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Sample records for toxoplasmosis european prospective

  1. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

  2. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. More than 60 million people in the ... brain, eyes, and other organs. You can get toxoplasmosis from Waste from an infected cat Eating contaminated ...

  3. Toxoplasmosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Dolores E.; Dubey, J.P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles, III; Enright, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), one of the better known and more widespread zoonotic diseases, originated in wildlife species and is now well established as a human malady. Food- and waterborne zoonoses, such as toxoplasmosis, are receiving increasing attention as components of disease emergence and resurgence. Toxoplasmosis is transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated food or water, and nearly one-third of humanity has been exposed to this parasite. The role of wildlife in this transmission process is becoming more clearly known and is outlined in this report. This zoonotic disease also causes problems in wildlife species across the globe. Future generations of humans will continue to be jeopardized by toxoplasmosis infections in addition to many of the other zoonotic diseases that have emerged during the past century. Through monitoring toxoplasmosis infection levels in wildlife populations, we will be better able to predict future human infection levels of this important zoonotic disease.

  4. TOXOPLASMOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Halonen, Sandra K.; Weiss, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an Apicomplexan, is a pathogen that can infect the central nervous system. Infection during pregnancy can result in a congenial infection with severe neurological sequela. In immune compromised individuals reactivation of latent neurological foci can result in encephalitis. Immune competent individuals infected with T. gondii are typically asymptomatic and maintain this infection for life. However, recent studies suggest that these asymptomatic infections may have effects on behavior and other physiological processes. T. gondii infects approximately one-third of the world population, making it one of the most successful parasitic organisms. Cats and other felidae serve as the definite host producing oocysts, an environmentally resistant life cycle stage found in cat feces, which can transmit the infection when ingested orally. A wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including humans, can serve as the intermediate host in which tissue cysts (containing bradyzoites) develop. Transmission also occurs due to ingestion of the tissue cysts. There are 3 predominant clonal lineages, termed types I, II and III and an association with higher pathogenicity with the Type I strains in humans has emerged. This chapter presents a review of the biology of this infection including the life cycle, transmission, epidemiology, parasite strains, and the host immune response. The major clinical outcomes of congenital infection, chorioretinitis, and encephalitis, and the possible association of infection of toxoplasmosis with neuropsychriatric disorders such as schizophrenia, are reviewed. PMID:23829904

  5. Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Antoine; Petersen, Eskild; Salamon, Roger; Chêne, Geneviève; Gilbert, Ruth; Salmi, Louis Rachid; for the European Toxo Prevention Study Group (EUROTOXO)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe systems for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis implemented in European countries. In September 2004, a questionnaire, adapted from the evaluation criteria published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was sent to a panel of national correspondents in 35 countries in the European geographical area with knowledge of the epidemiological surveillance systems implemented in their countries. Where necessary, we updated the information until July 2007. Responses were received from 28 countries. Some 16 countries reported routine surveillance for toxoplasmosis. In 12 countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Scotland and Slovakia), surveillance was designed to detect only symptomatic toxoplasmosis, whether congenital or not. Four countries reported surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis, on a regional basis in Italy and on a national basis in Denmark, France and Germany. In conclusion, epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis needs to be improved in order to determine the true burden of disease and to assess the effectiveness of and the need for existing prevention programmes. PMID:18445459

  6. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during the 1975-85 decade. After the adjustment of the recession, European manufacturing industry is relatively more competitive and overall will experience a slower employment decline. Further, the growth of services will be limited by the effects of restrictive budgetary policies upon the development of public services. In all 5 countries, the main projected areas of employment growth are business and related services, tourism and leisure activities, and health care. Those occupations most likely to expand are the more highly qualified groups associated with the growth sectors. The main changes in the location of functions within the economic structure are likely to be the continuing contracting out of service functions within production industries to the service sector; and the growth of small relative to large enterprises. PMID:12281366

  7. Congenital toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For example, toxoplasmosis infection can be passed from cats if you clean the cat's litter box.) Call your provider if you are ... risk for the infection. Pregnant women who have cats as house pets may be at higher risk. ...

  8. Prospects for European Research and Development in Training & Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the prospects for research and development in the education and training fields offered by the European Communities. The position of the EC is explained in relation to the existing and forthcoming Framework Programmes of research and development. The 1987-91 Framework Programme has committed most of its funding to existing

  9. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On ... Healthy people (nonpregnant) Most healthy people recover from toxoplasmosis without treatment. Persons who are ill can be ...

  10. My Journey with Toxoplasmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    The author describes her fears and struggles as she came to terms, as an American expatriate in France, with a medical diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. This condition led to her birthing a son with Asperger's Syndrome. She tells of plunging herself into research to learn more about Toxoplasmosis, the number of things that could be seriously wrong with…

  11. My Journey with Toxoplasmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    The author describes her fears and struggles as she came to terms, as an American expatriate in France, with a medical diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. This condition led to her birthing a son with Asperger's Syndrome. She tells of plunging herself into research to learn more about Toxoplasmosis, the number of things that could be seriously wrong with

  12. Veterinary vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Grzybowski, Marcin M; Długońska, Henryka

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of mammal and bird species. Common infection leads to high economic (e.g., abortions in sheep) and human (e.g., congenital toxoplasmosis or neurotoxoplasmosis in humans) losses. With one exception (Toxovax for sheep), there are no vaccines to prevent human or animal toxoplasmosis. The paper presents the current state and challenges in the development of a vaccine against toxoplasmosis, designed for farm animals either bred for consumption or commonly kept on farms and involved in parasite transmission. So far, the trials have mostly revolved around conventional vaccines and, compared with the research using laboratory animals (mainly mice), they have not been very numerous. However, the results obtained are promising and could be a good starting point for developing an effective vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis. PMID:24805159

  13. Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which can get on the hands after handling soil without gloves or handling uncooked, unwashed foods drinking ... keep your pet from getting toxoplasmosis from the soil and/or small infected animals it tries to ...

  14. Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz Akhtar; Gad, Nanette; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question Congenital toxoplasmosis is a dangerous fetal infection. Why is routine screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy not available for most Canadians? Answer Low prevalence of the infection, high cost associated with testing, low sensitivity of screening tests, false-positive test results, and limitations of treatment effectiveness are all cited as reasons for not routinely screening for T gondii infection in Canada. Currently, screening for the detection of T gondii is only performed in Nunavik and other parts of northern Quebec owing to the high prevalence of infection in this region. Congenital toxoplasmosis causes neurologic or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies. PMID:24733322

  15. Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz Akhtar; Gad, Nanette; Koren, Gideon

    2014-04-01

    Question Congenital toxoplasmosis is a dangerous fetal infection. Why is routine screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy not available for most Canadians? Answer Low prevalence of the infection, high cost associated with testing, low sensitivity of screening tests, false-positive test results, and limitations of treatment effectiveness are all cited as reasons for not routinely screening for T gondii infection in Canada. Currently, screening for the detection of T gondii is only performed in Nunavik and other parts of northern Quebec owing to the high prevalence of infection in this region. Congenital toxoplasmosis causes neurologic or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies. PMID:24733322

  16. Toxoplasmosis – A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of 88 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovičková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30–50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this ‘asymptomatic infection’ may also lead to development of other human pathologies. Aims of the Study The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Methods and Findings Prevalence data published between 1995–2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (p<0.1). For several obtained significant correlations between the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. Conclusions The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research. PMID:24662942

  17. European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) project: a multicentre and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Zavattero, Emanuele; Dediol, Emil; Uglešić, Vedran; Kovačič, Žiga; Vesnaver, Aleš; Konstantinović, Vitomir S; Petrović, Milan; Stephens, Jonny; Kanzaria, Amar; Bhatti, Nabeel; Holmes, Simon; Pechalova, Petia F; Bakardjiev, Angel G; Malanchuk, Vladislav A; Kopchak, Andrey V; Galteland, Pål; Mjøen, Even; Skjelbred, Per; Koudougou, Carine; Mouallem, Guillaume; Corre, Pierre; Løes, Sigbjørn; Lekven, Njål; Laverick, Sean; Gordon, Peter; Tamme, Tiia; Akermann, Stephanie; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Kommers, Sofie C; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the demographics, causes and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures managed at several European departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over one year. The following data were recorded: gender, age, aetiology, site of facial fractures, facial injury severity score, timing of intervention, length of hospital stay. Data for a total of 3396 patients (2655 males and 741 females) with 4155 fractures were recorded. The mean age differed from country to country, ranging between 29.9 and 43.9 years. Overall, the most frequent cause of injury was assault, which accounted for the injuries of 1309 patients; assaults and falls alternated as the most important aetiological factor in the various centres. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible with 1743 fractures, followed by orbital-zygomatic-maxillary (OZM) fractures. Condylar fractures were the most commonly observed mandibular fracture. The results of the EURMAT collaboration confirm the changing trend in maxillofacial trauma epidemiology in Europe, with trauma cases caused by assaults and falls now outnumbering those due to road traffic accidents. The progressive ageing of the European population, in addition to strict road and work legislation may have been responsible for this change. Men are still the most frequent victims of maxillofacial injuries. PMID:25457465

  18. Toxoplasmosis in animals and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T. gondii is one of the most studied parasites.It causes disease in virtually all warm blooded animals Many scientists use T. gondii to investigate problems in cell biology and genetics. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with biology. Chapter 2, which deals with toxoplasmosis...

  19. Specific floater home ranges and prospective behaviour in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobler, Michael; Smith, Henrik G.

    In many bird species, floaters are present on the breeding grounds in one or more years before they breed. There is increasing evidence that they have specific home ranges in which they search for information about current and future breeding opportunities. We investigated the role of prospecting in a migratory European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) population. Radio-tracking showed that male starling floaters use specific home range areas during the breeding period. Nest-box observations demonstrated that non-parental nest intrusion is common in the starling and that it is significantly more frequent during the nestling than during the incubation period. In addition, small groups of nest boxes were more likely to be occupied by starlings if they had been put up during the preceding breeding season. The results suggest that floaters try to acquire information about local breeding communities. One specific type of information may be the location of potential breeding sites.

  20. Alcohol intake and breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Scoccianti, Chiara; Chajs, Vronique; de Batlle, Jordi; Biessy, Carine; Dossus, Laure; Baglietto, Laura; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjnneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirs Garca, Jos Ramn; Chirlaque, Mara-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Duell, Eric J; Amiano, Pilar; Borgquist, Signe; Wirflt, Elisabet; Hallmans, Gran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Murphy, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio

    2015-10-15

    Alcohol intake has been associated to breast cancer in pre and postmenopausal women; however results are inconclusive regarding tumor hormonal receptor status, and potential modifying factors like age at start drinking. Therefore, we investigated the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer using prospective observational data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Up to 334,850 women, aged 35-70 years at baseline, were recruited in ten European countries and followed up an average of 11 years. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. The study outcomes were the Hazard ratios (HR) of developing breast cancer according to hormonal receptor status. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Alcohol intake was significantly related to breast cancer risk, for each 10 g/day increase in alcohol intake the HR increased by 4.2% (95% CI: 2.7-5.8%). Taking 0 to 5 g/day as reference, alcohol intake of >5 to 15 g/day was related to a 5.9% increase in breast cancer risk (95% CI: 1-11%). Significant increasing trends were observed between alcohol intake and ER+/PR+, ER-/PR-, HER2- and ER-/PR-HER2- tumors. Breast cancer risk was stronger among women who started drinking prior to first full-time pregnancy. Overall, our results confirm the association between alcohol intake and both hormone receptor positive and hormone receptor negative breast tumors, suggesting that timing of exposure to alcohol drinking may affect the risk. Therefore, women should be advised to control their alcohol consumption. PMID:25677034

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Graduate Employment Prospects in European Labour Markets: A Study of Graduate Recruitment in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branine, Mohamed; Avramenko, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of higher education and the graduate labour markets in selected European countries (France, Germany, Spain and United Kingdom) in the context of the expectations of graduates and prospective employers, and respective recruitment and selection practices. Expectations of graduating students

  2. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  3. Rib fractures predict incident limb fractures: results from the European prospective osteoporosis study.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A A; Silman, A J; Reeve, J; Kaptoge, S; O'Neill, T W

    2006-01-01

    Population studies suggest that rib fractures are associated with a reduction in bone mass. While much is known about the predictive risk of hip, spine and distal forearm fracture on the risk of future fracture, little is known about the impact of rib fracture. The aim of this study was to determine whether a recalled history of rib fracture was associated with an increased risk of future limb fracture. Men and women aged 50 years and over were recruited from population registers in 31 European centres for participation in a screening survey of osteoporosis (European Prospective Osteoporosis Study). Subjects were invited to complete an interviewer-administered questionnaire that included questions about previous fractures including rib fracture, the age of their first fracture and also the level of trauma. Lateral spine radiographs were performed and the presence of vertebral deformity was determined morphometrically. Following the baseline survey, subjects were followed prospectively by annual postal questionnaire to determine the occurrence of clinical fractures. The subjects included 6,344 men, with a mean age of 64.2 years, and 6,788 women, with a mean age of 63.6 years, who were followed for a median of 3 years (range 0.4-5.9 years), of whom 135 men (2.3%) and 101 women (1.6%) reported a previous low trauma rib fracture. In total, 138 men and 391 women sustained a limb fracture during follow-up. In women, after age adjustment, those with a recalled history of low trauma rib fracture had an increased risk of sustaining 'any' limb fracture [relative hazard (RH)=2.3; 95% CI 1.3, 4.0]. When stratified by fracture type the predictive risk was more marked for hip (RH=7.7; 95% CI 2.3, 25.9) and humerus fracture (RH=4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.6) than other sites (RH=1.6; 95% CI 0.6, 4.3). Additional adjustment for prevalent vertebral deformity and previous (non-rib) low trauma fractures at other sites slightly reduced the strength of the association between rib fracture and subsequent limb fracture. In men, after age adjustment, there was a small though non-significant association between recalled history of rib fracture and future limb fracture. Our data highlight the importance of rib fracture as a marker of bone fragility in women. PMID:15928803

  4. Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    PubMed

    Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Teucher, Birgit; Khn, Tilman; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Leenders, Max; Agudo, Antonio; Bergmann, Manuela M; Valanou, Elisavet; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Key, Timothy J; Crowe, Francesca L; Overvad, Kim; Sonestedt, Emily; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Wennberg, Maria; Jansson, Jan Hkan; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Agnoli, Claudia; Huerta, Jos Mara; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Tumino, Rosario; Altzibar, Jone M; Vineis, Paolo; Masala, Giovanna; Ferrari, Pietro; Muller, David C; Johansson, Mattias; Luisa Redondo, M; Tjnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Brustad, Magritt; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv

    2015-01-01

    Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cancer in relation to the intake of total fish, lean fish, and fatty fish in a large prospective cohort including ten European countries. More than 500,000 men and women completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1999 and were followed up for mortality until the end of 2010. 32,587 persons were reported dead since enrolment. Hazard ratios and their 99% confidence interval were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Fish consumption was examined using quintiles based on reported consumption, using moderate fish consumption (third quintile) as reference, and as continuous variables, using increments of 10 g/day. All analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. No association was seen for fish consumption and overall or cause-specific mortality for both the categorical and the continuous analyses, but there seemed to be a U-shaped trend (p < 0.000) with fatty fish consumption and total mortality and with total fish consumption and cancer mortality (p = 0.046). PMID:25377533

  5. Plasma phyto-oestrogens and prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Travis, R C; Spencer, E A; Allen, N E; Appleby, P N; Roddam, A W; Overvad, K; Johnsen, N F; Olsen, A; Kaaks, R; Linseisen, J; Boeing, H; Nöthlings, U; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, M M; Sacerdote, C; Palli, D; Tumino, R; Berrino, F; Trichopoulou, A; Dilis, V; Trichopoulos, D; Chirlaque, M-D; Ardanaz, E; Larranaga, N; Gonzalez, C; Suárez, L R; Sánchez, M-J; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Hallmans, G; Stattin, P; Rinaldi, S; Slimani, N; Jenab, M; Riboli, E; Key, T J

    2009-01-01

    We examined plasma concentrations of phyto-oestrogens in relation to risk for subsequent prostate cancer in a case–control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Concentrations of isoflavones genistein, daidzein and equol, and that of lignans enterolactone and enterodiol, were measured in plasma samples for 950 prostate cancer cases and 1042 matched control participants. Relative risks (RRs) for prostate cancer in relation to plasma concentrations of these phyto-oestrogens were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Higher plasma concentrations of genistein were associated with lower risk of prostate cancer: RR among men in the highest vs the lowest fifth, 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.96, P trend=0.03). After adjustment for potential confounders this RR was 0.74 (95% CI 0.54–1.00, P trend=0.05). No statistically significant associations were observed for circulating concentrations of daidzein, equol, enterolactone or enterodiol in relation to overall risk for prostate cancer. There was no evidence of heterogeneity in these results by age at blood collection or country of recruitment, nor by cancer stage or grade. These results suggest that higher concentrations of circulating genistein may reduce the risk of prostate cancer but do not support an association with plasma lignans. PMID:19436304

  6. Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis?

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Rima; Kieffer, Francois; Sautter, Mari; Hosten, Tiffany; Pelloux, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Evidence that prevention, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis is beneficial developed as follows: antiparasitic agents abrogate Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite growth, preventing destruction of infected, cultured, mammalian cells and cure active infections in experimental animals, including primates. They treat active infections in persons who are immune-compromised, limit destruction of retina by replicating parasites and thereby treat ocular toxoplasmosis and treat active infection in the fetus and infant. Outcomes of untreated congenital toxoplasmosis include adverse ocular and neurologic sequelae described in different countries and decades. Better outcomes are associated with treatment of infected infants throughout their first year of life. Shorter intervals between diagnosis and treatment in utero improve outcomes. A French approach for diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus and infant can prevent toxoplasmosis and limit adverse sequelae. In addition, new data demonstrate that this French approach results in favorable outcomes with some early gestation infections. A standardized approach to diagnosis and treatment during gestation has not yet been applied generally in the USA. Nonetheless, a small, similar experience confirms that this French approach is feasible, safe, and results in favorable outcomes in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study cohort. Prompt diagnosis, prevention and treatment reduce adverse sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:19430661

  7. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; D?r?bu?, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians. PMID:24553077

  8. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and with complete information on diet, smoking, physical activity and body mass index, who were between 35 and 69 years old at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association of meat consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results As of June 2009, 26,344 deaths were observed. After multivariate adjustment, a high consumption of red meat was related to higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.28, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day), and the association was stronger for processed meat (HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.66, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day). After correction for measurement error, higher all-cause mortality remained significant only for processed meat (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25, per 50 g/d). We estimated that 3.3% (95% CI 1.5% to 5.0%) of deaths could be prevented if all participants had a processed meat consumption of less than 20 g/day. Significant associations with processed meat intake were observed for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and 'other causes of death'. The consumption of poultry was not related to all-cause mortality. Conclusions The results of our analysis support a moderate positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, in particular due to cardiovascular diseases, but also to cancer. PMID:23497300

  9. Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Norat, Teresa; Bingham, Sheila; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Mazuir, Mathieu; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjnneland, Anne; Clavel, Franoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Nieters, Alexandra; Linseisen, Jakob; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tountas, Yannis; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Ardanaz, Eva; Gonzlez, Carlos; Navarro, Carmen; Quirs, J Ramn; Sanchez, Mara-Jos; Berglund, Gran; Mattisson, Irene; Hallmans, Gran; Palmqvist, Richard; Day, Nicholas E.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J.; San Joaquin, Miguel; Hmon, Bertrand; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio

    2005-01-01

    Background Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fish intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. Methods We prospectively followed 478 040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 1329 incident colorectal cancers were documented. We examined the relationship between intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, and fish and colorectal cancer risk using a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, energy (nonfat and fat sources), height, weight, work-related physical activity, smoking status, dietary fiber and folate, and alcohol consumption, stratified by center. A calibration substudy based on 36 994 subjects was used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [>160 g/day] versus lowest [<20 g/day] intake, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.88; Ptrend=.03) and inversely associated with intake of fish (>80 g/day versus <10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.54 to 0.88; Ptrend<.001), but was not related to poultry intake. Correcting for measurement error strengthened the associations between colorectal cancer and red and processed meat intake (per 100-g increase HR = 1.25, 95% CI =1.09 to 1.41, Ptrend= .001 and HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.02, Ptrend= .001 before and after calibration, respectively) and forfish (per 100 g increase HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.87, Ptrend<.001 and HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.77, Ptrend= .003; before and after correction, respectively). In this study population, the absolute risk of development of colorectal cancer within 10 years for a study subject aged 50 years was 1.71% for the highest category of red meat intake and 1.28% for the lowest category of intake and was 1.86% for subjects in the lowest category of fish intake and 1.28% for subjects in the highest category of fish intake. Conclusions Our data confirm that colorectal cancer risk is positively associated with high consumption of red and processed meat and support an inverse association with fish intake. PMID:15956652

  10. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... solid organ transplants Handling cat litter Eating contaminated soil Eating raw or undercooked meat (lamb, pork, and ... dog feces. Wash your hands thoroughly after touching soil that may be contaminated with animal feces. Pregnant ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wash your hands thoroughly after handling raw meat, soil, sand or cats. Control flies and cockroaches as much as possible. They can spread contaminated soil or cat feces onto food. Use hot soapy ...

  12. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cells, and kidney problems. Also, sulfadiazine is a sulfa drug. Almost half the people who take it have ... tolerate the full dose. People who cannot tolerate sulfa drugs can use clindamycin (Cleocin) instead of sulfadiazine in ...

  13. Intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines from meat in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Zoller, Dorothee; Hermann, Silke; Linseisen, Jakob

    2007-12-01

    It was the aim of the present study to estimate the intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) from meat, which have been associated with cancer risk in several epidemiological studies, of 21 462 subjects who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in Heidelberg. This was accomplished by using a detailed dietary questionnaire that assessed meat consumption, cooking methods, and degree of browning of the respective food items. Median total HCA intake from meat was 31 ng/d (mean 69 ng/d), which was lower than results observed in previous studies. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine was the most common HCA in this cohort (median 17; mean 48 ng/d). The present study offers the opportunity of a detailed examination of the associations between meat cooking as well as HCA intake from meat and cancer risk in a prospective way. PMID:18309547

  14. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis. PMID:24864110

  15. Blood pressure and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weikert, Steffen; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Weikert, Cornelia; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Becker, Nikolaus; Linseisen, Jakob; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Mountokalakis, Theodore; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Verschuren, W M Monique; Ljungberg, Borje; Hallmans, Goran; Berglund, Goran; González, Carlos A; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, M J; Allen, Naomi; Roddam, Andrew; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2008-02-15

    Elevated blood pressure has been implicated as a risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but prospective studies were confined to men and did not consider the effect of antihypertensive medication. The authors examined the relation among blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, and RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Blood pressure was measured in 296,638 women and men, recruited in eight European countries during 1992-1998, 254,935 of whom provided information on antihypertensive medication. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 years, 250 cases of RCC were identified. Blood pressure was independently associated with risk of RCC. The relative risks for the highest versus the lowest category of systolic (>/=160 mmHg vs. <120 mmHg) and diastolic (>/=100 mmHg vs. <80 mmHg) blood pressures were 2.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.53, 4.02) and 2.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.54, 3.55). Risk estimates did not significantly differ according to sex or use of antihypertensive medication. Individuals taking antihypertensive drugs were not at a significantly increased risk unless blood pressure was poorly controlled. These results support the hypothesis that hypertension, rather than its medications, increases the risk of RCC in both sexes, while effective blood pressure control may lower the risk. PMID:18048375

  16. Long-term weight change and breast cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Lahmann, P H; Schulz, M; Hoffmann, K; Boeing, H; Tjnneland, A; Olsen, A; Overvad, K; Key, T J; Allen, N E; Khaw, K-T; Bingham, S; Berglund, G; Wirflt, E; Berrino, F; Krogh, V; Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulos, D; Kaaks, R; Riboli, E

    2005-01-01

    We examined prospectively the association between weight change during adulthood and breast cancer risk, using data on 1358 incident cases that developed during 5.8 years of follow-up among 40?429 premenopausal and 57?923 postmenopausal women from six European countries, taking part in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios according to weight change (kg), defined as the weight difference between age at enrolment and age 20 adjusted for other risk factors. Changes in weight were not associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. In postmenopausal women, weight gain was positively associated with breast cancer risk only among noncurrent hormone replacement therapy (HRT) users (P-trend ?0.0002). Compared to women with a stable weight (2?kg), the relative risk for women who gained 1520?kg was 1.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.062.13). The pooled RR per weight gain increment of 5?kg was 1.08 (95% CI 1.041.12). Weight gain was not associated with breast cancer risk in current HRT users, although, overall, these women experienced a much higher risk of breast cancer compared with nonusers. Our findings suggest that large adult weight gain was a significant predictor of breast cancer in postmenopausal women not taking exogenous hormones. PMID:16136032

  17. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SAND FOX (VULPUS RUEPPELLII)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli) from United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, pancreas, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the heart. Ttachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-spe...

  18. RECURRENCE RATES OF OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Braakenburg, Arthur M.D.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Holland, Gary N.; Wu, Sheng; Yu, Fei; Rothova, Aniki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are higher during pregnancy among women of childbearing age. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods We reviewed medical records of all women seen at a university eye clinic (Utrecht, Netherlands) during episodes of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis that occurred while the women were of childbearing age (1642 years). Each woman was sent a questionnaire requesting information regarding all pregnancies and episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis, whether or not episodes were observed at the eye clinic. Conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression was used to model incident rate ratios of recurrence during pregnant versus non-pregnant intervals, adjusted for potential confounders, including age at time of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis and interval since last episode of active disease, which are known to influence risk of recurrence. Results Questionnaires were returned by 50 (58%) of 86 women, 34 of whom had 69 pregnancies during 584 person-years of study. There were 128 episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis during the study period (6 during pregnancy). First episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis occurred between ages 9.6 and 38.5 years. Youngest age at pregnancy was 16.1 years; oldest age at childbirth was 40.9 years. Incident rate ratios for pregnant versus non-pregnant intervals were in the direction of lower recurrence rates during pregnancy, with point estimates of 0.54 and 0.75 under two different approaches, but ratios were not significantly different from the null value (p-values of 0.16 and 0.55). Conclusions Recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are likely not higher during pregnancy, in contrast to traditional beliefs. PMID:24412127

  19. Dietary intake of acrylamide and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

    PubMed Central

    Obón-Santacana, M; Kaaks, R; Slimani, N; Lujan-Barroso, L; Freisling, H; Ferrari, P; Dossus, L; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Baglietto, L; Fortner, R T; Boeing, H; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Overvad, K; Menéndez, V; Molina-Montes, E; Larrañaga, N; Chirlaque, M-D; Ardanaz, E; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Travis, R C; Lu, Y; Merritt, M A; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, V; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Sieri, S; Tumino, R; Sacerdote, C; Galasso, R; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Wirfält, E; Ericson, U; Idahl, A; Ohlson, N; Skeie, G; Gram, I T; Weiderpass, E; Onland-Moret, N C; Riboli, E; Duell, E J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between acrylamide intake and EC risk: for overall EC, for type-I EC, and in never smokers and never users of oral contraceptives (OCs). Smoking is a source of acrylamide, and OC use is a protective factor for EC risk. Methods: Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between acrylamide intake and EC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Acrylamide intake was estimated from the EU acrylamide monitoring database, which was matched with EPIC questionnaire-based food consumption data. Acrylamide intake was energy adjusted using the residual method. Results: No associations were observed between acrylamide intake and overall EC (n=1382) or type-I EC risk (n=627). We observed increasing relative risks for type-I EC with increasing acrylamide intake among women who both never smoked and were non-users of OCs (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.08–3.62; likelihood ratio test (LRT) P-value: 0.01, n=203). Conclusions: Dietary intake of acrylamide was not associated with overall or type-I EC risk; however, positive associations with type I were observed in women who were both non-users of OCs and never smokers. PMID:24937665

  20. Aromatic adducts and lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Gilberson, Tamra; Peluso, Marco E M; Munia, Armelle; Lujn-Barroso, Leila; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Navarro, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Quirs, J Ramn; Molina-Montes, Esther; Snchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Tormo, Mara-Jos; Chirlaque, Mara-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Confortini, Massimo; Bonet, Catalina; Sala, Nria; Gonzlez, Carlos A; Agudo, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    In this case-cohort study, we examined the association between bulky DNA adducts and the risk of lung cancer within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort with an average 7-year follow-up, including 98 cases of primary lung cancer and 296 subjects randomly selected from the cohort. Aromatic adducts were measured using (32)P-postlabeling in leukocyte DNA from blood samples collected at enrollment. The association between DNA adducts and the risk of lung cancer was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model with a modified partial likelihood. There was an overall significant increased risk for developing lung cancer when DNA adduct concentrations were doubled, with relative risk (RR) adjusting for all relevant confounders of 1.36 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-157. There was a significant increased risk for developing lung cancer when DNA adduct concentrations were doubled for current smokers and among subjects exposed to PAH at work; there was also a slightly higher increase among males than females. However, no statistically significant differences were observed for the effect of adduct levels across smoking status, sex or occupational exposure to PAH. A meta-analysis combined four prospective studies, including this study, resulting in a significant association among current smokers, with an overall estimate of 34% increase in the risk of lung cancer when doubling the level of aromatic DNA adducts in leukocytes. PMID:24845263

  1. Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia. PMID:24784937

  2. The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to underline the future challenges for European marine research in terms of the integrated coastal zone management of these highly significant coastal zones. PMID:18061212

  3. The actual development of European aviation safety requirements in aviation medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.

    PubMed

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-04-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Aviation Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them. PMID:19561781

  4. [Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Pittner, Y; Dufour, J-F; David, G; Boibieux, A; Peyramond, D

    2009-06-01

    We report the case of an atypical localization of a spinal cord "toxoplasmic abscess". The 46-year-old patient, HIV-1 positive, was admitted for acute urine retention and gait disorders. MRI revealed a T12-L1 medullary lesion suggesting a tumoral, inflammatory and infectious pathology. The radiological aspect and immunosuppression lead to the initiation of a treatment against Toxoplasma gondii, following the same treatment principles as for cerebral toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis can only be proved by data from autopsy or surgical biopsy, but toxoplasmosis PCR on CSF seems to be an interesting alternative to confirm the diagnosis. According to the literature, PCR is not sensitive enough as a diagnostic tool. Improvement after treatment supported the diagnosis confirmed by PCR. PMID:19304424

  5. Animals are key to human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Dirk; Däubener, Walter; Schares, Gereon; Groß, Uwe; Pleyer, Uwe; Lüder, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely sucessfull protozoal parasite which infects almost all mamalian species including humans. Approximately 30% of the human population worldwide is chronically infected with T. gondii. In general, human infection is asymptomatic but the parasite may induce severe disease in fetuses and immunocompromised patients. In addition, T. gondii may cause sight-threatening posterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients. Apart from few exceptions, humans acquire T. gondii from animals. Both, the oral uptake of T. gondii oocysts released by specific hosts, i.e. felidae, and of cysts persisting in muscle cells of animals result in human toxoplasmosis. In the present review, we discuss recent new data on the cell biology of T. gondii and parasite diversity in animals. In addition, we focus on the impact of these various parasite strains and their different virulence on the clinical outcome of human congenital toxoplasmosis and T. gondii uveitis. PMID:25240467

  6. [Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Niamey, Niger].

    PubMed

    Julvez, J; Magnaval, J F; Meynard, D; Perie, C; Baixench, M T

    1996-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of toxoplasmosis was carried out in Niamey, Niger, in 1992. Three hundred and seventy-one sera from 200 females and 171 males were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay for IgG. Using a cut-off value of 12 UI, 67 sera (18%) were positive. In this group detection of specific IgM by ELISA with immunocapture revealed 8 positive sera (11.9%). Seroprevalence of specific IgG was not correlated with ethnic origin or sex but did increase with age from 6.9% in subjects under 5 years to 34.9% in subjects 50 years and over. These findings are comparable with those from previous studies in similar climates and confirm that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis is higher in humid coastal regions than dry desert areas. PMID:8767792

  7. Life Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany Study

    PubMed Central

    Feller, Silke; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prospective association between life satisfaction and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Previous studies suggested that psychosocial factors may affect the development of chronic diseases but the impact of positive attitudes, in particular life satisfaction, is yet to be determined. Methods The analysis included 50,358 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study in Potsdam and Heidelberg. Life satisfaction was assessed in a baseline interview and incident cases of chronic diseases were identified and verified during follow-up. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models that were systematically multivariable-adjusted for established risk factors and prevalent diseases. Results During an average of 8 years of follow-up 2,293 cases of cancer, 1,840 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 440 cases of stroke, and 562 cases of myocardial infarction were observed. Women who were unsatisfied with life at baseline showed in all models a significantly increased risk of cancer (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18-1.78) and stroke (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.05-2.73) as well as an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus by trend across categories (p-trend=0.04) compared to women very satisfied with life. In men, a relationship between life satisfaction and stroke was found but did not persist after consideration of lifestyle factors and prevalent diseases. No significant association was observed between life satisfaction and risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that reduced life satisfaction is related to the development of chronic diseasesparticularly in women and partly mediated by established risk factors. PMID:23977388

  8. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T.; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as ‘probably carcinogenic’ to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results, and could not further examine histological subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) sub-cohort of women (n=325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method, and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10μg/day) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histological EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/day. No associations, and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/day:1.02, 95%CI:0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1:0.97, 95%CI:0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. PMID:25300475

  9. European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) prospective survey of candidaemia: report from one Italian region.

    PubMed

    Tortorano, A M; Biraghi, E; Astolfi, A; Ossi, C; Tejada, M; Farina, C; Perin, S; Bonaccorso, C; Cavanna, C; Raballo, A; Grossi, A

    2002-08-01

    An ECMM epidemiological prospective survey of candidaemia was performed in one Italian region (Lombardy; population: 8 924 870) by the National Society of Medical Mycology (FIMUA) from September 1997 to December 1999. In total, 569 episodes were reported with an overall rate of 0.38/1000 admissions, 4.4/100000 patient days. Predisposing factors included presence of an intravascular catheter (89%), antibiotic treatment (88%), surgery (56%), intensive care (45%), solid tumour (28%), steroid treatment (15%), haematological malignancy (7%), HIV infection (6%), fetal immaturity (4%). Mucous membrane colonization preceded candidaemia in 83% of patients. Candida albicans was identified in 58% of cases, followed by Candida parapsilosis (15%), Candida glabrata (13%), Candida tropicalis (6%). Septic shock occurred in 95 patients. Crude mortality was 35%, the highest in C. tropicalis fungaemia (44%), the elderly (64%) and solid tumour cancer patients (43%). Intravascular catheter removal was associated with higher survival rate (71 vs. 47%). This survey underscores the importance of candidaemia in hospital settings. PMID:12183145

  10. Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population: multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Jenab, Mazda; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Benetou, Vasiliki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Dik, Vincent K; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-04-15

    Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend < 0.001]. The corresponding association of tea with HCC risk was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22-0.78, p-trend = 0.003). There was no compelling evidence of heterogeneity of these associations across strata of important HCC risk factors, including hepatitis B or hepatitis C status (available in a nested case-control study). The inverse, monotonic associations of coffee intake with HCC were apparent for caffeinated (p-trend = 0.009), but not decaffeinated (p-trend = 0.45) coffee for which, however, data were available for a fraction of subjects. Results from this multicentre, European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects. PMID:25219573

  11. Consumption of fish and meats and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Trichopolou, A.; Bamia, C.; Duarte-Salles, T.; Trepo, E.; Aleksandrova, K.; Nthlings, U.; Lukanova, A.; Lagiou, P.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Katzke, V. A.; Overvad, K.; Tjnneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Fagherazzi, G.; Bastide, N.; Panico, S.; Grioni, S.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, P. H.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Parr, C. L.; Jakszyn, P.; Snchez, M. J.; Barricarte, A.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.; Quirs, J. R.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background While higher intake of fish and lower consumption of red/processed meats have been suggested to play a protective role in the etiology of several cancers, prospective evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited, particularly in Western European populations. Methods The associations of fish and meats with HCC risk were analyzed in the EPIC cohort. Between 1992 and 2010, 191 incident HCC were identified among 477 206 participants. Baseline diet was assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for calibration. Multivariable proportional hazard regression was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In a nested casecontrol subset (HCC = 122), HBV/HCV status and liver function biomarkers were measured. Results HCC risk was inversely associated with intake of total fish (per 20 g/day increase, HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.740.95 and HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.690.97 before and after calibration, respectively). This inverse association was also suggested after adjusting for HBV/HCV status and liver function score (per 20-g/day increase, RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.661.11 and RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.501.09, respectively) in a nested casecontrol subset. Intakes of total meats or subgroups of red/processed meats, and poultry were not associated with HCC risk. Conclusions In this large European cohort, total fish intake is associated with lower HCC risk. PMID:23670094

  12. Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Cross, Amanda J; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI < 25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI < 25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI ≥ 25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people. PMID:26190646

  13. Results of a Peripheral Cutting Balloon Prospective Multicenter European Registry in Hemodialysis Vascular Access

    SciTech Connect

    Peregrin, Jan H. Rocek, Miloslav

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To report initial experience with the Peripheral Cutting Balloon (PCB) in treatment of failing hemodialysis shunts. Methods. A total of 190 patients (95 men, 95 women; average age 64.4 {+-} 11.9 years, range 32-87 years) who were treated with the PCB for pressure-resistant stenosis, restenosis or failed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the venous limb of an arteriovenous shunt were followed in seven European centers using a simple registry. The group consisted of 109 de novo lesions (57%) and 79 restenotic lesions (43%). Results. Technical success was achieved in 88.9% of cases. Primary patency was as follows (the results for whole group and simultaneous results for de novo lesions and restenoses are presented): 1 month (140 patients followed): 94%, 98%, and 93%; 3 months (116 patients followed): 93%, 98%, and 92%; 6 months (40 patients followed): 85%, 92%, and 79%; 12 months (27 patients followed): 74%, 87%, and 48%. No complication occurred. Patients experienced an equal or lower level of pain during the procedure compared with conventional PTA. Conclusion. The PCB proved to be successful in dilating pressure-resistant stenoses. We cannot conclude whether PCB angioplasty can lower the restenosis rate in hemodialysis access lesions, but the long-term patency for de novo lesions is high. A further randomized study is advisable.

  14. Frequency of toxoplasmosis in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Sebnem; Aksoy, Umit; Dagci, Hande; Ersoz, Galip

    2004-01-01

    AIM: It is known that toxoplasmosis rarely leads to various liver pathologies, most common of which is granulomatose hepatitis in patients having normal immune systems. Patients who have cirrhosis of the liver are subject to a variety of cellular as well as humoral immunity disorders. Therefore, it may be considered that toxoplasmosis can cause more frequent and more severe diseases in patients with cirrhosis and is capable of changing the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of toxoplasmosis in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Serum samples were taken from 108 patients with cirrhosis under observation in the Hepatology Polyclinic of the Gastroenterology Clinic, and a control group made up of 50 healthy blood donors. IFAT and ELISA methods were used to investigate the IgG and IgM antibodies, which had developed from these sera. RESULTS: Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibody positivity was found in 74 (68.5%) of the 108 cirrhotic patients and 24 (48%) of the 50 people in the control group. The difference between them was significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it was found that the toxoplasma sero-prevalence in the cirrhotic patients in this study was higher. Cirrhotic patients are likely to form a toxoplasma risk group. More detailed studies are needed on this subject. PMID:14760779

  15. A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel, and shipyard welders.

    PubMed Central

    Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Andersen, A; Anderson, K; Becker, N; Chang-Claude, J; Ferro, G; Grin, M; Gray, C N; Hansen, K S

    1991-01-01

    A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies located in nine European countries has been assembled with the aim of investigating the relation of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. The observation period and the criteria for inclusion of welders varied from country to country. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort and observed numbers of deaths (and for some countries incident cancer cases) were compared with expected numbers calculated from national reference rates. Mortality and cancer incidence ratios were analysed by cause category, time since first exposure, duration of employment, and estimated cumulative dose to total fumes, chromium (Cr), Cr VI, and nickel (Ni). Overall a statistically significant excess was reported for mortality from lung cancer (116 observed v 86.81 expected deaths, SMR = 134). When analysed by type of welding an increasing pattern with time since first exposure was present for both mild steel and stainless steel welders, which was more noticeable for the subcohort of predominantly stainless steel welders. No clear relation was apparent between mortality from lung cancer and duration of exposure to or estimated cumulative dose of Ni or Cr. Whereas the patterns of lung cancer mortality in these results suggest that the risk of lung cancer is higher for stainless steel than mild steel welders the different level of risk for these two categories of welding exposure cannot be quantified with precision. The report of five deaths from pleural mesothelioma unrelated to the type of welding draws attention to the risk of exposure to asbestos in welding activities. PMID:2015204

  16. Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Lund Wrtz, Anne Mette; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Weikert, Steffen; Steffen, Annika; Khn, Tilman; Li, Kuanrong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Hjartker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Molina-Montes, Esther; de la Torre, Ramn Alonso; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Brje; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-03-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 493,179 EPIC participants, recruited between 1992 and 2000. Until December 2008, 691 RCC cases have been identified. Meat and fish consumption was assessed at baseline using country-specific dietary assessment instruments; 24-hour recalls were applied in an 8% subsample for calibration purposes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women with a high consumption of red meat (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.62; calibrated, per 50 g/day) and processed meat (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.05-3.03; calibrated, per 50 g/day) had a higher risk of RCC, while no association existed in men. For processed meat, the association with RCC incidence was prominent in premenopausal women and was lacking in postmenopausal women (p interaction = 0.02). Neither poultry nor fish consumption were statistically significantly associated with the risk of RCC. The results show a distinct association of red and processed meat consumption with incident RCC in women but not in men. A biological explanation for these findings remains unclear. PMID:25258006

  17. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Magdalena B; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Darren R; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena; Khn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Steffen, Annika; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Saieva, Calogero; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartker, Anette; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Arriola, Larraitz; Molina-Montes, Esther; Duell, Eric J; Santiuste, Carmen; Alonso de la Torre, Ramn; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Stocks, Tanja; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Brje; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2015-10-15

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 through to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n?=?931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment versus the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend ?=?0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer. PMID:25866035

  18. Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Overvad, Kim; Tjnneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Dossus, Laure; Fagherazzi, Guy; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Rene T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartker, Anette; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quirs, J Ramn; Obn-Santacana, Mireia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta Castao, Jos Mara; Ardanaz, Eva; Chamosa, Saioa; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Chajes, Veronique; Gunter, Marc J

    2014-10-01

    There are inconsistent and limited data available to assess the relationship between fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We examined the consumption of total fat, fat sources and fat subtypes in relation to risk of EOC and its major histologic subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition which includes incident invasive (n=1095) and borderline (n=96) EOC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate models, we observed no association with consumption of total fat, animal or plant fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, or fatty fish and risk of invasive EOC. There was, however, an increased risk of invasive EOC in the highest category of intake (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1) of polyunsaturated fat (HR=1.22, 95% CI=1.02-1.48, P(trend)=0.02). We did not observe heterogeneity in the risk associations in comparisons of serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes. This study does not support an etiological role for total fat intake in relation to EOC risk; however, based on observations of a positive association between intake of polyunsaturated fat and invasive EOC risk in the current and previous studies, this fat subtype warrants further investigation to determine its potential role in EOC development. PMID:25155210

  19. Diarrhoea in a large prospective cohort of European travellers to resource-limited destinations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incidence rates of travellers' diarrhoea (TD) need to be updated and risk factors are insufficiently known. Methods Between July 2006 and January 2008 adult customers of our Centre for Travel Health travelling to a resource-limited country for the duration of 1 to 8 weeks were invited to participate in a prospective cohort study. They received one questionnaire pre-travel and a second one immediately post-travel. First two-week incidence rates were calculated for TD episodes and a risk assessment was made including demographic and travel-related variables, medical history and behavioural factors. Results Among the 3100 persons recruited, 2800 could be investigated, resulting in a participation rate of 89.2%. The first two-weeks incidence for classic TD was 26.2% (95%CI 24.5-27.8). The highest rates were found for Central Africa (29.6%, 95% CI 12.4-46.8), the Indian subcontinent (26.3%, 95%CI 2.3-30.2) and West Africa (21.5%, 95%CI 14.9-28.1). Median TD duration was 2 days (range 1-90). The majority treated TD with loperamide (57.6%), while a small proportion used probiotics (23.0%) and antibiotics (6.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis on any TD to determine risk factors showed that a resolved diarrhoeal episode experienced in the 4 months pre-travel (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.59-2.54), antidepressive comedication (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.17-3.80), allergic asthma (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.10-2.54), and reporting TD-independent fever (OR 6.56, 95%CI 3.06-14.04) were the most prominent risk factors of TD. Conclusions TD remains a frequent travel disease, but there is a decreasing trend in the incidence rate. Patients with a history of allergic asthma, pre-travel diarrhoea, or of TD-independent fever were more likely to develop TD while abroad. PMID:20684768

  20. Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Woo Kyo; Joo, Byung-Euk; Seo, Ji-hye; Mun, Jun Kyu; Kim, Juhyeon; Seo, Dae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a rare disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Though most patients with toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic, congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus can cause ocular involvement such as chorioretinitis and central nervous system disease including intracerebral calcification, nystagmus, hydrocephalus and microcephaly. Also, these brain lesions can cause seizure secondarily. Our patient was diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, based on toxoplasma-specific serologic test with typical clinical symptoms, including chorioretinitis, nystagmus, hydrocephalus and cerebral palsy. Her brain imaging findings revealed not only the multifocal encephalomalacia, but also multifocal cerebral calcification including intracerebral calcification in left perihippocampal region. Her epileptogenic zone was defined as mesial temporal lobe including hippocampus on left side by seizure semiology, electroencephalogram and neuroimaging including single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography. Her seizures were refractory to multiple anti-epileptic drugs. We report a patient with congenital toxoplasmosis who showed intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26157672

  1. Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Woo Kyo; Joo, Byung-Euk; Seo, Ji-Hye; Mun, Jun Kyu; Kim, Juhyeon; Seo, Dae-Won

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a rare disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Though most patients with toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic, congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus can cause ocular involvement such as chorioretinitis and central nervous system disease including intracerebral calcification, nystagmus, hydrocephalus and microcephaly. Also, these brain lesions can cause seizure secondarily. Our patient was diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, based on toxoplasma-specific serologic test with typical clinical symptoms, including chorioretinitis, nystagmus, hydrocephalus and cerebral palsy. Her brain imaging findings revealed not only the multifocal encephalomalacia, but also multifocal cerebral calcification including intracerebral calcification in left perihippocampal region. Her epileptogenic zone was defined as mesial temporal lobe including hippocampus on left side by seizure semiology, electroencephalogram and neuroimaging including single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography. Her seizures were refractory to multiple anti-epileptic drugs. We report a patient with congenital toxoplasmosis who showed intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26157672

  2. Consumption of Dairy Products and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Neil; Norat, Teresa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Nailler, Laura; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Dik, Vincent K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Pérez, Maria José Sánchez; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Johansson, Ingegerd; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Fedirko, Veronika; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents. Materials and Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed), yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables. Results During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98). Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99) and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79–1.02) in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99); this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–0.99), with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81–1.24). Conclusions Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products considered. PMID:24023767

  3. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human. PMID:24163965

  4. Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Antonio; Bonet, Catalina; Sala, Nria; Muoz, Xavier; Aranda, Nria; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Grioni, Sara; Quirs, J Ramn; Molina, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Allen, Naomi E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Numans, Mattijs E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudof; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Meidtner, Karina; Johansson, Mattias; Sund, Malin; Manjer, Jonas; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Riboli, Elio; Gonzlez, Carlos A; Jakszyn, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI = 1.03-1.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.16-2.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.27-2.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:23389292

  5. Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested casecontrol study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI = 1.031.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.162.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.272.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:23389292

  6. Multiple Miscarriages Are Associated with the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Braem, Marieke G. M.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Schouten, Leo J.; Kruitwagen, Roy F. P. M.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Allen, Naomi E.; Wark, Petra A.; Tjnneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Braner, Christina Marie; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Teucher, Birgit; Floegel, Anna; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Plada, Maria; Rinaldi, Sabina; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Pala, Valeria; Galasso, Rocco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gram, Inger Torhild; Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Lund, Eiliv; Snchez, Maria-Jos; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Larraaga, Nerea; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Quirs, Jose R.; Idahl, Annika; Ohlson, Nina; Lundin, Eva; Jirstrm, Karin; Butt, Salma; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2012-01-01

    While the risk of ovarian cancer clearly reduces with each full-term pregnancy, the effect of incomplete pregnancies is unclear. We investigated whether incomplete pregnancies (miscarriages and induced abortions) are associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. This observational study was carried out in female participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 274,442 women were followed from 1992 until 2010. The baseline questionnaire elicited information on miscarriages and induced abortions, reproductive history, and lifestyle-related factors. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 1,035 women were diagnosed with incident epithelial ovarian cancer. Despite the lack of an overall association (ever vs. never), risk of ovarian cancer was higher among women with multiple incomplete pregnancies (HR?4vs.0: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.202.70; number of cases in this category: n?=?23). This association was particularly evident for multiple miscarriages (HR?4vs.0: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.063.73; number of cases in this category: n?=?10), with no significant association for multiple induced abortions (HR?4vs.0: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.683.14; number of cases in this category: n?=?7). Our findings suggest that multiple miscarriages are associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, possibly through a shared cluster of etiological factors or a common underlying pathology. These findings should be interpreted with caution as this is the first study to show this association and given the small number of cases in the highest exposure categories. PMID:22623987

