera in each group. Using a cutoff of 0.04 (optical density value), the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 67.9% and 80.3%, respectively, and the probability of not having a congenital infection when the test on oral fluid was negative was 99%. Although the performance of the test needs to be improved, oral fluid sampling appears to be a promising tool for monitoring infants with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:25651923

Chapey, Emmanuelle; Meroni, Valeria; Kieffer, François; Bollani, Lina; Ecochard, René; Garcia, Patricia; Wallon, Martine; Peyron, François

2015-04-01

264

Interleukin-6-driven inflammatory response induces retinal pathology in a model of ocular toxoplasmosis reactivation.  

PubMed

Ocular inflammation is one of the consequences of infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Even if lesions are self-healing in immunocompetent persons, they pose a lifetime risk of reactivation and are a serious threat to vision. As there are virtually no immunological data on reactivating ocular toxoplasmosis, we established a model of direct intravitreal injection of parasites in previously infected mice with a homologous type II strain. Two different mouse strains with variable ability to control retinal infection were studied in order to describe protective and deleterious reaction patterns. In Swiss-Webster mice, which are already relatively resistant to primary infection, no peak of parasite load was observed upon reinfection. In contrast, the susceptible inbred strain C57BL/6 showed high parasite loads after 7 days, as well as marked deterioration of retinal architecture. Both parameters were back to normal on day 21. C57BL/6 mice also reacted with a strong local production of inflammatory and Th1-type cytokines, like interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17A, and gamma interferon (IFN-?), while Swiss-Webster mice showed only moderate expression of the Th2 cytokine IL-31. Interestingly, rapid intraocular production of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was observed in Swiss-Webster but not in C57BL/6 mice. We then localized the cellular source of different immune mediators within the retina by immunofluorescence. Finally, neutralization experiments of IFN-? or IL-6 demonstrated the respective protective and deleterious roles of these cytokines for parasite control and retinal integrity during reinfection. In conclusion, we developed and immunologically characterized a promising mouse model of reactivating ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:25754200

Rochet, Élise; Brunet, Julie; Sabou, Marcela; Marcellin, Luc; Bourcier, Tristan; Candolfi, Ermanno; Pfaff, Alexander W

2015-05-01

265

High seroprevalence of echinococossis, schistosomiasis and toxoplasmosis among the populations in Babati and Monduli districts, Tanzania.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe neglected tropical diseases, echinococcosis, schistosomiasis and toxoplasmosis are all globally widespread zoonotic diseases with potentially harmful consequences. There is very limited data available on the prevalence of these infections, except for schistosmiasis, in underdeveloped countries. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis, Schistosoma mansoni, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in populations from the Monduli and Babati districts in Tanzania.MethodsA total of 345 blood samples were collected from 160 and 185 randomly selected households from Babati and Monduli districts, Tanzania between February and May of 2012 and analyzed them using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The antibodies were determined using the NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgG, NovaLisa® Schistosoma Mansoni IgG, NovaLisa® Echinococcus IgG and NovaLisa® Toxoplasma gondii IgM kits (Novatec, Germany).ResultsThe seropositivity estimated for E. multilocularis, S. mansoni, and T. gondii IgG was 11.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.96 - 14.6), 51.3% (95% CI: 46.0 - 56.5), and 57.68% (95% CI: 52.5 - 62.9), respectively. The seropositivity for T. gondii IgM was 11.3% (95% CI: 7.96 - 14.6). Living in the Monduli district was found to be the main risk factor for IgG seropositivity for both schistosomiasis (OR =1.94; 95% CI: 1.23 - 3.08; p =0.005) and toxoplasmosis (OR =2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33; p =0.002).ConclusionsThese results suggest that restricting disease transmission, implementing control measures, and introducing training projects to increase public awareness are imperative, particularly for the Monduli district. PMID:25388913

Khan, Mohammad; Sonaimuthu, Parthasarathy; Lau, Yee; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahmud, Rohela; Kavana, Nicholas; Kassuku, Ayub; Kasanga, Christopher

2014-11-12

266

Alternative treatment approach to cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: experience from a resource poor setting.  

PubMed

The current standard treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis (pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine) often encounters problems of poor tolerability, adverse effects, frequent dropouts and non-availability of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine in some parts of India. We had to use the combination of two effective alternative agents for toxoplasmosis, cotrimoxazole and clindamycin, on compassionate ground. This retrospective observational study reports superior efficacy and better tolerability of cotrimoxazole/clindamycin compared to recommended regimen. Primary end-point (complete response) was defined as more than 50% improvement of clinical status or more than 50% decrease in the size of brain lesions after two weeks of treatment initiation. Complete response occurred more commonly in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin than in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine (80% vs. 31.25%, respectively, relative risk 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-5.43). There was a trend towards higher on-treatment mortality in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine in comparison to cotrimoxazole/clindamycin group (mortality rates 37.5% in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine vs 12% in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin, p?=?0.07, relative risk?=?3.125, 95% confidence interval: 0.91-10.75). Overall, 62.5% (10/16) patients in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine suffered drug-related adverse reactions compared to 24% (6/25) in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (p?=?0.02, relative risk?=?2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-5.76). Commonest complication in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine was severe thrombocytopenia with major bleeding (4/16, 25%). We propose that the new combination chemotherapy, which is widely available, effective and safe, can be practiced in developing countries. PMID:25411350

Goswami, Rama Prosad; Goswami, Rudra Prosad; Rahman, Mehebubar; Ray, Yogiraj; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

2014-11-18

267

Some perspectives on currency relations between EMU and Central and East European EU accession countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central and East European prospective EU members are natural candidates for a subsequent admission to the European Monetary Union (EMU). This poses questions on (a) the optimal EMU accession time for Central European EU aspirants, and (b) the optimal exchange rate system in preparing for EMU accession. This paper discusses related issues and introduces four special issue papers on the

Richard Frensch

2001-01-01

268

Towards an immunosense vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis: Protective Toxoplasma gondii epitopes restricted by HLA-A*0201  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal vaccine to protect against toxoplasmosis in humans would include antigens that elicit a protective T helper cell type 1 immune response, and generate long-lived IFN-?-producing CD8+ T cells. Herein, we utilized a predictive algorithm to identify candidate HLA-A02 supertype epitopes from Toxoplasma gondii proteins. Thirteen peptides elicited production of IFN-? from PBMC of HLA-A02 supertype persons seropositive for

Hua Cong; Ernest J. Mui; William H. Witola; John Sidney; Jeff Alexander; Alessandro Sette; Ajesh Maewal; Rima McLeod

2011-01-01

269

Waterborne toxoplasmosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Humans become infected with Toxoplasma gondii mainly by ingesting uncooked meat containing viable tissue cysts or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts from the feces of infected cats. Circumstantial evidence suggests that oocyst-induced infections in humans are clinically more severe...

270

Toxoplasmosis Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... infects cats and can be found in the soil. The infection can be acquired by ingesting contaminated ... fruits and vegetables that are grown in contaminated soil, from the soil itself, from contaminated water, and ...

271

Experimental Prospect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first conference of this series the three of the lepton mixing angles are known. The non-zero value of the third mixing angle (?13) has been reported by ?e appearance in accelerator ?? beam and by ? disappearance in reactor experiments. The observation of the ?e appearance in ?? beam is the first clear evidence of the flavor oscillations. The results also show that neutrino oscillations phenomena can be described by three-generation scheme to the first approximation, where mixing of neutrinos can be described by three angles and one complex phase. There are two main issues to be investigated by neutrino oscillation experiments. One is the study of CP violation in lepton secto. Namely, the measurement of CP violating complex phase ? and the studies of the nature of CP violation phenomena in lepton sector. The other is search for neutrinos beyond three generations. There are indications of the existence of additional neutrinos, which should be tested by definitive experiments. The number of neutrino species has important implications not only in particle physics but also in physics of early Universe. Also many fundamental natures of neutrinos remain to be studied, such as absolute values of masses, nature of the particle (Majorana or Dirac particle). This article concentrates on the future experimental prospects on the study of neutrino physics by means of neutrino oscillation.

Nishikawa, Koichiro

2013-02-01

272

Prospect redux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The remote estimation of leaf biochemical content from spaceborne platforms has been the subject of many studies aimed at better understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The major ecological processes involved in exchange of matter and energy, like photosynthesis, primary production, evaportranspiration, respiration, and decomposition can be related to plant properties e.g., chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose and lignin contents. As leaves represent the most important plant surfaces interacting with solar energy, a top priority has been to relate optical properties to biochemical constituents. Two different approaches have been considered: first, statistical correlations between the leaf reflectance (or transmittance) and biochemical content, and second, physically based models of leaf scattering and absorption developed using the laws of optics. Recently reviewed by Verdebout et al., the development of models of leaf optical properties has resulted in better understanding of the interaction of light with plant leaves. Present radiative transfer models mainly use chlorophyll and/or water contents as input parameters to calculate leaf reflectance. Inversion of these models allows to retrieve these constituents from spectrophotometric measurements. Conel et al. recently proposed a two-stream Kubelka-Munk model to analyze the influence of protein, cellulose, lignin, and starch on leaf reflectance, but in fact, the estimation of leaf biochemistry from remote sensing is still an open question. In order to clarify it, a laboratory experiment associating visible/infrared spectra of plan leaves both with physical measurements and biochemical analyses was conducted at the Joint Research Center during the summer of 1993. This unique data set has been used to upgrade the PROSPECT model, by including leaf biochemistry.

Jacquemoud, S.; Ustin, S. L.; Verdebout, J.; Schmuck, G.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.

1995-01-01

273

Exploring the ecologic basis for extreme susceptibility of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) to fatal toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Recent efforts by North American zoos to establish a genetically viable captive population of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) have been compromised by high newborn mortality (approximately 60%), primarily because of toxoplasmosis. The basis for this extreme susceptibility to toxoplasmosis is unknown. In the present study, the general health status of wild Pallas' cats in Mongolia was evaluated, including assessment of basal hematologic parameters and fecal corticoid metabolite concentrations. The prevalence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Mongolian Pallas' cats, local domestic cats, and prey species also was determined based on serology and/or polymerase chain reaction analysis. Biologic samples (blood, feces, and/or brain tissue) were obtained from 15 wild Pallas' cats, 15 domestic cats, and 45 prey animals (rodents and pikas) captured in Mongolia during the summers of 2000 and 2001. Comparative data were obtained from nine captive Pallas' cats maintained in North American zoos. Based on physical examinations, complete blood counts, and blood chemistry analyses, only minor differences were observed in the general health status of wild and captive Pallas' cats. Fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between populations, indicating that Pallas' cats in captivity and in the wild have similar basal adrenocortical activity. A pronounced difference (P < 0.01) in seroprevalence to T. gondii was observed between populations. Whereas all captive Pallas' cats exhibited elevated immunoglobulin titers (IgG > 2,048) to T. gondii, only two of 15 (13%) wild Pallas' cats were seropositive, with both cats having lower IgG titers (< 1,024). Furthermore, no evidence of exposure to this parasite was found in any of the Mongolian domestic cats or prey species. These findings suggest that wild Pallas' cats have minimal opportunity for exposure to T. gondii in their natural habitat and, typically, do not become infected with this parasite until being brought into captivity. Accordingly, maintenance of a viable captive population may require implementing effective strategies to prevent exposure of immunologically naive Pallas' cats to T. gondii and to reduce parasite transmission between seropositive females and their highly susceptible offspring. PMID:16456157

Brown, Meredith; Lappin, Michael R; Brown, Janine L; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Swanson, William F

2005-10-01

274

Intranasal immunisation with recombinant Toxoplasma gondii actin partly protects mice against toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan intracellular parasite, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, and a worldwide zoonosis for which an effective vaccine is needed. Actin is a highly conserved microfilament protein that plays an important role in the invasion of host cells by T. gondii. This study investigated the immune responses elicited by BALB/c mice after nasal immunisation with a recombinant T. gondii actin (rTgACT) and the subsequent protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections. We evaluated the systemic response by proliferation, cytokine and antibody measurements, and we assessed the mucosal response by examining the levels of TgACT-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. Parasite load was assessed in the liver and brain, and the survival of mice challenged with a virulent strain was determined. The results showed that the mice immunised with rTgACT developed high levels of specific anti-rTgACT IgG titres and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with a predominance of IgG2a. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-? and IL-2), Th2 (IL-4) and Treg (IL-10) cytokines, indicating that not only Th1-type response was induced, but also Th2- and Treg-types responses were induced, and the splenocyte stimulation index (SI) was increased in the mice immunised with rTgACT. Nasal immunisation with rTgACT led to strong mucosal immune responses, as seen by the increased secretion of SIgA in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes. The vaccinated mice displayed significant protection against lethal infection with the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%), while the mice chronically infected with RH exhibited lower liver and brain parasite loads (60.05% and 49.75%, respectively) than the controls. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that actin triggers a strong systemic and mucosal response against T. gondii. Therefore, actin may be a promising vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. PMID:24386114

Yin, Li-Tian; Hao, Hai-Xia; Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Yin, Guo-Rong

2013-01-01

275

European Central Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

276

Cerebral toxoplasmosis in an adolescent post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: successful outcome by antiprotozoal chemotherapy and CD4+ T-lymphocyte recovery.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a rare opportunistic infection in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients and associated with severe T-cell deficiency. Here, we report the successful management of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a 15-year-old adolescent 4 months post allo-HSCT for non-Hodgkin lymphoma through rapid invasive diagnostics, long-term antiprotozoal chemotherapy, and an hematopoietic stem cell boost for persistently poor graft function. While supportive care and antiprotozoal chemotherapy achieved stabilization, definite improvement only occurred following recovery of CD4(+) T lymphocytes to >100 cells/?L. At 5 years after the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, the patient is in continuing remission with normalized clinical and imaging findings. PMID:25581774

Kerl, K; Ehlert, K; Brentrup, A; Schiborr, M; Keyvani, K; Becker, K; Rossig, C; Groll, A H

2015-02-01

277

Impact assessment of the European Clinical Trials Directive: a longitudinal, prospective, observational study analyzing patterns and trends in clinical drug trial applications submitted since 2001 to regulatory agencies in six EU countries  

PubMed Central

Background Shifts in clinical trial application rates over time indicate if the attractiveness of a country or region for the conduct of clinical trials is growing or decreasing. The purpose of this observational study was to track changes in drug trial application patterns across several EU countries in order to analyze the medium-term impact of the EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC on the conduct of drug trials. Methods Rates of Clinical Trial Applications (CTA) for studies with medicinal products in those six countries in the EU, which authorize on average more than 500 trials per year, were analyzed. Publicly available figures on the number of annually submitted CTA, the distribution of trials per phase and the type of sponsorship were tracked; missing data were provided by national drug agencies. Results Since 2001, the number of CTA in Italy and Spain increased significantly (5.0 and 2.5% average annual growth). For Italy, the gain was driven by a strong increase of applications from academic trial sponsors; Spain's growth was due to a rise in trials run by commercial sponsors. The Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK saw a decline (1.9, 2.3, 3.0 and 5.3% average annual diminution; significant (P < 0.05) except for Germany) in clinical drug trials. The decrease in the UK was caused by a sharp fall in academic trial activities. Across the six analyzed countries, no EU-wide trial-phase-specific patterns or trends were observed. Conclusions The EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC did not achieve the harmonization of clinical trial requirements across Europe. Rather, it resulted in the leveling of clinical trial activities caused by a continuing decrease in CTA rates in the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK. Southern European countries, Italy and Spain, benefited to some extent from policy changes introduced by the Directive. In Italy's case, national funding measures helped to considerably promote the conduct of non-commercial trials. On the other hand, the EU Directive-driven transition from liberal policy environments, based on non-explicit trial approval through notifications, towards red-taped processes of trial authorization, contributed to the decreases in trial numbers in Germany and the UK. In the latter case, national research governance concerns had a share in the country's marked decline. However, different EU member states successfully developed best practices, which a new European legislation should take into consideration to resume Europe's attractiveness and international competitiveness for the conduct of clinical trials. PMID:22540886

2012-01-01

278

[Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, CT and MRI images and differential diagnostic problems].  

