Sample records for toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus

  1. Experimental demonstration of a behavioural modification in a cyprinid fish, Rutilus rutilus (L.),

    E-print Network

    al. 1992), or direct movement toward the microhabitats of foraging predators (e.g., Helluy 1984Experimental demonstration of a behavioural modification in a cyprinid fish, Rutilus rutilus (L Thomas, and Jean-François Guégan Abstract: Behavioural changes in parasitized hosts have been

  2. Growth rate during early life affects sexual differentiation in roach ( Rutilus rutilus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C. Paull; Amy L. Filby; Charles R. Tyler

    2009-01-01

    Many environmental factors have been shown to influence sex differentiation in fish, resulting in sex-biased populations,\\u000a but the effects of growth rate have received limited attention. We conducted a controlled laboratory experiment in which growth\\u000a rate and population density were manipulated in roach (Rutilus rutilus) during early development, and the subsequent effects on sex ratio determined. Significant differences in growth

  3. Gyrodactylus sommervillae n. sp. (Monogenea) from Abramis brama (L.) and Rutilus rutilus (L.) (Cyprinidae) in Oxfordshire, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emine Turgut; Andrew P. Shinn; Rodney Wootten; William E. Yeomans

    1999-01-01

    Gyrodactylus sommervillae n. sp. (Monogenea) is described from the skin, fins and gills of Abramis brama (L.) and Rutilus rutilus (L.) from Blenheim Palace Lake, Oxfordshire, UK. G. sommervillae n. sp. closely resembles G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, G. kearni Ergens, 1990 and G. lamberti Ergens, 1990 in the approximate shape of the marginal hook sickle and the anchors, but can

  4. Evidence of altered fertility in female roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Seine (France).

    PubMed

    Gerbron, M; Geraudie, P; Fernandes, D; Rotchell, J M; Porte, C; Minier, C

    2014-08-01

    A large variety of anthropogenic chemicals present in the aquatic environment have been shown to be able to alter the endocrine system of exposed organisms, potentially impacting their reproductive function. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of environmental pollution on the reproductive system of wild female roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the Seine River (Normandy, France). A suite of biomarkers of endocrine disruption including gonado-somatic index, plasmatic vitellogenin, gonadal aromatase activity and histological parameters (oocyte diameter and gonad maturation) were studied. Female fish from the polluted sites showed a number of reproductive alterations, including inhibited gonad maturation, reduced oocyte growth, reduced levels of plasmatic vitellogenin and 3-fold lower gonadal aromatase activity than females collected in the reference site. Overall, these results highlight the presence of endocrine disruption in female roach from the Seine River. PMID:24811946

  5. Dietary galactooligosaccharide affects intestinal microbiota, stress resistance, and performance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khalili, Mohsen; Rostami, Hosseinali Khoshbavar; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of galactooligosaccharide (GOS), on the growth performance, stress resistance and intestinal microbiota of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry. Specimens (1.36 ± 0.03 g) were fed either a basal control diet (0% GOS, non-supplemented) or the basal diet supplemented with 1% and 2% of GOS. After 7 weeks of the feeding trials, growth factors (final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, condition factor and food conversion ratio) as well as body composition, resistance to salinity stress and autochthonous intestinal microbiota were assessed. Results demonstrated that at the end of the trial growth factors (final weight, weight gain, SGR, FCR) were significantly higher in 2% GOS fed fish (P < 0.05). In addition, supplementation of GOS significantly increased both survival rate (P < 0.05), and resistance to a salinity stress challenge of prebiotic fed groups (P < 0.05). However, body composition and the total autochthonous intestinal heterotrophic bacteria counts remained unaffected in different treatments (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, autochthonous lactic acid bacteria levels were significantly elevated in fish fed 2% dietary GOS (P < 0.05). These results confirm that GOS improves growth performance, stress resistance and modulates intestinal microbiota by increasing lactic acid bacteria of Caspian roach fry, a very important fish species in the Caspian Sea. PMID:23973845

  6. Molecular systematics, phylogeny and biogeography of roaches (Rutilus, Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Ketmaier, V; Bianco, P G; Durand, J-D

    2008-10-01

    In this study we used sequence data from the entire mtDNA cytochrome b gene to reconstruct patterns and times of diversification in the roach genus Rutilus. The genus is present with numerous endemic species in the Eastern peri-Mediterranean area and with a few widespread species in Central Europe. Our phylogenetic results do not support the subdivision into two subgenera proposed on morphological grounds. Within R. pigus and R. rutilus we identify highly divergent and allopatric mitochondrial lineages. The deeper splits in the genus phylogeny date back to the middle Miocene; the main diversification took place at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. PMID:18692146

  7. The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).

    PubMed

    Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone ?-subunit (lh?) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (fsh?) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fsh? in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ?31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

  8. Infrasound initiates directional fast-start escape responses in juvenile roach Rutilus rutilus.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Hans E; Piddington, Robert W; Enger, Per S; Sand, Olav

    2004-11-01

    Acoustic stimuli within the sonic range are effective triggers of C-type escape behaviours in fish. We have previously shown that fish have an acute sensitivity to infrasound also, with acceleration thresholds in the range of 10(-5) m s(-2). In addition, infrasound at high intensities around 10(-2) m s(-2) elicits strong and sustained avoidance responses in several fish species. In the present study, the possible triggering of C-escapes by infrasonic single-cycle vibrations was examined in juvenile roach Rutilus rutilus. The fish were accelerated in a controlled and quantifiable manner using a swing system. The applied stimuli simulated essential components of the accelerations that a small fish would encounter in the hydrodynamic flow field produced by a predatory fish. Typical C- and S-type escape responses were induced by accelerations within the infrasonic range with a threshold of 0.023 m s(-2) for an initial acceleration at 6.7 Hz. Response trajectories were on average in the same direction as the initial acceleration. Unexpectedly, startle behaviours mainly occurred in the trailing half of the test chamber, in which the fish were subjected to linear acceleration in combination with compression, i.e. the expected stimuli produced by an approaching predator. Very few responses were observed in the leading half of the test chamber, where the fish were subjected to acceleration and rarefaction, i.e. the stimuli expected from a suction type of predator. We conclude that particle acceleration is essential for the directionality of the startle response to infrasound, and that the response is triggered by the synergistic effects of acceleration and compression. PMID:15531639

  9. Trophic effects of rainfall on Clethrionomys rutilus voles: an experimental test in a xeric boreal forest

    E-print Network

    Krebs, Charles J.

    Trophic effects of rainfall on Clethrionomys rutilus voles: an experimental test in a xeric boreal of the boreal red-backed vole Clethrionomys rutilus are known to be food-limited in the Kluane region, and its that rainfall indirectly controlled vole densities in the Kluane region. Our predictions were that (i) food

  10. A new chromene from the fruiting bodies of Chroogomphus rutilus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Zhang, Changhao; Zhu, Heming; Jin, Xuehua; Cao, Shuo; Jin, Mei; Jiang, Zhe; Zheng, Mingshan; Li, Gao

    2015-01-01

    A new chromene, acetic acid 2R-(4,8-dimethylnona-3,7-dienyl)-8-hydroxy-2-methyl-2H-chromen-6-yl ester (1), was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Chroogomphus rutilus, together with six known compounds (2-7). The structures of these compounds were identified based on 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC and HMBC spectroscopic methods. Of these seven compounds, 2 and 3 showed cytotoxicity against HSC-T6, SK-Hep1 and A549 cell lines. PMID:25421438

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies of the endocrine disrupting potency of cadmium in roach (Rutilus rutilus) liver.

    PubMed

    Gerbron, M; Geraudie, P; Xuereb, B; Marie, S; Minier, C

    2015-06-30

    Cadmium has been reported to exert estrogenic, antiestrogenic or both effects in vertebrate species. To elucidate the endocrine disrupting action of CdCl2, ex vivo and in vivo experiments were performed in roach (Rutilus rutilus). Roach liver explants were exposed to a range of CdCl2 concentrations alone (0.1-50?M) or with an effective concentration (100nM) of 17?-estradiol (E2). In addition, juvenile roach were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl2 (0.1-2.5mg/kg) with or without 1mg E2/kg. Subsequent analysis evaluated the effect of CdCl2 on vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis both at the mRNA and protein level, on estrogen receptors (er? and er?1) and on androgen receptor (ar) mRNA expression. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments indicated that CdCl2 is strongly anti-estrogenic as, when co-exposed to E2, CdCl2 significantly inhibited VTG production as well as vtg and er? mRNA expressions. Moreover, CdCl2 compromised the E2-mediated induction of the ar mRNA expression in vivo. PMID:26024563

  12. Effects of aluminium and bacterial lipopolysaccharide on oxidative stress and immune parameters in roach, Rutilus rutilus L.

    PubMed

    Jolly, S; Jaffal, A; Delahaut, L; Palluel, O; Porcher, J-M; Geffard, A; Sanchez, W; Betoulle, S

    2014-11-01

    Aluminium is used in diverse anthropogenic processes at the origin of pollution events in aquatic ecosystems. In the Champagne region (France), high concentrations of aluminium (Al) are detected due to vine-growing practices. In fish, little is known about the possible immune-related effects at relevant environmental concentrations. The present study analyzes the simultaneous effects of aluminium and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alone and in combination, on toxicological biomarkers in the freshwater fish species Rutilus rutilus. For this purpose, roach treated or not with LPS were exposed to environmental concentrations of aluminium (100 ?g/L) under laboratory-controlled conditions for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days. After each exposure time, we assessed hepatic lipoperoxidation, catalase activity, glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione content. We also analyzed cellular components related to the LPS-induced inflammatory response in possible target tissues, i.e. head kidney and spleen. Our results revealed a significant prooxidant effect in the liver cells and head kidney leukocytes of roach exposed to 100 ?g of Al/L for 2 days. In liver, we observed more lipoperoxidation products and lower endogenous antioxidant activity levels such as glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione content. These prooxidant effects were associated with a higher oxidative burst in head kidney leukocytes, and they were all the more important in fish stimulated by LPS injection. These findings demonstrate that environmental concentrations of Al induce oxidative and immunotoxic effects in fish and are associated to an immunomodulatory process related to the inflammatory response. PMID:24996940

  13. rutilus) diet among contrasting basins within a lake. Arch. Hy-drobiol. 1456: 239256.