  7. Endogenous sex hormones and endometrial cancer risk in women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Cust, Anne; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Peeters, Petra H; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Lahmann, Petra H; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Larrañaga, Nerea; Pera, Guillem; Tormo, Maria-José; Sánchez, Maria-José; Ramón Quirós, J; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Linseisen, Jakob; Schulz, Mandy; Boeing, Heiner; Lundin, Eva; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitiros; Naska, Androniki; Tumino, Rosario; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological data show that reproductive and hormonal factors are involved in the etiology of endometrial cancer, but there is little data on the association with endogenous sex hormone levels. We analyzed the association between prediagnostic serum concentrations of sex steroids and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using a nested case–control design of 247 incident endometrial cancer cases and 481 controls, matched on center, menopausal status, age, variables relating to blood collection, and, for premenopausal women, phase of menstrual cycle. Using conditional regression analysis, endometrial cancer risk among postmenopausal women was positively associated with increasing levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estrone, total estradiol, and free estradiol. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest versus lowest tertile were 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50–4.72; P=0.002 for a continuous linear trend) for estrone, 2.07 (95% CI 1.20–3.60; P=0.001) for estradiol, and 1.66 (95% CI 0.98–2.82; P=0.001) for free estradiol. For total and free testosterone, ORs for the highest versus lowest tertile were 1.44 (95% CI 0.88–2.36; P=0.05) and 2.05 (95% CI 1.23–3.42; P=0.005) respectively. Androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were not associated with risk. Sex hormone-binding globulin was significantly inversely associated with risk (OR for the highest versus lowest tertile was 0.57, 95% CI 0.34–0.95; P=0.004). In premenopausal women, serum sex hormone concentrations were not clearly associated with endometrial cancer risk, but numbers were too small to draw firm conclusions. In conclusion, relatively high blood concentrations of estrogens and free testosterone are associated with an increased endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:18509001

  8. Pancreatic acinar cells--a normal finding at the gastroesophageal junction? Data from a prospective Central European multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nora I; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Geppert, Michael; Wigginghaus, Bernd; Hss, Gabriele M; Eherer, Andreas; Wolf, Eva-Maria; Rehak, Peter; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord

    2013-11-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells are a well-recognized finding at the gastroesophageal junction, but their histogenesis and biological significance are unclear. From the prospective Central European multicenter histoGERD trial, we recruited 1,071 individuals undergoing gastroscopy for various non-selected reasons. Biopsy material was systematically sampled from the gastroesophageal junction and from the stomach. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of pancreatic acinar cells and to relate their presence to various histologic and clinical features. Overall, pancreatic acinar cells were observed in 184 (17.2%) participants. Individuals diagnosed with pancreatic acinar cells were slightly younger than those without (median 50 vs. 53 years; p = 0.009). There was no association with patients' symptoms and/or complaints or with an endoscopic diagnosis of esophagitis or Barrett's esophagus. Regarding histology, pancreatic acinar cells were not associated with features of the squamous epithelium indicating reflux disease, such as basal cell hyperplasia, papillary elongation, dilation of intercellular spaces, and inflammatory cell number, but were associated with the presence of cardiac mucosa (p < 0.001), oxyntocardiac mucosa (p < 0.001), and intestinal metaplasia (p = 0.038), respectively. No association with Helicobacter pylori infection or diagnosis of gastritis was noted. In conclusion, pancreatic acinar cells are a common finding at the gastroesophageal junction, and no association with either reflux disease (histologically or endoscopically) or diagnosis of gastritis was observed. These data suggest a congenital rather than an acquired (metaplastic) origin of pancreatic acinar cells at the gastroesophageal junction. This questions the term "pancreatic acinar metaplasia" which is currently widely used for their diagnosis. PMID:23989798

  9. Diet and risk of kidney stones in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Turney, Benjamin W; Appleby, Paul N; Reynard, John M; Noble, Jeremy G; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E

    2014-05-01

    The lifetime prevalence of kidney stones is around 10 % and incidence rates are increasing. Diet may be an important determinant of kidney stone development. Our objective was to investigate the association between diet and kidney stone risk in a population with a wide range of diets. This association was examined among 51,336 participants in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using data from Hospital Episode Statistics in England and Scottish Morbidity Records. In the cohort, 303 participants attended hospital with a new kidney stone episode. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Compared to those with high intake of meat (>100 g/day), the HR estimates for moderate meat-eaters (50-99 g/day), low meat-eaters (<50 g/day), fish-eaters and vegetarians were 0.80 (95 % CI 0.57-1.11), 0.52 (95 % CI 0.35-0.8), 0.73 (95 % CI 0.48-1.11) and 0.69 (95 % CI 0.48-0.98), respectively. High intakes of fresh fruit, fibre from wholegrain cereals and magnesium were also associated with a lower risk of kidney stone formation. A high intake of zinc was associated with a higher risk. In conclusion, vegetarians have a lower risk of developing kidney stones compared with those who eat a high meat diet. This information may be important to advise the public about prevention of kidney stone formation. PMID:24752465

  10. General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Annika; Huerta, José-Maria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, J Ramón; Ohlsson, Bodil; Johansson, Mattias; Wallner, Bengt; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-08-01

    General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist circumference (WC), relates to these cancers remains largely unexplored. Using measured anthropometric data from 391,456 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and 11 years of follow-up, we comprehensively assessed the association of anthropometric measures with risk of EAC, GCC and GNCC using multivariable proportional hazards regression. One hundred twenty-four incident EAC, 193 GCC and 224 GNCC were accrued. After mutual adjustment, BMI was unrelated to EAC, while WC showed a strong positive association (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.63-2.22 and HR = 3.76; 1.72-8.22, respectively). Hip circumference (HC) was inversely related to EAC after controlling for WC, while WC remained positively associated (HR = 0.35; 0.18-0.68, and HR=4.10; 1.94-8.63, respectively). BMI was not associated with GCC or GNCC. WC was related to higher risks of GCC after adjustment for BMI and more strongly after adjustment for HC (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.91; 1.09-3.37, and HR = 2.23; 1.28-3.90, respectively). Our study demonstrates that abdominal, rather than general, obesity is an indisputable risk factor for EAC and also provides evidence for a protective effect of gluteofemoral (subcutaneous) adipose tissue in EAC. Our study further shows that general obesity is not a risk factor for GCC and GNCC, while the role of abdominal obesity in GCC needs further investigation. PMID:25598323

  11. Association of Sleep Duration with Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study

    PubMed Central

    von Ruesten, Anne; Weikert, Cornelia; Fietze, Ingo; Boeing, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Background In view of the reduced number of hours devoted to sleep in modern western societies the question arises what effects might result from sleep duration on occurrence of chronic diseases. Methods Data from 23 620 middle-aged participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study, that were recruited between 19941998, were analyzed by using Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration at baseline and incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Results During a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years 841 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, 197 cases of myocardial infarction, 169 incident strokes, and 846 tumor cases were observed. Compared to persons sleeping 7-<8 h/day, participants with sleep duration of <6 h had a significantly increased risk of stroke (Hazard Ratio (HR)?=?2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.183.59), cancer (HR?=?1.43, 95% CI: 1.091.87), and overall chronic diseases (HR?=?1.31, 95% CI: 1.101.55) in multivariable adjusted models. Self-reported daytime sleep at baseline was not associated with incident chronic diseases in the overall study sample. However, there had been an effect modification of daytime sleep by hypertension showing that daytime sleep was inversely related to chronic disease risk among non-hypertensive participants but directly related to chronic diseases among hypertensives. Conclusion Sleep duration of less than 6 h is a risky behavior for the development of chronic diseases, particularly stroke and cancer, and should be therefore addressed in public health campaigns. PMID:22295122

  12. Consumption of meat and dairy and lymphoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Becker, Nikolaus; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth; Benetou, Vassiliki; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Masala, Giovanna; Mattiello, Amalia; Brustad, Magritt; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Molina, Esther; Argelles, Marcial; Melin, Beatrice; Ericson, Ulrika; Manjer, Jonas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Boffetta, Paolo; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Khan, Aneire; Norat, Teresa; Vineis, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    The consumption of meat and other foods of animal origin is a risk factor for several types of cancer, but the results for lymphomas are inconclusive. Therefore, we examined these associations among 411,097 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a median follow-up of 8.5 years, 1,334 lymphomas (1,267 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 67 Hodgkin lymphomas) were identified. Consumption of red and processed meat, poultry, milk and dairy products was assessed by dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to evaluate the association of the consumption of these food groups with lymphoma risk. Overall, the consumption of foods of animal origin was not associated with an increased risk of NHLS or HL, but the associations with specific subgroups of NHL entities were noted. A high intake of processed meat was associated with an increased risk of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (BCLL) [relative risk (RR) per 50 g intake = 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.63], but a decreased risk of follicular lymphomas (FL) (RR = 0.58; CI 0.38-0.89). A high intake of poultry was related to an increased risk of B-cell lymphomas (RR = 1.22; CI 1.05-1.42 per 10 g intake), FL (RR = 1.65; CI 1.18-2.32) and BCLL (RR = 1.54; CI 1.18-2.01) in the continuous models. In conclusion, no consistent associations between red and processed meat consumption and lymphoma risk were observed, but we found that the consumption of poultry was related to an increased risk of B-cell lymphomas. Chance is a plausible explanation of the observed associations, which need to be confirmed in further studies. PMID:20473877

  13. Acute Papillitis in Young Female with Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Alipanahi, Rakhshandeh; Sayyahmelli, Sima

    2011-01-01

    Papillitis and complicating acute toxoplasma retinochoroiditis, are unusual and atypical features of toxoplasmosis. This report presents a female with unusual acute papillitis. This patient had an active toxoplasmic chorioretinitis lesion that appeared to involve the optic nerve head and a major blood vessel as well as central nervous systems (CNS). Papillitis may be secondary to juxtapapillary retinitis (Jensen choroiditis). Very rarely, the optic nerve head may be the primary site of involvement. This case report illustrates a rare presentation of acute papillitis in a young immunocompetent female. PMID:21887084

  14. Hairy-cell leukemia and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Chrobák, L; Bostíková, D; Mirová, S; Hozák, A; Radochová, D

    1982-01-01

    Investigation for Toxoplasma gondii infection using complement fixation test and microprecipitation method in agar gel was performed in fifteen patients with clinically and morphologically typical hairy-cell leukemia. Positive complement fixation test was found in four patients. In three patients an initially high complement fixation titer or its considerable increase associated with positive microprecipitation in agar gel suggested a recent toxoplasmosis. The importance of search for Toxoplasma gondii infection in hairy-cell leukemia patients especially before splenectomy and the necessity of reinvestigation after splenectomy is stressed. PMID:7133241

  15. [Serological survey of animal toxoplasmosis in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Davoust, B; Mediannikov, O; Sambou, M; Roqueplo, C; Demoncheaux, J -P; Perret, C; Guillot, J; Blaga, R

    2014-10-11

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. We used modified direct agglutination test for the screening of the animals' sera collected in Senegal. In total, 419 animals' sera have been studied: 103 bovines, 43 sheep, 52 goats, 63 horses, 13 donkeys and 145 dogs. The collection of sera was performed in four different regions of Senegal: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou and Basse Casamance from 2011 to 2013. We have revealed antibodies in 13% of bovines, 16% of sheep, 15% of goats, 30% of horses, 23% of donkeys and 67% of dogs. Private dogs from villages were more often to have the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies compared to security society-owned dogs from Dakar. It may be explained by different meal consumed by dogs (factory-produced meal for dogs from Dakar vs. irregular sources for village dogs). Intense circulation of T. gondii in the studied zone may explain the unusually high seroprevalence among horses and donkeys. Tropical climate with high temperature and humidity is favorable for the conservation of oocysts of T. gondii. Results presented here may contribute to the evaluation of the risks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Senegal. PMID:25307881

  16. Modeling seismic wave propagation across the European plate: structural models and numerical techniques, state-of-the-art and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Andrea; Danecek, Peter; Molinari, Irene; Postpischl, Luca; Schivardi, Renata; Serretti, Paola; Tondi, Maria Rosaria

    2010-05-01

    Together with the building and maintenance of observational and data banking infrastructures - i.e. an integrated organization of coordinated sensor networks, in conjunction with connected data banks and efficient data retrieval tools - a strategic vision for bolstering the future development of geophysics in Europe should also address the essential issue of improving our current ability to model coherently the propagation of seismic waves across the European plate. This impacts on fundamental matters, such as correctly locating earthquakes, imaging detailed earthquake source properties, modeling ground shaking, inferring geodynamic processes. To this extent, we both need detailed imaging of shallow and deep earth structure, and accurate modeling of seismic waves by numerical methods. Our current abilities appear somewhat limited, but emerging technologies may enable soon a significant leap towards better accuracy and reliability. To contribute to this debate, we present here the state-of-the-art of knowledge of earth structure and numerical wave modeling in the European plate, as the result of a comprehensive study towards the definition of a continental-scale reference model. Our model includes a description of crustal structure (EPcrust) merging information deriving from previous studies - large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness, density, and seismic parameters. This a priori crustal model improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies beneath the Alpine mobile belt, and fast lithospheric signatures under the two main Mediterranean subduction systems (Aegean and Tyrrhenian). We validate this new model through comparison of recorded seismograms with simulations based on numerical codes (SPECFEM3D). To ease and increase model usage, we also propose the adoption of a common exchange format for tomographic earth models based on JSON, a lightweight data-interchange format supported by most high-level programming languages, and provide tools for manipulating and visualising models, described in this standard format, in Google Earth and GEON IDV. In the next decade seismologists will be able to reap new possibilities offered by exciting progress in general computing power and algorithmic development in computational seismology. Structural models, still based on classical approaches and modeling just few parameters in each seismogram, will benefit from emerging techniques - such as full waveform fitting and fully nonlinear inversion - that are now just showing their potential. This will require extensive availability of supercomputing resources to earth scientists in Europe, as a tool to match the planned new massive data flow. We need to make sure that the whole apparatus, needed to fully exploit new data, will be widely accessible. To maximize the development, so as for instance to enable us to promptly model ground shaking after a major earthquake, we will also need a better coordination framework, that will enable us to share and amalgamate the abundant local information on earth structure - most often available but difficult to retrieve, merge and use. Comprehensive knowledge of earth structure and of best practices to model wave propagation can by all means be considered an enabling technology for further geophysical progress.

  17. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA) formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1) and a follow-up (visit 2) at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years) participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate) on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85%) were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P < .001) to 2.1 at visit 2. On the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, 88% and 76% of the treatments were rated very much improved or much improved by physicians and patients, respectively. Of the physicians, 95.6% rated this HA filler as very or fairly easy to use. Similarly, 92% of patients were very likely or quite likely to return for treatment; nearly all (98%) would recommend this treatment to friends. Transient (mean duration: 5.5 days) injection-site adverse events (AEs) occurred in 24 patients. Bruising was the most common AE. Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments. PMID:19712480

  18. Isolated cerebellar toxoplasmosis as a complication of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Pott, H; Castelo, A

    2013-01-01

    Isolated cerebellar mass lesion is an uncommon presentation of toxoplasmosis. The authors report one rare case in a 50-year-old HIV-infected male patient who presented with clipped speech, gait ataxia and incoordination. The cerebellar toxoplasmosis was suspected based on imaging findings, despite the atypical location. This case highlights the need for a high index of clinical suspicion among HIV-infected patients with neurological manifestations and suspicious neuroimaging findings. PMID:23512507

  19. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with antia??T. gondiia??specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  20. Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies. PMID:22491772

  1. The Impact of Health Behaviours on Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Europeans and South Asians A Prospective Analysis in the UK SABRE Study

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Anne; Tillin, Therese; OConnor, Laura; Brage, Soren; Hughes, Alun; Mayet, Jamil; McKeigue, Paul; Whincup, Peter; Chaturvedi, Nish; Forouhi, Nita G.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is consistent evidence on the impact of health behaviours on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in European populations. As South Asians in the UK have an excess risk of CVD and coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to Europeans, we investigated whether a similar association between combined health behaviours and risk of CVD and CHD among this high-risk group exists, and estimated the population impact. Methods and Findings In a prospective cohort of 1090 Europeans and 1006 South Asians (4069 y) without prevalent CVD at baseline (19881990), followed up for 21 years to 2011, there were 601 incident CVD events [Europeans n = 255; South Asians n = 346] of which 520 were CHD events [n = 207 and 313 respectively]. Participants scored between 0 to 4 points for a composite score including four baseline healthy behaviours (non-smoker, moderate alcohol intake, physically active, frequent fruit/vegetable intake). Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident CHD in Europeans who had three, two, one, and zero compared to four health behaviours were 1.33 (0.782.29), 1.96 (1.153.33), 1.36 (0.742.48) and 2.45 (1.185.10), respectively, p-trend = 0.025. In South Asians, corresponding HRs were 2.88 (1.336.24), 2.28 (1.064.91), 3.36 (1.537.39) and 3.48 (1.388.81), p-trend = 0.022. The results were similar for incident CVD; Europeans HR 2.12 (1.143.94), ptrend = 0.014; South Asians HR 2.73 (1.206.21), p-trend = 0.018. The population attributable fraction in Europeans was 43% for CHD and 28% for CVD. In South Asians it was 63% and 51% respectively. Conclusions Lack of adherence to four combined health behaviours was associated with 2 to 3-fold increased risk of incident CVD in Europeans and South Asians. A substantial population impact in the South Asian group indicates important potential for disease prevention in this high-risk group by adherence to healthy behaviours. PMID:25730129

  2. Association between consumption of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetes--insights from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer study.

    PubMed

    Forouhi, Nita G

    2015-08-01

    The public health burden of type 2 diabetes has risen unabated over the past decades, fueled by obesity and lifestyle influences, including diet quality. Epidemiological evidence is accumulating for an inverse association between dairy product intake and type 2 diabetes risk; this is somewhat counterintuitive to the saturated fat and cardiometabolic disease paradigm. The present report reviews the contribution that the findings of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study have made to this debate, noting that types of dairy products, particularly fermented dairy products including yogurt, may be more relevant than overall dairy intake for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The EPIC study has contributed evidence through complementary approaches of a large prospective study across 8 European countries with heterogeneous dietary intakes assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (EPIC-InterAct study) and through a more detailed examination of diet assessed using a 7-day food diary (EPIC-Norfolk study). The implications of these findings are placed in the wider context, including the use of individual fatty acid blood biomarkers in the EPIC-InterAct study and an appraisal of current research gaps and suggestions for future research directions. PMID:26175485

  3. Association between consumption of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetes—insights from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The public health burden of type 2 diabetes has risen unabated over the past decades, fueled by obesity and lifestyle influences, including diet quality. Epidemiological evidence is accumulating for an inverse association between dairy product intake and type 2 diabetes risk; this is somewhat counterintuitive to the saturated fat and cardiometabolic disease paradigm. The present report reviews the contribution that the findings of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study have made to this debate, noting that types of dairy products, particularly fermented dairy products including yogurt, may be more relevant than overall dairy intake for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The EPIC study has contributed evidence through complementary approaches of a large prospective study across 8 European countries with heterogeneous dietary intakes assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (EPIC-InterAct study) and through a more detailed examination of diet assessed using a 7-day food diary (EPIC-Norfolk study). The implications of these findings are placed in the wider context, including the use of individual fatty acid blood biomarkers in the EPIC-InterAct study and an appraisal of current research gaps and suggestions for future research directions. PMID:26175485

  4. Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kaňková, Šárka; Procházková, Lucie; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel; Springer, Drahomíra; Potluková, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, can induce various hormonal and behavioural alterations in infected hosts, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between latent toxoplasmosis and maternal AITD in pregnancy. Methods Cross-sectional study in 1248 consecutive pregnant women in the 9–12th gestational weeks. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and free thyroxine (FT4) were assessed by chemiluminescence; the Toxoplasma status was detected by the complement fixation test (CFT) and anti-Toxoplasma IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Overall, 22.5% of the women were positive for latent toxoplasmosis and 14.7% were screened positive for AITD. Women with latent toxoplasmosis had more often highly elevated TPOAb than the Toxoplasma-negative ones (p = 0.004), and latent toxoplasmosis was associated with decrease in serum TSH levels (p = 0.049). Moreover, we found a positive correlation between FT4 and the index of positivity for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (p = 0.033), which was even stronger in the TPOAb-positive Toxoplasma-positive women, (p = 0.014), as well as a positive correlation between FT4 and log2 CFT (p = 0.009). Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis was associated with a mild increase in thyroid hormone production in pregnancy. The observed Toxoplasma-associated changes in the parameters of AITD are mild and do not seem to be clinically relevant; however, they could provide new clues to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID:25350671

  5. Meat and heme iron intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero-digestive tract in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Annika; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Jakszyn, Paula; Amiano, Pilar; Quirs, J. Ramn; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, Peter D.; Peeters, Petra HM; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Skeie, Guri; Hallmanns, Gran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Borgquist, Signe; Ericson, Ulrika; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjnneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Grote, Verena; Li, Kuanrong; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Pantzalis, Menelaos; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Naccarati, Alessio; Mouw, Traci; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Boeing, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence from prospective studies on intake of meat and fish and risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) is scarce. We prospectively investigated the association of meat and fish intake with risk of SCC of the UADT and the possible mechanism via heme iron in the large multi-center European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks of SCC of the UADT in relation to intake of total meat, as well as subtypes of meat, fish and heme iron among 348,738 individuals from 7 European countries. Results During an average follow-up of 11.8 years, a total of 682 incident cases of UADT SCC were accrued. Intake of processed meat was positively associated with risk of SCC of the UADT in the total cohort (highest versus lowest quintile: RR=1.41; 95% CI=1.03-1.94), however, in stratified analyses, this association was confined to the group of current smokers (highest versus lowest quintile: RR=1.89; 95% CI=1.22-2.93). Red meat, poultry, fish and heme iron were not consistently related to UADT SCC. Conclusion Higher intake of processed meat was positively associated with SCC of the UADT among smokers. Although this finding was stable in various sensitivity analyses, we cannot rule out residual confounding by smoking. Confirmation in future studies and identification of biological mechanisms is warranted. Impact Smokers may further increase their risk for SCC of the UADT if they additionally consume large amounts of processed meat. PMID:23033453

  6. Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather; Chapelais, Gaelle; Kuhnle, Gunter GC; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Phytoestrogens are a group of compounds found in plants that structurally resemble the hormone oestradiol, and thus have the potential to act as oestrogen agonists or antagonists. Their potential effects may alter the risk of breast cancer, but only a limited range of phytoestrogens has been examined in prospective cohort studies. Methods Serum and urine samples from 237 incident breast cancer cases and 952 control individuals (aged 45 to 75 years) in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort were analysed for seven phytoestrogens (daidzein, enterodiol, enterolactone, genistein, glycitein, o-desmethylangolensin, and equol) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Data on participants' diet, demographics, anthropometrics, and medical history were collected upon recruitment. All models were adjusted for weight, fat and energy intake, family history of breast cancer, social class, analytical batch, and factors related to oestrogen exposure. Results Urinary or serum phytoestrogens were not associated with protection from breast cancer in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort. Breast cancer risk was marginally increased with higher levels of total urinary isoflavones (odds ratio = 1.08 (95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 1.16), P = 0.055); among those with oestrogen receptor-positive tumours, the risk of breast cancer was increased with higher levels of urinary equol (odds ratio = 1.07 (95% confidence interval = 1.01 to 1.12), P = 0.013). Conclusion There was limited evidence of an association between phytoestrogen biomarkers and breast cancer risk in the present study. There was no indication of decreased likelihood of breast cancer with higher levels of phytoestrogen biomarkers, but the observation that some phytoestrogen biomarkers may be associated with greater risk of breast cancer warrants further study with greater statistical power. PMID:18419813

  7. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion Caused by Toxoplasmosis in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Debra A.; Shapiro, Michael J.; Mets, Marilyn B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), while not uncommon in elderly patient populations, is rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of a BRAO secondary to toxoplasmosis in this demographic. Case A previously healthy 17-year-old male developed a unilateral BRAO in conjunction with inflammation and increased intraocular pressure. Family history was positive for cerebrovascular accidents in multiple family members at relatively young ages. The patient had a hypercoagulable workup as well as a cardiovascular workup which were both normal. A rheumatologic workup was unremarkable. By 3 weeks, a patch of retinitis was more easily distinguished from the BRAO and the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made. Treatment was started with prednisone and azithromycin with subsequent improvement in vision. Toxoplasma antibody levels were elevated for IgG and negative for IgM, IgA, and IgE. The etiology of the BRAO was attributed to ocular toxoplasmosis. Conclusions Vascular occlusions are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the third case report of a BRAO in a patient in the pediatric population. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in young patients with retinal artery occlusions associated with inflammation. PMID:23139678

  8. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has been improved by the emergence of molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques have been useful for the genetic characterization of T. gondii. Serotyping methods based on polymorphic polypeptides have the potential to become the choice for typing T. gondii in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize conventional non-DNA-based diagnostic methods, and the DNA-based molecular techniques for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii. These techniques have provided foundations for further development of more effective and accurate detection of T. gondii infection. These advances will contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemiology, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26017718

  9. Successful treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis with clindamycin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Madi, Deepak; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Rao, Satish; Ramapuram, John T; Mahalingam, Soundarya

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis is generally a late complication of HIV infection and usually occurs in patients with CD4 + T-cell counts below 200/μl. Co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole) is the most common drug used in India for the treatment of AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis. Other alternative drugs used for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis are clindamycin plus pyrimethamine and clarithromycin with pyrimethamine.A 30-year-old male known case of retroviral disease presented to Kasturba Medical College, India, with complaints of fever, headache and vomiting. Computed tomography scan of his brain showed irregular ring enhancing lesion in the right basal ganglia. Toxoplasma serology revealed raised IgG antibody levels. Based on the CT features and serology, diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. He was treated with clindamycin alone as he had history of sulfonamide allergy. The patient was symptomatically better after 48 hours. After 21 days, repeat CT of brain was done which was normal. The patient showed good clinical improvement within 48 hours and the lesion resolved completely within 3 weeks. The authors recommend using clindamycin without pyrimethamine in resource poor settings and in patients who do not tolerate sulfa drugs. PMID:23074553

  10. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Åman, Per; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Pischon, Tobias; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cottet, Vanessa; Kühn, Tilman; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Bakken, Toril; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Asli, Lene Angell; Sánchez, Soledad; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Slimani, Nadia; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-05-28

    Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye. PMID:24521535

  11. Toxoplasmosis Update and Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Fayer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has a coccidian life cycle in the intestine of domestic and wild felids that includes a series of asexual and sexual stages and an oocyst stage that is shed in the feces. Oocysts complete their development outside the body, eventually becoming infective for about 350 species of vertebrates including cats and man. The effects of climate on oocyst survival and the physical and biological means of oocyst dispersal are discussed. Infectivity and pathogenicity for livestock species vary. Acute disease results from rapidly multiplying tachyzoites that may be transmitted by carnivorism, transfusion, vertical transmission and other routes. Patent infections may persist for the life of a host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. Bradyzoites initiate acute infection in other hosts after carnivorism or organ transplantation or in the same host after immunosuppression. Also discussed are: (a) prevalence of T. gondii in livestock as determined by digestion and serological techniques, (b) identification in humans as accomplished by isolation, serological and skin test techniques and (c) identification in cats as accomplished primarily by fecal examinations for oocysts infective for mice. Source of human infections, major outbreaks, treatment, effects on mental health and methods for preventing toxoplasmosis in man and livestock are listed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7337909

  12. Teaching by Satellite in a European Virtual Classroom. [and] Open Universities--Their Rationale, Characteristics and Prospects. ZIFF Papiere 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond; Holmberg, Borje

    The first of two papers in this publication is "Teaching by Satellite in a European Virtual Classroom" (Desmond Keegan). It describes the first accredited university course by satellite, a 1-year certificate course in safety and health at work offered by the University College Dublin. It discusses the enrollment of 219 students at 10 sites (the

  13. [Fever and lymphadenopathy: acute toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Kaparos, Nikolaos; Favrat, Bernard; D'Acremont, Valrie

    2014-11-26

    Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In Switzerland about a third of the population has antibodies against this pathogen and has thus already been in contact with the parasite or has contracted the disease. Immunocompetent patients are usually asymptomatic (80-90%) during primary infection. The most common symptom is neck or occipital lymphadenopathy. Serology is the diagnostic gold standard in immunocompetent individuals. The presence of IgM antibodies is however not sufficient to make a definite diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis. Distinction between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis requires additional serological tests (IgG avidity test). If required, the most used and probably most effective treatment is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, with folinic acid. PMID:25562978

  14. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeffrey L.; Parise, Monica E.; Fiore, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings. PMID:24808246

  15. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Parise, Monica E; Fiore, Anthony E

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings. PMID:24808246

  16. First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuñez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castaño, Giovanny

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

  17. Contribution of Neonatal Amniotic Fluid Testing to Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Filisetti, Denis; Villard, Odile; Escande, Benoît; Wafo, Estelle; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Delhaes, Laurence; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) on neonatal amniotic fluid samples from 488 mother-child pairs. Maternal infection during pregnancy was diagnosed and dated or could not be ruled out. Forty-six cases of CT were defined according to the European Research Network on CT classification system and case definitions. Neonatal amniotic fluid testing had an overall sensitivity of 54% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 39 to 69%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99 to 100%). Its sensitivity was 33% (95% CI, 13 to 59%) when antenatal diagnosis was positive and 68% (95% CI, 48 to 84%) when antenatal diagnosis was negative or lacking. This difference in sensitivity may have been due to treatment of antenatally diagnosed cases. Relative to postnatal serology, neonatal amniotic fluid testing allowed an earlier diagnosis to be made in 26% of the cases (95% CI, 9 to 51%). PMID:25694528

  18. Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nieters, Alexandra; ?uczy?ska, Anna; Becker, Susen; Becker, Nikolaus; Vermeulen, Roel; Overvad, Kim; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Snchez, Soledad; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Melin, Beatrice; Spth, Florentin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Brennan, Paul; Kelly, Rachel S; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between prediagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20-100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive ?0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-cell NHL and B-cell NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM [high level: OR = 0.40 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79)] and B-cell NHL [intermediate level: OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.53-0.88); high level: OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.86)], largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL; intermediate level: OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.30-0.80); high level: OR = 0.13 (95% CI = 0.05-0.35)] risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared with matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found. PMID:25269801

  19. Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Nieters, Alexandra; ?uczy?ska, Anna; Becker, Susen; Becker, Nikolaus; Vermeulen, Roel; Overvad, Kim; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas.; Jeurnink, Suzanne M.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Snchez, Soledad; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Melin, Beatrice; Spth, Florentin; Rinaldi, Sabina; Brennan, Paul; Kelly, Rachel S.; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between prediagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive ?0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-cell NHL and B-cell NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM [high level: OR = 0.40 (95% CI = 0.210.79)] and B-cell NHL [intermediate level: OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.530.88); high level: OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.440.86)], largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL; intermediate level: OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.300.80); high level: OR = 0.13 (95% CI = 0.050.35)] risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared with matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found. PMID:25269801

  20. Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brando; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, So Jos do Rio Preto, So Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 14.7 years, P < 0.0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0.414, 95% CI 0.2231-0.7692, P = 0.007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT. PMID:23507508

  1. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described. PMID:23718784

  2. AGORA--IV. The Low-Skilled on the European Labour Market: Prospects and Policy Options. Towards a Minimum Learning Platform (Thessaloniki, Greece, October 29-30, 1998). CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This booklet describes the proceedings of the fourth AGORA conference in Greece conducted by a European team of the Newskills project. (The Newskills project examines the employment prospects of those with a low level of formal education in Europe, and aims to raise awareness of the importance of a minimum learning platform after consultation with

  3. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. PMID:21679483

  4. Clinical and diagnostic management of toxoplasmosis in the immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Contini, C

    2008-06-01

    With the advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the natural course of HIV infection has markedly changed and opportunistic infections including toxoplasmosis have declined and modified in presentation, outcome and incidence. However, TE is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in resource-poor settings but also a common neurological complication in some countries despite the availability of HAART and effective prophylaxis. In most cases toxoplasmosis occurs in brain and toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is the most common presentation of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients with or without AIDS. The need of a definitive diagnosis is substantial because other brain diseases could share similar findings. Rapid and specific diagnosis is thus crucial as early treatment may improve the clinical outcome. Classical serological diagnosis is often inconclusive as immunodeficient individuals fail to produce significant titres of specific antibodies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has a high diagnostic value in the acute disease, but like many 'in-house' PCR assays, suffers from lack of standardization and variable performance according to the laboratory. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis can be improved by performing real-time PCR protocols. This article summarises the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures and management strategies for this condition. PMID:18693556

  5. Cerebral and ocular congenital toxoplasmosis complicated by West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eballe, Andr Omgbwa; Ellong, Augustin; Zoua, Marie Evodie Akono; Bella, Lucienne Assumpta; Ngeufack, Sraphin; Kouam, Jeanne Mayouego; Melong, Justin

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a child who presented cerebral and ocular congenital toxoplasmosis associated with West syndrome. He was seen and followed-up in the in patients pediatric and ophthalmologic units at the Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaound in Cameroon between July 2008 and February 2010. PMID:20714363

  6. The global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), which results from infection of pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii. Methods The authors systematically searched 9 major databases for published and unpublished sources and established direct contact with the authors of source materials. Searches were country-specific. To be included, studies had to report on the incidence of CT, on positivity to Toxoplasma-specific IgM in infants and pregnant women (including seroconversion results) or on positivity to Toxoplasma-specific IgG in the general population. Various modelling techniques were used, depending on the country-specific data available, to estimate the CT incidence and burden in each country. These data were then synthesized into an estimate of the global incidence of CT and of the global burden of CT in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Findings The global annual incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was estimated to be 190 100 cases (95% credible interval, CI: 179 300–206 300). This was equivalent to a burden of 1.20 million DALYs (95% CI: 0.76–1.90). High burdens were seen in South America and in some Middle Eastern and low-income countries. Conclusion Congenital toxoplasmosis poses a substantial burden of poor health globally. Toxoplasmosis should be included in future updates of the global burden of disease and the corresponding data should be used to support public health interventions to reduce disease burden. PMID:23825877

  7. Ocular toxoplasmosis in the United States: recent and remote infections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Bonetti, Valerie; Holland, Gary N; Press, Cindy; Sanislo, Steven R; Khurana, Rahul N; Montoya, Jose G

    2015-01-15

    We tested all samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis sent to the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory from June 2004 through August 2010 for serologic evidence of recent Toxoplasma gondii infection. Of 205 patients aged 10-96 years, 11.7% had recent infection. Many people develop ocular disease soon after T. gondii infection. PMID:25301214

  8. Paradoxical effect of clindamycin in experimental, acute toxoplasmosis in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M G; Lappin, M R; Rottman, J R; Tompkins, M B; English, R V; Bruce, A T; Jayawickrama, J

    1996-01-01

    Cats were experimentally inoculated parenterally with the ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii to characterize the efficacies of two different dosages of orally administered clindamycin hydrochloride in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Concentrations of clindamycin hydrochloride at levels previously suggested to be inhibitory to T. gondii replication in vitro were achieved in the serum and aqueous humor but not in the cerebrospinal fluid. Antibiotic therapy, initiated 7 days after inoculation, resulted in no significant difference in the morphometric severity of ocular posterior segment lesions compared with that in the control groups. Treatment appeared to blunt T. gondii-specific immunoglobulin M production but had no significant effect on immunoglobulin G titers. Paradoxically, clindamycin administration was associated with increased morbidity and mortality from hepatitis and interstitial pneumonia, which are characteristic of generalized toxoplasmosis. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha activity was detected at moderate levels in all groups of cats and correlated with the severity of clinical disease. The results of the study suggest that clindamycin, when administered at this specific time interval following inoculation, does not ameliorate ocular lesions and has a detrimental effect on the clinical course of acute, experimental toxoplasmosis in cats. The factors responsible for and the relevance of this detrimental effect to naturally occurring toxoplasmosis in humans and pet cats were not clear from the study but may relate to an antibiotic-associated decrease in the antitoxoplasmic activity of phagocytic cells responsible for the control of T. gondii. PMID:8726000

  9. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status. PMID:24008851

  10. Yogurt consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in the Italian European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort.

    PubMed

    Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Giurdanella, Maria C; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio

    2011-12-01

    Fermented dairy products like yogurt have been suggested to protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a prospective study on 45,241 (14,178 men; 31,063 women) volunteers of the EPIC-Italy cohort who completed a dietary questionnaire including specific questions on yogurt intake. During 12 years of follow-up, 289 volunteers were diagnosed with CRC. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the disease and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by dietary questionnaire and adjusted for energy intake and other potential confounders. Yogurt intake was inversely associated with CRC risk. For the energy-adjusted model, HR for CRC in the highest versus lowest tertile of yogurt intake was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83). In the full model adjusted for energy, simple sugar, calcium, fiber, animal fat, alcohol and red meat intake, as well as body mass index, smoking, education and physical activity, HR was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89) in the highest versus lowest tertile. The protective effect of yogurt was evident in the entire cohort, but was stronger in men, although there was no interaction of sex with the yogurt-CRC association (p(interaction) 0.20, fully adjusted model). In our prospective study, high yogurt intake was significantly associated with decreased CRC risk, suggesting that yogurt should be part of a diet to prevent the disease. Investigation of larger cohorts is necessary to reveal any residual confounding of the association of yogurt intake with CRC risk. PMID:21607947

  11. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034mg/d (range: 0-8531mg/d) for men and 970mg/d (0-6695mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233mg/d (0-3248mg/d) for men and 217 (0-2712mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  12. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk)

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A.; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N.; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W.; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034 mg/d (range: 0–8531 mg/d) for men and 970 mg/d (0–6695 mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233 mg/d (0–3248 mg/d) for men and 217 (0–2712 mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  13. Estimation of the intake of anthocyanidins and their food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Mattiello, Amalia; Grioni, Sara; Crowe, Francesca; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina, Esther; Huerta, José María; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Peeters, Petra H M; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ardanaz, Eva; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Salvini, Simonetta; Amiano, Pilar; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-10-01

    Anthocyanidins are bioactive flavonoids with potential health-promoting effects. These may vary among single anthocyanidins considering differences in their bioavailability and some of the mechanisms involved. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of anthocyanidins, their food sources and the lifestyle factors (sex, age, BMI, smoking status, educational level and physisical activity) involved among twenty-seven centres in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthocyanidin intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven redefined centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin) was compiled using data from the US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded by adding recipes, estimated values and cooking factors. For men, the total anthocyanidin mean intake ranged from 19·83 (se 1·53) mg/d (Bilthoven, The Netherlands) to 64·88 (se 1·86) mg/d (Turin, Italy), whereas for women the range was 18·73 (se 2·80) mg/d (Granada, Spain) to 44·08 (se 2·45) mg/d (Turin, Italy). A clear south to north gradient intake was observed. Cyanidins and malvidins were the main anthocynidin contributors depending on the region and sex. Anthocyanidin intake was higher in non-obese older females, non-smokers, and increased with educational level and physical activity. The major food sources were fruits, wine, non-alcoholic beverages and some vegetables. The present study shows differences in both total and individual anthocyanidin intakes and various lifestyle factors throughout Europe, with some geographical variability in their food sources. PMID:21481290

  14. Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, R; Sacerdote, C; Ricceri, F; Weiderpass, E; Roswall, N; Buckland, G; St-Jules, D E; Overvad, K; Kyrø, C; Fagherazzi, G; Kvaskoff, M; Severi, G; Chang-Claude, J; Kaaks, R; Nöthlings, U; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulos, D; Palli, D; Grioni, S; Mattiello, A; Tumino, R; Gram, I T; Engeset, D; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Argüelles, M; Amiano, P; Ardanaz, E; Ericson, U; Lindkvist, B; Nilsson, L M; Kiemeney, L A; Ros, M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Knaze, V; Romieu, I; Scalbert, A; Brennan, P; Wark, P; Vineis, P; Riboli, E; González, C A

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: A cohort of 477 312 men and women mostly aged 35–70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases. Results: During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n=430) and non-aggressive (n=413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5–Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61–0.91; P-trend=0.009) and lignans (HRQ5–Q1 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96; P-trend=0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC. Conclusions: Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC. PMID:25121955

  15. Pre-diagnostic Circulating Parathyroid Hormone Concentration and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Pischon, Tobias; Norat, Teresa; Jansen, Eugne H.J.M.; van Duijnhoven, Frnzel J.B.; Tjnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Engel, Pierre; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Sieri, Sabina; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra HM; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Rodrguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Bonet, Catalina; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Gran; Key, Timothy J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Wark, Petra A.; Romaguera, Dora; Jenab, Mazda

    2011-01-01

    Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been proposed to play a promoting role in carcinogenesis. However, no epidemiologic studies have yet directly investigated its role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods A case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort was conducted with 1,214 incident, sporadic CRC cases matched to 1,214 controls. Circulating pre-diagnostic PTH and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Detailed dietary and lifestyle questionnaire data were collected at baseline. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for the association between circulating PTH and CRC risk. Results In multivariate analyses (including adjustment for 25(OH)D concentration) with a priori defined cut-points, high levels of serum PTH (?65ng/L) compared to medium PTH levels of 3065 ng/L were associated with increased CRC risk (RR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.03-1.93). In analyses by sex, the CRC risk was 1.77 (95%CI: 1.14-2.75) and 1.15 (95%CI: 0.73-1.84) in men and women, respectively (Pheterogeneity=0.01). In sub-group analyses by anatomical sub-site, the risk for colon cancer was RR=1.56, 95%CI:1.03-2.34, and for rectal cancer RR=1.20, 95%CI:0.72-2.01 (Pheterogeneity=0.21). Effect modification by various risk factors was examined. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that high serum PTH levels may be associated with incident, sporadic CRC in Western European populations, and in particular among men. Impact To our knowledge, this is the first study on PTH and CRC. The role of PTH in carcinogenesis needs to be further investigated. PMID:21378267

  16. Promoting health equity in European children: Design and methodology of the prospective EPHE (Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity) evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing health inequalities is a top priority of the public health agendas in Europe. The EPHE project aims to analyse the added value of a community-based interventional programme based on EPODE methodology, adapted for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in childhood obesity. The interventions that will be implemented by this project focus on four energy balance-related behaviours (fruit and vegetable consumption, tap water intake, physical inactivity, sleep duration) and their determinants. This article presents the design of the effect evaluation of the EPHE project. Methods/Design This is a prospective two-year follow-up evaluation study, which will collect data on the energy balance-related behaviours and potential environmental determinants of 6–8 year olds, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents. For this purpose a parental self-reported questionnaire is constructed. This assesses the socio-economic status of the parents (5 items) and the dietary (12 items), sedentary (2 items) and sleeping (4 items) behaviour of the child. Alongside potential family-environmental determinants are assessed. The EPHE parental questionnaire will be disseminated in schools of a selected medium-sized city in seven European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Portugal, Romania, The Netherlands). Discussion This study will evaluate the effects of the EPHE community-based interventional programmes. Furthermore, it will provide evidence for children’s specific energy balance-related behaviours and family environmental determinants related to socio-economic inequalities, in seven European countries. PMID:24690078

  17. Congenital transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, and toxoplasmosis in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Darrell H S; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Douglas, Davina; Read, Stanley; Bitnun, Ari

    2009-12-01

    We report a preterm infant with congenital HIV-1, CMV, and toxoplasmosis coinfection, whose mother succumbed to probable cerebral toxoplasmosis. Despite repeated neuroimaging, retinal examinations and infant serologic tests, during the first 36 days of life, there was no evidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. However, subsequent tests showed cerebral calcifications, bilateral chorioretinitis, antitoxoplasma IgM antibody, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:19779391

  18. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the future of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, Aize; Petersen, Eskild

    2014-04-01

    Despite large advances in the field of ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist in our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding infectious disease. Although ocular toxoplasmosis is considered to have a high health burden, still little is known about its exact prevalence and how it affects the quality of life. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis depends on local habits throughout the globe, and changes are likely in view of increased meat consumption in developing countries and demands for higher animal welfare in the Western world. Water is increasingly seen as an important risk factor and more studies are needed to quantitate and control the role of water exposure (drinking, swimming). Tools are now becoming available to study both the human host as well as parasite genetic factors in the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. Further research on the role of Toxoplasma strains as well as basic studies on parasite virulence is needed to explain why Toxoplasma associated eye disease is so severe in some countries, such as Brazil. Although genetic analysis of the parasite represents the gold standard, further developments in serotyping using peptide arrays may offer practical solutions to study the role of parasite strains in the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. More research is needed concerning the pathways whereby the parasite can infect the retina. Once in the retina further tissue damage may be due to parasite virulence factors or could be caused by an aberrant host immune response. Local intraocular immune responses are nowadays used for diagnostic procedures. Future developments may include the use of Raman technology or the direct visualization of a Toxoplasma cyst by optical coherence tomography (OCT). With the availability of ocular fluid specimens obtained for diagnostic purposes and the development of advanced proteomic techniques, a biomarker fingerprint that is unique for an eye with toxoplasmosis may become available. It is hoped that such a biomarker analysis may also be able to distinguish between acquired versus congenital disease. Recently developed mouse models of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis are extremely promising with regard to disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24131274

  19. Ga-67 citrate myocardial uptake in a patient with AIDS, toxoplasmosis, and myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Memel, D.S.; DeRogatis, A.J.; William, D.C. )

    1991-05-01

    A 38-year-old man with AIDS presented with fever of unknown origin, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Admission laboratory data revealed a positive toxoplasmosis titer in the blood. The initial chest x-ray showed small bilateral pleural effusions, a normal cardiac silhouette, no infiltrates, and no interstitial edema. Ga-67 imaging revealed markedly abnormal uptake in the myocardium. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis myocarditis was made based on laboratory and imaging data. The patient was treated for toxoplasmosis. No myocardial uptake of tracer was demonstrated on a follow-up Ga-67 scan, performed after completion of treatment for toxoplasmosis.