PubMed

Cranial computed-tomographies (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 14 patients with AIDS and central nervous system toxoplasmosis (CNST) were reviewed. In spite of the low specificity of CT and MRI findings in CNS mass lesions of AIDS patients, there are some features which have been observed as more typical of CNST, namely: 94.9% of the lesions were round shaped and 94.5% had ring or nodular enhancement; 81.3% of the cases presented multiple lesions; 60.2% of the lesions were localized at the cerebral cortical or corticomedullary junction (100% of the cases showed at least 1 lesion in this localization); 34.6% of the lesions had less than 1cm in diameter.; on nonenhanced CT, 91.3% of the lesions were hypodense.; On T2-weighted MR images, 53.4% of the lesions had at least one hypointense zone on T2-weighted images. The existence of target-shaped lesions with hypointense centre on T2-weighted MR images (29.3% the observed lesions) is also suggestive of CNST, which, to our belief, had not been previously reported and will need confirmation with larger series. The visualization of iso/hyperdense lesions on nonenhanced CT or irregular shape lesions is uncommon in CNST. The finding of a solitary lesion, on CT or MR, it is not, by itself, a good criterion of differential diagnosis. PMID:8638472

Miguel, J; Champalimaud, J L; Borges, A; Chorăo, M; Branco, G; Doroana, M; Medina, E

1996-01-01

279

Effect of immunosuppressive drug regimens on acute and chronic murine toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential risk of dissemination or reactivation of toxoplasmosis following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy we examined the effect of corticoids, azathioprine, and cyclosporine given alone or in combination on the course of murine acute and chronic toxoplasmic infection. Swiss Webster mice were infected perorally with a high-level inoculum of cysts of the C strain of Toxoplasma gondii. The evolution of the kinetics of parasite loads in the blood, brain, and lungs of infected and immunosuppressed mice was then sequentially followed. In mice with orally acquired infections initiated 2 days after the beginning of drug treatment, immunosuppression led to the persistence of parasites, especially in the lungs, which was most marked in mice treated with azathioprine and/or cortisol acetate. Administration of immunosuppressive therapy in mice previously infected with T. gondii resulted in a brief resurgence of parasite loads when treatment was started early after infection. Finally, under our experimental conditions we found that the immunosuppressive drugs that were given altered the natural course of infection with a prolonged persistence of parasites in the lungs but did not significantly affect parasite loads in the brain or lead to disseminated infection with detectable parasitemia. PMID:8897501

Sumyuen, M H; Garin, Y J; Derouin, F

1996-01-01

280

Triclosan and triclosan-loaded liposomal nanoparticles in the treatment of acute experimental toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Efficacy of triclosan (TS) and TS-loaded liposomes against the virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) was evaluated. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with 10(4) tachyzoites of RH HXGPRT(-) strain of T. gondii, then were orally treated with 150?mg/kg TS or 100?mg/kg TS liposomes twice daily for 4 days. Mice mortality, peritoneal and liver parasite burdens, viability, infectivity and ultrastructural changes of peritoneal tachyzoites of infected treated mice were studied, in comparison with those of infected non-treated controls. Drug safety was biochemically assessed by measuring liver enzymes and thyroxin. Both TS and TS liposomes induced significant reduction in mice mortality, parasite burden, viability and infectivity of tachyzoites harvested from infected treated mice. Scanning electron microscopy of treated tachyzoites showed distorted shapes, reduced sizes, irregularities, surface protrusions, erosions and peeling besides apical region distortion. Transmission electron microscopy showed that treated tachyzoites were intracellularly distorted, had cytoplasmic vacuolation, discontinuous plasma membranes, nuclear abnormalities and disrupted internal structures. Besides, in TS liposomes-treated subgroup, most tachyzoites were seen intracellularly with complete disintegration of the parasite plasma and nuclear membranes, with complete destruction of the internal structures. Biochemical safety of TS and TS liposomes was proven. Accordingly, TS can be considered as a promising alternative to the standard therapy for treating acute murine toxoplasmosis. Liposomal formulation of TS enhanced its efficacy and allowed its use in a lower dose. PMID:25499511

El-Zawawy, Lobna A; El-Said, Doaa; Mossallam, Shereen F; Ramadan, Heba S; Younis, Salwa S

2015-02-01

281

High susceptibility of partridges ( Perdix perdix ) to toxoplasmosis compared with other gallinaceous birds.  

PubMed

Partridges ( Perdix perdix ), chukars ( Alectoris chukar ), wild guineafowl ( Numida meleagris ), wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) and chickens ( Gallus domesticus ) were inoculated per os with 103 or 105 Toxoplasma gondii oocysts (K7 strain). Two of five partridges fed 103 oocysts and six of eight partridges fed 105 oocysts died between day 6 and 16 post-inoculation (p.i.); no clinical symptoms were observed in surviving birds. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in the birds by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) first on day 7 p.i. On days 14, 21 and 28 p.i. (end of the experiment), antibodies were found in all partridges, chukars, guineafowl and turkeys. In chickens, IFAT antibodies were first detected on day 14 p.i., and all chickens were serologically positive on days 21 and 28 p.i. Bioassay in mice revealed T. gondii in the brain, liver, spleen, heart and leg muscles of all partridges and chukars. Enteritis was the most striking lesion in partridges that died. Results indicated that partridges are highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis, while chukars, wild guineafowl and turkeys seem to be less susceptible. Chickens are highly resistant to T. gondii infections. PMID:19184852

Sedlak, K; Franti, I L

2000-12-01

282

Plasma pyrimethamine concentrations during long-term treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.  

PubMed Central

Steady-state plasma pyrimethamine levels were measured by gas chromatography. The specimens were taken from 74 adults with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection receiving pyrimethamine-containing drugs for prophylaxis or curative therapy of reactivated cerebral toxoplasmosis. During an overall treatment period of 1,049 months, 1,012 plasma samples were investigated. Pyrimethamine concentrations could be evaluated in 904 plasma samples. The weekly dosage of pyrimethamine ranged from 25 to 1,400 mg; one patient with severe diarrhea received 2,100 mg/week. Steady-state plasma pyrimethamine concentrations were achieved after 12 to 20 days. Pyrimethamine concentrations evidently increased with the weekly dosage given. Mean concentrations were 253 +/- 151 ng/ml with 50 mg of pyrimethamine per week, 471 +/- 214 ng/ml with 100 mg of pyrimethamine per week, 1,893 +/- 1,182 ng/ml with 350 mg of pyrimethamine per week and 3,369 +/- 1,726 ng/ml with 1,050 mg of pyrimethamine per week. A widespread interpatient range was found for every dosage. With the simultaneous use of enzyme-inducing comedication, the plasma pyrimethamine levels decreased in several patients. Mild chronic liver disease did not influence plasma pyrimethamine concentrations. To avoid ineffective therapy or severe side effects, monitoring of pyrimethamine could be useful in patients receiving enzyme-inducing comedications and in patients with severe diarrhea or poor compliance. PMID:8807051

Klinker, H; Langmann, P; Richter, E

1996-01-01

283

Toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy: improved serodiagnosis based on avidity of IgG.  

PubMed

Serodiagnostic methods were evaluated in prenatal screening for primary Toxoplasma infections acquired during pregnancy in the Helsinki area. Altogether 44,181 sera were obtained consecutively during each trimester from 16,733 mothers. All IgG-containing samples were first examined by a sensitive mu-capture (IgM) ELISA, and positive results were reassessed by IgM immunoblotting and indirect IgM ELISA. An assay measuring the avidity of toxoplasma IgG was used for the first time under screening conditions. Patients suspected to have recent toxoplasmosis were reexamined by IgA ELISA and selectively by the differential agglutination assay (HS/AC test) and IgE ELISA; 16 women with diagnostic increases in IgG titer, 36 with IgM fulfilling strict specificity criteria, and 25 with IgG of low avidity were identified. The measurement of IgG avidity was a highly specific and sensitive method suitable for verification of acute primary Toxoplasma infections during pregnancy. PMID:8440939

Lappalainen, M; Koskela, P; Koskiniemi, M; Ammälä, P; Hiilesmaa, V; Teramo, K; Raivio, K O; Remington, J S; Hedman, K

1993-03-01

284

Incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis estimated by neonatal screening: relevance of diagnostic confirmation in asymptomatic newborn infants.  

PubMed Central

Congenital toxoplasmosis is rarely identified by routine clinical examination. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the disease in the region of Ribeirăo Preto, south-eastern Brazil. A definitive diagnosis was made on the basis of the persistence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies beyond 1 year of age. Blood samples obtained from 15,162 neonates and adsorbed onto filter paper were tested for anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Fifteen samples gave positive results. A definitive diagnosis was confirmed in five of the 13 infants (38.5%) who completed follow-up. These five infants presented with serum IgM and/or IgA antibodies, and clinical abnormalities. Disease incidence was estimated to be 3.3/10,000 (95% CI 1.0-7.7), indicating the need for preventive measures. Neonatal screening is feasible, but screening tests with a better performance are required; positive screening results must be carefully confirmed. PMID:15962555

Carvalheiro, C. G.; Mussi-Pinhata, M. M.; Yamamoto, A. Y.; De Souza, C. B. S.; Maciel, L. M. Z.

2005-01-01

285

Chronic murine toxoplasmosis is defined by subtle changes in neuronal connectivity  

PubMed Central

Recent studies correlate chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection with behavioral changes in rodents; additionally, seropositivity in humans is reported to be associated with behavioral and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study we investigated whether the described behavioral changes in a murine model of chronic toxoplasmosis are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity and brain neuronal circuitry. In mice chronically infected with T. gondii, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data analysis displayed the presence of heterogeneous lesions scattered throughout all brain areas. However, a higher density of lesions was observed within specific regions such as the somatosensory cortex (SSC). Further histopathological examination of these brain areas indicated the presence of activated resident glia and recruited immune cells accompanied by limited alterations of neuronal viability. In vivo diffusion-tensor MRI analysis of neuronal fiber density within the infected regions revealed connectivity abnormalities in the SSC. Altered fiber density was confirmed by morphological analysis of individual, pyramidal and granule neurons, showing a reduction in dendritic arbor and spine density within the SSC, as well as in the hippocampus. Evaluation of synapse efficacy revealed diminished levels of two key synaptic proteins, PSD95 and synaptophysin, within the same brain areas, indicating deficits in functionality of the synaptic neurotransmission in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. gondii infection in a murine model results in synaptic deficits within brain structures leading to disturbances in the morphology of noninfected neurons and modified brain connectivity, suggesting a potential explanation for the behavioral and neuropsychiatric alterations. PMID:24524910

Parlog, Alexandru; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Weller, Marianna; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Mawrin, Christian; Korte, Martin; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

2014-01-01

286

Black Europeans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Library has been producing quality online features for close to a decade now, and this latest offering is worth a close look. This particular feature offers some insights and commentary on five prominent black Europeans. It may even come as a surprise to some visitors that several of the individuals profiled were black, such as Alexandre Dumas, the celebrated author of The Three Musketeers. These profiles are supplemented with essays by Dr. Mike Phillips, a writer, scholar, and journalist. The essays are accompanied by a series of images, including engravings, portraits, and illustrations. Visitors may also want to view and print out extended versions of Phillipsâ?? essays, which are available here in the pdf format.

287

Auranofin Is Highly Efficacious against Toxoplasma gondii In Vitro and in an In Vivo Experimental Model of Acute Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background The mainstay of toxoplasmosis treatment targets the folate biosynthetic pathways and has not changed for the last 50 years. The activity of these chemotherapeutic agents is restricted to one lifecycle stage of Toxoplasma gondii, they have significant toxicity, and the impending threat of emerging resistance to these agents makes the discovery of new therapies a priority. We now demonstrate that auranofin, an orally administered gold containing compound that was FDA approved for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has activity against Toxoplasma gondii in vitro (IC50?=?0.28 µM) and in vivo (1 mg/kg). Methods/Principal Findings Replication within human foreskin fibroblasts of RH tachyzoites was inhibited by auranofin. At 0.4 µM, auranofin inhibited replication, as measured by percent infected fibroblasts at 24 hrs, (10.94% vs. 24.66% of controls; p?=?0.0003) with no effect on parasite invasion (16.95% vs. 12.91% p?=?0.4331). After 18 hrs, 62% of extracellular parasites treated with auranofin were non-viable compared to control using an ATP viability assay (p?=?0.0003). In vivo, a previously standardized chicken embryo model of acute toxoplasmosis was used. Fourteen day old chicken embryos were injected through the chorioallantoic vein with 1×104 tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain. The treatment group received one dose of auranofin at the time of inoculation (1 mg/kg estimated body weight). On day 5, auranofin-treated chicken embryos were 100% protected against death (p?=?0.0002) and had a significantly reduced parasite load as determined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and by the number of parasites quantified by real-time PCR. Conclusions These results reveal in vitro and in vivo activity of auranofin against T. gondii, suggesting that it may be an effective alternative treatment for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25079790

Andrade, Rosa M.; Chaparro, Juan D.; Capparelli, Edmund; Reed, Sharon L.

2014-01-01

288

Mineral prospecting manual  

SciTech Connect

This book: provides the mineral prospector with a series of essential guidelines for the work he must do and the precautions he will have to take; shows how successful mineral prospecting is dependent on the critical examination of technical, economic and financial data examined during each phase of the operation; and provides information on physical preparations for prospecting, hammer prospecting, prospecting in coastal formations, drilling techniques and equipment, sampling procedures, and current research methods (e.g.: remote sensing and geochemistry).

Chaussier, J.B.; Morer, J.

1986-01-01

289

European Space Agency European Space Exploration  

E-print Network

European Space Agency Aurora European Space Exploration Programme EXECUTIVE SUMMARY #12;2 Aurora Programme EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. What is Aurora? A European Space Exploration Programme based on a road map economically and politically as a leading world power, it cannot leave space exploration to the other space

Crawford, Ian

290

European Dialogue: The Magazine for European Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new bimonthly magazine published by the European Commission is targeted at "decision-makers/opinion formers having an impact on European Integration" in the ten Central European and Baltic countries that have applied to join the EU. The electronic version of the first issue contains articles on humanitarian aid, membership negotiations, pensions, and economic forecasts.

291

The Importance of IgG Avidity and the Polymerase Chain Reaction in Treating Toxoplasmosis during Pregnancy: Current Knowledge  

PubMed Central

A brief report on the nature and epidemiology of T. gondii infection is firstly presented. The importance of the specific IgG avidity test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for toxoplasmosis is discussed, along with their significance and importance as auxiliary methods for determining the most likely time for the initial infection by this coccidian and for defining the therapeutic strategy. Lastly, practical comments are made in relation to the classical therapeutic regimens, with special attention to the indications for fetal treatment, when this is necessary. PMID:24191157

Bortoletti Filho, Joăo; Carvalho, Natália da Silva; Helfer, Talita Micheletti; Nogueira Serni, Priscila de Oliveira; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

2013-01-01

292

The welfare costs of hybrid carbon policies in the European Union  

E-print Network

To what extent do the welfare costs associated with the implementation of the Burden Sharing Agreement in the European Union depend on sectoral allocation of emissions rights? What are the prospects for strategic climate ...

Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Viguier, Laurent L.; Reilly, John M.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Criqui, Patrick.