    E-print Network

    McGlathery, Karen

    203Notes rutilus) diet among contrasting basins within a lake. Arch. Hy- drobiol. 1456: 239. Observations of deep convection in the Gulf of Lions, Northern Mediterranean, during the winter of 1991/92. J

  14. Impact of a short-term diazinon exposure on the osmoregulation potentiality of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Katuli, Kheyrollah Khosravi; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Massarsky, Andrey; Yelghi, Saeed; Ghasemzadeh, Javad

    2014-08-01

    The stocks of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus), an economically important species in the Caspian Sea, are depleting. Each year millions of artificially produced fingerlings of this species are restocked in the mouth of rivers of the Southern Caspian Sea (e.g. Qare Soo River), where they are exposed to pesticides originating from regional rice and orchard fields. This early exposure to pesticides could affect the hypo-osmoregulatory ability of juvenile fish. Thus, in this study, Caspian roach fingerlings were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations of the organophosphate insecticide diazinon for 96 h in fresh water and then transferred to diazinon-free brackish water (BW) for another 96 h. We report that cortisol and glucose levels were significantly increased in all diazinon treatments at all sampling time points in comparison to the control group. Moreover, the thyroid hormone levels of TSH, T4, and T3 significantly decreased in diazinon-exposed fish even after the transfer to BW. The electrolytes were differentially affected during the exposure to diazinon and after the transfer to BW. The number of chloride cells in the gill tissue was significantly increased during diazinon exposure at the higher concentrations and decreased to control levels after transfer to BW. Finally, gill and kidney tissues showed many histopathological changes in diazinon-exposed fish even after 240 h in BW. These results suggest that the release of Caspian roach fingerlings into the diazinon-contaminated Caspian Sea regions may alter their physiology and jeopardize their survival, which could lead to a failure in rebuilding the Caspian roach stocks in the Caspian Sea. PMID:24630256

  15. The effects of dietary vitamin C on mucosal immune responses and growth performance in Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry.

    PubMed

    Roosta, Zahra; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Ghorbani, Rasoul; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary vitamin C on some skin mucus immune parameters, mucus antimicrobial activity and growth performance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry. Six hundred sixty Caspian roach (1.4 ± 0.02 g) fry were allocated to 12 tanks (55 fish per tank), and triplicate groups were fed diets containing 0, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 mg kg(-1) vitamin C for 60 days. At the end of the trial, the epidermal mucus protein level, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity against two gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Micrococcus luteus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) as well as growth performance were measured. The results demonstrated that feeding on vitamin C significantly elevated skin mucus alkaline phosphatase and protein levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, lysozyme activity was undetectable in both the vitamin C-fed roach fry and the control group. Skin mucus antimicrobial activity was increased following vitamin C administration, and the bacterial growth inhibition zones were significantly elevated in vitamin C-fed roach (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained in case of the minimum inhibitory concentration of skin mucus. Also fish fed the control diet had a significantly lower weight gain, specific growth rate and condition factor compared to the other treatments (P < 0.05). These results revealed that dietary vitamin C beneficially affects the skin mucus immune parameters and growth performance of Caspian roach fry. PMID:24965492

  16. Plasma metabolites, ions and thyroid hormones levels, and hepatic enzymes? activity in Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) exposed to waterborne manganese.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hedayati, Aliakbar; Ghelichpour, Melika

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of waterborne manganese on plasma biochemical characteristics in fish, Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) was exposed to 0 (control), 60 (M60), 150 (M150) and 300 (M300) mg/L water manganese for 96h. Thereafter, plasma biochemical characteristics were studied. Plasma glucose level significantly increased in M60 and decreased in M150 and M300 groups, compared to the control. M300 had significantly lower hematocrit compared to the control. Albumin remained unchanged after manganese exposure, however, the manganese-exposed fish showed significant increase in plasma total protein levels. M150 and M300 showed significant increase in the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to the control and M60. M60 and M150 had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to the control. The manganese-exposed groups had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity compared to the control. M150 and M300 had aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity significantly higher than those of the control and M60. M300 had significantly higher triiodothyronine (T3) levels than the other groups. All manganese-exposed fish had significantly higher thyroxin (T4) levels than the control. The plasma levels of chloride showed a significant decrease in the manganese-exposed fish, compared to the control. M150 and M300 had significantly lower sodium levels, compared to the control. M60 and M150 had significantly lower plasma calcium levels compared to the other groups. It is concluded that clinical chemistry along with thyroid hormones levels can be the useful tools to monitor manganese toxicity in fish. The possible mechanisms involving in the biochemical changes were discussed. PMID:24905699

  17. Home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    A field study of home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus, was conducted in semi-arid bushland near Kibwezi, Kenya. Ground squirrels lived alone or in small groups in isolated burrow systems and had broadly overlapping home ranges. They were neither territorial or colonial. Home ranges were estimated by visual observation of marked animals and those of males were considerably larger (mean=7.01 hectares (ha); n=4) than those of females (mean=1.37 ha; n-6). A continuum of agonistic behavior ranging from threat to combat is described, although actual combat was rarely observed. Sexual behavior includes a stereotypical tail display by adult males. Dominance relationships, based on 542 observed encounters between marked individuals, include a consistent male dominance over females and a fairly constant linear hierarchy among all individuals with shared home ranges. Similarities in the behavior of African ground squirrels and tree squirrels (Sciurus) are discussed.

  18. Histopathological effects of atrazine on gills of Caspian kutum Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Khoshnood, Zahra; Jamili, Shahla; Khodabandeh, Saber

    2015-04-01

    The use of chemical pesticides has increased environmental pollution and affects fishes as non-target organisms. To investigate the toxic effects of the widely used herbicide atrazine on Caspian kutum Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings, fish were exposed to a sublethal concentration of half LC50 for 96 h. The main alterations visible in the gill tissue were detachment of the epithelium of the lamellae, necrosis, lamellar fusion, hyperplasia, club shaped lamellae, collapse of the lamellae, shrinkage and curling of the lamellae, and ultrastructural alterations such as necrosis of the apical microridges of the pavement cells. Results also showed that the gill ionocytes were fewer in number and larger in size in the atrazine-exposed fish. Atrazine appears to be highly toxic to Caspian kutum fingerlings even at a sublethal concentration (12.47 mg l-1) and acute exposure. This toxicity could affect gill respiration and ion regulation function of fingerlings by damaging tissue, pavement cells, and ionocytes. PMID:25850400

  19. Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus.

    PubMed

    Zamani, H; Ghasemi, M; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S

    2014-01-01

    Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) is a fish of the family Cyprinidae, which is commercially harvested from the Caspian Sea. Experimental infection with Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was conducted in order to examine susceptibility of caspian White Fish and clinical impacts of infection. Fingerling fish were injected intra-peritoneally or waterborne-exposed with SVCV and were monitored daily for 7 weeks. Dead fish and those survived at the end of experimental period were collected for virus isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line was used to re-isolate the virus and indirect fluorescent antibody test was conducted to identify the isolated virus. Infection trials showed that SVCV was highly pathogenic for the Caspian White Fish with mortality rate ranging from 75 to 85 %, depending on the viral challenge model. SVCV genome was detected from dead and apparently healthy fish tissues of both virus exposure models, which showed Caspian White Fish not only can be regarded as a susceptible host, but also serve as a vector of the virus. PMID:24426310

  20. Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

    2014-06-01

    Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population. PMID:24685241

  1. Hokkaido genotype of Puumala virus in the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus) and northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus) in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Yashina, Liudmila N; Abramov, Sergey A; Dupal, Tamara A; Danchinova, Galina A; Malyshev, Boris S; Hay, John; Gu, Se Hun; Yanagihara, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Three species of Myodes voles known to harbor hantaviruses include the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), which serves as the reservoir host of Puumala virus (PUUV), the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe, and the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus) and royal vole (Myodes regulus) which carry two PUUV-like hantaviruses, designated Hokkaido virus (HOKV) and Muju virus (MUJV), respectively. To ascertain the hantavirus harbored by the northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus), we initially screened sera from 233 M. rutilus, as well as from 90 M. rufocanus and 110 M. glareolus, captured in western and eastern Siberia during June 2007 to October 2009, for anti-hantaviral antibodies. Thereafter, lung tissues from 44 seropositive voles were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Partial L-, M- and S-segment sequences, detected in M. rutilus and M. rufocanus, were closely related to HOKV, differing from previously published L-, M- and S-segment sequences of HOKV by 17.8-20.2%, 15.9-23.4% and 15.0-17.0% at the nucleotide level and 2.6-7.9%, 1.3-6.3% and 1.2-4.0% at the amino acid level, respectively. Alignment and comparison of hantavirus sequences from M. glareolus trapped in Tyumen Oblast showed very high sequence similarity to the Omsk lineage of PUUV. Phylogenetic analysis, using neighbor-joining, maximal likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that HOKV strains shared a common ancestry with PUUV and exhibited geographic-specific clustering. This report provides the first molecular evidence that both M. rutilus and M. rufocanus harbor HOKV, which might represent a genetic variant of PUUV. PMID:26003760

  2. Effect of copper sulfate on the survival and growth performance of Caspian Sea kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum.