  20. Paediatric choroidal neovascular membrane secondary to toxoplasmosis treated successfully with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Gaurav; George, Amala Elizabeth; Sen, Parveen

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the role anti-VEGF in management of CNVM secondary to ocular toxoplasmosis. Young female diagnosed as a case of bilateral ocular toxoplasmosis presented with complaints of diminution of vision in the right eye. Fundus examination showed an active CNVM adjacent to toxoplasmosis scar. In view of active CNVM, patient was administered intravitreal ranibizumab. A total of 2 injections of intravitreal ranibizumab were given. Fundus showed a scarred CNVM adjacent to the toxoplasma scar with no clinical signs of activity. Anti-VEGF therapy has been successfully used to improve visual and anatomical outcome in juxtafoveal (deleted subfoveal)CNVM secondary to toxoplasmosis. PMID:25378880

  1. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants 100?166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 2.5-10 ?m (PMcoarse), and <10 ?m (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 ?g/m3 for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 ?g/m3 increase in PM2.5) and below 40 ?g/m3 for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 ?g/m3 increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values. PMID:24452269

  2. Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries. PMID:23292003

  3. Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Max; Leufkens, Anke M; Siersema, Peter D; van Duijnhoven, Frnzel J B; Vrieling, Alina; Hulshof, Paul J M; van Gils, Carla H; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Kyr, Cecilie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagerhazzi, Guy; Cadeau, Claire; Khn, Tilman; Johnson, Theron; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Androulidaki, Anna; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bakker, Marije F; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Barricarte, Aurelio; Mara Huerta, Jos; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argelles, Marcial; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Key, Timothy J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Wark, Petra A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2014-12-15

    Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was examined in this case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids (?- and ?-carotene, canthaxanthin, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin) and vitamins A (retinol), C and E (?-, ?- and ?- and ?-tocopherol) and dietary consumption of ?-carotene and vitamins A, C and E were determined in 898 colon cancer cases, 501 rectal cancer cases and 1,399 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were performed to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). An association was observed between higher prediagnostic plasma retinol concentration and a lower risk of colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile?=?0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87, p for trend?=?0.01), most notably proximal colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile?=?0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.77, p for trend?=?0.01). Additionally, inverse associations for dietary ?-carotene and dietary vitamins C and E with (distal) colon cancer were observed. Although other associations were suggested, there seems little evidence for a role of these selected compounds in preventing CRC through their antioxidative properties. PMID:24771392

  4. Toxoplasmosis in a patient who was immunocompetent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that infects up to one-third of the world's population. Although this case is not the first of its kind, it is clinically important since it will help doctors keep a broad differential diagnosis in mind when attending to similar patients. Case presentation We present the case of a 20-year-old man of Middle Eastern heritage presenting with only generalized lymphadenopathy who was diagnosed with acute toxoplasmosis. Conclusion This case illustrates the important fact that toxoplasmosis can present with just simple lymphadenopathy, and thus can be confused with other infections such as Epstein-Barr virus and other mononucleosis-like illnesses such as cytomegalovirus, HIV with acute retroviral syndrome, cat scratch disease, leishmaniasis and syphilis. This case underlines why appropriate testing should be performed in confusing cases, and helps increase the knowledge about the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:21244658

  5. Toxoplasmosis in a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from Paran, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Marigo, J; Ruoppolo, V; Rosas, F C W; Kanamura, C T; Takakura, C; Fernndez, A; Cato-Dias, J L

    2013-01-31

    This study describes toxoplasmosis in a by caught Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guinensis) from Paranagu Bay, Paran, Brazil. Interstitial pneumonia, multisystemic arteritis, multifocal adrenalitis and hepatitis were the primary lesions observed. These tissues had moderate to severe necrosis and mononuclear cells infiltration usually surrounded by tachyzoites and tissue cysts. Moderate lymphoid depletion was evident in the spleen. Toxoplasma gondii was positive by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evaluation. Furthermore, the animal was negative for Morbillivirus by immunohistochemistry and had low levels of persistent organochlorines. There is evidence of environmental changes in the Paranagu Bay that could justify the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in Guiana dolphin. The sewage run-off from main urban areas and the presence of domestic and wild felids in areas surrounding the bay could be a source of T. gondii oocysts from land to sea. Based on its habitat, the authors recommend this dolphin species as sentinels for the health of bays and estuaries where they occur. PMID:23063774

  6. Ocular toxoplasmosis: a very rare presentation in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Matias, Margarida; Gomes, Antonia; Marques, Tiago; Fonseca, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of red eye, photophobia, pain and decreased visual acuity of the right eye. The ophthalmological examination revealed hypertensive non-granulomatous panuveitis, retinal vasculitis with focus of retinochoroiditis with pigmented central area suggestive of ocular toxoplasmosis in the active phase. He started treatment with azithromycin, pyrimethamine, topical steroids and measures for control of intraocular pressure. Serology for Toxoplasma gondii was positive and for HIV, negative. For headache and vomiting, he was hospitalised in order to exclude cerebral toxoplasma. The cerebral CT scan, MRI and lumbar puncture were negative and treatment was changed to pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and prednisolone. For persistence of vomiting he started clindamycin with clinical and ophthalmological improvement. The patient is currently under prophylaxis with co-trimoxazol for 1 year, and maintains clinical improvement. This case illustrates the rarity of presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis, without cerebral in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:25270156

  7. Urine sample used for congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, I; Rodriguez, M; Domingo, C J; del Castillo, F; Juncosa, T; Alvar, J

    1996-01-01

    The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected infants can be difficult; serology is unreliable, and diagnosis must be based on the combination of symptomatology and direct demonstration of the parasite. Four infants suspected of having Toxoplasma gondii infection were studied by serological analysis, tissue culture, and PCR determination. T. gondii was isolated from the urine of one patient. The parasite was detected by PCR in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of three infants and in the urine in all patients. Because nested PCR proved to be a sensitive, relatively rapid, and specific method and because it can be applied to a variety of different clinical samples, PCR can be a valuable technique for the identification of T. gondii infections in children. The present study indicates that PCR examination of urine, a fluid never before used for diagnosis in this age group, may be valuable in diagnosing cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:8880481

  8. Trends, Productivity Losses, and Associated Medical Conditions Among Toxoplasmosis Deaths in the United States, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Patricia L.; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000–2010. A matched case–control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. PMID:25200264

  9. Diclazuril Protects against Maternal Gastrointestinal Syndrome and Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.; Tobin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of foodborne, gastrointestinal and congenital syndrome with particularly severe or unknown health consequences. There is no safe and effective preventive or therapeutic modality against congenital toxoplasmosis or to eliminate the persistent chronic infection. Hypothesis Diclazuril to be safe in pregnancy and effective against gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Methods CD1 programmed pregnant mice were divided into groups and administered a diet containing diclazuril, or sham control. Treatments were initiated on Day 5 of pregnancy and continued until Day 16 when dams were euthanatized. On Day 8 of pregnancy dams were infected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of tachyzoites (0, 100, 300, 600) from Type II strain. Dams were monitored daily for distress, pain, and abortion and samples collected at the end of the experiments. Results Infected dams developed moderate to severe Toxoplasma related complications in tachyzoites dose dependent manner. Animals became anemic and showed hydrothorax, and ascities. Diclazuril effectively protected dams from ascities and anemia (p < 0.05). Infected dams showed splenomegaly, with massive infiltration of epithelioid cells compared with the protective effect of diclazuril in treated animals. Infected dams exhibited severe hepatitis (score 0 to 4 scale = 3.5 0.01) with influx of inflammatory and plasma cells, dysplastic hepatocytes, multinucleated giant cell transformation and hepatic cells necrosis. Diclazuril treatment significantly protected dams from hepatitis, also in tachyzoites dose (100, 300, 600) dependent manner (respectively infected-treated versus infected controls, p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Colonic tissues were significantly shortened in length, with infiltration of lymphocytes, and macrophages and microabscess formations in the cryptic structures, with significant improvement in diclazuril treated animals. Additionally, the number of fetuses, fetal length and fetal weight were preserved in diclazuril treated dams. Conclusions This is the first report describing of diclazuril safety in pregnancy as well as efficacy against mild to moderate hepato-gastrointestinal syndrome in dams and fetal toxoplasmosis (Special issue, Treatment of Liver Diseases). PMID:24851194

  10. A game-theoretic approach to valuating toxoplasmosis vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Sykes, David; Rycht?, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite often found in wild and domestic cats, and it is the cause of the disease toxoplasmosis. More than 60 million people in the United States carry the parasite, and the Centers for Disease Control have placed toxoplasmosis in their disease classification group Neglected Parasitic Infections as one of five parasitic diseases targeted as priorities for public health action. In recent years, there has been significant progress toward the development of a practical vaccine, so vaccination programs may soon be a viable approach to controlling the disease. Anticipating the availability of a toxoplasmosis vaccine, we are interested in determining when cat owners should vaccinate their own pets. We have created a mathematical model describing the conditions under which vaccination is advantageous. Our model can be used to predict the average vaccination level in the population. We find that there is a critical vaccine cost threshold above which no one will use the vaccine. A vaccine cost slightly below this threshold, however, results in high usage of the vaccine, and consequently in a significant reduction in population seroprevalence. Not surprisingly, we find that populations may achieve herd immunity only if the cost of vaccine is zero. PMID:26319752

  11. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, Aize; Jongert, Erik

    2008-10-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with disappointing results of the currently available treatment options have led to a plea for more effective prevention. In this review we describe Toxoplasma as a hazard associated with the consumption of undercooked meat or meat products and provide an analysis of the various options to control the risk of human toxoplasmosis via this source. Monitoring and surveillance programs may be implemented for pre-harvest control of Toxoplasma infection of farm animals, with the reduction of environmental oocyst load as the most important milestone. Alternatively, Toxoplasma safe meat can be obtained through simple post-harvest decontamination procedures, whereby freezing the meat may currently be the best option, although new technologies using irradiation or high-pressure treatment may offer promising alternatives. Influence of culture, religion and food handling customs may predispose a certain type of meat as an important source of infection, indicating that prevention needs to be tailored according to social habits in different regions in the world. The rationale for more stringent control measures to prevent toxoplasmosis both from disease and economic points of view is emphasized. PMID:18694755

  12. Real-world effectiveness of abatacept for rheumatoid arthritis treatment in European and Canadian populations: a 6-month interim analysis of the 2-year, observational, prospective ACTION study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discontinuation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment for lack or loss of initial response, tolerability issues, or development of antibodies against the therapeutic agent remains a challenge in clinical practice. Here we present a 6-month interim analysis of a 2-year prospective observational trial in Europe and Canada aiming to assess the real-world effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of intravenous abatacept for the treatment of moderate-to-severe RA. Methods ACTION (AbataCepT In rOutiNe clinical practice) is a prospective, observational study assessing effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of abatacept in patients with RA enrolled in Europe and Canada between May 2008 and January 2011. The patient population was divided into two groups: biologic naïve (‘first-line’) patients and patients who had previously failed treatment with at least one biologic agent (‘second-line’). Retention rates were calculated using Kaplan–Meier curve estimates. Effectiveness was measured using European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, the 28-item Disease Activity Score, the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and physical function, as assessed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported for all enrolled patients. Results Of 1138 consecutively enrolled patients, 1114 and 1079 patients were evaluable for retention and effectiveness, respectively. Overall, retention rates were 88.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.4, 90.4); 67.4% of patients achieved good/moderate EULAR response; 32.8% had a CDAI Low Disease Activity State (LDAS); and 44.7% a HAQ-DI response. Retention rates among first- and second-line patients were 93.0% (95% CI: 85.9, 96.6) and 88.1% (95% CI: 85.7, 90.0), respectively. The percentage of patients achieving CDAI LDAS was 40.0% (95% CI: 26.4, 53.6) for first- and 32.2% (95% CI: 28.4, 36.0) for second-line patients and the proportion achieving a HAQ-DI response was 60.3% (95% CI: 47.8, 72.9) versus 43.1% (95% CI: 39.0, 47.2), respectively. The incidence of SAEs was 4.7%. Conclusions Evidence from this 6-month interim analysis suggests that abatacept offers an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with RA, including those who have previously failed anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment. In addition, higher retention rates and effectiveness outcomes were observed when abatacept treatment was initiated earlier in the course of the disease. PMID:24410774

  13. Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Kragh Andersen, Per; Johansson, Mattias; Boeing, Heiner; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Sanchez, Carmen Navarro; Arriola, Larraitz; Wallström, Peter; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra; Beulens, Joline WJ; Nunes, Luciana; Gunter, Marc; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Brennan, Paul; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. Design The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Setting 23 centres in 10 countries. Participants 380 395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6 years on average. Main outcome measures 20 453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment. Results HRs comparing extreme drinkers (≥30 g/day in women and ≥60 g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1–4.9 g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60 years, drinking more than 30 g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60 g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women. Conclusions In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality. PMID:24993766

  14. ACUTE TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A BREASTFED INFANT WITH POSSIBLE TRANSMISSION BY WATER

    PubMed Central

    CAPOBIANGO, Jaqueline Dario; MITSUKA-BREGAN, Regina; MONICA, Thais Cabral; FERREIRA, Fernanda Pinto; REICHE, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii transmission via breastfeeding has been discussed; however, no cases have been confirmed to date. This article describes a case of acute toxoplasmosis diagnosed in a mother and her six-month-old breastfed infant. The study accounts for the possibility of breast milk transmission and directs both clinicians and pediatricians to the hypothesis that both patients acquired toxoplasmosis via water ingestion.

  15. APPLICATION OF ASSAYS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A COLONY OF WOOLLY MONKEYS (LAGOTHRIX LAGOTRICHA).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Toxoplasma gondii infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in New World primate species. Clinical abnormalities associated with toxoplasmosis can be nonspecific making it difficult to make a definitive antemortem diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Toxoplasmosis in New W...

  16. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN WALLABIES (MACROPUS RUFOGRISEUS, MACROPUS EUGENII ): BLINDNESS, TREATMENT WITH ATOVAQUONE, AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Australasian marsupials, especially wallabies are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Three wallabies (1Tammar, Macropus eugenii no.1, and 2 Bennett’s, Macropus rufogriseus, no.2 and 3) imported from New Zealand to Pennsylvania were diagnosed to have toxoplasmosis after arrival in the US. ...

  17. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis. PMID:26038907

  18. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aimée R.; Brennan, Paul; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larrañaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The current study sought to evaluate the extent to which HPV16 E6 antibodies are present before diagnosis of anogenital cancers within the same cohort. Methods Four hundred incident anogenital cancers (273 cervical, 24 anal, 67 vulvar, 12 vaginal, and 24 penile cancers) with prediagnostic blood samples (collected on average 3 and 8 years before diagnosis for cervix and noncervix cancers, respectively) and 718 matched controls were included. Plasma was analyzed for antibodies against HPV16 E6 and multiple other HPV proteins and genotypes and evaluated in relation to risk using unconditional logistic regression. Results HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in 29.2% of individuals (seven of 24 individuals) who later developed anal cancer compared with 0.6% of controls (four of 718 controls) who remained cancer free (odds ratio [OR], 75.9; 95% CI, 17.9 to 321). HPV16 E6 seropositivity was less common for cancers of the cervix (3.3%), vagina (8.3%), vulva (1.5%), and penis (8.3%). No associations were seen for non–type 16 HPV E6 antibodies, apart from anti-HPV58 E6 and anal cancer (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 33.1). HPV16 E6 seropositivity tended to increase in blood samples drawn closer in time to cancer diagnosis. Conclusion HPV16 E6 seropositivity is relatively common before diagnosis of anal cancer but rare for other HPV-related anogenital cancers. PMID:25667279

  19. Subtypes of fruit and vegetables, variety in consumption and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Max; Siersema, Peter D; Overvad, Kim; Tjnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bastide, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena; Khn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirs, J Ramn; Agudo, Antonio; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ohlsson, Bodil; Jirstrm, Karin; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Romieu, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Inge; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2015-12-01

    Previously, a lower risk of colorectal cancer was observed with fruit and vegetable consumption in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition within a follow-up period of 9 years which was not fully supported by a recent meta-analysis. Therefore, we were interested in the relation with extended follow-up, also focusing on single subtypes and a variety of intake of fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed at baseline. After an average of 13 years of follow-up, 3,370 participants were diagnosed with colon or rectal cancer. Diet diversity scores were constructed to quantify variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. A lower risk of colon cancer was observed with higher self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetable combined (HR Q4 vs. Q1 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-1.01, p for trend 0.02), but no consistent association was observed for separate consumption of fruits and vegetables. No associations with risk of rectal cancer were observed. The few observed associations for some fruit and vegetable subtypes with colon cancer risk may have been due to chance. Variety in consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with a lower risk of colon or rectal cancer. Although a lower risk of colon cancer is suggested with high consumption of fruit and vegetables, this study does not support a clear inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and colon or rectal cancer beyond a follow-up of more than 10 years. Attenuation of the risk estimates from dietary changes over time cannot be excluded, but appears unlikely. PMID:26077137

  20. Concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmann, S; Grote, V A; Becker, S; Rinaldi, S; Tjønneland, A; Roswall, N; Grønbæk, H; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Racine, A; Teucher, B; Boeing, H; Drogan, D; Dilis, V; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Palli, D; Tagliabue, G; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Mattiello, A; Rodríguez, L; Duell, E J; Molina-Montes, E; Dorronsoro, M; Huerta, J-M; Ardanaz, E; Jeurnink, S; Peeters, P H M; Lindkvist, B; Johansen, D; Sund, M; Ye, W; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Allen, N E; Crowe, F L; Fedirko, V; Jenab, M; Michaud, D S; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kaaks, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (BPs) regulate cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and may have a role in the aetiology of various cancers. Information on their role in pancreatic cancer is limited and was examined here in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Methods: Serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 422 cases and 422 controls matched on age, sex, study centre, recruitment date, and time since last meal. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Neither circulating levels of IGF-I (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.75–1.93 for top vs bottom quartile, P-trend 0.301), IGFBP-3 (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.66–1.51, P-trend 0.79), nor the molar IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio, an indicator of free IGF-I level (OR=1.22, 95% CI 0.75–1.97, P-trend 0.27), were statistically significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In a cross-classification, however, a high concentration of IGF-I with concurrently low levels of IGFBP-3 was related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR=1.72, 95% CI 1.05–2.83; P-interaction=0.154). Conclusion: On the basis of these results, circulating levels of components of the IGF axis do not appear to be the risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, on the basis of the results of a subanalysis, it cannot be excluded that a relatively large amount of IGF-1 together with very low levels of IGFBP-3 might still be associated with an increase in pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:22315049

  1. Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet: The European Prospective Mother–Child Study (NewGeneris)

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria; Agramunt, Silvia; Alexander, Jan; Brunborg, Gunnar; Chatzi, Leda; Fleming, Sarah; Fthenou, Eleni; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hardie, Laura J.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Merlo, Domenico F.; Nielsen, Jeanette K.; Rydberg, Per; Segerbäck, Dan; Sunyer, Jordi; Wright, John; Törnqvist, Margareta; Kleinjans, Jos C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. Objectives: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother–child study. Methods: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006–2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. Results: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was –132 g (95% CI: –207, –56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was –0.33 cm (95% CI: –0.61, –0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. If confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women. PMID:23092936

  2. Five-year results from the prospective European multicentre cohort study on radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation for incompetent great saphenous veins

    PubMed Central

    Proebstle, T M; Alm, B J; Göckeritz, O; Wenzel, C; Noppeney, T; Lebard, C; Sessa, C; Creton, D; Pichot, O

    2015-01-01

    Background This was a prospective study of radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation (RFA) for the treatment of incompetent varicose great saphenous veins (GSVs). The present report describes long-term follow-up at 5 years. Methods The 5-year follow-up of this multicentre European study included assessment of the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and GSV occlusion and reflux on duplex imaging. Results A total of 225 patients had 295 GSVs treated by RFA, achieving an initial vein occlusion rate of 100 per cent. With 80·0 per cent compliance, Kaplan–Meier analyses showed a GSV occlusion rate of 91·9 per cent and a reflux-free rate of 94·9 per cent at 5 years. Among the 15 GSVs noted with reflux during follow-up, only three showed full recanalization of the GSV at 1 week, 6 months and 3 years. Of the 12 legs with partial recanalization, reflux originated at the saphenofemoral junction in ten, with a mean length of the patent segment of 5·8 (range 3·2–10) cm; only six patients were symptomatic. Mean(s.d.) VCSS scores improved from 3·9(2·1) at baseline to 0·6(1·2), 0·9(1·3) and 1·3(1·7) at 1, 3 and 5 years. Conclusion At 5 years RFA proved to be an efficient endovenous treatment for incompetent GSVs in terms of sustained clinical and anatomical success for the vast majority of treated patients. PMID:25627262

  3. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  4. Current Therapy of Acquired Ocular Toxoplasmosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme Sturzeneker Cerqueira; Saraiva, Patricia Grativol Costa; Saraiva, Fábio Petersen

    2015-11-01

    Caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the most common form of posterior infectious uveitis. Combined antiparasitic therapy is the standard treatment for OT, but several other schemes have been proposed. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature on the treatment of OT and provide ophthalmologists with up-to-date information to help reduce OT-related visual morbidity. In conclusion, no ideal treatment scheme was identified; currently prescribed therapeutic schemes yield statistically similar functional outcomes. PMID:26226199

  5. Plasma and dietary carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol levels and the risk of gastric adenocarcinomas in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Jenab, M; Riboli, E; Ferrari, P; Friesen, M; Sabate, J; Norat, T; Slimani, N; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boeing, H; Schulz, M; Linseisen, J; Nagel, G; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Oikonomou, E; Berrino, F; Panico, S; Palli, D; Sacerdote, C; Tumino, R; Peeters, P H; Numans, M E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Büchner, F L; Lund, E; Pera, G; Chirlaque, M D; Sánchez, M-J; Arriola, L; Barricarte, A; Quirós, J R; Johansson, I; Johansson, A; Berglund, G; Bingham, S; Khaw, K-T; Allen, N; Key, T; Carneiro, F; Save, V; Giudice, G Del; Plebani, M; Kaaks, R; Gonzalez, C A

    2006-01-01

    Despite declining incidence rates, gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of death worldwide. Its aetiology may involve dietary antioxidant micronutrients such as carotenoids and tocopherols. The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma levels of seven common carotenoids, their total plasma concentration, retinol and α- and γ-tocopherol, with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large cohort involving 10 countries. A secondary objective was to determine the association of total sum of carotenoids, retinol and α-tocopherol on GCs by anatomical subsite (cardia/noncardia) and histological subtype (diffuse/intestinal). Analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in prediagnostic plasma from 244 GC cases and 645 controls matched by age, gender, study centre and date of blood donation. Conditional logistic regression models adjusted by body mass index, total energy intake, smoking and Helicobacter pylori infection status were used to estimate relative cancer risks. After an average 3.2 years of follow-up, a negative association with GC risk was observed in the highest vs the lowest quartiles of plasma β-cryptoxanthin (odds ratio (OR)=0.53, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.30–0.94, Ptrend=0.006), zeaxanthin (OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.22–0.69, Ptrend=0.005), retinol (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.33–0.93, Ptrend=0.005) and lipid-unadjusted α-tocopherol (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37–0.94, Ptrend=0.022). For all analytes, no heterogeneity of risk estimates or significant associations were observed by anatomical subsite. In the diffuse histological subtype, an inverse association was observed with the highest vs lowest quartile of lipid-unadjusted α-tocopherol (OR=0.26, 95% CI=0.11–0.65, Ptrend=0.003). These results show that higher plasma concentrations of some carotenoids, retinol and α-tocopherol are associated with reduced risk of GC. PMID:16832408

  6. Patterns of physical activity and ultrasound attenuation by heel bone among Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk): population based study

    PubMed Central

    Jakes, Rupert W; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila; Welch, Ailsa; Oakes, Suzy; Luben, Robert; Dalzell, Nicola; Reeve, Jonathan; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To study associations between patterns of physical activity and ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone in men and women. Design Cross sectional, population based study. Setting Norfolk. Participants 2296 men and 2914 women aged 45-74 registered with general practices participating in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC Norfolk). Results Self reported time spent in high impact physical activity was strongly and positively associated with ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone, independently of age, weight, and other confounding factors. Men who reported participating in ?2 hours/week of high impact activity had 8.44 dB/MHz (95% confidence interval 4.49 to 12.40) or 9.5%, higher ultrasound attenuation than men who reported no activity of this type. In women, the difference in ultrasound attenuation between those reporting any high impact activity and those reporting none was 2.41 dB/MHz (0.45 to 4.37) or 3.4% higher. In women this effect was similar in size to that of an age difference of four years. Moderate impact activity had no effect. However, climbing stairs was strongly independently associated with ultrasound attenuation in women (0.64 dB/MHz (0.19 to 1.09) for each additional five flights of stairs). There was a significant negative association in women between time spent watching television or video and heel bone ultrasound attenuation, which decreased by 0.08 dB/MHz (0.02 to 0.14) for each additional hour of viewing a week. Conclusions High impact physical activity is independently associated with ultrasound attenuation by the heel bone in men and women. As low ultrasound attenuation has been shown to predict increased risk of hip fracture, interventions to promote participation in high impact activities may help preserve bone density and reduce the risk of fracture. However, in older people such interventions may be inappropriate as they could increase the likelihood of falls. PMID:11159572

  7. Clinical trials update from the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Vienna, 2007: PROSPECT, EVEREST, ARISE, ALOFT, FINESSE, Prague-8, CARESS in MI and ACUITY.

    PubMed

    Recio-Mayoral, A; Kaski, J-C; McMurray, J J V; Horowitz, J; van Veldhuisen, D J; Remme, W J

    2007-12-01

    The Clinical Trials described in this article were presented at the Hotline and Clinical Trial Update Sessions of the European Society of Cardiology Congress held in September 2007 in Vienna, Austria. The sessions chosen for this article represent the scope of interest of Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. The presentations should be considered preliminary, as further analyses could alter the final publication of the results of these studies. PROSPECT evaluated echocardiographic criteria for optimal selection of patients with moderate to severe heart failure who may benefit from cardiac resynchronisation therapy, however concluded that no single echocardiographic measure can be recommended. EVEREST found that tolvaptan, a vasopressin V(2) antagonist, resulted in early weight reduction and improvement of dyspnoea in patients with acute heart failure, but lacked long term improvement. In ARISE, the anti-oxidant succinobucal did not affect the primary outcome in high risk cardiovascular patients, but improved the combination of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke, and diabetic control in diabetics. ALOFT showed that the addition of the renin inhibitor aliskiren to an ACE inhibitor or ARB and a beta-blocker leads to favourable effects on neurohormonal actions in heart failure. FINESSE markedly improved coronary patency before PCI with half-dose reteplase/abciximab in STEMI patients, however without significantly improving short-term outcome. The Prague-8 Study evaluated whether routine clopidogrel administered >6 h pre-angiography would be a safe way to achieve therapeutic drug levels in case a follow-up intervention would be considered immediately, but appeared not justified because of bleeding complications. CARESS in MI showed that high risk patients with evolving STEMI who undergo thrombolytic therapy should undergo PCI early after the thrombolysis. Finally, the ACUITY trial found that in moderate or high risk Non ST elevation ACS patients triaged to PCI, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, or medical management, bivalirudin, with or without associated GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy, resulted in a marked reduction of bleeding at 30 days whilst preserving the ischemic and mortality benefit at 1 year follow up. PMID:17992567

  8. Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Rideout, Bruce A.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Ledig, David B.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Dubey, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ‘Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is the most endangered corvid in the world, and intensive efforts are being made to reintroduce it to its former native range in Hawaii. We diagnosed Toxoplasma gondii infection in five free-ranging ‘Alala. One ‘Alala, recaptured from the wild because it was underweight and depressed, was treated with diclazuril (10 mg/kg) orally for 10 days. Antibodies were measured before and after treatment by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using whole T. gondii tachyzoites fixed in formalin and mercaptoethanol. The MAT titer decreased four-fold from an initial titer of 1:1,600 with remarkable improvement in physical condition. Lesions of toxoplasmosis also were seen in two partially scavenged carcasses and in a third fresh intact carcass. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed immunohistochemically by using anti-T. gondii specific serum. The organism was also cultured by bioassay in mice from tissues of one of these birds and the brain of a fifth ‘Alala that did not exhibit lesions. The life cycle of the parasite was experimentally completed in cats. This is the first record of toxoplasmosis in ‘Alala, and the parasite appears to pose a significant threat and management challenge to reintroduction programs for ‘Alala in Hawaii.

  9. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among People Having Close Contact with Animals

    PubMed Central

    Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Che Mat Seri, Nurul Asma Anati; Sharma, Reuben Sunil-Kumar; Andiappan, Hemah; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection and its risk association among people having close contact with animals. A total of 312 blood samples were collected from veterinary personnel (veterinarian, technicians, and students) and pet owners from veterinary clinics and hospitals in the area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. About 4?cc of blood samples drawn from agreed participants were processed for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies as well as avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA I, II, and III kits. Meanwhile, the demographic profiles and possible risk factors of these participants were also recorded in the standardized data collection sheets. Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in 62 (19.9%) participants being 7 (18.4%) in veterinarians, 15 (33.3%) in veterinary technicians, 29 (14.9%) in veterinary students, and 11 (31.4%) in pet owners. Of 19.9% Toxoplasma seropositive samples, 18.3% was positive for IgG antibody, 1.0% for IgM antibody, and 0.6% for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Of three different IgG avidity ELISA kits, ELISA III showed high avidity in all five seropositive samples (IgM and IgG/IgM antibodies) indicating chronic Toxoplasma infection which is consistent with no evidence of clinical toxoplasmosis diagnosed during the time of this study. Univariate analysis showed that age group, gender, study population, gardening, task performance, and working duration were significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity. Further analysis by multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age group of ?30?years old (OR?=?0.34, 95% CI?=?0.180.63, p?=?0.001) and working or study duration of >10?years having close contact with animals (OR?=?5.07, 95% CI?=?1.8014.24, p?=?0.002) were identified as significant risks for Toxoplasma infection. Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive Toxoplasma screening and health surveillance program on toxoplasmosis should be implemented among people having close contact with animals in general and confirmed Toxoplasma seronegative individuals in particular to prevent seroconversion. PMID:25972863

  10. Atypical Presentation of Ocular Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report of Exudative Retinal Detachment and Choroidal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Yahya A.; Al-Dhibi, Hassan A.; Al-Abdullah, Abdulelah A.

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old healthy male presented with a chief complaint of blurred vision in the right eye for 1-week. Fundus examination indicated right exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia. The patient responded well to anti-toxoplasmosis medications and steroids. Exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia are atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. However, both conditions responded well to anti.parasitic therapy with steroid. PMID:26957857

  11. Toxoplasmosis in Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Inskeep, W; Gardiner, C H; Harris, R K; Dubey, J P; Goldston, R T

    1990-07-01

    A female Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and her calf were found beached on Picnic Island in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Despite therapy the animals died. Necropsy revealed severe pneumonia and lymphadenopathy in the mother and the calf, gastric ulcers and infection with the stomach digenean Braunina cordiformis in the mother, and a large, pale liver in the calf. Toxoplasma gondii was identified by light and electron microscopy and by immunohistochemistry in tissues of both animals. Toxoplasma gondii was associated with interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing adrenalitis, and cardiac myonecrosis in the mother and with lymphoid necrosis in both dolphins. The source of infection and the relationship to the recent dolphin beachings along the eastern seacoast of North America are unknown. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in cetaceans. PMID:2388360

  12. Ocular toxoplasmosis: recent aspects of pathophysiology and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Pleyer, Uwe; Schlüter, Dirk; Mänz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely successful opportunistic parasite which infects approximately one third of the human population worldwide. The impact of this parasite on human health becomes particularly manifest in congenital damage with infection and subsequent inflammation of neuronal tissues including the retina. Although advances in our understanding could be achieved in ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist on factors influencing the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding disease. We are only at the beginning of understanding the complex biology of this parasite and its mechanisms of invasion, virulence and interaction with the host's immune response. Since it is a preventable cause of blindness, it is necessary to assess factors that have the potential to control this disease in the future. This mini review will focus on recent advances in postnatal acquired ocular infection and the factors that may influence its prevalence and functional outcome. PMID:25248050

  13. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on experimental toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Mady, Rasha F; El-Hadidy, Wessam; Elachy, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii protozoon. It is most commonly treated by pyrimethamine (PYR); however, this was intolerable by many patients. The aim of this study was to assess therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) alone and combined with pyrimethamine (PYR) compared to a previous combination of clindamycin (CLN) and (PYR). One hundred Albino mice were used in the current study and were equally divided into five groups: normal (I), infected untreated control (II); infected, treated with NSO-only (III); infected, treated with NSO + PYR (IV); and infected, treated with CLN + PYR (V). The virulent RH Toxoplasma strain was used in infection survival rates estimation, impression smears from liver and spleen, and histopathological and ultrastructural studies were done. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Interferon-γ and specific IgM were also measured in sera by ELISA. Results showed that NSO alone has no direct anti-Toxoplasma effect, whereas its combination with PYR produced potent effect that is comparable to CLN + PYR. It significantly increased the survival rate and decreased the parasite density and pathological insult in both liver and spleen. Also, significant increase in interferon-γ level denotes stimulation of cellular immunity. NSO + PYR combination markedly improved the antioxidant capacity of Toxoplasma infected mice compared to the infected untreated ones and to CLN/PYR. In conclusion, although NSO, if administered alone, has significant immunostimulant and antioxidant properties, it failed to decrease tachyzoite counts. Combination of NSO and PYR had synergistic effect in treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26446086

  14. Seroepidemiological survey of toxoplasmosis in La Guadeloupe, French West Indies.

    PubMed

    Barbier, D; Ancelle, T; Martin-Bouyer, G

    1983-09-01

    A random survey of 1% of the total population of La Guadeloupe, French West Indies, for toxoplasmosis was carried out. Blood specimens from 3,238 individuals were collected on filter paper strips and tested for Toxoplasma antibodies by the fluorescent antibody technique. Sixty percent were positive. A gradual increase in positivity with increasing age, and high prevalence in children (50% in the 6- to 10-year age group) were observed. No differences were found among the different ethnic groups, nor among persons in different occupations. Economic status showed a highly negative correlation with antibody prevalence rates. The infection rate was not higher in individuals who consumed raw or undercooked meat, and no differences in antibody prevalence related to the sources of meat were observed. The seropositivity rates varied over a wide range (40-76%) according to the locality; higher Toxoplasma antibody rates were found in areas with higher rainfall, and toxoplasmosis prevalence rates correlated positively with mean annual rainfall but not with altitude or with rural or urban residence. A significant difference was observed between seropositivity rates when people living in houses with or without cats were compared. A higher prevalence of hookworm and Strongyloides infections--considered as evidence of closer contact with moist soil--were found in children with Toxoplasma antibodies than in age-adjusted control children without such antibodies. These results provide evidence that meat plays a negligible role in the transmission of Toxoplasma to man, and support the hypothesis that oocysts shed in cat feces are the almost exclusive mode of human infection in Guadeloupe. PMID:6625075

  15. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clères, France

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  16. Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet´s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical T. gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was one of a colony of...

  17. Congenital toxoplasmosis in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: some epidemiological problems.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S M

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that congenital toxoplasmosis could be prevented by antenatal serological screening, followed by treatment or by termination of pregnancy if infection occurs. The only study of the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland took place more than 10 years ago. To obtain more recent figures laboratory reports of cases occurring from 1975 to 1980 were analysed. A total of 91 cases were reported over the six years. By criteria established to classify these infections only 34 were congenital, 20 were acquired postnatally, and 37 were unclassifiable. The mean annual number of cases of congenital toxoplasmosis was considerably smaller than that found in other recent studies. The condition could be underdiagnosed or rates of placental transmission could be lower in Britain than in other countries. Variation in reporting criteria of the laboratories made the data difficult to interpret. Improved diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis would not only clarify the epidemiology but would also help clinicians in management of suspected cases. Further antenatal surveys are necessary to assess the role of screening in the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:6411171

  18. The prospects for using (Q)SARs in a changing political environment--high expectations and a key role for the European Commission's joint research centre.

    PubMed

    Worth, A P; Van Leeuwen, C J; Hartung, T

    2004-01-01

    Recent policy developments in the European union (EU) and within the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have placed increased emphasis on the use of structure-activity relationships (SARs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), collectively referred to as (Q)SARs, within various regulatory programmes for the assessment of chemicals and products. The most significant example within the EU is the European commission's proposal (of 29 October 2003) to introduce a new system for managing chemicals (called REACH), which calls for an increased use of (Q)SARs and other non-animal methods, especially for the assessment of low production volume chemicals. Another development within the EU is the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which foresees the phasing out of animal testing on cosmetics, combined with the imposition of marketing bans on cosmetics that have been tested on animals after certain deadlines. At the same time, the Existing Chemicals programme within the OECD is investigating ways of increasing the use of chemical category approaches, which depend heavily on the use of (Q)SARs, activity-activity relationships and read-across. Such developments are placing an enormous challenge on industry, regulatory bodies, and on the European commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), which is responsible for providing independent scientific advice to policy makers in the European Commission and the Member States. This paper reviews the different scientific and regulatory purposes for which reliable (Q)SARs could be used, and describes the current work of the JRC in providing scientific support for the development, validation and implementation of (Q)SARs. PMID:15669693

  19. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN MEXICO: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

    PubMed Central

    HERNÁNDEZ-CORTAZAR, Ivonne; ACOSTA-VIANA, Karla Y.; ORTEGA-PACHECO, Antonio; GUZMAN-MARIN, Eugenia del S.; AGUILAR-CABALLERO, Armando J.; JIMÉNEZ-COELLO, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico. PMID:25923887

  20. Toxoplasmosis in military personnel involved in jungle operations.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Marn, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Barrios, Patricia; Cardona, Nestor; lvarez, Catalina; Herrera, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Tropical diseases, mainly leishmaniasis and malaria, increased among Colombian military personnel due to intensive operations in the jungle in the last ten years; as a result the Colombian army developed important preventive strategies for malaria and leishmaniasis. However, no knowledge exists about toxoplasmosis, an emergent disease in military personnel. We compared the prevalence of IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA and of parasitaemia by a real time PCR assay, in 500 professional soldiers that operated in the jungle with a group of 501 soldiers working in an urban zone (Bogot). We found that the prevalence was significantly different between both groups of soldiers (80% in soldiers operating in jungle vs. 45% in urban soldiers, adjusted OR 11.4; CI 95%: 3.8-34; p<0.0001). All soldiers operating in the jungle drink unboiled and chlorine untreated lake or river water. In urban soldiers, these risk factors along with eating wild animal meat or eating tigrillo (little spotted cat) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence. Characteristic toxoplasmic choriorretinal lesions were found in 4 soldiers that operated in the jungle (0.8%) and in one urban soldier (0.19%). All soldiers before being deployed in jungle operations should be tested for Toxoplasma antibodies and to receive adequate health information about the routine use of personnel filters to purify their water for consumption. PMID:22178449

  1. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strains from female patients with toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, Dina M; Hassanein, Omayma M A

    2008-08-01

    Thirty-eight female patients with abortion and intrauterine fetal death were selected from the Obstetric and Gynecology Emergency, Ain Shams University Hospitals, with positive PCR results for toxoplasmosis in previous study. In this study, a rapid and efficient procedure was used for genotyping of T. gondii isolates based on PCR-RFLP assay at SAG2 locus. On the basis of the alleles identified at SAG2 locus, the isolates were grouped into three lineages. Type I was determined by resistance of the 3' & 5' end nested product of the SAG2 locus to cleavage by HhaI & Sau3AI respectively. Resistance of 5' end of SAG2 locus to cleavage by HhaI determined type II. Type III was determined by resistance of the 3' end nested-PCR products of SAG2 locus to cleavage by Sau3AI. Of the 38 isolates, type II was the most prevalent genotype found in 33 (87%). Type I was found in 5 (13%) of the isolates, whereas genotype III was not never found. PMID:18853624

  2. Toxoplasmosis in Mexico: epidemiological situation in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortazar, Ivonne; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia del S; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico. PMID:25923887

  3. Ecological-level associations between highly processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations: results from a cross-sectional study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Chajs, Vronique; Biessy, Carine; Byrnes, Graham; Deharveng, Genevive; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Jenab, Mazda; Peeters, Petra H M; Ock, Marga; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Gran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirflt, Elisabet; Jakszyn, Paula; Gonzlez, Carlos A; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Martinez, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Surez, Laudina Rodriguez; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjnneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Spencer, Elisabeth A; Crowe, Francesca L; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nethlings, Ute; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Dimosthenis; Oustoglou, Erifili; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2011-11-01

    Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations. PMID:22043987

  4. Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2014-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials. PMID:25104952

  5. Serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection: Recommendations from the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Villard, O; Cimon, B; L'Ollivier, C; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis manifests no clinical signs in 80% of cases in immunocompetent patient, causing immunization characterized by the persistence of cysts, particularly in brain, muscles, and retina. Assessing the serological status, based on testing for serum toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, is essential in cases that are increasingly at risk for the more severe disease forms, such as congenital or ocular toxoplasmosis. This disease also exposes immunosuppressed patients to reactivation, which can lead to more widespread forms and increased mortality. By interpreting the serological results, we can estimate the risk of contamination or reactivation and define appropriate prophylactic and preventive measures, such as hygienic and dietetic, therapeutic, biological, and clinical follow-up, according to the clinical context. We hereby propose practical approaches based on serological data, resulting from a consensus of a group of experts from the French National Reference Center Network for Toxoplasmosis, according to both routine and specific clinical situations. PMID:26458281

  6. Value of PCR for evaluating occurrence of parasitemia in immunocompromised patients with cerebral and extracerebral toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa K el-S; Roth, A; Roth, B; Arasteh, K N; Janitschke, K

    1994-01-01

    PCR was used to evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii parasitemia by detection of the B1 gene in blood samples in two groups of immunosuppressed patients (148 subjects) suspected of having cerebral or extracerebral infection, respectively. Group I consisted of 52 patients with AIDS with suspected cerebral toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis was clinically proven in 15 cases. Parasitemia was detected by PCR in only two of these patients (13.3%), both showing evidence of disseminated infection. Group II consisted of 96 immunocompromised patients, either with AIDS or receiving iatrogenic immunosuppressive therapy. Of these patients, 65 (34 with AIDS and 31 others) showed abnormalities only in chest radiography and were first screened for the presence of Toxoplasma DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Blood was then analyzed when the parasite was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The remaining 31 subjects (22 with AIDS and 9 others) were suspected of having extracerebral, pulmonary, or disseminated toxoplasmosis, and blood was studied directly in these cases. Among the nine patients with clinically diagnosed extracerebral infection in group II, the parasite was detected by PCR in the blood of five patients (55.5%), all having pulmonary toxoplasmosis. If all patients with clinical manifestations of extracerebral toxoplasmosis (from both groups) who had not received antitoxoplasma therapy when the samples were collected are considered, PCR detected parasitemia in seven of the nine cases (77.8%). The present study indicates that examination of blood by PCR may be valuable in cases of extracerebral toxoplasmosis because of the disseminated nature of the disease. Since most cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis result from the local reactivation of latent brain cysts, detection of parasitemia by PCR is useful only in cases associated with severe cerebral infection or dissemination of this disease. Images PMID:7852576

  7. Toxoplasmosis complications and novel therapeutic synergism combination of diclazuril plus atovaquone

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of foodborne disease, congenital complication, and morbidity. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to encounter congenital and persisting toxoplasmosis. The hypothesis was: combination diclazuril plus atovaquone to exert a novel therapeutic synergy to prevent toxoplasmosis syndromes. Methods: Pregnant dams were treated with diclazuril and atovaquone monotherapy or combination therapy and infected i.p with Toxoplasma tachyzoites. Results: Infected dams developed severe toxoplasmosis associated syndrome with increases in the abdominal adiposity surrounding uteri, gansterointestinal and other internal organs and excessive weight gain. Numerous organisms along with infiltration of inflammatory cells were detected scattered into adipose tissues. Combination therapy (p < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril (p < 0.05) protected dams from inflammatory fat and excess weight gains. This was consistent with pancreatitis development in infected dams (versus normal p < 0.05) with infiltration of inflammatory cells, degeneration and necrosis of pancreatic cells followed by the degeneration and loss of islets. Combination and monotherapy protected dams from these inflammatory and pathological aspects of pancreatitis. Infected dams exhibited severe colitis, and colonic tissues significantly shortened in length. Brush border epithelial cells were replaced with infiltration of lymphocytes, granulocytes, and microabscess formations into cryptic microstructures. Combination therapy synergistically preserved colonic structure and normalized pathological damages (p < 0.001) and to a lesser degree diclazuril monotherapy protected dams from colitis (p < 0.05) and gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Other complications included severe splenitis (p < 0.001) and hepatitis (p < 0.001) which were normalized with combination therapy. Conclusion: Combination diclazuril plus atovaquone was safe and with a novel therapeutic synergism protected dams and fetuses from toxoplasmosis. PMID:25309522

  8. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Velsquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/l and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  9. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  10. Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S

    2001-09-14

    We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone. PMID:11532360

  11. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  12. Ly6C(high) monocytes control cerebral toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Aindrila; Bruder, Dunja; Wolf, Susanne A; Jeron, Andreas; Mack, Matthias; Heimesaat, Markus M; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by activation of resident cells and recruitment of immune cells from the periphery to the CNS. In this study, we show that a subset of myeloid cells, namely Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes that infiltrate the brain upon chronic T. gondii infection, plays a decisive role in host defense. Depletion of this monocyte subset resulted in elevated parasite load and decreased survival of infected mice, suggesting their crucial role. Notably, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes governed parasite control due to production of proinflammatory mediators, such as IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, inducible NO synthase, TNF, and reactive oxygen intermediate. Interestingly, Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) monocytes were also able to produce the regulatory cytokine IL-10, revealing their dual feature. Moreover, we confirmed by adoptive transfer that the recruited monocytes further develop into two distinct subpopulations contributing to parasite control and profound host defense. The differentiated Ly6C(int)CCR2(+)F4/80(int) subset upregulated MHC I and MHC II molecules, suggesting dendritic cell properties such as interaction with T cells, whereas the Ly6C(neg)F4/80(high) cell subset displayed elevated phagocytic capacity while upregulating triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2. Finally, we have shown that the recruitment of Ly6C(high) monocytes to the CNS is regulated by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. These results indicate the critical importance of recruited Ly6C(high) monocytes upon cerebral toxoplasmosis and reveal the behavior of further differentiated myeloid-derived mononuclear cell subsets in parasite control and immune regulation of the CNS. PMID:25710908

  13. Feline immunodeficiency virus predisposes cats to acute generalized toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M. G.; Rottman, J. B.; English, R. V.; Lappin, M. R.; Tompkins, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a pre-existing, clinically asymptomatic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection on a primary challenge with Toxoplasma gondii. Parenteral challenge of FIV-infected cats with tachyzoites of the ME49 strain of T. gondii caused a precipitous drop in all lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, and B cells) and generalized severe toxoplasmosis. The predominant postmortem lesions included acute and often fatal interstitial pneumonia, dominated histologically by macrophages, and multifocal to coalescing hepatic necrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed numerous T. gondii antigen and tachyzoites in macrophages and other cell types in the lung lesions. The proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to specific (T. gondii antigen) and nonspecific (Concanavalin A) mitogens was defective in the dually infected cats, suggesting marked immunosuppression. In contrast to the dually infected cats, cats infected only with T. gondii developed a transient, mild clinical disease characterized by anorexia, lethargy, and multifocal chorioretinitis. Lymphocyte changes in T. gondii-infected cats included an early pan-lymphopenia followed by reestablishment of all lymphocyte subset profiles. These cats also showed a reduced proliferative response to Concanavalin A at 1 week after challenge, but a measurable in vivo response to T. gondii antigens, as evidenced by in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in the absence of a mitogenic stimulus. These results show that infection of cats with FIV-NCSU, markedly enhances their susceptibility to a primary T. gondii infection and provides a model to study the mechanisms of the underlying immunological defect(s) occurring early after HIV infection that may predispose individuals to development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and associated diseases. Images Figure 4 PMID:8238262

  14. Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Frnzel J.B.; Fedirko, Veronika; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Westphal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Argelles, Marcial; Bonet, Catalina; Snchez, Mara-Jos; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, Jose-Mara; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Gran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Pischon, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectinan adipose tissue-derived proteinmay provide?a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested casecontrol study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.530.95, P trend = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.340.61, P trend < 0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.681.22, P trend = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.260.60, P trend < 0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.601.09, P trend = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22431719

  15. Retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis in a patient with cerebral post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease of Hodgkin's type: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ruchi; Thumann, Gabrielle; Souteyrand, George; Kuerten, David; Coupland, Sarah E

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a relatively rare complication in renal transplant patients and can pose diagnostic challenges, especially when it manifests as an ocular inflammation. Authors hereby report an unusual case of a 57-year-old male who developed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis after 15years of renal transplant, the diagnoses of which were challenging as the patient was also a known case of cerebral post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) of Hodgkin's type, which misled the ophthalmologists towards a clinical diagnosis of ocular PTLD. Histopathology examination of the enucleated eye revealed numerous toxoplasmosis cysts within the retina and choroid. No ocular PTLD was observed. PMID:26239296

  16. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Intellectual Disability Children in Rehabilitation Centers of Northern Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, M.; Ziaei, H.; Daryani, A.; Ajami, A.

    2007-01-01

    Serological studies revealed that toxoplasmosis has world wide distribution. Although the infection by "Toxoplasma gondii" is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and

  17. Novel Synergistic Protective Efficacy of Atovaquone and Diclazuril on Fetal-Maternal Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2014-01-01

    Over 1 billion people globally are estimated to be infected with Toxoplasma gondii with severe or unknown consequences and no safe and effective therapies are available against congenital or persistent chronic infection. We propose that atovaquone and diclazuril synergistically protect against fetal-maternal toxoplasmosis. Methods Programmed pregnant mice were treated with atovaquone and diclazuril monotherapy, or combined (atovaquone + diclazuril) therapy and infected with tachyzoites (0, 300, 600) and the course of infection was studied. Results Infected dams with low dose (300) developed moderate toxoplasmosis complications and treatments were similarly effective with minor differences between monotherapies. In contrast, major differences were observed amongst varied treatments during high-dose (600) infection and severe related- toxoplasmosis complications as follows. Dams developed hydrothorax, ascities and excess weight gain. Combined therapy (P < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril monotherapy (P < 0.05) protected dams from excess weight, hydrothorax, and ascities. Infected dams exhibited splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and severe hepatitis. Combined therapy synergistically normalized pathology (P < 0.001) and to a lesser degree monotherapy (diclazuril P < 0.01, and atovaquone P < 0.05) protected dams from hepatitis and splemomegaly. Additionally, behavioral response to pain stimuli and fetal weight and fetal numbers were significantly preserved in treated dams Conclusions This is the first report describing combined atovaquone and diclazuril therapy (a) to be safe in pregnancy, (b) to exert novel synergistic effects, and (c) to protect dams and their nested fetuses against adverse effects of severe toxoplasmosis. PMID:25210646

  18. ACUTE VISCERAL TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DIK-DIK (MADOQUA GUENTHERI SMITHI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 2 captive dik-dik (Madoqua guentheri smithi) in the Houston Zoo. Both animals became ill suddenly and died in spite of supportive therapy. Toxoplasma gondii was identified in tissues of both animals immunohistochemically, and antibodies to T. gondii were found ...

  19. [Clinical basis of provocative detoxicating etiotropic therapy of chronic toxoplasmosis in pediatric cases].