293

The European Food Consumption Validation Project: conclusions and recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:To outline and discuss the main results and conclusions of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project.Subjects\\/Methods:The EFCOVAL Project was carried out within the EU Sixth Framework Program by researchers in 11 EU countries. The activities focused on (1) the further development of the EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation

E J de Boer; N. Slimani; P van't Veer; H. Boeing; M. Feinberg; C Leclercq; E. Trolle; P. Amiano; L. F. Andersen; H. Freisling; A. Geelen; U. Harttig; I. Huybrechts; A. Kaic-Rak; L. Lafay; I. T. L. Lillegaard; J. Ruprich; J H de Vries; M. C. Ocke; EJ de Boer

2011-01-01

294

Amniocentesis for the detection of congenital toxoplasmosis: results from the nationwide Austrian prenatal screening program.  

PubMed

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) influences therapeutical management in pregnant women and their offspring. In Austria, a nationwide serological healthcare program to identify potential maternal toxoplasma infections during pregnancy exists. We assessed the clinical use of amniocentesis for toxoplasma-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on amniotic fluid to detect CT. Data on serology, amniocentesis, PCR, complications, treatment, and paediatric clinical outcome were collected retrospectively among the birth cohort 1992-2008. There were 1386 women with amniocentesis, but only in 707 cases (51%) was acute maternal infection confirmed serologically. A high proportion (49%) of amniocenteses with negative PCR results in women with chronic infection or seronegativity were performed without clinical justification for the women or their foetuses. The positive and negative predictive values of PCR were 94.4% and 99.3%, respectively. Thirty-nine foetuses with CT, including four deaths, were reported. The five PCR-negative but infected infants were identified by the serological and clinical follow-up program. Thirty percent of amniocenteses were performed in the third trimester, and gestational age or treatment did not influence PCR sensitivity. Amniocentesis is indicated in women with acute maternal infection, and facilitated targeted therapies in pregnant women and their offspring. In women with late toxoplasma infection, negative amniotic fluid PCR made treatment of infants unnecessary. Serological and clinical follow-up of infants is important to confirm the infection status of the infant. Recommendations, based on our 17-year experience, to improve the current diagnostic strategies and to reduce unnecessary amniocentesis, are given. PMID:25596783

Prusa, A-R; Kasper, D C; Pollak, A; Olischar, M; Gleiss, A; Hayde, M

2015-02-01

295

Evaluation of a New Protocol for Retrospective Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis by Use of Guthrie Cards  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of IgM Western blotting (WB), IgA enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and DNA amplification by real-time PCR on Guthrie cards to retrospectively establish the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). To this purpose, Guthrie cards were collected from 18 infants born to mothers with primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Moreover, the analytical sensitivity of T. gondii PCR was assessed by testing mock dried blood specimens set up with several known DNA dilutions. IgM WB was demonstrated to be the most sensitive method. When the results of T. gondii DNA detection and specific IgM recovery were combined, retrospective CT diagnosis by using Guthrie cards was established in 3 out of 6 infected infants (sensitivity, 50%; 95% confidence interval, 26.8% to 73.2%). No positive PCR or serologic results were found in the group of 12 uninfected infants, demonstrating the excellent specificity of the three methods (95% confidence interval, 78.1% to 99.5%). The findings of the present study suggest that, in cases of missed diagnosis of CT at birth, analysis of Guthrie cards for children with compatible clinical findings after the perinatal period, in particular the combination of recovery of specific IgM antibodies and T. gondii DNA amplification, could be helpful. Nevertheless, since suboptimal conditions of storage of dried blood specimens can seriously affect sensitivity, negative results cannot rule out CT diagnosis. In contrast, because of the excellent specificity shown by IgM serologic testing and T. gondii DNA amplification on Guthrie cards, positive results obtained by either of the two methods should be considered diagnostic. PMID:24899036

Capretti, Maria Grazia; De Angelis, Morena; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Foschi, Claudio; Orlandi, Azzurra; Marsico, Concetta; Righetti, Francesca; Faldella, Giacomo; Cevenini, Roberto

2014-01-01

296

Evaluation of a new protocol for retrospective diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by use of Guthrie cards.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of IgM Western blotting (WB), IgA enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and DNA amplification by real-time PCR on Guthrie cards to retrospectively establish the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). To this purpose, Guthrie cards were collected from 18 infants born to mothers with primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Moreover, the analytical sensitivity of T. gondii PCR was assessed by testing mock dried blood specimens set up with several known DNA dilutions. IgM WB was demonstrated to be the most sensitive method. When the results of T. gondii DNA detection and specific IgM recovery were combined, retrospective CT diagnosis by using Guthrie cards was established in 3 out of 6 infected infants (sensitivity, 50%; 95% confidence interval, 26.8% to 73.2%). No positive PCR or serologic results were found in the group of 12 uninfected infants, demonstrating the excellent specificity of the three methods (95% confidence interval, 78.1% to 99.5%). The findings of the present study suggest that, in cases of missed diagnosis of CT at birth, analysis of Guthrie cards for children with compatible clinical findings after the perinatal period, in particular the combination of recovery of specific IgM antibodies and T. gondii DNA amplification, could be helpful. Nevertheless, since suboptimal conditions of storage of dried blood specimens can seriously affect sensitivity, negative results cannot rule out CT diagnosis. In contrast, because of the excellent specificity shown by IgM serologic testing and T. gondii DNA amplification on Guthrie cards, positive results obtained by either of the two methods should be considered diagnostic. PMID:24899036

Marangoni, Antonella; Capretti, Maria Grazia; De Angelis, Morena; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Foschi, Claudio; Orlandi, Azzurra; Marsico, Concetta; Righetti, Francesca; Faldella, Giacomo; Cevenini, Roberto

2014-08-01

297

TOXOPLASMOSIS IN 3 SPECIES OF HAWAIIAN BIRDS, NEN GOOSE (NESOCHEN SANDKENSIS), ERCKELS FRANCOLIA (FRANCOLINUS ERCKERLII), AND RED-FOOTED BOOBY (SULA SULA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii infection was diagnosed in 3 species of Hawaiian birds, 2 Nene goose (Nesochen sankensis), 1 Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii), and 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii was found in sections of many organs of the...

298

Ante-mortem diagnosis, diarrhea, oocyst shedding, treatment, isolation and genetic typing of Toxoplasma gondii associated with clinical Toxoplasmosis in a naturally-infected cat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and other animals but clinical disease is relatively rare. It is unknown whether the severity of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent hosts is due to the parasite strain, host variability, or to other factors. Recently, attention has been focused on the ...

299

Toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recent...

300

Identification of an atypical strain of Toxoplasma gondii as the cause of a waterborne outbreak of toxoplasmosis in Santa IsabeldoIvai, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have identified an atypical strain of Toxoplasmagondii as the causative agent of the 2001 outbreak of toxoplasmosis in Santa Isabel do Ivai, Brazil, which resulted in approximately 426 human infections. The epidemic clone was isolated from multiple water filters collected from a cistern linked ep...

301

Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"…

Prandota, Joseph

2010-01-01

302

Endemic avian toxoplasmosis on a farm in Illinois: clinical disease, diagnosis, biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus), and a goose (Anser anser)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clinical toxoplasmosis in chickens (Gallus domesticus) has been rarely reported in literature. Here we report that three chickens on a farm in Illinois developed neurological signs . One of these chickens was examined postmortem and it had non-suppurative encephalitis with numerous Toxoplasma gondi...

303

Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

304

Genetic and Epigenetic Factors at COL2A1 and ABCA4 Influence Clinical Outcome in Congenital Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Background Primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can be transmitted to the fetus. At birth, infected infants may have intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus, and retinochoroiditis, and new ocular lesions can occur at any age after birth. Not all children who acquire infection in utero develop these clinical signs of disease. Whilst severity of disease is influenced by trimester in which infection is acquired by the mother, other factors including genetic predisposition may contribute. Methods and Findings In 457 mother-child pairs from Europe, and 149 child/parent trios from North America, we show that ocular and brain disease in congenital toxoplasmosis associate with polymorphisms in ABCA4 encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 4. Polymorphisms at COL2A1 encoding type II collagen associate only with ocular disease. Both loci showed unusual inheritance patterns for the disease allele when comparing outcomes in heterozygous affected children with outcomes in affected children of heterozygous mothers. Modeling suggested either an effect of mother's genotype, or parent-of-origin effects. Experimental studies showed that both ABCA4 and COL2A1 show isoform-specific epigenetic modifications consistent with imprinting. Conclusions These associations between clinical outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis and polymorphisms at ABCA4 and COL2A1 provide novel insight into the molecular pathways that can be affected by congenital infection with this parasite. PMID:18523590

Jamieson, Sarra E.; de Roubaix, Lee-Anne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Mui, Ernest J.; Cordell, Heather J.; Kirisits, Michael J.; Miller, E. Nancy; Peacock, Christopher S.; Hargrave, Aubrey C.; Coyne, Jessica J.; Boyer, Kenneth; Bessieres, Marie-Hélčne; Buffolano, Wilma; Ferret, Nicole; Franck, Jacqueline; Kieffer, François; Meier, Paul; Nowakowska, Dorota E.; Paul, Malgorzata; Peyron, François; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Thulliez, Philippe; Wallon, Martine; Petersen, Eskild; McLeod, Rima; Gilbert, Ruth E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

2008-01-01

305

[Rudolf-Virchow Prize 1998. Award lecture. Toxoplasmosis: a model infection for studying systemic and intracerebral immune reactions].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis has gained particular attention in the AIDS era as the most common opportunistic encephalitis in HIV-infected patients. Since there are important parallels between the human and rodent infection, experimental murine toxoplasmosis is widely used to study the immune reactions to this protozoal parasite. Oral application of low-virulent Toxoplasma (T.) gondii cysts leads to a biphasic disease characterized by an acute, generalized phase followed by a chronic stage confined to the brain, where an encephalitis with persistence of the parasite develops. Immunity to T. gondii is T cell mediated, and there is increasing evidence for a critical role of cytokines for an effective immune response. In order to address the functional role of interferon (IFN)-gamma in toxoplasmosis, we took advantage of mice lacking the IFN-gamma-receptor. Inactivation of the IFN-gamma-receptor rendered mice highly susceptible to T. gondii, and they died of a fulminant acute toxoplasmosis. Among the various organs affected, hepatitis was severe enough to cause death. In contrast to wild type animals, IFN-gamma-receptor-deficient mice were unable to activate their macrophages as evidenced by a lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen induction and the absence of an upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA transcripts, two macrophage effector molecules. These observations prompted the investigation of TNF- and TNF-receptor-mediated effects in toxoplasmosis by use of mice deficient in either the TNF-receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and/or the TNF-receptor type 2 (TNFR2). The lethal outcome of T. gondii-infected TNFR1/2- and TNFR1-deficient mice, but not of TNFR2-deficient and wild type animals, illustrated the important role of TNF-alpha and TNFR1-mediated signalling, respectively, in this infection. Histopathology attributed death of TNFR1- and TNFR1/2-deficient mice to a severe, necrotizing encephalitis. Unrestricted intracerebral parasite replication in these strains was associated with reduced numbers of iNOS+ leukocytes and a lack of iNOS mRNA induction in their brains as compared to resistant wild type and TNFR2-deficient mice. To precisely identify the cellular sources of cytokines in the brain, flow cytometry of leukocytes isolated from the brain, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis of cytokine mRNA transcripts of magnetically purified leukocyte populations were performed. These studies disclosed that both CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages recruited to the brain as well as resident cell populations of the CNS including neurons, astrocytes and microglia contributed to the intracerebral cytokine synthesis. Each population was characterized by a specific cytokine pattern. Interestingly, activation of brain cells is a hallmark of Toxoplasma encephalitis. The marked induction of a variety of immunologically important cell surface molecules as MHC class I and II antigens, cell adhesion molecules and their ligands on microglia points to a particular important role of this cell type for the immune response to T. gondii, since the expression of these molecules is a prerequisite for cellular interactions with T cells. The observation of a prominent interleukin (IL)-10 production in the T. gondii-infected brain initiated studies addressing the function of this powerful immunosuppressive mediator in chronic Toxoplasma encephalitis. Neutralization experiments revealed that IL-10 facilitates persistence of the parasite in the brain by downregulating the intracerebral immune response. On the other hand, IL-10 may exert a regulatory role and may be necessary to prevent immunopathological effects of an uncontrolled immune response. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate the important role of the cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and their receptors, respectively, for an effective control of T. gondii. In the CNS, the target organ of the parasite, a PMID:10095413

Deckert-Schlüter, M

1998-01-01

306

Emirati Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Europe and Europeans and Their Teaching Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In our increasingly globalised world, it is very important to see how Europe is perceived by non-Europeans and especially from people who have for a long time been considered the "Other". In the study reported here, the image of Europe and Europeans is explored based on the perceptions of 478 Emirati (United Arab Emirates citizens) prospective

Kostoulas-Makrakis, Nelly

2005-01-01

307

Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and…

Prandota, Joseph

2010-01-01

308

Prospective Validation Obtained in a Similar Group of Patients and with Similar High Throughput Biological Tests Failed to Confirm Signatures for Prediction of Response to Chemotherapy and Survival in Advanced NSCLC: A Prospective Study from the European Lung Cancer Working Party  

PubMed Central

Aim: Cisplatin doublets are standard 1st line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), without accurate predictor for response and survival, but important toxicity. Our aims were to identify predictive (for response) and prognostic (for survival) biological signatures in patients with NSCLC using messenger RNAs (mRNA) and miRNA expression. Methods: Patients with pathologically proven untreated NSCLC, receiving 1st line cisplatin–vinorelbine and with an assessable lesion were eligible. A bronchial biopsy was lysed into Tripure Isolation Reagent on ice, snap frozen, and stored at ?80°C. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarrays Agilent Technologies. miRNA expression was assessed using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (756 human miR panel, Applied Biosystems). Validation was performed by RT-PCR on the selected genes. Survival was measured from the registration date and response assessed by WHO criteria. Results: Biopsies for transcriptomic analyses were obtained from 60 consecutive patients. No statistically significant differences were observed according to the main clinical characteristics, response rate (43 vs. 41%) or survival (median 25 vs. 29?months) between derivation and validation sets. In the derivation set (n?=?38 patients), two mRNA and one miRNA predictive signatures for response were obtained. One mRNA and one miRNA prognostic signatures were derived from the first set, allowing an adequate distinction of patients with good and poor overall and progression-free survivals. None of these signatures could be validated in the validation set (n?=?22 patients). Conclusion: In this prospective study with advanced NSCLC treated with cisplatin–vinorelbine, we were able to derive with high throughput techniques predictive and prognostic signatures based on transcriptomic analyses. However, these results could not be reproduced in an independent validation set. The role of miRNA and mRNA as predictive or prognostic factors remains a research topic and the use of high throughput technology in that context questionable. The ClinicalTrials.gov study identifier is NCT00864266 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:25674536

Berghmans, Thierry; Ameye, Lieveke; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Colinet, Benoît; Cortot, Alexis; CsToth, Ingrid; Holbrechts, Stéphane; Lecomte, Jacques; Mascaux, Céline; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Paesmans, Marianne; Richez, Michel; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Tulippe, Christian; Willems, Luc; Dernies, Tiffany; Leclercq, Nathalie; Sculier, Jean-Paul