    PubMed

    Gharedaashi, Esmail; Nekoubin, Hamed; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Taghizadeh, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the LC50/96 h value of copper sulfate and determine the growth performance of Caspian Sea kutum) Rutilus frisii kutum (fingerlings during 60-days sub-lethal copper (Cu). After acclimation period to two weeks, for determine the LC50/96 h value, total of 27 aquarium with a capacity of 60 L each stocked with 10 fishes an aquarium. Tunney four aquarium and 8 concentrations of (Cu) composed the 24 treatments while 3 other aquaria were used as control. For each treatment, three replications were conducted. And experiment to determine the growth performance fish were transferred into fiberglass aquaria of 200 L water capacity for growth trials. The treated fish were kept in the aquarium containing sub-lethal concentrations of Cu (0.11 and 0.23 mg L(-1)) and affected to grow for 60 days, while control fish were placed in metal free water. The results indicated that median lethal concentrations (LC50) of copper to Caspian Sea kutum for 96 h exposure was 2.310 ppm. The chronic sub-lethal water-borne Cu exposure to the fish exerted that fish had significantly decreased final body weight in comparison to control group. The copper sulfate also had significant negative effects on specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in comparison to those fed the control group. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and condition factor (CF) were significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P?Rutilus frisii kutum). PMID:24133647

  3. Effect of a Probiotic Containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis and Ferroin Solution on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Haematological Parameters in Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) Fry.

    PubMed

    Azarin, Hajar; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza; Rajabpour, Mina

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of BioPlus 2B, a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis and Ferroin solution on growth performance, body composition and haematological parameters in kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, fry. The fish were fed dry pellets containing various ratios of probiotics and Ferroin for 60 days after absorption of the yolk sac. At the end of the trial, growth indices (final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, daily growth rate, food conversion ratio and condition factor), body composition (crude protein, crude lipid, ash and moisture) and haematological parameters [haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NEUTR), lymphocytes (LYM), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)] were assessed. Regarding body composition, total protein levels were higher, and ash, moisture and lipid levels were lower in fish receiving the probiotic and Ferroin treatments compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Fish receiving diets supplemented with probiotics and Ferroin solution showed significantly better growth than those fed the basal diet (control). RBC, Hct, Hb, MCV, MCH and LYM were all highest in fish fed probiotic (1.6 × 10(9) CFU/g dry pellet) + Ferroin solution (7 mg/kg dry pellet) + dry pellets. These results indicate that the combination of probiotic and Ferroin solution represents an effective dietary supplement for improving carcass quality, growth performance and haematological parameters in kutum fry. PMID:25431124

  4. The effects of dietary xylooligosaccharide on mucosal parameters, intestinal microbiota and morphology and growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Sharifian, Maryam; Vesaghi, Mohammad Javad; Khalili, Mohsen; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different levels of dietary xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on skin mucus bactericidal activity and protein content, intestinal microbiota and morphology as well as growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry. The specimens (1.54 ± 0.03 g) were fed experimental diets supplemented with different levels of XOS [0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3%] for 8 weeks. The results revealed that feeding on XOS significantly increased skin mucus antibacterial activity and protein levels (P < 0.05) and the highest levels were observed in 3% XOS treatment. The total autochthonous intestinal heterotrophic bacteria significantly increased following XOS administration in diet (P < 0.05). Administration of 2 or 3% XOS in fry diet significantly elevated the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (P < 0.05). However, dietary XOS had no significant effect on intestinal morphology, growth performance and diet utilisation of Caspian white fish fry (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate beneficial effects of dietary XOS on different parameters of mucosal immunity (both skin mucus and intestinal microbiota) and encourage further studies regards various aspect of XOS administration in early life stages of fish. PMID:24845518

  5. Effects of dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) on growth performance, chemical body composition and hematological and immune parameters of fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Abedian Amiri, Armin; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Nematolahi, Amin; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a very popular herb. While numerous effects have been described in mammals, its effects on fish have received so far limited attention. The effects of dietary administration of peppermint on fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases of growth parameters (WG and SGR), mucus skin (protein concentration, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity) and seric (lysozyme and IgM) and blood leucocyte respiratory burst activities and different hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, seric hemoglobin and hematocrit content) were recorded in fry fish fed supplemented diets. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leucocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was increased and decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Present results corroborate that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main hematological and immune humoral (both mucosal and systemic) parameters of fry Caspian white fish. This study may provide new applications of peppermint and, at the same time, promote rational development and utilization of peppermint resources. PMID:26067171

  6. The effects of exposure duration to optimal concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol on primary and secondary stress responses in kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    PubMed

    Javadi Moosavi, M; Salahi Ardekani, M M; Pirbeigi, A; Ghazi, S

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the anaesthetic induction and recovery time in kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) after exposure to various concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 ml/l) of 2-PE as an anaesthetic, as well as the effects of optimal concentration (0.7 ml/l) of 2-PE in relation to different exposure time (3, 10, 15 min) on some haematological and serum biochemical indices in this species. Moreover, the effects of 0.7 ml/l on blood parameters were assessed 24 h after the longest exposure. Significant increase was determined in Hb, MCH and MCHC after 10-min exposure to 2-PE (p < 0.05). Moreover, Hct, Hb and RBC levels increased significantly after 15 min-exposure to 2-PE (p < 0.05). There were no prominent changes in WBC and MCV. The plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and cortisol increased significantly after 10- and 15-min exposure to 2-PE (p < 0.05) compared with the control group and all other exposure times. The activity of ALT and AST were significantly increased after 10- and 15-min exposure respectively (p < 0.05). In this study, it appears that anaesthetizing kutum with 2-PE at 0.7 ml/l for 3 min had no effect on the stress markers. PMID:25545544

  7. Substance P and neurokinin-1 immunoreactivities in the neural circadian system of the Alaskan northern red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rutilus.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Rayna E; Tavernier, Ronald J; Castillo, Marina R; Bult-Ito, Abel; Piggins, Hugh D

    2006-11-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus houses the main mammalian circadian clock. This clock is reset by light-dark cues and stimuli that evoke arousal. Photic information is relayed directly to the SCN via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and indirectly via the geniculohypothalamic tract, which originates from retinally innervated cells of the thalamic intergeniculate leaflet (IGL). In addition, pathways from the dorsal and median raphe (DR and MR) convey arousal state information to the IGL and SCN, respectively. The SCN regulates many physiological events in the body via a network of efferent connections to areas of the brain such as the habenula (Hb) in the epithalamus, subparaventricular zone (SPVZ) of the hypothalamus and locus coeruleus of the brainstem-areas of the brain associated with arousal and behavioral activation. Substance P (SP) and the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor are present in the rat SCN and IGL, and SP acting via the NK-1 receptor alters SCN neuronal activity and resets the circadian clock in this species. However, the distribution and role of SP and NK-1 in the circadian system of other rodent species are largely unknown. Here we use immunohistochemical techniques to map the novel distribution of SP and NK-1 in the hypothalamus, thalamus and brainstem of the Alaskan northern red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rutilus, a species of rodent currently being used in circadian biology research. Interestingly, the pattern of immunoreactivity for SP in the red-backed vole SCN was very different from that seen in many other nocturnal and diurnal rodents. PMID:16930773

  8. The effect of sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on the chemosensory function of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (YAKOVLEV, 1870).

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed; Mohaddes, Effat; Dřving, Kjell B

    2015-08-01

    The water-soluble fraction of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons. Because aquatic organisms directly encounter it, the water-soluble fraction plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil in aquatic environments. To determine whether fish are attracted to or avoid the water-soluble fraction, Caspian roaches (Rutilus caspicus) were exposed to different concentrations of the water-soluble fraction in a choice maze apparatus. The results showed that Caspian roaches can detect and avoid 2?mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. To study the effect of the water-soluble fraction on the olfactory function of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2?mg/L and 16?mg/L of the water-soluble fraction for 96 h; afterward, exposed fish encountered food extract in a choice maze apparatus. The present study showed that the water-soluble fraction significantly impairs the olfactory function of roaches. To investigate the effect of olfactory system dysfunction on the feeding behavior of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. After 4 d, 8 d, and 12 d of exposure, the feeding behavior toward the food extract was tested. The results showed that both 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction suppress the feeding behavior of Caspian roaches. The present study demonstrates that sublethal concentrations of crude oil's water-soluble fraction impair the olfactory function of fish and consequently suppress the feeding behavior. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1826-1832. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25904082

  9. Differential Behavioral Responses to Water-Borne Cues to Predation in Two Container-Dwelling Mosquitoes

    E-print Network

    Juliano, Steven A.