    PubMed

    Kulmagambetov, I P; Timofeev, I V; Bega?darova, R Kh; Konstantinidi, T A; Perevertova, E S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory data on the treatment of 19 children with chronic toxoplasmosis were used for estimation of the efficacy of drug combination, such as spiramycin + lidase and lincomycin + lidase vs. the traditional therapy (co-trimoxazole, metronidazole). The combination designed by us, i.e. spiramycin + lidase, lincomycin + lidase used in consecutive courses proved to be more efficient. PMID:15945548

  20. The Experiences and Recommendations of Families with Children Who Have Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jillian; Mortimer, Tamara; Mish, Sandra; Kerns, Kimberly; Jagdis, Frank; MacMath, Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis infections are usually asymptomatic in health hosts, but can cause serious, sometimes life threatening, sequelae in infants when the mother acquires an acute infection during pregnancy and the parasite is transmitted via the placenta to the developing fetus. This article is part of a comprehensive research project investigating the…

  1. An overview of seventy years of research (1944–2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reviews toxoplasmosis research in Colombia, beginning with the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1944. Here we summarize prevalence of T. gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. g...

  2. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women: High seroprevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Yobi, Doudou; Piarroux, Renaud; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Franck, Jacqueline; Situakibanza, Hypolite; Muhindo, Hypolite; Mitashi, Patrick; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andreia; Van Sprundel, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, as well as the proportion of acutely infected and risk factors in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods Thirty maternities in Kinshasa were randomly selected and women attending antenatal consultation were invited to participate. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat) and a venous blood sample was taken. Sera were analysed for total immunoglobulins (Ig) by VIDAS Toxo Competition using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. IgM was determined by VIDIA Toxo IgM and IgG avidity by VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. Results A total of 781 women were included. Median age was 28 years old (IQR: 8.5). And 627 women (80.3%; 95% CI: 77.5-83.1) were found to be positive to total Ig and 17 out of 387 (4.4%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.4) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for 2 (11.8%) women, intermediate for 2 (11.8%) and high for 13 women (76.4%). There was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and any risk factors assessed. Conclusion In Kinshasa, toxoplasmosis endemicity is highly prevalent. One woman out of twenty five had a recent toxoplasmosis infection and 20% were not protected against primo-infection, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. PMID:24144134

  3. DISSEMINATED TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A MEDITERRANEAN PREGNANT RISSO'S DOLPHIN (GRAMPUS GRISEUS) WITH TRANSPLACENTAL FETAL INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) dam and its fetus based on pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and the structure of the parasite. The dolphin was stranded alive on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and died a few hrs later. At necropsy the ...

  4. LETHAL TOXOPLASMOSIS IN AN AVIARY OF KAKARIKIS (CYANORAMPHUS SPP.) IN AUSTRALIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small outbreak of fatal toxoplasmosis is described in 6 kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.) in an aviary in Australia. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, and lungs. Protozoal tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclona...

  5. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in mentally retarded patients in Iranian rehabilitation centers.

    PubMed

    Ezatpour, Behrouz; Zibaie, Mohammad; Rahmati, Hessam; Pournia, Yadollah; Azami, Mehdi; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Azadpour, Mozhgan; Ghalesefidi, Maryam Jamshidian

    2015-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common causes of latent infections in humans and animals. Although T. gondii infection is widely prevalent in the world, most acquired cases of the disease are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and its severe effects on the fetus. There have been many reports about the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody among different groups of people in Iran; however the epidemiological data in mentally retarded patients are rare. The present study was conducted on 158 mentally retarded persons (94 males, 64 females) in the rehabilitation centers of Khoramabad from autumn 2012 to winter 2013. The overall prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody was 30.4 % (48 cases). There were no significant difference between sex and toxoplasmosis (p > 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant difference between age and toxoplasmosis, nevertheless the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the patients less than 10-years-old had significantly the lowest rate. The highest infection rates were found in the two age groups of 10-19 and ≥30 years old. Our results showed that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the mentally retarded persons in the rehabilitation centers of Khorramabad was similar to the prevalence in pregnant women in this city. Therefore, the disease does not cause additional danger to this group of women. PMID:25698852

  6. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Intellectual Disability Children in Rehabilitation Centers of Northern Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, M.; Ziaei, H.; Daryani, A.; Ajami, A.

    2007-01-01

    Serological studies revealed that toxoplasmosis has world wide distribution. Although the infection by "Toxoplasma gondii" is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and…

  7. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a v...

  8. Tc-99m colloid lung uptake in a rare case of toxoplasmosis with liver involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Tal, I.; Kaynan, A.

    1984-06-01

    Intensive lung accumulation of colloid (Tc-99m phytate) was demonstrated in a child suffering from acquired toxoplasmosis with a rare manifestation of severe liver damage. The possible mechanism and clinical importance of colloid lung concentration in this case is briefly discussed, including a review of the literature on this subject.

  9. The association of coffee intake with liver cancer risk is mediated by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury: data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition123

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Drogan, Dagmar; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Pischon, Tobias; Tsilidis, Kostas; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Bouton-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Tsironis, Christos; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Saitakis, George; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lukic, Marko; Braaten, Tonje; Quirós, J Ramón; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez, María-José; Chilarque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanas, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Wallström, Peter; Ohlsson, Bodil; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Assi, Nada; Murphy, Neil; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Background: Higher coffee intake has been purportedly related to a lower risk of liver cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this association may be accounted for by specific biological mechanisms. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating roles of inflammatory, metabolic, liver injury, and iron metabolism biomarkers on the association between coffee intake and the primary form of liver cancer—hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design: We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition among 125 incident HCC cases matched to 250 controls using an incidence-density sampling procedure. The association of coffee intake with HCC risk was evaluated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression that accounted for smoking, alcohol consumption, hepatitis infection, and other established liver cancer risk factors. The mediating effects of 21 biomarkers were evaluated on the basis of percentage changes and associated 95% CIs in the estimated regression coefficients of models with and without adjustment for biomarkers individually and in combination. Results: The multivariable-adjusted RR of having ≥4 cups (600 mL) coffee/d compared with <2 cups (300 mL)/d was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P-trend = 0.006). A statistically significant attenuation of the association between coffee intake and HCC risk and thereby suspected mediation was confirmed for the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 and for the biomarkers of hepatocellular injury glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total bilirubin, which—in combination—attenuated the regression coefficients by 72% (95% CI: 7%, 239%). Of the investigated biomarkers, IL-6, AST, and GGT produced the highest change in the regression coefficients: 40%, 56%, and 60%, respectively. Conclusion: These data suggest that the inverse association of coffee intake with HCC risk was partly accounted for by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury. PMID:26561631

  10. Menstrual and reproductive factors in women, genetic variation in CYP17A1, and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Duell, Eric J; Travier, Nomie; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Tumino, Rosario; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Ricceri, Fulvio; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Dorronsoro, Miren; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, Jos M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fragogeorgi, Eirini; Oikonomou, Eleni; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Canzian, Federico; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjnneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Lindkvist, Bjrn; Johansen, Dorthe; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Michaud, Dominique S; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2013-05-01

    Menstrual and reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use have been investigated as pancreatic cancer risk factors in case-control and cohort studies, but results have been inconsistent. We conducted a prospective examination of menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use and pancreatic cancer risk (based on 304 cases) in 328,610 women from the EPIC cohort. Then, in a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort, we examined 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP17A1 (an essential gene in sex steroid metabolism) for association with pancreatic cancer in women and men (324 cases and 353 controls). Of all factors analyzed, only younger age at menarche (<12 vs. 13 years) was moderately associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the full cohort; however, this result was marginally significant (HR = 1.44; 95% CI = 0.99-2.10). CYP17A1 rs619824 was associated with HRT use (p value = 0.037) in control women; however, none of the SNPs alone, in combination, or as haplotypes were associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In conclusion, with the possible exception of an early age of menarche, none of the menstrual and reproductive factors, and none of the 12 common genetic variants we evaluated at the CYP17A1 locus makes a substantial contribution to pancreatic cancer susceptibility in the EPIC cohort. PMID:23015357

  11. Health resource utilization associated with skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases: Results from a multinational retrospective prospective observational study a cohort from 4 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Hoefeler, H.; Duran, I.; Hechmati, G.; Garzon Rodriguez, C.; Lftner, D.; Ashcroft, J.; Bahl, A.; Atchison, C.; Wei, R.; Thomas, E.; Lorusso, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Skeletal-related events (SREs; pathologic fracture, radiation or surgery to bone, spinal cord compression) frequently occur in patients with advanced cancer with bone metastases/lesions. Limited data on the associated patient and economic burden are available to aid in resource planning and evaluating treatment options. Methods Patients with bone metastases/lesions secondary to breast, lung or prostate cancer or multiple myeloma; with at least one SRE within 97 days prior to enrollment; life expectancy of at least 6 months; and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0, 1 or 2 were recruited. Information on health resource utilization (HRU; including number/duration of hospitalizations, outpatient visits, procedures), attributed by investigators to be associated with a SRE, was collected retrospectively for up to 97 days prior to enrollment and prospectively for up to 1821 months. Results A total of 631 patients contributing 1282 SREs, were enrolled across Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. Approximately a third of all SREs required an inpatient stay. Mean duration of inpatient stay for patients with SREs requiring one ranged from 8.4 to 41.1 days across all countries and SRE types. Conclusion All types of SREs are associated with substantial HRU burden. Preventing SREs by using the best therapeutic options available may help to reduce the burden to patients and healthcare systems.

  12. Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised Patients: a 3-Year Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV+; the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  13. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients: a 3-year multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hlne; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frdric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Herv; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV(+); the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  14. Differentially methylated microRNAs in prediagnostic samples of subjects who developed breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC-Italy) cohort.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Francesca; Ferrero, Giulio; Polidoro, Silvia; Fiorito, Giovanni; Campanella, Gianluca; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Frasca, Graziella; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Naccarati, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    The crosstalk between microRNAs (miRNAs) and other epigenetic factors may lead to novel hypotheses about carcinogenesis identifying new targets for research. Because a single miRNA can regulate multiple downstream target genes, its altered expression may potentially be a sensitive biomarker to detect early malignant transformation and improve diagnosis and prognosis. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that altered methylation of miRNA encoding genes, associated with deregulated mature miRNA expression, may be related to dietary and lifestyle factors and may contribute to cancer development. In a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort (EPIC-Italy), we analysed DNA methylation levels of miRNA encoding genes (2191 CpG probes related to 517 genes) that are present in the Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip array in prediagnostic peripheral white blood cells of subjects who developed colorectal cancer (CRC, n = 159) or breast cancer (BC, n = 166) and matched subjects who remained clinically healthy. In the whole cohort, several differentially methylated miRNA genes were observed in association with age, sex, smoking habits and physical activity. Interestingly, in the case-control study, eight differentially methylated miRNAs were identified in subjects who went on to develop BC (miR-328, miR-675, miR-1307, miR-1286, miR-1275, miR-1910, miR-24-1 and miR-548a-1; all Bonferroni-adjusted P < 0.05). No significant associations were found with CRC. Assuming that altered methylation of miRNAs detectable in blood may be present before diagnosis, it may represent a biomarker for early detection or risk of cancer and may help to understand the cascade of events preceding tumour onset. PMID:26168820

  15. Clinical Effectiveness of Hymenoptera Venom Immunotherapy: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Interest Group on Insect Venom Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ruëff, Franziska; Przybilla, Bernhard; Biló, Maria Beatrice; Müller, Ulrich; Scheipl, Fabian; Seitz, Michael J.; Aberer, Werner; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Bonifazi, Floriano; Campi, Paolo; Darsow, Ulf; Haeberli, Gabrielle; Hawranek, Thomas; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Lang, Roland; Quercia, Oliviero; Reider, Norbert; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Severino, Maurizio; Sturm, Gunter Johannes; Treudler, Regina; Wüthrich, Brunello

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment failure during venom immunotherapy (VIT) may be associated with a variety of risk factors. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentration (BTC) and of other parameters with the frequency of VIT failure during the maintenance phase. Methods In this observational prospective multicenter study, we followed 357 patients with established honey bee or vespid venom allergy after the maintenance dose of VIT had been reached. In all patients, VIT effectiveness was either verified by sting challenge (n = 154) or patient self-reporting of the outcome of a field sting (n = 203). Data were collected on BTC, age, gender, preventive use of anti-allergic drugs (oral antihistamines and/or corticosteroids) right after a field sting, venom dose, antihypertensive medication, type of venom, side effects during VIT, severity of index sting reaction preceding VIT, and duration of VIT. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. Results 22 patients (6.2%) developed generalized symptoms during sting challenge or after a field sting. A strong association between the frequency of VIT failure and BTC could be excluded. Due to wide confidence bands, however, weaker effects (odds ratios <3) of BTC were still possible, and were also suggested by a selective analysis of patients who had a sting challenge. The most important factor associated with VIT failure was a honey bee venom allergy. Preventive use of anti-allergic drugs may be associated with a higher protection rate. Interpretation It is unlikely that an elevated BTC has a strong negative effect on the rate of treatment failures. The magnitude of the latter, however, may depend on the method of effectiveness assessment. Failure rate is higher in patients suffering from bee venom allergy. PMID:23700415

  16. Recurrent headaches may be caused by cerebral toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Prandota, Joseph; Gryglas, Anna; Fuglewicz, Aleksander; Żesławska-Faleńczyk, Agata; Ujma-Czapska, Barbara; Szenborn, Leszek; Mierzwa, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To establish seroprevalence and provide characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii (TG) infection in children with recurrent headaches. METHODS: The study was performed in 178 children aged 7-17 years admitted consecutively to the Department of Pediatric Neurology from November 2009 to July 2011. The children were surveyed with a questionnaire with the help and assistance of their parents and blood samples taken on admission were studied for the presence of specific anti-TG IgM, IgG antibodies and IgG avidity using enzyme immunoassay Platelia Toxo IgM, IgG. RESULTS: The study showed that 19 children (8 boys, 11 girls; 8-17 years old, mean age 14.36 years) had high serum anti-TG IgG antibody levels (range: 32.2 > 240 UI/mL, mean 120.18 UI/mL; positive value for IgG was ≥ 9 UI/mL). The avidity index (AI) ranged from 0.202 to 0.925 (scale: ≥ 0.5 high AI). The results for IgM antibodies were all negative and the obtained results ranged from 0.113 to 0.25 U/mL (mean = 0.191 IU/mL) and all values below 0.8 IU/mL were considered negative. The most frequent complaints found in the seropositive patients were headaches that affected the frontal (13 children), occipital (4) and parietal areas (5). Headaches usually had a pulsating (in 7 patients) and squeezing (6) character and rarely were piercing, dull or expanding. Interestingly, 8 children did not feel discomfort during the headaches, probably because they did not have sufficiently increased intracranial pressure yet. The headaches usually appeared 1-2 times/mo, lasted for 2-6 h, and had a mean intensity of 5.5 points in a 10 point subjective scale. The comorbidities included epilepsy (5 patients), various infections in 3 children (chronic eustachitis, chronic rhinitis, chronic purulent tonsillitis, streptococcal pharyngitis, meningitis, allergic diseases), disturbances of behavior, deficits of attention, and ocular and motor concentration disorders in 1 child. The electroencephalographic and neuroimaging studies performed in our patients had a very limited value in establishing cerebral toxoplasmosis. CONCLUSION: Ten point six seven percent of the studied children had markedly increased serum anti-TG IgG antibodies and high AI indicated chronic infestation. It is suggested that tests for TG infection should be introduced to routine diagnostics in patients with recurrent headaches. PMID:25254186

  17. Risk of second primary malignancies in women with breast cancer: Results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Fasanelli, Francesca; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Vagliano, Liliana; Masala, Giovanna; Quirós, J Ramón; Travier, Noemie; Sánchez, María-José; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kvaskoff, Marina; Dossus, Laure; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Adarakis, George; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc; Kadi, Mai; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2015-08-15

    Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer are at increased risk of second primary cancers, and the identification of risk factors for the latter may have clinical implications. We have followed-up for 11 years 10,045 women with invasive breast cancer from a European cohort, and identified 492 second primary cancers, including 140 contralateral breast cancers. Expected and observed cases and Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) were estimated using Aalen-Johansen Markovian methods. Information on various risk factors was obtained from detailed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the role of risk factors. Women with breast cancer had a 30% excess risk for second malignancies (95% confidence interval-CI 18-42) after excluding contralateral breast cancers. Risk was particularly elevated for colorectal cancer (SIR, 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.00), lymphoma (SIR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.40), melanoma (2.12; 1.63-2.70), endometrium (2.18; 1.75-2.70) and kidney cancers (2.40; 1.57-3.52). Risk of second malignancies was positively associated with age at first cancer, body mass index and smoking status, while it was inversely associated with education, post-menopausal status and a history of full-term pregnancy. We describe in a large cohort of women with breast cancer a 30% excess of second primaries. Among risk factors for breast cancer, a history of full-term pregnancy was inversely associated with the risk of second primary cancer. PMID:25650288

  18. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)123456

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian’an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Results: Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which suggests that efforts to encourage even small increases in activity in inactive individuals may be beneficial to public health. PMID:25733647

  19. The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quirs, Jos Ramn; Duell, Eric J.; Snchez, Maria-Jos; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Chajes, Vronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the role of known risk factors in explaining educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, and included 242,095 women, 433 in situ and 4,469 invasive breast cancers. Reproductive history (age at first full term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviours were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. Higher invasive breast cancer risk was found among women with higher education (RII=1.22: 1.09,1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII=1.13: 0.84,1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII=1.11: 0.98,1.25), most of the association being explained by age at first full term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height contributed most of these factors. When all known risk factors were adjusted for, no association remained between education and invasive breast cancer risk. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancers and remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII=1.61: 1.07,2.41), especially among nulliparous women. PMID:21084553

  20. Multicentric Comparative Assessment of the Bio-Evolution Toxoplasma gondii Detection Kit with Eight Laboratory-Developed PCR Assays for Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Filisetti, Denis; Sterkers, Yvon; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Cassaing, Sophie; Dalle, Frdric; Delhaes, Laurence; Pelloux, Herv; Touafek, Friel; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Yera, Hlne; Candolfi, Ermano

    2014-01-01

    The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid is an essential tool for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and is currently essentially based on the use of PCR. Although some consensus is emerging, this molecular diagnosis suffers from a lack of standardization and an extreme diversity of laboratory-developed methods. Commercial kits for the detection of T. gondii by PCR were recently developed and offer certain advantages; however, they must be assessed in comparison with optimized reference PCR assays. The present multicentric study aimed to compare the performances of the Bio-Evolution T. gondii detection kit and laboratory-developed PCR assays set up in eight proficient centers in France. The study compared 157 amniotic fluid samples and found concordances of 99% and 100% using 76 T. gondii-infected samples and 81 uninfected samples, respectively. Moreover, taking into account the classification of the European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis, the overall diagnostic sensitivity of all assays was identical and calculated to be 86% (54/63); specificity was 100% for all assays. Finally, the relative quantification results were in good agreement between the kit and the laboratory-developed assays. The good performances of this commercial kit are probably in part linked to the use of a number of good practices: detection in multiplicate, amplification of the repetitive DNA target rep529, and the use of an internal control for the detection of PCR inhibitors. The only drawbacks noted at the time of the study were the absence of uracil-N-glycosylase and small defects in the reliability of the production of different reagents. PMID:25339393

  1. Increased risk of traffic accidents in subjects with latent toxoplasmosis: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Havlcek, Jan; Kodym, Petr; Mal, Marek; Smahel, Zbyn?k

    2002-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 3060% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations. Methods The seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in subjects involved in traffic accidents (N = 146) and in the general population living in the same area (N = 446) was compared by a Mantel-Haenszel test for age-stratified data. Correlation between relative risk of traffic accidents and level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre was evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. Results A higher seroprevalence was found in the traffic accident set than in the general population (Chi2MH = 21.45, p < 0.0001). The value of the odds ratio (OR) suggests that subjects with latent toxoplasmosis had a 2.65 (C.I.95= 1.764.01) times higher risk of an accident than the toxoplasmosis-negative subjects. The OR significantly increased with level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre (p < 0.0001), being low (OR = 1.86, C.I.95 = 1.143.03) for the 99 subjects with low antibody titres (8 and 16), higher (OR = 4.78, C.I.95 = 2.399.59) for the 37 subjects with moderate titres (32 and 64), and very high (OR = 16.03, C.I.95 = 1.89135.66) for the 6 subjects with titres higher than 64. Conclusion The subjects with latent toxoplasmosis have significantly increased risk of traffic accidents than the noninfected subjects. Relative risk of traffic accidents decreases with the duration of infection. These results suggest that 'asymptomatic' acquired toxoplasmosis might in fact represent a serious and highly underestimated public health problem, as well as an economic problem. PMID:12095427

  2. The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, J F

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the spectrum of adverse ocular effects which result from maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasma infection; further, to record the long-term visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these 2 major causes of fetal infection. STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A series of 55 patients with congenital infection have been studied prospectively on a long-term basis. The study group included a cohort of 34 cases with congenital rubella syndrome demonstrated by virus isolation, and 21 cases with a clinical diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and serologic confirmation. All patients had specific disease-related ocular defects. Rubella patients were first identified during or following the last major rubella epidemic in 1963-1964, and some have been followed serially since that time. A separate study group of representative toxoplasmosis patients presented for examination and diagnosis at varying time periods between 1967 and 1991. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: This study confirms that a broad spectrum of fetal injury may result from intrauterine infection and that both persistent and delayed-onset effects may continue or occur as late as 30 years after original infection. Many factors contribute to the varied outcome of prenatal infection, the 2 most important being the presence of maternal immunity during early gestation and the stage of gestation during which fetal exposure occurs in a nonimmune mother. RUBELLA: As a criteria of inclusion, all 34 rubella patients in this study exhibited one or more ocular defects at the time of birth or in the immediate neonatal period. Cataracts were present in 29 (85%) of the 34, of which 21 (63%) were bilateral. Microphthalmia, the next most frequent defect, was present in 28 (82%) of the 34 infants and was bilateral in 22 (65%). Glaucoma was recorded in 11 cases (29%) and presented either as a transient occurrence with early cloudy cornea in microphthalmic eyes (4 patients), as the infantile type with progressive buphthalmos (1 patient), or as a later-onset, aphakic glaucoma many months or years following cataract aspiration in 11 eyes of 6 patients. Rubella retinopathy was present in the majority of patients, although an accurate estimate of its incidence or laterality was not possible because of the frequency of cataracts and nystagmus and the difficulty in obtaining adequate fundus examination. TOXOPLASMOSIS: Twenty-one patients with congenital toxoplasmosis have been examined and followed for varying time periods, 7 for 20 years or more. The major reason for initial examination was parental awareness of an ocular deviation. Twelve children (57%) presented between the ages of 3 months and 4 years with an initial diagnosis of strabismus, 9 of whom had minor complaints or were diagnosed as part of routine examinations. All cases in this study have had evidence of retinochoroiditis, the primary ocular pathology of congenital toxoplasmosis. Two patients had chronic and recurrent inflammation with progressive vitreal traction bands, retinal detachments, and bilateral blindness. Macular lesions were always associated with central vision loss; however, over a period of years visual acuity gradually improved in several patients. Individuals with more severe ocular involvement were also afflicted with the most extensive central nervous system deficits, which occurred following exposure during the earliest weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital infection due to rubella virus has been almost completely eradicated in the United States, the long-term survivors from the prevaccination period continue to experience major complications from their early ocular and cerebral defects. They may be afflicted by the persistence of virus in their affected organs and the development of late manifestations of their congenital infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be the source of major defects for 3,000 to 4,100 infants in the United States each year; the spectrum of defects is wide and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of little consequence. Effective solutions for either the prevention or treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis have not been developed in this country but are under intensive and continuing investigation. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20A FIGURE 20B FIGURE 20C FIGURE 20D FIGURE 20E FIGURE 20F FIGURE 20G FIGURE 20H FIGURE 20J FIGURE 20K FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24B FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:10360309

  3. Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal.

    PubMed

    Flegr, J; Klapilov, K; Ka?kov, S

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects about 30% of the human population. Common sources of infection are oocysts in cat faeces contaminating drinking water or unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, and organ transplants from infected donors containing tissue cysts. However, very often, it is not possible to identify any potential source of infection in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Here we present a hypothesis suggesting that toxoplasmosis is transmitted from infected men to noninfected women during unprotected sexual intercourse, which can result in the most serious form of disease, congenital toxoplasmosis. Arguments for the hypothesis: (1) Toxoplasma tachyzoites are present in the seminal fluid and tissue of the testes of various animals including humans. In some species infection of females by artificial insemination with semen from infected males has been observed. (2) Up to two thirds of Toxoplasma infections in pregnant women cannot be explained by the known risk factors. (3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child-bearing age covaries with the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in particular countries. (4) In some countries, an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25-35 years. This second peak of infection could be associated with women having regular unprotected sex after marriage. (5) Toxoplasmosis triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2-3 years earlier in men than in women. However, this difference in the onset can be found only between Toxoplasma-infected patients. The increased onset of schizophrenia in infected women could be associated with the already mentioned second peak of toxoplasmosis incidence. (6) The prevalence of toxoplasmosis decreases in developed countries in last 20 years. This trend could be a result of decrease in promiscuity and increase in safe sex practices, both associated with the AIDS pandemics. (7) In women, probability of being Toxoplasma-infected correlates positively with the amount of unprotected sex with the child's father before the conception. Evidence against the hypothesis: Questionnaire study showed negative association between Toxoplasma infection and the number of earlier partners with whom the woman had unprotected sex. If our hypothesis turns out to be true, then sexual route of transmission, even if rare, could be responsible for a large part of cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. Women should be warned that having unprotected sex with men of positive or unknown toxoplasmosis status should be avoided during pregnancy. PMID:24986706

  4. Association of Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Active Toxoplasmosis in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Gharib, Atoosa; Fahimzad, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and an unusual disease in children. Case Presentation: Herein we have reported a 7- year- old girl with a large necrotic skin ulcer on the chest caused by systemic form of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and simultaneous active toxoplasmosis diagnosed by PCR on lymph node specimen. There were few reports showing a role for toxoplasma infection to cause some malignancies such as lymphoma in adults. Conclusions: Based to our knowledge, this has been the first report of simultaneous systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma and active toxoplasmosis, documented by positive PCR on tissue biopsy in a child. This case report has suggested more attention to the accompanying Toxoplasma gondii infection as a probable cause of some types of lymphomas. PMID:26478795

  5. Toxopain-1 Is Critical for Infection in a Novel Chicken Embryo Model of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Que, Xuchu; Wunderlich, Annette; Joiner, Keith A.; Reed, Sharon L.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cathepsins and specifically toxopain-1, a cathepsin B, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis. We found that inhibiting the expression of toxopain-1-specific mRNA and protein by >60% significantly decreased the capacity of the parasites to multiply and invade in vitro. To relate these in vitro results to the role of toxopain-1 in pathogenesis in vivo, we developed a novel chicken embryo model of congenital toxoplasmosis. Inhibiting either toxopain-1 expression or specific cysteine proteinase activity significantly reduced congenital infection of chicken embryos, as determined by histopathology and by the number of parasites quantified by real-time PCR. Our new model provides key in vivo validation for the hypothesis that toxopain-1 is a potential drug target in Toxoplasma gondii and also provides a new animal model for rapid, inexpensive screening of antiparasitic compounds. PMID:15102804

  6. Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

    2012-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

  7. Excretory-secretory antigens: a suitable candidate for immunization against ocular toxoplasmosis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Norouzpour Deilami, Kiumars; Daryani, Ahmad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sharif, Mehdi; Dadimoghaddam, Yousef; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Alizadeh, Ahad

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, responsible for ocular impairment, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. We investigated the effect of Toxoplasma excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) on parasite load and distribution in the eye tissue of a murine model. Case and control groups were immunized with ESA and PBS, respectively. Two weeks after the second immunization, the mice were challenged intraperitoneally with virulent RH strain of Toxoplasma; eye tissue samples of both groups were collected daily (days 1, 2, 3, and the last day before death). Parasite load was determined using real-time quantitative PCR targeted at the B1 gene. Compared to the control group, infected mice that received ESA vaccine presented a considerable decrease in parasite load in the eye tissue, demonstrating the effect of ESA on parasite load and distribution. Diminution of parasite load in mouse eye tissue indicated that ESA might help control disease-related complications and could be a valuable immunization candidate against ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:25467037

  8. Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borna, Sedigheh; Shariat, Mamak; Fallahi, Mohaddese; Janani, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly. Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages. Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. We selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ≥1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women. Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; and using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); and using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7). Conclusion: In Iran, screening of toxoplasma is not routinely performed yet, while the incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors. PMID:24639709

  9. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M; Camus, Alvin C; Bonde, Robert K; Dubey, Jitender P; Reif, John S

    2012-11-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. PMID:23135141

  10. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

  11. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children. PMID:26195187

  12. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjnneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castao, Jos Mara Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Bjrn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2015-03-15

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (?- and ?-carotene, lycopene, ?-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), ?- and ?-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma ?-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend?=?0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend?=?0.06) and ?-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend?=?0.08. For ?- and ?-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and ?-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of ?-carotene, zeaxanthin and ?-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted. PMID:25175624

  13. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Flvia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glria; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucnia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-11-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p < 0.0001; odds ratio: 4.73, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-10.2). Surprisingly, a high prevalence of antibodies against TgERP was detected in human specimens, suggesting the possibility of a continuous contamination of drinking water with T. gondii oocysts in this endemic setting. These findings and the new proposed approach to investigate and analyse endemic toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale. PMID:26560984

  14. Toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis and brucellosis in stray dogs housed at the shelter in Umuarama municipality, Paran, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are diseases with worldwide distribution. Among stray dogs, these zoonoses are facilitated by direct contact with other animal species, by the habit of scavenging garbage and hunting in search of food, drinking standing water, smelling other animals urine, licking female genitalia and the sexual act itself. The objective of this study was to detect antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella canis and anti-Brucella abortus in stray dogs housed in shelters at Umuarama city, Paran, Brazil. In order to detect toxoplasmosis, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed, agglutination microscopic (MAT) test for leptospirosis and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and buffered acidified antigen (BAA) tests for brucellosis. Results Of the 175 serum samples analyzed, 70.85% were considered positive for toxoplasmosis by IFA, 20% by MAT for leptospirosis and 2.85% by AGID for Brucella canis. Conclusions The serological results of this study showed that stray dogs housed at the private shelter are potential carriers of these three different zoonoses and contribute to the spread and maintenance of these etiologic agents in the urban area of Umuarama (PR), Brazil. PMID:24066949

  15. Anaphylactic reaction to intravenous corticosteroids in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This case report presents for the first time an acute systemic allergic reaction to corticosteroids in a patient with ocular toxoplasmosis after treatment with intravenous cortisone, and discusses alternative treatments. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian woman with an anaphylactic reaction after intravenous injection of prednisolone-21-hydrogensuccinate (Solu-Decortin H) given for the treatment of toxoplasmosis-associated chorioretinitis. Immediately after the injection, she developed an acute erythema of the legs and abdomen, angioedema, hypotension (blood pressure 80/40mmHg), tachycardia (heart rate 140/minute), hyperthermia (38.8C), and respiratory distress. Allergological examinations showed a positive skin-prick test to prednisolone and methylprednisolone. In addition, an oral exposure test with dexamethasone (Fortecortin) and betamethasone (Celestamine) was conducted to find alternative corticosteroids for future treatments. After oral application, no local or systemic reactions were observed for these two substances. Conclusions This case report demonstrates that systemic allergic reactions are possible in patients with uveitis or other inflammatory ophthalmological conditions treated with intravenous corticosteroids. Intravenous administration of cortisone, for example, in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis, should always be conducted with caution because of a possible allergic reaction. For patients who react to a particular steroid, it is necessary to undergo allergological testing to confirm that the compound in question is indeed allergenic, and to identify other corticosteroids that are safe for future anti-inflammatory treatments. PMID:24694257

  16. [RELEVANT PRINCIPLES IN THE DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT, AND PREVENTION OF TOXOPLASMOSIS DURING PREGNANCY].

    PubMed

    Merzlova, N B; Serova, I A; Yagodina, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective survey of the prevalence of TORCH infections among pregnant women was performed in the perinatal center, M. A. Tverye Military Sanitary Unit Nine (Perm), in June 2010 to December 2013. The survey covered 2060 women: they were all examined for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Toxoplasma. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in 28.68% (591/2060); 98.62% were found to have antibodies to herpes simplex; antibodies to cytomegalovirus were identified in 87.13% (1795/2060). Acute maternal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed by seroconversion or determination of IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, in the presence of a low avidity index and a four-fold increase in antibody titers, by simultaneously studying paired serum samples obtained at a 2-week interval. To confirm fetal infection, amniotic fluid PCR examination should be performed after 18 weeks' gestation. No consensus of opinion as to the principles of treatment for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women makes relevant the long-term results of antibacterial and antiprotozoal treatment cycles varying in duration and intensity. The prevention of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women ensures the principle of a mother's personal responsibility for infection safety of a newborn infant, which is informationally provided in health and safety fundamentals course and pregravid preparation schools. PMID:26720963

  17. [The Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; del Castillo Martín, F; Fuentes Corripio, I; Goncé Mellgren, A; Fortuny Guasch, C; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; González-Tomé, M I; Couceiro Gianzo, J A; Neth, O; Ramos Amador, J T

    2013-08-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is the result of transplacental fetal infection by Toxoplasma gondii after the primary maternal infection. The severity of the disease depends on the gestational age at transmission. First trimester infections are more severe, but less frequent, than third trimester infections. Acute maternal infection is diagnosed by seroconversion or by the detection of IgM antibodies and a low IgG avidity test. In these cases, spiramycin should be initiated to prevent transmission to the fetus. For identification of fetal infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of amniotic fluid after 18 weeks gestation should be performed. If fetal infection is confirmed, the mothers should be treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid. Most infants infected in utero are born with no obvious signs of toxoplasmosis, but up to 80% developed learning and visual disabilities later in life. Neonatal diagnosis with IgM/IgA antibodies or blood/cerebrospinal fluid PCR may be difficult because false-negative results frequently occur. In these cases diagnosis is possible by demonstrating a rise in IgG titers during follow-up or by the detection of antibodies beyond one year of age. Early treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine may improve the ophthalmologic and neurological outcome. Congenital toxoplasmosis is a preventable disease. Pre-pregnancy screening and appropriate counseling regarding prevention measures in seronegative women may prevent fetal infection. PMID:23352717

  18. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira/, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-01-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p < 0.0001; odds ratio: 4.73, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-10.2). Surprisingly, a high prevalence of antibodies against TgERP was detected in human specimens, suggesting the possibility of a continuous contamination of drinking water with T. gondii oocysts in this endemic setting. These findings and the new proposed approach to investigate and analyse endemic toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale. PMID:26560984

  19. Prospects for European Integration: Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizikaci, Fatma

    2005-01-01

    The development of higher education and research constitutes a possible pathway to innovation and global competitiveness. Nation states, however, often seek the quickest adaptations, with minimum investment, ignoring essential political and structural changes. Turkey maintains its highly centralized system of higher education observing the

  20. Transplacental toxoplasmosis in naturally-infected white-tailed deer: isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from foetuses of different gestational ages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical toxoplasmosis is most severe in congenitally-infected hosts. In humans, transmission of Toxoplasma gondii from the mother to the foetus is considered to be most efficient during the last trimester of pregnancy but clinical congenital toxoplasmosis is more severe if the transmission occurs d...

  1. Detection of molecular markers of toxoplasmosis among Egyptian patients with miscarriage using avidity IgG-ELISA and Western blotting.

    PubMed

    Elwakil, Hala S; Abdel Hameed, Dina M; Thabet, Hala S; Ahmed, Mona A

    2008-08-01

    A total of 54 miscarriage patients were divided into 3 groups. GI: 10 toxoplasmosis patients with +ve IgM-ELISA; GII: 24 toxoplasmosis patients with +ve IgG-ELISA, and GIII: 20 non-toxoplasmosis cross-matched females as a control. All groups were subjected to IgG-avidity ELISA & IgG-avidity immunoblotting. Avidity Indices (AI) by ELISA ranged from 22.6% to 73.3% in GI and from 9.6%-75.6% in GII. AI were high (>40%) in 3 (30%) patients in G I and in 8 (33.3%) patients in G II. Sera of GI recognized the 20, 28, 32, 60, 93 & 100 Kda bands with 55% reduction in the 38 and 60 Kda bands after treatment with 6 M urea solutions. Sera of GII recognized the 20, 28, 32, 38, 45, 95-97 & 106 Kda bands. There was 12.5%, 16.6% & 16.7% reduction in the 20, 32, & 106 Kda bands, respectively, after urea. The 38 & 60 Kda bands were identified as good diagnostic markers for the recent toxoplasmosis infection (GI). The 20, 32 & 106 Kda bands were good markers of high avidity antibodies during the chronic toxoplasmosis (GII). PMID:18853626

  2. Th1 and Th2 immune response to P30 and ROP18 peptides in human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Torres-Morales, Elizabeth; Taborda, Laura; Cardona, Nestor; De-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sepulveda-Arias, Juan Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    We determined the specific lymphocyte proliferative response and cytokine profile production regarding Toxoplasma P30 (2017 from virulent and non-virulent strain) and ROP18 protein-derived peptides (from clonal lineages I, II and III) in 19 patients having ocular toxoplasmosis, five suffering chronic asymptomatic infection, nine with congenital toxoplasmosis and eight Toxoplasma negative people. A Beckman Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used for determining antigen-specific T cells (CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood culture. IFN ? and IL10 levels were determined in culture supernatants. Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to total antigen and P30- and ROP18-derived peptides was observed in infected people. Ocular toxoplasmosis patients had a preferential Th2 response after antigenic stimulation. Non-virulent peptide 2017 was able to shift response toward Th1 in congenitally infected children and virulent peptide 2017 induced a Th2 response in chronically infected, asymptomatic people. An immune response in human toxoplasmosis after ex vivo antigenic stimulation was Th1- or Th2-skewed, depending on a patient's clinical condition. Colombian ocular toxoplasmosis patients' immune response was Th2-skewed, regardless of the nature of antigen stimulus. PMID:24816543

  3. Toxoplasma-SPECIFIC IgG SUBCLASS ANTIBODY RESPONSE IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID SAMPLES FROM PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL TOXOPLASMOSIS

    PubMed Central

    NASCIMENTO, Fernanda S.; SUZUKI, Lisandra A.; BRANCO, Nilson; FRANCO, Regina M.B.; ANDRADE, Paula D.; COSTA, Sandra C.B.; PEDRO, Marcelo N.; ROSSI, Cludio L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cerebral toxoplasmosis can be highly debilitating and occasionally fatal in persons with immune system deficiencies. In this study, we evaluated the Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG subclass antibody response in 19 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis who had a positive IgG anti-T. gondiiELISA standardized with a cyst antigen preparation. There were no significant differences between the rates of positivity and the antibody concentrations (arithmetic means of the ELISA absorbances, MEA) for IgG1 and IgG2, but the rates of positivity and MEA values for these two IgG subclasses were significantly higher than those for IgG3 and IgG4. The marked IgG2 response in CSF from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis merits further investigation. PMID:26603234

  4. Recombinant ROP2, ROP4, GRA4 and SAG1 antigen-cocktails as possible tools for immunoprophylaxis of toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Brzostek, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed foodborne zoonosis caused by a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent humans, toxoplasmosis is a serious clinical and veterinary problem often leading to lethal damage in an infected host. In order to overcome the exceptionally strong clinical and socio-economic impact of Toxoplasma infection, the construction of an effective vaccine inducing full immunoprotection against the parasite is an urgent issue. In the last two decades many live attenuated, subunit and DNA-based vaccines against toxoplasmosis have been studied, however only partial protection conferred by vaccination against chronic as well as acute infection has been achieved. Among various immunization strategies, no viable subunit vaccines based on recombinant secretory (ROP2, ROP4 and GRA4) and surface (SAG1) T. gondii proteins have been found as attractive tools for further studies. This is due to their high, but still partial, protective efficacy correlated with the induction of cellular and humoral immune responses. PMID:22892593

  5. [Evaluation of the toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in pregnant women and creating a diagnostic algorithm].

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Toyran, Alparslan; Cetin, Feyza; Coskun, Feride Alaca; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Aksoy, Altan

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoon is widely distributed around the world and can infect all mammals and birds. While acquired toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in healthy subjects, acute infection during pregnancy may lead to abortion, stillbirth, fetal neurological and ocular damages. For the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis it is recommended that a screening programme and a diagnostic algorithm in pregnant women should be implemented while considering the cost effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and the actual risk of T.gondii transmission during pregnancy in a certain area. The aims of this study were to detect the T.gondii seropositivity in the pregnant women admitted to our hospital and to create a diagnostic algorithm in order to solve the problems arising from interpretation of the serological test results. A total of 6140 women aged 15-49 years who were admitted to our hospital between April 1st, 2010 to July 31st, 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. In the serum samples, T.gondii IgM, IgG and IgG avidity tests were performed by VIDAS automated analyzer using TOXO IgM, TOXO IgG II and TOXO IgG avidity kits (bioMerieux, France). It was noted that, both T.gondii IgM and IgG tests were requested from 4758 (77.5%) of the pregnant women, while only IgM test from 1382 (22.5%) cases. Sole IgM positivity was found as 0.2% (11/6140), IgG as 26.4% (1278/4758) and both IgM + IgG as 0.9% (44/4758). T.gondii IgG avidity tests were requested from 12 of 44 women who were found both IgM and IgG positive and eight of them revealed high avidity and four low avidity. Avidity test was ordered for the 91 (7.1%) of 1278 sole IgG positive cases and four of them were found to have low avidity. IgG avidity test was ordered for 554 (16.2%) of IgM and/or IgG negative subjects, however, the test was not performed according to rejection criteria of the laboratory. It was noticed that no re-testing was requested for none of the seronegative cases (3428/4758; 72%) during their follow-up. In our study, total Toxoplasma seropositivity rate among pregnant women was detected as 28% (1330/4758), showing statistically significant increase (p< 0.05) with age. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in the seropositivity rate between the years (2010-2013). Following the evaluation of the test orders, the problems related to test orders and interpretation of the test results were determined and a diagnostic algorithm to be used in our hospital, was established to minimize such problems in toxoplasma serology. It was concluded that a diagnostic algorithm related to toxoplasmosis serology should be implemented for the appropriate evaluation of the risk of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Such an approach is necessary to support the clinical diagnosis and to minimize the anxiety in pregnant women about congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24819265

  6. Vaccination with Recombinant Microneme Proteins Confers Protection against Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pinzan, Camila Figueiredo; Sardinha-Silva, Aline; Almeida, Fausto; Lai, Livia; Lopes, Carla Duque; Lourenço, Elaine Vicente; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Matthews, Stephen; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is an important public health problem and veterinary concern. Although there is no vaccine for human toxoplasmosis, many attempts have been made to develop one. Promising vaccine candidates utilize proteins, or their genes, from microneme organelle of T. gondii that are involved in the initial stages of host cell invasion by the parasite. In the present study, we used different recombinant microneme proteins (TgMIC1, TgMIC4, or TgMIC6) or combinations of these proteins (TgMIC1-4 and TgMIC1-4-6) to evaluate the immune response and protection against experimental toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice. Vaccination with recombinant TgMIC1, TgMIC4, or TgMIC6 alone conferred partial protection, as demonstrated by reduced brain cyst burden and mortality rates after challenge. Immunization with TgMIC1-4 or TgMIC1-4-6 vaccines provided the most effective protection, since 70% and 80% of mice, respectively, survived to the acute phase of infection. In addition, these vaccinated mice, in comparison to non-vaccinated ones, showed reduced parasite burden by 59% and 68%, respectively. The protective effect was related to the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by vaccination and included the release of Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12, antigen-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, and production of antigen-specific serum antibodies. Our results demonstrate that microneme proteins are potential vaccines against T. gondii, since their inoculation prevents or decreases the deleterious effects of the infection. PMID:26575028

  7. Identification of soluble and membrane antigenic markers of acquired toxoplasmosis by immunoblot.

    PubMed

    Khammari, I; Saghrouni, F; Lakhal, S; Bougmiza, I; Bouratbine, A; Ben Said, M; Boukadida, J

    2014-12-01

    The overall performance of quantitative assays in the detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG is satisfactory, but discrepancies between assays are not uncommon especially when IgG concentrations are close to the limit of detection of the tests. The purpose of our study was to identify soluble and membrane antigens extracted from Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites by immunoblot to select the most relevant antigenic bands to be used for qualitative serodiagnosis of acquired toxoplasmosis. We selected five relevant bands (98, 36, 33, 32 and 21 kDa) with soluble antigens and four relevant bands (42, 35, 32 and 30 kDa) with membrane antigens which gave high sensitivity and/or specificity in immunodiagnosis. The association on the same blot of at least three of the five relevant bands in the soluble antigen immunoblot showed the highest sensitivity/specificity (97.4%/99.0%, respectively). Our results indicate that immunoblot using soluble tachyzoite extract with simultaneous detection of at least three of the five bands (98, 36, 33, 32 and 21 kDa) represents a valuable test for serodiagnosis of acquired toxoplasmosis and should be further evaluated as a confirmatory test for sera which give discrepant results in quantitative assays. PMID:25384440

  8. Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic New Zealand birds.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; Burrows, Elizabeth; Roe, Wendi

    2014-03-01

    Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic New Zealand avian species are reported. Between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), and one North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. On gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. Histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of the kiwi while the kaka and kereru showed severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In the kiwi, protozoal organisms were present within both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver and within the epithelial cells and macrophages of the interstitium of the lungs in the kaka and two kereru. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue of the liver, lungs, or both. Genotyping of up to seven markers revealed that an atypical Type II isolate of Toxoplasma gondii was present in at least three of the cases. This study provides evidence that T. gondii can cause mortality in these endemic species and suggests further research is needed to determine the full extent of morbidity and mortality caused by this parasite in New Zealand's unique avifauna. PMID:24758132

  9. Epizootic disseminated toxoplasmosis in captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Juan-Salls, C; Prats, N; Lpez, S; Domingo, M; Marco, A J; Morn, J F

    1997-01-01

    Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in seven captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) according to clinicopathologic findings and immunohistochemistry. Five of nine meerkats died during an outbreak in late 1994. These included four kits (2.5 to 4.5 months old) and a 4-year-old meerkat. Two other meerkats, both adults, died in 1992 and 1995. Respiratory insufficiency (4/7) and incoordination (3/7) were the most consistent clinical signs. although two of seven meerkats died unexpectedly. At necropsy, the lungs were reddened and noncollapsed (6/7), and had multiple pale round foci (4/7). Yellow foci of necrosis in mesenteric lymph nodes (4/7), splenomegaly (3/7), and hydropericardium (3/7) were other common gross findings. Microscopically, interstitial pneumonia was present in all seven meerkats, being acute to subacute in six of them. Type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia, aggregates of foamy macrophages, and giant cells were consistently seen. Multifocal to locally extensive necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes (4/7), mild to severe multifocal necrotizing hepatitis (5/6), and mild nonsuppurative encephalitis (4/6) were also seen. Toxoplasma-like organisms were consistently associated with these lesions and were stained by the avidin biotin peroxidase procedure with an antiserum that does not cross-react with Neospora caninum. Meerkats were most likely infected after an oral, primary exposure to Toxoplasma. Several observations indicate that meerkats may be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis. PMID:9150539

  10. European Mistletoe

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common names, what the science says, potential side effects and cautions, and resources for more information. European mistletoe is a semiparasitic plant that grows on several types of trees in ...