2014-01-01

309

Toxoplasma gondii Protein Disulfide Isomerase (TgPDI) Is a Novel Vaccine Candidate against Toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including both mammals and birds. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) localises to the surface of T. gondii tachyzoites and modulates the interactions between parasite and host cells. In this study, the protective efficacy of recombinant T. gondii PDI (rTgPDI) as a vaccine candidate against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice was evaluated. rTgPDI was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Five groups of animals (10 animals/group) were immunised with 10, 20, 30, 40 ?g of rTgPDI per mouse or with PBS as a control group. All immunisations were performed via the nasal route at 1, 14 and 21 days. Two weeks after the last immunisation, the immune responses were evaluated by lymphoproliferative assays and by cytokine and antibody measurements. The immunised mice were challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain on the 14th day after the last immunisation. Following the challenge, the tachyzoite loads in tissues were assessed, and animal survival time was recorded. Our results showed that the group immunised with 30 ?g rTgPDI showed significantly higher levels of specific antibodies against the recombinant protein, a strong lymphoproliferative response and significantly higher levels of IgG2a, IFN-gamma (IFN-?), IL-2 and IL-4 production compared with other doses and control groups. While no changes in IL-10 levels were detected. After being challenged with T. gondii tachyzoites, the numbers of tachyzoites in brain and liver tissues from the rTgPDI group were significantly reduced compared with those of the control group, and the survival time of the mice in the rTgPDI group was longer than that of mice in the control group. Our results showed that immunisation with rTgPDI elicited a protective immune reaction and suggested that rTgPDI might represent a promising vaccine candidate for combating toxoplasmosis. PMID:23967128

Wang, Hai-Long; Li, Ya-Qing; Yin, Li-Tian; Meng, Xiao-Li; Guo, Min; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Liu, Hong-Li; Liu, Juan-Juan; Yin, Guo-Rong

2013-01-01

310

Assistant Director, Prospect Management Description  

E-print Network

and to the Prospect Management Data Wranglers to assist their efforts in improving the quality of Prospect Management Management · Enter and monitor prospect assignments and new prospect records requests. · Monitor data qualityAssistant Director, Prospect Management Description Full Time 40 hours Grade 055 Ofc Sr Vice Pres

Portman, Douglas

311

Seroepidemiological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed zoonosis. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat, which is among the main risk factors for acquiring human infection, is a popular tradition in Ethiopia. However, studies on toxoplasmosis in food animals used for human consumption in Ethiopia are very scarce. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the seroprevalence and the risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep in Ambo, Ada’a-Liben and Fentale districts of Central Ethiopia. Sera from 1130 sheep were analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii specific IgG antibodies using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the P30 antigen. A questionnaire was administered to assess potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. Association of seroprevalence with potential risk factors related to altitude, host and farm characteristics were analyzed by univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results Overall flock and animal level seroprevalences were 70.48% (160/227; 95% CI: 64.51, 76.46) and 31.59% (357/1130; 95% CI: 28.88, 34.31), respectively. The multivariable logistic regression model indicated that the probability of acquiring T. gondii was higher in sheep from highland (2300 – 3200 meters above sea level) [Odds ratio (OR)?=?4.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65, 6.36; P?toxoplasmosis in sheep is a good marker of the potential risk for human infections. Altitude, sex, age, flock size and source of water were identified as important risk factors to acquire the infection. Public education and awareness training are imperative in order to alleviate the danger posed to consumers. Further detailed studies to assess the impact of infections are warranted. PMID:23768427

2013-01-01

312

Prospectively gated cardiac CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future cardiac CT protocols will utilize large area detectors with whole heart scans performed within one heartbeat. For such scans, accurate prospective ECG gating is essential to capture the heart at the correct phase. This report addresses one of the main factors affecting the prospective gating accuracy: the ability to predict the cardiac phase from the ECG signal. Two different

Dominic Heuscher; S. Zabic

2007-01-01

313

Single European Sky and Single European Railway Area  

E-print Network

Single European Sky and Single European Railway Area: A System Level Analysis of Air and Rail; Single European Railway Area; system capacity management. 1 Introduction Air and rail are two extremely Commission, 1999) and the Single European Railway Area (European Commission, 2010a). The Single European Sky

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Towards an immunosense vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis: Protective Toxoplasma gondii epitopes restricted by HLA-A*0201  

PubMed Central

The ideal vaccine to protect against toxoplasmosis in humans would include antigens that elicit a protective T helper cell type 1 immune response, and generate long-lived IFN-?-producing CD8+ T cells. Herein, we utilized a predictive algorithm to identify candidate HLA-A02 supertype epitopes from T. gondii proteins. Thirteen peptides elicited production of IFN-? from PBMC of HLA-A02 supertype persons seropositive for T. gondii infection but not from seronegative controls. These peptides displayed high-affinity binding to HLA-A02 proteins. Immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with these pooled peptides, with a universal CD4+ epitope peptide called PADRE, formulated with adjuvant GLA-SE, induced CD8+ T cell IFN-? production and protected against parasite challenge. Peptides identified in this study provide candidates for inclusion in immunosense epitope-based vaccines. PMID:21095258

Cong, Hua; Mui, Ernest J.; Witola, William H.; Sidney, John; Alexander, Jeff; Sette, Alessandro; Maewal, Ajesh; McLeod, Rima

2010-01-01

315

Prognostic factors for the long-term development of ocular lesions in 327 children with congenital toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify the high-risk factors associated with the development of ocular lesions in a large cohort of children with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), irrespective of their gestational age at the time of maternal infection. Children were managed according to a standardized protocol and monitored for up to 14 years at the Croix-Rousse Hospital, Lyon, France. Cox model and a flexible regression, spline-based method were used for the analysis. During a median follow-up time of 6 years, 79 of the 327 children (24%) had at least one retinochoroidal lesion. No bilateral impairment of visual acuity was observed. The risk of a child developing ocular disease was higher not only when mothers were infected early during pregnancy, which was expected, but also when CT was diagnosed prior to or at the time of birth, when non-ocular manifestations were present at baseline and when birth was premature. PMID:14959784

Binquet, C.; Wallon, M.; Quantin, C.; Kodjikian, L.; Garweg, J.; Fleury, J.; Peyron, F.; Abrahamowicz, M.

2003-01-01

316

Application of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and enzootic abortion of ewes.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydophila abortus are the 2 most common infectious causes of ovine abortion worldwide. These obligate intracellular pathogens are associated with severe placentitis leading to abortion or stillbirth in pregnant ewes, and resulting in significant economic losses. The objectives of the current study were the development, validation, and application of a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay capable of quantifying the burden of infection by T. gondii and C. abortus in material submitted for diagnostic purposes. The validation was carried out using samples from ewes experimentally infected with these organisms. Based on the numbers of genome copies detected, an arbitrary cutoff level was established to correlate with significant pathological changes sufficient to give rise to abortion. When the PCR assay was applied to samples from 66 Irish farms with naturally occurring outbreaks of ovine abortion, toxoplasmosis and enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) accounted for 14% and 20% of the farms, respectively, while on 6% of the farms, there was evidence of dual infection. When standard diagnostic techniques including histopathological examination, serological analysis, chlamydial antigen detection, and bacteriological culture, were used on samples from the same farms, toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 17% of farms, and EAE in 12%; dual infection was diagnosed on 3% of the farms. In general, good agreement was found between the PCR and the standard methods. The duplex real-time PCR assay developed in this study has proved to be a very sensitive and rapid tool that might provide a valuable addition to the methods currently available for routine diagnosis of ovine abortions. PMID:22807509

Gutierrez, Jorge; O'Donovan, James; Proctor, Aisling; Brady, Colm; Marques, Patricia X; Worrall, Sheila; Nally, Jarlath E; McElroy, Maire; Bassett, Hugh; Fagan, John; Maley, Stephen; Buxton, David; Sammin, Donal; Markey, Bryan K

2012-09-01

317

A Comparative Serological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by CLIA and ELISA Methods in Chalus City Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most common disease in humans and animals (zoonosis) caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually appeared as asymptomatic in immunocompromised individuals but its most common symptom is lymphadenopathy. Shortly before or during the first trimester of pregnancy, this disease can be transferred to the fetus and cause serious infection in the fetus. In late pregnancy (third trimester), the complications of this infection is very low or unsigned. Due to the absence of non-specific clinical symptoms or slight infection in pregnant women, prenatal diagnosis is often impossible. Objectives: Since no research compared these two methods, we decided to compare these methods and determine which method works better for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Patients and Methods: In this study, 50 pregnant women who referred to the Chalus Health Center laboratory were included and the blood samples were tested for presence of IgG and IgM antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii by both ELISA and Chemiluminescence methods. Results: Of the 50 samples tested by the ELISA method, 26 samples (52%) were positive for IgG . No samples were positive for IgM. Of the 50 samples tested by the Chemiluminescence method, 28 samples (56%) were positive for IgG. No samples were positive for IgM. Conclusions: A significant relationship between the age of the youngest child and the infection rate was seen. No significant correlation between age, number of individuals in the household, number of children, location, type of construction, consumption of greens, the way of greens and meat consumption, drug use, history of stillbirth and infection levels was seen. PMID:24910803

Elahian Firouz, Zahra; Kaboosi, Hami; Faghih Nasiri, Abdolreza; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Zaboli, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

318

Multiple intracranial space-occupying lesions in a renal transplant recipient from an area endemic for tuberculosis (TB): TB vs. toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Renal transplant recipients may present with intracranial space-occupying lesions (SOLs) due to infections as well as a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Here, we discuss a renal transplant recipient who presented with neurologic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed multiple focal SOLs. Tuberculosis (TB), toxoplasmosis, nocardiosis, fungal infections, and PTLD were considered in the differential diagnosis. MRI spectroscopy was suggestive of an infectious cause, such as toxoplasmosis or TB. Serologic tests using Toxoplasma were negative. A brain biopsy followed by immunohistochemical staining using Toxoplasma antibody demonstrated multiple intravascular cysts of toxoplasma. This case highlights the diagnostic dilemma in an immunocompromised patient with multiple focal brain lesions, especially in areas where TB is endemic. PMID:25040057

Bagchi, S; Sachdev, S S; Nalwa, A; Das, C J; Sinha, S; Suri, V; Mahajan, S; Bhowmik, D; Agarwal, S

2014-10-01

319

Decreased level of psychobiological factor novelty seeking and lower intelligence in men latently infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii Dopamine, a missing link between schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii, a parasitic protozoan, infects about 30–60% of people worldwide. The latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. life-long presence of cysts in the brain and muscular tissues, has no effect on human health. However, infected subjects score worse in psychomotor performance tests and have different personality profiles than Toxoplasma-negative subjects. The mechanism of this effect is unknown; however, it is supposed that

Jaroslav Flegr; Marek Preiss; Ji??? Klose; Jan Havl???ek; Martina Vitáková; Petr Kodym

2003-01-01

320

Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation. PMID:25463314

Donahoe, Shannon L; Šlapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

2015-04-01

321

Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.  

PubMed

A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety. PMID:24680078

Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

2014-04-01

322

IgG avidity Western blot using Toxoplasma gondii rGRA-7 cloned from nucleotides 39-711 for serodiagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of congenital infection. The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of recombinant (r) GRA-7 cloned from nucleotides (n) 39-711 in discriminating between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. First, commercial IgM, IgG and IgG avidity ELISAs were used to determine the serological profile of the sera. Serum samples were from 20 symptomatic patients with acute infection (low IgG avidity, IgM positive), 10 with chronic infection (high IgG avidity, IgM negative) and 10 with indeterminate IgG avidity (IgM positive) which were tested for IgG avidity status with an in-house developed IgG avidity Western blot using the rGRA-7 recombinant antigen. All 20 sera from cases of probable acute infection showed bands which either faded out completely or reduced significantly in intensity after treatment with 8 M urea, whereas the band intensities of the 10 serum samples from chronic cases remained the same. Of the 10 sera with indeterminate IgG avidity status, after treatment with 8 M urea the band intensities with six sera remained the same, two sera had completely faded bands and another two sera had significantly reduced band intensities. Discrimination between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis was successfully performed by the in-house IgG avidity Western blot. PMID:23563759

Deshpande, Poonam S; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Noordin, Rahmah; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Saadatnia, Geita; Golkar, Majid; Osman, Sabariah; Karim, Izzati Zahidah Abdul; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

323

Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.  

PubMed

Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

Hook, I M

2013-06-13

324

European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center  

E-print Network

the Arab perspective on the European Neighborhood Policy. 4 Fellowships, Grants, and Opportunities. 5 into the following categories: Muslim/Turkish, East European/Russian, and West European. Clearly, there was reasonNEWSLETTER European Union Center of Excellence European Studies Center URAL Continued on page 6

Sibille, Etienne

325

Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

1995-04-01

326

European utility fuel procurement  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the major factors affecting the procurement strategies of European nuclear utilities for purchasing natural uranium, conversion services, and enrichment services. The role of the EURATOM Supply Agency in negotiating contracts for nuclear materials for the European Union is described. Bilateral agreements between the United States and EURATOM, and between the European Union and Russia are briefly outlined. National procurement strategies of Belgium, France, Germany, and Sweden are also discussed.

NONE

1995-04-01

327

Migraine associated with patent foramen ovale may be caused by reactivation of cerebral toxoplasmosis triggered by arterial blood oxygen desaturation.  

PubMed

Approximately two billion people worldwide are chronically infected with T. gondii and yet with largely unknown consequences. On the other hand, several authors reported an association between migraine and patent foramen ovale (PFO), and different types of headaches, including migraine, may be precipitated by various diseased states or medications associated with marked immune irregularities, which sometimes cause reactivation of latent cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT). Recently, in a group of 104 subjects with migraine, 46 individuals (44.2%) were found to be seropositive for T. gondii. PFO, atrial septal defects, as well as pulmonary right-to-left shunts are usually associated with a various degree of arterial blood oxygen desaturation. Hypoxia is associated with an increase in the generation of several proinflammatory cytokines and other inflammation mediators, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-6, IL-8, chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, CC-chemokine receptor 2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1), acute-phase protein gene expressions, COX-2 gene transcription, induction of iNOS, and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, hypoxia markedly decreased T-lymphocyte IL-2 mRNA, a key cytokine responsible for B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion, and ischemic tissues demonstrated intravascular neutrophil accumulation, vascular damage, and increased vascular wall permeability. Interestingly, T. gondii activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 already at physiologically relevant oxygen levels and requires HIF1 for growth and survival. These abnormalities may cause imbalance in the host/T. gondii immune system, which finally results in the reactivation of CT. In addition, hypoxia may participate in paradoxical microembolism because arterial oxygen desaturation enhances expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, an important factor which suppresses fibrinolysis, and this effect may be further amplified by a decreased expression of plasminogen activators, finally causing blood hypercoagulability and paradoxical microembolism. In summary, further studies are required to verify the above-presented pathomechanisms probably responsible for the association between PFO and the development of migraine. It is possible that some migraineurs with PFO may benefit from evaluation and treatment of toxoplasmosis in the future once more information is known. PMID:20199198

Prandota, Joseph

2010-02-01

328

A sero-survey of toxoplasmosis in farm and non-farm children from Wisconsin, United States, 1997–1999  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis is among the most widespread and prevalent zoonosis in the world. People can become infected through ingestion of oocysts shed by felids or of tissue cysts contained in meat from infected animals. Acute infection can result in a wide spectrum of consequences, including flu-like illness and retinitis, as well as congenital infection in pregnant women. Severe disease can occur, especially if people are immunocompromised. Frequency of human infection varies substantially by region due to ecological, social, and cultural factors. The most recent nationwide prevalence estimates in children from United States were 3.6% in 6–11 year olds and 5.8% in 12–19 year olds. Because of the limited knowledge of the occurrence of common zoonotic pathogens in children in the United States, the objective of this study was to estimate the sero-prevalence of T. gondii-specific antibodies in children from the Marshfield area in Wisconsin and to examine the association between sero-positivity and farm living. Methods Banked sera from 342 Wisconsin children collected in 1997–1999, aged 2 to 18 years, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies using ELISA. Recorded information included age, sex, and whether the child resided on a farm. Impact of assay accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, on sero-prevalence was examined using Bayesian methods. Results Observed prevalence of T. gondii-specific antibodies was 10.8% (37/347). Adjusting for sensitivity and specificity of the assays yielded a prevalence estimate of 8.0% (95% probability interval: 4% - 12.4%). Children living on a farm had a 5 times higher odds of T. gondii-specific antibodies than children not living on a farm (OR=5.08, 95% CI: 2.2 – 11.6). Conclusion Results suggest that even in apparently low-risk populations, the true extent of the infection in children is significant. In this study population, children living on farms were differentially exposed, with earlier and higher infection risk than children not living on farms. Findings highlight the need to increase awareness about toxoplasmosis acquired early in life and to improve our understanding of the ecology of T. gondii in rural environments from developed and developing countries. PMID:24025220

2013-01-01

329

Towards European urinalysis guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved standardized performance is needed because urinalysis continues to be one of the most frequently requested laboratory tests. Since 1997, the European Confederation of Laboratory Medicine (ECLM) has been supporting an interdisciplinary project aiming to produce European urinalysis guidelines. More than seventy clinical chemists, microbiologists and ward-based clinicians, as well as representatives of manufacturers are taking part. These guidelines aim

Timo T Kouri; Vanya A Gant; Giovanni B Fogazzi; Walter Hofmann; Hans O Hallander; Walter G Guder

2000-01-01

330

European Commission Agriculture and  

E-print Network

European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Good practice guidance on the sustainable 64 94 89 39 E-mail: liaison.unit.oslo@foresteurope.org Web: https://www.foresteurope.org European Commission (EC) DG Agriculture and Rural Development 130, Rue de la Loi B ­ 1049 Brussels, Belgium Phone: +32

331

European Biodiesel Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Biodiesel Board (EBB), a nonprofit organization, works to promote biodiesel use in the European Union (EU). The EBB website offers downloadable articles regarding biodiesel in the EU, downloadable reports from EU member states, a list of upcoming events, an EBB email information service, and basic statistical tables representing biodiesel production by country.