    (2004) ABSTRACT Larvae of the mosquito Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett) prey upon other container, OR PERCEIVED RISK of predation, induces facultative changes in behavior of mosquito larvae, which can affect Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett), which prey on other mosquito larvae, including A. albopictus (Campos

  10. Uptake and metabolism of technical nonylphenol and its brominated analogues in the roach ( Rutilus rutilus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Smith; Elizabeth M. Hill

    2004-01-01

    Alkylphenols have been implicated as one of the causative agents of oestrogenic contamination in fish. This study reports the fate of a technical mixture of secondary and tertiary isomers of the environmental contaminant 4-nonylphenol (NP) in mature female roach. Fish were exposed to a concentration of 4.9?g\\/l radio-labelled technical NP over a 4-day period in a flow-through aquarium. NP residues

  11. Reciprocal interactions between roach, Rutilus rutilus, and zooplankton in a small lake: Prey dynamics and fish growth and recruitment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTIN CRYER; GRAEME PEIRSON; COLIN R. TOWNSEND

    1986-01-01

    Recruitment success of roach varied dramatically between 1979 and 1982 in Alderfen Broad, a small lake in eastern England. When fry were abundant (in 1979 and 198 1, but not in 1980 or 1982) the summer zooplankton became sparse and was dominated by copepods and rotifers. In years of good recruitment, as each of the preferred cladoceran prey species entered

  12. Food of roach ( Rutilus rutilus ) and ide ( Leusiscus idus ): significance of diet shift for interspecific competition in omnivorous fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ĺge Brabrand

    1985-01-01

    Feeding relationships between roach and ide from two sites in a mesotrophic lake SE Norway are presented and discussed. When animal food supply was scarce, both fish species increased their consumption of macrophytes; roach sevenfold, and ide threefold. Along a typical littoral vegetation gradient, ide fed among helophytes, while roach fed in the zone outside. This different habitat selection was

  13. Species-specific antipredator capacities and prey refuges: interactions between piscivorous perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) and juvenile perch and roach ( Rutilus rutilus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Eklöv; Lennart Persson

    1995-01-01

    The outcome of predator-prey interactions depends on the characteristics of predators and prey as well as the structure of the environment. In a replicated field enclosure experiment, we tested the effects of quantity and quality of different prey refuges (no structure, structure forming a partial refuge, and structure forming a complete refuge) on the interaction between piscivorous perch (Perca fluviatilis)

  14. the American Mosquito Control Associalinn, 15(3):423-424 1999 in''11"', (C) 1999 by the American Mosquito Coi;;rol Association, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Livdahl, Todd

    the American Mosquito Control Associalinn, 15(3):423-424 1999 in''11"', (C) 1999 by the American Mosquito Coi;;rol Association, Inc. -rtV'f'C" SCIENTIFIC NOTE H2I216 NA FIRST RECORD OF TOXORHYNCHITES. On July 21> 1998- we found 6 Tx. rutilus larvae in tree hole of a beech (Fagus grandifolia) tree lo- cated

  15. BEHAVIOR, CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Behavioral Differences of Invasive Container-Dwelling Mosquitoes

    E-print Network

    ), and Culex pipiens L. are invasive mosquitoes in North America, and their larvae are prey for the nativeBEHAVIOR, CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Behavioral Differences of Invasive Container-Dwelling Mosquitoes mosquito predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus are recent

  16. Transfer of mitochondrial DNA from the northern red-backed vole ( Clethrionomys rutilus ) to the bank vole ( C. glareolus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hĺkan Tegelström

    1987-01-01

    Summary Using a silver staining method to detect DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes, it was possible to compare mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 85 individuals of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) trapped at 25 localities in Fennoscandia. There are two distinctly different mtDNA lineages, one occurring in southern and central Fennoscandia and the other in the northern parts. A fragment

  17. Effect of different cooking methods on minerals, vitamins and nutritional quality indices of kutum roach (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Hedayat; Mahmoudzadeh, Maryam; Rezaei, Masoud; Mahmoudzadeh, Leila; Khaksar, Ramin; Khosroshahi, Nader Karimian; Babakhani, Aria

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the influence of four cooking methods (baking, boiling, microwaving and frying) was evaluated on the nutritional value of kutum roach. Proximate, fatty acid composition, vitamin and mineral contents and also nutritional quality indices (NQI) of kutum roach were investigated before and after cooking treatment. All treated samples showed increase in protein, ash and lipid contents and decrease in the content of total omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) in comparison to raw fish fillets (control group). Cooking methods had no significant effect on omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) except for frying that increased it. Nonetheless, all of the cooking methods reduced vitamin B1, A and D contents. Boiling significantly decreased mineral contents including Na, K, P and Zn. Considering the overall nutritional quality indices, vitamin and mineral contents, baking is the best cooking method among other applied methods. PMID:24262530

  18. Divergent and conserved elements comprise the chemoreceptive repertoire of the nonblood-feeding mosquito Toxorhynchites amboinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rinker, David C; Pitts, Ronald Jason; Rokas, Antonis; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2014-10-01

    Many mosquito species serve as vectors of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever, wherein pathogen transmission is tightly associated with the reproductive requirement of taking vertebrate blood meals. Toxorhynchites is one of only three known mosquito genera that does not host-seek and initiates egg development in the absence of a blood-derived protein bolus. These remarkable differences make Toxorhynchites an attractive comparative reference for understanding mosquito chemosensation as it pertains to host-seeking. We performed deep transcriptome profiling of adult female Toxorhynchites amboinensis bodies, antennae and maxillary palps, and identified 25,084 protein-coding "genes" in the de novo assembly. Phylogenomic analysis of 4,266 single-copy "genes" from T. amboinensis, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus robustly supported Ae. aegypti as the closest relative of T. amboinensis, with the two species diverged approximately 40 Ma. We identified a large number of T. amboinensis chemosensory "genes," the majority of which have orthologs in other mosquitoes. Finally, cross-species expression analyses indicated that patterns of chemoreceptor transcript abundance were very similar for chemoreceptors that are conserved between T. amboinensis and Ae. aegypti, whereas T. amboinensis appeared deficient in the variety of expressed, lineage-specific chemoreceptors. Our transcriptome assembly of T. amboinensis represents the first comprehensive genomic resource for a nonblood-feeding mosquito and establishes a foundation for future comparative studies of blood-feeding and nonblood-feeding mosquitoes. We hypothesize that chemosensory genes that display discrete patterns of evolution and abundance between T. amboinensis and blood-feeding mosquitoes are likely to play critical roles in host-seeking and hence the vectorial capacity. PMID:25326137

  19. Divergent and Conserved Elements Comprise the Chemoreceptive Repertoire of the Nonblood-Feeding Mosquito Toxorhynchites amboinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rinker, David C.; Pitts, Ronald Jason; Rokas, Antonis; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Many mosquito species serve as vectors of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever, wherein pathogen transmission is tightly associated with the reproductive requirement of taking vertebrate blood meals. Toxorhynchites is one of only three known mosquito genera that does not host-seek and initiates egg development in the absence of a blood-derived protein bolus. These remarkable differences make Toxorhynchites an attractive comparative reference for understanding mosquito chemosensation as it pertains to host-seeking. We performed deep transcriptome profiling of adult female Toxorhynchites amboinensis bodies, antennae and maxillary palps, and identified 25,084 protein-coding “genes” in the de novo assembly. Phylogenomic analysis of 4,266 single-copy “genes” from T. amboinensis, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus robustly supported Ae. aegypti as the closest relative of T. amboinensis, with the two species diverged approximately 40 Ma. We identified a large number of T. amboinensis chemosensory “genes,” the majority of which have orthologs in other mosquitoes. Finally, cross-species expression analyses indicated that patterns of chemoreceptor transcript abundance were very similar for chemoreceptors that are conserved between T. amboinensis and Ae. aegypti, whereas T. amboinensis appeared deficient in the variety of expressed, lineage-specific chemoreceptors. Our transcriptome assembly of T. amboinensis represents the first comprehensive genomic resource for a nonblood-feeding mosquito and establishes a foundation for future comparative studies of blood-feeding and nonblood-feeding mosquitoes. We hypothesize that chemosensory genes that display discrete patterns of evolution and abundance between T. amboinensis and blood-feeding mosquitoes are likely to play critical roles in host-seeking and hence the vectorial capacity. PMID:25326137

  20. Changes in the fat body during the post-embryonic development of the predator Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar & Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pascini, T V; Albeny, D S; Ramalho-Ortigăo, M; Vilela, E F; Serrăo, J E; Martins, G F

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have focused on understanding the biochemistry and morphology of the fat body of the hematophagous mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). In contrast, few studies, if any, have focused on morphological characters of the fat body in other mosquitoes, especially non-hematophagous taxa such as the culicid Toxorhynchites. Larvae of Toxorhynchites prey upon the larvae of other mosquito species and are used in vector mosquito control. We investigated aspects of the fat body trophocytes, including the morphometric analyses of the lipid droplets, protein granules and nuclei, during Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar & Knab) post-embryonic development. Following the body weight increase from larval stage L2 to L4, the size of lipid droplets within the trophocytes also increase, and are likely the result of lipogenesis. Lipid droplets decrease in size during L4 to the female pupal stage and increase once again during the period from newly-emerged to mature adult females. Protein granules are observed for the first time in female pupae, and their appearance might be related to protein storage during metamorphosis. The size of the nucleus of trophocytes also increases during larval development, followed by a decrease during metamorphosis and an additional increase as adult female ages. In conclusion, the morphology of the fat body of T. theobaldi changes according to the developmental stage. Our study provides for the first time important insights into T. theobaldi fat body development and contributes to understand this species biology. PMID:21952962

  1. DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS Dis Aquat Org

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    in a large number of species, such as different whitefish species Coregonus spp., lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and roach Rutilus rutilus (Porter & Corey 1974, Scott 1975, Ruby & Cairns 1983, Hunter & Macewicz

  2. The first record of Aspidogaster limacoides Diesing, 1834 (Aspidogastridae: Aspidogastrea) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Popio?ek, Marcin; Luczy?ski, Tomasz; Jarnecki, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Aspidogaster limacoides Diesing, 1834 was identified in two specimens of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from middle Odra River (Lower Silesia, SW Poland). As the species is new to the Polish parasitofauna, a description, measurements and figure are presented. PMID:17912810

  3. Do changes in berry crops drive population fluctuations in small rodents in the southwestern Yukon?

    E-print Network

    Krebs, Charles J.