  11. Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Gro, Uwe; Dubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany. PMID:25037927

  12. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  13. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  14. Chronic Toxoplasmosis Modulates the Induction of Contact Hypersensitivity by TNCB in Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of chronic toxoplasmosis and atopic dermatitis (AD) were combined to clarify the effect of opportunistic Toxoplasma gondii infection on the development of AD. AD was induced as a chronic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) with repeated challenge of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on the dorsal skin of mice. TNCB induced skin thickness increases in both normal and toxoplasmic mice. The changing patterns were different from the sigmoidal which saturated at 20 days in normal mice to the convex saturated at 12 days in toxoplasmic mice with the crossing at 18 days. Compared to normal mice, toxoplasmic mice presented CHS more severely in earlier times and then moderately in later times. These data suggest that host immune modification by T. gondii infection enhances CHS in early times of atopic stimulation but soothes the reaction of CHS in later times in mouse model. PMID:26797445

  15. Chronic Toxoplasmosis Modulates the Induction of Contact Hypersensitivity by TNCB in Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models of chronic toxoplasmosis and atopic dermatitis (AD) were combined to clarify the effect of opportunistic Toxoplasma gondii infection on the development of AD. AD was induced as a chronic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) with repeated challenge of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on the dorsal skin of mice. TNCB induced skin thickness increases in both normal and toxoplasmic mice. The changing patterns were different from the sigmoidal which saturated at 20 days in normal mice to the convex saturated at 12 days in toxoplasmic mice with the crossing at 18 days. Compared to normal mice, toxoplasmic mice presented CHS more severely in earlier times and then moderately in later times. These data suggest that host immune modification by T. gondii infection enhances CHS in early times of atopic stimulation but soothes the reaction of CHS in later times in mouse model. PMID:26797445

  16. Toxoplasmosis Infection and Cognitive Deficit after Electroconvulsive Treatment (ECT), Is There a Connection?

    PubMed Central

    E. Berg, John

    2012-01-01

    Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) has developed over 70 years to a modern, effective way of lifting depressive moods. Memory loss and visual acuity after electroconvulsive treatment is the only remaining relevant criticism of the treatment modality when considering the overall rate of remission from this treatment compared to all other treatment modalities. A depressive state impedes memory, and memory improves on several qualities of cognition after treatment. However, the comparison of a person’s memory ability from the months before depression started to the level after a course of ECT is never performed, for obvious reasons. Some infectious diseases are known to influence memory negatively through effects on the dopamine receptors. More specifically, former toxoplasmosis infection may be a factor. Preliminary data on titres of toxoplasma IgG may indicate a connection to the development of long-standing memory problems after ECT. PMID:24600630

  17. Bilateral pallidal hemorrhage in toxoplasmosis update of acute symmetric lesions of deep nuclei.

    PubMed

    Finelli, Pasquale F; Wrubel, Gregory L

    2015-08-01

    As acute symmetric lesions of deep gray nuclei are often associated with an impaired level of consciousness and neuroimaging by itself cannot distinguish between etiologies, diagnosis may be problematic. Appreciation of the cause of the various neuroimaging patterns in conjunction with the history, examination and laboratory investigations allows for accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of cases. Given the metabolic vulnerability of deep gray nuclei, other than bi-thalamic infarction, it follows that toxic-metabolic and hypoxic-ischemic events account for the majority of cases. Nevertheless, the differential diagnosis is broad and diverse. We here describe two cases of bilateral pallidal hemorrhage in AIDS-associated toxoplasmosis, and review conditions recently described with acute symmetric deep gray nuclei lesions on neuroimaging. PMID:26427898

  18. Direct genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Tunisia (North Africa).

    PubMed

    Boughattas, Sonia; Ben-Abdallah, Rym; Siala, Emna; Souissi, Olfa; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Ada

    2010-06-01

    Here, we determined the Toxoplasma gondii genotype in amniotic fluid, placenta, and cerebrospinal fluid samples from 14 congenital toxoplasmosis cases in Tunisia, North Africa. Direct genotypic characterization of T. gondii strains was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of six genetic markers (3'SAG2, 5' SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, and APICO) and thereafter, was analyzed by restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP). Samples were sequenced to resolve strain type whenever there were unclear enzyme digestion results. Multilocus analysis revealed that only one specimen harbored the type I allele in all studied loci, whereas the 13 others gave mixed genotype results with different alleles at different markers. Seven specimens produced RFLP profile of the recombinant strains I/III, and three produced a profile of I/II recombinant strains. The last three specimens produced complex digestion patterns. In these cases, sequence analysis revealed double peaks at known polymorphic sites, indicating the presence of multiple alleles. PMID:20519598

  19. Mller cell activation and photoreceptor depletion in a mice model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Ibtissem; Pfaff, Alexander W; Marcellin, Luc; Sauer, Arnaud; Moussa, Adnane; Babba, Hamouda; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2014-09-01

    Mller glial cells are critically involved in retinal inflammatory processes. Here, we investigate the activation of Mller cells in a model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Four weeks after infection, retinal sections were studied immunohistochemically using the markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Mller cells showed strong up-regulation of both markers, as well as a deteriorated morphology in all infected retinas. Moreover, cell density and color intensity of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of photoreceptors were decreased. Our results indicate that the severe retinal damage and loss of vision observed in human OT may be not only directly caused by infection but rather mediated by infection induced reactive gliosis. PMID:24929147

  20. Observational study to assess pregnant women’s knowledge and behaviour to prevent toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) can negatively affect pregnancy outcomes, but can be prevented by simple precautions of pregnant women. Literature suggests that pregnant women are not always adequately informed by their care provider about preventable infectious diseases and most pregnant women have a low level of knowledge regarding these topics. There is not much information about the actual risk behaviour of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge and risk behaviour related to toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and CMV infection prevention in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional survey among pregnant women from twenty midwifery practices across the Netherlands that participated in the DELIVER study, between October 2010 and December 2010. The questionnaire items covered respondents’ knowledge of preventive practices in general, risk behaviour, and sources of received information. Results Of the 1,097 respondents (response 66.0%), 75.3% had heard, read or seen information about toxoplasmosis, 61.7% about listeriosis and 12.5% about CMV. The majority reported having heard about these infections from their care providers or read about these in printed media or on the Internet. Respondents showed limited knowledge about preventive practices for toxoplasmosis, listeriosis or CMV infection. Regarding toxoplasmosis, risk behaviour was more prevalent among respondents who had a high level of education, had the Dutch nationality, did not take folic acid during their first trimester, and had ever worked in a children day-care setting. Regarding listeriosis, risk behaviour was more prevalent among respondents who where in their third trimester. Regarding CMV infections, risk behaviour was less prevalent among respondents who were in their third trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion Of the respondents, a substantial part did not have knowledge about preventive practices to avoid listeriosis, toxoplasmosis and CMV infections during pregnancy. Many pregnant women are appropriately avoiding risk behaviour, without knowing what they are avoiding. Advising pregnant women about behaviours and life-style habits to prevent infectious diseases remains important and information about preventive practices need to be complete and adequate. However, it may be less important to give pregnant women specific infectious diseases information. More attention towards CMV is necessary. PMID:23627427

  1. Subretinal Fluid in Eyes with Active Ocular Toxoplasmosis Observed Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qing; Heussen, Florian M.; Keane, Pearse A.; Stübiger, Nicole; Sadda, Srinivas R.; Pleyer, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical finding of subretinal fluid (SRF) in the posterior pole by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Design Retrospective case series. Participants Thirty-eight eyes from 39 patients with active OT. Methods Eyes with active OT which underwent SD-OCT were reviewed. SRFs in the posterior pole were further analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Presence of SRF; its accompanying features, e.g. retinal necrosis, cystoid macular edema (CME), choroidal neovascularization (CNV); and longitudinal changes of SRF, including maximum height and total volume before and after treatment. Results SRF presented in 45.5% (or 15/33) of eyes with typical active OT and in 51.3% (or 20/39) of eyes with active OT. The mean maximum height and total volume of SRF were 161.0 (range: 23–478) µm and 0.47 (range: 0.005–4.12) mm3, respectively. For 12 eyes with SRF related to active retinal necrosis, SRF was observed with complete absorption after conventional anti-toxoplasmosis treatment. The mean duration for observation of SRF clearance was 33.8 (range: 7–84) days. The mean rate of SRF clearance was 0.0128 (range: 0.0002–0.0665) mm3/day. Conclusions SRF (i.e., serous retinal detachment) is a common feature in patients with active OT when SD-OCT is performed. The majority of SRF was associated with retinal necrosis and reacted well to conventional therapy, regardless of total fluid volume. However, SRF accompanying with CME or CNV responded less favorably or remained refractory to conventional or combined intravitreal treatment, even when the SRF was small in size. PMID:26010656

  2. Maternal Serologic Screening to Prevent Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Decision-Analytic Economic Model

    PubMed Central

    Stillwaggon, Eileen; Carrier, Christopher S.; Sautter, Mari; McLeod, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine a cost-minimizing option for congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States. Methodology/Principal Findings A decision-analytic and cost-minimization model was constructed to compare monthly maternal serological screening, prenatal treatment, and post-natal follow-up and treatment according to the current French (Paris) protocol, versus no systematic screening or perinatal treatment. Costs are based on published estimates of lifetime societal costs of developmental disabilities and current diagnostic and treatment costs. Probabilities are based on published results and clinical practice in the United States and France. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate robustness of results. Universal monthly maternal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis with follow-up and treatment, following the French protocol, is found to be cost-saving, with savings of $620 per child screened. Results are robust to changes in test costs, value of statistical life, seroprevalence in women of childbearing age, fetal loss due to amniocentesis, and to bivariate analysis of test costs and incidence of primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy. Given the parameters in this model and a maternal screening test cost of $12, screening is cost-saving for rates of congenital infection above 1 per 10,000 live births. If universal testing generates economies of scale in diagnostic tools—lowering test costs to about $2 per test—universal screening is cost-saving at rates of congenital infection well below the lowest reported rates in the United States of 1 per 10,000 live births. Conclusion/Significance Universal screening according to the French protocol is cost saving for the US population within broad parameters for costs and probabilities. PMID:21980546

  3. Use of IgG in Oral Fluid To Monitor Infants with Suspected Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Chapey, Emmanuelle; Meroni, Valeria; Kieffer, François; Bollani, Lina; Ecochard, René; Garcia, Patricia; Wallon, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Infants born to mothers who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of sequelae. In the case of a negative work-up at birth, congenital infection can be ruled out only by monitoring the disappearance of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) transmitted through the placenta, which can be achieved by regular blood sampling during the first year. To alleviate the discomfort of this follow-up, we developed an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect specific IgG diffusing passively from the blood through the gingival epithelium by collecting oral fluid on microsponges. To assess the feasibility of the test, 212 patients were first enrolled. Levels of specific IgG in oral fluid were significantly higher in seropositive (n = 195) than in seronegative (n = 17) patients (mean optical densities, 1.145 ± 0.99 versus 0.092 ± 0.127; P < 0.0001). In a population of 93 patients <15 months of age born to mothers who displayed toxoplasmic infection during pregnancy, 70 were free of congenital infection and were followed up until their serology turned negative, and 23 were congenitally infected. The same patterns of IgG were observed in the oral fluid and sera in each group. Using a cutoff of 0.04 (optical density value), the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 67.9% and 80.3%, respectively, and the probability of not having a congenital infection when the test on oral fluid was negative was 99%. Although the performance of the test needs to be improved, oral fluid sampling appears to be a promising tool for monitoring infants with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:25651923

  4. Efficacy of the Bunium persicum (Boiss) Essential Oil against Acute Toxoplasmosis in Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    TAVAKOLI KARESHK, Amir; KEYHANI, Amir; MAHMOUDVAND, Hossein; TAVAKOLI OLIAEI, Razieh; ASADI, Arash; ANDISHMAND, Moazameh; AZZIZIAN, Hossein; BABAEI, Zahra; ZIA-ALI, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the in vivo activity of Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil on infected mice with acute toxoplasmosis. Methods: To evaluate prophylactic effects, male NMRI mice received B. persicum essential oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg for 14 days. After 24 h mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1×104 tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain. In order to investigate therapeutic effects, mice were infected and then received B. persicum oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/kg two times a day for 5 days. The time/mean time of death in all infected mice and the number of tachyzoites from infected mice were recorded. Results: The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 8 and 9 days after oral administration of B. persicum oil at the concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively (P<0.05). In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. In addition, B. persicum significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzoites compared with control group. The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 6 and 7 days after oral administration of B. persicum essential oil at the concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively. In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. B. persicum especially at the concentration of 0.1 ml/kg significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzoites compared with control group. Conclusion: The results showed the potential of B. persicum essential oil as a natural source for the production of new prophylactic agent for use in toxoplasmosis. PMID:26811730

  5. Interleukin-6-driven inflammatory response induces retinal pathology in a model of ocular toxoplasmosis reactivation.

    PubMed

    Rochet, lise; Brunet, Julie; Sabou, Marcela; Marcellin, Luc; Bourcier, Tristan; Candolfi, Ermanno; Pfaff, Alexander W

    2015-05-01

    Ocular inflammation is one of the consequences of infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Even if lesions are self-healing in immunocompetent persons, they pose a lifetime risk of reactivation and are a serious threat to vision. As there are virtually no immunological data on reactivating ocular toxoplasmosis, we established a model of direct intravitreal injection of parasites in previously infected mice with a homologous type II strain. Two different mouse strains with variable ability to control retinal infection were studied in order to describe protective and deleterious reaction patterns. In Swiss-Webster mice, which are already relatively resistant to primary infection, no peak of parasite load was observed upon reinfection. In contrast, the susceptible inbred strain C57BL/6 showed high parasite loads after 7 days, as well as marked deterioration of retinal architecture. Both parameters were back to normal on day 21. C57BL/6 mice also reacted with a strong local production of inflammatory and Th1-type cytokines, like interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17A, and gamma interferon (IFN-?), while Swiss-Webster mice showed only moderate expression of the Th2 cytokine IL-31. Interestingly, rapid intraocular production of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was observed in Swiss-Webster but not in C57BL/6 mice. We then localized the cellular source of different immune mediators within the retina by immunofluorescence. Finally, neutralization experiments of IFN-? or IL-6 demonstrated the respective protective and deleterious roles of these cytokines for parasite control and retinal integrity during reinfection. In conclusion, we developed and immunologically characterized a promising mouse model of reactivating ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:25754200

  6. Identification and characterization of Toxoplasma gondii aspartic protease 1 as a novel vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can pose a serious threat to human health by causing toxoplasmosis. There are no drugs that target the chronic cyst stage of this infection; therefore, development of an effective vaccine would be an important advance. Aspartic proteases play essential roles in the T. gondii lifecycle. The parasite has four aspartic protease encoding genes, which are called toxomepsin 1, 2, 3 and 5 (TgASP1, 2, 3 and 5, respectively). Methods Bioinformatics approaches have enabled us to identify several promising linear-B cell epitopes and potential Th-cell epitopes on TgASP1, thus supporting its potential as a DNA vaccine against toxoplasmosis. We expressed TgASP1 in Escherichia coli and used the purified protein to immunize BALB/c mice. The antibodies obtained were used to determine where TgASP1 was localized in the parasite. We also made a TgASP1 DNA vaccine construct and evaluated it for the level of protection conferred to mice against infection with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. Results TgASP1 appears to be a membrane protein located primarily at the tip of the T. gondii tachyzoite. Investigation of its potential as a DNA vaccine showed that it elicited strong humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and that these responses were mediated by Th-1 cells. Mice immunized with the vaccine had greater levels of protection against mortality following challenge with T. gondii RH tachyzoites than did those immunized with PBS or the empty vector control. Conclusions TgASP1 is a novel candidate DNA vaccine that merits further investigation. PMID:23768047

  7. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Amany M; Ahmed, Azza K; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26537040

  8. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Amany M.; Ahmed, Azza K.; Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26537040

  9. Impact of Technological and Structural Change on Employment. Prospective Analysis 2020. Synthesis Report. Report to the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament. Technical Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    The possible impact of technological and structural change on employment in the European Union (EU) over the next 20 years was examined through an exploration of the following alternative policy-driven scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) concentrated technology policy (increases in innovation and research and development [R&D] efforts are

  10. Waterborne toxoplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans become infected with Toxoplasma gondii mainly by ingesting uncooked meat containing viable tissue cysts or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts from the feces of infected cats. Circumstantial evidence suggests that oocyst-induced infections in humans are clinically more severe...

  11. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infects cats and can be found in the soil. The infection can be acquired by ingesting contaminated ... fruits and vegetables that are grown in contaminated soil, from the soil itself, from contaminated water, and ...

  12. The performance of four molecular methods for the laboratory diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in amniotic fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Leandro Emdio; Kanunfre, Kelly Aparecida; Shimokawa, Paulo Tadashi; Targa, Llia Spaleta; Rodrigues, Jonatas Cristian; Domingues, Wilson; Yamamoto, Lidia; Okay, Thelma Suely

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: Toxoplasmosis may be life-threatening in fetuses and in immune-deficient patients. Conventional laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on the presence of IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies; however, molecular techniques have emerged as alternative tools due to their increased sensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 4 PCR-based methods for the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. One hundred pregnant women who seroconverted during pregnancy were included in the study. The definition of cases was based on a 12-month follow-up of the infants. Methods: Amniotic fluid samples were submitted to DNA extraction and amplification by the following 4 Toxoplasma techniques performed with parasite B1 gene primers: conventional PCR, nested-PCR, multiplex-nested-PCR, and real-time PCR. Seven parameters were analyzed, sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and efficiency (Ef). Results: Fifty-nine of the 100 infants had toxoplasmosis; 42 (71.2%) had IgM antibodies at birth but were asymptomatic, and the remaining 17 cases had non-detectable IgM antibodies but high IgG antibody titers that were associated with retinochoroiditis in 8 (13.5%) cases, abnormal cranial ultrasound in 5 (8.5%) cases, and signs/symptoms suggestive of infection in 4 (6.8%) cases. The conventional PCR assay detected 50 cases (9 false-negatives), nested-PCR detected 58 cases (1 false-negative and 4 false-positives), multiplex-nested-PCR detected 57 cases (2 false-negatives), and real-time-PCR detected 58 cases (1 false-negative). Conclusions: The real-time PCR assay was the best-performing technique based on the parameters of Se (98.3%), Sp (100%), PPV (100%), NPV (97.6%), PLR (∞), NLR (0.017), and Ef (99%). PMID:24142364

  13. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from autopsy proven cases of AIDS associated cerebral toxoplasmosis in South India.

    PubMed

    Vijaykumar, B R; Lekshmi, Swathi U; Sai Kant, R; Vaigundan, D; Mahadevan, Anita; Rajendran, C; Shankar, S K; Jayshree, R S

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) infection can be devastating in the immunodeficient causing high morbidity and mortality. Due to limited availability of both diagnostic facilities and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), toxoplasmosis continues to be a significant problem amongst Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients in India. While scanty literature is available on T. gondii isolates in animals in India, little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite in humans. Therefore, the present study investigated the genetic diversity of T. gondii in 25 confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis developing on the background of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/AIDS. PCR DNA sequencing was performed at four important genetic loci of T. gondii: BTUB, GRA6, alternative SAG2 (alt SAG2) and SAG3 on DNA from tissues obtained at postmortem. The amplified products from all the cases were successfully sequenced except at one locus for one case. Results of the present study suggest that majority of the patients (22/25; 88%) in South India are infected with strains that are recombinants of type II/III and/or strains representing T. gondii different from the archetypal lineages I, II, and III. In addition, clonal types III, MAS, and MAS variant genotypes were encountered. No clonal type I or II was seen in the present study. In addition, variants were observed at alt SAG2 and SAG3 but BTUB and GRA6 were highly conserved. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed mainly at two loci which are coding for surface antigens at alt SAG2 and SAG3. In conclusion, the present study reveals genetic diversity in India amongst strains of T. gondii from clinical cases of toxoplasmosis which is in accordance with other recent studies showing a high rate of genetic diversity in this parasite across the globe. There is a need to genotype T. gondii from different forms of toxoplasmosis in humans in India. PMID:26802459

  14. Usefulness of Stereotactic biopsy and neuroimaging in management of HIV-1 clade C associated focal brain lesions with special focus on cerebral toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Shyam Babu, C; Satishchandra, P; Mahadevan, A; Shibu Pillai, V; Ravishankar, S; Sidappa, N; Udaykumar, Ranga; Ravi, V; Shankar, SK

    2015-01-01

    Background Focal brain lesions (FBL) in HIV/AIDS frequently pose a diagnostic dilemma as the etiology varies from infective (tuberculoma, toxoplasmosis and tuberculous abscesses) to neoplastic lesions like lymphoma. For determining etiology, advanced neuroimaging techniques, serological and molecular biological tests have been evolved with varying sensitivities/specificities. Stereotactic biopsy (STB) of the lesions is reserved for lesions unresponsive to appropriate therapy. Objective & Methods In this study, the diagnostic yield of neuroimaging [Cranial CT (n=25), MRI (n=24), and Th 201/99 Tc SPECT scan (n=18)] is compared with histopathological diagnosis obtained by STB (n=21) or autopsy (n=4) in 25 HIV-1 subtype C seropositive individuals with FBL identified by neuroimaging with special reference to cerebral toxoplasmosis in an eighteen month study period (2006–2007). Results & conclusion Cerebral toxoplasmosis was the most frequent cause of FBL (21/25, 84%), followed by one case each of tuberculoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), the last two diagnosed at autopsy. Of the 21 cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, definitive diagnosis with histopathological confirmation was available in 14/21 (66.6%), with indirect evidence suggesting probable toxoplasmosis in seven, all of whom responded to antitoxoplasma therapy. CT and MRI had comparable specificities (75%), while MRI had marginally higher sensitivity (85% versus 80.9%) in detecting multiple lesions. The positive predictive value of both CT and MRI were identical (94.4%), suggesting that CT maybe a cost effective screening tool in resource restricted settings, for evaluating FBL. Sensitivity of 99Tc SPECT scan for diagnosing inflammatory lesions was 75% but failed to differentiate PCNSL from toxoplasmosis. This study is the first of its kind from India analysing FBL with specific focus on cerebral toxoplasmosis in the setting of HIV-1 subtype C. PMID:23153789

  15. Common Core History for Young Europeans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A required core contemporary history course is proposed for Europe's senior pupils, needed because of prospects for European integration. The course could be shaped by pairing three fundamental ideas with related conflicts: Reformation/30 Years War, Enlightenment/French Revolution and Napoleanic Wars, and Nationalism/World Wars I and II. (IAH)

  16. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  17. Identification of Potential Serodiagnostic and Subunit Vaccine Antigens by Antibody Profiling of Toxoplasmosis Cases in Turkey*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Li; D?kaya, Mert; Juarez, Silvia; Caner, Ay?e; Jasinskas, Algis; Tan, Xiaolin; Hajagos, Bettina E.; Bradley, Peter J.; Korkmaz, Metin; Grz, Yksel; Felgner, Philip L.; Davies, D. Huw

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by infection of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is associated with mild disease in healthy individuals, whereas individuals with depressed immunity may develop encephalitis, neurologic disorders, and other organ diseases. Women who develop acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus, which may lead to fetal damage. A diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring IgG, or IgM where it is important to determine the onset of infection. A negative IgM result essentially excludes acute infection, whereas a positive IgM test is largely uninterpretable because IgM can persist for up to 18 months after infection. To identify antigens for improved diagnosis of acute infection, we probed protein microarrays displaying the polypeptide products of 1357 Toxoplasma exons with well-characterized sera from Turkey. The sera were classified according to conventional assays into (1) seronegative individuals with no history of T. gondii infection; (2) acute infections defined by clinical symptoms, high IgM titers, and low avidity IgG; (3) chronic/convalescent cases with high avidity IgG but persisting IgM; (iv) true chronic infections, defined by high avidity IgG and no IgM. We have identified 38 IgG target antigens and 108 IgM target antigens that can discriminate infected patients from healthy controls, one or more of which could form the basis of a tier-1? test to determine current or previous exposure. Of these, three IgG antigens and five IgM antigens have the potential to discriminate chronic/IgM persisting or true chronics from recent acutely infected patients (a tier-2? test). Our analysis of the antigens revealed several enriched features relative to the whole proteome, which include transmembrane domains, signal peptides, or predicted localization at the outer membrane. This is the first protein microarray survey of the antibody response to T. gondii, and will help in the development of improved serodiagnostics and vaccines. PMID:21512035

  18. Exploring the ecologic basis for extreme susceptibility of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) to fatal toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith; Lappin, Michael R; Brown, Janine L; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Swanson, William F

    2005-10-01

    Recent efforts by North American zoos to establish a genetically viable captive population of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) have been compromised by high newborn mortality (approximately 60%), primarily because of toxoplasmosis. The basis for this extreme susceptibility to toxoplasmosis is unknown. In the present study, the general health status of wild Pallas' cats in Mongolia was evaluated, including assessment of basal hematologic parameters and fecal corticoid metabolite concentrations. The prevalence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Mongolian Pallas' cats, local domestic cats, and prey species also was determined based on serology and/or polymerase chain reaction analysis. Biologic samples (blood, feces, and/or brain tissue) were obtained from 15 wild Pallas' cats, 15 domestic cats, and 45 prey animals (rodents and pikas) captured in Mongolia during the summers of 2000 and 2001. Comparative data were obtained from nine captive Pallas' cats maintained in North American zoos. Based on physical examinations, complete blood counts, and blood chemistry analyses, only minor differences were observed in the general health status of wild and captive Pallas' cats. Fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between populations, indicating that Pallas' cats in captivity and in the wild have similar basal adrenocortical activity. A pronounced difference (P < 0.01) in seroprevalence to T. gondii was observed between populations. Whereas all captive Pallas' cats exhibited elevated immunoglobulin titers (IgG > 2,048) to T. gondii, only two of 15 (13%) wild Pallas' cats were seropositive, with both cats having lower IgG titers (< 1,024). Furthermore, no evidence of exposure to this parasite was found in any of the Mongolian domestic cats or prey species. These findings suggest that wild Pallas' cats have minimal opportunity for exposure to T. gondii in their natural habitat and, typically, do not become infected with this parasite until being brought into captivity. Accordingly, maintenance of a viable captive population may require implementing effective strategies to prevent exposure of immunologically naive Pallas' cats to T. gondii and to reduce parasite transmission between seropositive females and their highly susceptible offspring. PMID:16456157

  19. Results of the National External Quality Assessment for Toxoplasmosis Serological Testing in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kuo; Wang, Lunan; Lin, Guigao; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Rui; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is typically diagnosed by serologic testing. External quality assessment (EQA) of clinical laboratories could ensure the accuracy and reliability of serological tests. We assessed the quality of toxoplasma serological assays in Chinese clinical laboratories by an EQA performed between 2004 and 2013 by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories. Methodology and Findings EQA panels were prepared and shipped at room temperature to participating laboratories that employed toxoplasma IgG and IgM serological detection. By 2013, 5,384 EQA test reports for toxoplasma-specific IgM and 2,666 reports for toxoplasma-specific IgG were collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and chemical immunofluorescent assays were the most commonly used detection methods. The overall coincidence rates of negative samples were better than those of positive samples. The overall EQA score for toxoplasma-specific IgM detection ranged between 84.3% and 99.6%. The ratio of laboratories that achieved correct IgG detection ranged from 61.1% to 99.3%. However, the inter- and intra-assay variabilities were found to be considerable. The most common problem was failure to detect low titers of antibody. Conclusion The EQA scheme showed an improvement in toxoplasma serological testing in China. However, further optimization of assay sensitivity to detect challenging samples remains a future challenge. PMID:26066047

  20. Partial protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in mice elicited by recombinant Toxoplasma gondii malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Yanping; Yin, Litian; Liu, Yisheng; Wang, Yanjuan; Zheng, Kuiyang; Cao, Jianping

    2016-02-10

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and wildlife, sometimes causing serious clinical presentations. Currently, no viable vaccine or effective drug strategies exist to prevent and control toxoplasmosis. T. gondii malate dehydrogenase (TgMDH) is a crucial enzyme in cellular redox reactions and has been shown to be an immunogenic compound that could be a potential vaccine candidate. Here, we investigate the protective efficacy of recombinant TgMDH (rTgMDH) against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. All mice were vaccinated via the nasal route. We determined the optimal vaccination dose by monitoring systemic and mucosal immune responses. The results showed that mice vaccinated with 30?g of rTgMDH produced the highest antibody titers in serum, a strong lymphoproliferative response, marked increases in their levels of IL-2 and IFN-?, and significantly greater levels of specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in mucosal washes. In addition, the vaccinated mice were orally challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain 2 weeks after the final vaccination. Compared to the control group, we found that vaccination with rTgMDH increased the survival rate of infected mice by 47% and also significantly reduced the tachyzoite loads in their liver (by 58%) and brain (by 41%). Therefore, the rTgMDH protein triggers a strong systemic and mucosal immune response and provides partial protection against T. gondii infection. PMID:26514423

  1. HUMAN TOXOPLASMOSIS OUTBREAKS AND THE AGENT INFECTING FORM. FINDINGS FROM A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    MEIRELES, Luciana Regina; EKMAN, Claudio Cesar Jaguaribe; de ANDRADE, Heitor Franco; LUNA, Expedito Jos de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide highly prevalent zoonotic infection, is transmitted either by the oocysts, from water and soil, or the tissue cysts, in raw or undercooked infected meat, of Toxoplasma gondii. An ongoing debate is whether there are differences between the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the outbreaks due to one or the other infective form of the agent. We performed a systematic review, recovering 437 reported outbreaks of which 38 were selected. They were complete reports containing ascribedToxoplasma infecting form, and clinical and demographic data. There was no gender or age group selection in the outbreaks, which were described more often in the Americas. A large number of individuals were affected when oocysts, associated with soil and water contaminated with cat feces, were considered the transmission source. Onset of symptoms occurred early when the infection was ascribed to meat tissue cysts (11.4 6.7 days) with sharpened temporal distribution of cases, while a broader and prolonged appearance of new cases was observed when oocysts in water were the source of the infection (20 7 days, p < 0.001). Such information may be useful in the design and implementation of control strategies. PMID:26603222

  2. Metabolomic Profiling of Mice Serum during Toxoplasmosis Progression Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Elsheikha, Hany M; Zhao, Yu; Suo, Xun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of the molecular changes associated with disease is essential for identifying new routes to improved therapeutics and diagnostic tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes in the metabolic profile of mouse sera during T. gondii infection. We carried out untargeted metabolomic analysis of sera collected from female BALB/c mice experimentally infected with the T. gondii Pru strain (Genotype II). Serum samples were collected at 7, 14 and 21 day post infection (DPI) from infected and control mice and were subjected to liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS)-based global metabolomics analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 79 differentially expressed metabolites in ESI+?mode and 74 in ESI- mode in sera of T. gondii-infected mice compared to the control mice. Further principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) identified 19 dysregulated metabolites (5 in ESI+?mode and 14 in ESI- mode) related to the metabolism of amino acids and energy metabolism. The potential utility of these metabolites as diagnostic biomarkers was validated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. These findings provide putative metabolite biomarkers for future study and allow for hypothesis generation about the pathophysiology of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26785939

  3. Chronic murine toxoplasmosis is defined by subtle changes in neuronal connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Parlog, Alexandru; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Weller, Marianna; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Mawrin, Christian; Korte, Martin; Dunay, Ildiko Rita

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies correlate chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection with behavioral changes in rodents; additionally, seropositivity in humans is reported to be associated with behavioral and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study we investigated whether the described behavioral changes in a murine model of chronic toxoplasmosis are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity and brain neuronal circuitry. In mice chronically infected with T. gondii, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data analysis displayed the presence of heterogeneous lesions scattered throughout all brain areas. However, a higher density of lesions was observed within specific regions such as the somatosensory cortex (SSC). Further histopathological examination of these brain areas indicated the presence of activated resident glia and recruited immune cells accompanied by limited alterations of neuronal viability. In vivo diffusion-tensor MRI analysis of neuronal fiber density within the infected regions revealed connectivity abnormalities in the SSC. Altered fiber density was confirmed by morphological analysis of individual, pyramidal and granule neurons, showing a reduction in dendritic arbor and spine density within the SSC, as well as in the hippocampus. Evaluation of synapse efficacy revealed diminished levels of two key synaptic proteins, PSD95 and synaptophysin, within the same brain areas, indicating deficits in functionality of the synaptic neurotransmission in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. gondii infection in a murine model results in synaptic deficits within brain structures leading to disturbances in the morphology of noninfected neurons and modified brain connectivity, suggesting a potential explanation for the behavioral and neuropsychiatric alterations. PMID:24524910

  4. Toxoplasmosis in a post-transplant bronchoalveolar lavage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Sara E; Monaghan, Sara A; Stamm, Jason A; Khalbuss, Walid E; Nichols, Larry; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii usually causes an asymptomatic and then latent infection in human adults; however, a potentially fatal disseminated form can occur in immunocompromised patients. Given that the diagnosis of acute Toxoplasma infection, as opposed to latent disease, relies on finding direct evidence of T. gondii infection in tissue, pathologic examination is critical. There have only been a few reports describing the cytomorphology of Toxoplasma in exfoliative cytology, and no reports of the findings in Thin Prep. In this report, we describe a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a cardiac transplant patient that was diagnosed by respiratory cytopathology. Although the extracellular organisms were well visualized on the Wright-Giemsa stained cytospin, they were only faintly seen on the Pap-stained cytospin trapped within mucin and were not easily appreciated on the ThinPrep slides nor the H&E stained cell block sections. An immunohistochemical stain for Toxoplasma performed on the cell block was strongly positive, and an autopsy performed on the patient confirmed disseminated infection. Our case illustrates that the diagnosis of Toxoplasma in exfoliative cytology specimens can be challenging since organisms are not well visualized on ThinPrep or Pap-stained material; therefore, Wright-Giemsa stained material can be particularly helpful. PMID:21591274

  5. Metabolomic Profiling of Mice Serum during Toxoplasmosis Progression Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chun-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Elsheikha, Hany M.; Zhao, Yu; Suo, Xun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of the molecular changes associated with disease is essential for identifying new routes to improved therapeutics and diagnostic tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes in the metabolic profile of mouse sera during T. gondii infection. We carried out untargeted metabolomic analysis of sera collected from female BALB/c mice experimentally infected with the T. gondii Pru strain (Genotype II). Serum samples were collected at 7, 14 and 21 day post infection (DPI) from infected and control mice and were subjected to liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS)-based global metabolomics analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 79 differentially expressed metabolites in ESI+ mode and 74 in ESI− mode in sera of T. gondii-infected mice compared to the control mice. Further principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) identified 19 dysregulated metabolites (5 in ESI+ mode and 14 in ESI− mode) related to the metabolism of amino acids and energy metabolism. The potential utility of these metabolites as diagnostic biomarkers was validated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. These findings provide putative metabolite biomarkers for future study and allow for hypothesis generation about the pathophysiology of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26785939

  6. Molecular markers of susceptibility to ocular toxoplasmosis, host and guest behaving badly

    PubMed Central

    Vallochi, Adriana Lima; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Falcai, Angela; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Kalil, Jorge; Silveira, Cludio; Belfort, Rubens; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii results in retinochoroiditis in 6% to 20% of immunocompetent individuals. The outcome of infection is the result of a set of interactions involving host genetic background, environmental, and social factors, and the genetic background of the parasite, all of which can be further modified by additional infections or even reinfection. Genes that encode several components of the immune system exhibit polymorphisms in their regulatory and coding regions that affect level and type of expression in response to stimuli, directing the immune response into different pathways. These variant alleles have been associated with susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases and with severity of pathology. We have investigated polymorphisms in several of these genes, identified as candidates for progression to retinochoroiditis caused by toxoplasmosis, namely chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), and TLR4. Furthermore, because interleukin-12 (IL-12) has been shown to be fundamental both in mice and in man to control a protective response against T. gondii, molecules that have a key function in IL-12 production will be emphasized in this review, in addition to discussing the importance of the genetic background of the parasite in the establishment of ocular disease. PMID:19668438

  7. The rural-urban effect on spatial genetic structure of type II Toxoplasma gondii strains involved in human congenital toxoplasmosis, France, 2002-2009.

    PubMed

    Ajzenberg, Daniel; Collinet, Frdric; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle; Dard, Marie-Laure; Devillard, Sbastien

    2015-12-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis involves Toxoplasma gondii type II strains in 95% of cases in France. We used spatial principal component analysis (sPCA) and 15 microsatellite markers to investigate the spatial genetic structure of type II strains involved in 240 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in France from 2002 through 2009. Mailing addresses of patients were geo-referenced a posteriori in decimal degrees and categorized into urban or rural areas of residence. No spatial genetic structure was found for type II strains that infected mothers who were living in urban areas, but a global spatial genetic structure was found for those that infected mothers who were living in a rural environment. Our results suggest that sources of infection by T. gondii are different in rural and urban areas in France, and advocate for targeted messages in the prevention of toxoplasmosis according to the type of residence of susceptible people. PMID:26305624

  8. Rat model of congenital toxoplasmosis: rate of transmission of three Toxoplasma gondii strains to fetuses and protective effect of a chronic infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zenner, L; Darcy, F; Cesbron-Delauw, M F; Capron, A

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Fischer rats infected between the 8th and 12th days of pregnancy with three different strains of Toxoplasma gondii (RH, 76K, and Prugniaud) were 58.2, 35.2, and 62.8%, respectively. No infected fetuses were collected from rats previously infected with RH or Prugniaud strain parasites, even if the rats were reinfected during pregnancy. Since pups from chronically infected mothers are protected from congenital toxoplasmosis, rat infection could thus constitute a relevant model for immunological studies and vaccine design. PMID:8418062

  9. A prospective epidemiological study of new incident GISTs during two consecutive years in Rhône Alpes region: incidence and molecular distribution of GIST in a European region

    PubMed Central

    Cassier, P A; Ducimetière, F; Lurkin, A; Ranchère-Vince, D; Scoazec, J-Y; Bringuier, P-P; Decouvelaere, A-V; Méeus, P; Cellier, D; Blay, J-Y; Ray-Coquard, I

    2010-01-01

    Background: Preliminary data indicate that the molecular epidemiology of localised gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) may be different from that of advanced GIST. We sought to investigate the molecular epidemiology of sarcomas, including GIST, in the Rhone-Alpes region in France. Patients and methods: A prospective and exhaustive study in the Rhone-Alpes Region in France to assess the precise incidence of primary sarcomas with systematic centralised pathological review and molecular analysis was conducted for 2 consecutive years. Results: Among 760 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoma, 131 (17%) had a GIST. The majority of patients had gastric primaries (61%). Mutational analysis could be performed in 106 tumour samples (74%), and 71 (67%) had exon 11 mutations. PDGFRA mutations were found in 16% of cases, which is twice as high as previously reported for advanced GIST. Conclusion: Data indicate that PDGFRA mutations in localised GIST may be twice as high as what was previously reported in patients with advanced disease. This finding may have important consequences for patients offered adjuvant imatinib, although most of these tumours are in the low-risk group. PMID:20588273

  10. Auranofin Is Highly Efficacious against Toxoplasma gondii In Vitro and in an In Vivo Experimental Model of Acute Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Rosa M.; Chaparro, Juan D.; Capparelli, Edmund; Reed, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The mainstay of toxoplasmosis treatment targets the folate biosynthetic pathways and has not changed for the last 50 years. The activity of these chemotherapeutic agents is restricted to one lifecycle stage of Toxoplasma gondii, they have significant toxicity, and the impending threat of emerging resistance to these agents makes the discovery of new therapies a priority. We now demonstrate that auranofin, an orally administered gold containing compound that was FDA approved for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has activity against Toxoplasma gondii in vitro (IC50 = 0.28 µM) and in vivo (1 mg/kg). Methods/Principal Findings Replication within human foreskin fibroblasts of RH tachyzoites was inhibited by auranofin. At 0.4 µM, auranofin inhibited replication, as measured by percent infected fibroblasts at 24 hrs, (10.94% vs. 24.66% of controls; p = 0.0003) with no effect on parasite invasion (16.95% vs. 12.91% p = 0.4331). After 18 hrs, 62% of extracellular parasites treated with auranofin were non-viable compared to control using an ATP viability assay (p = 0.0003). In vivo, a previously standardized chicken embryo model of acute toxoplasmosis was used. Fourteen day old chicken embryos were injected through the chorioallantoic vein with 1×104 tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain. The treatment group received one dose of auranofin at the time of inoculation (1 mg/kg estimated body weight). On day 5, auranofin-treated chicken embryos were 100% protected against death (p = 0.0002) and had a significantly reduced parasite load as determined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and by the number of parasites quantified by real-time PCR. Conclusions These results reveal in vitro and in vivo activity of auranofin against T. gondii, suggesting that it may be an effective alternative treatment for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25079790

  11. Use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and its microadaptation for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Walls, K W; Bullock, S L; English, D K

    1977-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has proved to be a sensitive and specific quantitative procedure for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Using the toxoplasma model, several parameters of the test were investigated. Day-to-day reproducibility was 90% within one twofold dilution and 98% specific when tested against batteries of sera from other diseases. Both the tube method and the microtitration method were used successfully. ELISA results are equivalent to those found in the indirect immunofluorescence test, yet the ELISA procedure is simpler and more rapid to perform. PMID:323276

  12. Severe hepatitis resulting from toxoplasmosis in a barred owl (Strix varia) from Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mikaelian, I; Dubey, J P; Martineau, D

    1997-01-01

    A female adult barred owl (Strix varia) had been hurt by a car. Its general status declined gradually within 2 wk with anorexia and inactivity. Necropsy examination revealed marked multifocal pale areas in liver, emaciation, and mild airsacculitis and pericarditis. Histopathologic examination revealed severe acute multifocal hepatic necrosis with numerous protozoal tachyzoites within necrotic foci and in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and macrophages. These tachyzoites stained with an indirect immunohistochemistry method for Toxoplasma gondii antigens. This is the first reported case of hepatitis resulting from toxoplasmosis in a raptor. PMID:9356724

  13. Validation of the revised international prognostic scoring system (IPSS-R) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: a report from the prospective European LeukaemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry.

    PubMed

    de Swart, Louise; Smith, Alex; Johnston, Thomas W; Haase, Detlef; Droste, Jackie; Fenaux, Pierre; Symeonidis, Argiris; Sanz, Guillermo; Hellstrm-Lindberg, Eva; Cermk, Jaroslav; Germing, Ulrich; Stauder, Reinhard; Georgescu, Otilia; MacKenzie, Marius; Malcovati, Luca; Holm, Mette S; Almeida, Antonio M; M?dry, Krzysztof; Slama, Borhane; Guerci-Bresler, Agnes; Sanhes, Laurence; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Luo, Elisa; Bowen, David; de Witte, Theo

    2015-08-01

    Baseline characteristics, disease-management and outcome of 1000 lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients within the European LeukaemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) Registry are described in conjunction with the validation of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). The EUMDS registry confirmed established prognostic factors, such as age, gender and World Health Organization 2001 classification. Low quality of life (EQ-5D visual analogue scale score) was significantly associated with reduced survival. A high co-morbidity index predicted poor outcome in univariate analyses. The IPSS-R identified a large group of 247 patients with Low (43%) and Very low (23%) risk score within the IPSS intermediate-1 patients. The IPSS-R also identified 32 High or Very high risk patients within the IPSS intermediate-1 patients. IPSS-R was superior to the IPSS for predicting both disease progression and survival. Seventy percent of patients received MDS-specific treatment or supportive care, including red blood cell transfusions (51%), haematopoietic growth factors (58%) and iron chelation therapy (8%), within 2years of diagnosis; while 30% of the patients only required active monitoring. The IPSS-R proved its utility as a more refined risk stratification tool for the identification of patients with a very good or poor prognosis and in this lower-risk MDS population. PMID:25907546

  14. Prospect redux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemoud, S.; Ustin, S. L.; Verdebout, J.; Schmuck, G.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.

    1995-01-01

    The remote estimation of leaf biochemical content from spaceborne platforms has been the subject of many studies aimed at better understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The major ecological processes involved in exchange of matter and energy, like photosynthesis, primary production, evaportranspiration, respiration, and decomposition can be related to plant properties e.g., chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose and lignin contents. As leaves represent the most important plant surfaces interacting with solar energy, a top priority has been to relate optical properties to biochemical constituents. Two different approaches have been considered: first, statistical correlations between the leaf reflectance (or transmittance) and biochemical content, and second, physically based models of leaf scattering and absorption developed using the laws of optics. Recently reviewed by Verdebout et al., the development of models of leaf optical properties has resulted in better understanding of the interaction of light with plant leaves. Present radiative transfer models mainly use chlorophyll and/or water contents as input parameters to calculate leaf reflectance. Inversion of these models allows to retrieve these constituents from spectrophotometric measurements. Conel et al. recently proposed a two-stream Kubelka-Munk model to analyze the influence of protein, cellulose, lignin, and starch on leaf reflectance, but in fact, the estimation of leaf biochemistry from remote sensing is still an open question. In order to clarify it, a laboratory experiment associating visible/infrared spectra of plan leaves both with physical measurements and biochemical analyses was conducted at the Joint Research Center during the summer of 1993. This unique data set has been used to upgrade the PROSPECT model, by including leaf biochemistry.

  15. Amniocentesis for the detection of congenital toxoplasmosis: results from the nationwide Austrian prenatal screening program.

    PubMed

    Prusa, A-R; Kasper, D C; Pollak, A; Olischar, M; Gleiss, A; Hayde, M

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) influences therapeutical management in pregnant women and their offspring. In Austria, a nationwide serological healthcare program to identify potential maternal toxoplasma infections during pregnancy exists. We assessed the clinical use of amniocentesis for toxoplasma-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on amniotic fluid to detect CT. Data on serology, amniocentesis, PCR, complications, treatment, and paediatric clinical outcome were collected retrospectively among the birth cohort 1992-2008. There were 1386 women with amniocentesis, but only in 707 cases (51%) was acute maternal infection confirmed serologically. A high proportion (49%) of amniocenteses with negative PCR results in women with chronic infection or seronegativity were performed without clinical justification for the women or their foetuses. The positive and negative predictive values of PCR were 94.4% and 99.3%, respectively. Thirty-nine foetuses with CT, including four deaths, were reported. The five PCR-negative but infected infants were identified by the serological and clinical follow-up program. Thirty percent of amniocenteses were performed in the third trimester, and gestational age or treatment did not influence PCR sensitivity. Amniocentesis is indicated in women with acute maternal infection, and facilitated targeted therapies in pregnant women and their offspring. In women with late toxoplasma infection, negative amniotic fluid PCR made treatment of infants unnecessary. Serological and clinical follow-up of infants is important to confirm the infection status of the infant. Recommendations, based on our 17-year experience, to improve the current diagnostic strategies and to reduce unnecessary amniocentesis, are given. PMID:25596783

  16. Toxoplasma gondii: protective immunity induced by rhoptry protein 9 (TgROP9) against acute toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Li, Zhong-Yuan; Petersen, Eskild; Huang, Si-Yang; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 9 (ROP9) is involved in the early stages of host invasion, and contains B cell epitopes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding TgROP9 gene against acute T. gondii infection in mice. A DNA vaccine (pVAX-ROP9) encoding TgROP9 inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pVAX I was constructed, and the efficacy of intramuscular vaccination of Kunming mice with pVAX-ROP9 was analyzed. Mice immunized with pVAX-ROP9 induced a high level of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies, as well as a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response with predominance of IgG2a production. Also, injection of pVAX-ROP9 induced a specific lymphocyte proliferative responses and Th1-type cellular immune response with production of IFN-γ and interleukin-2. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly increased in mice immunized with pVAX-ROP9, compared to empty vector, PBS or blank controls. Immunization with pVAX-ROP9 significantly (P<0.05) prolonged survival time (12.9±2.9days) after challenge infection with the virulent T. gondii RH strain (Type I), compared with the control groups which died within 6days. DNA vaccination with pVAX-ROP9 triggered strong humoral and cellular responses, and induced effective protection in mice against acute T. gondii infection, indicating that TgROP9 is a promising vaccine candidate against acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:24602875

  17. Clinical pattern of ocular toxoplasmosis treated in a referral centre in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Kova?evi?-Pavi?evi?, D; Radosavljevi?, A; Ili?, A; Kova?evi?, I; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the clinical pattern of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in a referral centre in Serbia. Patients and methods The medical records of consecutive patients admitted for OT to the single referral centre for uveitis in Serbia between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. OT was diagnosed on the basis of typical fundus lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma. Results In a total of 457 uveitis patients, OT was the third leading cause, with 59 patients (12.9%). Most OT cases (73%) were monocular. An active primary retinal lesion was observed in 36% and recurrent OT in 64% patients. Localization of lesions was central/paracentral (44%), juxtapapillar (27%), peripheral (19%), and multifocal (10%). Other ocular manifestations of inflammation included vitritis (44%), anterior uveitis (19%), and retinal vasculitis (10%). Complications included choroidal neovascularization in two and exudative retinal detachment with cataract, glaucoma, and cystoid macular oedema in one patient each. The detection of Toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies in a single patient indicates a low rate of OT concomitant with acute infection. After treatment, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) increased significantly. However, 14 (24%) patients ended up legally blind in the affected eye, of which 2 (3%) with bilateral blindness, all with a very poor BCVA (0.0470.055) at presentation. Visual impairment and treatment outcome were both associated with central localization of lesions (P<0.0001 and P=0.006, respectively). Conclusion OT is a significant cause of posterior uveitis in Serbia. Patients should be aware of the recurring nature of OT and react immediately if symptoms occur. PMID:22361847

  18. Toxoplasmosis in natural populations of ungulates in France: prevalence and spatiotemporal variations.

    PubMed

    Gotteland, Ccile; Aubert, Dominique; Gibert, Philippe; Moinet, Marie; Klein, Franois; Game, Yvette; Villena, Isabelle; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2014-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is characterized by a complex epidemiology. The risk of infection for humans depends on their contact with infective oocysts in a contaminated environment and on the amount of tissue cysts located within consumed meat. Unfortunately, the prevalence of tissue cysts is largely unknown for game species. Although herbivorous game species are a source of infection for humans, the level of infection found in wildlife can also be used to estimate environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and analyze its temporal dynamics in one population of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), one of mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon), and two of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in France, surveyed during a period of 6 to 28 years. Taking into account individual risk factors, we specifically analyzed the relationship between T. gondii prevalence and meteorological conditions that may influence oocyst survival. Serum samples from 101 chamois, 143 mouflons, and 1155 roe deer were tested for antibodies against T. gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, or both. Using MAT with a threshold of 1:6, seroprevalence was 14.7% in mouflon, 16.8% in chamois, and 43.7% in roe deer. In mouflon and roe deer, seroprevalence was positively correlated with age and/or body mass, in accordance with the hypothesis that antibodies have long-term persistence. In roe deer, seropositivity differed between the two populations and changed linearly over time between 1983 and 2010, increasing by a factor 1.75 every 10 years. Moreover, in this species, the highest prevalences were found during dry and cold years or during warm and moist years, depending on the population. Our results suggest that the risk for people to acquire infection through game meat increases over time, but with high variability according to the population of origin and meteorological conditions of the year. PMID:24745359

  19. IL-33/ST2 involves the immunopathology of ocular toxoplasmosis in murine model.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xinxin; Lu, Fangli

    2015-05-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the major cause of infective uveitis. Since the eye is a special organ protected by immune privilege, its immune response is different from general organs with Toxoplasma gondii infection. Here, we used Kunming outbred mice to establish OT by intravitreal injection of T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites, IL-33 expression in the eyes was localized by immunostaining, the levels of interleukin (IL)-33 and ST2 (IL-33 receptor) and T-helper (Th)1 and Th2-associated cytokines in the eye and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) of infected mice were measured, and their correlations were analyzed. Our results showed that the pathologies of the eye and CLN tissues and the IL-33 positive cells in the eye tissues of ocular T. gondii-infected mice were all increased at days 2, 6, and 9 postinfection (p.i.), accompanied with significantly increased transcript levels of IL-33, ST2, IL-1?, IFN-?, IL-12p40, IL-10, and IL-13 in both the eyes and CLNs, and increased IL-4 expressions in the eyes of T. gondii-infected mice. There were significant correlations between the levels of IFN-? and ST2, IL-4 and ST2, and IL-13 and ST2 in the eye tissues (P?

