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1

Behaviour of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) altered by Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea)  

E-print Network

Behaviour of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) altered by Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea intestinalis (L.) on roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) spatial occupancy in a French reservoir (Lake Pareloup, South (GLIM)], revealed signi®cant relationships (P roach age, its spatial occupancy

Roche, Benjamin

2

Experimental demonstration of a behavioural modification in a cyprinid fish, Rutilus rutilus (L.),  

E-print Network

experimentally investigated by comparing the swimming behaviour of roach, Rutilus rutilus, infected by the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis with that of uninfected roach when they were exposed to the same overhead in the vertical distribution of infected fish only. On the other hand, infected roach were less active than un

3

Effects of habitat and season on competitive interactions between roach ( Rutilus rutilus ) and perch ( Perca fluviatilis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competitive interactions between two distantly related fish species, roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis), were studied in enclosures in two habitats. In the open water habitat dominated by small planktonic prey perch grew more slowly and altered its diet from zooplankton to benthic macroinvertebrates when in the presence of roach. No effect, however, of perch on roach was

L. Persson

1987-01-01

4

The effect of fasting and refeeding on temperature preference, activity and growth of roach, Rutilus rutilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most fish species are regularly subjected to periods of starvation during which a reduction of energy turnover might be favourable for the animal. This reduction of energy flux may be achieved by changes in thermal behaviour and\\/or swimming activity. We investigated such behavioural changes during starvation and subsequent refeeding in roach, Rutilus rutilus, with respect to energetic benefits and growth

P. L. M. van Dijk; G. Staaks; I. Hardewig

2002-01-01

5

BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 66, 272281 (2002) Altered Sexual Maturation and Gamete Production in Wild Roach (Rutilus rutilus)  

E-print Network

in Wild Roach (Rutilus rutilus) Living in Rivers That Receive Treated Sewage Effluents1 S. Jobling,2,3 N ABSTRACT Disruption in gonadal development of wild roach living in U.K. rivers receiving large volumes be an indicator for the level of gonadal disruption in intersex roach. The estradiol-17 concen- tration

Tyler, Charles

6

Interactive effects of season and temperature on enzyme activities, tissue and whole animal respiration in roach, Rutilus rutilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis This paper reviews investigations on the ecophysiology of a population of roach, Rutilus rutilus, from a subalpine oligotrophic lake in the Austrian Tirol. Metabolic responses to season and temperature were studied in whole animals, tissues and selected enzymes. The exponent of the relationship between body mass and three levels of the metabolic rate of acclimated fish was 0.82 ±

Franz Koch; Wolfgang Wieser; Harald Niederstätter

1992-01-01

7

Experimental demonstration of a behavioural modification in a cyprinid fish, Rutilus rutilus (L.), induced by a parasite, Ligula intestinalis (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural changes in parasitized hosts have been experimentally investigated by comparing the swimming behaviour of roach, Rutilus rutilus, infected by the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis with that of uninfected roach when they were exposed to the same overhead heron stimulus. Before the stimulus was presented, infected fish swam close to the surface and uninfected fish were preferentially found near the bottom

Géraldine Loot; Stéphane Aulagnier; Sovan Lek; Frédéric Thomas; Jean-François Guégan

2002-01-01

8

Habitat shift in roach ( Rutilus rutilus ) induced by pikeperch ( Stizostedion lucioperca ) introduction: predation risk versus pelagic behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the fish community structure and habitat use were followed after the introduction of pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca) to the roach-dominated Lake Gjersjřen. Quantitative echosounding showed that the density of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) was dramatically reduced in pelagic areas, from 12 000–15 000 fish\\/ha to 250 fish\\/ha, while total fish density remained unchanged in littoral areas. At the same

Ĺge Brabrand; Bjřrn Faafeng

1993-01-01

9

Dietary galactooligosaccharide affects intestinal microbiota, stress resistance, and performance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of galactooligosaccharide (GOS), on the growth performance, stress resistance and intestinal microbiota of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry. Specimens (1.36 ± 0.03 g) were fed either a basal control diet (0% GOS, non-supplemented) or the basal diet supplemented with 1% and 2% of GOS. After 7 weeks of the feeding trials, growth factors (final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, condition factor and food conversion ratio) as well as body composition, resistance to salinity stress and autochthonous intestinal microbiota were assessed. Results demonstrated that at the end of the trial growth factors (final weight, weight gain, SGR, FCR) were significantly higher in 2% GOS fed fish (P < 0.05). In addition, supplementation of GOS significantly increased both survival rate (P < 0.05), and resistance to a salinity stress challenge of prebiotic fed groups (P < 0.05). However, body composition and the total autochthonous intestinal heterotrophic bacteria counts remained unaffected in different treatments (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, autochthonous lactic acid bacteria levels were significantly elevated in fish fed 2% dietary GOS (P < 0.05). These results confirm that GOS improves growth performance, stress resistance and modulates intestinal microbiota by increasing lactic acid bacteria of Caspian roach fry, a very important fish species in the Caspian Sea. PMID:23973845

Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khalili, Mohsen; Rostami, Hosseinali Khoshbavar; Esteban, M Ángeles

2013-11-01

10

The interactions of abiotic and biotic factors influencing perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus populations in small acidified boreal lakes.  

PubMed

Four small, acidified boreal lakes, all sustaining populations of perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius, were studied in four successive years. Three lakes were moderately acidified (mean pH of 5·61-5·83), while the fourth was more acidic (mean pH of 5·16) and had a sparse population of R. rutilus. Perca fluviatilis density was higher in this lake (1004 ha(-1)) than in the other three (355-717 ha(-1)), where R. rutilus dominated in terms of numbers (981-2185 ha(-1)). Large, potentially predatory, P. fluviatilis were most abundant in the lake with clearest water, and these seemed to have a negative effect on P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mean mass was negatively correlated with R. rutilus biomass and was highest in the most acidic lake with the sparse R. rutilus and the highest P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mass correlated positively with pH in two lakes (with the highest fish biomass), suggesting that low pH affected P. fluviatilis mass negatively. Perca fluviatilis growth correlated positively with summer (July to August) air temperature in the lake with sparse R. rutilus, thus differing from P. fluviatilis and R. rutilus growth in the other three lakes. The mean age of P. fluviatilis was generally lower than that of R. rutilus and was lowest in the two lakes with the highest fish biomass, indicating that adult mortality was affected by density-induced factors. PMID:21781101

Linlřkken, A N; Hesthagen, T

2011-08-01

11

Infrasound initiates directional fast-start escape responses in juvenile roach Rutilus rutilus.  

PubMed

Acoustic stimuli within the sonic range are effective triggers of C-type escape behaviours in fish. We have previously shown that fish have an acute sensitivity to infrasound also, with acceleration thresholds in the range of 10(-5) m s(-2). In addition, infrasound at high intensities around 10(-2) m s(-2) elicits strong and sustained avoidance responses in several fish species. In the present study, the possible triggering of C-escapes by infrasonic single-cycle vibrations was examined in juvenile roach Rutilus rutilus. The fish were accelerated in a controlled and quantifiable manner using a swing system. The applied stimuli simulated essential components of the accelerations that a small fish would encounter in the hydrodynamic flow field produced by a predatory fish. Typical C- and S-type escape responses were induced by accelerations within the infrasonic range with a threshold of 0.023 m s(-2) for an initial acceleration at 6.7 Hz. Response trajectories were on average in the same direction as the initial acceleration. Unexpectedly, startle behaviours mainly occurred in the trailing half of the test chamber, in which the fish were subjected to linear acceleration in combination with compression, i.e. the expected stimuli produced by an approaching predator. Very few responses were observed in the leading half of the test chamber, where the fish were subjected to acceleration and rarefaction, i.e. the stimuli expected from a suction type of predator. We conclude that particle acceleration is essential for the directionality of the startle response to infrasound, and that the response is triggered by the synergistic effects of acceleration and compression. PMID:15531639

Karlsen, Hans E; Piddington, Robert W; Enger, Per S; Sand, Olav

2004-11-01

12

The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone ?-subunit (lh?) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (fsh?) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fsh? in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ?31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

2014-09-01

13

A revision of the Rutilus complex from Mediterranean Europe with description of a new genus, Sarmarutilus, and a new species, Rutilus stoumboudae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

By combining morphology, ecology, biology, and biogeography with the available molecular (sequence variation of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene; cyt-b) and karyology data, the taxonomy of several species of the Rutilus complex inhabiting southern Europe is revised. Rutilus stoumboudae, new species, is described from Lake Volvi, Greece. It differs from Rutilus rutilus in possessing more total GR and less branched rays in both dorsal and anal fins and in its placement in the cyt-b based phylogeny of the genus. The resurrected genus Leucos Heckel, 1843 (type species Leucos aula, Bonaparte, 1841), which according to molecular data diverged from Rutilus more than 5 million years ago, during the Messinian salinity crisis, includes five species of small size, without spinous tubercles on scales and head in reproductive males, pharyngeal teeth formula 5-5, and all show a preference for still waters. Leucos aula is the Italian species endemic in the Padany-Venetian district: L. basak is widespread in Croatia, Albania, Montenegro and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); L. albus, recently described from Lake Skadar, Montenegro, is also found in rivers Moraca and Zeta (Montenegro). L. albus differs from L. basak, its closest relative, in having more scales on the LL and less anal-fin rays; L. panosi is endemic to the western-Greece district, and L. ylikiensis is endemic to lakes Yliki and Paralimni in eastern Greece (introduced in Lake Volvi). Among the nominal species examined, Rutilus karamani, R. ohridanus, R. prespensis and R. prespensis vukovici are all junior synonyms of Leucos basak. Rutilus vegariticus is definitively regarded as junior synonym for R. rutilus. Sarmarutilus n.gen. is a monotypic genus, with Sarmarutilus rubilio as the type species. According to phylogenetic data, Sarmarutilus rubilio is basal to a cluster of species that includes Leucos basak, L. albus, L. aula, L. panosi and L. ylikiensis. Sarmarutilus possibly evolved in pre-Messinian time, in the Lago Mare, entered the Mediterranean area during the Messinian Lago Mare phase of the Mediterranean Sea and survived only in the Tuscany- Latium district. This genus differs from Leucos in having large pearl organs on the central part of head and body scales in mature males and for the habitat preference, being a riverine-adapted species. It differs from Rutilus in pharyngeal teeth formula (5-5 in Sarmarutilus and 6-5 in Rutilus), size (small in Sarmarutilus and large in Rutilus) and for the preferential habitat (riverine vs. still water). Finally, lectotypes for Leucos basak, Leucos aula, and Sarmarutilus rubilio are designated. PMID:25082046

Bianco, Pier Giorgio; Ketmaier, Valerio

2014-01-01

14

Identification of Diplostomum spp. in the retina of perch Perca fluviatilis and the lens of roach Rutilus rutilus from the Baltic Sea — an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metacercariae of the genus Diplostomum dwelling in the retina of perch Perca fluviatilis and the lens of roach Rutilus rutilus were identified on the basis of adults obtained by feeding various piscivorous birds of the families Laridae, Anatidae and\\u000a Phasianidae with metacercariae on an experimental basis. Both morphological studies of the metacercariae and adults obtained\\u000a from the intestine of the

Johan Höglund; Jan Thulin

1982-01-01

15

Environmental factors regulate the effects of roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius on perch Perca fluviatilis populations in small boreal forest lakes.  

PubMed

In this study of 18 small boreal forest lakes, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors (roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius) on various population variables of perch Perca fluviatilis were examined. As a single variable, the gillnet catch per unit effort (CPUE) of R. rutilus was negatively related to the mean mass of small (< 200 mm) and the growth rate of young (1-2 years) P. fluviatilis. The mean mass of large (> or = 200 mm) P. fluviatilis was the highest at intermediate CPUE of R. rutilus. Redundancy analysis including environmental factors and P. fluviatilis population variables suggested that 'predation-productivity-humus' gradient affected P. fluviatilis populations by decreasing the CPUE and mean mass of small individuals but increasing these variables of large individuals. The CPUE of R. rutilus and lake area had a negative effect on small and a positive effect on large P. fluviatilis growth rate. In small boreal forest lakes, P. fluviatilis populations are affected by the partially opposite forces of competition by R. rutilus and predation by E. lucius, and the intensity of these interactions is regulated by several environmental factors. PMID:20537014

Olin, M; Vinni, M; Lehtonen, H; Rask, M; Ruuhijärvi, J; Saulamo, K; Ala-Opas, P

2010-04-01

16

Brain cytochrome P450 aromatase activity in roach (Rutilus rutilus): seasonal variations and impact of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

P450 aromatase catalyses the conversion of C19 androgens to C18 estrogens which is thought to be essential for the regulation of the reproductive function. In this study, brain aromatase activity (AA) was measured monthly over a reproductive cycle in wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) sampled in a reference site in Normandy. AA peaked during the breeding season, reaching 35 fmol mg(-1)min(-1) in both male and female fish, and was low during the rest of the year except for a significant rise in October. AA was correlated with ovary maturation (measured either as gonado-somatic index or by histological analysis of the gonads) and plasma sex-steroid levels (11-ketotestosterone in males and 17-?-estradiol in females). Measurements of AA in polluted sites showed that activity was significantly upregulated in sites with fish showing high levels of plasma vitellogenin and large proportion of intersexuality (20-50%) thus suggesting the occurrence of estrogenic compounds and their involvement in AA modulation. PMID:21820384

Geraudie, Perrine; Hinfray, Nathalie; Gerbron, Marie; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Brion, François; Minier, Christophe

2011-10-01

17

Out-of-season production of 17,20?-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one in the roach Rutilus rutilus.  

PubMed

In this study, although the highest production of two physiologically significant progestins in teleosts [17,20?-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20?-P) and 17,20?,21-trihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20?,21-P)] was observed in the period just prior to spawning in both male and female roach Rutilus rutilus, there was also a substantial production (mean levels of 5-10?ng?ml(-1) in blood; and a rate of release of 5-20?ng fish(-1) ?h(-1) into the water) in males and females in the late summer and early autumn (at least 7?months prior to spawning). During this period, the ovaries were increasing rapidly in size and histological sections were dominated by oocytes in the secondary growth phase [i.e. incorporation of vitellogenin (VTG)]. At the same time, the testes were also increasing rapidly in size and histological sections were dominated by cysts containing mainly spermatogonia type B. Measurements were also made of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in males and 17?-oestradiol and VTG in females. The 3?months with the highest production of 11-KT coincided with the period that spermatozoa were present in the testes. In females, the first sign of a rise in 17?-oestradiol concentrations coincided with the time of the first appearance of yolk globules in the oocytes (in August). The role of the progestins during the late summer and autumn has not been established. PMID:23902304

Scott, A P; Hill, T; Beresford, N; Runnalls, T J; Sumpter, J P; Ellis, T

2013-08-01

18

Effects of aluminium and bacterial lipopolysaccharide on oxidative stress and immune parameters in roach, Rutilus rutilus L.  

PubMed

Aluminium is used in diverse anthropogenic processes at the origin of pollution events in aquatic ecosystems. In the Champagne region (France), high concentrations of aluminium (Al) are detected due to vine-growing practices. In fish, little is known about the possible immune-related effects at relevant environmental concentrations. The present study analyzes the simultaneous effects of aluminium and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alone and in combination, on toxicological biomarkers in the freshwater fish species Rutilus rutilus. For this purpose, roach treated or not with LPS were exposed to environmental concentrations of aluminium (100 ?g/L) under laboratory-controlled conditions for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days. After each exposure time, we assessed hepatic lipoperoxidation, catalase activity, glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione content. We also analyzed cellular components related to the LPS-induced inflammatory response in possible target tissues, i.e. head kidney and spleen. Our results revealed a significant prooxidant effect in the liver cells and head kidney leukocytes of roach exposed to 100 ?g of Al/L for 2 days. In liver, we observed more lipoperoxidation products and lower endogenous antioxidant activity levels such as glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione content. These prooxidant effects were associated with a higher oxidative burst in head kidney leukocytes, and they were all the more important in fish stimulated by LPS injection. These findings demonstrate that environmental concentrations of Al induce oxidative and immunotoxic effects in fish and are associated to an immunomodulatory process related to the inflammatory response. PMID:24996940

Jolly, S; Jaffal, A; Delahaut, L; Palluel, O; Porcher, J-M; Geffard, A; Sanchez, W; Betoulle, S

2014-11-01

19

Metabolomics Reveals Target and Off-Target Toxicities of a Model Organophosphate Pesticide to Roach (Rutilus rutilus): Implications for Biomonitoring  

PubMed Central

The ability of targeted and nontargeted metabolomics to discover chronic ecotoxicological effects is largely unexplored. Fenitrothion, an organophosphate pesticide, is categorized as a “red list” pollutant, being particularly hazardous to aquatic life. It acts primarily as a cholinesterase inhibitor, but evidence suggests it can also act as an androgen receptor antagonist. Whole-organism fenitrothion-induced toxicity is well-established, but information regarding target and off-target molecular toxicities is limited. Here we study the molecular responses of male roach (Rutilus rutilus) exposed to fenitrothion, including environmentally realistic concentrations, for 28 days. Acetylcholine was assessed in brain; steroid metabolism was measured in testes and plasma; and NMR and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics were conducted on testes and liver to discover off-target toxicity. O-demethylation was confirmed as a major route of pesticide degradation. Fenitrothion significantly depleted acetylcholine, confirming its primary mode of action, and 11-ketotestosterone in plasma and cortisone in testes, showing disruption of steroid metabolism. Metabolomics revealed significant perturbations to the hepatic phosphagen system and previously undocumented effects on phenylalanine metabolism in liver and testes. On the basis of several unexpected molecular responses that were opposite to the anticipated acute toxicity, we propose that chronic pesticide exposure induces an adapting phenotype in roach, which may have considerable implications for interpreting molecular biomarker responses in field-sampled fish. PMID:21410251

2011-01-01

20

Factors affecting between-lake variation in the occurrence of epidermal papillomatosis in roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.).  

PubMed

The theory of island biogeography predicts that the probability of a species occupying an island depends on a dynamic equilibrium between extinction and colonization. Epidermal papillomatosis is a disease manifesting as skin tumours on fish. We studied the factors affecting the occurrence of the disease in roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), in 34 lakes. The results of discrimination analysis suggest that maximum depth, percentage of the drainage area of the lake covered by lakes in the vicinity and altitude best identified diseased lakes. Comparison of diseased and non-diseased lakes revealed that lake area could also be regarded as a variable contributing to the occurrence of the disease. The sampling date, proportion of males and mean length of fish did not discriminate between the lakes. The probability of the disease occurring was highest in large, deep, low-altitude lakes which had a high percentage of lakes in their vicinity. Thus, the results indicate that the colonization and extinction processes probably contribute to the occurrence of papillomatosis in roach, as predicted by the theory. Furthermore, the large natural variation in the occurrence of the disease could mask possible environmental effects and between-lake comparisons should be interpreted with caution when using the fish-papillomatosis system as an indicator of environmental stress. PMID:19236555

Korkea-aho, T L; Vainikka, A; Kortet, R; Taskinen, J

2009-03-01

21

Diversity of Microorganisms Isolated from the Soil Sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing Region  

PubMed Central

Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus. PMID:21448282

Wang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Yin, Yonggang; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Shouxian; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Geng, Xiaoli

2011-01-01

22

Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region.  

PubMed

Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus. PMID:21448282

Wang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Yin, Yonggang; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Shouxian; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Geng, Xiaoli

2011-01-01

23

Chronic exposure of Rutilus rutilus caspicus fingerlings to ambient copper: Effects on food intake, growth performance, biochemistry and stress resistance.  

PubMed

An 8-week trial was conducted to investigate the effect of ambient copper (Cu) on growth performance, physiological characteristics and stress resistance of Caspian roach, Rutilus rutilus caspicus. Fish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 ppm Cu, and their food intake and growth performance were fortnightly recorded. Also, serum cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and sodium (Na) levels were determined after 2 and 8 weeks exposure to ambient Cu. At the end of trial, serum total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin-globulin ratio (A:G) levels, whole body proximate composition and stress tolerance of the fish were measured. Results showed that Cu exposure resulted in a significant suppression in food intake after 2 weeks, which was eliminated after 4 weeks in 0.02 ppm groups and after 6 weeks in 0.04 and 0.06 ppm groups. Cu exposure brought about an inferior growth that recovered in line with the experiment progression, following a dose-dependent manner. Cu-exposed fish showed a dose-dependent increase in serum cortisol, glucose and ALT as well as decrease in serum Na, after 2 weeks. These parameters showed a full recovery in 0.02 ppm group and a partial recovery in 0.04 and 0.06 ppm groups, at the 8th week. Significant suppression in serum total protein, albumin, globulin and A:G levels and whole body dry matter, lipid and protein levels as well as stress resistance was observed in 0.04 and 0.06 ppm groups. It is concluded that Cu exposure could adversely affect growth performance, physiological characteristics and stress resistance of Caspian roach, which might affect its ecological features. PMID:24105068

Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Rajabiesterabadi, Hamid; Kordrostami, Sara

2013-10-01

24

Differential habitat use and antipredator response of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) to olfactory and visual cues from multiple predators.  