    ] rutilus), the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), and field voles (Microtus oeconomus and M, mushrooms, Myodes rutilus, Peromyscus maniculatus, population limitation, white spruce seed, Yukon E 2010 in the Kluane area with a strong positive result for Myodes rutilus and Peromyscus maniculatus (Gilbert

  4. Oral Ingestion of Transgenic RIDL Ae. aegypti Larvae Has No Negative Effect on Two Predator Toxorhynchites Species

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Oreenaiza; Donald, Wesley; Ming, Wong Hong; Ney, Teoh Guat; Mohamed, Khairul Asuad; Halim, Nor Azlina Abdul; Winskill, Peter; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Muhammad, Zulkamal Safi'in; Lacroix, Renaud; Scaife, Sarah; McKemey, Andrew Robert; Beech, Camilla; Shahnaz, Murad; Alphey, Luke; Nimmo, Derric David; Nazni, Wasi Ahmed; Lee, Han Lim

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. No specific treatment or vaccine is currently available; traditional vector control methods can rarely achieve adequate control. Recently, the RIDL (Release of Insect carrying Dominant Lethality) approach has been developed, based on the sterile insect technique, in which genetically engineered ‘sterile’ homozygous RIDL male insects are released to mate wild females; the offspring inherit a copy of the RIDL construct and die. A RIDL strain of the dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti, OX513A, expresses a fluorescent marker gene for identification (DsRed2) and a protein (tTAV) that causes the offspring to die. We examined whether these proteins could adversely affect predators that may feed on the insect. Aedes aegypti is a peri-domestic mosquito that typically breeds in small, rain-water-filled containers and has no specific predators. Toxorhynchites larvae feed on small aquatic organisms and are easily reared in the laboratory where they can be fed exclusively on mosquito larvae. To evaluate the effect of a predator feeding on a diet of RIDL insects, OX513A Ae. aegypti larvae were fed to two different species of Toxorhynchites (Tx. splendens and Tx. amboinensis) and effects on life table parameters of all life stages were compared to being fed on wild type larvae. No significant negative effect was observed on any life table parameter studied; this outcome and the benign nature of the expressed proteins (tTAV and DsRed2) indicate that Ae. aegypti OX513A RIDL strain is unlikely to have any adverse effects on predators in the environment. PMID:23527029

  5. Influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) against dengue vector.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F

    2014-03-01

    Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia. PMID:24862057

  6. Habitat complexity and sex-dependent predation of mosquito larvae in containers.

    PubMed

    Alto, Barry W; Griswold, Marcus W; Lounibos, L Philip

    2005-12-01

    Studies in aquatic systems have shown that habitat complexity may provide refuge or reduce the number of encounters prey have with actively searching predators. For ambush predators, habitat complexity may enhance or have no effect on predation rates because it conceals predators, reduces prey detection by predators, or visually impairs both predators and prey. We investigated the effects of habitat complexity and predation by the ambush predators Toxorhynchites rutilus and Corethrella appendiculata on their mosquito prey Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus triseriatus in container analogs of treeholes. As in other ambush predator-prey systems, habitat complexity did not alter the effects of T. rutilus or C. appendiculata whose presence decreased prey survivorship, shortened development time, and increased adult size compared to treatments where predators were absent. Faster growth and larger size were due to predator-mediated release from competition among surviving prey. Male and female prey survivorship were similar in the absence of predators, however when predators were present, survivorship of both prey species was skewed in favor of males. We conclude that habitat complexity is relatively unimportant in shaping predator-prey interactions in this treehole community, where predation risk differs between prey sexes. PMID:16041612

  7. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rudy; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Müller, Günter C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, FL. Exit traps were constructed to cover the well and cistern openings so the number of resting and emerging mosquitoes stained by feeding on the sugar bait could be monitored. Four mosquito species were collected from these structures: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett). Overall, 90% (1482/1644) of the mosquitoes trapped were stained. In general, the number of mosquitoes stained was significantly greater in wells (P<0.0001) and cisterns (P<0.0001) than the numbers that were not stained by the colored bait. Based on the number of mosquitoes stained, we would have expected considerable mosquito mortality had the sugar bait contained an oral toxin. The results of this study support the concept of using attractive toxic sugar baits as an effective tool for integrated mosquito management. PMID:22820024

  8. Diel pattern of pelagic distribution and feeding in planktivorous fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Bohl

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus), rudd (Scardinius erythrophtalamus), bream (Abramis brama) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus) was registered by echosounding during two years in small Bavarian lakes. The gut contents of the fish were analysed in order to reconstruct their rhythmicity of food intake. Fish were found in the pelagic zone only during the night, feeding before midnight

  9. Diet shift in fish following competitive release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Persson; Lars-Anders Hansson

    1999-01-01

    We determined the diet preference of roach (Rutilus rutilus), perch (Perca fluviatilis), and bream (Abramis brama) before and after a fish removal program in Lake Finjasjon, Sweden. The biomass of roach and bream was reduced to 33 and lo%, respectively, after the program. The predominate diet change following this major reduction in fish biomass was an increased use of benthic

  10. Predicted Exposures to Steroid Estrogens in U.K. Rivers Correlate with Widespread Sexual Disruption in Wild Fish Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Jobling; Richard Williams; Andrew Johnson; Ayesha Taylor; Melanie Gross-Sorokin; Monique Nolan; Charles R. Tyler; Ronny van Aerle; Eduarda Santos; Geoff Brighty

    2005-01-01

    Steroidal estrogens, originating principally from human excretion, are likely to play a major role in causing widespread endocrine disruption in wild populations of the roach (Rutilus rutilus), a com- mon cyprinid fish, in rivers contaminated by treated sewage effluents. Given the extent of this problem, risk assessment models are needed to predict the location and severity of endocrine dis- ruption

  11. Variations in the spawning periodicity of eight fish species in three English lowland rivers over a 6 year period, inferred from 0+ year fish length distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Nunn; J. P. Harvey; I. G. Cowx

    2007-01-01

    The spawning periodicity of eight fish species was investigated in three English lowland rivers over a 6 year period from patterns in 0ţ year fish standard length (LS) distributions. A single cohort of 0ţ year dace Leuciscus leuciscus, roach Rutilus rutilus and perch Perca fluviatilis was observed each year, suggesting that these species spawned only once annually. By contrast, populations

  12. A multifaceted trophic cascade in a detritus-based system: density-, trait-, or processing-chain-mediated effects?

    PubMed Central

    Albeny-Simőes, Daniel; Murrell, Ebony G.; Vilela, Evaldo F.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated three pathways by which predators on an intermediate trophic level may produce a trophic cascade in detritus-based systems. Predators may increase lower trophic levels (bacteria) by reducing density of bacteriovores, by altering behavior of bacteriovores, and by processing living bacteriovores into carcasses, feces, and dissolved nutrients that are substrates for bacteria. We tested these pathways in laboratory experiments with mosquitoes in water-filled containers. Larval Toxorhynchites rutilus prey on larval Aedes triseriatus, which feed on bacteria. Using containers stocked with oak leaf infusion as a bacterial substrate, we compared bacterial productivity at 7 and 14 days for: prey alone; prey with a predator; and prey with predation cues but no predator. Controls contained no larvae, either with predation cues or without cues. Predation cues in the control treatment increased bacterial abundance at 7 days, but this effect waned by 14 days. Aedes triseriatus larvae reduced bacterial abundance significantly at 14 days. Predator cues and real predation both eliminated the negative effect of A. triseriatus on bacterial abundance. Predation cues reduced survivorship of A. triseriatus larvae at 14 days, however this effect was smaller than the effect of real predation. We further tested effects of residues from predation as cues or as detritus in a second experiment in which A. triseriatus were killed at similar rates by: real predators; mechanical damage without the predator and carcasses left as detritus; or mechanical damage and carcasses removed. No prey larvae were killed in controls. Bacterial productivity was greater with real predation than in all other treatments and greater when prey larvae were killed or killed and removed, than in controls. Thus we find evidence that all three pathways contribute to the trophic cascade from T. rutilus to bacteria in tree hole systems. PMID:25844268

  13. The response of prey to the risk of predation: proximate cues for refuging juvenile fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER EKLÖV; LENNART PERSSON

    1996-01-01

    When prey encounter predators, they use different cues to indicate how to respond to minimize the predation risk. How such proximate cues in the environment correspond to the ultimate behaviour of the prey are important for understanding the outcome of predator–prey interactions. The precision of the anti-predator response of juvenile perch,Perca fluviatilis, and roach,Rutilus rutilus, when subjected to predation by

  14. Target strength of some European fish species and its dependence on fish body parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaroslava Frouzova; Jan Kubecka; Helge Balk; Jan Frouz

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of maximum, minimum and mean target strength (TS), in both horizontal and vertical planes, on the body length, weight and swimbladder volume of European freshwater fish species (trout-Salmo trutta, perch-Perca fluviatilis, bream-Abramis brama, roach-Rutilus rutilus, carp-Cyprinus carpio and bleak-Alburnus alburnus) was studied. TS was measured with a split-beam echosounder operating at 120kHz. The orientation of the fish towards

  15. Phytoplankton biomass reduction after planktivorous fish reduction in a shallow, eutrophic lake: a combined effect of reduced internal P-loading and increased zooplankton grazing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sřndergaard; E. Jeppesen; E. Mortensen; E. Dall; P. Kristensen; O. Sortkjaer