  20. Europeans: an endangered species?

    PubMed

    Von Cube, A

    1986-10-01

    Below replacement fertility has become the norm in 21 of Europe's 27 countries. Their average total fertility rate is 1.69. This trend has raised concerns about insufficient numbers in the economically active population and prospective personnel shortages in the military. In the Federal Republic of Germany, fertility has been below replacement for the past 17 years and its 1985 total fertility rate of 1.28 is a record low. Only a few European countries (Bulgaria, France, and Romania) have explicitly pronatalist policies. Other nations (Belgium, Finland, Luxembourg, and the German Democratic Republic) have instituted a progressive system of child allowances, increasing payments with each additional birth. Ironically, policies that seek to promote social opportunities for women, such as participation in the labor force, are likely to reduce fertility even farther. Without increased services such as reasonably priced housing, child care centers, and economic incentives to compensate women for lost opportunity costs in the labor market, policies that seek to increase fertility will not succeed. Policy options that were once available to increase fertility (for example, prohibiting abortion) are no longer socially acceptable. New policies will have to be developed through research on the determinants of fertility behavior in postindustrial societies. PMID:12315251

  1. Evaluation of a recombinant rhoptry protein 2 enzyme-linked immunoassay for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Pagliari, Sthefany; Pasquali, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi; Nino, Beatriz; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Monica, Thaís Cabral; Tschurtschenthaler, Nely Norder; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an enzyme-linked immunoassay with recombinant rhoptry protein 2 (ELISA-rROP2) for its ability to detectToxoplasma gondii ROP2-specific IgG in samples from pregnant women. The study included 236 samples that were divided into groups according to serological screening profiles for toxoplasmosis: unexposed (n = 65), probable acute infection (n = 48), possible acute infection (n = 58) and exposed to the parasite (n = 65). When an indirect immunofluorescence assay forT. gondii-specific IgG was considered as a reference test, the ELISA-rROP2 had a sensitivity of 61.8%, specificity of 62.8%, predictive positive value of 76.6% and predictive negative value of 45.4% (p = 0.0002). The ELISA-rROP2 reacted with 62.5% of the samples from pregnant women with probable acute infection and 40% of the samples from pregnant women with previous exposure (p = 0.0180). Seropositivity was observed in 50/57 (87.7%) pregnant women with possible infection. The results underscored that T. gondii rROP2 is recognised by specific IgG antibodies in both the acute and chronic phases of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy. However, the sensitivity of the ELISA-rROP2 was higher in the pregnant women with probable and possible acute infections and IgM reactivity. PMID:26517651

  2. A rare case of feline congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection: fatal outcome of systemic toxoplasmosis for the mother and its kitten.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Hasan Tarik; Dincel, Gungor Cagdas; Macun, Hasan Ceyhun; Terzi, Osman Safa; Uzunalioglu, Tuba; Kalender, Hakan; Kul, Oguz

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a case of fatal systemic toxoplasmosis in a 2.5-year-old mixed breed pregnant cat and its kittens. The pregnant cat was presented to the gynecology clinic with symptoms of dystocia. The ultrasound examination revealed the presence of five fetuses in the uterus, three of which were not alive, and consequently a cesarean section was performed. However, the mother cat and the remaining two live kittens died two and ten days after cesarean section, respectively. Pathologically, severe alveolar edema, tachyzoite-like structures in the alveolar macrophages and multifocal necroses in the lungs of mother cat were observed. An intense Toxoplasma gondii immunopositive reaction was observed in the cytoplasms of alveolar macrophages, bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia, necrotic foci in the lungs, and Kupffer cells of the liver. PCR analyses amplified T. gondii DNA in tissue samples of the mother cat and kittens. The present study provides strong evidence for a transplacental transmission of T. gondii infection with deadly outcome for the mother cat, fetuses and kittens. As to the authors' knowledge, this report is the first case of fatal congenital toxoplasmosis in domestic cats in Turkey. PMID:23758036

  3. Biomarker analysis revealed distinct profiles of innate and adaptive immunity in infants with ocular lesions of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Anderson Silva; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Bla, Samantha Ribeiro; Andrade, Glucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Janurio, Jos Nlio; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G; Ferro, Eloisa Amlia Vieira; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andra; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the main infectious cause of human posterior retinochoroiditis, the most frequent clinical manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis. This investigation was performed after neonatal screening to identify biomarkers of immunity associated with immunopathological features of the disease by flow cytometry. The study included infected infants without NRL and with retinochoroidal lesions (ARL, ACRL, and CRL) as well as noninfected individuals (NI). Our data demonstrated that leukocytosis, with increased monocytes and lymphocytes, was a relevant hematological biomarker of ARL. Immunophenotypic analysis also revealed expansion of CD14(+)CD16(+)HLA-DR(high) monocytes and CD56(dim) cytotoxic NK-cells in ARL. Moreover, augmented TCR? ? (+) and CD8(+) T-cell counts were apparently good biomarkers of morbidity. Biomarker network analysis revealed that complex and intricated networks underscored the negative correlation of monocytes with NK- and B-cells in NRL. The remarkable lack of connections involving B-cells and a relevant shift of NK-cell connections from B-cells toward T-cells observed in ARL were outstanding. A tightly connected biomarker network was observed in CRL, with relevant connections of NK- and CD8(+) T-cells with a broad range of cell subsets. Our findings add novel elements to the current knowledge on the innate and adaptive immune responses in congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:25328286

  4. Unusual presentation of primary toxoplasmosis infection in a kidney-transplant patient complicated by an acute left-ventricular failure

    PubMed Central

    Hébraud, Benjamin; Kamar, Nassim; Borde, Jean-Sébastien; Bessières, Marie-Hélène; Galinier, Michel; Rostaing, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    Although primary toxoplasmosis is a rare event following kidney transplantation, it can be life threatening. This report describes this complication. The patient presented with high-grade fever, haemolytic anaemia and haemophagocytic-syndrome-related pancytopaenia. Toxoplasma gondii diagnosis was ascertained by blood and bone-marrow PCR assays. After 6 weeks with Clindamycin plus pyrimethamine therapies and despite negativation of T. gondii blood PCR assay, the patient developed left-ventricular failure. After adding sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim, ramipril, digoxine, bisoprolol and spironolactone, he progressively recovered. Anti-T. gondii therapy was continued for 6 months. Four years later he received a third kidney allograft: at that time anti-T. gondii antibodies had become negative. The outcome was uneventful despite immunosuppression but with inclusion of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis. More than 3 years after the third kidney transplantation the patient has had no toxoplasmosis reactivation. This case report highlights that T. gondii can be the cause of myocarditis in a renal transplant recipient. PMID:19020669

  5. PCR-based detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in blood and ocular samples for diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, C; Busse, A; Kouamou, E; Touafek, F; Bodaghi, B; Le Hoang, P; Mazier, D; Paris, L; Fekkar, A

    2014-11-01

    PCR detection of Toxoplasma gondii in blood has been suggested as a possibly efficient method for the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) and furthermore for genotyping the strain involved in the disease. To assess this hypothesis, we performed PCR with 121 peripheral blood samples from 104 patients showing clinical and/or biological evidence of ocular toxoplasmosis and from 284 (258 patients) controls. We tested 2 different extraction protocols, using either 200 ?l (small volume) or 2 ml (large volume) of whole blood. Sensitivity was poor, i.e., 4.1% and 25% for the small- and large-volume extractions, respectively. In comparison, PCR with ocular samples yielded 35.9% sensitivity, while immunoblotting and calculation of the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient yielded 47.6% and 72.3% sensitivities, respectively. Performing these three methods together provided 89.4% sensitivity. Whatever the origin of the sample (ocular or blood), PCR provided higher sensitivity for immunocompromised patients than for their immunocompetent counterparts. Consequently, PCR detection of Toxoplasma gondii in blood samples cannot currently be considered a sufficient tool for the diagnosis of OT, and ocular sampling remains necessary for the biological diagnosis of OT. PMID:25210066

  6. Biomarker Analysis Revealed Distinct Profiles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Infants with Ocular Lesions of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Anderson Silva; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Bla, Samantha Ribeiro; Andrade, Glucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Janurio, Jos Nlio; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G.; Ferro, Eloisa Amlia Vieira; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andra; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; UFMG-CTBG, UFMG Congenital Toxoplasmosis Brazilian Group

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the main infectious cause of human posterior retinochoroiditis, the most frequent clinical manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis. This investigation was performed after neonatal screening to identify biomarkers of immunity associated with immunopathological features of the disease by flow cytometry. The study included infected infants without NRL and with retinochoroidal lesions (ARL, ACRL, and CRL) as well as noninfected individuals (NI). Our data demonstrated that leukocytosis, with increased monocytes and lymphocytes, was a relevant hematological biomarker of ARL. Immunophenotypic analysis also revealed expansion of CD14+CD16+HLA-DRhigh monocytes and CD56dim cytotoxic NK-cells in ARL. Moreover, augmented TCR??+ and CD8+ T-cell counts were apparently good biomarkers of morbidity. Biomarker network analysis revealed that complex and intricated networks underscored the negative correlation of monocytes with NK- and B-cells in NRL. The remarkable lack of connections involving B-cells and a relevant shift of NK-cell connections from B-cells toward T-cells observed in ARL were outstanding. A tightly connected biomarker network was observed in CRL, with relevant connections of NK- and CD8+ T-cells with a broad range of cell subsets. Our findings add novel elements to the current knowledge on the innate and adaptive immune responses in congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:25328286

  7. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN 3 SPECIES OF HAWAIIAN BIRDS, NEN GOOSE (NESOCHEN SANDKENSIS), ERCKELS FRANCOLIA (FRANCOLINUS ERCKERLII), AND RED-FOOTED BOOBY (SULA SULA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection was diagnosed in 3 species of Hawaiian birds, 2 Nene goose (Nesochen sankensis), 1 Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii), and 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii was found in sections of many organs of the...

  8. Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"…

  9. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  10. Ante-mortem diagnosis, diarrhea, oocyst shedding, treatment, isolation and genetic typing of Toxoplasma gondii associated with clinical Toxoplasmosis in a naturally-infected cat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and other animals but clinical disease is relatively rare. It is unknown whether the severity of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent hosts is due to the parasite strain, host variability, or to other factors. Recently, attention has been focused on the ...

  11. Endemic avian toxoplasmosis on a farm in Illinois: clinical disease, diagnosis, biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus), and a goose (Anser anser)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical toxoplasmosis in chickens (Gallus domesticus) has been rarely reported in literature. Here we report that three chickens on a farm in Illinois developed neurological signs . One of these chickens was examined postmortem and it had non-suppurative encephalitis with numerous Toxoplasma gondi...

  12. Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"

  13. Towards vaccine against toxoplasmosis: evaluation of the immunogenic and protective activity of recombinant ROP5 and ROP18 Toxoplasma gondii proteins.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Marcin M; Dziadek, Bo?ena; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Dzitko, Katarzyna; D?ugo?ska, Henryka

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide. An effective vaccine against human and animal toxoplasmosis is still needed to control this parasitosis. The polymorphic rhoptry proteins, ROP5 and ROP18, secreted by Toxoplasma gondii during the invasion of the host cell have been recently considered as promising vaccine antigens, as they appear to be the major determinants of T. gondii virulence in mice. The goal of this study was to evaluate their immunogenic and immunoprotective activity after their administration (separately or both recombinant proteins together) with the poly I:C as an adjuvant. Immunization of BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ mice generated both cellular and humoral specific immune responses with some predominance of IgG1 antibodies. The spleen cells derived from vaccinated animals reacted to the parasite's native antigens. Furthermore, the immunization led to a partial protection against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. These findings confirm the previous assumptions about ROP5 and ROP18 antigens as valuable components of a subunit vaccine against toxoplasmosis. PMID:26337271

  14. Identification of an atypical strain of Toxoplasma gondii as the cause of a waterborne outbreak of toxoplasmosis in Santa IsabeldoIvai, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified an atypical strain of Toxoplasmagondii as the causative agent of the 2001 outbreak of toxoplasmosis in Santa Isabel do Ivai, Brazil, which resulted in approximately 426 human infections. The epidemic clone was isolated from multiple water filters collected from a cistern linked ep...

  15. Toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recent...

  16. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

  17. [Rudolf-Virchow Prize 1998. Award lecture. Toxoplasmosis: a model infection for studying systemic and intracerebral immune reactions].

    PubMed

    Deckert-Schlter, M

    1998-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis has gained particular attention in the AIDS era as the most common opportunistic encephalitis in HIV-infected patients. Since there are important parallels between the human and rodent infection, experimental murine toxoplasmosis is widely used to study the immune reactions to this protozoal parasite. Oral application of low-virulent Toxoplasma (T.) gondii cysts leads to a biphasic disease characterized by an acute, generalized phase followed by a chronic stage confined to the brain, where an encephalitis with persistence of the parasite develops. Immunity to T. gondii is T cell mediated, and there is increasing evidence for a critical role of cytokines for an effective immune response. In order to address the functional role of interferon (IFN)-gamma in toxoplasmosis, we took advantage of mice lacking the IFN-gamma-receptor. Inactivation of the IFN-gamma-receptor rendered mice highly susceptible to T. gondii, and they died of a fulminant acute toxoplasmosis. Among the various organs affected, hepatitis was severe enough to cause death. In contrast to wild type animals, IFN-gamma-receptor-deficient mice were unable to activate their macrophages as evidenced by a lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen induction and the absence of an upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA transcripts, two macrophage effector molecules. These observations prompted the investigation of TNF- and TNF-receptor-mediated effects in toxoplasmosis by use of mice deficient in either the TNF-receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and/or the TNF-receptor type 2 (TNFR2). The lethal outcome of T. gondii-infected TNFR1/2- and TNFR1-deficient mice, but not of TNFR2-deficient and wild type animals, illustrated the important role of TNF-alpha and TNFR1-mediated signalling, respectively, in this infection. Histopathology attributed death of TNFR1- and TNFR1/2-deficient mice to a severe, necrotizing encephalitis. Unrestricted intracerebral parasite replication in these strains was associated with reduced numbers of iNOS+ leukocytes and a lack of iNOS mRNA induction in their brains as compared to resistant wild type and TNFR2-deficient mice. To precisely identify the cellular sources of cytokines in the brain, flow cytometry of leukocytes isolated from the brain, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis of cytokine mRNA transcripts of magnetically purified leukocyte populations were performed. These studies disclosed that both CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages recruited to the brain as well as resident cell populations of the CNS including neurons, astrocytes and microglia contributed to the intracerebral cytokine synthesis. Each population was characterized by a specific cytokine pattern. Interestingly, activation of brain cells is a hallmark of Toxoplasma encephalitis. The marked induction of a variety of immunologically important cell surface molecules as MHC class I and II antigens, cell adhesion molecules and their ligands on microglia points to a particular important role of this cell type for the immune response to T. gondii, since the expression of these molecules is a prerequisite for cellular interactions with T cells. The observation of a prominent interleukin (IL)-10 production in the T. gondii-infected brain initiated studies addressing the function of this powerful immunosuppressive mediator in chronic Toxoplasma encephalitis. Neutralization experiments revealed that IL-10 facilitates persistence of the parasite in the brain by downregulating the intracerebral immune response. On the other hand, IL-10 may exert a regulatory role and may be necessary to prevent immunopathological effects of an uncontrolled immune response. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate the important role of the cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and their receptors, respectively, for an effective control of T. gondii. In the CNS, the target organ of the parasite, a PMID:10095413

  18. Immunodiagnosis and molecular validation of Toxoplasma gondii-recombinant dense granular (GRA) 7 protein for the detection of toxoplasmosis in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Arab-Mazar, Zahra; Fallahi, Shirzad; Koochaki, Ameneh; Haghighi, Ali; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad

    2016-02-01

    Serological assays for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis mostly rely on the tachyzoite specific antigens of Toxoplasma gondii, which are difficult to produce by conventional methods. The aim of this study was to clone and express of GRA7 protein of T. gondii and evaluate its potential for immunodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in cancer patients. As well as validate the results using a new molecular assay, LAMP technique. The GRA7 gene was successfully cloned, expressed and purified by affinity chromatography and the production was evaluated by SDS PAGE, dot blot and western blot analyses. The rGRA7 was used for developing an ELISA based on the rGRA7 using sera from patients with toxoplasmosis and healthy controls. Furthermore, 50 serum samples from leukemic children infected with toxoplasmosis and 50 seronegative controls were included to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rGRA7 based ELISA. Finally, the LAMP technique was used to assess the accuracy and validity of the results obtained by rGRA7 based ELISA. The consistency of the results of two tests was determined by using the Kappa coefficient of agreement. The rGRA7 showed higher and optimum immunoreactivity with 1:100 dilution of serum from Toxoplasma infected patients. The sensitivity and specificity of test were calculated as 92 and 94%, respectively. According to the Kappa coefficient of agreement, there was a significant conformance between the results obtained by ELISA based on the rGRA7 and the results of LAMP technique (?96%, P<0.001). Findings of the present study showed that rGRA7 can be used as a potential immunogenic antigen for developing immunodiagnostic tools for immunodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in patients including patients with cancer. PMID:26805618

  19. MHC Class I Chain-Related Gene A Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium with HLA-B and HLA-C Alleles in Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Ayo, Christiane Maria; Camargo, Ana Vitória da Silveira; Frederico, Fábio Batista; Siqueira, Rubens Camargo; Previato, Mariana; Murata, Fernando Henrique Antunes; Silveira-Carvalho, Aparecida Perpétuo; Barbosa, Amanda Pires; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara de Cássia; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether polymorphisms of the MICA (major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A) gene are associated with eye lesions due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in a group of immunocompetent patients from southeastern Brazil. The study enrolled 297 patients with serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Participants were classified into two distinct groups after conducting fundoscopic exams according to the presence (n = 148) or absence (n = 149) of ocular scars/lesions due to toxoplasmosis. The group of patients with scars/lesions was further subdivided into two groups according to the type of the ocular manifestation observed: primary (n = 120) or recurrent (n = 28). Genotyping of the MICA and HLA alleles was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide technique (PCR-SSO; One Lambda®) and the MICA-129 polymorphism (rs1051792) was identified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP). Significant associations involving MICA polymorphisms were not found. Although the MICA*002~HLA-B*35 haplotype was associated with increased risk of developing ocular toxoplasmosis (P-value = 0.04; OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.05–4.60), and the MICA*008~HLA-C*07 haplotype was associated with protection against the development of manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis (P-value = 0.009; OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.22–0.76), these associations were not statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. MICA polymorphisms do not appear to influence the development of ocular lesions in patients diagnosed with toxoplasmosis in this study population. PMID:26672749

  20. MHC Class I Chain-Related Gene A Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium with HLA-B and HLA-C Alleles in Ocular Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Ayo, Christiane Maria; Camargo, Ana Vitria da Silveira; Frederico, Fbio Batista; Siqueira, Rubens Camargo; Previato, Mariana; Murata, Fernando Henrique Antunes; Silveira-Carvalho, Aparecida Perptuo; Barbosa, Amanda Pires; Brando de Mattos, Cinara de Cssia; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether polymorphisms of the MICA (major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A) gene are associated with eye lesions due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in a group of immunocompetent patients from southeastern Brazil. The study enrolled 297 patients with serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Participants were classified into two distinct groups after conducting fundoscopic exams according to the presence (n = 148) or absence (n = 149) of ocular scars/lesions due to toxoplasmosis. The group of patients with scars/lesions was further subdivided into two groups according to the type of the ocular manifestation observed: primary (n = 120) or recurrent (n = 28). Genotyping of the MICA and HLA alleles was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide technique (PCR-SSO; One Lambda) and the MICA-129 polymorphism (rs1051792) was identified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP). Significant associations involving MICA polymorphisms were not found. Although the MICA*002~HLA-B*35 haplotype was associated with increased risk of developing ocular toxoplasmosis (P-value = 0.04; OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.05-4.60), and the MICA*008~HLA-C*07 haplotype was associated with protection against the development of manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis (P-value = 0.009; OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.22-0.76), these associations were not statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. MICA polymorphisms do not appear to influence the development of ocular lesions in patients diagnosed with toxoplasmosis in this study population. PMID:26672749

  1. Effect of Propranolol Alone and in Combination with Pyrimethamine on Acute Murine Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Mahbobeh; Daryani, Ahmad; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammadali; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sharif, Mehdi; Sarvi, Shahabeddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasmosis is a public health problem worldwide. This complication principally affects immunodeficient patients and pregnant women. Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite, causing severe illness among and death of high-risk individuals and treatment is becoming increasingly difficult owing to side effects and low efficacies of drugs. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the anti-Toxoplasma gondii efficacy of propranolol in vivo. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in two separate pre-treatment and post-treatment groups. In each group, 18 female Balb/c mice in six subgroups (n = 3) were used to assess the anti-Toxoplasma effect of propranolol at 2 and 3 mg/kg/day, pyrimethamine at 50 mg/kg/day, propranolol at 2 and 3 mg/kg/day plus pyrimethamine, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; as negative control). Treatment was performed 4, 24, and 48 hours before and after an intraperitoneal challenge of 1 103 tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain of T. gondii, in pre-treatment and post-treatment groups. Mice peritoneal exudates were collected on the seventh day after the challenge and parasite numbers were recorded as percent of growth inhibition and survival rate. Results: In the pre-treatment group, results showed that propranolol at 2 and 3 mg/kg combined with pyrimethamine was more effective in inhibiting growth of tachyzoites (86% and 98%, respectively) when compared with propranolol at 2 and 3 mg/kg (37% and 39%, respectively) and pyrimethamine (41%) alone. In the post-treatment group, all combined treatments significantly reduced parasite load. The growth inhibition of tachyzoites in mice receiving propranolol (2 and 3 mg/kg) was 75% and 51%, with the mean tachyzoites count being 1526 171.4 and 2948 1452.8, respectively, compared with pyrimethamine treatment outcome, which represents 99.9% growth inhibition. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the promising prophylactic and therapeutic effects of propranolol against T. gondii infection. Propranolol also increases the efficacy of pyrimethamine in combination therapies. PMID:26487920

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and…

  4. European utilities requirements for future reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Roch, M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect for future nuclear power plants has led the utilities of seven European countries to launch an effort to define the requirements that should be common to all utilities for the next reactors to be built in Europe. These requirements will ultimately be part of a four-volume document and will cover all aspects of a plant: performance, grid connection, codes and standards, materials, quality assurance, cost, and, of course, safety. The seven European countries - France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, and Belgium - issued revision A of Vols 1 and 2 in Nov. 1994, which deal with all the general requirements, not specific to any design, originally issued in March 1994. Comments were requested from most of the nuclear utilities as well as from reactor vendors worldwide. This gave rise to an enormous number of comments, which were duly considered by the European Union. The relevant ones were incorporated into revision B of Vols. 1 and 2, which was issued in Nov 1995, the objective of this revision B being essentially to gain approval from the safety authorities. A particular aspect of the European approach resides in the fact that these European requirements will have to be discussed and agreed on by at least nine safety authorities, i.e., the authorities of the seven counties that launched revision B, plus the authorities of two newcomers, Finland and Sweden, which have just applied for European Union membership.

  5. Comparative Immunoglobulin G Antibody Profiles between Mother and Child (CGMC Test) for Early Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Uwe; Lüder, Carsten G. K.; Hendgen, Vera; Heeg, Cornelia; Sauer, Irmtraud; Weidner, Andrea; Krczal, Doris; Enders, Gisela

    2000-01-01

    Early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is rendered difficult when specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and/or IgA antibodies are absent in the blood of the newborn infant. Since maternal IgG antibodies can cross the placenta, determination of IgG antibodies in newborn infants has hitherto not been used routinely for the diagnosis of congenital infection. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of an immunoblot assay which compares the early IgG profiles between the mother and her child (comparative IgG profile between mother and child; CGMC test) directed against a total cell lysate of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. Serum samples from 97 newborn infants at risk of toxoplasma infection were obtained from umbilical cord blood at birth or postnatally until 3 months of life and were directly compared with serum samples from the respective mothers. Congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosed only when IgG-reactive protein bands that were present in any newborn serum samples were absent in the corresponding maternal serum sample. Congenital infection was defined by conventional serological assays when IgM and/or IgA antibodies were present in newborn infant blood or when IgG titers rose within the first 12 months or were persistently stable for more than 8 months. Using these criteria, congenital infection was definitely confirmed in 11 cases. Three additional cases were diagnosed based on indicative data. The CGMC test, which was performed without knowledge of the results of conventional serologal assays, had sensitivity and specificity of 82.4 and 93.0%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values of 73.7 and 95.7%, respectively. When true positives and true negatives were considered, the comparative IgG profile had a ratio of 90.9% true results. The CGMC test thus is useful as an additional assay for the rapid diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis when paired serum samples from mother and child are available. PMID:11015373

  6. Prospective Validation Obtained in a Similar Group of Patients and with Similar High Throughput Biological Tests Failed to Confirm Signatures for Prediction of Response to Chemotherapy and Survival in Advanced NSCLC: A Prospective Study from the European Lung Cancer Working Party

    PubMed Central

    Berghmans, Thierry; Ameye, Lieveke; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Colinet, Benot; Cortot, Alexis; CsToth, Ingrid; Holbrechts, Stphane; Lecomte, Jacques; Mascaux, Cline; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Paesmans, Marianne; Richez, Michel; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Tulippe, Christian; Willems, Luc; Dernies, Tiffany; Leclercq, Nathalie; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Cisplatin doublets are standard 1st line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), without accurate predictor for response and survival, but important toxicity. Our aims were to identify predictive (for response) and prognostic (for survival) biological signatures in patients with NSCLC using messenger RNAs (mRNA) and miRNA expression. Methods: Patients with pathologically proven untreated NSCLC, receiving 1st line cisplatinvinorelbine and with an assessable lesion were eligible. A bronchial biopsy was lysed into Tripure Isolation Reagent on ice, snap frozen, and stored at ?80C. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarrays Agilent Technologies. miRNA expression was assessed using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (756 human miR panel, Applied Biosystems). Validation was performed by RT-PCR on the selected genes. Survival was measured from the registration date and response assessed by WHO criteria. Results: Biopsies for transcriptomic analyses were obtained from 60 consecutive patients. No statistically significant differences were observed according to the main clinical characteristics, response rate (43 vs. 41%) or survival (median 25 vs. 29?months) between derivation and validation sets. In the derivation set (n?=?38 patients), two mRNA and one miRNA predictive signatures for response were obtained. One mRNA and one miRNA prognostic signatures were derived from the first set, allowing an adequate distinction of patients with good and poor overall and progression-free survivals. None of these signatures could be validated in the validation set (n?=?22 patients). Conclusion: In this prospective study with advanced NSCLC treated with cisplatinvinorelbine, we were able to derive with high throughput techniques predictive and prognostic signatures based on transcriptomic analyses. However, these results could not be reproduced in an independent validation set. The role of miRNA and mRNA as predictive or prognostic factors remains a research topic and the use of high throughput technology in that context questionable. The ClinicalTrials.gov study identifier is NCT00864266 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:25674536

  7. European Elder (Elderberry)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... T U V W X Y Z European Elder Share: On This Page Introduction What the Science ... For More Information Key References Common Names: European elder, black elder, elder, elderberry, elder flower, sambucus Latin ...

  8. Diversity and evolution of methods and practices for the molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in France: a 4-year survey.

    PubMed

    Sterkers, Y; Varlet-Marie, E; Marty, P; Bastien, P

    2010-10-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is currently based upon molecular biology using a sample of amniotic fluid. The vast majority of centres globally (and all centres in France) performing this diagnosis use 'in house' or laboratory-developed PCR assays. This may be the source of considerable inter-laboratory variation in the performances of the assays, hampering any valuable comparison of data among different centres. The present study was based upon questionnaires that were sent to 21-25 centres between 2002 and 2005 enquiring about methods and practices of the PCR-based prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. An extreme diversity of PCR methods and practices was observed. Thus, in 2005, 35 PCR methods, differing in one of the main steps of the whole process, were reported as being in use for routine diagnosis, with nine centres using two or three methods. We provide comprehensive information on the extraction methods, DNA targets, primer pairs and detection methods used for this diagnosis, as well as their evolution, during the period of study. Interestingly, in this period (2002-2005), a rapid progression of the number of laboratories using real-time PCR technology, which increased from four to 19, was observed. We also studied general PCR practices concerning, for example, the number of reaction tubes used for each biological sample and the inclusion of controls. The return of information in a yearly report provided the opportunity for writing proposals aiming to improve laboratory practices for this diagnosis at the national level. The high diversity of methods and practices currently used emphasizes the need for external quality assessment of the performances of the molecular diagnostic methods. PMID:19886905

  9. Application of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and enzootic abortion of ewes.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jorge; O'Donovan, James; Proctor, Aisling; Brady, Colm; Marques, Patricia X; Worrall, Sheila; Nally, Jarlath E; McElroy, Maire; Bassett, Hugh; Fagan, John; Maley, Stephen; Buxton, David; Sammin, Donal; Markey, Bryan K

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydophila abortus are the 2 most common infectious causes of ovine abortion worldwide. These obligate intracellular pathogens are associated with severe placentitis leading to abortion or stillbirth in pregnant ewes, and resulting in significant economic losses. The objectives of the current study were the development, validation, and application of a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay capable of quantifying the burden of infection by T. gondii and C. abortus in material submitted for diagnostic purposes. The validation was carried out using samples from ewes experimentally infected with these organisms. Based on the numbers of genome copies detected, an arbitrary cutoff level was established to correlate with significant pathological changes sufficient to give rise to abortion. When the PCR assay was applied to samples from 66 Irish farms with naturally occurring outbreaks of ovine abortion, toxoplasmosis and enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) accounted for 14% and 20% of the farms, respectively, while on 6% of the farms, there was evidence of dual infection. When standard diagnostic techniques including histopathological examination, serological analysis, chlamydial antigen detection, and bacteriological culture, were used on samples from the same farms, toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 17% of farms, and EAE in 12%; dual infection was diagnosed on 3% of the farms. In general, good agreement was found between the PCR and the standard methods. The duplex real-time PCR assay developed in this study has proved to be a very sensitive and rapid tool that might provide a valuable addition to the methods currently available for routine diagnosis of ovine abortions. PMID:22807509

  10. Experimental ovine toxoplasmosis: influence of the gestational stage on the clinical course, lesion development and parasite distribution.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Pablo; Fuertes, Miguel; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Ferre, Ignacio; Fernández, Miguel; Ferreras, M Carmen; Moreno-Gonzalo, Javier; González-Lanza, Camino; Pereira-Bueno, Juana; Katzer, Frank; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Pérez, Valentín; Benavides, Julio

    2016-01-01

    The relation between gestational age and foetal death risk in ovine toxoplasmosis is already known, but the mechanisms involved are not yet clear. In order to study how the stage of gestation influences these mechanisms, pregnant sheep of the same age and genetic background were orally dosed with 50 oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii (M4 isolate) at days 40 (G1), 90 (G2) and 120 (G3) of gestation. In each group, four animals were culled on the second, third and fourth week post infection (pi) in order to evaluate parasite load and distribution, and lesions in target organs. Ewes from G1 showed a longer period of hyperthermia than the other groups. Abortions occurred in all groups. While in G2 they were more frequent during the acute phase of the disease, in G3 they mainly occurred after day 20 pi. After challenge, parasite and lesions in the placentas and foetuses were detected from day 19 pi in G3 while in G2 or G1 they were only detected at day 26 pi. However, after initial detection at day 19 pi, parasite burden, measured through RT-PCR, in placenta or foetus of G3 did not increase significantly and, at in the third week pi it was lower than that measured in foetal liver or placenta from G1 to G3 respectively. These results show that the period of gestation clearly influences the parasite multiplication and development of lesions in the placenta and foetus and, as a consequence, the clinical course in ovine toxoplasmosis. PMID:26983883

  11. Alternative treatment approach to cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: experience from a resource-poor setting.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Rama Prosad; Goswami, Rudra Prosad; Rahman, Mehebubar; Ray, Yogiraj; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The current standard treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis (pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine) often encounters problems of poor tolerability, adverse effects, frequent dropouts and non-availability of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine in some parts of India. We have had to use the combination of two effective alternative agents for toxoplasmosis, cotrimoxazole and clindamycin, on compassionate grounds. This retrospective observational study reports superior efficacy and better tolerability of cotrimoxazole/clindamycin compared to the recommended regimen. Primary end-point (complete response) was defined as more than 50% improvement of clinical status or more than 50% decrease in the size of brain lesions after two weeks of treatment initiation. Complete response occurred more commonly with cotrimoxazole/clindamycin than with pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine group (80% vs. 31.25%, respectively, relative risk 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-5.43). There was a trend towards higher on-treatment mortality in the pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine group in comparison to the cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (mortality rate 37.5% in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine vs 12% in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin, p = 0.07, relative risk = 3.125, 95% confidence interval: 0.91-10.75). Overall, 62.5% (10/16) of patients on pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine suffered drug-related adverse reactions compared to 24% (6/25) on cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (p = 0.02, relative risk = 2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-5.76). The commonest complication of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine was severe thrombocytopenia with major bleeding (4/16, 25%). We propose that the new combination chemotherapy, which is widely available, effective and safe, can be used in developing countries. PMID:25411350

  12. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,…

  13. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,

  14. European biofuel plan snagged

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-12-16

    European Commission proposals for a directive aimed at boosting production of biofuels have been set back by the European Parliament and will not be implemented on the January 1, 1993 deadline. Furthermore, the commission has agreed to carry out an environmental impact study on biofuels. European industrial ethanol, fatty acid, and glycerin producers oppose the directive proposals fearing distortions in their markets.

  15. Clinical and pathological features of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) with multilocus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii type II-like strains.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; lapeta, Jan; Knowles, Graeme; Obendorf, David; Peck, Sarah; Phalen, David N

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic protozoan parasite with the capacity to infect virtually any warm blooded vertebrate species. Australian native marsupials are thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis; however, most reports are in captive animals and little is known about T. gondii associated disease in free-ranging marsupials, including wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This study describes the clinical and pathological features of eight cases of toxoplasmosis in free-ranging common wombats in Tasmania and New South Wales (NSW) from 1992 to 2013, including a morbidity and mortality event investigated in the Southern Highlands NSW in the autumn of 2010. The diagnosis of T. gondii infection was confirmed using either immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics or both. Utilizing the combination of direct DNA sequencing of B1, SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico DNA markers and virtual RFLP to genetically characterize two of the T. gondii strains, we found a nonarchetypal type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) and an atypical type II-like strain (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #3) to be the causal agents of toxoplasmosis in wombats from the 2010 morbidity and mortality event. This study suggests that T. gondii may act as a significant disease threat to free-ranging common wombats. Our findings indicate neurologic signs are a very common clinical presentation in common wombats with toxoplasmosis and T. gondii infection should be considered as a likely differential diagnosis for any common wombat exhibiting signs of blindness, head tilt, circling and changes in mentation. PMID:25463314

  16. Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

    2014-04-01

    A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety. PMID:24680078

  17. Toxoplasma Gondii Infection of Chicken Embryos Causes Retinal Changes and Modulates HSP90B1 Gene Expression: A Promising Ocular Toxoplasmosis Model.

    PubMed

    Nasar, Alex M; Tedesco, Roberto C; Cristovam, Priscila C; Cenedese, Marcos A; Galisteo, Andrs J; Andrade, Heitor F; Gomes, Jos lvaro P; Guimares, rik V; Barbosa, Helene S; Alonso, Luis G

    2015-12-01

    HSP90B1 is a gene that codifies heat shock protein 108 (HSP108) that belongs to a group of proteins induced under stress situation, and it has close relation with the nervous system, especially in the retina. Toxoplasma gondii causes ocular toxoplasmosis that has been associated with a late manifestation of the congenital toxoplasmosis although experimental models show that morphological alterations are already present during embryological development. Here, we used 18 eyes of Gallus domesticus embryos in 7th and 20th embryonic days to establish a model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, experimentally infected in its fifth day correlating with HSP90B1 gene expression. Embryos' eyes were histologically evaluated, and gene expression was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our data showed parasite present in the choroid, unusual migration of retinal pigment epithelium, and chorioretinal scars, and a tendency to a lower expression of the HSP90B1 gene upon experimental infection. This is a promising model to better understand T. gondii etiopathogeny. PMID:26716020

  18. Toxoplasma Gondii Infection of Chicken Embryos Causes Retinal Changes and Modulates HSP90B1 Gene Expression: A Promising Ocular Toxoplasmosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Nasar, Alex M.; Tedesco, Roberto C.; Cristovam, Priscila C.; Cenedese, Marcos A.; Galisteo, Andrs J.; Andrade, Heitor F.; Gomes, Jos lvaro P.; Guimares, rik V.; Barbosa, Helene S.; Alonso, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    HSP90B1 is a gene that codifies heat shock protein 108 (HSP108) that belongs to a group of proteins induced under stress situation, and it has close relation with the nervous system, especially in the retina. Toxoplasma gondii causes ocular toxoplasmosis that has been associated with a late manifestation of the congenital toxoplasmosis although experimental models show that morphological alterations are already present during embryological development. Here, we used 18 eyes of Gallus domesticus embryos in 7th and 20th embryonic days to establish a model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, experimentally infected in its fifth day correlating with HSP90B1 gene expression. Embryos eyes were histologically evaluated, and gene expression was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our data showed parasite present in the choroid, unusual migration of retinal pigment epithelium, and chorioretinal scars, and a tendency to a lower expression of the HSP90B1 gene upon experimental infection. This is a promising model to better understand T. gondii etiopathogeny. PMID:26716020

  19. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo da Silva, Marcos; Clare Vinaud, Marina; de Castro, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease. Objective To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH) from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. Methods A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG), Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%. Results The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62–72.86). The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74–67.32). The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3–7.3) suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4–45.6). Conclusions These results show an elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of T. gondii in the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. PMID:26558622

  20. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    PubMed

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

  1. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  2. Future of European urology.

    PubMed

    Debruyne, F M

    2000-10-01

    To provide the highest medical service and to maintain the most advanced research work across national boundaries, we have developed many organizations, including the European Association of Urology (EAU), the European Board of Urology (EBU), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). They also have functioned to provide equal health service for all European people. In the future, superspecialization and the multidisciplinary approach are inevitable. Major changes will occur, such as prevention of stone diseases, reconstructive urology, and immune and gene therapy in oncology. Specialists will assume major roles in the urologic clinic. In those circumstances, Europe will continue to play an important role because urologists are very much involved in future strategic developments on national and Pan-European levels. PMID:11071465

  3. Structure of Prolyl-tRNA Synthetase-Halofuginone Complex Provides Basis for Development of Drugs against Malaria and Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vitul; Yogavel, Manickam; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Touquet, Bastien; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali; Sharma, Amit

    2015-05-01

    The Chinese herb Dichroa febrifuga has traditionally treated malaria-associated fever. Its active component febrifugine (FF) and derivatives such as halofuginone (HF) are potent anti-malarials. Here, we show that FF-based derivatives arrest parasite growth by direct interaction with and inhibition of the protein translation enzyme prolyl-tRNA synthetase (PRS). Dual administration of inhibitors that target different tRNA synthetases suggests high utility of these drug targets. We reveal the ternary complex structure of PRS-HF and adenosine 5'-(?,?-imido)triphosphate where the latter facilitates HF integration into the PRS active site. Structural analyses also highlight spaces within the PRS architecture for HF derivatization ofits quinazolinone, but not piperidine, moiety. We also show a remarkable ability of HF to kill the related human parasite Toxoplasma gondii, suggesting wider HF efficacy against parasitic PRSs. Hence, our cell-, enzyme-, and structure-based data on FF-based inhibitors strengthen the case for their inclusion in anti-malarial and anti-toxoplasmosis drug development efforts. PMID:25817387

  4. A simple and economic slide micro-immunoenzymatic (micro-SIA) test for epidemiological studies of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenzvit, M; Angel, S; Alvarez, L; Mellare, V; Blanco, J; Pszenny, V; Garberi, J C

    1994-01-01

    A slide micro-immunoenzymatic assay (micro-SIA) to detect antibodies to non-particulate Toxoplasma gondii antigens is described. This assay allows the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis infection in about 1 hr. Twenty-four determinations can be performed per slide. Five hundred ng of antigen and 5 or 10 microliters drop of each reactive are necessary per well. The clear contrast of colours obtained for negative and positive sera after the test is finished, allows direct discrimination of the results. However, it is possible to quantify the results of the reaction using a minireader. Sera dilution cutoff value, determined as the most frequent titre for the general population, is 1:100. The toxoplasma micro-SIA correlates well with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), its sensitivity is at least three times as much as IIF. The test has an intra and inter assay variation coefficient of 5.46% and of 6.24% respectively. Sera obtained at random from argentinian people were analyzed and a 56% of infection was found. The main features of the Toxoplasma micro-SIA are its simplicity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and the virtual absence of background making it very suitable for screening tests. PMID:7823819

  5. The past and present role of the Sabin-Feldman dye test in the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Reiter-Owona, I.; Petersen, E.; Joynson, D.; Aspck, H.; Dard, M. L.; Disko, R.; Dreazen, O.; Dumon, H.; Grillo, R.; Gross, U.; Hayde, M.; Holliman, R.; Ho-Yen, D. O.; Janitschke, K.; Jenum, P. A.; Naser, K.; Olszewski, M.; Thulliez, P.; Seitz, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    The dye test for the detection of Toxoplasma-specific antibodies was first described by Sabin and Feldman 50 years ago. The test is highly specific and sensitive and considerable information is available on the development and persistence of dye test antibodies after primary Toxoplasma infection. However, the test uses live Toxoplasma gondii and is now only employed in a few laboratories. It is still the reference method for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and a multicentre study comparing dye test results between different laboratories was much needed. We report in this article the results of a multicentre evaluation of the test involving nineteen laboratories in eight countries. The study revealed overall satisfactory standardization between the laboratories, but there were differences in the test protocols, the use of reference/standard preparations and the interpretation of results. There is still no agreement on the level of dye test values which reflect infection with the parasite, and conversion from titres to international units (IUs) did not improve standardization. However, the results indicated that a value of > 4 IU or a titre of 1:16 met the definition of positivity of most participants. We recommend that the dye test be retained as a reference method and that interlaboratory standardization be improved by the use of a common protocol and the expression of results in titres. PMID:10612889

  6. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy. In the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment. PMID:26945416

  7. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.In the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT.Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable.In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment. PMID:26945416

  8. Congenital toxoplasmosis and pregnancy malaria detection post-partum: Effective diagnosis and its implication for efficient management of congenital infection.