PubMed

The indirect, behavioral effects of predation and predator-predator interactions can significantly alter the trophic ecology of many communities. In numerous instances, the strength of these effects may be determined by the ability of prey to identify predation risk through predator-specific cues and respond accordingly to avoid capture. We exposed juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus), a common forage fish in many brackish and freshwater environments, to vision and/or olfactory cues from two predators with different hunting methods: northern pike (Esox lucius, an ambush predator) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis, a roving predator). Our results demonstrated that responses of roach to perceived risk (as evidenced by their selection of structured or open-water habitats) were highly dependent on cue type and predator identity. For instance, roach responded to olfactory cues of pike by entering open-water habitat, but entered structured habitat when presented with a vision cue of this predator. Opposite responses were elicited from roach for both olfactory and visual cues of perch. Interestingly, roach defaulted to selection of structured habitat when presented with vision + olfaction cues of either predator. Moreover, when presented individual cues of both predators together, roach responded by choosing open-water habitat. Upon being presented with vision + olfaction cues of both predators, however, roach strongly favored structured habitat. Differences in habitat selection of roach were likely in response to the alternative foraging strategies of the two predators, and suggest that prey species may not always use structured habitats as protection. This appears particularly true when a threat is perceived, but cannot immediately be located. These results provide insight to the complex and variable nature by which prey respond to various cues and predators, and offer a mechanistic guide for how behaviorally mediated and predator-predator interactions act as structuring processes in aquatic systems. PMID:20127367

Martin, Charles W; Fodrie, F Joel; Heck, Kenneth L; Mattila, Johanna

2010-04-01

25

The effects of dietary vitamin C on mucosal immune responses and growth performance in Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary vitamin C on some skin mucus immune parameters, mucus antimicrobial activity and growth performance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry. Six hundred sixty Caspian roach (1.4 ± 0.02 g) fry were allocated to 12 tanks (55 fish per tank), and triplicate groups were fed diets containing 0, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 mg kg(-1) vitamin C for 60 days. At the end of the trial, the epidermal mucus protein level, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity against two gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Micrococcus luteus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) as well as growth performance were measured. The results demonstrated that feeding on vitamin C significantly elevated skin mucus alkaline phosphatase and protein levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, lysozyme activity was undetectable in both the vitamin C-fed roach fry and the control group. Skin mucus antimicrobial activity was increased following vitamin C administration, and the bacterial growth inhibition zones were significantly elevated in vitamin C-fed roach (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained in case of the minimum inhibitory concentration of skin mucus. Also fish fed the control diet had a significantly lower weight gain, specific growth rate and condition factor compared to the other treatments (P < 0.05). These results revealed that dietary vitamin C beneficially affects the skin mucus immune parameters and growth performance of Caspian roach fry. PMID:24965492

Roosta, Zahra; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Ghorbani, Rasoul; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

2014-10-01

26

Assessing of heavy metal concentrations in the tissues of Rutilus rutilus caspicus and Neogobius gorlap from Miankaleh international wetland.  

PubMed

The concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr) were measured in tissues of pelagic (Rutilus caspicus) and benthic (Neogobius gorlap) fishes from the Miankaleh international wetland. The maximum concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr (2.06, 1.20, 1.14 and 0.70 ?g g(-1), respectively) were measured in the liver of N. gorlap, while the lowest concentrations were measured in muscle tissue collected from R. caspicus (Pb 0.67; Cd 0.25; Ni 0.21 and Cr 0.08 ?g g(-1)). The mean concentrations of metals in liver of R. caspicus and N. gorlap followed a trend where Pb > Cd > Ni > Cr, whereas in R. caspicus and N. gorlap gills and N. gorlap muscle the following trend was observed Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr. The data of presented study show that the liver and gill tissues have higher metal concentrations than muscle and also the metal concentrations in tissues of N. gorlap (benthic) were higher in comparison with R. caspicus (pelagic). PMID:24064989

Alipour, Hossein; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Hassanpour, Mehdi

2013-11-01

27

Temporary intermissions in capturing prey ( Daphnia ) by planktivorous fish ( Rutilus rutilus ): Are they due to scramble competition or the need for antipredation vigilance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capture rates in planktivorous fish may differ in individuals foraging alone or in a group, and this may result either from\\u000a the altered risk of predation due to vigilance sharing in the group, or from a difference in the intensity of scramble competition\\u000a for encountered prey items. Changes in capture frequency and the feeding pattern observed in young roach (Rutilus

Maciej Bartosiewicz; Z. Maciej Gliwicz

2011-01-01

28

Plasma metabolites, ions and thyroid hormones levels, and hepatic enzymes? activity in Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) exposed to waterborne manganese.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of waterborne manganese on plasma biochemical characteristics in fish, Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) was exposed to 0 (control), 60 (M60), 150 (M150) and 300 (M300) mg/L water manganese for 96h. Thereafter, plasma biochemical characteristics were studied. Plasma glucose level significantly increased in M60 and decreased in M150 and M300 groups, compared to the control. M300 had significantly lower hematocrit compared to the control. Albumin remained unchanged after manganese exposure, however, the manganese-exposed fish showed significant increase in plasma total protein levels. M150 and M300 showed significant increase in the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to the control and M60. M60 and M150 had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to the control. The manganese-exposed groups had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity compared to the control. M150 and M300 had aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity significantly higher than those of the control and M60. M300 had significantly higher triiodothyronine (T3) levels than the other groups. All manganese-exposed fish had significantly higher thyroxin (T4) levels than the control. The plasma levels of chloride showed a significant decrease in the manganese-exposed fish, compared to the control. M150 and M300 had significantly lower sodium levels, compared to the control. M60 and M150 had significantly lower plasma calcium levels compared to the other groups. It is concluded that clinical chemistry along with thyroid hormones levels can be the useful tools to monitor manganese toxicity in fish. The possible mechanisms involving in the biochemical changes were discussed. PMID:24905699

Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hedayati, Aliakbar; Ghelichpour, Melika

2014-09-01

29

Long-term dynamics of Ligula intestinalis and roach Rutilus rutilus: a study of three epizootic cycles over thirty-one years.  

PubMed

Data are presented on 2 full epizootic cycles and the start of a third of Ligula intestinalis in roach Rutilus rutilus in a small lake, and the relationships of these cycles to the densities of rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, and Great Crested Grebes, Podiceps cristatus, over 31 years. The parasite was introduced to the lake by P. cristatus in 1973 at a time when the roach population had increased in response to eutrophication to a level at which individual fish growth was stunted and the hithero dominant rudd population had declined in numbers as a consequence of inter-specific competition with roach. Ligula prevalence peaked at 28% in only 2 years: thereafter parasite-induced host mortality caused a decline in the roach population, releasing fish from stunting and allowing the rudd population to recover. The consequent improved growth of roach individuals and their short life-span reduced Ligula transmission rates and prevalence levels declined to approximately 1% although Ligula nevertheless persisted for a further 10 years. Following a massive winter-kill of the fish populations in 1984-1985, fish and Ligula numbers declined to barely detectable levels and the parasite disappeared from samples. Rudd recovered first, then roach and interspecific competition again led to a decline in rudd numbers. This increase in roach numbers led to a decrease in roach growth rates, which coincided with the re-colonization of the lake by Ligula. This second epizootic of Ligula peaked within 2 years in 1991-1992, when up to 78% of roach were infected with a maximum abundance of 2.2 parasites and intensity of 21 parasites. Heavy parasite-induced mortality of roach led to a decline in numbers, an improvement in individual growth rate and a reduction of Ligula transmission rates such that the epizootic died out in 1996. Similar conditions of roach numbers and growth prevailed at the start of a third cycle in 1998. The course of events over the second cycle was so similar to that of the first that it confirms the interpretations of that cycle. Comparison with other localities shows that epizootics of Ligula always coincide with rapid increases in roach numbers, for whatever cause, and stunted growth, which together attract piscivorous birds. At the start of a cycle Ligula is a major determinant of the population dynamics of the roach, but at the end of the cycle the fish population dynamics determine those of the parasite. The cycles are not regulated and the roach-Ligula system is inherently unstable. PMID:11578089

Kennedy, C R; Shears, P C; Shears, J A

2001-09-01

30

Impact of sex and fishing season on fatty acid profile, fat and cholesterol content in the meat of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from Brda River (Poland).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine fat and cholesterol content and the fatty acid profile in the meat of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.). Muscle samples for analyses were taken from the large side muscle of the fish body above the lateral line. The study involved 56 individuals caught in fall and spring. Analyses were carried out on 14 females and 14 males caught in each season. The percentage content of fat in the fish meat was determined with the modified method of FOLCH et al. (1957). The cholesterol content was determined with the modified Liebermann-Burchardt colorimetric method using a Shimadzu spectrophotometer (UV-VIS-NIR-3100). The fatty acid profile was determined with the gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector. Analyses indicated that the percentage content of fat was higher in the meat of roach caught in autumn (0.96% in females and 0.91% in males) than in the tissues of individuals from spring, which was 0.67% and 0.86%, respectively. The content of the total cholesterol was higher in autumn (64.17 mg 100g(-1)) than in spring (56.25 mg 100g(-1)), and these values significantly differed (p < 0.05). Statistical analyses indicated that there were no significant differences in the content of fat and cholesterol between females and males caught in both seasons. The total amounts of SFA, MUFA and PUFA ranged from 30.05% to 33.57%, from 39.53% to 47.64% and from 19.96% to 27.42%, respectively. Analyses of correlations between fatty acids from the n-3 and n-6 group indicated a positive and statistically significant relationship between C20:4 n-6 and C22:4 n-6 (p = 0.000, R = 0.9065) and C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 (p = 0.000, r = 0.8555). The ratio of n-3/n-6 was highest in the meat of roach caught in spring (0.50-0.81) than in autumn (0.50-0.77). The AI index ranged from 0.35 to 0.46 and the mean values of TI ranged from 0.41 to 0.54. PMID:23342921

Stanek, Magdalena; Kupcewicz, Bogumi?a; Dabrowski, Janusz; Janicki, Bogdan

2012-01-01

31

Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus.  

PubMed

Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) is a fish of the family Cyprinidae, which is commercially harvested from the Caspian Sea. Experimental infection with Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was conducted in order to examine susceptibility of caspian White Fish and clinical impacts of infection. Fingerling fish were injected intra-peritoneally or waterborne-exposed with SVCV and were monitored daily for 7 weeks. Dead fish and those survived at the end of experimental period were collected for virus isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line was used to re-isolate the virus and indirect fluorescent antibody test was conducted to identify the isolated virus. Infection trials showed that SVCV was highly pathogenic for the Caspian White Fish with mortality rate ranging from 75 to 85 %, depending on the viral challenge model. SVCV genome was detected from dead and apparently healthy fish tissues of both virus exposure models, which showed Caspian White Fish not only can be regarded as a susceptible host, but also serve as a vector of the virus. PMID:24426310

Zamani, H; Ghasemi, M; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S

2014-01-01

32

Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.  

PubMed

Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population. PMID:24685241

Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

2014-06-01

33

Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74?g of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences. PMID:25497081

Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

2015-03-01

34

Histopathological Alterations in the Kidney of Caspian Kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, Larvae and Fingerlings Exposed to Sublethal Concentration of Atrazine.  

PubMed

The use of chemical pesticides has increased environmental pollution and affected ichthyofauna as non target organisms. In the present study, the histopathological alterations in the larvae and fingerlings of the Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, were used as a model to investigate the toxic effects of triazine herbicide, atrazine. To investigate toxic effects of atrazine, fish were exposed to sublethal concentration of ˝ LC50 for 96 h. Histologically, the most significant alterations in kidney tissues were hyperplasia, necrosis, vacuolation, swelling, hypertrophy, aggregation of hyaline droplets, and disruption of the haematopitic tissue of the head kidney. The damage was more severe in larvae than the fingerlings. Results showed that alterations in kidney tissue caused by atrazine were not specific but it could be concluded that atrazine is excessively toxic for Caspian kutum even at sublethal concentration and acute exposure. PMID:25447438

Khoshnood, Zahra

2014-12-01

35

Effect of copper sulfate on the survival and growth performance of Caspian Sea kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum.  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to determine the LC50/96 h value of copper sulfate and determine the growth performance of Caspian Sea kutum) Rutilus frisii kutum (fingerlings during 60-days sub-lethal copper (Cu). After acclimation period to two weeks, for determine the LC50/96 h value, total of 27 aquarium with a capacity of 60 L each stocked with 10 fishes an aquarium. Tunney four aquarium and 8 concentrations of (Cu) composed the 24 treatments while 3 other aquaria were used as control. For each treatment, three replications were conducted. And experiment to determine the growth performance fish were transferred into fiberglass aquaria of 200 L water capacity for growth trials. The treated fish were kept in the aquarium containing sub-lethal concentrations of Cu (0.11 and 0.23 mg L(-1)) and affected to grow for 60 days, while control fish were placed in metal free water. The results indicated that median lethal concentrations (LC50) of copper to Caspian Sea kutum for 96 h exposure was 2.310 ppm. The chronic sub-lethal water-borne Cu exposure to the fish exerted that fish had significantly decreased final body weight in comparison to control group. The copper sulfate also had significant negative effects on specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in comparison to those fed the control group. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and condition factor (CF) were significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P?Rutilus frisii kutum). PMID:24133647

Gharedaashi, Esmail; Nekoubin, Hamed; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Taghizadeh, Vahid

2013-01-01

36

[Density-dependent regulation in populations of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) in optimal and suboptimal habitats of south-west Siberia].  

PubMed

In a population of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) that live in optimal habitats (mountain taiga of North-Eastern Altai) in the years of peak density we have observed total suppression of sexual maturation of young animals which is known to be the main mechanism of density regulation. Increase of voles' local density is accompanied by the increase of glucocorticoids in blood of mature and immature individuals of both sexes that argues for the important role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in density dependent regulation. Another population of red-backed voles from south-west Siberia that live in suboptimal habitats (Novosibirsk city vicinity), had significantly lower density. Here, the dynamics of demographic traits and endocrine status of the individuals did not correlate with interannual fluctuations of abundance and density. Even though, the possibility that in suboptimal conditions local density occasionally reaches the values sufficient for the induction of self-regulation cannot be excluded. PMID:22567967

Novikov, E A; Panov, V V; Moshkin, M P

2012-01-01

37

Effect of a Probiotic Containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis and Ferroin Solution on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Haematological Parameters in Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) Fry.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the efficacy of BioPlus 2B, a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis and Ferroin solution on growth performance, body composition and haematological parameters in kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, fry. The fish were fed dry pellets containing various ratios of probiotics and Ferroin for 60 days after absorption of the yolk sac. At the end of the trial, growth indices (final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, daily growth rate, food conversion ratio and condition factor), body composition (crude protein, crude lipid, ash and moisture) and haematological parameters [haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NEUTR), lymphocytes (LYM), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)] were assessed. Regarding body composition, total protein levels were higher, and ash, moisture and lipid levels were lower in fish receiving the probiotic and Ferroin treatments compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Fish receiving diets supplemented with probiotics and Ferroin solution showed significantly better growth than those fed the basal diet (control). RBC, Hct, Hb, MCV, MCH and LYM were all highest in fish fed probiotic (1.6 × 10(9) CFU/g dry pellet) + Ferroin solution (7 mg/kg dry pellet) + dry pellets. These results indicate that the combination of probiotic and Ferroin solution represents an effective dietary supplement for improving carcass quality, growth performance and haematological parameters in kutum fry. PMID:25431124

Azarin, Hajar; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza; Rajabpour, Mina

2014-11-28

38

The effects of dietary xylooligosaccharide on mucosal parameters, intestinal microbiota and morphology and growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the effects of different levels of dietary xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on skin mucus bactericidal activity and protein content, intestinal microbiota and morphology as well as growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry. The specimens (1.54 ± 0.03 g) were fed experimental diets supplemented with different levels of XOS [0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3%] for 8 weeks. The results revealed that feeding on XOS significantly increased skin mucus antibacterial activity and protein levels (P < 0.05) and the highest levels were observed in 3% XOS treatment. The total autochthonous intestinal heterotrophic bacteria significantly increased following XOS administration in diet (P < 0.05). Administration of 2 or 3% XOS in fry diet significantly elevated the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (P < 0.05). However, dietary XOS had no significant effect on intestinal morphology, growth performance and diet utilisation of Caspian white fish fry (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate beneficial effects of dietary XOS on different parameters of mucosal immunity (both skin mucus and intestinal microbiota) and encourage further studies regards various aspect of XOS administration in early life stages of fish. PMID:24845518

Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Sharifian, Maryam; Vesaghi, Mohammad Javad; Khalili, Mohsen; Esteban, M Ángeles

2014-08-01

39

Hydrolysis of carbohydrates in roach ( Rutilus rutilus (L.)) at different levels of mercury accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that chronic exposure to dietary mercury results in the intensive accumulation of this metal in roach yearlings.\\u000a The concentrations of accumulated mercury in their organisms were proportional to the amount of metal added to water of experimental\\u000a tanks. Increased Hg content in the organisms (0.05–0.16 mg\\/kg) of developing juvenile roaches decreases the activity of digestive\\u000a carbohydrases

I. L. Golovanova; V. T. Komov; V. A. Gremyatchikh

2008-01-01

40

Altered Sexual Maturation and Gamete Production in Wild Roach (Rutilus rutilus) Living in Rivers That Receive Treated Sewage Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruption in gonadal development of wild roach living in U.K. rivers receiving large volumes of treated sewage effluent is manifest in a variety of ways, ranging from malformation of the germ cells and\\/or reproductive ducts to altered gamete produc- tion. Intersex fish were also found to have an altered endocrine status and an elevated concentration of plasma vitellogenin. Go- nadal

S. Jobling; N. Beresford; M. Nolan; T. Rodgers-Gray; G. C. Brighty; J. P. Sumpter; C. R. Tyler

2002-01-01

41

Determination of phthalates and their by-products in tissues of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the Orge river (France).  

PubMed

Seven phthalate by-products were investigated for the first time, in target tissues of roach from a contaminated river of the Ile-de-France district. All parent phthalates were bioaccumulated in liver and muscle and liver contents were correlated with river concentrations (p < 0.01). All metabolites were found in liver, plasma and bile. The mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP; 1.6 ?g g(-1) dw of liver), followed by mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP; 1.5 ?g g(-1) dw of liver) were the most abundant ones. Among the three metabolites of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) predominated in bile (15.5 ng ml(-1)) and liver (0.237 ?g g(-1) dw), whereas in plasma, it was mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate - MEHHP (214 ng ml(-1)). In liver, MEHP/DEHP ratios ranged from 0.04 to 0.2. Among the oxidized metabolites, only mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) was correlated (p < 0.05) with parent DEHP and appeared to be a more reliable marker of DEHP impact than the monoester. PMID:24965007

Valton, A S; Serre-Dargnat, C; Blanchard, M; Alliot, F; Chevreuil, M; Teil, Marie Jeanne

2014-11-01

42

Reciprocal interactions between roach, Rutilus rutilus, and zooplankton in a small lake: Prey dynamics and fish growth and recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment success of roach varied dramatically between 1979 and 1982 in Alderfen Broad, a small lake in eastern England. When fry were abundant (in 1979 and 198 1, but not in 1980 or 1982) the summer zooplankton became sparse and was dominated by copepods and rotifers. In years of good recruitment, as each of the preferred cladoceran prey species entered

MARTIN CRYER; GRAEME PEIRSON; COLIN R. TOWNSEND

1986-01-01

43

A survey of the spawning of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and roach (Rutilus rutilus), using artificial spawning substrates in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of spawning in perch, pike and roach in Lake Geneva has been studied by means of artificial spawning substrates, laid at different depths, from 1984 to 1993. In Lake Geneva, perch spawned in May. A rise of surface water temperature up to 14 °C stimulated spawning activity while bad weather (surface temperature at 10 °C) induced a spread

C. Gillet; J. P. Dubois

1995-01-01

44

Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) studied in pike ( Esox lucius), perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus) from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pike, perch and roach from rural waters of the Baltic Sea were investigated for possible biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). For this we used data on ?15N, weight and sex of the fish. We were able to separate body size effects from trophic position effects on biomagnification. Both these parameters lead to biomagnification of PCBs

Sven Burreau; Yngve Zebühr; Dag Broman; Rasha Ishaq

2004-01-01

45

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 6158  

E-print Network

roach (Rutilus rutilus L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.). The two methods vegetation. It is likely microhabitat; scuba diving; lake; Rutilus rutilus; Perca fluviatilis; Esox

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

The differential effects of Ligula intestinalis (L.) plerocercoids on host growth in  

E-print Network

populations of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.) Un resumen en espanĂ? ol se incluye detraĂ? s del texto principal de natural populations of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.). Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2002: 11: 168 cestode, Ligula intestinalis, on the growth rates of three fish populations of the roach, Rutilus rutilus

Roche, Benjamin

47

UNCORRECTEDPROOF The differential effects of Ligula intestinalis  

E-print Network

in three natural population of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.) Un resumen en espan~ ol se incluye detra´ s del.) plerocercoids on host growth in three natural population of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.). Ecology of Freshwater of the roach, Rutilus rutilus, under field conditions. Here, we show that only one host-population is affected

Lek, Sovan

48

LEIF ASBJRN VLLESTAD Papers published in international refereed journals or books  

E-print Network

of roach (Rutilus rutilus) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus) in two eutrophic lakes in SE Norway. Holarctic Ecology 8:88-92. 3. L'Abée-Lund, J.H. & Vøllestad, L.A. 1985 Homing precision of roach Rutilus rutilus-tagged roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 1:85-87. 6. Skurdal, J., Vøllestad, L

Vøllestad, Asbjørn

49

Predation resistance does not trade off with competitive ability in early-colonizing mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

The tradeoff between colonization and competitive ability has been proposed as a mechanism for ecological succession, and this tradeoff has been demonstrated in multiple successional communities. The tradeoff between competitive ability and predation resistance is also a widely-described phenomenon; however, this tradeoff is not usually postulated as a cause of ecological succession. Early successional species that arrive before predator colonization could be either (1) Less vulnerable to predation than their successors, by virtue of being poor competitors (direct competition-predation tradeoff); (2) Equally or more vulnerable to predation, because they normally colonize ahead of predators in succession and therefore are not evolutionarily adapted to avoid predators that they rarely encounter (no competition-predation tradeoff). To test these alternative hypotheses, we established water-filled containers in an oak-hickory forest. We allowed half of the containers to be naturally colonized by early-successional Culex mosquitoes, mid-successional Aedes mosquitoes, and the mosquito predator Toxorhynchites rutilus. In the other half of the containers we prevented Aedes colonization via systematic removal of Aedes eggs, but allowed Culex and T. rutilus to colonize. The numbers of mature Culex larvae and pupae, and later the total number of Culex, were significantly greater in containers where Aedes had been removed, which suggests that Culex are competitively suppressed by Aedes. Toxorhynchites rutilus abundance and colonization rate were unaffected by the removal of Aedes, and densities of both Culex and Aedes decreased significantly with T. rutilus abundance in both treatments. In-lab bioassays showed that Culex were significantly more vulnerable to predation by T. rutilus than were Aedes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Culex and Aedes demonstrate a direct colonization/competition tradeoff, and are inconsistent with the hypothesis of a direct competition/predation tradeoff. PMID:23649756

Murrell, Ebony G.; Juliano, Steven A.