332

European Commission: Public Opinion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some Scout Report readers might be wondering "How do Europeans feel about the euro?" or even "What do Europeans think about the effectiveness of different energy policies?" All of the answers to these questions (and many more) can be found on the European Commission's Public Opinion site. The site contains the results from surveys conducted with Europeans on their attitudes towards alcohol, the role of the European Union in formulating security policy, and a number of other topics. Visitors will definitely want to make their way to the Eurobarometer Interactive Search System, which allows them to choose a subject or country which is of interest to them. Visitors should also take a look at their very fine "Qualitative Studies" section, which includes reports such as "The Future of Europe" and "Integrating Gender Mainstreaming into Employment Policies". Needless to say, summaries of the reports are available in a wide range of languages, including Dutch, German, Italian, and French.

333

European Geography Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

European Geography Test is a collection of challenging Web-based geography exams that survey students' knowledge of European topography, European urban geography, and general map skills. Currently, this site hosts seven tests, which are available in English, Swedish, Spanish, and Dutch. Tests are divided into three different learning levels, and the focus and objectives for each test are clearly stated. The tests employ interactive maps, photographic images, pull-down menus, radio buttons, and fill-in forms to ask students a series of multiple choice, true or false, and matching questions. The questions included in European Geography Test were developed as part of an inter-university project for DGXXII of the European Commission by a consortium of instructors in the UK, Sweden, Belgium, Spain, and The Netherlands. Note: users must register at the site to take the free tests; registration requires name, email address, age, and country of residence.

334

The importance of religious affiliation and culture on end-of-life decisions in European intensive care units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To determine the influence of religious affiliation and culture on end-of-life decisions in European intensive care units\\u000a (ICUs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and setting  A prospective, observational study of European ICUs was performed on consecutive patients with any limitation of therapy.\\u000a Prospectively defined end-of-life practices in 37 ICUs in 17 European countries studied from 1 January 1999 to 30 June 2000\\u000a were compared for frequencies,

Charles L. Sprung; Paulo Maia; Hans-Henrik Bulow; Bara Ricou; Apostolos Armaganidis; Mario Baras; Elisabet Wennberg; Konrad Reinhart; Simon L. Cohen; Dietmar R. Fries; George Nakos; Lambertius G. Thijs

2007-01-01

335

Seroprevalence and national distribution of human toxoplasmosis in Mexico: analysis of the 2000 and 2006 National Health Surveys.  

PubMed

Global warming has had serious implications on dispersion of infectious diseases like toxoplasmosis. Since the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii largely depends on climatic conditions, we studied its prevalence by means of 3599 samples of the National Health Survey 2000 (NHS-2000) and 2916 of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (NHNS-2006) serum banks, obtained from 1-98 year old subjects of both genders and all states of Mexico. Anti-T.gondii IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA and confirmed by western blot. Crude, epidemiologically weighted and diagnosis-performance-adjusted prevalence values were calculated. Seroprevalence changes were compared between both surveys and among regions (north, center and coast). Also, correlations between changes in temperature or humidity and those in prevalence were measured. National crude prevalence was 60.1% and 62.6% for NHS-2000 and NHNS-2006, respectively. Weighted and adjusted values were 62.5% and 40.0% for NHS-2000, and 63.7 and 43.1% for NHNS-2006. Coastal states and children presented the largest increases between surveys, while the center of the country showed a decrease. An apparently higher prevalence of T. gondii infection was observed in both surveys compared to that performed in 1987, while a geographical re-distribution was found from 2000 to 2006, with a positive correlation between temperature and frequency deltas in 21 states where prevalence increased. PMID:22998951

Caballero-Ortega, Heriberto; Uribe-Salas, Felipe Javier; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Luna-Pastén, Héctor; Cańedo-Solares, Irma; Ortiz-Alegría, Luz Belinda; Correa, Dolores

2012-11-01

336

Latex-protein complexes from an acute phase recombinant antigen of Toxoplasma gondii for the diagnosis of recently acquired toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of latex-protein complexes (LPC), from the acute phase recombinant antigen P35 (P35Ag) of Toxoplasma gondii and "core-shell" carboxylated or polystyrene (PS) latexes (of different sizes and charge densities) are considered, with the aim of producing immunoagglutination reagents able to detect recently acquired toxoplasmosis. Physical adsorption (PA) and chemical coupling (CC) of P35Ag onto latex particles at different pH were investigated. Greater amounts of adsorbed protein were obtained on PS latexes than on carboxylated latexes, indicating that hydrophobic forces govern the interactions between the protein and the particle surface. In the CC experiments, the highest amount of bound protein was obtained at pH 6, near the isoelectric point of the protein (IP=6.27). At this pH, it decreased both the repulsion between particle surface and protein, and the repulsion between neighboring molecules. The LPC were characterized and the antigenicity of the P35Ag protein coupled on the particles surface was evaluated by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Results from ELISA showed that the P35Ag coupled to the latex particles surface was not affected during the particles sensitization by PA and CC and the produced LPC were able to recognize specific anti-P35Ag antibodies present in the acute phase of the disease. PMID:24905682

Peretti, Leandro E; Gonzalez, Verónica D G; Marcipar, Iván S; Gugliotta, Luis M

2014-08-01

337

Serological screening and toxoplasmosis exposure factors among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (DRSTP) from November 2003 to March 2004 was determined by detection of serum anti-T. gondii antibodies. A short questionnaire interview for pregnant women was performed to investigate risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, including consumption of raw meat or unwashed vegetables, drinking unboiled water and keeping pets (cats and dogs). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was high (75.2%; 375/499). The older age group of > or =35 years had a significantly higher seroprevalence (85.7%; 54/63) than that of the younger age group of 15-25 years (70.4%; 178/253) (odds ratio 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.4; P=0.01). No significant difference in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found between the pregnant women with and without exposure to the risk factors studied. However, among pregnant women with high antibody titers of > or =1:1024, it seemed likely that continual contact with pets and consumption of oocyst-contaminated water or raw unwashed vegetables rather than tissue cysts in meat was the primary route of infection. The incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in unborn babies should be intensively monitored in the DRSTP. PMID:17113117

Hung, Chien-Ching; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Su, Kua-Eyre; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Gil, Vilfrido; da Conceicao dos Reis Ferreira, Maria; de Carvalho, Jose Manuel; Cruz, Claudina; Lin, Yu-Kuan; Tseng, Lian-Fen; Sao, Ke-Yun; Chang, Wen-Cheun; Lan, Hung-Shue; Chou, Shing-Hsien

2007-02-01

338

Prospects for interstellar travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed introduction is presented to the problems of interstellar space travel. The general topics discussed include: basics of travel in space, advanced propulsion methods; relativity and interstellar travel; relativistic drives and problems; starships as systems; missions; astrogation, observation, and communication; technological requirements and hazards; biological requirements; personal, social, and political considerations; interstellar life and civilizations; long-term prospects.

John H. Mauldin

1992-01-01

339

The European Spallation Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

Lindroos, M.; Bousson, S.; Calaga, R.; Danared, H.; Devanz, G.; Duperrier, R.; Eguia, J.; Eshraqi, M.; Gammino, S.; Hahn, H.; Jansson, A.; Oyon, C.; Pape-Mřller, S.; Peggs, S.; Ponton, A.; Rathsman, K.; Ruber, R.; Satogata, T.; Trahern, G.

2011-12-01

340

The European Values Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious minds want to know: "What exactly do Europeans believe?" It's an important and interesting question, and the directors and researchers in charge of the European Values Study (EVS) have been looking into this subject since the early 1980s. Based in the Netherlands the EVS concerns itself with asking Europeans about religion and morality, politics, work and leisure, and relationships. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their work and view previous and current surveys. While visitors do not have access to the raw data on the site, they can look at the questionnaires and read publications based on this research.

341

[Effects of atovaquone and astragalus combination on the treatment and IL-2, IL-12, IFN-? levels on mouse models of acute toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

Reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii infections and serious clinical manifestations such as encephalitis may develop in immunocompromised subjects and AIDS patients. Different protocols are used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in high-risk patient groups, however life-long prophylactic therapy against reactivation risk in AIDS patients may lead to several undesired results. Atovaquone is an effective antiprotozoal agent against toxoplasmosis with minor side effects. On the other hand, Astragalus membranaceus root extract (AmE) has been shown to have immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities, empowering immunity by enhancing proliferation and activation of phagocytic cells mainly macrophages, and inducing Th1 type immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of atovaquone alone and in combination with AmE, in the treatment of toxoplasmosis, and on the levels of IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-? in experimentally infected mice with T.gondii. For this purpose, four experimental groups, each consisting of eight BALB/c mice, were set with the approval of Ethics Committee for the Animal Experiments. All the mice were infected with 0.5 ml of a suspension containing 2 x 104/ml trophozoites prepared from T.gondii RH strain by intraperitoneal injection. Twenty-four hours after the infection, atovaquone (100 mg/kg/day) was given to atovaquone group, AmE (0.075 mg/g) to astragalus group and atovaquone (100 mg/kg/day) plus AmE (0.075 mg/g) to Atovaquone + Astragalus (Ato + Astra) group by oral gavage. The mice in the fourth group, which was the control group, were all infected but untreated. The above administrations were carried out for seven days. On the 8th day peritoneal fluids of mice were collected under anaesthesia and trophozoite numbers per 1 ml were detected by counting on the Thoma slide. In addition, the heart bloods of mice were drawn and IL-2, IL-12, IFN-? levels were determined in serum samples by using commercial ELISA kits (eBioscience, Austria). The mean number of trophozoites in Ato + Astra group was found significantly lower than the number of trophozoites in the other three groups (p< 0.05). The number of trophozoites in the atovaquone and astragalus groups were found significantly lower than the number of trophozoites in the control group (p< 0.05). There was a significant increase in IL-2 levels of astragalus group compared with the other three groups, in addition when IL-2 levels of Ato + Astra group were compared with ones in other three groups, a significant decrease was noticed (p< 0.05). There was a definite increase in IL-12 levels of atovaquone, astragalus and the control groups compared to those in Ato + Astra group (p< 0.05). A significant increase was found in IFN-? levels in atovaquone and Ato + Astra groups compared with those in the control group (p< 0.05). Within the reach of our literature survey, this study was the first research in which the effectiveness of the combination of atovaquone and AmE was investigated in the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis. The results of our study suggested that there might be a synergy between atovaquone and AmE in the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis. In case these results are supported by further studies, atovaquone and AmE combination may have a potential to be used for therapy in immunocompromized patients such as AIDS patients who have a risk for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25492659

Sönmez, Ne?e; Büyükbaba Boral, Ozden; Ka?ali, Kamber; Tekeli, Fatma

2014-10-01

342

[Diagnostic use of ELISA, IgG, IgM, IgA and ELISA IgG avidity in recent and chronic toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis, a world-wide zoonotic infection, is generally asymptomatic and benign in immunocompetent individuals, but it can be serious in immunodeficiencies particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in children infected in utero. So, it is important to dispose methods which permit discriminate between recent and chronic infections. In order to contribute to improve the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis ELISA IgG, IgM, IgA and ELISA IgG avidity were performed in 15 and 24 sera from patients suspected of having acute and chronic infection respectively, according dye test (DT) titres. ELISA IgG was positive in both groups, ELISA IgM was positive in 78.6 and 58.3% respectively, while ELISA IgA was positive in 85.7 and 33.3% of recent and chronic group respectively. In those sera with low IgG avidity (18.8%) we found specific IgM in 71.5 and 4.2% and IgA in 78.6 and 0.0% of recent and chronic groups respectively. Parallelling, 208 sera samples were classified according to the results of DT, indirect hemagglutination and complement fixation tests in the following groups: acute (97), intermediate (36), chronic (35) and negative (40). The results were: acute (96.9-64.9-55.6 and 65.9%); intermediate (97.2-63.8-44.4 and 47.2%); chronic (45.7-42.8-5.7 and 34.3%) for IgG, IgM, IgA and low IgG avidity respectively. The use of both acute markers, IgA and low IgG avidity in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is discussed. PMID:11757412

Contreras, M C; Sandoval, L; Salinas, P; Muńoz, P; Vargas, S

2000-01-01

343

European Molecular Biology Laboratory  

E-print Network

On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

1973-01-01

344

European Elder (Elderberry)  

MedlinePLUS

... Names: European elder, black elder, elder, elderberry, elder flower, sambucus Latin Name: Sambucus nigra elder_foster.jpg © ... the elder tree—such as the berries and flowers—have historically been used for pain, swelling, infections, ...

345

European Economic Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

Huston, James A.

1971-01-01

346

European space programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful European Space Agency (ESA) programs include the Ariane launcher development, the Meteosat meteorological satellites and the Intelsat 6, ECS (European Communications Satellite) series of communications satellites. The ESA's policy of placing contracts with industrial companies in its 13 member countries has contributed to the strategic development of European high technology in the world market. The ESA's long-term programs, in addition to the Ariane launcher and Columbus/Hermes space-station/spaceplane programs, include participation in the International Space Station program, the Data Relay Satellite system and a variety of space applications programs. Two high-performance satellites to be placed in polar orbits will contribute to European environmental and climate variation studies and, together with the Polar Platform sector of the Columbus program, will drive the establishment and development of new institutions, industrial structures and infrastructure.

Luton, J.-M.