    1990-01-01

    No recovery was recorded in the shallow and eutrophic Lake Vćng, Denmark, after a sewage diversion in 1981, due to an internal\\u000a phosphorus loading and a dominance of planktivorous fish. In order to improve lake water quality by means of biomanipulation,\\u000a a total of 2.5 tons of bream (Abramis brama) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) was removed during 1986 and the

  16. Amacrine cells with neurotensin- and somatostatin-like immunoreactivities in three species of teleosts with different color vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-J. Wagner; I. Zeutzius

    1987-01-01

    Neurotensin- and somatostatin-like immunoreactivities were localized by pre-embedding techniques in retinal whole-mounts and radial sections of a monochromatic glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis), a dichromatic cichlid species (Aequidens pulcher), and the tetrachromatic roach (Rutilus rutilus). Both neuropeptides were observed in perikarya and processes of amacrine cells. For a precise identification of cell types, tangential and radial views were correlated with Golgiimpregnated

  17. Bioaccumulation and differential partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater, planktonic food webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olof Berglund; Per Larsson; Göran Ewald; Lennart Okla

    2000-01-01

    The planktonic food chain phytoplankton - zooplankton - young-of-the-year roach (Rutilus rutilus) was stud- ied in 19 lakes in southern Sweden to investigate the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The SPCB concentrations did not steadily increase with increasing trophic level. The SPCB concentrations in zooplankton (400 ng·g lipid-1) were lower than in both phytoplankton (660 ng·g lipid-1) and fish (890

  18. Evaluation of pesticides and metals in fish of the Dniester River, Moldova

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yelena Sapozhnikova; Natalia Zubcov; Sarah Hungerford; Luke A. Roy; Nina Boicenco; Elena Zubcov; Daniel Schlenk

    2005-01-01

    The Dniester River is one of the largest rivers in Eastern Europe and receives input from numerous anthropogenic activities. In October 2001, fish samples (Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus heckeli, Perca fluviatilis, Chondrostoma nasus, Carassius auratus gibelio, and Cyprinus carpio) were collected and analyzed for metals and various pesticides. Maximum total DDT pesticide concentrations were between 27.7 and 34.2ng\\/g wet weight

  19. Nature of Predation Risk Cues in Container Systems: Mosquito Responses to Solid Residues From Predation

    PubMed Central

    KESAVARAJU, BANUGOPAN; JULIANO, STEVEN A.

    2012-01-01

    In aquatic systems, prey animals associate predation risk with cues that originate either from the predator or from injured conspecifics. Sources and benefits of these cues have received considerable attention in river, lake, and pond ecosystems but are less well understood in small container ecosystems that can hold less than a liter of water. Mosquitoes Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) encounter predatory Corethrella appendiculata (Grabham) and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett) in small containers and show antipredatory behavioral responses. We investigated the sources of the predation cues to which these prey larvae respond. We tested whether Ae. albopictus larvae show behavioral responses to cues emanating from the predator or from damage to prey caused by the act of predation. We also tested whether Ae. triseriatus respond to cues present in fluid or solid residues from predator activity. Ae. albopictus showed behavioral modifications only in response to waterborne cues from a feeding predator and not to cues from a starving predator, indicating that Ae. albopictus respond to cues created by the act of predation, which could include substances derived from damaged prey or substances in predator feces. Ae. triseriatus showed behavioral responses to solid residues from predation but not to fluid without those solids, indicating that the cues to which they respond originate in predator feces or uneaten prey body parts. Our results suggest that cues in this system may be primarily chemicals that are detected upon contact with solid residues that are products of the feeding processes of these predators. PMID:22740721

  20. Response of animal and vegetative cells to the effect of a typical magnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talikina, M. G.; Izyumov, Yu. G.; Krylov, V. V.

    2013-12-01

    Experimentally reproduced fluctuations of a low-frequency magnetic field in a nanotesla range (magnetic storm) affect the mitosis of animals and vegetative cells. Action of this factor during twenty four hours leads to a significant increase in the proliferative activity of embryo cells in roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.) and meristem cells of onion rootlets ( Allium cepa). The clastogenic effect statistically confirmed only in the Allium test seems to reflect the species specificity of the response and higher sensitivity of the cell association of the onion meristem to magnetic storm.

  1. Comparison of Mercury Distribution Between Liver and Musc - A Biomonitoring of Fish from Lightly and Heavily Contaminated Localities

    PubMed Central

    Havelková, Marcela; Dušek, Ladislav; Némethová, Danka; Poleszczuk, Gorzyslaw; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2008-01-01

    Tissue samples from 1,117 fish of 25 species were collected from 1991 through 1996 at 13 locations along the River Elbe. The principal indicator species were perch (Perca fluviatilis) (n=118), chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) (n=113) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) (n=138). Mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscle and liver were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The liver/muscle index in three indicator species from heavily contaminated and lightly contaminated localities were significantly different. In fish from heavily contaminated localities, Hg was deposited preferentially in the liver (the depository for inorganic and organic forms of Hg), while in lightly contaminated areas, it was deposited preferentially in muscle.

  2. Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons in land-uplift succession: The relative importance of local and regional environmental gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snickars, Martin; Sandström, Alfred; Lappalainen, Antti; Mattila, Johanna; Rosqvist, Kajsa; Urho, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    The assemblages of young-of-the-year fish were studied in coastal lagoons in an archipelago with post-glacial land-uplift, which affects environmental gradients at local and regional scale, i.e. lagoon habitat isolation and archipelago position, respectively. The categorisation of 40 undisturbed lagoons into nine habitat types based on habitat isolation and archipelago position was supported by clear relationships with spring temperature and total fish abundance. Rutilus rutilus, breams ( Abramis/Blicca sp.) and Perca fluviatilis were the most abundant and frequently occurring species. The fish assemblage differed among the nine habitat types. Rutilus rutilus, P. fluviatilis and breams were discriminating species in the majority of habitat types with low physical harshness, whereas Alburnus alburnus and Gasterosteus aculeatus increased their contributions in habitat types with high physical harshness. Rutilus rutilus and breams were thus common in lagoons with high habitat isolation situated in the inner archipelago. These lagoons were characterised by warm water and high vegetation coverage. Gasterosteus aculeatus was restricted to lagoons with low habitat isolation and exposure and low vegetation coverage, situated in the outer archipelago. Perca fluviatilis had the widest distribution of all species. The coverage of two macrophytes, Potamogeton perfoliatus and Zannichellia palustris, and salinity matched best the distance among habitat types. These habitat characteristics, as well as the fish abundances and assemblages differed most across the habitat types in the outer and mid archipelago zones and in the lowest habitat isolation. These patterns suggest that the structuring effect of habitat isolation increases along the archipelago gradient as differences between local and regional conditions increase. In the inner archipelago, overall low physical harshness induces homogeneous conditions and the habitat isolation is less important here than in the other zones. We suggest that this difference in the relative importance of the two gradients depending on the level of respective gradient ultimately forms these heterogeneous coastal habitats in a successional landscape. Rutilus rutilus and P. fluviatilis were responsible for large parts of the assemblage patterns. Although sympatric due to similar habitat requirements, differences in dispersal capability, competitive ability and predation vulnerability may add explanation to detected differences in distribution and abundance in these two species in an open system. Our results also stress the structuring role of vegetation in terms of total coverage and species composition, as these two aspects of macrophyte diversity may act as complementary habitat modifiers across gradients of physical harshness.

  3. Urban Mosquito Fauna in Mérida City, México: Immatures Collected from Containers and Storm-water Drains/Catch Basins.

    PubMed

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, María; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Víctor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damián; Lorońo-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-06-01

    We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Mérida City, México. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Mérida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species. PMID:25429168

  4. Mensurative approach to examine potential interactions between age-0 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill

    E-print Network

    Mensurative approach to examine potential interactions between age-0 yellow perch (Perca flavescens (Lepomis macrochirus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations are often sympat- ric in the Great (Mittelbach 1988; Hixon and Jones 2005). Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Ruti- lus rutilus

  5. The valid generic name for red-backed voles (Muroidea: Cricetidae: Arvicolinae): restatement of the case for Myodes Pallas, 1811

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Michael D.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Pavlinov, Igor Ya.; Musser, Guy G.

    2014-01-01

    In view of contradictions in the recent literature, the valid genus-group name to be applied to northern red-backed voles—Myodes Pallas, 1811, or Clethrionomys Tilesius, 1850—is reviewed. To develop the thesis that Myodes (type species, Mus rutilus Pallas, 1779) is the correct name, our discussion explores the 19th-century taxonomic works that bear on the relevant taxa, the transition in zoological codes apropos the identification of type species, and past nomenclatural habits in cases where no type species was originally indicated. We conclude that Myodes is the senior name to use for the genus-group taxon that includes the Holarctic species rutilus and frame this conclusion within a synonymy of the genus.