2013-01-01

50

Molecular Ecology Notes (2007) doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01994.x 2007 The Authors  

E-print Network

of microsatellite loci for parentage analysis in roach Rutilus rutilus and eight other cyprinid fish by cross-species amplification, and a novel test for detecting hybrids between roach and other cyprinids P. B. HAMILTON and C. R microsatellite loci for parentage analysis in roach Rutilus rutilus, 59 published primer sets were tested

Tyler, Charles

51

Behavior on approach to surface prey by larvae of Toxorhynchites amboinensis and T. brevipalpis (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Behavior of Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Doleschall) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis (Theobald) larvae (starved 48 h) as they approach and capture surface prey is described quantitatively from videotaped records. Of 106 T. amboinensis and 82 T. brevipalpis larvae observed, 84.9 and 97.6%, respectively, responded to the presence of surface prey within 2 min (most < 20 s). Once they detected prey, larvae executed initial backward swims if prey was rearwardly positioned, then approached it in a series of undulatory forward swims with progressive adjustments of body angle so that the final movements were directly toward the prey. Swims consisted of an active phase, during which propulsive bodily flexions were made and a passive one of continued inertial drift after active motion had ceased. Quantitative changes in the nature of the swims in terms of interval separating active phases and also distances, times, and speeds throughout the approach sequence were analyzed from the video tapes. T. brevipalpis responded to the presence of prey more rapidly, captured prey in less time, and approached prey more rapidly, with shorter rest periods between active swim phases than T. amboinensis. The behavior indicated that Toxorhynchites larvae are able to assess both the angle to surface prey and its distance and that they interpolate this information to optimize the approach path. The degree of refinement in this behavior indicates that it is well adapted to take advantage of the important surface food source in nature. In this phase of their feeding, Toxorhynchites larvae are active hunters and are not entirely the passive ambush predators they have seemed to be from many studies that have used other mosquito larvae as (subsurface) prey. PMID:7869343

Linley, J R

1995-01-01

52

Divergent and conserved elements comprise the chemoreceptive repertoire of the nonblood-feeding mosquito Toxorhynchites amboinensis.  

PubMed

Many mosquito species serve as vectors of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever, wherein pathogen transmission is tightly associated with the reproductive requirement of taking vertebrate blood meals. Toxorhynchites is one of only three known mosquito genera that does not host-seek and initiates egg development in the absence of a blood-derived protein bolus. These remarkable differences make Toxorhynchites an attractive comparative reference for understanding mosquito chemosensation as it pertains to host-seeking. We performed deep transcriptome profiling of adult female Toxorhynchites amboinensis bodies, antennae and maxillary palps, and identified 25,084 protein-coding "genes" in the de novo assembly. Phylogenomic analysis of 4,266 single-copy "genes" from T. amboinensis, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus robustly supported Ae. aegypti as the closest relative of T. amboinensis, with the two species diverged approximately 40 Ma. We identified a large number of T. amboinensis chemosensory "genes," the majority of which have orthologs in other mosquitoes. Finally, cross-species expression analyses indicated that patterns of chemoreceptor transcript abundance were very similar for chemoreceptors that are conserved between T. amboinensis and Ae. aegypti, whereas T. amboinensis appeared deficient in the variety of expressed, lineage-specific chemoreceptors. Our transcriptome assembly of T. amboinensis represents the first comprehensive genomic resource for a nonblood-feeding mosquito and establishes a foundation for future comparative studies of blood-feeding and nonblood-feeding mosquitoes. We hypothesize that chemosensory genes that display discrete patterns of evolution and abundance between T. amboinensis and blood-feeding mosquitoes are likely to play critical roles in host-seeking and hence the vectorial capacity. PMID:25326137

Zhou, Xiaofan; Rinker, David C; Pitts, Ronald Jason; Rokas, Antonis; Zwiebel, Laurence J

2014-10-01

53

The use of Toxorhynchites splendens for identification and quantitation of serotypes contained in the tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assurance of identity and quantity is an indispensable part of quality control in the manufacture of vaccines. Dengue-1 PDK13, dengue-2 PDK53, dengue-3 PGMK30F3 and dengue-4 PDK48 in the live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine were assayed by identification and quantitation in a mosquito system (Toxorhynchites splendens). Each serotype of dengue virus was identified by dengue specific monoclonal antibodies in the indirect

Nuananong Jirakanjanakit; Mi Mi Khin; Sutee Yoksan; Natth Bhamarapravati

1999-01-01

54

DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS Dis Aquat Org  

E-print Network

in a large number of species, such as different whitefish species Coregonus spp., lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and roach Rutilus rutilus (Porter & Corey 1974, Scott 1975, Ruby & Cairns 1983, Hunter & Macewicz

Richner, Heinz

55

Behavioral differences of invasive container-dwelling mosquitoes to a native predator.  

PubMed

Aquatic prey show behavioral modifications in the presence of predation-risk cues that alleviate their risk from predation. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes japonicus (Theobald), and Culex pipiens L. are invasive mosquitoes in North America, and their larvae are prey for the native mosquito predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus are recent invaders, whereas Cx. pipiens has been in the United States for >100 yr. In the presence of predation-risk cues from Tx. rutilus larvae, Cx. pipiens larvae increased the time spent resting at the surface (least risky behavior) more than the other prey species. Ae. japonicus larvae increased resting at the surface of the containers more than Ae. albopictus larvae in the presence of predation-risk cues. Cx. pipiens larvae spent more time motionless at the surface even in the absence of predation-risk cues when compared with the other species, indicating that Cx. pipiens larvae are the least vulnerable prey. As compared with the other prey species, Ae. albopictus larvae exhibited more high-risk behaviors both in the presence and absence of predation-risk cues, indicating that they are the most vulnerable prey. Ae. albopictus is the superior competitor; however, predation by Tx. rutilus larvae may prevent competitive exclusion by Ae. albopictus and promote coexistence among the three prey species. PMID:21661312

Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Khan, Daanish F; Gaugler, Randy

2011-05-01

56

Aquat. Living Resour. 19, 115122 (2006) c EDP Sciences, IFREMER, IRD 2006  

E-print Network

fluviatilis and Rutilus rutilus) in a lake environment using high resolution multibeam sonar system operating, they are shallow and they display a temporal and spatial stability over the course of a day but a highly variable fish species. Key words: Shoaling behaviour / 3-D structure / Sonar / Perca fluviatilis / Rutilus

Guillard, Jean

57

Diel patterns of pupation and emergence, and protogyny, in Toxorhynchites brevipalpis brevipalpis (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae): a laboratory study.  

PubMed

A batch of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis brevipalpis (Theobald) of uniform age was reared from egg to adult under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Diel patterns of pupation and emergence, and duration of larval and pupal stages, were recorded for males and females separately. Pupation showed no detectable diel periodicity, but emergence was almost exclusively diurnal and occurred most frequently during the middle six hours of the 12-hour photophase. T. b. brevipalpis is exceptional among mosquitoes in being protogynous at emergence, although it is not protogynous at pupation: the earlier emergence of females reflects the shorter duration of their pupal stage. PMID:3446030

Corbet, P S; Ali, H J

1987-08-01

58

Laboratory tests of the effects of p-cresol and 4-methylcyclohexanol on oviposition by three species of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments tested the effects of p-cresol or 4-methylcyclohexanol at concentrations of 1, 10 and 50 ppm, on oviposition by the mosquitoes Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald, Tx. amboinensis (Doleschall) and Tx. splendens (Wiedemann). A 5 + 5 ppm mixture of the two chemicals was also tested. All three species laid significantly more eggs in cups containing p-cresol, whereas only Tx. brevipalpis and Tx. amboinensis responded similarly to 4-methylcycohexonol and to the mixture of both chemicals. Tx. brevipalpis was, to a relatively limited degree, the most responsive of the three species. Ancillary experiments indicated that the chemicals were acting as attractants, causing more females to fly to treated cups. No stimulant effects were detected either in terms of the proportion of females that initiated oviposition flight (after flying to the cups) or in terms of the number of looping flights executed prior to ejection of an egg. PMID:2577519

Linley, J R

1989-10-01

59

Threat-Sensitive Behavioral Responses to Concentrations of Water-Borne Cues from Predation  

PubMed Central

Aquatic organisms often detect predators via water-borne chemical cues, and respond by showing reduced activity. Prey responses may be correlated with the concentration of predation cues, which would result in graded antipredator behavioral responses that adjust potentially costly behavioral changes to levels that are commensurate with the risk of predation. Larvae of the predatory mosquito Toxorhynchites rutilus prey upon other container-dwelling insects, including larvae of the mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus. Previous work has established that O. triseriatus reduce movement, foraging, and time below the surface, and increase the frequency of resting at the surface, in the presence of water-borne cues from predation by T. rutilus. We tested whether these responses by O. triseriatus are threat sensitive by recording behavior of fourth instar larvae in two runs of an experiment in which we created a series of concentrations (100, 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01% and 100, 70, 40, 20, and 10%) of water that had held either O. triseriatus larvae alone (control) or a T. rutilus larva feeding on O. triseriatus (predation). We also tested whether associated effects on time spent feeding are threat sensitive by determining whether frequencies of filtering or browsing are also related to concentration of cues. The frequencies of resting and surface declined, whereas frequency of filtering (but not browsing) increased more rapidly with a decrease in concentration of predation cues compared with control cues. Thus, O. triseriatus shows a threat sensitive behavioral response to water-borne cues from this predator, adjusting its degree of behavioral response to the apparent risk of predation. PMID:17440601

Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Damal, Kavitha; Juliano, Steven A.

2007-01-01

60

Influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) against dengue vector.  

PubMed

Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia. PMID:24862057

Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F

2014-03-01

61

Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, FL. Exit traps were constructed to cover the well and cistern openings so the number of resting and emerging mosquitoes stained by feeding on the sugar bait could be monitored. Four mosquito species were collected from these structures: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett). Overall, 90% (1482/1644) of the mosquitoes trapped were stained. In general, the number of mosquitoes stained was significantly greater in wells (P<0.0001) and cisterns (P<0.0001) than the numbers that were not stained by the colored bait. Based on the number of mosquitoes stained, we would have expected considerable mosquito mortality had the sugar bait contained an oral toxin. The results of this study support the concept of using attractive toxic sugar baits as an effective tool for integrated mosquito management. PMID:22820024

Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rudy; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Müller, Günter C

2012-11-01

62

Habitat complexity and sex-dependent predation of mosquito larvae in containers  

PubMed Central

Studies in aquatic systems have shown that habitat complexity may provide refuge or reduce the number of encounters prey have with actively searching predators. For ambush predators, habitat complexity may enhance or have no effect on predation rates because it conceals predators, reduces prey detection by predators, or visually impairs both predators and prey. We investigated the effects of habitat complexity and predation by the ambush predators Toxorhynchites rutilus and Corethrella appendiculata on their mosquito prey Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus triseriatus in container analogs of treeholes. As in other ambush predator-prey systems, habitat complexity did not alter the effects of T. rutilus or C. appendiculata whose presence decreased prey survivorship, shortened development time, and increased adult size compared to treatments where predators were absent. Faster growth and larger size were due to predator-mediated release from competition among surviving prey. Male and female prey survivorship were similar in the absence of predators, however when predators were present, survivorship of both prey species was skewed in favor of males. We conclude that habitat complexity is relatively unimportant in shaping predator-prey interactions in this treehole community, where predation risk differs between prey sexes. PMID:16041612

Griswold, Marcus W.; Lounibos, L. Philip

2012-01-01

63

Do changes in berry crops drive population fluctuations in small rodents in the southwestern Yukon?  

E-print Network

] rutilus), the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), and field voles (Microtus oeconomus and M. maniculatus, the critical species were Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, A. rubra, and mushrooms. Spruce seed crops, mushrooms, Myodes rutilus, Peromyscus maniculatus, population limitation, white spruce seed, Yukon E 2010

Krebs, Charles J.

64

Journal of Fish Biology (2002) 60, 876892 doi:10.1006/jfbi.2002.1890, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on  

E-print Network

://www.idealibrary.com on Diel diet shift of roach and its implications for the estimation of daily rations S. S. HAERTEL* AND R, roach Rutilus rutilus performed diel habitat shifts that clearly influenced the composition of their diet. During daytime, roach stayed in the littoral zone and concentrated on littoral prey. At night

65

Limnoiogica32,01-13 (2002) Urban& FischerVerla9  

E-print Network

·Accepted December 6, 2001 Abstract Contrasting to predictions, roach (Rutilus rutilus) are more abundant of northeastern Germany. To reveal underlying mechanisms, roach and perch habitat use were analysed on a diel to the littoral zone, piscivorous perch foraged in the open water during daytime. Roach _>age-1 counteracted

66

Aquat. Living Resour., 1993, 6, 285-289 In situ determination of the target strength of roach  

E-print Network

Aquat. Living Resour., 1993, 6, 285-289 Notes In situ determination of the target strength of roach, the roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) consisting of three length classes, representing several cohorts. METHODS, and we pooled al1 the data; 110 fishes were caught (fig. 3). The population consisted only of roach

Guillard, Jean

67

Density Dependent Growth and Size Specific Competitive Interactions in Young Pr Bystrm; Emili Garca-Berthou  

E-print Network

of Eurasian perch (Percufluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). The size dependence of the attack rate with the results from similar experiments for roach. At equal body sizes, roach always had a higher attack rate requirements at the same size were higher for perch than for roach. Based on the above data we were able

GarcĂ­a-Berthou, Emili

68

Diet spectra and resource partitioning in the larvae and juveniles of three species and six cohorts of cyprinids from a subalpine lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet composition based on gut analyses was studied in larvae and juveniles belonging to six (out of eight) age groups (cohorts) of three species of cyprinids (Rutilus rutilus L., Leuciscus cephalus L., Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) from a small meso-oligotrophic lake in Tyrol, Austria.

W. Mark; R. Hofer; W. Wieser

1987-01-01

69

Influences of environmental cues, migration history, and habitat familiarity on partial migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors that drive partial migration in organisms are not fully understood. Roach (Rutilus rutilus), a freshwater fish, engage in partial migration where parts of populations switch between summer habitats in lakes and winter habitats in connected streams. To test if the partial migration trait is phenotypically plastic or has genetic components, we translocated roach from 2 populations with different

Christian Skov; Kim Aarestrup; Henrik Baktoft; Jakob Brodersen; Christer Brönmark; Lars-Anders Hansson; Einar E. Nielsen; Tine Nielsen; P. Anders Nilsson

2010-01-01

70

Predicted Exposures to Steroid Estrogens in U.K. Rivers Correlate with Widespread Sexual Disruption in Wild Fish Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroidal estrogens, originating principally from human excretion, are likely to play a major role in causing widespread endocrine disruption in wild populations of the roach (Rutilus rutilus), a com- mon cyprinid fish, in rivers contaminated by treated sewage effluents. Given the extent of this problem, risk assessment models are needed to predict the location and severity of endocrine dis- ruption

Susan Jobling; Richard Williams; Andrew Johnson; Ayesha Taylor; Melanie Gross-Sorokin; Monique Nolan; Charles R. Tyler; Ronny van Aerle; Eduarda Santos; Geoff Brighty

2005-01-01

71

Mass spectrometric profiling of glucosamine, glucosamine polymers and their catecholamine adducts. Model reactions and cuticular hydrolysates of Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Culicidae) pupae.  

PubMed

Glucosamine (Gln), glucosamine polymers, and their catecholamine adducts were characterized using positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESMS-MS). N-acetyldopamine (NADA), a catecholamine found in many insect cuticles, was oxidized using mushroom tyrosinase, and the resulting quinone derivatives were reacted with Gln, (Gln)3, and polymeric glucosamine (chitosan). Adducts of glucosamine and its trisaccharide with NADA were readily identified as [M + H]+ ions in ESMS spectra, and ESMS-MS of selected ions confirmed the condensation of 1-3 NADA residues with Gln. In addition to Gln modification by the quinone derivatives of NADA, other spectra were consistent with the formation of adducts with N-acetylnoradrenaline and moieties formed by intramolecular cyclization following oxidation. The primary amine of glucosamine was involved in initial adduct formation, but the sites for subsequent additions of oxidized NADA to glucosamine, presumably via hydroxyl groups, could not be identified by ESMS alone. The ESMS spectra of chitosan films infused into the spectrometer following solubilization in acidic methanol/water produced spectra similar to that of (Gln)3 up to m/z 502. Ions of gradually decreasing intensity consistent with (Gln)x, where x = 4-8, were observed. Modification of chitosan films following incubation with NADA plus tyrosinase rendered the films insoluble in dilute acid, simulating the cross-linking process proposed to occur during insect cuticle sclerotization. Acid hydrolysates of the pupal stage of the mosquito Toxorhynchites amboinensis, using only two pupal exuviae for the hydrolyses, were infused into the mass spectrometer without preliminary chromatography. Eight amino acids, glucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, catecholamines, and a variety of polymers incorporating these compound classes were identified. PMID:10436936

Kerwin, J L; Whitney, D L; Sheikh, A

1999-07-01

72

Temporal changes in genetic diversity of isolated populations of perch and roach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic drift, together with natural selection and gene flow, affects genetic variation and is the major source of changes\\u000a in allele frequencies in small and isolated populations. Temporal shifts in allele frequencies at five polymorphic loci were\\u000a used to estimate the amount of genetic drift in an isolated population of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and roach (Rutilus rutilus L.). Here,

Marnie H. Demandt

2010-01-01

73

Accumulation of Some Metals in Muscles of Five Fish Species from Lower Nitra River  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of accumulated selected metals concentrations (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and meHg) in the muscle of five common Slovak fish species (Chub–Leuciscus cephalus, Common carp—Cyprinus carpio, Prussian carp—Carassius gibelio, Roach—Rutilus rutilus, and Wels catfish—Silurus glanis). Furthermore, correlations among the selected metals and order of metal accumulation in the fish muscle

JAROSLAV ANDREJI; IVAN STRÁNAI; PETER MASSÁNYI; MIROSLAV VALENT

2006-01-01

74

Swimming efficiency and the influence of morphology on swimming costs in fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swimming performance is considered a main character determining survival in many aquatic animals. Body morphology highly influences\\u000a the energetic costs and efficiency of swimming and sets general limits on a species capacity to use habitats and foods. For\\u000a two cyprinid fishes with different morphological characteristics, carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), optimum swimming speeds (U\\u000a mc) as

J. Ohlberger; G. Staaks; F. Hölker

2006-01-01

75

Energy allocation in juvenile roach and burbot under different temperature and feeding regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold-active burbot (Lota lota (L.)) display reduced food intake during the summer. The impact of temperature on their energy budget was investigated in\\u000a starved fish in a laboratory setting, simulating summer (20°C) and winter (4°C) conditions, to elucidate the impact of high\\u000a temperature on burbot metabolism. Metabolic effects in burbot were compared to roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), which typically fast in winter.

Maaike Binner; Werner Kloas; Iris Hardewig

2008-01-01

76

Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.  

PubMed

The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4?h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes. PMID:24813930

Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

2014-06-01

77

Response of animal and vegetative cells to the effect of a typical magnetic storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimentally reproduced fluctuations of a low-frequency magnetic field in a nanotesla range (magnetic storm) affect the mitosis of animals and vegetative cells. Action of this factor during twenty four hours leads to a significant increase in the proliferative activity of embryo cells in roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.) and meristem cells of onion rootlets ( Allium cepa). The clastogenic effect statistically confirmed only in the Allium test seems to reflect the species specificity of the response and higher sensitivity of the cell association of the onion meristem to magnetic storm.

Talikina, M. G.; Izyumov, Yu. G.; Krylov, V. V.

2013-12-01

78

Comparison of Mercury Distribution Between Liver and Musc - A Biomonitoring of Fish from Lightly and Heavily Contaminated Localities  

PubMed Central

Tissue samples from 1,117 fish of 25 species were collected from 1991 through 1996 at 13 locations along the River Elbe. The principal indicator species were perch (Perca fluviatilis) (n=118), chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) (n=113) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) (n=138). Mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscle and liver were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The liver/muscle index in three indicator species from heavily contaminated and lightly contaminated localities were significantly different. In fish from heavily contaminated localities, Hg was deposited preferentially in the liver (the depository for inorganic and organic forms of Hg), while in lightly contaminated areas, it was deposited preferentially in muscle.

Havelková, Marcela; Dušek, Ladislav; Némethová, Danka; Poleszczuk, Gorzyslaw; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2008-01-01

79

Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in the fish community in Lake Arungen, Norway.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pollutants in the major fish species (pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis, and roach Rutilus rutilus) of Lake Arungen, Norway, were investigated after an extensive removal of large pike in 2004. The organochlorine pollutants detected in fish liver samples in 2005 were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide (HCE). DDTs were the dominant among all analyzed OCs. Sigma PCB and HCB, detected in fish from two clearly distinct trophic levels (prey and predators), give an indication of biomagnification. All OC concentrations in female pike were significantly lower compared to males, which might be due to the removal of high concentrations of pollutants in roe during spawning. PMID:19329237

Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Rosseland, Bjřrn Olav; Almvik, Marit; Eklo, Ole Martin

2009-01-01

80

Urban Mosquito Fauna in Mérida City, México: Immatures Collected from Containers and Storm-water Drains/Catch Basins.  