1992-02-01

347

European psychotraumatology – alongside the recent European history  

PubMed Central

This article outlines a personal reflection of experiences within the field of traumatic stress, especially in relation to specific events, which affected the author's professional life. Conclusions for further challenges for European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) are delineated. ESTSS's role in the global network of traumatic stress societies is discussed. This is a personal view of Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, president of ESTSS on behalf of the 20th birthday of ESTSS. PMID:23755321

Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

2013-01-01

348

European PTTI report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

1994-01-01

349

Archive of European Integration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The creation of a so-called â??common marketâ?ť and throughout the European countries has taken decades, and this valuable scholarly resource created by a team of academics will be of great interest to anyone with a penchant for this subject. The idea for this archive of European Integration was devised by Phil Wilkin (who now serves as its editor), and over the years, his efforts have been aided by a team of other dedicated individuals. Simply put, the Archive of European Integration (AEI) is â??an electronic repository and archive for research materials on the topic of European integration and unification.â?ť As such, it is primarily concerned with collecting official European Community/European Union documents and certain independently-produced research materials. First-time visitors to the site can search the archive by six different methods, view a list of the latest additions, and also register at no charge for an account that will let them submit items to the archive. All told, the archive currently contains over 4800 documents ranging from working papers on topics such as the common agricultural policy as well as cultural policy.

350

Building the Information Society in Candidate Countries? A Prospective Analysis on Potential Trajectories To Realise the Lisbon Goals. IPTS Experts Workshop Report, February 23-25, 2003, Sevilla.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potential policies and strategies for building the information society (IS) in countries that are candidates for admission to the European Union were explored at a workshop attended by 39 experts from the European Commission (EC), the EC's Institute for Prospective and Technological Studies, and outside the EC. The workshop focused on the specific…

Bogdanowicz, Marc; Burgelman, Jean-Claude; Centeno, Clara; Gourova, Elisavetta; Carat, Gerard

351

State and Prospects of Ungulate Animals Breeding in Enclosures in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the article, the history of ungulate animal breeding in enclosures in Lithuania after the World War II is discussed, the current state and prospects are evaluated. During 1969-1998, 18 enclosures were established in which 5 ungulate species were bred: the representatives of the horned ungulate (Bovidae) family, European bison and moufflon, and of the cervid (Cervidae) family, red deer,

Laima Baltr?nait?

1999-01-01

352

A Surge in the Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among the Residents of Islands in Gangwha-gun, Incheon, Korea  

PubMed Central

Seroepidemiological changes of Toxoplasma gondii infection among the residents of the islands of Gangwha-gun, Incheon for 2 years were surveyed and evaluated by ELISA using a crude extract antigen. In 2010, sera of 919 adult residents in Gyodong-myeon and 313 adults in Samsan-myeon were collected and checked for IgG antibody titers, which showed 14.5% (133 sera) and 19.8% (62 sera) positive rates, respectively. In 2011, sera of 955 adults in Gyodong-myeon and 341 adults in Samsan-myeon were examined, which showed an increase of positive rates to 23.8% (227 sera) and 31.7% (108 sera), respectively. Totally, the seroprevalence of the first year was 15.8% and it increased rapidly to 25.8% in the second year. The positive rates of both sexes increased simultaneously with the significant ratio of males to females by 1.7-2.2 fold (P<0.05). In both myeons, 661 sera were collected every year and showed changes in optical density (OD) in 177 sera; newly found as positives in 73 persons (11.0%), negative conversion in 10 persons (1.5%), and maintained or increased in 94 persons (14.2%). This rapid increase in the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Gangwha islands may be due to in part peculiar changes in the toxoplasmic environment of the islands and presumably the consumption of the pork bred domestically within the islands or imported from high endemic nations. It is necessary to find out symptomatic toxoplasmic patients and confirm the risk factors for further infection in the islands of Gangwha-gun. PMID:22949745

Yang, Zhaoshou; Cho, Pyo Yun; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Kim, Tong-Soo; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Hong, Sung-Jong; Cha, Seok Ho

2012-01-01

353

Diphenyl diselenide and sodium selenite associated with chemotherapy in experimental toxoplasmosis: influence on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers and cytokine modulation.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) supplemented with diphenyl diselenide and sodium selenite in experimental toxoplasmosis, on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers and cytokine levels. Eighty-four BALB/c mice were divided in seven groups: group A (negative control), and groups B to G (infected). Blood and liver samples were collected on days 4 and 20 post infection (p.i.). Levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive substances and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were assessed in liver samples. Both biomarkers were significantly increased in infected groups on day 4 p.i., while they were reduced on day 20 p.i., compared with group A. Glutathione reductase (GR) activity significantly (P<0·01) increased on day 4 p.i., in group G, compared with group A. INF-? was significantly increased (P<0·001) in both periods, day 4 (groups B, C, F and G) and 20 p.i. (groups C, F and G). IL-10 significantly reduced (P<0·001) on day 4 p.i. in group B; however, in the same period, it was increased (P<0·001) in groups C and G, compared with group A. On day 20 p.i., IL-10 increased (P<0·001) in groups F and G. Therefore, our results highlighted that these forms of selenium, associated with the chemotherapy, were able to reduce lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, providing a beneficial immunological balance between the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25111395

Barbosa, Cleber F; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; De Azevedo, Maria I; Monteiro, Danieli U; Waczuk, Emily P; Duarte, Thiago; Hermes, Carine; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda F; Faccio, Luciana; Tonin, Paula T; Wolkmer, Patricia; Leal, Marta R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Moresco, Rafael N; Lopes, Sonia T A; De La Rue, Mario L

2014-11-01

354

Detection of IgA and low-avidity IgG antibodies for the diagnosis of recent active toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical value of testing IgA and the avidity of IgG (by two commercial systems) for the detection of recent active toxoplasmosis (RAT), and to study the IgG avidity during the course of infection. METHODS: The IgA was tested by a capture ELISA (Pasteur, France) and the avidity of IgG was determined by two modified commercial indirect ELISA methods (Sorin, Italy; Behringwerke, Germany) in 12 patients who were not immunosuppressed (group I) and 57 healthy subjects with a past infection by Toxoplasma gondii (group II). RESULTS: IgA was present in 75% of patients from group I and 21% of subjects from group II. The reliability for diagnosis of RAT was: sensitivity 75%, specificity 84%, positive predictive value 52.9% and negative predictive value 93.3%. In group I, 91.7% of patients had more than 50% low-avidity IgG, by both methods; in group II, 21% of subjects had low-avidity IgG at levels from 40% to 50%, by both methods. The diagnostic reliability of the two methods for the detection of low-avidity IgG in the first samples of RAT was similar when a breakpoint of 50% was used, with values of: sensitivity 91.7%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 98%. CONCLUSIONS: The study of IgA is not on its own adequate for diagnosis of RAT. However, testing the avidity of IgG is more reliable for the diagnosis of RAT, in studies of one serum sample or sequential samples. PMID:11864209

Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez, María; Piédrola, Gonzalo; del Carmen Maroto, María

1997-02-01

355

DNA vaccination with a gene encoding Toxoplasma gondii GRA6 induces partial protection against toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii causes serious public health problems and is of great economic importance worldwide. Protection from acute toxoplasmosis is known to be mediated by CD8+ T cells, but the T. gondii antigens and host genes required for eliciting protective immunity have been poorly defined. The T. gondii dense granule protein 6 (GRA6), recently proved to be highly immunogenic and produces fully immune protection in T. gondii infected BALB/c mice with an H-2Ld gene. The CD8+ T cell response of H-2Ld mice infected by the T. gondii strain seemed to target entirely to a single GRA6 peptide HF10-H-2Ld complex. Results To determine whether a GRA6-based DNA vaccine can elicit protective immune responses to T. gondii in BALB/c mice, we constructed a eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-HisGRA6 and tested its immunogenicity in a mouse model. BALB/c mice were vaccinated intramuscularly with three doses of GRA6 DNA and then challenged with a lethal dose of T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites. All immunized mice developed high levels of serum anti-GRA6 IgG antibodies, and in vitro splenocyte proliferation was strongly enhanced in mice adjuvanted with levamisole (LMS). Immunization with pcDNA3.1-HisGRA6 with LMS resulted in 53.3% survival of challenged BALB/c mice as compared to 40% survival of BALB/c without LMS. Additionally, immunized Kunming mice without an allele of H-2Ld failed to survive. Conclusions Our result supports the concept that the acquired immune response is MHC restricted. This study has a major implication for vaccine designs using a single antigen in a population with diverse MHC class I alleles. PMID:22070984

2011-01-01

356

Partial Protective Effect of Intranasal Immunization with Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry Protein 17 against Toxoplasmosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a variety of mammals, including humans. An effective vaccine for this parasite is therefore needed. In this study, RH strain T. gondii rhoptry protein 17 was expressed in bacteria as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the recombinant proteins (rTgROP17) were purified via GST-affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were nasally immunised with rTgROP17, and induction of immune responses and protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections were investigated. The results revealed that mice immunised with rTgROP17 produced high levels of specific anti-rTgROP17 IgGs and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response of IgG2a predominance. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-?and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, and enhanced lymphoproliferation (stimulation index, SI) in the mice immunised with rTgROP17. Strong mucosal immune responses with increased secretion of TgROP17-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes were also observed in these mice. The vaccinated mice displayed apparent protection against chronic RH strain infection as evidenced by their lower liver and brain parasite burdens (59.17% and 49.08%, respectively) than those of the controls. The vaccinated mice also exhibited significant protection against lethal infection of the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%) compared to the controls. Our data demonstrate that rTgROP17 can trigger strong systemic and mucosal immune responses against T. gondii and that ROP17 is a promising candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25255141

Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Tie-E; Yin, Li-Tian; Pang, Min; Guan, Li; Liu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Zheng, Guo-Ping; Yin, Guo-Rong

2014-01-01

357

European Union Scandal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the recent high-level corruption scandal in the European Union. Last Tuesday, the European Commission -- the executive body that initiates and implements EU legislation -- resigned en masse, plunging the supranational organization into unprecedented political chaos. All 20 commissioners, led by commission President Jacques Santer of Luxembourg, abdicated their positions the day after the release of a scathing report by the Committee of Independent Experts. The independent panel of experts, who were appointed by the European Parliament, had investigated allegations of bureaucratic malfeasance perpetrated by the European Commission. The committee's report collectively accused the commission of financial "fraud, mismanagement, and nepotism." In the wake of the incriminating report and subsequent resignations, EU foreign ministers are scrambling to find successors for the commissioners to placate the bewildered European citizenry and return to business as usual. This political upheaval happened at a crucial transitional time in the EU's 42-year history, undermining its credibility at a time when it plans to expand into eastern Europe. The current tumult occurred just three months after launching a new unified currency, seven weeks before the new Treaty of Amsterdam commences, and three months before the next European Parliamentary elections, which will determine the future composition of the EU's 626-member assembly. During the next two days, distracted leaders from all fifteen EU member states will meet in Berlin to discuss the reconstruction of the European Commission and formulate a seven-year budget for the entire EU, an organization with about 18,000 officials who administer nearly $100 billion annually. The eight resources discussed provide news, commentary, and analysis.

Osmond, Andrew.

358

Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: usefulness of IgA detection and IgG avidity determination in a patient with a persistent IgM antibody response to toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed

We report the detection of specific IgA antibodies and the determination of IgG avidity in sequential serum samples from a patient exhibiting significant levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies for seven years after the onset of the clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis. IgM antibodies were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence test and by three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Anti-T. gondii IgA was quantified by the alpha-capture ELISA technique using a commercial kit. As defined by the manufacturer of the IgA ELISA test used, most patients with acute toxoplasmosis have antibody levels > 40 arbitrary units per ml (AU/mL). At this cut-off level, the patient still had a positive ELISA result (45 AU/mL) in a serum sample taken one year after the beginning of clinical manifestations. The IgG avidity-ELISA test was performed with the Falcon assay screening test (F.A.S.T.(R)) - ELISA system. Avidity indices compatible with a recent Toxoplasma infection were found only in serum samples taken during the first 5 months after the onset of the clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis. These results show that the interpretation of positive IgM results as indicative of recently acquired toxoplasmosis requires additional laboratory confirmation either by other tests or by the demonstration of a significant rise in the antibody titers in sequential serum samples. PMID:10529837

Bertozzi; Suzuki; Rossi

1999-05-01

359

European Monetary Institute (EMI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Monetary Institute was established in 1994 to oversee the implementation of a single currency for Europe. The EMI site contains information on its staff, organization, structure, and financial resources, and outlines the process of entering the third and final phase of the European Monetary Union. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.

360

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Relation to All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Nondiabetic European Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have evaluated the associa- tions between the metabolic syndrome (by any defini- tion) and mortality. This study examined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortal- ity in nondiabetic European men and women. Methods: The study was based on 11 prospective European cohort studies comprising 6156 men and

Gang Hu; Qing Qiao; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Beverley Balkau; Knut Borch-Johnsen; Kalevi Pyorala

2004-01-01

361

The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

Ramirez, Teresita R.

362

Toxoplasmosis-Associated Difference in Intelligence and Personality in Men Depends on Their Rhesus Blood Group but Not ABO Blood Group  

PubMed Central

Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii influences the behaviour of infected animals and probably also personality of infected humans. Subjects with a Rhesus-positive blood group are protected against certain behavioural effects associated with Toxoplasma infection, including the deterioration of reaction times and personality factor shift. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we searched for differences in the toxoplasmosis-associated effects between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by testing 502 soldiers with two personality tests and two intelligence tests. The infected subjects expressed lower levels of all potentially pathognomic factors measured with the N-70 questionnaire and in neurasthenia measured with NEO-PI-R. The RhD-positive, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed lower while RhD-negative, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed higher intelligence than their Toxoplasma-free peers. The observed Toxoplasma-associated differences were always larger in RhD-negative than in RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype plays an important role in the strength and direction of association between latent toxoplasmosis and not only psychomotor performance, but also personality and intelligence. PMID:23593448

Flegr, Jaroslav; Preiss, Marek; Klose, Ji?í

2013-01-01

363

Multisystemic toxoplasmosis associated with a type II-like Toxoplasma gondii strain in a New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) from New South Wales, Australia.  

PubMed

We report the first confirmed case of toxoplasmosis in an Australian pinniped. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the brain of a free-ranging subadult New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hypophysitis, posterior uveitis, retrobulbar cellulitis, and myocarditis associated with protozoan cysts and tachyzoites. The emaciated seal stranded moribund on a beach in northern Sydney in New South Wales. Histopathology coupled with specific immunohistochemistry and PCR assays confirmed the presence of T. gondii. The T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified in this study has an identical genotype as the type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) based on the direct sequencing and virtual RFLP of multilocus DNA markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Direct sequencing of T. gondii B1 DNA marker from the T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified a type II-like strain, based on presence of non-archetypal B1 gene polymorphisms previously reported as unique to Australia. This study suggests that T. gondii oocysts originating from mainland Australia, which has a large population of feral cats, may act as a disease threat to native marine fauna. Therefore, emerging toxoplasmosis in the Arctic has a relevant parallel in the Southern Ocean within Australian waters with yet unknown relevance to Antarctica. PMID:25123611

Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Slapeta, Jan

2014-09-15

364

Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis. PMID:25742268

Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; de Souza, Diogo Benchimol; Frazăo-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Fábio Conceiçăo; de Melo, Joăo Cardoso; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

2015-01-01

365

Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis. PMID:25742268

Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Frazăo-Teixeira, Edwards; Oliveira, Fábio Conceiçăo de; Melo, Joăo Cardoso de; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de; Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de; Souza, Wanderley de; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

2015-02-01

366

Harmonization of European neurology education: the junior doctor's perspective.  