  6. Challenges in assessing biological recovery from acidification in Swedish lakes.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Swedish lakes have in general become less acidified. Assessment of biological recovery is, however, hampered by poor pre-acidification data, confounding effects of climate change, and few lakes with annual sampling of fish and other organisms. Only three critically acidified, but non-limed, lakes had two decades of fish monitoring. The lakes had not yet recovered to pre-industrial chemical targets. Fish had low species richness compared to other organism groups. Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and/or European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were the dominant fish species, and the acid-sensitive roach had been lost from one of the lakes. Calcium decreased, possibly approaching pre-acidification concentrations, but exceeded minimum levels needed to sustain some Daphnia species. High or increasing levels of total organic carbon, likely due to reduced acidification and climate change, might influence the biological communities in unexpected ways, for example, facilitating more frequent occurrence of the invasive algae Gonyostomum semen. PMID:25403967

  7. Host associations of the tick, Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae), on Alaskan mammals.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Brian P; Durden, Lance A; Cook, Joseph A

    2003-09-01

    Infestation parameters are presented for 227 ticks, all Ixodes angustus Neumann, collected from individual mammals (n = 531) in southeastern and south-central Alaska from 1996 to 1999. This tick was recovered from 12 of the 19 mammal species examined, with four species of shrews (Sorex spp.), two species of voles [Clethrionomys gapperi (Vigors) and Clethrionomys rutilus (Pallas)], one species of mouse [Peromyscus keeni (Rhoads)], and the red squirrel [Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Erxleben)] being the most frequently parasitized hosts. Larvae (n = 146) of I. angustus were collected most often, followed by nymphs (n = 50), females (n = 30), and a single male. The leptinid mammal-nest beetle Leptinus occidentamericanus Peck (1 male, 5 females) was also recovered from five individual small mammals; three of these were C. rutilus. PMID:14596283

  8. Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

    2010-09-01

    Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers. PMID:20582437

  9. Contamination Levels and Specific Accumulation of Persistent Organochlorines in Caspian Seal ( Phoca caspica ) from the Caspian Sea, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Watanabe; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; M. Amano; N. Miyazaki; E. A. Petrov; S. L. Khuraskin

    1999-01-01

    .   Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes\\u000a (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean\\u000a values of 19 and 1.3 ?g\\/g on wet-weight

  10. Molecular and ecological signs of mitochondrial adaptation: consequences for introgression?

    PubMed

    Boraty?ski, Z; Melo-Ferreira, J; Alves, P C; Berto, S; Koskela, E; Pentikäinen, O T; Tarroso, P; Ylilauri, M; Mappes, T

    2014-10-01

    The evolution of the mitochondrial genome and its potential adaptive impact still generates vital debates. Even if mitochondria have a crucial functional role, as they are the main cellular energy suppliers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression is common in nature, introducing variation in populations upon which selection may act. Here we evaluated whether the evolution of mtDNA in a rodent species affected by mtDNA introgression is explained by neutral expectations alone. Variation in one mitochondrial and six nuclear markers in Myodes glareolus voles was examined, including populations that show mtDNA introgression from its close relative, Myodes rutilus. In addition, we modelled protein structures of the mtDNA marker (cytochrome b) and estimated the environmental envelopes of mitotypes. We found that massive mtDNA introgression occurred without any trace of introgression in the analysed nuclear genes. The results show that the native glareolus mtDNA evolved under past positive selection, suggesting that mtDNA in this system has selective relevance. The environmental models indicate that the rutilus mitotype inhabits colder and drier habitats than the glareolus one that can result from local adaptation or from the geographic context of introgression. Finally, homology models of the cytochrome b protein revealed a substitution in rutilus mtDNA in the vicinity of the catalytic fraction, suggesting that differences between mitotypes may result in functional changes. These results suggest that the evolution of mtDNA in Myodes may have functional, ecological and adaptive significance. This work opens perspective onto future experimental tests of the role of natural selection in mtDNA introgression in this system. PMID:24690754

  11. [Analysis of parasitic communities in fishes from Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Rusinek, O T

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of infracommunities and component communities of fish parasites in Lake Baikal has been conducted for the first time. It has been revealed that parasite infracommunities for the majority of Baikal fishes are weakly balanced and impoverished (the Berger-Parker Index is > 0.5; Evension is < 0.5; the Brillouin Index is < 1). The highest diversity and balance of the communities are characteristic for carnivorous fishes (Brachymystax lenok, Hucho taimen, Thymallus arcticus, Esox lucius, and Percafluviatilis). The component parasitic communities of Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Rutilus rutilus, and Leocottus kesslerii are the most diverse in Lake Baikal since the Shennon index for L. leuciscus baicalensis, R. rutilus, and L. kesslerii is 2.4, for Paracotlus knerii--2.2, Limnocoitus godlewskii--2.3, Phoxinus phoxinus--2.1, Lota lota and Limnocuttus pallidus--1.9, P. fluviatilis--1.8, Leuciscus idus--1.8. The component parasitic communities of other fishes in Lake Baikal have low indices of biological diversity (H = 0.5-1.05, Smp is close to 1). A classification of mature and immature components of parasitic communities based on the ratio of specialist species and generalist species has been proposed. It is established that the component parasitic communities in sublitoral, profundal, and pseudoabyssal zones are mature, while in the littoral zone they are immature (impoverished and weakly balanced). The component parasitic communities in benthophagous fishes and predators are mature, in planktivorous fishes they are immature. The component parasitic communities are mature in the family Cyprinidae and immature in the families Coregonidae and Cottidae. The component parasitic communities of the Boreal Plain and Boreal Submountain faunal complexes are mature, but they are immature in Lake Baikal and Arctic freshwater complexes. PMID:16755724

  12. Feeding habits and ontogenic changes in digestive enzyme patterns in five freshwater teleosts.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, M M; Kashinskaya, E N; Izvekova, G I; Gisbert, E; Glupov, V V

    2014-11-01

    Feeding habits and the activity of digestive enzymes (total alkaline proteases, ?-amylase and lipase) from dace Leuciscus leuciscus, roach Rutilus rutilus, Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio, perch Perca fluviatilis and pikeperch Sander lucioperca fry were studied in the Malye Chany Lake-Kargat Estuary (western Siberia, Russia). The diet of fry from all studied species was mainly composed of chironomid larvae and zooplanktonic organisms (i.e. cladocera and copepoda), whereas carnivorous species such as P. fluviatilis and S. lucioperca also preyed on fry from other fishes while detritus and microalgae were also important in the diet of ommivorous species. When comparing diet similarity (Sřrensen-Dice index, Q(S)) among fry at different stages of development, both omnivorous and carnivorous species showed a high level of similarity (0.67?

  13. Interactions between predation and resources shape zooplankton population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Alice; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob; Nilsson, P Anders; Brönmark, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the relative importance of predation and resources in population dynamics has a long tradition in ecology, while interactions between them have been studied less intensively. In order to disentangle the effects of predation by juvenile fish, algal resource availability and their interactive effects on zooplankton population dynamics, we conducted an enclosure experiment where zooplankton were exposed to a gradient of predation of roach (Rutilus rutilus) at different algal concentrations. We show that zooplankton populations collapse under high predation pressure irrespective of resource availability, confirming that juvenile fish are able to severely reduce zooplankton prey when occurring in high densities. At lower predation pressure, however, the effect of predation depended on algal resource availability since high algal resource supply buffered against predation. Hence, we suggest that interactions between mass-hatching of fish, and the strong fluctuations in algal resources in spring have the potential to regulate zooplankton population dynamics. In a broader perspective, increasing spring temperatures due to global warming will most likely affect the timing of these processes and have consequences for the spring and summer zooplankton dynamics. PMID:21304980

  14. [Differences in the infestation rate of young cyprinid fishes (Cypriniformes) by metacercaria of Posthodiplostomum Cuticola (Digenea, Diplostomatidae) in river and lake systems of the Lake Chany basin (Western Siberia)].

    PubMed

    Iadrenkina, E N

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 fish species were studied for the invasion of P. cuticola (Nordmann, 1832) metacercariae in the Chany Lake estuaries, river and lake systems during different periods of water level. All infected individuals were represented by juveniles of the family Cyprinidae, except for adults of the dace Leuciscus leuciscus. (L.). Under an average water level (2010) the highest rate of fish invasion was revealed in the estuary zone, where the prevalence of infection (PI) constituted 37.5%, 13.4%, and 5.9% for the gudgeon Gobio gobio, the roach Rutilus rutilus (L.), and the dace L. leuciscus (L.), respectively. An infested carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Heckel) (PI - 13.5%) was recorded in the lower Kargat River, and the goldfish Carassius auratus (L.) (PI - 3.2%), in the lake system. Mean intensity of infection (MI) constituted 1.3, 1.4, 2.5, 2.6, and 1.0 in gudgeon, roach, dace, carp, and bream (Abramis brama L.), respectively. During dry season (2011) with high water salinity only two fish species were infected with P. cuticola metacercariae, the goldfish (PI - 7.9%) and the roach (PI - 1.5%). No correlation between PI and fish density was revealed. It is assumed that the high degree of water salinity is a limiting factor regulating the efficiency of cercariae transition from the first intermediate host (Planorbis planorbis (L.)) to the second one (Pisces, Cyprinidae). PMID:25693328

  15. Influence of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus on levels of heat shock proteins (HSP70) and metallothioneins in their fish and crustacean intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Frank, Sabrina N; Godehardt, Saskia; Nachev, Milen; Trubiroha, Achim; Kloas, Werner; Sures, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    It is a common method to analyse physiological mechanisms of organisms - commonly referred to as biomarkers - to indicate the presence of environmental pollutants. However, as biomarkers respond to a wide range of stressors we want to direct the attention on natural stressors, i.e. on parasites. After two years maintenance under controlled conditions, roach (Rutilus rutilus) revealed no influence on levels of metallothionein by the parasite Ligula intestinalis. The same was found for Gammarus fossarum infected with Polymorphus minutus. However, the heat shock protein (HSP70) response was affected in both host-parasite systems. While the infection of roach resulted in reduced levels of HSP70 compared to uninfected roach, the infection in G. fossarum led to higher levels of HSP70. We also analysed the effect of a 14 days Cd exposure (4 ?g/L) on the uninfected and infected gammarids. The exposure resulted in induced levels for both, metallothionein and HSP70 whereas the combination of stressors, parasite and exposure, revealed a decrease for levels of HSP70 in comparison to the metal exposure only. Accordingly, parasites as natural parts of aquatic ecosystems have to be considered in ecotoxicological research. PMID:23770459