PubMed

We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Mérida City, México. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Mérida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species. PMID:25429168

Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, María; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Víctor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damián; Lorońo-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

2014-06-01

81

Interaction of Mycobacterium ulcerans with Mosquito Species: Implications for Transmission and Trophic Relationships?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, a severe necrotizing skin disease that causes significant morbidity in Africa and Australia. Person-to-person transmission of Buruli ulcer is rare. Throughout Africa and Australia infection is associated with residence near slow-moving or stagnant water bodies. Although M. ulcerans DNA has been detected in over 30 taxa of invertebrates, fish, water filtrate, and plant materials and one environmental isolate cultured from a water strider (Gerridae), the invertebrate taxa identified are not adapted to feed on humans, and the mode of transmission for Buruli ulcer remains an enigma. Recent epidemiological reports from Australia describing the presence of M. ulcerans DNA in adult mosquitoes have led to the hypothesis that mosquitoes play an important role in the transmission of M. ulcerans. In this study we have investigated the potential of mosquitoes to serve as biological or mechanical vectors or as environmental reservoirs for M. ulcerans. Here we show that Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, and Culex restuans larvae readily ingest wild-type M. ulcerans, isogenic toxin-negative mutants, and Mycobacterium marinum isolates and remain infected throughout larval development. However, the infections are not carried over into the pupae or adult mosquitoes, suggesting an unlikely role for mosquitoes as biological vectors. By following M. ulcerans through a food chain consisting of primary (mosquito larvae), secondary (predatory mosquito larva from Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis), and tertiary (Belostoma species) consumers, we have shown that M. ulcerans can be productively maintained in an aquatic food web. PMID:20675453

Wallace, John R.; Gordon, Matthew C.; Hartsell, Lindsey; Mosi, Lydia; Benbow, M. Eric; Merritt, Richard W.; Small, Pamela L. C.

2010-01-01

82

Historic hybridization and persistence of a novel mito-nuclear combination in red-backed voles (genus Myodes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The role of hybridization in generating diversity in animals is an active area of discovery and debate. We assess hybridization across a contact zone of northern (Myodes rutilus) and southern (M. gapperi) red-backed voles using variation in skeletal features and both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This transect extends approximately 550 km along the North Pacific Coast of North America

Amy M Runck; Marjorie D Matocq; Joseph A Cook

2009-01-01

83

Short Communication Application of a bioenergetics model to roach  

E-print Network

Short Communication Application of a bioenergetics model to roach By F. Ho¨ lker1 and S. S. Haertel, Limnological Institute, Konstanz, Germany Summary A new set of bioenergetic parameters for adult roach (Rutilus laboratory studies with adult roach over a wide range of fish sizes (1.2­300 g) and water temperatures (5

84

Distribution and Diet of 0+ Fish within a Canyon-Shaped European Reservoir in Late Summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and diet of age 0+ fish were studied in the deep canyon-shaped ímov Reservoir (Czech Republic), which is characterized by a longitudinal trophic gradient. During late summer of two years, 0+ fish were sampled from inshore and offshore habitats along the longitudinal reservoir axis. Offshore catches of 0+ fish from the surface layer were dominated by roach (Rutilus

Mojmír Vaek; Jan Kubeka; Josef Matna; Jaromír Sea

2006-01-01

85

Mensurative approach to examine potential interactions between age-0 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill  

E-print Network

Mensurative approach to examine potential interactions between age-0 yellow perch (Perca flavescens (Lepomis macrochirus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations are often sympat- ric in the Great (Mittelbach 1988; Hixon and Jones 2005). Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Ruti- lus rutilus

86

REDESCRIPTIONS OF FIVE SPECIES OF THE FEATHER MITE GENUS Ptero- dectes ROBIN, 1877 (ACARI: PROCTOPHYLLODIDAE: PTERODECTINAE), WITH THE PROPOSAL OF A NEW GENUS AND A NEW SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of the feather mite genus Pterodectes Robin, 1877 are redescribed (type hosts are given in paren- thesis): Pterodectes rutilus Robin, 1868 (the Northern House-Martin, Delichon urbicum), P. crassus Trouessart, 1885 (the Plush- crested Jay, Cyanocorax chrysops), P. gracilis Trouessart, 1885 (the Crested Oropendola, Psarocolius decumanus), P. sialiarum (Stoll, 1893) (the Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis) and P. muticus Banks,

M. P. Valim; F. A. Hernandes; Rua Cristóvăo Colombo; Jardim Nazareth

2008-01-01

87

Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.  

PubMed

Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers. PMID:20582437

Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

2010-09-01

88

Temporal distribution of accumulated metal mixtures in two feral fish species and the relation with condition metrics and community structure.  

PubMed

The present study investigated temporal influences on metal distribution in gudgeon (Gobio gobio) and roach (Rutilus rutilus), and its relation to condition metrics and fish community structure. Fish communities were sampled in two seasons (autumn and spring) during two successive years and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was calculated. Cadmium, Cu, Pb, Zn and As concentrations were measured in gill, liver, kidney and muscle, and condition factor (CF) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were measured. Cadmium (max. 39.0 ?g g(-1) dw) and Zn (max 2502 ?g g(-1) dw) were most strongly stored in kidney and liver and periodical influences on metal accumulation were observed. CF appeared to be a stable metric related to accumulated metal-mixtures and was best related to hepatic levels, while the HSI was less useful. Relations between single metal accumulation and IBI were influenced by sample period, however, when taking into account multiple metals periodical influences disappeared. PMID:25497305

De Jonge, M; Belpaire, C; Van Thuyne, G; Breine, J; Bervoets, L

2015-02-01

89

[Infection with opistorchis larvae in the fish family cyprinidae in the Ob-Irtysh River basin in the Tyumen region].  

PubMed

Fishes, such as ide (Leuciscus idus), dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), carpbream (Abramis brama), roach (Rutilus rutilus), and muvarica (Alburnus alburnus), with different frequency and rate of invasion and abundance index were infested with larvae of O. felineus, M. bilis, and P. truncatum. There were the highest rates of fish infection with P. truncatum larvae in the subtaiga zone (the south of the region) and with O. felineus metacercariae in the northern subtaiga and taiga zones. In research, experimental, and clinical studies, the nosological entity opisthorchiasis is a parasitic cenosis consisting of 2-3 co-members requiring their specific identification, which allows therapeutic measures to be more effectively implemented among the population of a hyperendemic focus. PMID:23437717

2012-01-01

90

[Effect of temperature on proteinase activities of enteral microbiota and intestinal mucosa of fish of different ecological group].  

PubMed

Effect of temperature on proteinases activities of enteral microbiota and of intestinal mucosa was studied in five fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus, crucian carp Carassius carassius, common perch Perca fluviatilis, pike-perch Zander lucioperca, and pike Esox lucius) belonging by the nutrition type to different ecological groups. Essential differences of temperature characteristics of proteinases of intestinal mucosa and of enteral microbiota are revealed in fish belonging by the nutrition type to different ecologic groups. The character of the t0-function of proteinases of intestinal mucosa and enteral microbiota by casein and hemoglobin as a rule is different. The highest values of relative proteinases activities for casein in the zone of low temperatures (38 and 45.3 % of the maximal activity) are found at study of proteinases of enteral microbiota in common perch and crucian carp. The latter indicates a significant adaptability of the enteral microbiota proteinases of common perch and crucial carp to functioning at low temperatures. PMID:22645973

Kuz'mina, V V; Shalygin, M V; Skvortsova, E G

2012-01-01

91

Host associations of the tick, Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae), on Alaskan mammals.  

PubMed

Infestation parameters are presented for 227 ticks, all Ixodes angustus Neumann, collected from individual mammals (n = 531) in southeastern and south-central Alaska from 1996 to 1999. This tick was recovered from 12 of the 19 mammal species examined, with four species of shrews (Sorex spp.), two species of voles [Clethrionomys gapperi (Vigors) and Clethrionomys rutilus (Pallas)], one species of mouse [Peromyscus keeni (Rhoads)], and the red squirrel [Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Erxleben)] being the most frequently parasitized hosts. Larvae (n = 146) of I. angustus were collected most often, followed by nymphs (n = 50), females (n = 30), and a single male. The leptinid mammal-nest beetle Leptinus occidentamericanus Peck (1 male, 5 females) was also recovered from five individual small mammals; three of these were C. rutilus. PMID:14596283

Murrell, Brian P; Durden, Lance A; Cook, Joseph A

2003-09-01

92

Effects of cold, short day and melatonin on thermogenesis, body weight and reproductive organs in Alaskan red-backed voles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether cold, short day or melatonin causes reproductive regression and stimulates nonshivering thermogenesis in a subarctic rodentClethrionomys rutilus. Red-backed voles born and raised at 23°C and 22 h light per day (LD 22: 2) at Fairbanks, Alaska (65°N) were exposed in one of six groups to: 1) long day (LD 22:2), 23°C, injected daily with melatonin or

Dale D. Feist; Carol F. Feist

1986-01-01

93

Historical biogeography at the crossroads of the northern continents: molecular phylogenetics of red-backed voles (Rodentia: Arvicolinae).  

PubMed

Evolutionary relationships of red-backed voles and their relatives were examined and used to test biogeographic hypotheses. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were obtained for 25 individuals representing Alticola macrotis, Clethrionomys californicus, C. gapperi, C. glareolus, C. rutilus, and C. rufocanus. These were combined with 21 partial sequences from GenBank for C. regulus, C. rex, C. rufocanus, C. rutilus, Eothenomys imaizumii, E. melanogaster, Phaulomys andersoni, and P. smithii. Complete sequences of three species of Microtus (M. montanus, M. oeconomus, and M. pennsylvanicus), representative species of other arvicoline genera (Myopus, Synaptomys, Arvicola, Ellobius, Ondatra, Lemmus, Dicrostonyx, and Phenacomys), and a sigmodontine representative (Peromyscus) were included as outgroups. We used maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, distance, and Bayesian based methods and conducted statistical tests on proposed hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic histories. A close relationship of species representing the genera Alticola, Clethrionomys, and Eothenomys was supported (Clethrionomyini); however, the genus Clethrionomys was paraphyletic with respect to both Alticola and Eothenomys. Three major clades were identified as Asian (Eothenomys andersoni, E. smithii, C. rex, C. regulus, and C. rufocanus), Trans-beringian (Alticola macrotis, C. californicus, C. gapperi, C. glarelolus, and C. rutilus), and Taiwanese (E. melanogaster). These results are consistent with the fossil record which indicates an initial diversification in Asia followed by colonization of the Nearctic on at least two occasions. The holarctic species, C. rutilus, appears to have either reinvaded Asia from North America or colonized North America more recently (late Pleistocene) than the two species of Clethrionomys (C. gapperi and C. californicus) that are endemic to North America (early to mid-Pleistocene). Finally, C. gapperi, appears to be comprised of an eastern and a western species, the former with affinities to the Asian C. glareolus and the latter more closely related to C. californicus. PMID:15012954

Cook, Joseph A; Runck, Amy M; Conroy, Chris J

2004-03-01

94

Spruce beetles and timber harvest in Alaska: Implications for northern red-backed voles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in structure and function of spruce forests occurred following a recent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) epidemic in the temperate forests of south-central Alaska. To assess the effects of this infestation and the subsequent land management practices used to reduce the risk of catastrophic fire, we measured northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus) abundance over a 10-year period. We established eight

Ellen W. Lance; Susan M. Howell; Brian K. Lance; Shay Howlin; Lowell H. Suring; Michael I. Goldstein

2006-01-01

95

Contamination Levels and Specific Accumulation of Persistent Organochlorines in Caspian Seal ( Phoca caspica ) from the Caspian Sea, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes\\u000a (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean\\u000a values of 19 and 1.3 ?g\\/g on wet-weight

M. Watanabe; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; M. Amano; N. Miyazaki; E. A. Petrov; S. L. Khuraskin

1999-01-01

96

[Analysis of parasitic communities in fishes from Lake Baikal].  

PubMed

Analysis of infracommunities and component communities of fish parasites in Lake Baikal has been conducted for the first time. It has been revealed that parasite infracommunities for the majority of Baikal fishes are weakly balanced and impoverished (the Berger-Parker Index is > 0.5; Evension is < 0.5; the Brillouin Index is < 1). The highest diversity and balance of the communities are characteristic for carnivorous fishes (Brachymystax lenok, Hucho taimen, Thymallus arcticus, Esox lucius, and Percafluviatilis). The component parasitic communities of Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Rutilus rutilus, and Leocottus kesslerii are the most diverse in Lake Baikal since the Shennon index for L. leuciscus baicalensis, R. rutilus, and L. kesslerii is 2.4, for Paracotlus knerii--2.2, Limnocoitus godlewskii--2.3, Phoxinus phoxinus--2.1, Lota lota and Limnocuttus pallidus--1.9, P. fluviatilis--1.8, Leuciscus idus--1.8. The component parasitic communities of other fishes in Lake Baikal have low indices of biological diversity (H = 0.5-1.05, Smp is close to 1). A classification of mature and immature components of parasitic communities based on the ratio of specialist species and generalist species has been proposed. It is established that the component parasitic communities in sublitoral, profundal, and pseudoabyssal zones are mature, while in the littoral zone they are immature (impoverished and weakly balanced). The component parasitic communities in benthophagous fishes and predators are mature, in planktivorous fishes they are immature. The component parasitic communities are mature in the family Cyprinidae and immature in the families Coregonidae and Cottidae. The component parasitic communities of the Boreal Plain and Boreal Submountain faunal complexes are mature, but they are immature in Lake Baikal and Arctic freshwater complexes. PMID:16755724

Rusinek, O T

2006-01-01

97

U.S.-type Babesia microti isolated from small wild mammals in Eastern Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

Our previous report demonstrated that small wild rodents in Japan harbored two types of novel Babesia microti-like parasites (Kobe and Hobetsu types), but not the type widely distributed throughout the temperate zones of North American and Eurasian Continents (U.S. type). In this study, we surveyed small wild mammals collected at various places in the northern part of Japan, seeking for U.S.-type B. microti. A total of 197 small mammals comprising 10 species, Apodemus speciosus, A. argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, C. rutilus, Eothenomys andersoni, Microtus montebelli, Tamias sibiricus, Sorex unguiculatus, S. caecutiens, and Urotrichus talpoides, were examined. Babesia parasites were detected in A. speciosus, C. rufocanus, C. rutilus, M. montebelli, S. unguiculatus, and S. caecutiens by microscopy of blood smears and by PCR targeting babesial nuclear small-subunit rRNA (rDNA) and beta-tubulin genes. Inoculation of their bloods into experimental animals gave rise to 23 parasite isolates, which included 16 from A. speciosus, 4 from C. rufocanus, and 1 each from C. rutilus, M. montebelli and S. unguiculatus. Sequencing analyses of their rDNA and beta-tubulin genes revealed that, of the 23 isolates, 20 and 3 were of Hobetsu and U.S. types, respectively. The U.S.-type B. microti strains isolated in Japan, however, were distinguishable from the isolates in the United States when their beta-tubulin gene sequences and antigen profiles in Western blots were compared. We conclude that U.S.-type B. microti exists in Japan although it has been genetically and antigenically diversified from that distributed in the United States. The results also suggest that not only rodents, but also some insectivores may serve as reservoirs for the agent of human babesiosis. PMID:15353841

Zamoto, Aya; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kawabuchi, Takako; Wei, Qiang; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

2004-08-01

98

The Consequences of Feminization in Breeding Groups of Wild Fish  

PubMed Central

Background The feminization of nature by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a key environmental issue affecting both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. A crucial and as yet unanswered question is whether EDCs have adverse impacts on the sustainability of wildlife populations. There is widespread concern that intersex fish are reproductively compromised, with potential population-level consequences. However, to date, only in vitro sperm quality data are available in support of this hypothesis. Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether wild endocrine-disrupted fish can compete successfully in a realistic breeding scenario. Methods In two competitive breeding experiments using wild roach (Rutilus rutilus), we used DNA microsatellites to assign parentage and thus determine reproductive success of the adults. Results In both studies, the majority of intersex fish were able to breed, albeit with varying degrees of success. In the first study, where most intersex fish were only mildly feminized, body length was the only factor correlated with reproductive success. In the second study, which included a higher number of more severely intersex fish, reproductive performance was negatively correlated with severity of intersex. The intersex condition reduced reproductive performance by up to 76% for the most feminized individuals in this study, demonstrating a significant adverse effect of intersex on reproductive performance. Conclusion Feminization of male fish is likely to be an important determinant of reproductive performance in rivers where there is a high prevalence of moderately to severely feminized males. PMID:21362587

Harris, Catherine A.; Hamilton, Patrick B.; Runnalls, Tamsin J.; Vinciotti, Veronica; Henshaw, Alan; Hodgson, Dave; Coe, Tobias S.; Jobling, Susan; Tyler, Charles R.; Sumpter, John P.

2011-01-01

99

Influence of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus on levels of heat shock proteins (HSP70) and metallothioneins in their fish and crustacean intermediate hosts.  

PubMed

It is a common method to analyse physiological mechanisms of organisms - commonly referred to as biomarkers - to indicate the presence of environmental pollutants. However, as biomarkers respond to a wide range of stressors we want to direct the attention on natural stressors, i.e. on parasites. After two years maintenance under controlled conditions, roach (Rutilus rutilus) revealed no influence on levels of metallothionein by the parasite Ligula intestinalis. The same was found for Gammarus fossarum infected with Polymorphus minutus. However, the heat shock protein (HSP70) response was affected in both host-parasite systems. While the infection of roach resulted in reduced levels of HSP70 compared to uninfected roach, the infection in G. fossarum led to higher levels of HSP70. We also analysed the effect of a 14 days Cd exposure (4 ?g/L) on the uninfected and infected gammarids. The exposure resulted in induced levels for both, metallothionein and HSP70 whereas the combination of stressors, parasite and exposure, revealed a decrease for levels of HSP70 in comparison to the metal exposure only. Accordingly, parasites as natural parts of aquatic ecosystems have to be considered in ecotoxicological research. PMID:23770459

Frank, Sabrina N; Godehardt, Saskia; Nachev, Milen; Trubiroha, Achim; Kloas, Werner; Sures, Bernd

2013-09-01

100

Shoreline development and degradation of coastal fish reproduction habitats.  

PubMed

Coastal development has severely affected habitats and biodiversity during the last century, but quantitative estimates of the impacts are usually lacking. We utilize predictive habitat modeling and mapping of human pressures to estimate the cumulative long-term effects of coastal development in relation to fish habitats. Based on aerial photographs since the 1960s, shoreline development rates were estimated in the Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea. By combining shoreline development rates with spatial predictions of fish reproduction habitats, we estimated annual habitat degradation rates for three of the most common coastal fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). The results showed that shoreline constructions were concentrated to the reproduction habitats of these species. The estimated degradation rates, where a degraded habitat was defined as having ?3 constructions per 100 m shoreline, were on average 0.5 % of available habitats per year and about 1 % in areas close to larger population centers. Approximately 40 % of available habitats were already degraded in 2005. These results provide an example of how many small construction projects over time may have a vast impact on coastal fish populations. PMID:24943864

Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

2014-12-01

101

Longitudinal and Vertical Spatial Gradients in the Distribution of Fish within a Canyon-shaped Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale spatial distribution of fish was investigated within a morphometrically simple canyon-shaped reservoir with a single major tributary and a longitudinal trophic gradient (ímov Reservoir, Czech Republic). Samples of fish were taken by Nordic survey gill nets (several mesh sizes from 8 to 70 mm knot to knot) installed as surface nets at several offshore areas located along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir. Surveys were carried out in late summer during 1999-2003. An obvious distribution gradient of fish was revealed along the longitudinal axis of the ímov Reservoir. The total relative fish abundance and biomass (catch per unit effort) decreased considerably from the upstream end of the reservoir toward the dam. Roach (Rutilus rutilus), bleak (Alburnus alburnus) and bream (Abramis brama) comprised the bulk of catches at all areas. Enhanced dominance of bream was observed in the fish assemblage at the uppermost, more eutrophic area of the reservoir. The highest number of fish species and the highest abundance of young-of-the-year fish were also observed in the tributary area. In the downstream part of the reservoir, gill net surveys along the vertical depth profiles indicated that offshore fish occupied mostly the epilimnion. Extreme flood events affected the ímov Reservoir, however, it seemed they had no significant impact on the gradients described. (

Vaek, Mojmír; Kubeka, Jan; Peterka, Jií; Ech, Martin; Dratík, Vladislav; Hladík, Milan; Prchalová, Marie; Frouzová, Jaroslava

2004-09-01

102

The impact of fish predation on shallow soft bottoms in brackish waters (SW Finland); an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of fish predation on shallow soft bottoms was studied by field and laboratory experiments. The field manipulations (caging experiments) were carried out in 2 shallow (1.5 m) bays in the northern Baltic Sea. An a priori hypothesis that fish do not structure macrozoobenthic communities in shallow soft-bottom areas was tested. Short-term aquarium experiments clearly showed that perch ( Perca fluviatilis L.), roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.) and ruffe ( Acerina cernua (L.)) are all effective predators on benthic macroinvertebrates ( Corophium volutator) Pallas and Nereis diversicolor O.F. Müller) under laboratory conditions. Thus fish can be considered a potential structuring force on benthic communities in shallow soft-bottom areas. Caging experiments of one to two month's duration (partial and total exclosure of fish and enclosure with perch) induced only minor changes in the benthic community. These results support the a priori hypothesis. One of our main conclusions is, however, that fish predation and other biotic interactions (competition, disturbance, etc.) together with abiotic factors play some role in the structuring processes. Multilevel testing is needed in studies on biotic interactions in the marine environment. Results from a specific environment should not automatically be applied to other kinds of habitats.

Mattila, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

103

Distribution and Diet of 0+ Fish within a Canyon-Shaped European Reservoir in Late Summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and diet of age 0+ fish were studied in the deep canyon-shaped ímov Reservoir (Czech Republic), which is characterized by a longitudinal trophic gradient. During late summer of two years, 0+ fish were sampled from inshore and offshore habitats along the longitudinal reservoir axis. Offshore catches of 0+ fish from the surface layer were dominated by roach (Rutilus rutilus ), bream (Abramis brama ) and perch (Perca fluviatilis ), whereas in the deeper open water perch predominated. Inshore catches of 0+ fish were constituted mainly by perch and roach. The proportions of roach in the inshore catches were highest at the upper and most eutrophic part of the reservoir, whereas the proportions of perch in the inshore catches were higher at the downstream areas. Total catches of both inshore and offshore 0+ fish increased upstream in the reservoir. Offshore 0+ perch were of consistently smaller size than inshore 0+ perch. Inshore 0+ perch had significantly smaller size at the upstream reservoir part than at the downstream, more lacustrine regions. The diet of both inshore and offshore 0+ fish consisted predominantly of crustacean zooplankton. Perch diet was generally dominated both by cladocerans and copepods, whereas roach diet consisted chiefly of cladocerans.