    PubMed

    Blay, Emmanuel Awusah; Ghansah, Anita; Otchere, Joseph; Koku, Roberta; Kwofie, Kofi Dadzie; Bimi, Langbong; Takashi, Suzuki; Ohta, Nobuo; Ayi, Irene

    2015-12-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and pregnancy malaria (PM) have been individually reported to cause severe negative outcomes in pregnancies but the diagnostic method is still debatable. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of PM and CT single and co-infections in pregnant women by using various specimens including plasma and placental tissues. Genomic DNA extracted from the placenta, cord blood or blood of mothers was tested by PCR. Conventional method of immunodiagnosis was done for CT. We tested 79 pregnant women aged 18-42 years (mean: 281.06). Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection determined by PCR on mother's peripheral blood specimen was 6.3% whiles 57.3% was recorded for placental tissues (p<0.01). PCR testing for placental tissues showed 29.2% positive for Toxoplasma gondii, whiles 76.0% of mothers had serum IgG against T. gondii. It should be noted that 6.3% of the placental tissues showed PCR positive for SAG 3, a marker of active infection in T. gondii. Although there were no enhanced foetal disorders at birth in our study, there is a possibility of active transmission of T. gondii from mothers to foetuses even in immune mothers. Our study suggests that foetuses were exposed to P. falciparum and T. gondii in utero, and placenta is a better specimen for PCR in detecting such episodes. In cases of PCR-positive samples, clinical follow-up after birth may be important. PMID:26264261

  9. NALP1 influences susceptibility to human congenital toxoplasmosis, proinflammatory cytokine response, and fate of Toxoplasma gondii-infected monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Witola, William H; Mui, Ernest; Hargrave, Aubrey; Liu, Susan; Hypolite, Magali; Montpetit, Alexandre; Cavailles, Pierre; Bisanz, Cordelia; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fourni, Gilbert J; McLeod, Rima

    2011-02-01

    NALP1 is a member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family of proteins that form inflammasomes. Upon cellular infection or stress, inflammasomes are activated, triggering maturation of proinflammatory cytokines and downstream cellular signaling mediated through the MyD88 adaptor. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that stimulates production of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines that are important in innate immunity. In this study, susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis were identified in the NALP1 gene. To investigate the role of the NALP1 inflammasome during infection with T. gondii, we genetically engineered a human monocytic cell line for NALP1 gene knockdown by RNA interference. NALP1 silencing attenuated progression of T. gondii infection, with accelerated host cell death and eventual cell disintegration. In line with this observation, upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-18, and IL-12 upon T. gondii infection was not observed in monocytic cells with NALP1 knockdown. These findings suggest that the NALP1 inflammasome is critical for mediating innate immune responses to T. gondii infection and pathogenesis. Although there have been recent advances in understanding the potent activity of inflammasomes in directing innate immune responses to disease, this is the first report, to our knowledge, on the crucial role of the NALP1 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of T. gondii infections in humans. PMID:21098108

  10. Mitogen- and antigen-specific proliferation of T cells in murine toxoplasmosis is inhibited by reactive nitrogen intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    Candolfi, E; Hunter, C A; Remington, J S

    1994-01-01

    Acute and chronic infections with Toxoplasma gondii result in a nonspecific suppression of immunologic function in mice and humans. Proliferation of spleen cells in response to concanavalin A (ConA) and toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA) was studied during the course of infection in mice susceptible (CBA/Ca) and resistant (BALB/c) to development of toxoplasmic encephalitis to determine if reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) are involved in the suppression of the proliferative responses. Maximal suppression of proliferation of spleen cells in response to ConA and TLA was observed on days 7 and 14 after infection and correlated with elevated levels of nitrite in spleen cell culture supernatants. By day 68 postinfection in BALB/c mice, proliferative responses returned to normal levels, whereas in CBA/Ca mice, they remained suppressed. The addition of an inhibitor of production of RNI (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine) increased proliferation of spleen cells in response to both ConA and TLA at days 7, 14, and 21 after infection. Depletion of adherent cells from spleen cell preparations obtained from acutely infected mice followed by their repletion with adherent spleen cells from uninfected mice resulted in increased proliferation of spleen cells from infected mice and a significant decrease in nitrite in the cultures. These results indicate that production of RNI by macrophages contributes significantly to the suppression of the spleen cell proliferation observed in the acute stage of toxoplasmosis. PMID:8168967

  11. New and old risk-factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection: prospective cross-sectional study among military personnel in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kolbekova, P; Kourbatova, E; Novotna, M; Kodym, P; Flegr, J

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate seroprevalence and the importance of various risk-factors for Toxoplasma infection in the Czech Republic. A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted among military personnel in Prague. Consenting subjects (n = 3250) completed a questionnaire concerning demographics and risk-factors, and blood samples were taken to determine anti-Toxoplasma antibody titres according to complement fixation and ELISA IgG and IgM tests. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 23%. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of Toxoplasma seropositivity were age (OR 1.03 / year), consumption of raw meat (OR 1.35), owning a cat (OR 1.25), owning rabbits (OR 1.47), childhood residence in a town with a population of <10 000 inhabitants (OR 1.63) vs. location of the childhood residence in a town with population of >100 000 inhabitants, and blood group type A (OR 1.28), B (OR 1.33) or AB (OR 1.43) vs. O. These results suggested that horizontal toxoplasmosis transmission in the Czech Republic may occur through consumption of raw meat, contact with cat faeces and farming. PMID:17617185

  12. European psychotraumatology alongside the recent European history

    PubMed Central

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a personal reflection of experiences within the field of traumatic stress, especially in relation to specific events, which affected the author's professional life. Conclusions for further challenges for European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) are delineated. ESTSS's role in the global network of traumatic stress societies is discussed. This is a personal view of Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, president of ESTSS on behalf of the 20th birthday of ESTSS. PMID:23755321

  13. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  14. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  15. Pathological changes in acute experimental toxoplasmosis with Toxoplasma gondii strains obtained from human cases of congenital disease.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Breno Veloso; Noviello, Maria de Lourdes Meirelles; Cunha, Mariana Maciel; Tavares, Alice Thomaz; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2015-09-01

    There is a lack of studies using Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from human patients. Here, we present a pathological study of three strains obtained from human cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil using inbred mice after oral infection with 10 tissue cysts. Multiplex-nested PCR-RFLP of eleven loci revealed atypical genotypes commonly found in Brazil: toxodb #8 for TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains and toxodb #11 for the TgCTBr9 strain. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were evaluated for survival and histological changes during the acute phase of the disease. All mice inoculated with the non-virulent TgCTBR5 strain survived after 30 days, although irreversible tissue damage was found. In contrast, no mice were resistant to infection with the highly virulent TgCTBR9 strain. The TgCTBr16 strain resulted in 80% survival in mice. However, this strain presented low infectivity, especially by the oral route of infection. Despite being identified with the same genotype, TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains showed biological differences. Histopathologic analysis revealed liver and lungs to be the most affected organs, and the pattern of tissue injury was similar to that found in mice inoculated perorally with strains belonging to clonal genotypes. However, there was a variation in the intensity of ileum lesions according to T. gondii strain and mouse lineage. C57BL/6 mice showed higher susceptibility than BALB/c for histological lesions. Taken together, these results revealed that the pathogenesis of T. gondii strains belonging to atypical genotypes can induce similar tissue damage to those from clonal genotypes, although intrinsic aspects of the strains seem critical to the induction of ileitis in the infected host. PMID:26072201

  16. Partial Protective Effect of Intranasal Immunization with Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry Protein 17 against Toxoplasmosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Tie-E; Yin, Li-Tian; Pang, Min; Guan, Li; Liu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Zheng, Guo-Ping; Yin, Guo-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a variety of mammals, including humans. An effective vaccine for this parasite is therefore needed. In this study, RH strain T. gondii rhoptry protein 17 was expressed in bacteria as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the recombinant proteins (rTgROP17) were purified via GST-affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were nasally immunised with rTgROP17, and induction of immune responses and protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections were investigated. The results revealed that mice immunised with rTgROP17 produced high levels of specific anti-rTgROP17 IgGs and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response of IgG2a predominance. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-γand IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, and enhanced lymphoproliferation (stimulation index, SI) in the mice immunised with rTgROP17. Strong mucosal immune responses with increased secretion of TgROP17-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes were also observed in these mice. The vaccinated mice displayed apparent protection against chronic RH strain infection as evidenced by their lower liver and brain parasite burdens (59.17% and 49.08%, respectively) than those of the controls. The vaccinated mice also exhibited significant protection against lethal infection of the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%) compared to the controls. Our data demonstrate that rTgROP17 can trigger strong systemic and mucosal immune responses against T. gondii and that ROP17 is a promising candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25255141

  17. Partial protective effect of intranasal immunization with recombinant Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 17 against toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Tie-E; Yin, Li-Tian; Pang, Min; Guan, Li; Liu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Meng, Xiao-Li; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Zheng, Guo-Ping; Yin, Guo-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a variety of mammals, including humans. An effective vaccine for this parasite is therefore needed. In this study, RH strain T. gondii rhoptry protein 17 was expressed in bacteria as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the recombinant proteins (rTgROP17) were purified via GST-affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were nasally immunised with rTgROP17, and induction of immune responses and protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections were investigated. The results revealed that mice immunised with rTgROP17 produced high levels of specific anti-rTgROP17 IgGs and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response of IgG2a predominance. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-γand IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, and enhanced lymphoproliferation (stimulation index, SI) in the mice immunised with rTgROP17. Strong mucosal immune responses with increased secretion of TgROP17-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes were also observed in these mice. The vaccinated mice displayed apparent protection against chronic RH strain infection as evidenced by their lower liver and brain parasite burdens (59.17% and 49.08%, respectively) than those of the controls. The vaccinated mice also exhibited significant protection against lethal infection of the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50%) compared to the controls. Our data demonstrate that rTgROP17 can trigger strong systemic and mucosal immune responses against T. gondii and that ROP17 is a promising candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. PMID:25255141

  18. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23293164

  19. A chloroplast-derived Toxoplasma gondii GRA4 antigen used as an oral vaccine protects against toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Del L Yácono, María; Farran, Inmaculada; Becher, Melina L; Sander, Valeria; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Martín, Valentina; Veramendi, Jon; Clemente, Marina

    2012-12-01

    The parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, the causal agent of toxoplasmosis, can infect most mammals and birds. In human medicine, T. gondii can cause complications in pregnant women and immunodeficient individuals, while in veterinary medicine, T. gondii infection has economic importance due to abortion and neonatal loss in livestock. Thus, the development of an effective anti-Toxoplasma vaccine would be of great value. In this study, we analysed the expression of T. gondii GRA4 antigen by chloroplast transformation (chlGRA4) in tobacco plants and evaluated the humoral and cellular responses and the grade of protection after oral administration of chlGRA4 in a murine model. The Western blot analysis revealed a specific 34-kDa band mainly present in the insoluble fractions. The chlGRA4 accumulation levels were approximately 6 μg/g of fresh weight (equivalent to 0.2% of total protein). Oral immunization with chlGRA4 resulted in a decrease of 59% in the brain cyst load of mice compared to control mice. ChlGRA4 immunization elicited both a mucosal immune response characterized by the production of specific IgA, and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 secretion by mesenteric lymph node cells, and a systemic response in terms of GRA4-specific serum antibodies and secretion of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 by splenocytes. Our results indicate that oral administration of chlGRA4 promotes the elicitation of both mucosal and systemic balanced Th1/Th2 responses that control Toxoplasma infection, reducing parasite loads. PMID:23020088

  20. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) with fatal toxoplasmosis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Basso, W; Mor, G; Quiroga, M A; Pardini, L; Bacigalupe, D; Venturini, L; Valenzuela, M C; Balducchi, D; Maksimov, P; Schares, G; Venturini, M C

    2009-05-12

    In this study, the diagnosis of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in three captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the zoo of La Plata, Argentina and the invitro isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii are reported. The animals showed depression, dyspnea and hypothermia, and also ataxia in one case, and died within 1-5 days. The main histopathological lesions included interstitial pneumonia, non-suppurative inflammatory changes and focal necrosis in liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Tachyzoites or tissue cysts were present in lung, liver, spleen, brain, striated muscle, kidney, intestine and mesenteric lymph node sections, and stained strongly with T. gondii antiserum in immunohistochemical analysis. T. gondii was isolated in Swiss mice and in bovine monocytes cultures from tissues of one of the meerkats. The isolate was cryopreserved and it was named TG-Suricata-1. T. gondii DNA was demonstrated in tissues of all three animals and in tachyzoites isolated in cell cultures. The PCR-RFLP analysis of markers based in the loci 3'-SAG2, 5'-SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, c22-8, L358, PK1, c29-2 and Apico of T. gondii produced patterns corresponding to the clonal type III. Type III strains of T. gondii possess no or only little virulence in the mouse model, however their association with virulence in other animal species is uncertain. In the present case, T. gondii of the clonal lineage III was responsible for fatal cases in S. suricatta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from S. suricatta. PMID:19201541

  1. Significance of a common 65kDa antigen in the experimental fasciolosis and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; Toaleb, Nagwa Ibrahim; Abdel-Rahman, Eman Hussein

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, cross-reaction between two important zoonotic parasites; extracellular helminthes Fasciola gigantica and intracellular protozoa Toxoplasma gondii was proved by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Five antigens were used to identify and compare the cross-binding activities in the prepared antisera. Two F. gigantica antigens; adult flukes (FgA) and eggs (FgEA) were used to detect IgG in T. gondii naturally infected human sera (TgIHS) and experimentally infected sera of sheep (TgISS), mice (TgIMS) and rats (TgIRS). Three types of T. gondii antigens; RH (TgRHA), local sheep isolate (TgLA) and ME49 isolate (TgMEA) were used to detect cross binding activities in F. gigantica experimental infected rabbit sera (FgIRS) and F. gigantica naturally infected bovine sera (FgIBS). The cross-binding activities in the prepared antisera were strongly directed towards FgA and TgLA rather than the other antigens. The characterization of the five antigens using SDS-PAGE showed 4 common bands of FgA and TgLA; 165, 97, 76, and 65kDa. While two common bands were observed between TgRHA, TgMEA and FgA; 165, and 65kDa. Whereas, two common bands found between three types of T. gondii antigens and FgEA were identified; 165 and 65kDa. The immunogenic cross-reactive bands between FgA and TgLA with F. gigantica infected bovine sera were identified by immunoblot. In FgA, the common immunogenic bands were 165, 65 and 14kDa. While in TgLA, common immunogenic bands were 165 and 65kDa. Whereas, the common immunogenic band between FgA and TgLA identified with T. gondii experimentally infected sheep sera was 65kDa. The current research proves cross reaction between F. gigantica and T. gondii. One common band of 65kDa showed broad immunogenic cross-reactivity with the developed antisera raising the prospect of being putative common immunodiagnostic candidate of both infections. PMID:26345069

  2. Seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors for toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs from sub-tropical arid parts of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Ahmed, H; Irum, S; Qayyum, M

    2014-12-01

    Pet cats and dogs are an important source of human toxoplasmosis because of their intimate relationship with humans. Present study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs in northern sub-tropical arid region of Pakistan where no such work has been previously conducted. For this study 420 cats and 408 dogs visiting different pet clinics and veterinary hospitals were screened for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA technique. Epidemiological information regarding age, sex, area, outdoor access and hunting practice was obtained from the owners by questionnaire interview. Overall seroprevalence in cats and dogs was 26.43% (111/420) and 28.43% (116/408) respectively. IgG antibodies were found in 23.33% (98) cats and 25.49% (104) dogs while IgM antibodies were found in 3.57% (15) cats and 3.92% (16) dogs. Seroprevalence was significantly high in cats and dogs older than one year. No significant difference was recorded between males and females. Cats and dogs from rural areas showed higher prevalence. Dogs which had access to outside also showed high seroprevalence. The present study indicates that Toxoplasma gondii is widespread in pet animals in Pakistan which may have important implication for public health. PMID:25776604

  3. Immunological Studies of Chronic Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Up-Regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Transforming Growth Factor ? and a Protective Role for Interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, R. E.; Anthony, J. P.; Ferguson, D. J. P.; Byrne, N.; Alexander, J.; Roberts, F.; Roberts, C. W.

    2001-01-01

    A murine model was used to characterize the local immune and inflammatory response during ocular toxoplasmosis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, normally expressed at low levels in immune-privileged sites such as the eye, was up-regulated during infection as determined by competitive reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and immunocytochemistry for both ?2-microglobulin and the MHC class I heavy chain. However, the eyes of chronically infected mice also had increased levels of mRNA transcripts for transforming growth factor ?, a cytokine associated with immune privilege and constitutively expressed in normal eyes. Transcripts for a number of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), were increased during chronic infection. The role of IL-6 was further investigated by comparing disease progression and the development of the local immune response in wild-type (WT) and IL-6-deficient mice (IL-6?/? mice). Following infection, IL-6?/? mice developed more severe inflammation in the retina and vitreous humor compared with WT mice. This increased severity of disease was associated with reduced ocular IL-1? and increased tumor necrosis factor ? mRNA production compared with WT mice. Moreover, the increased severity of disease in IL-6?/? mice correlated with increased eye parasite burden as determined by RT-PCR for the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific LDH2 gene. These results demonstrate alterations to components of immune privilege as a result of ocular toxoplasmosis and a role for IL-6 in controlling parasite numbers and inflammation in the eye. PMID:11254623

  4. Determination of parasitic load in different tissues of murine toxoplasmosis after immunization by excretory-secretory antigens using Real time QPCR.

    PubMed

    Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Dadimoghaddam, Yousef; Souteh, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Khalilian, Alireza; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Farazmand, Touraj; Kalani, Hamed; Rasouli, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    Excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs) of Toxoplasma gondii are one of the candidates for immunization against toxoplasmosis. For evaluation of immunization, we determined the kinetics of the distribution of Toxoplasma and parasite load in different tissues of mice immunized by ESAs. In this experimental study, 36 mice in case (n=18) and control (n=18) groups were immunized with ESAs and PBS, respectively. After 2weeks, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Toxoplasma virulent RH strain. Blood and different tissues (brain, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and muscle) were collected daily after challenge (1, 2, 3 and last day before death). Parasite load was calculated using Real time QPCR targeted at the B1 gene. ESAs as vaccine in different tissues showed various effects. However, infected mice which received the vaccine in comparison with control group, displayed a drastically decreasing in parasite burden, in their blood and tissues (P=0.000). These results indicated that ESAs with reduction of parasite load in different tissues of host could be evaluable candidate for the development of immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis. PMID:24852216

  5. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; de Souza, Diogo Benchimol; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Fábio Conceição; de Melo, João Cardoso; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis. PMID:25742268

  6. Evaluation of semi-quantitative PCR and IgG & IgM ELISA in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in females with miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, Dina M; Hassanein, Omayma

    2004-08-01

    One hundred female (age 20-42 yrs) patients were classified into group I: 40 patients presented with abortion in the first trimester; group II: 33 patients with abortion in the second trimester and group III: 27 patients with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). The positive percentages of semi-quantitative PCR and both IgG & IgM ELISA were 38% and 35% respectively. Ten (26.3%) cases out of 38 were positive for toxoplasmosis by both PCR and ELISA-IgG, while 5 (13.2%) cases out of 38 were positive by both PCR and ELISA-IgM, whereas 16 (42.1%) cases out of 38 PCR positive cases were positive by both ELISA IgG & IgM. Sensitivity and specificity of both ELISA IgG and IgM were 81.57% & 93.54% respectively. False negative by ELISA were found in 7 cases out of 38 positive toxoplasmosis cases detected by semi-quantitative PCR. Three cases out of the 7 cases with false negative by ELISA were detected with a trophozoite copy load of 10(1) trophozoite /mL in the blood sample by semi-quantitative PCR. So, the semi-quantitative PCR detected low levels of parasite DNA recommending its usefulness especially in the early stages of the disease when low amount of antibodies can't be detected by serological method or even by the conventional PCR. PMID:15287178

  7. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  8. Thailand's oil prospects brighten

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that oil exploration and development looks brighter in Thailand while gas prospects are mixed. Thai Shell Exploration and Production Co. Ltd. hopes to bring on stream in 1993 a rarity for Thailand; a commercial oil discovery in the Gulf of Thailand. Meantime, Thailand's top E and P player, Unocal Thailand, has outlined its upstream spending plans and activity for the year.

  9. Prospects for interstellar travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, John H.

    A detailed introduction is presented to the problems of interstellar space travel. The general topics discussed include: basics of travel in space, advanced propulsion methods; relativity and interstellar travel; relativistic drives and problems; starships as systems; missions; astrogation, observation, and communication; technological requirements and hazards; biological requirements; personal, social, and political considerations; interstellar life and civilizations; long-term prospects.

  10. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical

  11. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  12. European Polistes venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Severino, M G; Campi, P; Macchia, D; Manfredi, M; Turillazzi, S; Spadolini, I; Bilò, M B; Bonifazi, F

    2006-07-01

    The American Polistes species venom mixture--that of P. annularis, P. fuscatus, P. metricus and P. exclamans--was the only commercially available mixture for diagnosis and therapy until 1996. However, these species of Polistes are not present in Europe, where P. dominulus and P. gallicus and to a lesser extent P. nimphus are widespread. The aim of this study was to assess the allergenic differences among the commercial American mix, P. dominulus and P. gallicus venom in European patients and therefore to verify if this mixture is suitable for diagnosis in these patients. We carried out skin tests, radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) and RAST inhibition in Italian patients with adverse reactions to Polistes stings. RAST inhibition results demonstrated that cross-reactivity between the American and European species is only partial and that P. dominulus and P. gallicus venoms have exclusive allergens. Skin tests and direct RAST confirmed these results and also showed that European Polistes venom is more suitable than the American mix in Italian patients. Moreover, we found a high rate of cross-reactivity between P. dominulus and P. gallicus. To conclude, P. dominulus and/or P. gallicus venoms are necessary for diagnosis and therefore in the therapy of European patients. PMID:16792585

  13. Eastern European Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iordanova, Dina

    1999-01-01

    Presents a structure for a course that highlights the best cinemas of Eastern European countries, in order to acquaint students with cinematic traditions of the region. Discusses course activities, coursework and evaluation, and resources. Advocates structuring the course around the film of experience of Eastern Europe, and presents and discusses…

  14. Eastern European Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iordanova, Dina

    1999-01-01

    Presents a structure for a course that highlights the best cinemas of Eastern European countries, in order to acquaint students with cinematic traditions of the region. Discusses course activities, coursework and evaluation, and resources. Advocates structuring the course around the film of experience of Eastern Europe, and presents and discusses

  15. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview

  16. Trends in European English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Robert

    It is proposed that a European variety of English without native speakers is emerging as a language of international communication in Europe. This is a consequence of many factors, including the strength of the American economy, the breadth and depth of American research in science and technology, the pervasive influence of American-style popular

  17. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th

  18. The European Economic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchart, Kelvin

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that social studies students need to realize the relationship of the European Economic Community to the United States in order to understand the trade bonds that exist between us. Briefly reviews the history of the Community, outlines its Common Agricultural Policy, and provides situations for classroom role playing. (JDH)

  19. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the

  20. European Green Crab

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The European green crab (Carcinus maenas), has invaded fisheries in Northern California and in British Columbia, where it may compete with the much more valuable Dungeness crab. The CD it holds in its claws is a database for the USGS Pacific Coast Estuarine Information System, just one source used t...

  1. Brief Communication: Latent toxoplasmosis and salivary testosterone concentration--important confounding factors in second to fourth digit ratio studies.

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Lindová, Jitka; Pivoñková, Vera; Havlícek, Jan

    2008-12-01

    A sexually dimorphic characteristic, the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D ratio), has been shown to reflect the prenatal concentration of sex steroid hormones and to correlate with many personality, physiological, and life history traits. The correlations are usually stronger for the right than the left hand. Most studies have shown that the 2D:4D ratio does not vary with age or postnatal concentration of sex steroid hormones. Recently, a strong association between left hand 2D:4D ratio and infection with a common human parasite Toxoplasma has been reported. We hypothesized that the confounding effect of Toxoplasma infection on left hand 2D:4D ratio could be responsible for the stronger association between different traits and right hand rather than left hand 2D:4D ratio. This confounding effect of toxoplasmosis could also be responsible for the difficulty in finding an association between 2D:4D ratio and age or postnatal steroid hormone concentration. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the association between sex and age and 2D:4D ratio in a population of 194 female and 106 male students with and without controlling for the confounding variables of Toxoplasma infection and testosterone concentration. Our results showed that the relationship between age and sex and 2D:4D ratio increased sharply when Toxoplasma infection and testosterone concentration were controlled. These results suggest that left hand 2D:4D ratio is more susceptible to postnatal influences and that the confounding factors of Toxoplasma infection, testosterone concentration and possibly also age, should be controlled in future 2D:4D ratio studies. Because of a stronger 2D:4D dimorphism in Toxoplasma-infected than Toxoplasma-free subjects, we predict that 2D:4D ratio dimorphism as well as right hand/left hand 2D:4D ratio dimorphism will be higher in countries with a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection than in those with a low prevalence. PMID:18615572

  2. Harmonization of European neurology education: the junior doctor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Macerollo, Antonella; Struhal, Walter; Sellner, Johann

    2013-10-29

    The objective of this article, written by executives of the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees (EAYNT), is to illustrate the status quo of neurology training in Europe and give an outlook on ongoing efforts and prospects for junior neurologists. The European Union is an economic and political union that currently encompasses 27 member states with more than 500 million inhabitants (or 7.3% of the world population) (interested readers are referred to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union). Countries of the European Union act as a single market with free movement of citizens, goods, services, and finances. As a consequence, a diploma and postgraduate training obtained in one EU country will be automatically recognized by all other EU member states. At the Lisbon European Council in March 2000, the Heads of State or Government signed a treaty that expresses their ambition of making Europe "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisbon_Strategy). More than 1.6 million physicians in all the different medical specialties are represented by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). The UEMS was founded in 1958 and the objectives include the study, promotion, and harmonization of the highest level of training of medical specialists, medical practice, and health care within the European Union. The European Board of Neurology (UEMS-EBN; www.uems-neuroboard.org) is in charge of the implementation of the UEMS policy regarding neurology. PMID:24166962

  3. Prospecting for lunar resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much larger than elsewhere in a region. (4) We are developing a strategy that represents a comprehensive, integrated program to prospect for resources throughout the solar system. The plan involves a hierarchy of surface exploration techniques. At the base is a huge swarm (thousands to millions) of microrobots equipped with sensors to identify targeted resources. The tiny robots work in consort with sophisticated all- terrain rovers that serve as communication links and make detailed observations at promising locations identified by the microrobots.

  4. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European

  5. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  6. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast between the igneous rocks and the sediments in archaeological context, thus the use of less sensitive instruments works fine for these conditions. Surveys in archaeological sites in Mexico during last 30 years have provided enough evidence that the best conditions to apply magnetic prospection is in lacustrine environment where the ancient inhabitants used igneous rocks as building material. These conditions has been more common than expected in the Trans volcanic Belt where most of the lakes were densely occupied in ancient times. Because most lakes were surrounded by quite recent volcanos, it was pretty common to use the basaltic and andesitic rocks to build the archaeological structures. In this contribution some of the most successful applications of the magnetic technique in archaeology will be shown to illustrate the possibilities of the magnetometry in archaeological prospection.

  7. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants. PMID:25416257

  8. Telemedicine and European law.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues. PMID:15074761

  9. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  10. IgA and IgG1 reactivities assessed by flow cytometry mirror clinical aspects of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Laura Nspoli Nassar Pansini; de Castro Zacche Tonini, Aline; Barros, Geisa Baptista; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela A; Bla, Samantha Ribeiro; do Valle Antonelli, Lis Ribeiro; Machado, Anderson Silva; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Andrade, Glucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Janurio, Jos Nlio; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andra; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Ferro, Elosa A V; Mineo, Jos Roberto; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Lemos, Elenice Moreira

    2016-01-01

    This study intended to apply the flow cytometric analysis of IgA and IgG reactivity and intracytoplasmic cytokine analysis to understand and decode the clinical aspects of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis. The Toxoplasma gondii-infected infants (TOXO) were subdivided according to their clinical aspects based on the absence (NRL), presence of active (ARL), active/cicatricial (ACRL) or cicatricial retinochoroidal lesions (CRL) and compared to non-infected controls (NI). The reactivity of anti-T. gondii IgG subclasses resembles the clinical aspects of ocular lesions. IgG and IgG1 discriminate infants with cicatricial lesions (ACRL and CRL) from both ARL and NLR. IgG2 and IgG3 are particularly higher in ACRL and CRL as compared to NLR. No differences were observed when IgG4 reactivity was evaluated. Thus, the results indicated that the reactivity patterns of IgA, IgG and IgG subclasses are able to discriminate ARL, ACRL and CRL from NLR or NI. IgA and IgG subclasses are relevant serological biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic applicability, respectively. Moreover, IgA and IgG1 were closely related to cytokine production by innate/adaptive immunity cells. IgA reactivity was directly associated to TNF-?-derived from neutrophils, monocytes and CD8(+) T-cells, while IgG1 was inversely correlated with IFN-?-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells but positively correlated with IL-10(+) B-cells. These findings provide insights on the relationship between the cytokine production by innate/adaptive immunity and the antibody pattern of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition, the present study supports the use of flow cytometric serology as a potential tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of ocular lesions in T. gondii-infected infants in the clinical setting. PMID:26592658

  11. Outpatient prospective payment.

    PubMed

    Matson, T

    1991-08-01

    In September of this year, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) will present Congress with its recommendations for developing a prospective payment system for all Medicare outpatient services. Whichever plan is ultimately adopted, this system of payment will greatly impact the structure and management of outpatient services and, in particular, reimbursement for radiology services and use of technologies. While a system is perhaps at least two years away from full-scale implementation, providers are already witnessing diminishing reimbursement as a result of incremental payment changes since the early 1980's. With the across-the-board cuts of six percent for all hospital outpatient services, authorized for the first time last year by Congress, some providers are experiencing an escalation of payment short-falls. Further, if current experience with implementation of the inpatient prospective payment system is replicated in the outpatient arena, payments will not only be less but they will be dramatically different for various providers. Since implementation of DRGs, Medicare has achieved savings of $18 billion for inpatient care. While some hospitals have reported their best years financially, others are consolidating or closing. A prospective payment system for outpatients will also have such "winners and losers," but as a single policy initiative it will probably have a greater impact than both DRGs and the resource-based relative value scale (RBRVS) combined. Because fixed payments for inpatients have proliferated the push to outpatient care, a DRG-like system for outpatients will result in capping payments for the entire continuum of services provided in hospitals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10113061

  12. The European general thoracic surgery database project

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Database is a free registry created by ESTS in 2001. The current online version was launched in 2007. It runs currently on a Dendrite platform with extensive data security and frequent backups. The main features are a specialty-specific, procedure-specific, prospectively maintained, periodically audited and web-based electronic database, designed for quality control and performance monitoring, which allows for the collection of all general thoracic procedures. Data collection is the backbone of the ESTS database. It includes many risk factors, processes of care and outcomes, which are specially designed for quality control and performance audit. The user can download and export their own data and use them for internal analyses and quality control audits. The ESTS database represents the gold standard of clinical data collection for European General Thoracic Surgery. Over the past years, the ESTS database has achieved many accomplishments. In particular, the database hit two major milestones: it now includes more than 235 participating centers and 70,000 surgical procedures. The ESTS database is a snapshot of surgical practice that aims at improving patient care. In other words, data capture should become integral to routine patient care, with the final objective of improving quality of care within Europe. PMID:24868445

  13. Influences Determining European Coal Seam Gas Deliverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.

    2009-04-01

    Technically the coal basins of Europe have generated significant Gas In Place figures that has historically generated investor's interest in the development of this potential coal seam gas (CSG) resource. In the early 1980's, a wave of international, principally American, companies arrived, established themselves, drilled and then left with a poor record of success and disappointed investors. Recently a second wave of investment started after 2002, with the smaller companies leading the charge but have the lesson been learned from the past failures? To select a CSG investment project the common European approach has been to: 1. Find an old mining region; 2. Look to see if it had a coal mine methane gas problem; 3. Look for the non-mined coal seams; and 4. Peg the land. This method is perhaps the reason why the history of CSG exploration in Europe is such a disappointment as generally the coal mining regions of Europe do not have commercial CSG reservoir attributes. As a result, investors and governments have lost confidence that CSG will be a commercial success in Europe. New European specific principles for the determination of commercial CSG prospects have had to be delineated that allow for the selection of coal basins that have a strong technical case for deliverability. This will result in the return of investor confidence.

  14. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  15. The Epistemological Fog in Realising Learning to Learn in European Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leat, David; Thomas, Ulrike; Reid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The European Union is concerned about the economic prospects of its member states as they have to compete against newly emerging economies with lower wages and high ambitions. Part of the strategy to deal with this economic shadow is to create a knowledge economy, but in order to achieve this, a shift to a competence-based curriculum model is seen

  16. Children and ICT European Initiatives and Policies on Protecting Children Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojniak, Justyna; Majorek, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the opportunities of use information and communication technologies for the education purposes. It presents key assumptions of the European Union policy concerning innovative methods of training and the prospects for their further development. As nowadays one can observe increasing activity of the children and young people in…

  17. Prospective bonding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

    1981-07-01

    Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

  18. Applied Astronomy: Asteroid Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.

    2013-09-01

    In the age of asteroid mining the ability to find promising ore-bearing bodies will be valuable. This will give rise to a new discipline- "Applied Astronomy". Just as most geologists work in industry, not in academia, the same will be true of astronomers. Just how rare or common ore-rich asteroids are likely to be, and the skills needed to assay their value, are discussed here, with an emphasis on remote - telescopic - methods. Also considered are the resources needed to conduct extensive surveys of asteroids for prospecting purposes, and the cost and timescale involved. The longer-term need for applied astronomers is also covered.

  19. Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, A J C; Gilbert, R E; Buffolano, W; Zufferey, J; Petersen, E; Jenum, P A; Foulon, W; Semprini, A E; Dunn, D T

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the odds ratio and population attributable fraction associated with food and environmental risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Design Case-control study. Setting Six large European cities. Participants Pregnant women with acute infection (cases) detected by seroconversion or positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM were compared with pregnant women seronegative for toxoplasma (controls). Main outcome measures Odds ratios for acute infection adjusted for confounding variables; the population attributable fraction for risk factors. Results Risk factors most strongly predictive of acute infection in pregnant women were eating undercooked lamb, beef, or game, contact with soil, and travel outside Europe and the United States and Canada. Contact with cats was not a risk factor. Between 30% and 63% of infections in different centres were attributed to consumption of undercooked or cured meat products and 6% to 17% to soil contact. Conclusions Inadequately cooked or cured meat is the main risk factor for infection with toxoplasma in all centres. Preventive strategies should aim to reduce prevalence of infection in meat, improve labelling of meat according to farming and processing methods, and improve the quality and consistency of health information given to pregnant women. PMID:10894691

  20. Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

  1. Neosporosis, Toxoplasmosis, Sarcocystosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are related coccidian parasites that can cause abortion and neonatal mortality in animals. In addition, T. gondii and certain species of Sarcocystis are zoonotic. This paper reviews information on etiology, diagnosis, control and prevention...

  2. Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a revierw of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in cats and dogs. Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite of all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondi...

  3. Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inside the cells of humans and animals, especially cats and farm animals. If you have been pregnant, ... by cleaning the litter box of an infected cat or eating undercooked meat or other contaminated foods. ...

  4. Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent throughout the world. This chapter discusses modes of transmission, the epidemiology of T. gondii infection worldwide and in Brazil, and methods of prevention and control....

  5. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Toxoplasma . Cats and kittens prefer litter boxes, garden soils, and sandboxes for elimination, and you may be ... Fruits and vegetables may have contact with contaminated soil or water also, and you can be infected ...

  6. Toxoplasmosis and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office on Women's Health Breastfeeding for Parents La Leche League International One-on- ... Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office on Women's Health Breastfeeding for Parents La Leche League International One-on- ...

  7. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or sand because it might be contaminated with cat feces that contain Toxoplasma . Wash hands with soap ... else clean the litter box. (CDC Photo) Feed cats only canned or dried commercial food or well- ...

  8. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the intestinal tracts of many animals, particularly cats. Infectious organisms are shed in cat feces, and are introduced into the body by ... is prudent for pregnant women to avoid handling cat litter boxes, cat feces, sandboxes, and any insects ...

  9. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  10. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  11. European drought trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    Recent climate projections suggest pronounced changes in European drought frequency. In the north, increased precipitation volumes are likely to reduce drought occurrence, whereas more frequent droughts are expected for southern Europe. To assess whether this pattern of changes in drought frequency can already be identified for the past decades, we analyse trends in a recently developed pan-European drought climatology that is based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The index is derived on multiple time scales, ranging from 1 to 36 months, which allows the assessment of trends in both short term and multi-year droughts. Trends are quantified using the Theil-Sen trend estimator combined with an extension of the Mann-Kendal test (p < 0.05) that accounts for serial correlation. Field significance is assessed on the basis of techniques that control the false discovery rate in a multiple testing setting. The trend analysis indicates that changes in drought frequency are more pronounced on time scales of one year and longer. The analysis also reveals that there has been a tendency for decreased drought frequency in northern Europe in the past decades, whereas droughts have likely become more frequent in selected southern regions.

  12. Prospect Theory and Coercive Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite many applications of prospect theory's concepts to explain political and strategic phenomena, formal analyses of strategic problems using prospect theory are rare. Using Fearon's model of bargaining, Tversky and Kahneman's value function, and an existing probability weighting function, I construct a model that demonstrates the differences

  13. Prospective Memory Performance across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Kliegel, Matthias; Yang, Zhiliang; Liu, Wei

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored age differences in event-based prospective memory (PM) across adolescence. The tasks consisted of an ongoing task (OT; i.e., personality questionnaire items, math problems) and an embedded prospective task that required participants to remember to make a special response whenever they encountered a PM cue

  14. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school desegregation situation

  15. [Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Chile. V. Prevalence of the infection in humans and domestic and wild animals, studied by indirect hemagglutination reaction, in the Juan Fernndez Archipelago. V Region].

    PubMed

    Stutzin, M; Contreras, M C; Schenone, H

    1989-01-01

    A serological study utilizing an indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for toxoplasmosis was carried out in 222 humans and in 58 domestic animals (31 dogs, Canis familiaris; 27 cats, Felis catus), and in 62 wild mammals distributed into 50 rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus and 12 goats, Capra hircus. This survey was performed in the Juan Fernndez Archipelago, formed by three islands: Robinson Crusoe, Santa Clara and Alejandro Selkirk (80 degrees 47'-78 degrees 47' west long., and 33 degrees 36'-33 degrees 47' south lat.). Blood samples were collected in filter paper and IHAT with titres greater than or equal to 1:16 were considered positive. This survey showed a prevalence of 42.3% in humans with no difference between men (43.0%) and women (41.5%). A high prevalence was found within groups of young individuals (0 to 19 years old), men and women. Regarding the domestic animal population, 44.8% resulted positive, distributed as follows: dogs 9.7% and cats 85.2%. Twenty one percent of wild animals were positive, distributed as follows: rabbits 8.0% and goats 75.0%. The global prevalence of toxoplasmosis in animals (domestic and wild) was 32.5%. All titres in humans and animals were less than or equal to 1:512. Toxoplasmosis is well extended among the human and animal population of the Juan Fernndez Archipelago. PMID:2629770

  16. Toxoplasma gondii: Vaccination with a DNA vaccine encoding T- and B-cell epitopes of SAG1, GRA2, GRA7 and ROP16 elicits protection against acute toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Aiping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Xun; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Qunli; Cong, Hua; He, Shenyi; Zhou, Huaiyu

    2015-11-27

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate, intracellular, protozoan parasite that infects large variety of warm-blooded animals including humans, livestock, and marine mammals, and causes the disease toxoplasmosis. Although T. gondii infection rates differ significantly from country to country, it still has a high morbidity and mortality. In these circumstances, developing an effective vaccine against T. gondii is urgently needed for preventing and treating toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to construct a multi-epitopes DNA vaccine and evaluate the immune protective efficacy against acute toxoplasmosis in mice. Therefore, twelve T- and B-cell epitopes from SAG1, GRA2, GRA7 and ROP16 of T. gondii were predicted by bioinformatics analysis, and then a multi-epitopes DNA vaccine was constructed. Mice immunized with the multi-epitopes DNA vaccine gained higher levels of IgG titers and IgG2a subclass titers, significant production of gamma interferon (IFN-?), percentage of T lymphocyte subsets, and longer survival times against the acute infection of T. gondii compared with those of mice administered with empty plasmid and those in control groups. Furthermore, a genetic adjuvant pEGFP-RANTES (pRANTES) could enhance the efficacy of the multi-epitopes DNA vaccine associating with humoral and cellular (Th1, CD8(+) T cell) immune responses. Above all, the DNA vaccine and the genetic adjuvant revealed in this study might be new candidates for further vaccine development against T. gondii infection. PMID:26518401

  17. SVX b physics prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Dell`Agnello, S. |; The CDF Collaboration

    1992-11-01

    CDF has enhanced its capabilities for b-physics with the installation of a silicon vertex detector (SVX), which provides precise 2-dimensional tracking. The SVX impact parameter (IP) resolution ({approximately} 13{mu}m for P{sub t} {gt} 10 GeV) is well suited to detecting displaced secondary vertices (SV) from b-hadron decays (c{tau}{sub B} {approx_equal} 390{mu}m). In this paper we show evidence of SV detection using the {Psi} {yields} {mu}{sup {plus}} {mu}{sup {minus}} sample, which is b-enriched, and describe some prospects of b physics opened by the SVX with 25 pb{sup {minus}1}, the goal integrated luminosity of present run.

  18. Prospects at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs.

  19. Prospecting with neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    One of the latest attempts to explore the interface between physics and geophysics is the extravagant scheme of Alvaro De Rjula, Sheldon Glashow, Robert Wilson, and Georges Charpak, to be published in Physics Reports. In what these theoretical and experimental physicists described recently as our mad project (Physics Today, August 1983), a high-energy neutrino beam is to be used as a geophysical prospecting tool.The beam would be able to look for oil, natural gas, and high-atomic-number metal ores, and it would be able to profile the vertical density distribution of the earth. De Rjula et al. come to this project from the world of big physics machines, so it is natural to expect that the Geotron, the field instrument to supply and focus the neutrino beam, is to be big also.

  20. A New Impetus for European Youth. European Commission White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    Despite their highly divergent situations, young people largely share the same values, ambitions, and difficulties. Despite the more complex social and economic context in which young Europeans are currently living, they are well equipped to adapt. National and European policymakers must facilitate this process of change by making young people

  1. SAGE - European ozonesonde comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, R.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Between February and December 1979, 30 correlative comparisons were conducted of ozone profiles derived from the satellite sensor SAGE and those derived from balloon-borne ozonesondes launched in Europe. The mean absolute differences between SAGE and the European sondes when ozone mixing ratio is used as the basis of comparison are listed, and ozone comparisons made at four stations in Europe are plotted as ozone mixing ratio versus altitude. The agreement is considered quite reasonable. Also shown is an April 2, 1979 Garmisch comparison where the time and space differences were very small. The agreement is found to be remarkable. For example, the ratio of SAGE to ozonesonde values at 13 out of 17 levels between 12.5 and 28.5 km lies in the range 0.92-1.06.

  2. Optranet: a European project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanjean, Marie

    2003-10-01

    In a situation where curricula did not adjust at the required pace and many students are getting attracted out of science and technology, the shortage of skilled workers at the technician and engineer level is known to be a threat to development. In spite of a serious crisis in 2001, the trend of an increased presence of optical technologies remains unchanged and is bound to remain part of the landscape for decades. The level of investment required and the markets make Europe the best scale to plan for unified curricula and a global analysis of the human resources needs. There is no agreement on the definition of a trained optician, and European countries differ in the way they educate opticians, source of a lack of clarity and visibility which is detrimental to attracting good students and to the job market. Through its closely work with companies, OPTRANET will propose measures to enhance the adequacy and the visibility of the training offer.

  3. Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

  4. European Nations Seek Compatible Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    1999-01-01

    After developing independently of each other for centuries, European higher-education systems are beginning serious efforts to "harmonize" their systems. The goal is to promote European integration and economic growth by making academic standards and degrees compatible across national boundaries. The Bologna Declaration of May 1999 formalizes the

  5. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European…

  6. Adult Education and European Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negt, Oskar

    2008-01-01

    Europe is coming together. This is a historic project; for the first time in modern history, will and consciousness are used for bringing political, social and cultural unity to the European continent. In this process lifelong learning and hence adult education are gaining in importance. The European project takes place in an age characterised by…

  7. European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction

  8. What Audience for European Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendelbo, Harald Arni

    This discussion of the audience for European television argues that satellite television has taken an upside-down approach, i.e., it has begun by focusing on the hardware, and then the software, before checking to see if there would be a user at the end of the line willing to pay for the whole operation. "European television" is then defined as

  9. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education

  10. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success. PMID:23800302

  12. Impairment of the cellular immune response in acute murine toxoplasmosis: regulation of interleukin 2 production and macrophage-mediated inhibitory effects.

    PubMed Central

    Haque, S; Khan, I; Haque, A; Kasper, L

    1994-01-01

    Depression of the cellular immune response to Toxoplasma gondii has been reported in both mice and humans. The present study was undertaken to determine the kinetics and mechanism of the observed downregulation of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production during experimental murine toxoplasmosis. For these investigations, the cell-mediated immune response to the wild type (PTg) was compared with that to the less-virulent mutant parasite (PTgB), which is deficient in the major surface antigen, p30 (SAG-1). Spleen cells from infected A/J mice failed to proliferate in response to Toxoplasma antigens during the first week of infection. Both PTg- and PTgB-infected A/J mice exhibited a significant reduction in the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced lymphoproliferative response. Further, the response of splenocytes from mice infected with the wild-type parasite was significantly diminished compared with that of mice infected with PTgB. The lymphoproliferative response to Con A reached its nadir at day 7 and remained below control levels for at least 14 days postinfection. By day 21 postinfection, the response to Con A and to Toxoplasma antigens was restored to the level observed prior to day 7. Con A-stimulated culture supernatants of spleen cells from mice on day 7 postinfection contained significantly less IL-2 than normal mice. There was no significant difference in the numbers of binding sites or capacity of high-affinity IL-2 receptors between infected and normal mouse splenocytes as determined by Scatchard analysis. Exogenous IL-2 at different concentrations failed to restore the proliferative response of lymphocytes from infected mice to Con A. Adherent macrophages from 7-day-infected mice were able to suppress IL-2 production by normal splenocytes following stimulation with Con A. The inhibitory activity mediated by infected cells was reversed by the antibody to IL-10 but not transforming growth factor beta. There were insignificant levels of nitric oxide production in both infected and normal splenocytes. These results indicate that during acute murine toxoplasmosis, there is a well-defined period (day 7) during which both the T-cell mitogen and parasite antigen-associated lymphoproliferative response are reduced. Further, there is a reduction in the production of IL-2 and an increase in IL-10, which appear to mediate, in part, the observed downregulation of immunity to T. gondii. PMID:8005679

  13. European Citizenship and European Union Expansion: Perspectives on Europeanness and Citizenship Education from Britain and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Chris; Busher, Hugh; Lawson, Tony; Acun, Ismail; Goz, Nur Leman

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some perspectives on citizenship education in Turkey and Britain in the context of current contested discourses on the nature of European identity and of the European Union (EU). It is based on data collected during an EU-funded student teacher exchange programme between three universities in Turkey and Leicester University

  14. Resolution in Electromagnetic Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) signals are commonly used in geophysical exploration of the shallow subsurface. Sensitivity to conductivity implies they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of porous media. However, low-frequency EM wavefields are diffusive, and have significantly larger wavelengths compared to seismic signals of equal frequency. The wavelength of a 30 Hz sinusoid propagating with seismic velocity 3000 m/s is 100 m, whereas an analogous EM signal diffusing through a conductive body of 0.1 S/m (clayey shale) has wavelength 1825 m. The larger wavelength has implications for resolution of the EM prospecting method. We are investigating resolving power of the EM method via theoretical and numerical experiments. Normal incidence plane wave reflection/transmission by a thin geologic bed is amenable to analytic solution. Responses are calculated for beds that are conductive or resistive relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate the classic seismic resolution/detection limit of bed thickness ~1/8 wavelength is not achieved. EM responses for point or line current sources recorded by general acquisition geometries are calculated with a 3D finite-difference algorithm. These exhibit greater variability which may allow inference of bed thickness. We also examine composite responses of two point scatterers with separation when illuminated by an incident EM field. This is analogous to the Rayleigh resolution problem of estimating angular separation between two light sources. The First Born Approximation implies that perturbations in permittivity, permeability, and conductivity have different scattering patterns, which may be indicators of EM medium properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: Seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lehmann, T; Lautner, F; Kwok, O C H; Gamble, H R

    2015-11-30

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chickens. In the present study 90 Toxoplasma gondii seronegative, sentinel chickens were placed on three (30 each) swine farms in New England in November, 2003. Chickens were bled monthly and their sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Chickens that seroconverted were euthanized and their tissues were bioassayed in mice, cats, or both. Over the course of the experiment (7 months), 31 of 71 chickens seroconverted (MAT 1:100 or higher). Tissues of 26 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in both cats and mice; viable T. gondii was isolated, by bioassay in mice, from hearts (whole) of all 26 chickens, brains (whole) of 3 chickens and leg muscles (25g) of 11 chickens; 21 of 26 cats fed 250g of muscle from seropositive chickens excreted T. gondii oocysts. Results indicated that the density of T. gondii in poultry muscle is low but heart is the tissue of choice for isolation of viable parasites. PMID:26391819

  16. Severe South American Ocular Toxoplasmosis Is Associated with Decreased Ifn-?/Il-17a and Increased Il-6/Il-13 Intraocular Levels

    PubMed Central

    de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sauer, Arnaud; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Bourcier, Tristan; Brunet, Julie; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Ballonzoli, Laurent; Villard, Odile; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Sundar, Natarajan; Grigg, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    In a cross sectional study, 19 French and 23 Colombian cases of confirmed active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) were evaluated. The objective was to compare clinical, parasitological and immunological responses and relate them to the infecting strains. A complete ocular examination was performed in each patient. The infecting strain was characterized by genotyping when intraocular Toxoplasma DNA was detectable, as well as by peptide-specific serotyping for each patient. To characterize the immune response, we assessed Toxoplasma protein recognition patterns by intraocular antibodies and the intraocular profile of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Significant differences were found for size of active lesions, unilateral macular involvement, unilateral visual impairment, vitreous inflammation, synechiae, and vasculitis, with higher values observed throughout for Colombian patients. Multilocus PCR-DNA sequence genotyping was only successful in three Colombian patients revealing one type I and two atypical strains. The Colombian OT patients possessed heterogeneous atypical serotypes whereas the French were uniformly reactive to type II strain peptides. The protein patterns recognized by intraocular antibodies and the cytokine patterns were strikingly different between the two populations. Intraocular IFN-? and IL-17 expression was lower, while higher levels of IL-13 and IL-6 were detected in aqueous humor of Colombian patients. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that South American strains may cause more severe OT due to an inhibition of the protective effect of IFN-?. PMID:24278490

  17. A maternal screening program for congenital toxoplasmosis in Quindio, Colombia and application of mathematical models to estimate incidences using age-stratified data.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Marin, J E; Montoya-de-Londono, M T; Castano-Osorio, J C

    1997-08-01

    We studied 937 pregnant women from Quindio, Colombia for the presence of specific anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect immunofluorescence antibody technique (IFAT-IgG). Specific anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies detected using the immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAgA-IgM) were investigated in patients with high titers in the IFAT-IgG (dilutions > or = 1:1,024). We used mathematical models based on the age prevalence results of the IFAT-IgG to estimate the number of seroconversions and these were compared with the results predicted by the IgM based-incidence results. We found 15 positive cases by ISAgA-IgM and we were able to follow the children of six mothers from this group in which we found one case of congenital toxoplasmosis with the development of a retinal scar despite prenatal and postnatal treatment. The estimation of new cases for the annual total of pregnancies (approximately 8,000) in the Quindio region was 30-120 according to the ISAgA-IgM results and 57-85 using mathematical models. Thus, mathematical models based on age prevalence can give useful estimations of the magnitude of the problem. PMID:9288813

  18. North European Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland image a collage of older continental fragments and intervening basins that have been welded together in Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola orogenies. The Lapland-Kola orogen record the collision of Baltica and Laurentia during the compilation of the Columbia supercontinent. The collisional structures were overprinted by extension associated with the dispersal of Columbia. The Russian Arctic line 1-AR focuses on the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover of the Barents Sea Basin. The line images the transition from Paleoproterozoic Baltica to Neoproterozoic Barentsia. As part of the Rodinia supercontinent formation, Baltica collided with Barentsia resulting in Timanide orogeny. During the break-up of Rodinia an aborted rift was formed within the Barentsia. Later peripheral tectonic events modified the interior parts of Barentsia that acted first as a back arc basin and later as a foreland basin to the Uralian and Caledonian orogen during the formation of the Pangea supercontinent.

  19. European MEMS foundries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  20. Conceptual modeling for Prospective Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gantner-Br, Marion; Djanatliev, Anatoli; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Sedlmayr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Prospective Health Technology Assessment (ProHTA) is a new and innovative approach to analyze and assess new technologies, methods and procedures in health care. Simulation processes are used to model innovations before the cost-intensive design and development phase. Thus effects on patient care, the health care system as well as health economics aspects can be estimated. To generate simulation models a valid information base is necessary and therefore conceptual modeling is most suitable. Project-specifically improved methods and characteristics of simulation modeling are combined in the ProHTA Conceptual Modeling Process and initially implemented for acute ischemic stroke treatment in Germany. Additionally the project aims at simulation of other diseases and health care systems as well. ProHTA is an interdisciplinary research project within the Cluster of Excellence for Medical Technology - Medical Valley European Metropolitan Region Nuremberg (EMN), which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), project grant No. 01EX1013B. PMID:22874147

  1. European strategies for mental health.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The most recent developments of strategies and policies in the mental health field in Europe are related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health signed by all the Ministers of Health of all Member States in the European Region (2005). The Action Plan proposes ways and means of developing comprehensive mental health policies, listing 12 areas in which challenges are indicated and detailed actions are required. Afterwards the Green Paper on Mental Health has been launched by the European Commission for the definition of an European strategy. The more precise European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being has been presented in 2008. Many other international bodies (OECD, Council of Europe, etc.) have actively worked to stress the mental health issue. All are clearly referring to the Italian model, started 30 years ago. PMID:19567979

  2. Papillomatosis in a European bison.

    PubMed

    Literk, I; Tomita, Y; Ogawa, T; Shirasawa, H; Smd, B; Novotny, L; Adamec, M

    2006-01-01

    Five European bison (Bison bonasus) from three European zoos were shipped to the Bukovsk Vrchy Hills (Slovakia) in June 2004 and kept together in an acclimatization enclosure. The European bison were released into the wild in December 2004. At that time, papillomas were found at the medial canthus of the left eye of a 12-yr-old female bison. Cutaneous papillomatosis was confirmed histologically. Negative stain transmission electron microscopic examination revealed papillomavirus in the papillomas, and papillomavirus DNA also was detected using the polymerase chain reaction with FAP59 and FAP64 primers. The amplified 413 bp DNA sequence was identical to that of BAPV2 bovine papillomavirus. This paper is the first report of papillomatosis in European bison. PMID:16699157

  3. Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n"=713, ages 9-11years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.