PubMed

The objective of this article, written by executives of the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees (EAYNT), is to illustrate the status quo of neurology training in Europe and give an outlook on ongoing efforts and prospects for junior neurologists. The European Union is an economic and political union that currently encompasses 27 member states with more than 500 million inhabitants (or 7.3% of the world population) (interested readers are referred to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union). Countries of the European Union act as a single market with free movement of citizens, goods, services, and finances. As a consequence, a diploma and postgraduate training obtained in one EU country will be automatically recognized by all other EU member states. At the Lisbon European Council in March 2000, the Heads of State or Government signed a treaty that expresses their ambition of making Europe "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisbon_Strategy). More than 1.6 million physicians in all the different medical specialties are represented by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). The UEMS was founded in 1958 and the objectives include the study, promotion, and harmonization of the highest level of training of medical specialists, medical practice, and health care within the European Union. The European Board of Neurology (UEMS-EBN; www.uems-neuroboard.org) is in charge of the implementation of the UEMS policy regarding neurology. PMID:24166962

Macerollo, Antonella; Struhal, Walter; Sellner, Johann

2013-10-29

367

European Universe Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

2011-10-01

368

The European nitrogen case.  

PubMed

The N budget for Europe (excluding the former Soviet Union) indicates that the 3 principal driving forces of the acceleration of the European N cycle are fertilizer production (14 Mt (mill. tonnes) N yr-1), fossil fuel combustion and other industry (3.3 Mt N yr-1) and import of N in various products (7.6 Mt N yr-1). The various leaks of reactive N species from European food, energy and industrial production systems are estimated and their effects on human health and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are assessed. Future European environmental policy measures to close the N cycle and to reduce leaks of reactive N can best focus on the three major driving forces, taking into consideration the possible consequences in the N cascade. Critical loads may be useful tools in determining N-emission ceilings and developing integrated policies for regulating N flows such as fertilizer use and imports and N levels. PMID:12078012

van Egmond, Klaas; Bresser, Ton; Bouwman, Lex

2002-03-01

369

Prospective memory: a comparative perspective.  

PubMed

Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here, we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall". PMID:25101562

Crystal, Jonathon D; Wilson, A George

2015-03-01

370

European Forest Institute: Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This European Forest Institute (EFI) is "An independent non-governmental organization conducting European forest research." This website provides information about EFI's mission, research goals, strategies and programs. Site users can view information about on-going and completed projects in any of the four EFI research programs which include: Forest Ecology and Management, Forest Products Markets and Socio-Economics, Policy Analysis, and Forest Resources and Information. EFI also provides a search engine for locating specific research projects as well as information about how to propose an EFI project.

371

Digitising inequality: the cul-de-sac of women's work in European services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the skills and development prospects of women working in European services. Skills are increasingly job-specific, including the relational skills necessary to the delivery of customer service. Formal training is declining and being replaced by informal learning techniques. Opportunities to acquire comprehensive or transferable skills are rare, as are women's progression opportunities in the ‘knowledge society’.

Juliet Webster

2004-01-01

372

The Epistemological Fog in Realising Learning to Learn in European Curriculum Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European Union is concerned about the economic prospects of its member states as they have to compete against newly emerging economies with lower wages and high ambitions. Part of the strategy to deal with this economic shadow is to create a knowledge economy, but in order to achieve this, a shift to a competence-based curriculum model is seen…

Leat, David; Thomas, Ulrike; Reid, Anna

2012-01-01

373

Prospective bonding applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

1981-07-01

374

Applied Astronomy: Asteroid Prospecting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the age of asteroid mining the ability to find promising ore-bearing bodies will be valuable. This will give rise to a new discipline- "Applied Astronomy". Just as most geologists work in industry, not in academia, the same will be true of astronomers. Just how rare or common ore-rich asteroids are likely to be, and the skills needed to assay their value, are discussed here, with an emphasis on remote - telescopic - methods. Also considered are the resources needed to conduct extensive surveys of asteroids for prospecting purposes, and the cost and timescale involved. The longer-term need for applied astronomers is also covered.

Elvis, M.

2013-09-01

375

The European Parliament and the Europeanization of Green Parties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europeanization’, or the adaptation of national political actors to European integration, has increased the professionalization of European Green parties. Previous studies of this phenomenon’s effects on the Greens have not fully accounted for the processes behind this form of party development. Using a qualitative adaptation of Harmel and Janda’s (1994) model of party change as a foundation, this article develops

Eric H. Hines

2003-01-01

376

Russian and East European Studies  

E-print Network

service and government work, business, advertising, finance, foreign trade, and teaching. A languageRussian and East European Studies Certificate About Us The Russian and East European Studies (REES see your future in international business? Many international corporations have interests

Saldin, Dilano

377

Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography  

E-print Network

Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography Systčmes, Modélisation, Géostatistiques context », Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography [En ligne], Systčmes, Modélisation, Géostatistiques of Geography Mehdi Saqalli, Charles L. Bielders, Pierre Defourny et Bruno Gérard Reconstituting family

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography  

E-print Network

Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography Systčmes, Modélisation, Géostatistiques of Geography [En ligne], Systčmes, Modélisation, Géostatistiques, document 413, mis en ligne le 25 février 2008 environment at a regional level 2 Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography Isabelle Thomas, Cécile Tannier et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

379

Eastern European Cinema.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a structure for a course that highlights the best cinemas of Eastern European countries, in order to acquaint students with cinematic traditions of the region. Discusses course activities, coursework and evaluation, and resources. Advocates structuring the course around the film of experience of Eastern Europe, and presents and discusses…

Iordanova, Dina

1999-01-01

380

European Green Crab  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The European green crab (Carcinus maenas), has invaded fisheries in Northern California and in British Columbia, where it may compete with the much more valuable Dungeness crab. The CD it holds in its claws is a database for the USGS Pacific Coast Estuarine Information System, just one source used t...

381

European Space Agency (ESA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Space Agency's homepage provides information on the ESA's telecommunications, navigations, Earth observations, human spaceflight missions, launches, space science, technology, industry, space operations, technical and quality management and television broadcasting. The site also contains a multimedia gallery, press releases, and an educational page for kids.

382

Trends in European English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proposed that a European variety of English without native speakers is emerging as a language of international communication in Europe. This is a consequence of many factors, including the strength of the American economy, the breadth and depth of American research in science and technology, the pervasive influence of American-style popular…

Wilkinson, Robert

383

European cities: Towards a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article puts forth the thesis that European cities are increasingly influenced by recreation, changing the essential quality of the urban space. I begin by setting out a theoretical framework in which cities are seen as specific places used as a resource by mobile individuals in a specific \\

Mathis Stock

2006-01-01

384

European inflation dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence on the fit of the New Phillips Curve (NPC) for the Euro area over the period 1970–1998, and use it as a tool to compare the characteristics of European inflation dynamics with those observed in the U.S. We also analyze the factors underlying inflation inertia by examining the cyclical behavior of marginal costs, as well as that

Jordi Gal??; Mark Gertler; J. David López-Salido

2001-01-01

385

European Bioinformatics Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some interesting research projects are described on this website from the European Bioinformatics Institute. The site offers a number of data resources on topics such as genomes, macromolecular structures, protein families, and structure analysis. Taxonomy and ontology databases are also linked here, as well as databases of research literature.

386

European leadership in globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines characteristics of successful organizations in the year 2000, and contributions of European leaders to the process. Compares different competencies of business leaders who merely travel abroad with those who settle there as expatriates for a time. Considers the environmental forces and other factors which require organizations to be globally transformed if they are to survive and prosper in the

Philip R. Harris; Robert T. Moran

1996-01-01

387

Multilingualism in European Workplaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

2014-01-01

388

Efficiency in European banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the established literature on modelling the cost characteristics of banking markets by applying the flexible Fourier functional form and stochastic cost frontier methodologies to estimate scale economies, X-inefficiencies and technical change for a large sample of European banks between 1989 and 1997. The results reveal that scale economies are widespread for smallest banks and those in the

Y. Altunba?; E. P. M. Gardener; P. Molyneux; B. Moore

2001-01-01

389

A controlled prospective case control study of a prevention training program in female team handball players: the German experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few authors have investigated the effectiveness of preventive intervention in European team handball.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a prevention program on the incidence of injuries in female European team handball players.Study design: Prospective controlled study.Methods: Ten female handball teams (134 players) took part in the prevention program (1. Information about injury

Wolf Petersen; Christoph Braun; Wiebke Bock; Kirsten Schmidt; Andre Weimann; Wolf Drescher; Elisabeth Eiling; Richard Stange; Thomas Fuchs; Jürgen Hedderich; Thore Zantop

2005-01-01

390

European Biodiversity Observation Network – EBONE  

Microsoft Academic Search

EBONE (European Biodiversity Observation Network) is a project developing a system of biodiversity observation at regional, national and European levels as a contribution to European reporting on biodiversity. The project focuses on GEO (Group of Earth Observations) task BI 07-01 to unify many of the disparate biodiversity observing systems and creates a platform to integrate biodiversity data with other types

R. H. G. Jongmanb; R. H. G. Jongman; F. Gerard; L. Whittaker; R. G. H. Bunce; B. Bauch; D. S. Schmeller

2009-01-01

391

The Prospects Study and Desegregation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school desegregation situation…

Puma, Michael J.

1997-01-01

392

Prospects for fetal surgery.  

PubMed

Until about forty years ago, the womb shielded the fetus from observation and therapy. The rapid changes in the diagnosis and treatment of human fetal anatomical abnormalities are due to improved fetal imaging studies as well as fetal sampling techniques (e.g. amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling), and a better understanding of fetal pathophysiology derived from laboratory animals. Fetal therapy is the logical culmination of progress in fetal diagnosis. In other words, the fetus is now a patient. The fetal surgical treatment of the most severe form of spina bifida - myelomeningocele (MMC) - will be used as a paradigm to illustrate progress in and future prospects for fetal surgery. This review will focus on the rationale for in utero repair in the context of pathologic observations and animal models of MMC, outcomes from human fetal MMC repair including the recently completed Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS trial), and future research directions. PMID:24094456

Adzick, N Scott

2013-11-01

393

Microbiological oil prospecting  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for microbiological prospecting for oil or gas. It comprises suspending a soil sample in a mineral salt solution; adding to a gas-tight tube; sealing the tube and incubating the contents of the sealed tube to allow growth of a hydrocarbon-consuming microorganism present therein; and observing color change in the tube contents to determine the presence of a hydrocarbon-consuming microorganism in the soil sample. This patent also describes a system for detecting the presence of a hydrocarbon-consuming microorganism in a soil sample comprising: a gas-tight tube having resealable means for introducing a soil sample into the tube; sealed with the tube.

Gonzales-Prevatt, V.; Munnecke, D.M.

1992-03-03

394

SVX b physics prospects  

SciTech Connect

CDF has enhanced its capabilities for b-physics with the installation of a silicon vertex detector (SVX), which provides precise 2-dimensional tracking. The SVX impact parameter (IP) resolution ({approximately} 13{mu}m for P{sub t} {gt} 10 GeV) is well suited to detecting displaced secondary vertices (SV) from b-hadron decays (c{tau}{sub B} {approx_equal} 390{mu}m). In this paper we show evidence of SV detection using the {Psi} {yields} {mu}{sup {plus}} {mu}{sup {minus}} sample, which is b-enriched, and describe some prospects of b physics opened by the SVX with 25 pb{sup {minus}1}, the goal integrated luminosity of present run.

Dell`Agnello, S. [Pisa Univ. (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); The CDF Collaboration

1992-11-01

395

ERPA: European Research Papers Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ERPA, the European Research Papers Archive, provides a common interface for searching a database of online working papers relevant to European integration. Contributors to the archive include the Robert Schuman Centre of the Academy of European Law at the European University Institute, the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, the Jean Monnet Working Papers Series at Harvard Law School, and the European Communities Studies Association-Austria. Users can select either a short form to search recent additions to the archive or a long form to either or to also access the many advanced search options, including full-text searches.

396

European Environment Agency (EEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Environment Agency (EEA) Website contains a huge selection of online environmental information, data, and reports pertaining to all fifteen EU states, as well as Iceland, Lichtenstein, and Norway. Information is organized by themes, and the site employs a powerful multilingual search feature. Themes include environmental issues, sectors and activities, information related to specific media, regions, and actions for environmental improvement. The site also contains EEA publications and reports, as well as a data service providing access to data sets covering at least all EU member states. Finally, the European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET) provides a network which "facilitates co-operation and flow of data and information between EIONET partners and with the EEA." The EEA Website is a large, research-oriented repository of information.

397

European Space Agency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European equivalent to NASA, formed of 16 member countries. Users can access information on ESA's activities, including such topics as Earth observation, human spaceflight, and various aspects of space science. The educational section includes exercises for high school and college students and a teachers' section with projects, classroom tools, and training information. The kids' section includes lab activities, games, and news articles written for younger students. A multimedia gallery is provided that contains imagery of Mars, Earth, and other objects in the solar system, artists' conceptions of spacecraft, and others. There is also a media center which provides press releases, information notes, and information on ESA television broadcasts. Miscellaneous services include an events calendar, list of publications, and a "frequently asked questions" section. The site can be translated into a variety of languages.

398

Telemedicine and European law.  

PubMed

A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues. PMID:15074761

Callens, Stefaan

2003-01-01

399

The European Spallation Source  

SciTech Connect

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.

2011-03-01

400

European Environmental Education Newsletter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by professionals at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany), the European Environmental Education Newsletter strives "to provide further insights into the subject matter of environmental education and on matters related to sustainability, with an international flavor." To that end, the newsletter provides updates of current events as well as announcements of upcoming meetings, educational materials, and publications, with an emphasis on Europe.

401

European Monetary Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EMU site was created by a group of students at the King's Hospital Secondary School in Palmerston, Dublin, Ireland. Their site discusses the potential positive and negative effects of the EMU, popular opinion on the Euro, and the possible side effects for Ireland, which will join, when its neighbor Britain does not join. After months of doubt and political difficulties in France, Germany, and most recently, Italy, it now appears that the unified European currency, the Euro, will indeed begin on January 1, 1999 to replace the national currencies of as many as 10 or 11 countries. The path to a unified currency is by no means smooth, however. Many European Union member states are finding it politically difficult to reduce their budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product and other states, such as Britain and Denmark, are choosing to remain out for now regardless. On the other hand, European economic growth will apparently exceed earlier expectations, allowing leaders to use increased tax revenues instead of cutting social services to qualify.