Vaek, Mojmír; Kubeka, Jan; Matna, Josef; Sea, Jaromír

2006-05-01

104

Interactions between Predation and Resources Shape Zooplankton Population Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Identifying the relative importance of predation and resources in population dynamics has a long tradition in ecology, while interactions between them have been studied less intensively. In order to disentangle the effects of predation by juvenile fish, algal resource availability and their interactive effects on zooplankton population dynamics, we conducted an enclosure experiment where zooplankton were exposed to a gradient of predation of roach (Rutilus rutilus) at different algal concentrations. We show that zooplankton populations collapse under high predation pressure irrespective of resource availability, confirming that juvenile fish are able to severely reduce zooplankton prey when occurring in high densities. At lower predation pressure, however, the effect of predation depended on algal resource availability since high algal resource supply buffered against predation. Hence, we suggest that interactions between mass-hatching of fish, and the strong fluctuations in algal resources in spring have the potential to regulate zooplankton population dynamics. In a broader perspective, increasing spring temperatures due to global warming will most likely affect the timing of these processes and have consequences for the spring and summer zooplankton dynamics. PMID:21304980

Nicolle, Alice; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob; Nilsson, P. Anders; Brönmark, Christer

2011-01-01

105

Differential Hepatic Metal and Metallothionein Levels in Three Feral Fish Species along a Metal Pollution Gradient  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc and the induction of metallothioneins (MT) in liver of three freshwater fish species was studied. Gudgeon (Gobio gobio), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were captured at 6 sampling sites along a cadmium and zinc gradient and one reference site in a tributary of the Scheldt River in Flanders (Belgium). At each site up to 10 individuals per species were collected and analyzed on their general condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). From each individual fish the liver was dissected and analyzed on Cd, Cu and Zn and MT-content. Although not all species were present at each site, hepatic Cd and Zn levels generally followed the pollution gradient and highest levels were measured in perch, followed by roach and gudgeon. Nevertheless also an effect of site was observed on this order. MT-levels appeared to be the highest in gudgeon although differences with the other species were not very pronounced and depended on the site. Significant relationships were found between hepatic zinc accumulation and MT levels. For each species the ratio MTtheoretical/ MTmeasured was calculated, which gives an indication of the relative capacity to induce MTs and thus immobilize the metals. Perch had the lowest capacity in inducing MTs (highest ratio). Relationships between hepatic metal levels and fish condition indices were absent or very weak. PMID:23556004

Bervoets, Lieven; Knapen, Dries; De Jonge, Maarten; Van Campenhout, Karen; Blust, Ronny

2013-01-01

106

The xenometabolome and novel contaminant markers in fish exposed to a wastewater treatment works effluent.  

PubMed

Organisms exposed to wastewater treatment works (WwTW) effluents accumulate complex mixtures of xenobiotics but there is a scarcity of information on the nature and impacts of these chemical mixtures. We applied metabolomics techniques as a novel approach to identify xenobiotics and their metabolites (the xenometabolome) that bioconcentrate in fish exposed to a WwTW effluent. Exposed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) accumulated surfactants, naphthols, chlorinated xylenols, and phenoxyphenols, chlorophenes, resin acids, mefenamic acid, oxybenzone, and steroidal alkaloids in the bile or plasma, and there were perturbations in the plasma concentrations of bile acids and lipids. Exposure of adult roach (Rutilus rutilus) to 50% or 100% concentrations of the same effluent resulted in dose-dependent increases in plasma concentrations of xenometabolites as well as cyprinol sulfate and taurocholic acid, lysophospholipids, and a decrease in sphingosine levels (a key component of cell membrane lipids). Our findings reveal the highly complex nature of xenobiotics accumulating in effluent-exposed fish, and the great potential of metabolomics for both identifying plasma marker (bio)chemicals for monitoring exposure to wastewater effluents, and for targeting studies on potential consequent impacts on fish health. PMID:22803593

Al-Salhi, Raghad; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Lange, Anke; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M

2012-08-21

107

Roach, Sex, and Gender-Bending Chemicals: The Feminization of Wild Fish in English Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Feminization of the male roach, Rutilus rutilus, a freshwater, group-spawning fish, is widespread in English rivers; among the causative agents are natural and synthetic steroidal estrogens and chemicals that mimic estrogens. In feminized male roach, concentrations of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin are elevated, sex steroid hormone dynamics are altered, and gonad development is disrupted (most notably, a female reproductive duct or developing eggs [oocytes] are present in the testis). In some English rivers containing high levels of estrogens, all male roach sampled have been feminized to varying degrees. In the more severely affected males, individuals produce low-quality sperm with a reduced capability for fertilization. Laboratory studies have shown that the environmental estrogens responsible for inducing gonadal feminization in roach can also alter reproductive behavior, disrupting normal breeding dynamics (parentage) in the zebrafish, another group-spawning fish. Together these findings indicate that feminization of wild roach may result in adverse population-level effects, but this hypothesis has yet to be fully addressed.

Charles Tyler, R. (University of Exeter - UK; )

2008-12-01

108

Survey of the paratenic hosts of Anguillicola crassus in Lake Velence, Hungary.  

PubMed

Anguillicola crassus infection of paratenic hosts was investigated in Lake Velence, Hungary, in October 1992. A total of 155 specimens of 8 species (Gymnocephalus cernuus, Lepomis gibbosus, Stizostedion lucioperca, Abramis brama, Alburnus alburnus, Cyprinus carpio, Pseudorasbora parva and Rutilus rutilus) were examined: all species proved to be infected. There were large differences in the prevalence of infection among fishes, but the prevalence was generally higher in Perciform fishes and it was the highest in G. cernuus (100%). The occurrence and physical stage of larvae did not depend on the size of the fish. In S. lucioperca the size of third stage larvae was bigger than in other fishes, and only live larvae were found. The comparison of Lake Velence and Lake Balaton indicates that the rate of larval infection in paratenic hosts of A. crassus is higher in Lake Velence. This might be explained by the significant ecological differences between the two lakes (population of intermediate hosts, water depth, salinity, pH). PMID:7810405

Pazooki, J; Székely, C

1994-01-01

109

A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory behaviour. A key emerging model to explain migration in many systems posits that migration is driven by seasonal changes to a predation/growth potential (p/g) trade-off that a wide range of animals face. In this study we assess a key assumption of this model for a common cyprinid partial migrant, the roach Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had fuller stomachs containing more high quality prey items than migrant fish. Hence, we document a feeding cost to migration in roach, which adds additional support for the validity of the p/g model of migration in freshwater systems. PMID:23723967

Chapman, Ben B.; Eriksen, Anders; Baktoft, Henrik; Brodersen, Jakob; Nilsson, P. Anders; Hulthen, Kaj; Brönmark, Christer; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Grřnkjćr, Peter; Skov, Christian

2013-01-01

110

The dependence on temperature and pH of the effects of zinc and copper on proteolytic activities of the digestive tract mucosa in piscivorous fish and their potential preys.  

PubMed

The dependence of the effects of zinc and copper on the activities of proteinases of the stomach and intestinal mucosa on temperature and pH in four species of boreal piscivorous fish (pike Esox lucius, zander Zander lucioperca, perch Perca fluviatilis and burbot Lota lota) as well as in some of their potential preys (kilka Clupeonella cultriventris, ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus, perch and roach Rutilus rutilus) was investigated. Species-specific differences of the effects of these heavy metals upon the activities of proteinases depending on temperature and pH were demonstrated. It was revealed that the stomach mucosa proteinases were more tolerant to the effects of the studied factors than the intestinal mucosa proteinases, especially true for pike. The effects of the heavy metals on the whole body proteinases of the fishes' potential preys were mostly dependent on temperature than on pH. At pH 3.0, the negative action of zinc and copper on the fish digestive tract mucosa proteolytic activity to a considerable degree was compensated by the high activity of the hemoglobinlytic proteinases, probably, cathepsine D. PMID:19731060

Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V

2010-09-01

111

Hybridisation between two cyprinid fishes in a novel habitat: genetics, morphology and life-history traits  

PubMed Central

Background The potential role hybridisation in adaptive radiation and the evolution of new lineages has received much recent attention. Hybridisation between roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) and bream (Abramis brama L.) is well documented throughout Europe, however hybrids in Ireland occur at an unprecedented frequency, often exceeding that of both parental species. Utilising an integrated approach, which incorporates geometric morphometrics, life history and molecular genetic analyses we identify the levels and processes of hybridisation present, while also determining the direction of hybridisation, through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Results The presence of F2 hybrids was found to be unlikely from the studied populations, although significant levels of backcrossing, involving both parental taxa was observed in some lakes. Hybridisation represents a viable conduit for introgression of genes between roach and bream. The vast majority of hybrids in all populations studied exhibited bream mitochondrial DNA, indicating that bream are maternal in the majority of crosses. Conclusions The success of roach × bream hybrids in Ireland is not due to a successful self reproducing lineage. The potential causes of widespread hybridisation between both species, along with the considerations regarding the role of hybridisation in evolution and conservation, are also discussed. PMID:20529364

2010-01-01

112

Feeding habits and ontogenic changes in digestive enzyme patterns in five freshwater teleosts.  

PubMed

Feeding habits and the activity of digestive enzymes (total alkaline proteases, ?-amylase and lipase) from dace Leuciscus leuciscus, roach Rutilus rutilus, Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio, perch Perca fluviatilis and pikeperch Sander lucioperca fry were studied in the Malye Chany Lake-Kargat Estuary (western Siberia, Russia). The diet of fry from all studied species was mainly composed of chironomid larvae and zooplanktonic organisms (i.e. cladocera and copepoda), whereas carnivorous species such as P. fluviatilis and S. lucioperca also preyed on fry from other fishes while detritus and microalgae were also important in the diet of ommivorous species. When comparing diet similarity (Sřrensen-Dice index, Q(S)) among fry at different stages of development, both omnivorous and carnivorous species showed a high level of similarity (0.67?

Solovyev, M M; Kashinskaya, E N; Izvekova, G I; Gisbert, E; Glupov, V V

2014-11-01

113

Migration confers survival benefits against avian predators for partially migratory freshwater fish  

PubMed Central

The importance of predation risk in shaping patterns of animal migration is not well studied, mostly owing to difficulties in accurately quantifying predation risk for migratory versus resident individuals. Here, we present data from an extensive field study, which shows that migration in a freshwater fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus) that commonly migrates from lakes to streams during winter confers a significant survival benefit with respect to bird (cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo spp.) predation. We tagged over 2000 individual fish in two Scandinavian lakes over 4 years and monitored migratory behaviour using passive telemetry. Next, we calculated the predation vulnerability of fish with differing migration strategies, by recovering data from passive integrated transponder tags of fish eaten by cormorants at communal roosts close to the lakes. We show that fish can reduce their predation risk from cormorants by migrating into streams, and that probability of being preyed upon by cormorants is positively related to the time individuals spend in the lake during winter. Our data add to the growing body of evidence that highlights the importance of predation for migratory dynamics, and, to our knowledge, is one of the first studies to directly quantify a predator avoidance benefit to migrants in the field. PMID:23445943

Skov, Christian; Chapman, Ben B.; Baktoft, Henrik; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Hulthén, Kaj; Nilsson, P. Anders

2013-01-01

114

Former uranium mine-induced effects in caged roach: a multiparametric approach for the evaluation of in situ metal toxicity.  

PubMed

To characterize environmental risks linked to former uranium mines in the Limousin region of France, a study was conducted on fish health effects from uranium releases. Two private ponds were compared in this study, one with uranium contamination and one background site, upstream of the mining zone. Roach, Rutilus rutilus, were caged for 28 days in both ponds. Physico-chemical parameters of water and sediments and bioaccumulation of metals in several organs were determined. After 14 and 28 days of caging, immune, oxidative stress, biotransformation, neurotoxicity and physiological parameters were measured. Iron and aluminium were quantified in the water of both sites; however, barium and manganese were only present in the water of the uranium contaminated site. Uranium was present in both sites but at very different concentrations. The sediments from the uranium contaminated site contained high levels of radioactive elements coming from the disintegration chain of uranium. Results of biological parameters indicated stimulation of immune parameters and of oxidative stress and a decrease of AChE in fish caged in the uranium contaminated pond compared to the uranium-free pond. Overall, the results determined roach health status in the context of pollution from poly-metallic mining. The data strengthen our knowledge of the environmental risk assessment associated with radioactive substances in the environment. PMID:25348601

Gagnaire, Béatrice; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Betoulle, Stéphane; Amara, Rachid; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalié, Isabelle; Chadili, Edith; Delahaut, Laurence; Kerambrun, Elodie; Orjollet, Daniel; Palluel, Olivier; Sanchez, Wilfried

2015-01-01

115

Use Carum copticum essential oil for controlling the Listeria monocytogenes growth in fish model system  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Carum copticum essential oil (Ajowan EO) against Listeria monocytogenes in fish model system. Ajowan EO chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis and the highest concentration of Carum copticum essential oil without any significant changes on sensory properties of kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) was assigned. Then the inhibitory effect of Ajowan EO at different concentrations in presence of salt and smoke component was tested on L. monocytogenes growth in fish peptone broth (FPB), kutum broth and cold smoked kutum broth at 4 °C for 12 days. Ajowan EO completely decreased the number of L. monocytogenes in FPB after 12 days of storage, however, antimicrobial effect of EO significantly reduced in kutum and cold smoked kutum broth. Addition of 4% NaCl and smoke component improved the anti-listerial activity of Ajowan EO in all fish model broths. PMID:24948918

Rabiey, Soghra; Hosseini, Hedayat; Rezaei, Masoud

2014-01-01

116

Use Carum copticum essential oil for controlling the Listeria monocytogenes growth in fish model system.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Carum copticum essential oil (Ajowan EO) against Listeria monocytogenes in fish model system. Ajowan EO chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis and the highest concentration of Carum copticum essential oil without any significant changes on sensory properties of kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) was assigned. Then the inhibitory effect of Ajowan EO at different concentrations in presence of salt and smoke component was tested on L. monocytogenes growth in fish peptone broth (FPB), kutum broth and cold smoked kutum broth at 4 °C for 12 days. Ajowan EO completely decreased the number of L. monocytogenes in FPB after 12 days of storage, however, antimicrobial effect of EO significantly reduced in kutum and cold smoked kutum broth. Addition of 4% NaCl and smoke component improved the anti-listerial activity of Ajowan EO in all fish model broths. PMID:24948918

Rabiey, Soghra; Hosseini, Hedayat; Rezaei, Masoud

2014-01-01

117

How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Literature on mollusk-eating fishes was reviewed to determine the potential for different species of fish to control zebra mussels in eastern North America. At least six species are potential predators of zebra mussels because they possess (1) both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth or (2) lower pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads located on the dorsal roof for crushing mollusk shells. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and two centrarchids, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), possess both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth and are likely to consume more zebra mussels than fishes with only lower pharyngeal teeth. Only two catostomid species, copper and river redhorses (Moxostoma hubbsi and M. carinatum), have chewing pads that enable them to crush mollusks. The exotic omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio), possessing lower teeth and a chewing pad, may prey on zebra mussels when aquatic insect larvae, its preferred food, become rare. Managing populations or drum, sunfishes, and redhorses to reduce exploitation of large individuals and improve their habitats are suggested as means to intensify biological control of zebra mussels in eastern North America. Other Eurasian molluscivores, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) should not be introduced into North America because research has shown repeatedly that an introduced biological controller usually does not forage for unwanted pests or reside only in preferred habitats of pests. Drum, sunfishes and redhorses should be preferred over these exotics as biological controllers of zebra mussels in North America because these native fishes will likely occupy newly established habitats of zebra mussels.

French, John R. P., III

1993-01-01

118

Populations of a cyprinid fish are self-sustaining despite widespread feminization of males  

PubMed Central

Background Treated effluents from wastewater treatment works can comprise a large proportion of the flow of rivers in the developed world. Exposure to these effluents, or the steroidal estrogens they contain, feminizes wild male fish and can reduce their reproductive fitness. Long-term experimental exposures have resulted in skewed sex ratios, reproductive failures in breeding colonies, and population collapse. This suggests that environmental estrogens could threaten the sustainability of wild fish populations. Results Here we tested this hypothesis by examining population genetic structures and effective population sizes (Ne) of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) living in English rivers contaminated with estrogenic effluents. Ne was estimated from DNA microsatellite genotypes using approximate Bayesian computation and sibling assignment methods. We found no significant negative correlation between Ne and the predicted estrogen exposure at 28 sample sites. Furthermore, examination of the population genetic structure of roach in the region showed that some populations have been confined to stretches of river with a high proportion of estrogenic effluent for multiple generations and have survived, apparently without reliance on immigration of fish from less polluted sites. Conclusions These results demonstrate that roach populations living in some effluent-contaminated river stretches, where feminization is widespread, are self-sustaining. Although we found no evidence to suggest that exposure to estrogenic effluents is a significant driving factor in determining the size of roach breeding populations, a reduction in Ne of up to 65% is still possible for the most contaminated sites because of the wide confidence intervals associated with the statistical model. PMID:24417977

2014-01-01

119

Transferability of predictive fish distribution models in two coastal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species distribution modelling has emerged as a tool both for exploring niche theory and for producing distribution maps for management. To understand and predict potential effects of large scale habitat change there is a need for proper model validation and applicability also in unstudied areas. However, knowledge about factors influencing the transferability of distribution models, i.e. the accuracy of the models when applying them in a new geographical area, is limited. We have successfully modelled the larval distribution of two fish species, northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.), on a regional scale in the Baltic Sea using a few and easily measured environmental variables. When models were transferred from the training area to the testing area the models showed reasonable to very good discrimination (ROC 0.75 and 0.93) based on external validation using independent data separated also in time (1-2 years). The predicted larval distribution also overlapped with the distribution of young-of-the-year fish later in the season. Performance when reversing the transfer, by constructing the models in the testing area and predicting back to the original training area, was less successful. This discrepancy was species-specific and could be explained by differences in the species presence ranges along the predictor variables in the testing area compared to the training area. Our results illustrate how transferability success can be influenced by area-specific differences in the range of the predictor variables and show the necessity of validating model predictions properly.

Sundblad, Göran; Härmä, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Urho, Lauri; Bergström, Ulf

2009-06-01

120

Differences in the Activities of Eight Enzymes from Ten Soil Fungi and Their Possible Influences on the Surface Structure, Functional Groups, and Element Composition of Soil Colloids  

PubMed Central

How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, ?-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase) secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum) secreted 3–4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus) could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C?=?O, COO- decreased by 11–60%, while P?=?O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9–22%), surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials), and elemental compositions (11–49% decreases in C1s) in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus) compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus). Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix), highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance. PMID:25398013

Wang, Wenjie; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Zu, Yuangang

2014-01-01

121

Accumulation of some metals in muscles of five fish species from lower Nitra river.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of accumulated selected metals concentrations (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and meHg) in the muscle of five common Slovak fish species (Chub-Leuciscus cephalus, Common carp-Cyprinus carpio, Prussian carp-Carassius gibelio, Roach-Rutilus rutilus, and Wels catfish-Silurus glanis). Furthermore, correlations among the selected metals and order of metal accumulation in the fish muscle were determined. The concentrations of metals (mg/kg wet weight basis) ranged as follows: Fe 3.70-21.10; Mn 0.27-1.50; Zn 3.72-42.82; Cu 0.26-1.82; Ni 0.02-0.29; Co 0.06-0.28; Cr 0.09-0.28; Pb 0.08-34.59; Cd 0.06-2.76, Hg 0.34-3.64 and meHg 0.08-1.20. The level of lead and mercury exceeded the maximum allowed concentration in Slovakia by the Codex Alimentarius for safe human consumption (0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively) in the majority of samples (94.6 and 82.1%, respectively). Content of Cd (0.88 +/- 0.76 mg/kg wet weight) in the fish muscle exceeded maximum allowed levels (0.05 mg/kg) in all samples. An average, the order of metal concentrations in the fish muscle was: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cd > Hg > Cu > Mn > meHg > Ni > Cr > Co. PMID:17000549

Andreji, Jaroslav; Stránai, Ivan; Massányi, Peter; Valent, Miroslav

2006-01-01

122

Patterns of brain morphology in mid-European Cyprinidae (Pisces, Teleostei): a quantitative histological study.  

PubMed

The present study considers patterns of brain morphology in 14 common species of mid-European Cyprinidae. Sixteen areas per brain were measured on serial cryostat sections by computer-aided planimetry. The volumes of these areas were expressed as % of the total brain volume. These brain centres (ranked according to falling values of the coefficient of variation VR, of the interspecific mean) are: Lobus facialis, L. vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum. Seven primary sensory areas are leading in VR; highest in interspecific variability were the two special viscerosensory brainstem lobes for external (L. facialis) and internal (L. vagus) taste. Low in interspecific variability were integration centres (see above). By plotting the relative volumina of those brain centres which represent three major sensory modalities: brain stem chemosense, acoustico-lateralis and sense of vision, species are separated into three groups: 1) Most species scatter along an axis from moderately (Aspius aspius, Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus cephalus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Alburnus alburnus, Chondrostoma nasus) to highly developed chemo- and acustico-lateralis centres (Vimba vimba, Abramis brama, Abramis ballerus). Blicca bjoercna is situated in the middle of this axis. Within the latter group the optic centres are evenly well developed. 2) Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio and Tinca tinca are characterized by relatively small acoustico-lateralis and optic areas, but highly developed chemocentres. 3) Pelecus cultratus is monotypic among the species investigated by having large acoustico-lateralis and optic, but modestly developed chemocentres. The brain patterns relative to life style are discussed. PMID:3418119

Kotrschal, K; Junger, H

1988-01-01

123

Precision of the age-length increments of three cyprinids: effects of fish number and sub-sampling strategy.  