  4. The future of European Communications Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.

    1984-02-01

    The paper, which is based on the work of a Eurospace Study Group on future prospects, reviews the problems arising from the introduction of new technologies in the industrial process of developing and manufacturing communications satellites, covering the topics of engineering, manufacturing, integration and test, and in-space management. It continues by considering the commerical and industrial problems encountered by European manufacturers, and the contractual and legal problems arising from the change of customer base, from ESA to user organizations, and from the political problems which stem from cross-border transmission of TV broadcasting and data transfer. It then considers the marketing problems of the spacecraft manufacturer - his remoteness from the end-user of telecommunications circuits, the competition from new technology in conventional communications, and the intense competition from U.S. competitors, who have the advantage of both military and domestic and international civil programs on which to develop technology. It concludes with a brief review of current and future spacecraft developments by British Aerospace, and some possible communications satellite configurations for the 1990's.

  5. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Results of the HDR-ALLO study – a prospective clinical trial by the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante de Médula Osea (GEL/TAMO) and the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sureda, Anna; Canals, Carme; Arranz, Reyes; Caballero, Dolores; Ribera, Josep Maria; Brune, Mats; Passweg, Jacob; Martino, Rodrigo; Valcárcel, David; Besalduch, Joan; Duarte, Rafael; León, Angel; Pascual, Maria Jesus; García-Noblejas, Ana; Corral, Lucia López; Xicoy, Bianca; Sierra, Jordi; Schmitz, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a highly curable disease with modern chemotherapy protocols, some patients are primary refractory or relapse after first-line chemotherapy or even after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. We investigated the potential role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in this setting. Design and Methods In this phase II study 92 patients with relapsed Hodgkin’s lymphoma and an HLA-identical sibling, a matched unrelated donor or a one antigen mismatched, unrelated donor were treated with salvage chemotherapy followed by reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation. Fourteen patients showed refractory disease and died from progressive lymphoma with a median overall survival after trial entry of 10 months (range, 6–17). Seventy-eight patients proceeded to allograft (unrelated donors, n=23). Fifty were allografted in complete or partial remission and 28 in stable disease. Fludarabine (150 mg/m2 iv) and melphalan (140 mg/m2 iv) were used as the conditioning regimen. Anti-thymocyte globulin was additionally used as graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis for recipients of grafts from unrelated donors. Results The non-relapse mortality rate was 8% at 100 days and 15% at 1 year. Relapse was the major cause of failure. The progression-free survival rate was 47% at 1 year and 18% at 4 years from trial entry. For the allografted population, the progression-free survival rate was 48% at 1 year and 24% at 4 years. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with a lower incidence of relapse. Patients allografted in complete remission had a significantly better outcome. The overall survival rate was 71% at 1 year and 43% at 4 years. Conclusions Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can result in long-term progression-free survival in heavily pre-treated patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The reduced intensity conditioning approach significantly reduced non-relapse mortality; the high relapse rate represents the major remaining challenge in this setting. The HDR-Allo trial was registered in the European Clinical Trials Database (EUDRACT, https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/) with number 02-0036 PMID:21993674

  6. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Functionality and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Diverse structural, functional and valuable polysaccharides are synthesized by bacteria of all taxa and secreted into the external environment. These polysaccharides are referred to as exopolysaccharides and they may either be homopolymeric or heteropolymeric in composition and of diverse high molecular weights (10 to 1000 kDa). The material properties of exopolysaccharides have revolutionized the industrial and medical sectors due to their retinue of functional applications and prospects. These applications have been extensive in areas such as pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmeceutical, herbicides and insecticides among others, while prospects includes uses as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunomodulation, anticancer and as bioflocculants. Due to the extensive applications of bacterial exopolysaccharides, this overview provides basic information on their physiologic and morphologic functions as well as their applications and prospects in the medical and industrial sectors. PMID:23203046

  7. A European survey on biobanks: trends and issues.

    PubMed

    Zika, E; Paci, D; Braun, A; Rijkers-Defrasne, S; Deschnes, M; Fortier, I; Laage-Hellman, J; Scerri, C A; Ibarreta, D

    2011-01-01

    Biobanks have recently gained great significance for research and personalised medicine, being recognised as a crucial infrastructure. At the same time, the widely varied practices in biobanking may also pose a barrier to cross-border research and collaboration by limiting access to samples and data. Nevertheless, the extent of the actual activities and the impact of the level of networking and harmonisation have not been fully assessed. To address these issues and to obtain missing knowledge on the extent of biobanking in Europe, the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, in collaboration with the European Science and Technology Observatory (ESTO), conducted a survey among European biobanks. In total, 126 biobanks from 23 countries responded to the survey. Most of them are small or medium-sized public collections set up either for population-based or disease-specific research purposes. The survey indicated a limited networking among the infrastructures. The large majority of them are stand-alone collections and only about half indicated to have a policy for cross-border sharing of samples. Yet, scientific collaborations based on the use of each biobank appear to be prominent. Significant variability was found in terms of consent requirements and related procedures as well as for privacy and data protection issues among the biobanks surveyed. To help promote networking of biobanks and thus maximise public health benefits, at least some degree of harmonisation should be achieved. PMID:20395653

  8. Human Spaceflight: Achievements, Benefits and Future Opportunities from a European Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard; Seibert, Gnther

    2004-06-01

    The past achievements, benefits and future opportunities of human spaceflight are discussed from a European perspective. Earlier work performed on the Skylab, Salyut, Shuttle, Spacelab, and Mir orbital facilities is reviewed, together with the prospects for new research on the International Space Station (ISS). Major scientific benefits are expected from the ISS in the areas of life science research (including human physiology and medicine) physical sciences, and fundamental physics.

  9. The Distribution of Toxoplasma gondii Cysts in the Brain of a Mouse with Latent Toxoplasmosis: Implications for the Behavioral Manipulation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Berenreiterov, Miroslava; Flegr, Jaroslav; Kub?na, Ale A.; N?mec, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Background The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii reportedly manipulates rodent behavior to enhance the likelihood of transmission to its definitive cat host. The proximate mechanisms underlying this adaptive manipulation remain largely unclear, though a growing body of evidence suggests that the parasite-entrained dysregulation of dopamine metabolism plays a central role. Paradoxically, the distribution of the parasite in the brain has received only scant attention. Methodology/Principal Findings The distributions of T. gondii cysts and histopathological lesions in the brains of CD1 mice with latent toxoplasmosis were analyzed using standard histological techniques. Mice were infected per orally with 10 tissue cysts of the avirulent HIF strain of T. gondii at six months of age and examined 18 weeks later. The cysts were distributed throughout the brain and selective tropism of the parasite toward a particular functional system was not observed. Importantly, the cysts were not preferentially associated with the dopaminergic system and absent from the hypothalamic defensive system. The striking interindividual differences in the total parasite load and cyst distribution indicate a probabilistic nature of brain infestation. Still, some brain regions were consistently more infected than others. These included the olfactory bulb, the entorhinal, somatosensory, motor and orbital, frontal association and visual cortices, and, importantly, the hippocampus and the amygdala. By contrast, a consistently low incidence of tissue cysts was recorded in the cerebellum, the pontine nuclei, the caudate putamen and virtually all compact masses of myelinated axons. Numerous perivascular and leptomeningeal infiltrations of inflammatory cells were observed, but they were not associated with intracellular cysts. Conclusion/Significance The observed pattern of T. gondii distribution stems from uneven brain colonization during acute infection and explains numerous behavioral abnormalities observed in the chronically infected rodents. Thus, the parasite can effectively change behavioral phenotype of infected hosts despite the absence of well targeted tropism. PMID:22194951

  10. Arms control and European security

    SciTech Connect

    Auton, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    In October 1987 on the eve of the Washington summit, the Committee on Atlantic Studies, a group of European and North American scholars established in 1964 to promote transatlantic dialogue, met in Toronto to discuss the implications of the new arms control for European security. This book is the fruit of that meeting. Incorporating subsequent developments, up to Grobachev's December 1988 speech to the U.N., it provides a timely assessment of arms control issues from a variety of European and North American perspectives. The contributors to this volume council caution, suggesting that while progress is possible, it will probably be slow. This volume stresses the interplay of strategic and regional arms control. It includes analyses of nuclear, conventional, and naval arms control questions and embodies a broader a broader conception of arms control. The book links arms control to such political measures as confidence-building, conflict avoidance and superpower agreement to the neutrality of particular states.

  11. The European preferred parts list

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallina, G.

    2002-12-01

    the European Preferred Parts List (EPPL) is the list of EEE parts for space application to be used as a guideline for the European space projects. It is part of the ECSS system (ECSS-Q-60-01, third level document), and it replaces the ESA PPL. Three years after its first issue, the current status of the EPPL and its future possible developments and improvements are presented. In particular, the evaluation is based on the results of a questionnaire prepared by the Implementation Team of the SCSB and forwarded to the whole European space community to investigate the actual grade of knowledge and usage of the EPPL and the required modifications. The conclusions of such exercise have been submitted to the the SCSB and will form the baseline for the future review of the document ECSS-Q-60-01 (requirements for the selection of parts for the EPPL).

  12. Prospective Teachers' Images of Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morine-Dershimer, Greta; Reeve, Peggy Tarpley

    1994-01-01

    Prospective teachers' images of lesson management were examined in relation to pupil engagement in lessons taught. In more engaging lessons, teachers' images of management emphasized pupil contributions to lesson progress; in less engaging lessons, teachers' images of management emphasized teacher control of lesson progress combined with teacher

  13. Classroom Videos and Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chval, Kathryn B.; Lannin, John K.; Arbaugh, Fran; Bowzer, Angela D.

    2009-01-01

    Prospective teachers enter methods courses and classroom field experiences with robust mental pictures and strongly held beliefs about teaching elementary school mathematics, which impact their professional growth. Teachers filter information about new ways of teaching (from methods courses and field experiences) through their previous knowledge

  14. Job Prospects for Aerospace Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the recent trends in job opportunities for aerospace engineers. Mentions some of the political, technological, and economic factors affecting the overall employment picture. Includes a description of the job prospects created by the general upswing of the large commercial aircraft market. (TW)

  15. Handbook for Prospective Single Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marindin, Hope

    This handbook for prospective single adoptive parents provides information on locating and adopting a child, necessary clothing and supplies for children of various ages, health and day care arrangements, expenses incurred after adoption, various financial benefits and subsidies available to the adoptive parent, and legal and financial provisions

  16. Job Prospects for Marine Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Marine engineering is one of the smaller disciplines that have grown during recent decades. Job prospects in this field, salaries, types of employers (particularly Navy shipbuilding and infrastructure work), and marine/ocean engineers involvement with environmental issues are discussed. (JN)

  17. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in

  18. Job Prospects for Metallurgical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Job prospects in mining, metal-extraction, steel, and refining industries are depressed, but technological discoveries are opening up new fields for metallurgical engineers. Enrollment/employment opportunities and salaries in these areas are discussed a well as the roles of foreign competition, plastics applications, and ceramics research and…

  19. Prospects: Student Outcomes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; Karweit, Nancy; Price, Cristofer; Ricciuti, Anne; Thompson, William; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael

    This report is one of a series presenting findings from "Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity." This study, conducted in response to the 1988 Hawkins-Stafford Amendments, was a major effort to examine the effects of Chapter 1 on student achievement and other school-related educational outcomes. Data

  20. Job Prospects for Metallurgical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Job prospects in mining, metal-extraction, steel, and refining industries are depressed, but technological discoveries are opening up new fields for metallurgical engineers. Enrollment/employment opportunities and salaries in these areas are discussed a well as the roles of foreign competition, plastics applications, and ceramics research and

  1. Job Prospects for Electrical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the career outlook for electrical/electronics engineers. Explains that the number of bachelor degree graduates continues to rise, along with average starting salaries. Reveals that although the availability of jobs in the computer industry is leveling off, prospects in the robotics and telecommunication fields are growing. (TW)

  2. The European automotive emissions scene

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses the papers presented at the conference on the subject of automotive emissions. The topics discussed were: The measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions from light-duty and heavy-duty motor vehicles under road driving conditions; gasoline engines to meet new European emission levels; emissions from modern Europe vehicles and their control; design of exhaust gas catalyst systems for European applications; an improved technique for measuring cyclic variations in hydrocarbon concentrations in an engine exhaust; and metal supported automotive catalysts for use in Europe.

  3. [European Union and blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Rouger, P

    2003-06-01

    Blood transfusion is progressing, Europe is growing, European blood transfusion organisations are developing rapidly. The first step was the publication of a new directive (2002/98/CE). The directive is the result of a compromise between technocracy, lobbying and blood transfusion professionals. European blood transfusion must be based on medical, scientific and social criteria. Two imperatives must be considered: the respect of ethics and; independence from the commercial system. The primary objective is to give satisfaction to patients while respecting blood donors. PMID:12798844

  4. Interactions between European Citizenship and Language Learning among Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennebry, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) has created debate as to the suitability of current structures and policies for effectively engaging citizens and developing social cohesion. Education and specifically modern foreign language (MFL) teaching are argued by the literature to play a key role in equipping young people to interact and…

  5. Interactions between European Citizenship and Language Learning among Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennebry, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Recent enlargement of the European Union (EU) has created debate as to the suitability of current structures and policies for effectively engaging citizens and developing social cohesion. Education and specifically modern foreign language (MFL) teaching are argued by the literature to play a key role in equipping young people to interact and

  6. Oral oocyst-induced mouse model of toxoplasmosis: Effect of infection with Toxoplasma gondii strains of different genotypes, dose, and mouse strains (transgenic, out-bred, in-bred) on pathogenesis and mortality

    PubMed Central

    DUBEY, J.P.; FERREIRA, L. R.; MARTINS, J.; MCLEOD, RIMA

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans and other hosts acquire Toxoplasma gondii infection by ingesting tissue cysts in undercooked meat, or by food or drink contaminated with oocysts. Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent clinical disease due this parasite in humans, although, various T. gondii vaccine candidates are being developed. Mice are generally used to test the protective efficacy of vaccines because they are susceptible, reagents are available to measure immune parameters, in mice, and they are easily managed in the laboratory. In the present study, pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis was studied in mice of different strains, including Human leukocyte antigen(HLA) transgenic mice infected with different doses of T. gondii strains of different genotypes derived from several countries. Based on many experiments, the decreasing order of infectivity and pathogenicity of oocysts was: interferon gamma gene knock out (KO), HLA 3.11, HLA 2.1, HLA B7, Swiss Webster, C57/black, and BALB/c. Mice fed as few as 1 oocyst of Type I and several atypical strains died of acute toxoplasmosis within 21 days p.i. Type II, and III strains were less virulent. The model developed herein should prove to be extremely useful for testing vaccines because it is possible to accurately quantitate a challenge inoculum, test response to different strains of T. gondii using the same preparations of oocysts which are stable for up to a year, and to have highly reproducible responses to the infection. PMID:22078010

  7. ESTSS at 20 years: a phoenix gently rising from a lava flow of European trauma

    PubMed Central

    rner, Roderick J.

    2013-01-01

    Roderick J. rner, who was President between 1997 and 1999, traces the phoenix-like origins of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) from an informal business meeting called during the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress (ECOTS) in 1987 to its emergence into a formally constituted society. He dwells on the challenges of tendering a trauma society within a continent where trauma has been and remains endemic. ESTSS successes are noted along with a number of personal reflections on activities that give rise to concern for the present as well as its future prospects. Denial of survivors experiences and turning away from survivors narratives by reframing their experiences to accommodate helpers theory-driven imperatives are viewed with alarm. Arguments are presented for making human rights, memory, and ethics core elements of a distinctive European psycho traumatology, which will secure current ESTSS viability and future integrity. PMID:23755328

  8. Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for…

  9. Reconstructing Indo-European Syllabification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Andrew Miles

    2010-01-01

    The chief concern of this dissertation is to investigate a fundamental, yet unsolved problem within the phonology of Proto-Indo-European (PIE): the process of syllabification. I show that by analyzing the much more easily reconstructable word-edge clusters we may predict which types of consonant clusters can occur word-medially, provided that we

  10. European Year of Languages, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This document is a folder full of brochures describing the activities of Council of Europe and the European Union to celebrate 2001 as a year of languages in order to celebrate the linguistic diversity of Europe and promote the many opportunities available for lifelong language learning. A number of facts and figures about the languages of Europe

  11. European urology: quality, impact, online.

    PubMed

    Catto, James W F; Montorsi, Francesco; Schulman, Claude

    2013-10-01

    European Urology provides contemporary, cutting-edge urologic research, guidance, and discussion. The journal continues to invite collaborative reviews, to invest in rapid but fair peer review, to seek the best research, and to serve the needs of readers and patients. PMID:23928576

  12. Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for

  13. OER: A European Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquézar Sabadie, Jesús Maria; Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Puni, Yves; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of OER have led many European governments to implement policies supporting their creation and use. This chapter aims to put these OER policies in context, discussing their focus and scope and highlighting challenges and bottlenecks. On the basis of the analysis of the current state of the art, it is argued that one of main…

  14. European tests on materials outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwaal, A.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to international coordination of spacecraft materials, a number of European firms and institutes performed outgassing tests on identical materials at 125 C in high vacuum. The outgassing data obtained with the different types of equipment is presented and both the results and the critical parameters are discussed.

  15. Reconstructing Indo-European Syllabification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Andrew Miles

    2010-01-01

    The chief concern of this dissertation is to investigate a fundamental, yet unsolved problem within the phonology of Proto-Indo-European (PIE): the process of syllabification. I show that by analyzing the much more easily reconstructable word-edge clusters we may predict which types of consonant clusters can occur word-medially, provided that we…

  16. Adolescent Leisure across European Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August; Schaffner, Brigitta

    2003-01-01

    Examined variations in adolescent time use within Europe and their relation to culture, focusing on organization of free time, most frequent leisure activities, and resulting emotional states. Found that European adolescents spent free time in a range of activities, including electronic media, computer games, playing musical instruments, reading,

  17. Prospective errors determine motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Takiyama, Ken; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    Diverse features of motor learning have been reported by numerous studies, but no single theoretical framework concurrently accounts for these features. Here, we propose a model for motor learning to explain these features in a unified way by extending a motor primitive framework. The model assumes that the recruitment pattern of motor primitives is determined by the predicted movement error of an upcoming movement (prospective error). To validate this idea, we perform a behavioural experiment to examine the models novel prediction: after experiencing an environment in which the movement error is more easily predictable, subsequent motor learning should become faster. The experimental results support our prediction, suggesting that the prospective error might be encoded in the motor primitives. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this model has a strong explanatory power to reproduce a wide variety of motor-learning-related phenomena that have been separately explained by different computational models. PMID:25635628

  18. Blueprint for a European calciphylaxis registry initiative: the European Calciphylaxis Network (EuCalNet).

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Vincent; Adragao, Teresa; van Dam, Bastiaan; Evenepoel, Pieter; Frazo, Joo M; Ketteler, Markus; Mazzaferro, Sandro; Urena Torres, Pablo; Ramos, Rosa; Torregrosa, Jose-Vicente; Cozzolino, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Calcific uraemic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a rare disease and continues to be a clinical challenge. The typical course of CUA is characterized by painful skin discolouration and induration evolving to necrotic ulcerations. Medial calcification of cutaneous arterioles and extensive extracellular matrix remodelling are the hallmarks of CUA. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with this disease are still not fully understood. Moreover, CUA treatment strategies vary significantly among centres and expert recommendations are heterogeneous. Registries may provide important insights and information to increase our knowledge about epidemiology and clinical aspects of CUA and may help to optimize its therapeutic management. In 2006, we established an internet-based registry in Germany (www.calciphylaxie.de) to allow online notification of patients with established or suspected CUA. The registry includes a comprehensive database with questions covering >70 parameters and items regarding patient-related and laboratory data, clinical background and presentation as well as therapeutic strategies. The next phase will be to allow international patient registration via www.calciphylaxis.net as part of the multinational EuCalNet (European Calciphylaxis Network) initiative, which is supported by the ERA-EDTA scientific working group 'CKD-MBD'. Based on the valuable experience with the previous German CUA registry, EuCalNet will be a useful tool to collect data on the rare disease CUA and may become a basis for prospective controlled trials in the near future. PMID:26413282

  19. Blueprint for a European calciphylaxis registry initiative: the European Calciphylaxis Network (EuCalNet)

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, Vincent; Adragao, Teresa; van Dam, Bastiaan; Evenepoel, Pieter; Frazão, João M.; Ketteler, Markus; Mazzaferro, Sandro; Urena Torres, Pablo; Ramos, Rosa; Torregrosa, Jose-Vicente; Cozzolino, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calcific uraemic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a rare disease and continues to be a clinical challenge. The typical course of CUA is characterized by painful skin discolouration and induration evolving to necrotic ulcerations. Medial calcification of cutaneous arterioles and extensive extracellular matrix remodelling are the hallmarks of CUA. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with this disease are still not fully understood. Moreover, CUA treatment strategies vary significantly among centres and expert recommendations are heterogeneous. Registries may provide important insights and information to increase our knowledge about epidemiology and clinical aspects of CUA and may help to optimize its therapeutic management. In 2006, we established an internet-based registry in Germany (www.calciphylaxie.de) to allow online notification of patients with established or suspected CUA. The registry includes a comprehensive database with questions covering >70 parameters and items regarding patient-related and laboratory data, clinical background and presentation as well as therapeutic strategies. The next phase will be to allow international patient registration via www.calciphylaxis.net as part of the multinational EuCalNet (European Calciphylaxis Network) initiative, which is supported by the ERA-EDTA scientific working group ‘CKD-MBD’. Based on the valuable experience with the previous German CUA registry, EuCalNet will be a useful tool to collect data on the rare disease CUA and may become a basis for prospective controlled trials in the near future. PMID:26413282

  20. Children's cross-ethnic relationships in elementary schools: concurrent and prospective associations between ethnic segregation and social status.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social status measures were same- and cross-ethnicity peer nominations of acceptance, rejection, and cool. Among African Americans, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (European American) acceptance and same-ethnicity rejection, and increases in same-ethnicity acceptance and perceived coolness. For European American children, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (African American) acceptance and increases in cross-ethnicity rejection. Results indicate that segregation induces asymmetric changes in social status for African American and European American children. PMID:23170933

  1. The Challenges of the European Anorectal Malformations-Net Registry.

    PubMed

    Jenetzky, Ekkehart; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Aminoff, Dalia; Schwarzer, Nicole; Reutter, Heiko; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Midrio, Paola; de Blaauw, Ivo

    2015-12-01

    Anorectal malformations (ARM) have a low prevalence, patients need specialized surgical care, and in many cases, patients born with ARM even need life-long aftercare. Due to its low prevalence most patients are still treated in low-volume pediatric surgical centers without any adequate monitoring of the outcome. Data on prevalence, comparison of different surgical techniques, and prospective outcome measurements are still scarce and difficult to interpret. In 2010, a consortium was founded (ARM-Net consortium) including several European pediatric surgical centers to collaborate more in research and share knowledge on ARM. One of the structures started by the consortium was an ARM-Net registry for the inclusion of all future patients treated in these centers. With this review, we report the structure of the ARM-Net registry, some of the results, and discuss the challenges we faced and still face after its introduction in 2010. PMID:26642384

  2. Proteome and phosphoproteome of Africanized and European honeybee venoms.

    PubMed

    Resende, Virgnia Maria Ferreira; Vasilj, Andrej; Santos, Keity Souza; Palma, Mario Sergio; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2013-09-01

    Honey bee venom toxins trigger immunological, physiological, and neurological responses within victims. The high occurrence of bee attacks involving potentially fatal toxic and allergic reactions in humans and the prospect of developing novel pharmaceuticals make honey bee venom an attractive target for proteomic studies. Using label-free quantification, we compared the proteome and phosphoproteome of the venom of Africanized honeybees with that of two European subspecies, namely Apis mellifera ligustica and A. m. carnica. From the total of 51 proteins, 42 were common to all three subspecies. Remarkably, the toxins melittin and icarapin were phosphorylated. In all venoms, icarapin was phosphorylated at the (205) Ser residue, which is located in close proximity to its known antigenic site. Melittin, the major toxin of honeybee venoms, was phosphorylated in all venoms at the (10) Thr and (18) Ser residues. (18) Ser phosphorylated melittin-the major of its two phosphorylated forms-was less toxic compared to the native peptide. PMID:23798553

  3. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  4. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and

  5. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education policy, as…

  6. Towards European Citizenship through Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernndez, Scar

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study, the first part of a recently concluded project, is to describe and analyse the perceptions that European university students have of European citizenship and to offer some insight into the term. Before describing our findings, we offer a brief review of the concept of citizenship, attempting to define it in the European

  7. Our European Neighbours. Vocational Training No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This document addresses vocational training in European countries. The document contains the following articles: (1) "Dear Readers" (Ernst Piehl and Georges Dupont); (2) "Interview with Lord Plumb, President of the European Parliament" (Georges Dupont); "The European Community's 'Ostpolitik'" (Horst G. Krenzler); "Opening up to the East in the…

  8. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  9. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in

  10. How Is European Governance Configuring the EHEA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhães, António; Veiga, Amélia; Sousa, Sofia; Ribeiro, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the European dimension driven by the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the development of national reforms to fulfil that objective. On the basis of data gathered in eight countries involved in EuroHESC project TRUE (Transforming European Universities), the curricular and the…

  11. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education policy, as

  12. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Dennis, P M; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Kwok, O C H; Butler, E; Carstensen, M; Su, C

    2014-05-28

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 749 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio and 487 WTD deer shot in Minnesota during 2008, 2009, and 2010. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cut-off titer, 25). Additionally myocardial samples from 123 seropositive WTD from Ohio were digested in pepsin and the digests were bioassayed for the isolation of T. gondii. Furthermore, to estimate transplacental rate of transmission, brains from 155 fetuses (included twins) from 148 deer from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of viable T. gondii. Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with the year of collection, geography, and the age of deer. Of the Ohio deer sampled in 2012 and 2013 seroprevalences for the two years were similar (73.4% and 75.7%, respectively); remarkably 150 (66.1%) of 227 deer of <1 year of age were seropositive. Of the Minnesota deer, seroprevalence was lowest for the year 2008 (14.8%, 26/175) versus 2009 (27.7%, 59/213), and 2010 (25.2%, 25/99), thought to be related to environmental temperatures. Viable T. gondii was isolated in mice from the myocardium of four WTD from Ohio, and brain of one WTD fetus from Minnesota. Tachyzoites from infected mouse tissues were further propagated in cell culture. The DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these five T. gondii isolates was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). Four genotypes were found, including ToxoDB genotype no. 1 (Type II), no. 2 (Type III), no. 3 (Type II variant) and no. 146. Results indicate fluctuating seroprevalence, probably related to weather and warrant further epidemiological studies. PMID:24582734

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasmosis among antenatal women in London: a re-examination of risk in an ethnically diverse population

    PubMed Central

    Flatt, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in pregnancy can result in miscarriage, hydrocephalus, cerebral calcification and chorioretinitis in the newborn. The objective of our study was to evaluate seroprevalence of and analyse risk factors for toxoplasmosis in antenatal women from 2006 to 2008 in an ethnically diverse population of Central London to re-examine the need for a screening policy. Methods: We performed serum IgG estimations to T. gondii using a commercial kit, and analysed risk factors for acquisition using a questionnaire. Results: Seroprevalence for T. gondii was 17.32% in 2610 samples tested. In all, 67.7% were of UK origin (seroprevalence: 11.9%) and were significantly non-immune to T. gondii (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.31–0.47; P < 0.0001). Risk factors for seroprevalence included African/Afro-Caribbean (OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.83–3.88; P < 0.001; seroprevalence: 31.5%), Middle eastern (OR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.62–5.99; P ≤ 0.001; seroprevalence: 34.8%) and mixed (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.16–2.63; P = 0.007; seroprevalence: 23.3%) ethnic groups; eating undercooked meat (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.29–2.08; P ≤ 0.001; seroprevalence: 20.2%) and drinking unpasteurised milk (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.01–1.88; P = 0.05; seroprevalence: 23.1%). There was no association with pet cats or eating unpasteurised cheeses and antibody responses. Conclusion: Low national prevalence of toxoplasma seroconversion and congenital disease would likely not justify screening in the UK. Individual risk assessment is recommended in ethnically diverse urban areas where populations with relatively high seroprevalence and parasite-associated risk factors exist together with an indigenous population with low prevalence. One universal screening policy based on the indigenous prevalence and risk factors may not be suitable for all. PMID:22696530

  14. European Strategy for Astroparticle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanevas, Stavros

    2010-02-01

    Astroparticle Physics emerged worldwide, in the last 20 years, from a field of charismatic pioneers transgressing disciplinary frontiers using risky and innovative detection techniques to a full blown global science activity involving many hundreds of researchers and hundred million or billion dollar scale projects. I will report on the recent effort to develop a strategic vision, roadmap and action plan for this field in Europe, performed under the auspices of ApPEC (Astroparticle Physics European Coordination) and in the context of the European Union program ASPERA. I will describe the many links that tie the proposed large observatories to the corresponding US and more generally worldwide infrastructures, as well as the efforts for a global coordination in progress. )

  15. Biosimilar insulins: a European perspective

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, J H; Gough, S C L; Kiljanski, J; Heinemann, L

    2015-01-01

    Biosimilar insulins are likely to enter clinical practice in Europe in the near future. It is important that clinicians are familiar with and understand the concept of biosimilarity and how a biosimilar drug may differ from its reference product. The present article provides an overview of biosimilars, the European regulatory requirements for biosimilars and safety issues. It also summarizes the current biosimilars approved in Europe and the key clinical issues associated with the use of biosimilar insulins. PMID:25376600

  16. Work in the European Union.

    PubMed Central

    Klemperer, F.

    1996-01-01

    Continental Europe is now only 20 minutes away by train from mainland Britain, and moving ever closer politically. Mutual recognition of medical qualifications within the European Union is well established: working in other parts of Europe is, in principle, straightforward. Working in different health care systems can offer new perspectives on British medical practice and the NHS. But the cultural differences are not always easy to overcome. Images p569-a PMID:8595291

  17. International Heliophysical Year: European Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.

    2007-08-01

    The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

  18. Progress in European CELSS activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The European Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) activities started in the late 1970's with system analysis and feasibility studies of Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). The initiation for CELSS came from the industry side in Europe, but since then planning and hardware feasibility analyses have been initiated also from customer/agency side. Despite this, it is still too early to state that a CELSS program as a concerted effort has been agreed upon in Europe. However, the general CELSS objectives were accepted as planning and possible development goals for the European effort for manned space activities, and as experimental planning topics in the life sciences community for the next decades. It is expected that ecological life support systems can be tested and implemented on a space station towards the end of this century or early in the next. For the European activities a possible scenario can be projected based on ongoing life support system development activities and the present life sciences goals.

  19. DNA adducts and lung cancer risk: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Marco; Munnia, Armelle; Hoek, Gerard; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Veglia, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Luisa; Autrup, Herman; Dunning, Alison; Garte, Seymour; Hainaut, Pierre; Malaveille, Christian; Gormally, Emmanuelle; Matullo, Giuseppe; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaladidi, Anna; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Kumle, Merethe; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Quiros, J Ramn; Berglund, Goran; Janzon, Lars; Jarvholm, Bengt; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Tim J; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2005-09-01

    Objectives were to investigate prospectively the ability of DNA adducts to predict cancer and to study the determinants of adducts, especially air pollutants. DNA adducts were measured in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) investigation. Cases included newly diagnosed lung cancer (n = 115), upper respiratory cancers (pharynx and larynx; n = 82), bladder cancer (n = 124), leukemia (n = 166), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths (n = 77) accrued after a median follow-up of 7 years among the EPIC former smokers and never-smokers. Three controls per case were matched for questionnaire analyses and two controls per case for laboratory analyses. Matching criteria were gender, age, smoking status, country of recruitment, and follow-up time. Individual exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentration data from monitoring stations in routine air quality monitoring networks. Leukocyte DNA adducts were analyzed blindly using 32P postlabeling technique. Adducts were associated with the subsequent risk of lung cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.88-3.93] when comparing detectable versus nondetectable adducts. The association with lung cancer was stronger in never-smokers (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.06-15.42) and among the younger age groups. After exclusion of the cancers occurring in the first 36 months of follow-up, the OR was 4.16 (95% CI, 1.24-13.88). A positive association was found between DNA adducts and ozone (O3) concentration. Our prospective study suggests that leukocyte DNA adducts may predict lung cancer risk of never-smokers. Besides, the association of DNA adduct levels with O3 indicates a possible role for photochemical smog in determining DNA damage. PMID:16140979

  20. Toxoplasmosis in Sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates and Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, the State of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Pas, An; Rajendran, C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Hebel, C; Hammer, S; Su, C

    2010-09-20

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid found in sand and stone deserts ranging from the north of Africa to Asia, with the Arabian Peninsula as its centre of distribution. The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recently recognized as one of the causes of this mortality. In the present study, one 18-month-old Sand cat (FM019) died of acute toxoplasmosis-associated hepatitis and pneumonitis acquired after birth; Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in histological sections which reacted with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). T. gondii DNA was found by PCR of extracted DNA from liver and lung tissues of this cat. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in serum examined in 1:1600 dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT); its 2-year-old cage mate seroconverted (MAT titer 1:3200) at the same time. Another Sand cat (FM017) was euthanized because of ill health when 3 years old; its MAT titer was >1:3200, and T. gondii tissue cysts were found in brain, heart, ocular muscles and skeletal muscle, confirmed by IHC. Viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassays in mice inoculated with tissues of another chronically infected Sand cat (FM002); T. gondii was not found in histological sections of this cat. T. gondii antibodies were found in several species of animals tested, notably in 49 of 57 wild felids at BCEAW. A 7-year-old Sand cat (3657) from Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Doha, State of Qatar died of acute visceral toxoplasmosis with demonstrable T. gondii tachyzoites by IHC, and T. gondii DNA by PCR, and a MAT titer of >3200. T. gondii antibodies were found in 21 of 27 of wild felids at AWWP. PCR-RFLP genotyping at 10 genetic loci revealed that these T. gondii isolates from Sand cat (FM002 and FM019) at BCEAW have an atypical genotype, which was previously reported in T. gondii isolates of dogs from Sri Lanka. The genotype from the cat from AWWP (3657) is a genetic Type II strain with a Type I allele at locus Apico. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Middle East. PMID:20570441

  1. Attracting Prospective Engineering Students in the Emerging European Space for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Martin, Antonio J.

    2010-01-01

    A set of outreach activities implemented by the College of Engineering of the Public University of Navarra, Spain, is described. They represent different initiatives aimed to improve recruitment of young engineers in the difficult context of declining interest in engineering and the educational changes Europe is facing nowadays. The initiatives…

  2. European Integration and the Prospects for Higher Education. Comparing Lithuania and Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuckovic, Biljana

    2005-01-01

    The process of postcommunist transition in the countries of the former Eastern bloc as well as the countries that have emerged after the dissolution of Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia have necessitated the formulation of new educational legislation and the initiation of structural reforms at all levels of education. Redefinition of national

  3. The prospects for European aerospace transporters. III - Applications of aerospace transporters. IV - Historical and political considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. Q.; Ashford, D. M.

    1989-03-01

    A small, near-term-developed aerospace transporter would be useful for launching small satellites, servicing satellites in orbit, and supplying space stations, as well as furnishing a technology-development base for subsequent, larger vehicles. These larger vehicles have a potential cost/flight that is estimated to be of the order of 1000 times lower than that of the NASA Space Shuttle, at traffic levels typical of their use in tourism. An additional part of this work notes that the evolution of space transportation to date has been driven by considerations of defense policy and international prestige, with little priority given to the launch cost reductions that would be of paramount importance to passenger-carrying commercial ventures.

  4. Attracting Prospective Engineering Students in the Emerging European Space for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Martin, Antonio J.

    2010-01-01

    A set of outreach activities implemented by the College of Engineering of the Public University of Navarra, Spain, is described. They represent different initiatives aimed to improve recruitment of young engineers in the difficult context of declining interest in engineering and the educational changes Europe is facing nowadays. The initiatives

  5. Prospects for Inclusive Education in European Countries Emerging from Economic and Other Trauma: Serbia and Albania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radoman, Vesna; Nano, Virxhil; Closs, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent historical, social and economic factors in Albania and Serbia, identifying similarities and differences that have a bearing on the provision of education. The focus is on the education of children with difficulties in learning and/or disabilities (the term "special needs" is used for brevity). The paper provides a…

  6. Healthy diet indicator and mortality in Eastern European populations: prospective evidence from the HAPIEE cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, Nicole; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Simonova, Galina; Feskens, Edith J M; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Unhealthy diet has been proposed as one of the main reasons for the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU) but individual-level effects of dietary habits on health in the region are sparse. We examined the associations between the healthy diet indicator (HDI) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in three CEE/FSU populations. Subjects/Methods Dietary intakes of foods and nutrients, assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) cohort study, were used to construct the HDI which follows the WHO 2003 dietary recommendations. Among 18 559 eligible adult participants (age range: 45-69 years) without history of major chronic diseases at baseline, 1 209 deaths occurred over mean follow up of 7 years. The association between HDI and mortality was estimated by Cox regression. Results After adjusting for covariates, HDI was inversely and statistically significantly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but not with other cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the pooled sample. Hazard ratios per one standard deviation (SD) increase in HDI score were 0.95 (95%CI 0.89-1.00, p=0.068), 0.90 (0.81-0.99, p=0.030) and 0.85 (0.74-0.97, p=0.018) for all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality, respectively. Population attributable risk fractions for low HDI were 2.9% for all-cause, 14.2% for CVD and 10.7% for CHD mortality. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that unhealthy diet has played a role in the high CVD mortality in Eastern Europe. PMID:25028084

  7. Prospects for Inclusive Education in European Countries Emerging from Economic and Other Trauma: Serbia and Albania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radoman, Vesna; Nano, Virxhil; Closs, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent historical, social and economic factors in Albania and Serbia, identifying similarities and differences that have a bearing on the provision of education. The focus is on the education of children with difficulties in learning and/or disabilities (the term "special needs" is used for brevity). The paper provides a

  8. Astro-H: science goals, development status, and European contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guainazzi, M.; Astro-H Mission

    2014-07-01

    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth X-ray mission initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H allows a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry a X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector (40-600 keV). ASTRO-H is expected to provide breakthrough results in the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution, the behaviour of matter in the gravitational strong field regime, the physical conditions in sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters at different redshifts. I will also review the European contribution to Astro-H, both in terms of hardware development as well as in terms of prospective support for the European community.

  9. Updated standards and processes for accreditation of echocardiographic laboratories from The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging: an executive summary.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Bogdan A; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Fox, Kevin F; Ray, Simon; Cardim, Nuno; Rigo, Fausto; Badano, Luigi P; Fraser, Alan G; Pinto, Fausto; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Habib, Gilbert; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-11-01

    Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago, to raise standards of practice and improve the quality of care. Criteria and requirements were published at that time for transthoracic, transoesophageal, and stress echocardiography. This paper reassesses and updates the quality standards to take account of experience and the technical developments of modern echocardiographic practice. It also discusses quality control, the incentives for laboratories to apply for accreditation, the re-accreditation criteria, and the current status and future prospects of the laboratory accreditation process. PMID:25344557

  10. Prospective Memory in Parkinson Disease During a Virtual Week: Effects of Both Prospective and Retrospective Demands

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Erin R.; Rose, Nathan S.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Rendell, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of Parkinson disease (PD) on event-based prospective memory tasks with varying demand on (1) the amount of strategic attentional monitoring required for intention retrieval (prospective component) and (2) the retrospective memory processes required to remember the contents of the intention or the entire constellation of prospective memory tasks. Method Twenty-four older adults with PD and 28 healthy older adults performed the computerized Virtual Week task, a multi-intention prospective memory paradigm that simulates everyday prospective memory tasks. The Virtual Week included regular (low retrospective memory demand) and irregular (high retrospective memory demand) prospective memory tasks with cues that were focal (low strategic monitoring demand) or less focal (high strategic monitoring demand) to the ongoing activity. Results For the regular prospective memory tasks, PD participants were impaired when the prospective memory cues were less focal. For the irregular prospective memory tasks, PD participants were impaired regardless of prospective memory cue type. PD participants also had impaired retrospective memory for irregular tasks, which was associated with worse prospective memory for these tasks during the Virtual Week. Conclusions When retrospective memory demands are minimized, prospective memory in PD can be supported by cues that reduce the executive control demands of intention retrieval. However, PD-related deficits in self-initiated encoding or planning processes have strong negative effects on the performance of prospective memory tasks with increased retrospective memory demand. PMID:23527645

  11. HTS Wire: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, A. P.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Fleshler, S.; Aized, D.; Yu, D.

    2003-04-01

    Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion motors, utility generators and magnets for materials processing. Coated conductor is also a composite, combining the YBCO HTS material with a metal or metal-alloy substrate; this technology is in the stage of research and development. The status and commercial prospects of these wire technologies are reviewed.

  12. Specialist training in gastroenterology in the European Community: the case for European boards. European Board of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Gastroenterological training differs so greatly from country to country in Europe it is impossible to believe that training is equally good in each one. This in turn, provides a barrier to the free migration of doctors with the European Community. These differences also create confusion for migrating patients, and call into question the validity of the European Commission directives, which pronounce all qualifications obtained in European Community countries to be equally acceptable within the community. The European Commission does not have the power to unify medical training, but the medical profession itself acting in concert as a European body could harmonise the differences to ensure acceptable standards of training across the community. The Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the representative body of national medical specialists bodies, which reports to the European Commission. The European Board of Gastroenterology, a working party of the Gastroenterology Section of the UEMS has agreed acceptable and fair standards of training for gastroenterologists, and has developed a system for external assessment of training centres and faculty. All three, candidates, faculty, and centre would, in the event of a successful application, be awarded the European Diploma of Gastroenterology or, in full, the Diploma of Recognition of Quality of Training in Gastroenterology. This paper discusses these problems, some of their origins, and the proposals of the European Board. PMID:8307436

  13. Status of the European ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto; Spyromilio, Jason

    The EELT project is in Phase B (detailed design), a 3-year, 57.2 M Euro activity that is scheduled to conclude in a Proposal for Construction by end 2009 or early 2010. The starting point for the current phase was a community process leading to the convergence of earlier concepts into a single European project. The telescope baseline is for a fully steerable 42 m, segmented primary, 5 mirror design, fully adaptive system with Nasmyth and Coudé foci. This paper reports on the status of the EELT Phase B.

  14. European perspectives of food safety.

    PubMed

    Bnti, Dina

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. PMID:24515443

  15. Participation in European water policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ast, J. A.; Boot, S. P.

    This paper considers the possibilities for interactive policy-making in European water management. In the new European Water Framework Directive, public information and consultation are major elements in the procedure (process) that leads to River Basin Management Plans. In general, decision making in integrated water management should not be limited to the application of models and desk studies. Important decisions need a high level of participation. In this interactive approach, visions, ideas, patterns of behaviour and solutions to perceived problems of different societal actors can be identified and incorporated into the decision-making process. For example, farmer organisations, environmental groups and associations of house owners, but also individual citizens often have various and differing ideas about measures that change the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of a river basin. Well-organised interaction has two main potential advantages: The quality of the decision will be higher because specific knowledge of people involved and their different views are taken into consideration. The interaction enables exchange of information which can lead to a better understanding of the ins and outs of the specific situation and in this way contribute to public support. By means of two examples of water related policy issues in Europe, i.e. economic approaches in the water framework directive and Integrated Product Policy, various opportunities for pluralistic as well as corporatist types of participation in modern water management are presented and discussed.

  16. European uncooled thermal imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Kennedy R.

    1997-08-01

    There is widespread requirement for low cost lightweight thermal imaging sensors for both military and civilian applications. In Europe, these requirements are now being met by systems using large uncooled ferroelectric detector arrays offering performance levels which, until recently, could only be achieved by expensive cryogenically cooled systems. The uncooled technology is the result of collaboration between the UK Defence Research Agency (DRA) and GEC-Marconi Electro Optics (GMEO) under a 'dual use technology program' (DUTP). This has resulted in the design of an uncooled module suite which constitute the core elements of the European uncooled thermal imaging sensors. This module suite has been adopted by UK MoD to meet the requirements of the UK Stairs A demonstrator program producing a lightweight thermal surveillance and weapon sight. A European consortium including Delft Instruments and Signaal Usfa (DISU) in Holland have also adopted the modules to meet the requirements of the lightweight infrared observation nightsight (LION). This product is being marketed in collaboration with Thomson CSF Optronics, of France. This paper discusses the current status of the underlying detector and processing technology including enhancements already in development. In addition, the designs and benefits offered by the Stairs A and LION products are addressed.

  17. The new European Hubble archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Arevalo, Maria; Merin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The European Hubble Archive (hereafter eHST), hosted at ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre, has been released for public use in October 2015. The eHST is now fully integrated with the other ESA science archives to ensure long-term preservation of the Hubble data, consisting of more than 1 million observations from 10 different scientific instruments. The public HST data, the Hubble Legacy Archive, and the high-level science data products are now all available to scientists through a single, carefully designed and user friendly web interface. In this talk, I will show how the the eHST can help boost archival research, including how to search on sources in the field of view thanks to precise footprints projected onto the sky, how to obtain enhanced previews of imaging data and interactive spectral plots, and how to directly link observations with already published papers. To maximise the scientific exploitation of Hubble's data, the eHST offers connectivity to virtual observatory tools, easily integrates with the recently released Hubble Source Catalog, and is fully accessible through ESA's archives multi-mission interface.

  18. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. PMID:26069314

  19. European approach to space debris mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccini, H.

    The five European space agencies (ASI - Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, BNSC - British National Space Centre, CNES - Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, DLR - Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfahrt, and ESA - European Space Agency) have set up a specific work plan in order to establis h a common documentation related to the space debris mitigation and an associated working group "EDMS WG, European Space Debris Mitigation Standard Working Group". Now, a common European document is agreed by the five space agencies; it includes comments from European space industry. It consists of two parts: volume 1 "Requirements", and volume 2 "Explanations and Guidelines for Implementation". This paper describes the main topics of the European Space Debris Mitigation Standard volume 1, related to the three major areas management, design, and operations. It explains the relationship between EDMS and IADC (Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee), in order to propose an international document to UNCOPUOS (United Nations, Committee on Paceful Use of Outer Space).

  20. The New European Wind Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The New European Wind Atlas 1. European wind resource assessment through a ERA-NET Plus project 1.1 The new EU Atlas The Commission decided earlier this year to issue an ERA-NET Plus call for the creation and publication of a new EU wind atlas. The atlas will cover Member states as well as Member states' exclusive economic zones, both onshore and offshore. It involved the launch of a single joint call for proposals by promoters of national and/or regional programmes, thereby allowing a more efficient use of existing financial resources. Therefore the funding scheme is that of ERA-NET Plus which implies that at least 5 MS shall commit at least 1 million Euros each and the Commission tops up with on third of the MS contribution. Basically it is the MS research programmes that will execute the project but an important part of the project is to create "open project development platforms" with associated protocols allowing a wider range of scientists worldwide to contribute. The project has a duration of 5 years. The decision on the new wind atlas was taken after several years of work by the European Wind Energy Technology Platform and the European Energy Research Alliances' Joint programme for Wind Energy. 2. Structure of the project The project will be structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel: 2.1 Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form, which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database. The database will at a minimum include: Wind resources and their associated uncertainty; Extreme wind; Turbulence characteristics; Adverse weather conditions; Predictability for short term prediction; Guidelines. 2.2 Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made public available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and relevant data at several heights and a horizontal resolution down to 100 m. Uncertainty estimates for the models and the model chain will also be published and predictability analysis will be performed for short term forecasting predictability. 2.3 Measurement campaigns to build and validate the EU wind atlas. At least five coordinated measurement campaigns will be undertaken and will cover at least complex terrains (mountains and forest), offshore, large changes in surface characteristics and cold climates. The campaigns will deliver high quality reference data on essential siting and load parameters. 3. Expected impact Reduce technical risk and uncertainty in complex terrain and offshore conditions. Create a standard for site assessment. Develop a basis for improved spatial planning tools. 4. References [1] A new EU Wind Energy Atlas: Proposal for an ERANET+ project. Produced by the TPWind Secretariat October 2011