402

The role of single sample detection of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgM in accurate evaluation of seroconversion during acquired toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Specific IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were sought in 94 serum samples by means of D.S. IgM ELISA. These antibodies were detected in all cases of acute toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy, but up to 13 months from onset of symptoms and in out of 20 patients with chronic toxoplasmosis and in one out of 20 seronegative individuals. They were neither detected in samples from 4 infants with high IgG IFAT titres associated with hydrocephalus and cerebral calcification, nor in samples from patients containing rheumatoid factors and those with lymphoma or infectious mononucleosis. Thus the detection of IgM antibodies seems non decisive mean for identifying infected infants and for determination of the exact date of acquiring the infection. PMID:2332645

Abdul-Fattah, M M; Etewa, S E; Nada, S M; el-Ridi, A M

1990-06-01

403

Comparison of the Vidas System and Two Recent Fully Automated Assays for Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women and Newborns  

PubMed Central

Serological testing to detect toxoplasmosis is of major importance to avoid the possible effects of the disease in newborns. This study assessed anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM with the Vidas (bioMérieux), Architect (Abbott), and Liaison (DiaSorin) systems in 631 sera from pregnant women and newborns as well as anti-Toxoplasma IgG avidity with these three systems on 54 sera from pregnant women with positive IgG and IgM. The IgG and IgM results were in agreement in, respectively, 95.2% and 98.3% (Vidas versus Architect) and 96.9% and 95.3% (Vidas versus Liaison) of the samples. Specificities were excellent for all the assays, while Vidas sensitivities ranged (depending on the classification of gray zone results) from 93.8 to 98.4% for IgG (Architect, 84.4 to 93.8%; Liaison, 93.8%) and from 81.8 to 90.9% for IgM (Architect, 63.6%; Liaison, 81.8 to 90.9%). In seroconversion sequences, IgMs were generally detected simultaneously by the three assays, while Architect was the earliest assay to detect IgG. In noninfected children, maternally transmitted IgGs were detected for a longer time with Architect than with the other systems. IgMs were positive in only one infected child with the Vidas and Liaison systems. Significantly more sera were classified in the high-avidity category with Vidas than with Architect. This evaluation shows similar performances for Vidas and more recent systems. The Vidas system adequately detects toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and newborns. This system fits the needs of laboratories working on small routine series for first-line testing as well as expert laboratories, due to a high specificity and a powerful avidity test. PMID:23740928

Dard, Céline; Fricker Hidalgo, Hélčne; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

2013-01-01

404

The European Social Contract and the European Public Sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:?The possible existence of a European democracy does not depend on the prerequisite of a homogeneous public sphere but on the understanding of the relationship between the normative basis of a European democracy—here a social contract—the structure of the European public sphere and the corresponding institutions. The normative concept of democracy as expressed in social contract theory is neither bound

Stephan Bredt

2006-01-01

405

ANAIS: Status and prospects  

E-print Network

ANAIS experiment will look for dark matter annual modulation with large mass of ultra-pure NaI(Tl) scintillators at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), aiming to confirm the DAMA/LIBRA positive signal in a model-independent way. Two 12.5 kg each NaI(Tl) crystals provided by Alpha Spectra are currently taking data at the LSC. Present status of ANAIS detectors background and general performance is summarized; in particular, thanks to the high light collection efficiency prospects of lowering the threshold down to 1 keVee are reachable. Crystal radiopurity goals are fulfilled for $^{232}$Th and $^{238}$U chains and $^{40}$K activity, although higher than original goal, could be accepted; however, high $^{210}$Pb contamination out-of-equilibrium has been identified. More radiopure detectors are being built by Alpha Spectra. The ongoing high quantum efficiency PMT tests and muon veto characterization are also presented. Finally, the sensitivity of the experiment for the annual modulation in the WIMP signal, assuming the already achieved threshold and background in ANAIS-25 is shown. Further improvement should be achieved by reducing both threshold and background, as expected.

Julio Amaré; Susana Cebrián; Clara Cuesta; Eduardo García; Carlos Ginestra; María Martínez; Miguel A. Oliván; Ysrael Ortigoza; Alfonso Ortíz de Solórzano; Carlos Pobes; Jorge Puimedón; María Luisa Sarsa; José Ángel Villar; Patricia Villar

2014-12-31

406

ANAIS: Status and prospects  

E-print Network

ANAIS (Annual modulation with NAI Scintillators) experiment aims to look for dark matter annual modulation with 250 kg of ultrapure NaI(Tl) scintillators at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), in order to confirm the DAMA/LIBRA positive signal in a model-independent way. The detector will consist in an array of close-packed single modules, each of them coupled to two high efficiency Hamamatsu photomultipliers. Two 12.5 kg each NaI(Tl) crystals provided by Alpha Spectra are currently taking data at the LSC. These modules have shown an outstanding light collection efficiency (12-16 phe/keV), about the double of that from DAMA/LIBRA phase 1 detectors, which could enable reducing the energy threshold down to 1 keVee. ANAIS crystal radiopurity goals are fulfilled for 232Th and 238U chains, assuming equilibrium, and in the case of 40K, present crystals activity (although not at the required 20 ppb level) could be acceptable. However, a 210Pb contamination out-of-equilibrium has been identified and its origin traced back, so we expect it will be avoided in next prototypes. Finally, current status and prospects of the experiment considering several exposure and background scenarios are presented.

J. Amare; S. Cebrian; C. Cuesta; E. Garcia; C. Ginestra; M. Martinez; M. A. Olivan; Y. Ortigoza; A. Ortiz de Solorzano; C. Pobes; J. Puimedon; M. L. Sarsa; J. A. Villar; P. Villar

2014-10-22

407

ANAIS: Status and prospects  

E-print Network

ANAIS experiment will look for dark matter annual modulation with large mass of ultra-pure NaI(Tl) scintillators at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), aiming to confirm the DAMA/LIBRA positive signal in a model-independent way. Two 12.5 kg each NaI(Tl) crystals provided by Alpha Spectra are currently taking data at the LSC. Present status of ANAIS detectors background and general performance is summarized; in particular, thanks to the high light collection efficiency prospects of lowering the threshold down to 1 keVee are reachable. Crystal radiopurity goals are fulfilled for $^{232}$Th and $^{238}$U chains and $^{40}$K activity, although higher than original goal, could be accepted; however, high $^{210}$Pb contamination out-of-equilibrium has been identified. More radiopure detectors are being built by Alpha Spectra. The ongoing high quantum efficiency PMT tests and muon veto characterization are also presented. Finally, the sensitivity of the experiment for the annual modulation in the WIMP signal,...

Amaré, Julio; Cuesta, Clara; García, Eduardo; Ginestra, Carlos; Martínez, María; Oliván, Miguel A; Ortigoza, Ysrael; de Solórzano, Alfonso Ortíz; Pobes, Carlos; Puimedón, Jorge; Sarsa, María Luisa; Villar, José Ángel; Villar, Patricia

2015-01-01

408

America's children: mixed prospects.  

PubMed

The prospects of US children are uneven and uncertain. Today's youngsters are more apt to have fewer siblings, come from a broken home, have a working mother, and pass time as a "latchkey kid." More children are in child care than in the past and there has been a significant move toward center-based care. Increasingly, preschool-age children, particularly from relatively well-off families, are enrolled in prekindergarten educational settings. Declining family size and recent American prosperity have created material well-being for most of today's children. But the development of an underclass has also increased the number of children trapped in poverty. The stagnant wages of the "working poor" and the growing number of mother-only households have exacerbated income inequality among children from different family circumstances. The decline in educational achievement scores, which characterized the 1970s, has, for the moment at least, ended and the average school performance even improved slightly in the 1980s. In addition, more students, especially black students, completed high school in the 1980s. And the physical health of the average American child has improved dramatically since 1960. Most American children lead happy, healthy lives and several trends portend well for the future of most youngsters. But the picture is marred by the problematic future of the children of the underclass and the uncertain psychological impact of America's transformed family life. PMID:12316384

Bianchi, S M

1990-06-01

409

German energy technology prospects.  

PubMed

After more than 25 years of development of nuclear power and almost 10 years of research and development in numerous areas of nonnuclear energy, there is now a good basis for judging the future prospects of energy technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany. The development of nuclear power has provided an important and economically advantageous new source of energy. Further efforts are needed to establish the nuclear fuel cycle in all stages and to exploit the potential of advanced reactors. In all other areas of energy technology, including energy conservation, new energy sources, and coal, economics has turned out to be the key problem, even at today's energy prices. Opportunities to overcome these economic problems through additional R & D are limited. There is some potential for special applications, and there are many technologies that could contribute to the energy supply of developing countries. In general, however, progress in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources will depend on the degree to which energy policy measures can improve their economic basis. For some technologies, such as solar thermal power stations and coal liquefaction, large-scale economic deployment cannot be foreseen today. Instead of establishing costly demonstration projects, emphasis will be put on improving key components of these technologies with the aim of having the most advanced technology available when the economic parameters are more favorable. PMID:17770150

Popp, M

1982-12-24

410

VETERANS INFORMATION FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS  

E-print Network

VETERANS INFORMATION honor our veterans FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS VETERANS AFFAIRS be eligible for other federal funds while receiving your veterans education bene ts. Complete the Free Institutional Tutition Remission oregonstate.edu/veterans Voyager Tuition Assistance Program Yellow Ribbon

Escher, Christine

411

Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2013-01-01

412

European COPD Audit: design, organisation of work and methodology.  

PubMed

Clinical audit has an important role as an indicator of the clinical practice in a given community. The European Respiratory Society (ERS) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) audit was designed as a pilot study to evaluate clinical practice variability as well as clinical and organisational factors related to outcomes for COPD hospital admissions across Europe. The study was designed as a prospective observational noninterventional cohort trial, in which 422 hospitals from 13 European countries participated. There were two databases: one for hospital's resources and organisation and one for clinical information. The study was comprised of an initial 8-week phase during which all consecutive cases admitted to hospital due to an exacerbation of COPD were identified and information on clinical practice was gathered. During the 90-day second phase, mortality and readmissions were recorded. Patient data were anonymised and encrypted through a multi-lingual web-tool. As there is no pan-European Ethics Committee for audits, all partners accepted the general ethical rules of the ERS and ensured compliance with their own national ethical requirements. This paper describes the methodological issues encountered in organising and delivering a multi-national European audit, highlighting goals, barriers and achievements, and provides valuable information for those interested in developing clinical audits. PMID:22599361

López-Campos, Jose Luis; Hartl, Sylvia; Pozo-Rodriguez, Francisco; Roberts, C Michael

2013-02-01

413

Evaluation of a commercial IgE ELISA in comparison with IgA and IgM ELISAs, IgG avidity assay and complement fixation for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

A panel of sera from patients with known case histories representative of acute toxoplasmosis (primarily lymphadenopathy, n = 106), latent toxoplasmosis (asymptomatic, n = 368) and negative samples (n = 54) was used to evaluate the capacity of five serological tests to differentiate among patients with acute or latent toxoplasmosis and non-infected individuals. Positive IgA, IgE and IgM ELISA results and low IgG avidity and complement fixation test (CFT) titres of >or=256 were considered to be indicative of acute toxoplasmosis. The most sensitive methods were IgM ELISA (98.1%) and CFT (97.1%), albeit with low specificity (65.0% and 64.5%, respectively) and positive predictive values (43.3% and 42.7%, respectively). IgG avidity assay and IgE ELISA had the highest specificity (97.7% and 91.7%, respectively) and the highest positive predictive values (89.4% and 75.6%, respectively). The best association between serological results and clinical findings was obtained with IgE ELISA (86%, as expressed via Youden's index). In a subset of 259 samples categorised by the period between the onset of clinical symptoms and sampling, >50% of patients had enlarged lymph nodes for <4 months, despite a broad range of differences. However, IgM remained positive for 12-18 months, IgA for 6-9 months and IgE for 4-6 months. IgG avidity remained low for a maximum of 4 months, after which avidity increased despite the persistence of enlarged lymph nodes and a positive IgE assay. Detection of IgE appears to be a highly specific test for confirming the acute nature of Toxoplasma infections that have been detected by other sensitive methods. PMID:17184286

Kodym, P; Machala, L; Rohácová, H; Sirocká, B; Malý, M

2007-01-01

414

Biophotonics: a European perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

2013-03-01

415

European Space Agency: Rosetta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rosetta is the European Space Agency's comet exploration spacecraft. Materials presented here describe the space craft and its mission, which is to rendezvous with and orbit Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and soft-land an instrument package on the comet's nucleus. En route to the comet, it will perform fly-bys of two asteroids, Steins and Lutetia. Topics include a mission summary, background science, information on the orbiter and lander, and a mission schedule. An image gallery is also provided that contains pictures of the spacecraft, imagery taken by the spacecraft, pictures of the launch, and others.

416

European Environmental Law Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Environmental Law Homepage provides access to the full text of treaties, legislation, case law, scholarly legal articles, and EU and NGO documents relevant to environmental law in Europe. In addition, the site has compiled a directory of important governmental Websites for most nations in Europe and maintains a list of pointers to other legal sites with environmental information. The site is edited by Wybe Th. Douma of the T.M.C. Asser Institute, and Jurgen G.J. Lefevere of both the Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development, and the METRO Institute, Maastricht University.

417

European Anti Poverty Network (EAPN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

European Anti Poverty Network was created in 1989 "to put the fight against poverty and social exclusion on the political agenda of the European Union." The Network consists of 25 European organizations that work to alleviate poverty and 15 national networks that fight poverty specifically inside the EU. EAPN offers a nice collection of position papers and reports analyzing the ongoings of the European Union, its member countries and their policies, as well as news releases and news flashes. The site gives general information about the EAPN including its mission, members, and activities, as well as providing a tightly organized set of links.

418

European Conference on Health Economics.  

PubMed

The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own. PMID:21155696

Malmivaara, Antti

2010-12-01

419

European Industrial Relations Observatory Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Industrial Relations Observatory Online (EIROnline) was developed by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, an autonomous body created by the European Community. The aim of the site is to "initiate, collect, store, disseminate and provide access to information and analysis on developments in industrial relations" in the 15 European Union member states and Norway. Visitors will find the latest industrial relations news and feature articles arranged by country. There is also a bimonthly publication called the EIRObserver summarizing the news and items over the past two months.

420

EIOP: European Integration Online Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Community Studies Association Austria provides this new working paper archive to house peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary working papers in the field of European integration research, including legal studies, political science, economics, and history. At present eleven papers are available, including "Democracy and Governance in the European Union," "The Economic Consequences of a Large EMU--Results of Macroeconomic Model Simulations," and "The Making of a Polity: The Struggle Over European Integration." Though English is the preferred language for papers, papers in German may also be included; abstracts are presented in both languages. A mailing list is available for those wishing to be informed when new papers are posted.

421

Heavy ion fusion: Prospects and status  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this talk is to review the status of HIF as it was presented at Princeton, and also to try to deduce something about the prospects for HIF in particular, and fusion in general, from the world and US political scene. The status of the field is largely, though not entirely, expressed through presentations from the two leading HIF efforts: (1) the US program, centered at LBNL and LLNL, is primarily concerned with applying induction linac technology for HIF drivers; (2) the European program, centered at GSI, Darmstadt, but including several other laboratories, is primarily directed towards the rf linac approach using storage rings for energy compression. Several developments in the field of HIF should be noted: (1) progress towards construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) gives strength to the whole rational for developing a driver for Inertial Fusion Energy; (2) the field of accelerator science has matured far beyond the status that it had in 1976; (3) Heavy Ion Fusion has passed some more reviews, including one by the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), and has received the usual good marks; (5) as the budgets for Magnetic Fusion have fallen, the pressures on the Office of Fusion energy (OFE) have intensified, and a move is underway to shift the HIF program out of the IFE program and back into the ICF program in the Defense Programs (DP) side of the DOE.

Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

1995-10-01

422

Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a revierw of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in cats and dogs. Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite of all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondi...

423

Neosporosis, Toxoplasmosis, Sarcocystosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are related coccidian parasites that can cause abortion and neonatal mortality in animals. In addition, T. gondii and certain species of Sarcocystis are zoonotic. This paper reviews information on etiology, diagnosis, control and prevention...

424

Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxoplasma . Cats and kittens prefer litter boxes, garden soils, and sandboxes for elimination, and you may be ... Fruits and vegetables may have contact with contaminated soil or water also, and you can be infected ...

425

Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent throughout the world. This chapter discusses modes of transmission, the epidemiology of T. gondii infection worldwide and in Brazil, and methods of prevention and control....

426

Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... or sand because it might be contaminated with cat feces that contain Toxoplasma . Wash hands with soap ... else clean the litter box. (CDC Photo) Feed cats only canned or dried commercial food or well- ...

427

Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... inside the cells of humans and animals, especially cats and farm animals. If you have been pregnant, ... by cleaning the litter box of an infected cat or eating undercooked meat or other contaminated foods. ...

428

TOXOPLASMOSIS AND NEOSPOROSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that infects virtually all species of warm blooded animals, including people. Domestic cats and other Felidae are the definitive hosts. All nonfeline hosts are intermediate hosts. There are three infectious stages: sporozoites i...

429