PubMed

The effects of number of fish that are aged and scale sub-sampling strategies on the precision of estimates of mean age-length increments from populations of Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus leuciscus and Leuciscus cephalus were tested. Analyses used data derived from river fish communities in eastern England, U.K.. Regarding the number of fishes analysed in each age group, for each species and mean fork-length increment at age, significant relationships were detected between sample size (n) and the coefficient of variation of the mean (Z) and mean length increment x? and measured variance (s(2)). This enabled calculation of the number of scales for producing a mean length increment at age according to n=ax?(b(-2))Zx?(-2). Outputs indicated that the number of scales requiring ageing increased substantially as precision increased, but with little variation between species per age category. Ageing between seven and 12 scales per age group would thus provide estimates at 10% precision. As the ages of fishes are not known in advance of scale ageing, the effect of scale sub-sampling regime on precision was also tested using randomized strategies of 10 fish per 5 mm, five per 5 mm, three per 5 mm, 10 per 10 mm, five per 10 mm and three per 10 mm. These were applied to the datasets and the consequences of their reduction in the number of scales for precision were determined using Z=a(0.5)x?((b/2)(-1))n(-0.5). When compared to no sub-sampling, three per 10 mm always significantly reduced data precision, whereas 10 per 5 mm never significantly reduced precision. These outputs can thus be applied to the design of fish sampling protocols where age and growth estimates are required, with the randomized sub-sampling likely to be the most useful strategy. PMID:24890409

Busst, G M; Britton, J R

2014-06-01

124

Biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in heavily polluted aquatic environment in different fish species.  

PubMed

The distribution and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fish species (European perch Perca fluviatilis, northern pike Esox lucius, pike perch Sander lucioperca, wels catfish Silirus glanus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, European eel Anguilla anguilla, freshwater bream Abramis brama, goldfish Carassius auratus, and roach Rutilus rutilus) in a heavily polluted water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Slovakia). The study performed at two different time points 5 years apart (2004 and 2009) revealed serious PCB contamination of fish muscle tissue and significant interspecies as well as tissue-specific differences in PCB uptake by fish. Total PCBs broadly correlated with the trophic position of individual fish species within a food chain (P < 0.01). The concentrations were particularly high in predatory fish species, perch, pike, and pike perch (108.0, 90.1, and 113.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt, respectively), but comparable PCB values were also found in non-predatory detrivorous freshwater bream (128.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). The lowest PCB values were surprisingly assessed in European eel (17.1 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Tissue analysis showed the highest storage capacity of the liver (hepatopancreas in cyprinids) with maximum concentrations recorded found in northern pike (214.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt) and freshwater bream (163.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Negative correlations, mostly not significant, between the total PCB concentrations and fish weight were observed (P > 0.05). The study has shown that the kind of fish, its feeding habit, and specific conditions of the habitat are mutually interrelated factors that are responsible for significant variations in fish body burdens. A tendency to PCB biomagnification was also proved in some fish species of this water reservoir. PMID:22173787

Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalgovi?ová, Danka; Tur?eková, L'udmila

2012-11-01

125

Energy allocation in juvenile roach and burbot under different temperature and feeding regimes.  

PubMed

Cold-active burbot (Lota lota (L.)) display reduced food intake during the summer. The impact of temperature on their energy budget was investigated in starved fish in a laboratory setting, simulating summer (20 degrees C) and winter (4 degrees C) conditions, to elucidate the impact of high temperature on burbot metabolism. Metabolic effects in burbot were compared to roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), which typically fast in winter. During warm acclimation, starvation (four weeks) resulted in a metabolic depression of oxygen consumption in both species. In roach, metabolic rate decreased by 55% after two weeks of starvation. Burbot, in contrast, displayed an immediate depression of metabolic rate by 50%. In both species, no reductions were observed in the cold. The temperature-induced differences between the metabolic rates at 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C showed a lower thermal sensitivity in burbot (Q (10) = 1.9) compared to roach (Q (10) = 2.7). Notably, for each species, energy consumption during starvation was highest under experimental conditions simulating their natural active periods, respectively. Warm acclimated roach relied mainly on muscle reserves, whereas in cold acclimated burbot, liver metabolic stores made a major contribution to the energy turnover. In cold acclimated roach and warm acclimated burbot, however, starvation apparently reduced swimming activity, resulting in considerable savings of energy reserves. These lower energy expenditures in roach and burbot corresponded to their natural inactive periods. Thus, starvation in burbot caused a lower energy turnover when exposed to high temperatures. These season-dependent adaptations of metabolism represent an advantageous strategy in burbot to manage winter temperature and withstand metabolism-activating summer temperatures, whereas roach metabolism correlates with the seasonal temperature cycle. PMID:18649028

Binner, Maaike; Kloas, Werner; Hardewig, Iris

2008-06-01

126

Metals in edible fish from Vistula River and Dead Vistula River channel, Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Metals including Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in muscle tissue of 12 fish species by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and cold vapour-atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS). Fish were collected from Vistula River at lower course and Dead Vistula River channel in south of Baltic Sea in Poland. The fish species examined include Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus), Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius), Bull-rout (Myoxocephalus scorpius), Tench (Tinca tinca), Bream (Abramis brama), Burbot (Lota lot), Perch (Perca perca), Roach (Rutilus rutilus), Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Pikeperch (Stizostediun lucioperca), Brown salmon (Salmo trutta m. Trutta) and Eel (Anguilla anguilla). The median values of metal concentrations in fresh muscle tissue of 11 fish species varied as follows: Al < 0.5-60; Ba < 0.05-0.31; Ca 120-1800; Cd < 0.05-0.096; Co < 0.10; Cr < 0.10-0.50; Cu < 0.15-0.77; Fe 1.5-21; Hg 0.0058-0.65; K 1800-4200; Mg 130-560; Mn 0.12-0.59; Na 350-840; Ni < 0.2-0.31; Pb < 0.75; Sr 0.079-2.9; Zn 3.3-23 ?g/g fresh weight. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) values calculated in this study for Cd and Hg from muscles of fish species collected from Vistula River were low in the range of 0.4 for Hg and 0.8 for Cd. PMID:22428891

Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Falandysz, Jerzy; Jarzy?ska, Gra?yna

2012-01-01

127

Assessing anthropogenic impact on boreal lakes with historical fish species distribution data and hydrogeochemical modeling  

PubMed Central

Quantifying the effects of human activity on the natural environment is dependent on credible estimates of reference conditions to define the state of the environment before the onset of adverse human impacts. In Europe, emission controls that aimed at restoring ecological status were based on hindcasts from process-based models or paleolimnological reconstructions. For instance, 1860 is used in Europe as the target for restoration from acidification concerning biological and chemical parameters. A more practical problem is that the historical states of ecosystems and their function cannot be observed directly. Therefore, we (i) compare estimates of acidification based on long-term observations of roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations with hindcast pH from the hydrogeochemical model MAGIC; (ii) discuss policy implications and possible scope for use of long-term archival data for assessing human impacts on the natural environment and (iii) present a novel conceptual model for interpreting the importance of physico-chemical and ecological deviations from reference conditions. Of the 85 lakes studied, 78 were coherently classified by both methods. In 1980, 28 lakes were classified as acidified with the MAGIC model, however, roach was present in 14 of these. In 2010, MAGIC predicted chemical recovery in 50% of the lakes, however roach only recolonized in five lakes after 1990, showing a lag between chemical and biological recovery. Our study is the first study of its kind to use long-term archival biological data in concert with hydrogeochemical modeling for regional assessments of anthropogenic acidification. Based on our results, we show how the conceptual model can be used to understand and prioritize management of physico-chemical and ecological effects of anthropogenic stressors on surface water quality. PMID:24535943

Valinia, Salar; Englund, Göran; Moldan, Filip; Futter, Martyn N; Köhler, Stephan J; Bishop, Kevin; Fölster, Jens

2014-01-01

128

Differences in the activities of eight enzymes from ten soil fungi and their possible influences on the surface structure, functional groups, and element composition of soil colloids.  

PubMed

How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, ?-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase) secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum) secreted 3-4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus) could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C?=?O, COO- decreased by 11-60%, while P?=?O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9-22%), surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials), and elemental compositions (11-49% decreases in C1s) in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus) compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus). Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix), highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance. PMID:25398013

Wang, Wenjie; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Zu, Yuangang

2014-01-01

129

Effects of predation pressure and resource use on morphological divergence in omnivorous prey fish  

PubMed Central

Background Body shape is one of the most variable traits of organisms and responds to a broad array of local selective forces. In freshwater fish, divergent body shapes within single species have been repeatedly observed along the littoral-pelagic axes of lakes, where the structural complexity of near shore habitats provides a more diverse set of resources compared to the open-water zones. It remains poorly understood whether similar resource-driven polymorphism occurs among lakes that vary in structural complexity and predation pressure, and whether this variation is heritable. Here, we analyzed body shape in four populations of omnivorous roach (Rutilus rutilus) inhabiting shallow lakes. We tested the relationship between body shape, gradients of resources, predation pressure, and, in a subset of two lakes, diet composition. We used genome scans of 331 polymorphic AFLP markers to test whether there was a heritable component to the observed morphological diversification. Results Body shape differed among lakes and was significantly correlated to differences in predation pressure. Roach from the lake with highest predation pressure were most divergent from the average body shape of all populations, characterized by a more streamlined body and caudally inserted dorsal fins; features that facilitate predator escape. Surprisingly, diet composition was not associated with morphology. AFLP analysis revealed weak genetic differentiation among lakes and no isolation by distance (IBD). Outlier analysis detected three loci under positive selection with differing frequencies in the four populations. General linear models did not support an association of lake-specific genotypes with morphological variation. Conclusion Body shape was divergent among lakes, suggesting that processes previously reported from within single lakes may also be operating at the scale of whole lakes. We found no evidence for body shape being heritable, although sample size was small in these natural populations. Rather than habitat structure and diet, we conclude that predation had a stronger effect on the prevalence of local morphotypes. A variable morphotype facilitating the efficient uptake of a variety of spatially and temporarily scattered resources seems to be favored in these small aquatic systems. PMID:23802571

2013-01-01

130

Heavy metals and arsenic concentrations in ten fish species from the Šalek lakes (Slovenia): assessment of potential human health risk due to fish consumption.  

PubMed

The study, which measured the concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and As in various fish tissues (muscle, gill and liver) of 10 fish species (Abramis brama danubii, Alburnus alburnus alburnus, Barbus meridionalis petenyi, Carassius auratius gibelio, Cyprinus carpio, Lepomis gibossus, Leuciscius cephalus cephalus, Perca fluviatilis fluviatilis, Rutilus rutilus, Scardinus erythrophtlalmus erythrophtlalmus) collected in the Šalek lakes, is the first survey regarding metal concentrations in fish species with samples originating from Slovene lakes, while only a limited number of such studies have been carried out in southeastern Europe. Since these lakes are situated in the close vicinity of the largest Slovene thermal power plant, the study provides an insight into the potential impact of increased levels of metals in the environment as well as an estimate of the contamination of fish tissues with metals. Furthermore, it was possible to compare the results obtained with those from other studies regarding metal levels in freshwater fish species. The mean metal concentrations of different tissues irrespective of species varied in the following ranges: Zn 4.31-199 mg/kg ww, Pb 0.01-0.48 mg/kg ww, As 0.02-0.44 mg/kg ww, Hg <0.01-0.31 mg/kg ww, Cd < 0.01-0.19 mg/kg ww. In general, higher contents of Hg were found in muscles and livers than in gills and higher contents of As in gills and livers than in muscles, respectively. The accumulation of Pb and Zn was most pronounced in gills. The result obtained regarding metal concentrations in fish revealed that the ecosystems of the Šalek lakes are not polluted with Hg and Pb, slightly loaded with As and Cd and moderately polluted with Zn. In addition, the potential human health risk due to fish consumption was assessed. This showed that the estimated weekly intakes for all metals were far below provisional permissible tolerable weekly intakes determined by WHO/FAO. The consumption of fish from the Šalek lakes, therefore, does not pose a risk to human health. PMID:21713497

Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Mazej Grudnik, Zdenka; Pokorny, Boštjan

2012-05-01

131

Comparing two fish sampling standards over time: largely congruent results but with caveats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. We sampled Lake Bourget (surface area = 44 km2) using CEN standard gillnet and provisional standard acoustic survey methods over 3 years (2005, 2010 and 2011) as the fish community responded to re-oligotrophication. A total of 16 species were caught in benthic gillnets and three species in pelagic gillnets. 2. Lake Bourget results were consistent with a recent study (Emmrich et al., Freshwater Biology, 57, 2012, 2436) showing strong correspondence between average biomass-per-unit-effort (BPUE) in standard benthic gillnets and average acoustic volume backscattering when smaller lakes (0.25–5.45 km2) were treated as sample units. 3. The BPUE of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) measured by benthic gillnets all declined significantly with increasing bathymetric depth; 93% of nets set at depths >50 m caught zero fish. 4. Pelagic gillnetting indicated that small (20 m) increased significantly after 2005. 5. Both surveys showed whitefish biomass increased significantly during the study, but whitefish ?25 cm were poorly represented in benthic gillnet catches. Contrary to the acoustic findings, the BPUE of perch and roach in benthic gillnets did not vary significantly over time. This metric is insensitive to changes in size structure in that a high catch of small fish and a low catch of large fish in different years can provide similar average BPUE estimates. 6. We examined correlations between BPUE in benthic gillnets and acoustic methods at fine spatial scales by averaging acoustic backscattering measurements encompassed by buffers of varying size (250–2000 m) around individual gillnets and by averaging samples collected from lake quadrants. Correlations at fines scales were generally poor, and only in 1 year was the quadrant correlation significant. The lack of correlation can be explained, in part, by the two gears sampling different components of the fish community. Conversely, in pelagic habitat, where the fish community was simpler, we found BPUE in pelagic nets to be strongly correlated with acoustic backscattering. 7. With respect to large lakes like Lake Bourget, we hypothesise that the congruence in average biomass measurements provided by these two survey methods occurs because these different community components are responding similarly to a common driver like lake trophic status (or possibly multiple drivers operating in synergy).

Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cachera, Sébastien; Colon, Michel; Guillard, Jean

2013-01-01

132

An evaluation of LSU rDNA D1-D2 sequences for their use in species identification  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of species via DNA sequences is the basis for DNA taxonomy and DNA barcoding. Currently there is a strong focus on using a mitochondrial marker for this purpose, in particular a fragment from the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). While there is ample evidence that this marker is indeed suitable across a broad taxonomic range to delineate species, it has also become clear that a complementation by a nuclear marker system could be advantageous. Ribosomal RNA genes could be suitable for this purpose, because of their global occurrence and the possibility to design universal primers. However, it has so far been assumed that these genes are too highly conserved to allow resolution at, or even beyond the species level. On the other hand, it is known that ribosomal gene regions harbour also highly divergent parts. We explore here the information content of two adjacent divergence regions of the large subunit ribosomal gene, the D1-D2 region. Results Universal primers were designed to amplify the D1-D2 region from all metazoa. We show that amplification products in the size between 800–1300 bp can be obtained across a broad range of animal taxa, provided some optimizations of the PCR procedure are implemented. Although the ribosomal genes occur in multiple copies in the genomes, we find generally very little intra-individual polymorphism (<< 0.1% on average) indicating that concerted evolution is very effective in most cases. Studies in two fish taxa (genus Cottus and genus Aphyosemion) show that the D1-D2 LSU sequence can resolve even very closely related species with the same fidelity as COI sequences. In one case we can even show that a mitochondrial transfer must have occurred, since the nuclear sequence confirms the taxonomic assignment, while the mitochondrial sequence would have led to the wrong classification. We have further explored whether hybrids between species can be detected with the nuclear sequence and we show for a test case of natural hybrids among cyprinid fish species (Alburnus alburnus and Rutilus rutilus) that this is indeed possible. Conclusion The D1-D2 LSU region is a suitable marker region for applications in DNA based species identification and should be considered to be routinely used as a marker complementing broad scale studies based on mitochondrial markers. PMID:17306026

Sonnenberg, Rainer; Nolte, Arne W; Tautz, Diethard

2007-01-01

133

Oil shale processing as a source of aquatic pollution: monitoring of the biologic effects in caged and feral freshwater fish.  

PubMed

The biologic effects of the oil shale industry on caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as well as on feral perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) were studied in the River Narva in northeast Estonia. The River Narva passes the oil shale mining and processing area and thus receives elevated amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and sulfates. The effects of the chemical load were monitored by measuring cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-dependent monooxygenase (MO) activities [7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)] as well as conjugation enzyme activities [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase] in the liver of fish. CYP1A induction was further studied by detecting the amount and occurrence of the CYP1A protein. Histopathology of tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, and intestine) and the percentage of micronuclei in fish erythrocytes were also determined. Selected PAHs and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb) were measured from fish muscle and liver. In spite of the significant accumulation of PAHs, there was no induction of MO activities in any studied fish species. When compared to reference samples, AHH activities were even decreased in feral fish at some of the exposed sites. Detection of CYP1A protein content and the distribution of the CYP1A enzyme by immunohistochemistry also did not show extensive CYP1A induction. Instead, GST activities were significantly increased at exposed sites. Detection of histopathology did not reveal major changes in the morphology of tissues. The micronucleus test also did not show any evidence of genotoxicity. Thus, from the parameters studied, GST activity was most affected. The lack of catalytic CYP1A induction in spite of the heavy loading of PAHs was not studied but has been attributed to the elevated content of other compounds such as heavy metals, some of which can act as inhibitors for MOs. Another possible explanation of this lack of induction is that through adaptation processes the fish could have lost some of their sensitivity to PAHs. Either complex pollution caused by oil shale processing masked part of the harmful effects measured in this study, or oil shale industry did not have any severe effects on fish in the River Narva. Our study illustrates the difficulties in estimating risk in cases where there are numerous various contaminants affecting the biota. PMID:10464075

Tuvikene, A; Huuskonen, S; Koponen, K; Ritola, O; Mauer, U; Lindström-Seppä, P

1999-09-01

134

Oil shale processing as a source of aquatic pollution: monitoring of the biologic effects in caged and feral freshwater fish.  

PubMed Central

The biologic effects of the oil shale industry on caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as well as on feral perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) were studied in the River Narva in northeast Estonia. The River Narva passes the oil shale mining and processing area and thus receives elevated amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and sulfates. The effects of the chemical load were monitored by measuring cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-dependent monooxygenase (MO) activities [7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)] as well as conjugation enzyme activities [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase] in the liver of fish. CYP1A induction was further studied by detecting the amount and occurrence of the CYP1A protein. Histopathology of tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, and intestine) and the percentage of micronuclei in fish erythrocytes were also determined. Selected PAHs and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb) were measured from fish muscle and liver. In spite of the significant accumulation of PAHs, there was no induction of MO activities in any studied fish species. When compared to reference samples, AHH activities were even decreased in feral fish at some of the exposed sites. Detection of CYP1A protein content and the distribution of the CYP1A enzyme by immunohistochemistry also did not show extensive CYP1A induction. Instead, GST activities were significantly increased at exposed sites. Detection of histopathology did not reveal major changes in the morphology of tissues. The micronucleus test also did not show any evidence of genotoxicity. Thus, from the parameters studied, GST activity was most affected. The lack of catalytic CYP1A induction in spite of the heavy loading of PAHs was not studied but has been attributed to the elevated content of other compounds such as heavy metals, some of which can act as inhibitors for MOs. Another possible explanation of this lack of induction is that through adaptation processes the fish could have lost some of their sensitivity to PAHs. Either complex pollution caused by oil shale processing masked part of the harmful effects measured in this study, or oil shale industry did not have any severe effects on fish in the River Narva. Our study illustrates the difficulties in estimating risk in cases where there are numerous various contaminants affecting the biota. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10464075

Tuvikene, A; Huuskonen, S; Koponen, K; Ritola, O; Mauer, U; Lindström-Seppä, P

1999-01-01

135

Vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy associated with a nodavirus-like agent: a probable cause of mass mortality of wild Golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and Sharpnose grey mullet (Liza saliens) in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.  

PubMed

Mullets are dominant fishes in the catch composition in the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea and after (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamensky, 1901) have a worthy role in production of marine proteins and incomings of north provinces of Iran. Mullets stocks decreased dramatically in recent decades in the Caspian Sea and catch amount reached from 6446 MT on 2002 to 2151 MT in 2012. Mysterious mortalities occurred in wild mullet (Liza auratu) and (Liza saliens) in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea in recent years. Regarding to investigation of causative agent of mentioned outbreak about 322 suspected samples were collected from coastal capture sites of Iranian north provinces in 2008 till 2011. Moribund fish revealed skin darkening, erratic swimming, belly-up at rest and high distension of swim bladder. Target tissues such as brain and eye were removed and then fixed for histopathology and TEM assay. Widespread and massive vacuolation were observed in brain, spinal cord, retina and optical nerve and intracytoplasmic vacuoles and virus particles in retina. So concerning to clinical signs, histopathological and TEM findings, it could be concluded that nodavirus-like agent could be probable cause of mass mortality of wild mullet in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea. PMID:25674618

Zorriehzahra, Mohammad Jalil; Nazari, Alireza; Ghasemi, Mohaddes; Ghiasi, Maryam; Karsidani, Somayeh Haghighi; Bovo, Giuseppe; Daud, Hassan Hj Mohd

2014-12-01

136

Determination of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, selenium and iron by ICP-OES in mushroom samples from around thermal power plant in Mu?la, Turkey.  

PubMed

Scleroderma verrucosum, Stropharia coronilla, Lactarius deterrimus, Chroogomphus rutilus, Russula delica, Laccaria laccata, Clitocybe odora var. alba, Lyophyllum decastes, Coprinus comatus, Helvella leucomelaena, Melanoleuca cognata, Melanoleuca cognata, Paxina acetabulum, Clitocybe vermicularis, Sarcosphaera crassa, Rhizopogon roseolu and Thelephora caryophyllea were collected from different localities in Mu?la-Yata?an region of Turkey. Their trace metals concentrations were determined by ICPOES after microwave digestion. The results were 0.37 ± 0.01-5.28 ± 0.21 for cadmium, 467 ± 19-3,280 ± 131 for iron, 0.69 ± 0.03-9.15 ± 0.37 for lead, 18.70 ± 0.75-67.10 ± 2.68 for selenium, 75 ± 3-213 ± 8 for zinc and 0.15 ± 0.01-0.55 ± 0.01 for mercury (as ?g/g). The detection limits for ICPOES were found as 0.25 for Cadmium, 0.2 for iron, 0.1 for lead, 0.5 for selenium, 0.2 for zinc and 0.03 for mercury (as mg L(-1)). The Relatively Standard Deviations (R.S.D.) were found below 4.0%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material. PMID:21735274

Kula, Ibrahim; Solak, M Halil; U?urlu, Mehmet; I??lo?lu, Mustafa; Arslan, Yasin

2011-09-01

137

Gene conversion in the mitochondrial genome on interspecific hybridization in voles of the Clethrionomys genus.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of interspecific hybridization accompanied by transfer of the mitochondrial genome from the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus) to the bank vole (Cl. glareolus) in northeastern Europe is well known already for 25 years. However, the possibility of recombination between homologous segments of maternal and paternal mtDNAs of the voles during fertilization was not previously studied. Analysis of data on variability of nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b in populations of red-backed and bank voles in the area of their sympatry has shown that as a result of interspecific hybridization, the mitochondrial gene pool of bank voles contains not only mtDNA haplotypes of red-backed vole females, but also mtDNA haplotypes of bank voles bearing short nucleotide tracts of red-backed vole mtDNA. This finding supports the hypothesis that an incomplete elimination of red-backed vole paternal mtDNA during the interspecific hybridization between bank vole females and red-backed vole males leads to the gene conversion of bank vole maternal mtDNA tracts by homologous ones of mtDNA of red-backed vole males. PMID:22813593

Malyarchuk, B A

2012-05-01

138

Description of Myxobolus gayerae sp. n. and re-description of M. leuciscini infecting European chub from the Hungarian stretch of the river Danube.  

PubMed

Myxobolus gayerae sp. n. and M. leuciscini González-Lanza & Alvarez-Pellitero, 1985 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) have been described and re-described from European chub Leuciscus cephalus L. from the Hungarian stretch of the river Danube. The ellipsoidal plasmodia of M. gayerae sp. n. were found in the mucosa of the intestinal wall, whereas the large, elongated plasmodia of M. leuciscini infected the afferent arteries of the gill filaments. The spores of M. gayerae sp. n. are relatively large, slightly oval and almost rectangular in shape. On the basis of spore morphology and 18S rDNA sequences, the most similar species was M. cycloides Gurley, 1893, but the 2 species differed in host and tissue tropism as well as in the size of the spores. The spores of M. leuciscini from L. cephalus, having no intercapsular appendix or occasionally a very small one, showed a high morphological similarity to spores collected from L. cephalus cabeda, Chondrostoma polylepis and Rutilus arcasi in Spain and described as M. leuciscini González-Lanza & Alvarez-Pellitero, 1985. PMID:18286811

Molnár, K; Marton, S; Eszterbauer, E; Székely, C

2007-12-13

139

Evaluation of metal pollution in fish and water collected from Gorgan coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran.  

PubMed

In this study, concentrations of zinc, chromium, cadmium and lead were determined in water and three species of fish sampled from 10 selected stations along Gorgan coast using atomic absorption spectrophotometery, summer 2009. Mean lead levels in water and fish samples (119.50 ± 22.24 ?g/L and 113.80 ± 33.11 ?g/kg) were significantly higher than that of cadmium and chromium (p < 0.05). Cyprinus carpio had highest metals content than Mugila auratus and Rutilus frisikutum. The evaluated metals values in water collected from Gomishan wetland (Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn values are 145.31 ± 35.32, 120.46 ± 11.44, 96.47 ± 6.05 and 82.02 ± 34.37 ?g/L, respectively) were higher than the other sampling sites. The result is consistent with the findings accessed by evaluation of the metals in fish specimens. The metals concentrations in the fish and water samples were below the recommended limits. But, elevating levels of metals in water and fish made a serious concern about ecosystem and food chain contamination. PMID:22664555

Saeedi Saravi, S S; Karami, B; Karami, S; Shokrzadeh, M

2012-08-01

140

Arsenic speciation patterns in freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Muscle of 16 freshwater fish (9 different species belonging to 4 different families) was analysed for arsenic species using HPLC separation (anion and cation exchange) followed by on-line UV-decomposition, hydride generation and AFS detection. The main arsenic compounds found in the extracts were arsenobetaine (AsB), which accounted for 92-100% of extractable arsenic in species of salmonids (Salmo marmoratus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta m. fario), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), which accounted for 75% of extractable arsenic in burbot (Lota lota). AsB was also found in lower concentrations in almost all other fish species analysed (Silurus glanis, L. lota, Barbus barbus, Rutilus pigus virgo, Chondrostoma nasus). Arsenite (As(III)) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were detected in low concentrations in some representatives of Cyprinidae only (R. pigus virgo, C. nasus). Except in salmonids, an unknown cationic compound was present in most of the samples in relatively low concentrations. Cluster analysis of the generated data seems to indicate that there is a correlation between fish family and the arsenic speciation pattern. This is especially clear for the salmonids which show a completely separate cluster and thus a very distinct arsenic speciation pattern. PMID:18969382

Slejkovec, Zdenka; Bajc, Zlatka; Doganoc, Darinka Z

2004-04-19

141

Contemporary radiation doses to murine rodents inhabiting the most contaminated part of the EURT.  

PubMed

The contemporary radiation doses to the organs and tissues of murine rodents inhabiting the most contaminated part of the EURT were estimated. The bones of animals trapped in 2005 at territories with a surface (90)Sr contamination of 24-40 MBq/m(2) were used for dose reconstruction. The concentration of (90)Sr in the animals' skulls was measured using the nondestructive method of bone radiometry. The dose estimation procedure included application of the published values of absorbed fractions of beta-radiation energy for different combinations of source and target organs, accounting for the distribution of radionuclide by organs and tissues. Twelve conversion coefficients were obtained to link the skeleton (90)Sr concentration and doses to eleven organs and the whole body. The whole-body dose rate on the 45th day after the beginning of exposure normalised to whole-body activity is 0.015 (mGy day(-1))/(Bq g(-1)). The estimation yields the following values of doses for Microtus agrestis, Sylvaemus uralensis and Clethrionomys rutilus, respectively: maximum absorbed doses in the skeleton: 267, 121 and 160 mGy; mean whole body internal doses: 37, 14 and 23 mGy; mean internal dose rates on the last day before trapping: 1.2; 0.44 and 0.75 mGy/day. Approaches to the assessment of doses to foetuses and to offspring before weaning were also developed. PMID:24333639

Malinovsky, G P; Yarmoshenko, I V; Zhukovsky, M V; Starichenko, V I; Chibiryak, M V

2014-03-01

142

Contamination levels and specific accumulation of persistent organochlorines in Caspian seal (Phoca caspica) from the Caspian sea, Russia.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean values of 19 and 1.3 microg/g on wet-weight basis in adult male seals, respectively. PCB pollution in Caspian seals was not so considerable compared with those of seals that suffered mass mortality. Less gender difference of organochlorine residue levels in adult animals implies less excretion of organochlorines from the body of adult females through lactation and gestation, probably due to the higher rate of pregnancy failure. Immature seals had a wide range of organochlorine concentrations, which decreased as body length increased, suggesting dilution. Caspian seals can be considered to have higher degradation capacity for coplanar PCBs. Mean TEQs (2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents) for non-, mono- and di-ortho coplanar PCBs was 51 pg/g on wet-weight basis, which was lower than those in seals that have suffered mass mortality, but comparable to those found in Arctic seals. PMID:10473798

Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Tatsukawa, R; Amano, M; Miyazaki, N; Petrov, E A; Khuraskin, S L

1999-10-01

143

A new intermediate host for Echinococcus multilocularis: the southern red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi) in urban landscape in Calgary, Canada.  

PubMed

Human Alveolar Echinococcosis (HAE) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode characterized by a sylvatic life-cycle involving several species of rodents and lagomorphs as intermediate hosts and canids as definitive hosts. Despite the wide distribution of the parasite in North America, the number of competent intermediate host species identified to date is still relatively small, and mainly includes the northern vole (Microtus oeconomus), brown lemming (Lemmus sibiricus), northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus). By monitoring the infections in rodents in the city of Calgary (Alberta, Canada), we have detected a case of severe alveolar echinococcosis in a southern red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi), a species never reported before as an intermediate host for this parasite. Observation of protoscolices in the intra-abdominal multilocular cysts indicates that M. gapperi could act as a competent intermediate host for the transmission of E. multilocularis. Since M. gapperi can be found in close proximity to, and within metropolitan areas, this species could play a role in the establishment and maintenance of the sylvatic life-cycle of E. multilocularis in urban landscapes, where the potential for zoonotic transmission is higher. The new intermediate host reported needs to be taken into account in future surveys and transmission models for this parasite. PMID:23608104

Liccioli, Stefano; Duignan, Pádraig J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Deunk, Joanna; Majid, Sultana; Massolo, Alessandro

2013-08-01

144

Contribution to the knowledge of helminthofauna of wild mammals of Somalia.  

PubMed

Within a survey of parasitic infections in wild mammals of Somalia, during the first semester of 1983 and the second of 1984, endoparasites were collected from 11 host species: Gazella soemmeringi, Gazella spekei, Madoqua saltiana, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, Xerus rutilus, Lepus sp., Genetta genetta, Herpestes (Galerella) sanguineus, Felis sylvestris libyca, Felis caracal, Canis mesomelas. A total of 22 species of helminths (20 nematode and 2 metacestode species) were identified. Lepus sp. is a new host for Heteroxinema (P.) proboscidiphora and Herpestes sanguineus for Oxinema sp. Teladorsagia hamata had not been previously reported in G. spekei; the genital cone and the corresponding supporting apparatus of this nematode are described. Two metacestodes were collected from the mesenteric membranes of a P. aethiopicus. The shape, number and length of their rostellar hooks, the size of the larvocysts, the occurrence of pseudostrobilum, are similar to those of the Taenia regis metacestode: but the size and shape of the hooks of the Somalian warthog larvocysts are slightly different and they have not been recovered from the musculature as previously reported in the intermediate hosts of T. regis. PMID:9257339

Iori, A; Lanfranchi, P

1996-12-01

145

Population dynamics of red-backed voles (Myodes) in North America.  

PubMed

We review the population dynamics of red-backed voles (Myodes species) in North America, the main deciduous and coniferous forest-dwelling microtines on this continent, and compare and contrast their pattern with that of the same or similar species in Eurasia. We identify 7 long-term studies of population changes in Myodes in North America. Using autoregressive and spectral analysis, we found that only 2 of the 7 show 3- to 5-year cycles like those found in some Eurasian populations. There was no relationship between latitude and cycling. The general lack of cyclicity is associated with two key aspects of their demography that act in tandem: first, poor overwinter survival in most years; second, chronically low densities, with irregular outbreak years. Eight factors might explain why some Myodes populations fluctuate in cycles and others fluctuate irregularly, and we review the evidence for each factor: food supplies, nutrients, predation, interspecific competition, disease, weather, spacing behavior and interactive effects. Of these eight, only food supplies appear to be sufficient to explain the differences between cyclic and non-cyclic populations. Irregular fluctuations are the result of pulsed food supplies in the form of berry crops (M. rutilus) or tree seeds (M. gapperi) linked to weather patterns. We argue that, to understand the cause for the patterns in the respective hemispheres, we must know the mechanism(s) driving population change and this must be linked to rigorous field tests. We suggest that a large-scale, year-round feeding experiment should improve overwintering survival, increase standing densities, and flip non-cyclic Myodes populations into cyclic dynamics that would mimic the patterns seen in the cyclic populations found in parts of Eurasia. PMID:21947547

Boonstra, Rudy; Krebs, Charles J

2012-03-01

146

Tracing the colonization history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls (Strigiformes: Otus) with further insight into the spatio-temporal origin of the Malagasy avifauna  

PubMed Central

Background The island of Madagascar and surrounding volcanic and coralline islands are considered to form a biodiversity hotspot with large numbers of unique taxa. The origin of this endemic fauna can be explained by two different factors: vicariance or over-water-dispersal. Deciphering which factor explains the current distributional pattern of a given taxonomic group requires robust phylogenies as well as estimates of divergence times. The lineage of Indian Ocean scops-owls (Otus: Strigidae) includes six or seven species that are endemic to Madagascar and portions of the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos; little is known about the species limits, biogeographic affinities and relationships to each other. In the present study, using DNA sequence data gathered from six loci, we examine the biogeographic history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls. We also compare the pattern and timing of colonization of the Indian Ocean islands by scops-owls with divergence times already proposed for other bird taxa. Results Our analyses revealed that Indian Ocean islands scops-owls do not form a monophyletic assemblage: the Seychelles Otus insularis is genetically closer to the South-East Asian endemic O. sunia than to species from the Comoros and Madagascar. The Pemba Scops-owls O. pembaensis, often considered closely related to, if not conspecific with O. rutilus of Madagascar, is instead closely related to the African mainland O. senegalensis. Relationships among the Indian Ocean taxa from the Comoros and Madagascar are unresolved, despite the analysis of over 4000 bp, suggesting a diversification burst after the initial colonization event. We also highlight one case of putative back-colonization to the Asian mainland from an island ancestor (O. sunia). Our divergence date estimates, using a Bayesian relaxed clock method, suggest that all these events occurred during the last 3.6 myr; albeit colonization of the Indian Ocean islands were not synchronous, O. pembaensis diverged from O. senegalensis about 1.7 mya while species from Madagascar and the Comoro diverged from their continental sister-group about 3.6 mya. We highlight that our estimates coincide with estimates of diversification from other bird lineages. Conclusion Our analyses revealed the occurrence of multiple synchronous colonization events of the Indian Ocean islands by scops-owls, at a time when faunistic exchanges involving Madagascar was common as a result of lowered sea-level that would have allowed the formation of stepping-stone islands. Patterns of diversification that emerged from the scops-owls data are: 1) a star-like pattern concerning the order of colonization of the Indian Ocean islands and 2) the high genetic distinctiveness among all Indian Ocean taxa, reinforcing their recognition as distinct species. PMID:18611281

2008-01-01

147

Population limitation of the northern red-backed vole in the boreal forests of northern Canada.  

PubMed

1. Across the vast boreal forests of North America, no population cycles in Clethrionomys species occur. In Eurasia, by contrast, some Clethrionomys populations of the same species undergo regular 3-5-year cycles. We examined the effects of nutrients, food, competitors, predators and climate on population limitation in the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus Pallas) in the south-western Yukon to determine why this difference occurs. 2. From 1986 to 1996 we added food, reduced large mammal predators and excluded snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) from large plots and found that none of these manipulations affected red-backed vole abundance. Adding nutrients as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizer had a slight negative effect, probably acting through a reduction in dwarf shrub productivity caused by competition from grasses. 3. We monitored weasel populations directly through trapping and indirectly through snow tracking. Predation by these vole specialists was irrelevant as a limiting factor most of the time because voles in this area do not reach the densities needed to sustain weasel populations. Other boreal forest mammal and bird predators did not focus on red-backed voles. However, when red-backed vole populations increased in the forest and Microtus voles also increased in the meadows, weasel populations increased and may have temporarily depressed red-backed voles in winter. 4. We monitored one major potential food, white spruce seeds, but seed fall was not related to population changes in red-backed voles, even after mast years. 5. We assessed the impact of weather variables, and the average depth of the snow pack during winter (October-March) was correlated directly with vole demography, having both direct effects in that year and delayed effects in the following year. 6. Our long-term trapping data (1973-96) indicate that Clethrionomys populations fluctuated, with peaks following hare peaks by 2-3 years. 7. We propose that the key variable limiting these vole populations is overwinter survival, and this is a function of overwinter food from berries produced during the previous summer by dwarf shrubs. These shrubs may be stimulated by abundant moisture from winter snows or by periodic fertilization from large quantities of pellets produced at snowshoe hare peaks. PMID:17032359

Boonstra, Rudy; Krebs, Charles J

2006-11-01

148

Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.  

PubMed

Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected with lower contribution of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the contamination of inland water fish. PMID:23336927

Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

2013-04-01

149

New records of mosquito species in the provinces of Chaco and Formosa, Argentina.  

PubMed

Seven mosquito species are recorded for the 1st time for northeastern Argentina: Culex (Melanoconion) albinensis, Cx. (Mel.) elevator, Cx. (Mel.) intrincatus, and Cx. (Mel.) serratimarge for Formosa Province, and Sabethes (Peytonulus) undosus, Sa. (Sabethinus) melanoninphe, and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) theobaldi for Chaco Province. The geographical distribution of these species is extended to northeastern Argentina, and the number of species increases to 97 and 75 for the provinces of Chaco and Formosa, respectively. PMID:23393753

Stein, Marina; Hoyos, Carlos B; Oria, Griselda I; Bangher, Débora; Weinberg, Diego; Almirón, Walter R

2012-12-01

150

A Survey of the Mosquito Fauna in Palawan, Mindanao and North Luzon, Republic of the Philippines 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the approximately 300 mosquito species known from the Philippines, 132 species belonging to 15 genera were identified from about 5,000 larval and adult specimens collected from the Philippines in 1981-82. Five species are reported from the Philippines for the first time: hmigeres pectinatus (Edwards), CuZex pez-@exus Leicester, Topomyia auriceps Brug, Toxorhynchites kempi (Edwards) and TX. Zeicesteri Theobald. In addition,

Ichiro Miyagi; Takako Toma; Masuhisa Tsukamoto; Motoyoshi Magi; Masahiro Horio; Benjamin D. Cabrera; Delfin G. Rivera

151

Pathogenicity Tests on Nine Mosquito Species and Several Non-target Organisms with Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nemata Mermithidae)  

PubMed Central

Nine species of mosquitoes and several species of non-target aquatic organisms were tested for susceptibility to the mernaithid nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus. All species of Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, and Toxorhynchites exposed to S. spiculatus were susceptible. Of the nine mosquito species tested, C. pipiens quinquefasciatus had the greatest tolerance to initial invasion and the highest percent infection of those that survived. High levels of infection were also achieved with Aedes taeniorhynchus and A. albopictus, but these mosquitoes were significantly less tolerant to parasitism than C. pipiens quinquefasciatus. Strelkovimermis spiculatus did not infect or develop in any of the non-target hosts tested. PMID:19274233

Becnel, James J.; Johnson, Margaret A.

1998-01-01

152

Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

2007-01-01

153

Survey of new mosquito species of Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

A study on mosquitoes in parts of Meghalaya revealed the presence of 64 species of mosquitoes under 10 genera. In monsoon (June to October) and post-monsoon (November to May) survey, 42 and 48 species of mosquitoes were detected, respectivily. Higher species diversity was found at lower elevations (up to 1050 m). Anopheles peditaeniatus, An. sinensis, Aedes vexans, Ae. nigrostriatus, Ae. annandalei, Culex. fuscocephala, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. murrelli, Cx. brevipalpis, Coquillettidia novochracea, Lutzia halifaxii, Malaya genurostris, Ml. jacobsoni, Tripteroides aranoides, Toxorhynchites minimus, Uranotaenia campestris, Ur. edwardsi and Ur. testaceae which were never reported earlier from Meghalaya state were detected in the present study and the findings were discussed with previously published reports from the state. PMID:24620578

Khan, S A; Dutta, P; Borah, J; Mahanta, J

2013-03-01

154

Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: II. Diptera  

SciTech Connect

The radiosensitivity of five dipteran cell lines representing three mosquito genera and one fruit fly genus were examined. These lines are: (1) ATC-10, Aedes aegypti; (2) RU-TAE-14, Toxorhynchites amboinensis; (3) RU-ASE-2A, Anopheles stephensi; (4) WR69-DM-1, Drosophila melanogaster; and (5) WR69-DM-2, Drosophila melanogaster. Population doubling times for these lines range from approximately 16 to 48 hr. Diploid chromosome numbers are six for the mosquito cells and eight for the fruit fly cells D/sub 0/ values are 5.1 and 6.5 Gy for the Drosophila cell lines and 3.6, 6.2, and 10.2 Gy for the mosquito cell lines. The results of this study demonstrate that dipteran insect cells are a few times more resistant to radiation than mammalian cells, but not nearly as radioresistant as lepidopteran cells.

Koval, T.M.

1983-10-01

155

Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 5--Chorao, Goa, and Vikhroli, Maharashtra.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes of 14 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 9 genera were recorded in Chorao mangroves of Goa, and 12 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 7 genera in the mangroves of Vikhroli, Maharashtra, in India. Genera recorded were Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, Toxorhynchites, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina. Species common to both the mangroves were Ae. albopictus, Ae. novalbopictus, An. subpictus, Cx. sitiens, Oc. wardi, Ur. atra, and Ve. lugubris. Tree holes, crab holes, and swamp pools were the common larval habitats in Chorao, but tree holes were absent in Vikhroli. Adults of Ae. albopictus, Ae. novalbopictus, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. gelidus Cx. sitiens, Ma. indiana, Ur. atra, and Ve. lugubris were found landing on humans. Aedes novalbopictus, Oc. wardi, and Or. anopheloides are new records for the state of Goa. PMID:17847838

Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K; Soniya, V P

2007-06-01

156

Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

2011-11-01

157

Ion regulatory patterns of mosquito larvae collected from breeding sites in the Amazon rain forest.  

PubMed

We examined the ion composition of mosquito breeding sites located in the Amazon rain forest and the ion regulatory patterns of larvae from these habitats. We found larvae of Toxorhynchites haemorroidalis, Limatus durhamii, Culex (Carrollia) bonnei, and Culex (Culex) sp. residing in fallen palm bracts, leaves, and tree holes that were filled with water. These breeding sites had micromolar levels of Na(+) (1.6-99 micromol L(-1)), but K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were higher and varied over a large range (231-17,615 micromol L(-1) K(+); 355-2,700 micromol L(-1) Cl(-)). Despite the variability in environmental ion levels and ratios, all four species maintain high hemolymph NaCl levels (80-120 mmol L(-1) Na(+); 60-80 mmol L(-1) Cl(-)). However, the species differed in the means by which they maintain hemolymph ion balance, as indicated by the range of unidirectional Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake rates. Toxorhynchites haemorroidalis had extremely low rates of Na(+) uptake and undetectable Cl(-) uptake, whereas L. durhamii had high rates of uptake for both ions. This variability in rates of uptake may reflect species differences in rates of diffusive ion loss (i.e., permeability). We observed the same curious pattern of Na(+) inhibition and Cl(-) stimulation by low-pH exposure in all four species of mosquitoes, as has been documented in other mosquitoes and aquatic insects. Kinetic analyses of Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake in C. bonnei larvae revealed an unusual pattern of Na(+) uptake that increases linearly (nonsaturable) to extremely high rates, while Cl(-) uptake is a low-affinity, low-capacity system. This pattern contrasts with L. durhamii and Culex (Culex) sp. larvae, which had large increases in both Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake when external NaCl levels were increased. Our results suggest that although these rain forest mosquito larvae are residing in habitats with similar low Na(+), high Cl(-) composition and maintain similar hemolymph NaCl levels, the underlying mechanisms of ion regulation differ among the species. PMID:12177825

Patrick, Marjorie L; Ferreira, Ruth L; Gonzalez, Richard J; Wood, Chris M; Wilson, Rod W; Bradley, Timothy J; Val, Adalberto L

2002-01-01

158

Screening of ten plant species for metaphase chromosome preparation in adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) using an inoculation technique.  

PubMed

The screening of 10 plant species (Aloe barbadensis Mill., Asparagus officinalis L., As. plumosus Bak., As. racemosus Willd., As. sprengeri Regel, Codyline fruticosa Goppert, Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Gloriosa superba L., Hemerocallis flava L., and Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer) for colchicine-like substance(s) using a mosquito cytogenetic assay revealed that a 1% solution of dried Gl. superba rhizome extracted in 0.85% sodium chloride solution could be used instead of a 1% colchicine in Hanks' balanced salt solution. The metaphase rates and average number of metaphase chromosomes per positive mosquito of Aedes aegypti (L.) after intrathoracic inoculation with 1% Gl. superba-extracted solution were 100% and 29.80 in females, and 90% and 25.78 in males, whereas the inoculation with 1% colchicine solution yielded 100 and 90% metaphase rates, and 20.90 and 12.22 average number of metaphase chromosomes per positive mosquito in females and males, respectively. The application of Gl. superba-extracted solution for metaphase chromosome preparation in other mosquito genera and species [e.g., Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann), and Anopheles vagus (Döenitz)] also has yielded the satisfactory results. PMID:10593098

Jitpakdi, A; Choochote, W; Insun, D; Tippawangkosol, P; Keha, P; Pitasawat, B

1999-11-01

159

UNIVERSAL PRIMERS FOR THE AMPLIFICATION AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF ACTIN-1 FROM DIVERSE MOSQUITO SPECIES  

PubMed Central

We report the development of universal primers for the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and nucleotide sequence analysis of actin cDNAs from taxonomically diverse mosquito species. Primers specific to conserved regions of the invertebrate actin-1 gene were designed after actin cDNA sequences of Anopheles gambiae, Bombyx mori, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans. The efficacy of these primers was determined by RT-PCR with the use of total RNA from mosquitoes belonging to 30 species and 8 genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Deinocerites, Mansonia, Psorophora, Toxorhynchites, and Wyeomyia). The RT-PCR products were sequenced, and sequence data were used to design additional primers. One primer pair, denoted as Act-2F (5?-ATGGTCGGYATGGGNCAGAAGGACTC-3?) and Act-8R (5?-GATTCCATACCCAGGAAG-GADGG-3?), successfully amplified an RT-PCR product of the expected size (683-nt) in all mosquito spp. tested. We propose that this primer pair can be used as an internal control to test the quality of RNA from mosquitoes collected in vector surveillance studies. These primers can also be used in molecular experiments in which the detection, amplification or silencing of a ubiquitously expressed mosquito housekeeping gene is necessary. Sequence and phylogenetic data are also presented in this report. PMID:20649132

STALEY, MOLLY; DORMAN, KARIN S.; BARTHOLOMAY, LYRIC C.; FERNÁNDEZ-SALAS, ILDEFONSO; FARFAN-ALE, JOSE A.; LOROŃO-PINO, MARIA A.; GARCIA-REJON, JULIAN E.; IBARRA-JUAREZ, LUIS

2010-01-01

160

Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary relationships among mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from the northeastern United States based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequences.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships of Culicidae native to the northeastern United States were investigated by analyzing small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequences obtained from 39 species representing nine genera. Molecular phylogenies were consistent with traditional classifications based on morphological characters except for the placements of Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy and Uranotaenia Lynch Arribalzaga. In our analyses, 1) Anopheles Meigen was strongly supported as the sister taxon to the remaining Culicidae; 2) Toxorhynchites Theobald was represented as a distinct monophyletic sister group to the Culicinae; 3) Psorophora formed a basal clade to Culiseta Felt, Coquillettidia Dyar, and Culex L. but also was shown as a sister taxon to Aedes Meigen and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga; 4) Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) seems to be a sister group to Culiseta; 5) placement of Uranotaenia was inconclusive and seemed to be either a sister group to the Aedes and Ochlerotatus or a basal taxon to all other culicines; and 6) Aedes and Ochlerotatus formed two separate and distinct clades, providing phylogenetic data consistent with the recent elevation of Ochlerotatus to the generic level as proposed by Reinert (2000). The utility of 18S rDNA for evaluating phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships among mosquito taxa was demonstrated at the genus and species levels. To our knowledge, this study represents the first molecular-based phylogenetic study of mosquito species occurring within this geographic region of North America and contains the largest number of species that have been examined among the genera Aedes and Ochlerotatus. PMID:16739399

Shepard, John J; Andreadis, Theodore G; Vossbrinck, Charles R

2006-05-01

161

Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100×100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. PMID:20073347

Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E.; Avendańo, Adrián; Beier, John C.

2010-01-01

162

Seasonal prevalence and container preferences of Aedes albopictus in Santo Domingo City, Dominican Republic.  

PubMed

The seasonal prevalence and container preferences of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were studied in the park, Parque Mirador del Norte in Santo Domingo City, Dominican Republic, from January to December 1994. Tire ovitraps were set along a transect through the park and monitored weekly while two larval surveys were conducted in both the park and surrounding houses using standard entomological methodology. No seasonal pattern of oviposition was observed with similar numbers of positive tire traps collected in the wet and dry season. Most of the positive ovitraps were located in the middle of the park. Within ovitraps, Aedes aegypti (L.), Ae. albopictus, Culex corniger (Theobald), Ochlerotatus albonotatus (Coquillett), and Toxorhynchites sp. were collected. The larval surveys found 7 associated mosquito species, including Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ochleotatus mediovittatus (Coquillett), Anopheles albimanus (Weidemann), Culex nigripalpus (Theobald), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The Ae. albopictus breeding sites were plastic buckets (4), rock holes (3), and Styrofoam lunch containers (3). We suggest that further studies should be conducted to determine its geographic distribution and vector potential in the Dominican Republic. PMID:14714670

Pena, Carlos J; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Chadee, Dave D

2003-12-01

163

Mathematical modelling of the active hearing process in mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Insects have evolved diverse and delicate morphological structures in order to capture the inherently low energy of a propagating sound wave. In mosquitoes, the capture of acoustic energy and its transduction into neuronal signals are assisted by the active mechanical participation of the scolopidia. We propose a simple microscopic mechanistic model of the active amplification in the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments: spontaneous oscillations, nonlinear amplification, hysteresis, 2 : 1 resonances, frequency response and gain loss owing to hypoxia. The numerical simulations presented here also generate new hypotheses. In particular, the model seems to indicate that scolopidia located towards the tip of Johnston's organ are responsible for the entrainment of the other scolopidia and that they give the largest contribution to the mechanical amplification. PMID:19447819

Avitabile, D.; Homer, M.; Champneys, A. R.; Jackson, J. C.; Robert, D.

2010-01-01

164

Classification of immature mosquito species according to characteristics of the larval habitat in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina.  

PubMed

To classify mosquito species based on common features of their habitats, samples were obtained fortnightly between June 2001-October 2003 in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina. Data on the type of larval habitat, nature of the habitat (artificial or natural), size, depth, location related to sunlight, distance to the neighbouring houses, type of substrate, organic material, vegetation and algae type and their presence were collected. Data on the permanence, temperature, pH, turbidity, colour, odour and movement of the larval habitat's water were also collected. From the cluster analysis, three groups of species associated by their degree of habitat similarity were obtained and are listed below. Group 1 consisted of Aedes aegypti. Group 2 consisted of Culex imitator, Culex davisi, Wyeomyia muehlensi and Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis separatus. Within group 3, two subgroups are distinguished: A (Psorophora ferox, Psorophora cyanescens, Psorophora varinervis, Psorophora confinnis, Psorophora cingulata, Ochlerotatus hastatus-oligopistus, Ochlerotatus serratus, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Culex intrincatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pilosus, Ochlerotatus albifasciatus, Culex bidens) and B (Culex maxi, Culex eduardoi, Culex chidesteri, Uranotaenia lowii, Uranotaenia pulcherrima, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles albitarsis, Uranotaenia apicalis, Mansonia humeralis and Aedeomyia squamipennis). Principal component analysis indicates that the size of the larval habitats and the presence of aquatic vegetation are the main characteristics that explain the variation among different species. In contrast, water permanence is second in importance. Water temperature, pH and the type of larval habitat are less important in explaining the clustering of species. PMID:21739026

Stein, Marina; Ludueńa-Almeida, Francisco; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

2011-06-01

165

Mathematical modelling of the active hearing process in mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Insects have evolved diverse and delicate morphological structures in order to capture the inherently low energy of a propagating sound wave. In mosquitoes, the capture of acoustic energy and its transduction into neuronal signals are assisted by the active mechanical participation of the scolopidia. We propose a simple microscopic mechanistic model of the active amplification in the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments: spontaneous oscillations, nonlinear amplification, hysteresis, 2 : 1 resonances, frequency response and gain loss owing to hypoxia. The numerical simulations presented here also generate new hypotheses. In particular, the model seems to indicate that scolopidia located towards the tip of Johnston's organ are responsible for the entrainment of the other scolopidia and that they give the largest contribution to the mechanical amplification. PMID:19447819

Avitabile, D; Homer, M; Champneys, A R; Jackson, J C; Robert, D

2010-01-01

166

Permethrin resistance in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and associated fitness costs.  

PubMed

Insecticide resistance has become a serious issue in vector management programs. Information on insecticidal resistance and its associated mechanisms is important for successful insecticide resistance management. The selection of a colony of permethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), originating from Penang Island, Malaysia, yielded high larval-specific resistance to permethrin and cross-resistance to deltamethrin. Synergism assays showed that the major mechanism underlying this resistance involves cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The resistance is autosomal, polygenically inherited and incompletely dominant (D = 0.26). Resistant larvae were reared under different conditions to assess the fitness costs. Under high larval density, larval development time of the resistant SGI strain was significantly longer than the susceptible VCRU strain. In both high- and low-density conditions SGI showed a lower rate of emergence and survival compared with the VCRU strain. Resistant larvae were more susceptible to predation by Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The body size of SGI females reared under high-density conditions was larger compared with females of the susceptible strain. SGI females survived longer when starved than did VCRU females. The energy reserve upon eclosion was positively correlated with the size of the adults. PMID:23540125

Chan, Hiang Hao; Zairi, Jaal

2013-03-01

167

An appraisal of some recent diagnostic assays for Japanese encephalitis.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken in South Arcot district of Tamil Nadu, India to assess relative merits of selected diagnostic techniques for Japanese encephalitis. During the transmission seasons of 1993-1995, a total of 85 patients (mostly pediatric) clinically diagnosed as acute encephalitis or other related central nervous system (CNS) disorders were examined; in 53 (62.4%) a laboratory diagnosis of JE was established. In terms of diagnostic value, immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture ELISA (MAC ELISA) on convalescent serum had the highest sensitivity (89%) and negative predictive value (NPV) (50%). This was followed by MAC ELISA on acute serum and CSF which had similar sensitivity (84%) and NPV (40%). The hemagglutination inhibition test and Toxorhynchites splendens inoculation technique for virus isolation were also similar in sensitivity (68%) and NPV (25%). The virus antigen detection technique by IFA in cells of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the least sensitive (58%). The distinct advantage of the acute serum ELISA is that it can be carried out on a single finger-prick blood specimen. The IFA on CSF cells is the most rapid diagnostic test since it requires only 2-3 hours to complete. Therefore, both these tests also offer potential tools for JE surveillance programs. PMID:9253865

Gajanana, A; Samuel, P P; Thenmozhi, V; Rajendran, R

1996-12-01

168

Comparative sensitivity of three mosquito cell lines for isolation of dengue viruses*  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies were carried out on three mosquito cell lines (C6/36 clone of Aedes albopictus, AP-61 from A. pseudoscutellaris, and TRA-284 from Toxorhynchites amboinensis) to determine their sensitivity to dengue virus isolation, growth, and handling characteristics for immunofluorescent testing. Virus isolation rates from human sera were the highest in the TRA-284-SF (a line adapted to serum-free medium), followed by the TRA-284 parental line and AP-61. Virus isolation was the lowest in the C6/36 line. All 3 cell lines were comparable in terms of ease of handling, but C6/36 cells were preferable for detecting infected cells by the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) because of frequent cell clumping in the AP-61 and TRA-284 lines. Early detection of viral antigen of all 4 serotypes in the infected cells by DFAT was dependent upon the virus titre in the serum. The AP-61 and TRA-284-SF cells were the best for early detection and identification of viral antigen. Similarly, both AP-61 and TRA-284 cells were more resistant than C6/36 cells to toxic effects of human sera. Based on the economy of using the serum-free medium, their higher sensitivity for dengue virus isolation, and their ease of handling, it is recommended that the TRA-284-SF cell line be used for routine dengue virus isolation in laboratories with cell culture capability. PMID:2861916

Kuno, G.; Gubler, D. J.; Vélez, M.; Oliver, A.

1985-01-01

169

Japanese encephalitis in south Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, India: a three-year longitudinal study of vector abundance and infection frequency.  

PubMed

In the South Arcot district, an area endemic for Japanese encephalitis in Tamil Nadu, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culex vishnui Theobald, Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex fuscocephala Theobald constituted 93.6% of 422,621 adult females representing 27 culicine species collected between August 1991 and July 1994. Vector abundance was lowest in the hot and dry season (April-June) and highest in the cool and wet season (October-December). Overall, 285,531 adult female mosquitoes (5,710 pools) were tested for virus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or by inoculation into larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann and identification by immunofluorescent test using JE virus specific monoclonal antibody or by both. In total, 91 isolations were made, of which 80 (88%) were identified as JE virus; 58 isolations were from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 22 from Cx. vishnui, 6 from Cx. fuscocephala and 5 from Cx. gelidus, giving similar minimum infection rates (MIR) of 0.28, 0.41, 0.39, and 0.52, respectively. Vector abundance and MIR increased from July concurrently with the initiation of rice cultivation. MIR peaked in September followed by a decrease in October, but mosquitoes remained abundant until March. The decrease in MIR from October onward coincided with rising herd immunity in pigs. Although MIRs in October (0.47) and November (0.42) were lower than in September (0.92), a comparable high risk of infection for humans continued because of high vector abundance and human biting rates. In the South Arcot district, the probability of a child receiving an infective bite was 0.53 per JE transmission season. PMID:9439119

Gajanana, A; Rajendran, R; Samuel, P P; Thenmozhi, V; Tsai, T F; Kimura-Kuroda, J; Reuben, R

1997-11-01

170

Mosquito vitellogenin genes: Comparative sequence analysis, gene duplication, and the role of rare synonymous codon usage in regulating expression.  

PubMed

Comparative sequence analysis of mosquito vitellogenin (Vg) genes was carried out to gain a better understanding of their evolution. The genomic clones of vitellogenin genes were isolated and sequenced from all three subfamilies of the family Culicidae including Culicinae (Aedes aegypti, Ochlerotatus atropalpus, Ae. polynesiensis, Ae. albopictus, Ochlerotatus triseriatus and Culex quinquefasciatus), Toxorhynchitinae (Toxorhynchites amboinensis), and Anophelinae (Anopheles albimanus). Genomic clones of vitellogenin genes Vg-B and Vg-C were isolated from Ae. aegypti and sequenced. A comparison of Vg-B and Vg-C, with the previously characterized vitellogenin gene, Vg-A1, suggests that Vg-A1 and Vg-B probably arose by a recent gene duplication, and Vg-C apparently diverged from the two other members of the gene family in an earlier gene duplication event. Two vitellogenin genes orthologous to Vg-C were cloned from a Cx. quinquefasciatus DNA library, one of which is truncated at the N-terminal end. Single vitellogenin genes, orthologous to Vg-C, were cloned from the An. albimanus and Tx. amboinensis libraries. Incomplete sequences orthologous to Vg-B and Vg-C were isolated from the Oc. atropalpus library. Only partial sequences were isolated from Ae. polynesiensis, Ae. albopictus and Oc. triseriatus. Inferred phylogenetic relationships based on analysis of these sequences suggest that Vg-C was the ancestral gene and that a recent gene duplication gave rise to Vg-A1 and Vg-B after the separation of the genus Aedes. The deduced amino acid composition of mosquito vitellogenin proteins exhibits higher tyrosine and phenylalanine composition than other mosquito proteins except for the hexamerin storage proteins. Analysis of vitellogenin coding sequences showed that a majority of amino acid substitutions were due to conserved and moderately conserved changes suggesting that the vitellogenins are under moderately selective constrains to maintain tertiary structure. The vitellogenin genes of the three anautogenous mosquitoes, that require a blood meal to develop eggs, had very high synonymous codon usage biases similar to highly expressed genes of other organisms. On the other hand, the vitellogenin genes of autogenous mosquitoes, that develop at least one batch of eggs without a blood meal, exhibited low synonymous codon usage bias. An unusual pattern of synonymous codon usage was observed in the first 15 amino acid residues encoding the signal peptide in the vitellogenin genes, where a high number of rarely used synonymous codons are present. It is hypothesized that rare synonymous codons have selectively accumulated in the signal peptide region to down-regulate the rate of translation initiation in the absence of a blood meal. Real-time PCR gene expression experiments showed that all three Ae. aegypti vitellogenin genes were highly expressed after a blood meal, and expressed in non-blood-fed females, males, larvae and pupae at trace levels. Sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession numbers: Ae. aegypti Vg-B, AY380797, Vg-C, AY373377; Oc. atropalpus Vg-B, AY691321, Vg-C, AY691322; Ae. polynesiensis Vg-A1, AY691318, Vg-B, AY691319, Vg-C, AY691320; Ae. albopictus Vg-A1, AY691316, Vg-C, AY691317; Oc. triseriatus Vg-C, AY691323; Cx. quinquefasciatus Vg-C1, AY691324, Vg-C2, AY691325; Tx. amboinensis Vg-C, AY691326; An. albimanus Vg-C, AY691327). PMID:20337554

Isoe, Jun; Hagedorn, Henry H

2007-01-01

171

Mosquito Vitellogenin Genes: Comparative Sequence Analysis, Gene Duplication, and the Role of Rare Synonymous Codon Usage in Regulating Expression  

PubMed Central

Comparative sequence analysis of mosquito vitellogenin (Vg) genes was carried out to gain a better understanding of their evolution. The genomic clones of vitellogenin genes were isolated and sequenced from all three subfamilies of the family Culicidae including Culicinae (Aedes aegypti, Ochlerotatus atropalpus, Ae. polynesiensis, Ae. albopictus, Ochlerotatus triseriatus and Culex quinquefasciatus), Toxorhynchitinae (Toxorhynchites amboinensis), and Anophelinae (Anopheles albimanus). Genomic clones of vitellogenin genes Vg-B and Vg-C were isolated from Ae. aegypti and sequenced. A comparison of Vg-B and Vg-C, with the previously characterized vitellogenin gene, Vg-A1, suggests that Vg-A1 and Vg-B probably arose by a recent gene duplication, and Vg-C apparently diverged from the two other members of the gene family in an earlier gene duplication event. Two vitellogenin genes orthologous to Vg-C were cloned from a Cx. quinquefasciatus DNA library, one of which is truncated at the N-terminal end. Single vitellogenin genes, orthologous to Vg-C, were cloned from the An. albimanus and Tx. amboinensis libraries. Incomplete sequences orthologous to Vg-B and Vg-C were isolated from the Oc. atropalpus library. Only partial sequences were isolated from Ae. polynesiensis, Ae. albopictus and Oc. triseriatus. Inferred phylogenetic relationships based on analysis of these sequences suggest that Vg-C was the ancestral gene and that a recent gene duplication gave rise to Vg-A1 and Vg-B after the separation of the genus Aedes. The deduced amino acid composition of mosquito vitellogenin proteins exhibits higher tyrosine and phenylalanine composition than other mosquito proteins except for the hexamerin storage proteins. Analysis of vitellogenin coding sequences showed that a majority of amino acid substitutions were due to conserved and moderately conserved changes suggesting that the vitellogenins are under moderately selective constrains to maintain tertiary structure. The vitellogenin genes of the three anautogenous mosquitoes, that require a blood meal to develop eggs, had very high synonymous codon usage biases similar to highly expressed genes of other organisms. On the other hand, the vitellogenin genes of autogenous mosquitoes, that develop at least one batch of eggs without a blood meal, exhibited low synonymous codon usage bias. An unusual pattern of synonymous codon usage was observed in the first 15 amino acid residues encoding the signal peptide in the vitellogenin genes, where a high number of rarely used synonymous codons are present. It is hypothesized that rare synonymous codons have selectively accumulated in the signal peptide region to down-regulate the rate of translation initiation in the absence of a blood meal. Real-time PCR gene expression experiments showed that all three Ae. aegypti vitellogenin genes were highly expressed after a blood meal, and expressed in non-blood-fed females, males, larvae and pupae at trace levels. Sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession numbers: Ae. aegypti Vg-B, AY380797, Vg-C, AY373377; Oc. atropalpus Vg-B, AY691321, Vg-C, AY691322; Ae. polynesiensis Vg-A1, AY691318, Vg-B, AY691319, Vg-C, AY691320; Ae. albopictus Vg-A1, AY691316, Vg-C, AY691317; Oc. triseriatus Vg-C, AY691323; Cx. quinquefasciatus Vg-C1, AY691324, Vg-C2, AY691325; Tx. amboinensis Vg-C, AY691326; An. albimanus Vg-C, AY691327). PMID:20337554

Isoe, Jun; Hagedorn, Henry H.

2007-01-01