  16. Former uranium mine-induced effects in caged roach: a multiparametric approach for the evaluation of in situ metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Béatrice; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Betoulle, Stéphane; Amara, Rachid; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalié, Isabelle; Chadili, Edith; Delahaut, Laurence; Kerambrun, Elodie; Orjollet, Daniel; Palluel, Olivier; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    To characterize environmental risks linked to former uranium mines in the Limousin region of France, a study was conducted on fish health effects from uranium releases. Two private ponds were compared in this study, one with uranium contamination and one background site, upstream of the mining zone. Roach, Rutilus rutilus, were caged for 28 days in both ponds. Physico-chemical parameters of water and sediments and bioaccumulation of metals in several organs were determined. After 14 and 28 days of caging, immune, oxidative stress, biotransformation, neurotoxicity and physiological parameters were measured. Iron and aluminium were quantified in the water of both sites; however, barium and manganese were only present in the water of the uranium contaminated site. Uranium was present in both sites but at very different concentrations. The sediments from the uranium contaminated site contained high levels of radioactive elements coming from the disintegration chain of uranium. Results of biological parameters indicated stimulation of immune parameters and of oxidative stress and a decrease of AChE in fish caged in the uranium contaminated pond compared to the uranium-free pond. Overall, the results determined roach health status in the context of pollution from poly-metallic mining. The data strengthen our knowledge of the environmental risk assessment associated with radioactive substances in the environment. PMID:25348601

  17. Distribution and ecology of Dreissena polymorpha (pallas) and Dreissena bugensis (andrusov) in the upper Volga basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shcherbina, G. Kh; Buckler, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents data on contemporary distribution patterns of two species of Dreissenidae, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the Quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis), and their role in ecosystem processes in the Ivan'kovo, Uglich, Rybinsk, and Gorky Reservoirs of the Upper Volga River basin. The role of zebra mussel was also studied in experimental mesocosms of 15 m3. Maximum abundance and species diversity of macroinvertebrates, especially of leeches, polychaetes, crustaceans, and heterotopic insects, were attained in the portions of reservoirs where Dreissenidae were present and in experimental mesocosms where zebra mussel biomass was the highest. In the mesocosm studies, the presence of zebra mussel druses (colonies) provided shelter for macroinvertebrates, reducing their vulnerability to predation by perch (Perca fluviatills) larvae and yearlings, thereby increasing macroinvertebrate species diversity. It was shown that in addition to its role in aquatic biocenosis (ecological community) formation and water purification, Dreissenidae are important food objects for benthophagous fishes, especially roach (Rutilus rutilus). Examination of intestines of benthophagous fishes showed that the length of Dreissenidae ranged from 5 to 20 mm in roach; from 4 to 14 mm in silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna), and from 2 to 10 mm in bream (Abramis brama). The largest mussels consumed were Quagga mussels up to 30 mm, noted in the predatory cyprinid, ide (Leuciscus idus). Copyright ?? 2006 by ASTM International.

  18. Multiresidue method to quantify pesticides in fish muscle by QuEChERS-based extraction and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lazartigues, Angélique; Wiest, Laure; Baudot, Robert; Thomas, Marielle; Feidt, Cyril; Cren-Olivé, Cécile

    2011-06-01

    Pesticide residues in fish muscle are an environmental and a health safety concern which requires analytical methods presenting high sensitivity and low limits of quantification. In this study, adapted QuEChERS method, coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Scheduled MRM-5500 QTRAP), was developed to quantify 13 pesticides (azoxystrobin, clomazone, diflufenican, dimethachlor, carbendazim, iprodion, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, metazachlor, napropamid, quizalofop and thifensulfuron-methyl) in muscle of fish. Quantification limits were below 1 ng g(-1) except for clomazone (1.8 ng g(-1)) and quizalofop (7.4 ng g(-1)). Best recoveries were observed for perch (>80%) and roach (>68%), except for thifensulfuron-methyl. Lower recoveries had been observed for carp (6% to 86%). Relative standard deviation was lower than 28% for intra-day and 29% for inter-day analysis, respectively. This method was successfully tested on three fish species, naturally or orally exposed: roach (Rutilus rutilus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and carp (Cyprinus carpio). Few levels were observed in fish naturally exposed, but carp and perch orally contaminated showed measurable levels in their muscles. PMID:21484246

  19. The dependence on temperature and pH of the effects of zinc and copper on proteolytic activities of the digestive tract mucosa in piscivorous fish and their potential preys.

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V

    2010-09-01

    The dependence of the effects of zinc and copper on the activities of proteinases of the stomach and intestinal mucosa on temperature and pH in four species of boreal piscivorous fish (pike Esox lucius, zander Zander lucioperca, perch Perca fluviatilis and burbot Lota lota) as well as in some of their potential preys (kilka Clupeonella cultriventris, ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus, perch and roach Rutilus rutilus) was investigated. Species-specific differences of the effects of these heavy metals upon the activities of proteinases depending on temperature and pH were demonstrated. It was revealed that the stomach mucosa proteinases were more tolerant to the effects of the studied factors than the intestinal mucosa proteinases, especially true for pike. The effects of the heavy metals on the whole body proteinases of the fishes' potential preys were mostly dependent on temperature than on pH. At pH 3.0, the negative action of zinc and copper on the fish digestive tract mucosa proteolytic activity to a considerable degree was compensated by the high activity of the hemoglobinlytic proteinases, probably, cathepsine D. PMID:19731060

  20. Evaluation of pesticides and metals in fish of the Dniester River, Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Zubcov, Natalia; Hungerford, Sarah; Roy, Luke A; Boicenco, Nina; Zubcov, Elena; Schlenk, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    The Dniester River is one of the largest rivers in Eastern Europe and receives input from numerous anthropogenic activities. In October 2001, fish samples (Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus heckeli, Perca fluviatilis, Chondrostoma nasus, Carassius auratus gibelio, and Cyprinus carpio) were collected and analyzed for metals and various pesticides. Maximum total DDT pesticide concentrations were between 27.7 and 34.2 ng/g wet weight in muscles and gonads, respectively. DDE isomers comprised up to 70% of total DDT measurement in fish tissues, indicating historical rather than recent DDT pollution. Chlordane and lindane were also detected in amounts up to 37 and 76 ng/g wet weight in gonads, respectively. Among organophosphorous pesticides, malathion showed extremely high concentrations--3 microg/g wet weight in muscles and 46 microg/g wet weight in gonads, indicating recent exposure. Copper concentrations in muscles (1.8-7.2 microg/g) exceeded Threshold Effect Concentrations for copper in fish. Detection of high concentrations of malathion and copper in fish tissues indicated potential anthropogenic stress for more sensitive aquatic biota, likely from agricultural sources in the Dniester River. PMID:15914239

  1. Fish hepatic glutathione-S-transferase activity is affected by the cestode parasites Schistocephalus solidus and Ligula intestinalis: evidence from field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Frank, Sabrina Nadine; Faust, Steffen; Kalbe, Martin; Trubiroha, Achim; Kloas, Werner; Sures, Bernd

    2011-06-01

    The activity of hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was analysed in 3 different fish species with respect to fish sex and infection with parasites. In both sexes of laboratory bred three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) experimentally infected with Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda), a significantly lower GST-activity was found for infected fish compared to control. After field sampling of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Müggelsee (MS) and the Reservoir Listertalsperre (LTS), the GST-activity showed significantly lower values for males infected with Ligula intestinalis from MS (25%) and for infected females from LTS (55%). L. intestinalis-infected female chub (Leuciscus cephalus) from LTS also appeared to have a lower GST-activity. Thus, it could be shown that the presence of parasites significantly affects GST-activity in different fish species resulting in a decreased GST-activity due to infection. Our results therefore emphasize the need for more integrative approaches in environmental pollution research to clearly identify the possible effects of parasites in an effort to develop biomarkers for evaluating environmental health. PMID:21518465

  2. The Consequences of Feminization in Breeding Groups of Wild Fish

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Catherine A.; Hamilton, Patrick B.; Runnalls, Tamsin J.; Vinciotti, Veronica; Henshaw, Alan; Hodgson, Dave; Coe, Tobias S.; Jobling, Susan; Tyler, Charles R.; Sumpter, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The feminization of nature by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a key environmental issue affecting both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. A crucial and as yet unanswered question is whether EDCs have adverse impacts on the sustainability of wildlife populations. There is widespread concern that intersex fish are reproductively compromised, with potential population-level consequences. However, to date, only in vitro sperm quality data are available in support of this hypothesis. Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether wild endocrine-disrupted fish can compete successfully in a realistic breeding scenario. Methods In two competitive breeding experiments using wild roach (Rutilus rutilus), we used DNA microsatellites to assign parentage and thus determine reproductive success of the adults. Results In both studies, the majority of intersex fish were able to breed, albeit with varying degrees of success. In the first study, where most intersex fish were only mildly feminized, body length was the only factor correlated with reproductive success. In the second study, which included a higher number of more severely intersex fish, reproductive performance was negatively correlated with severity of intersex. The intersex condition reduced reproductive performance by up to 76% for the most feminized individuals in this study, demonstrating a significant adverse effect of intersex on reproductive performance. Conclusion Feminization of male fish is likely to be an important determinant of reproductive performance in rivers where there is a high prevalence of moderately to severely feminized males. PMID:21362587

  3. Hybridisation between two cyprinid fishes in a novel habitat: genetics, morphology and life-history traits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The potential role hybridisation in adaptive radiation and the evolution of new lineages has received much recent attention. Hybridisation between roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) and bream (Abramis brama L.) is well documented throughout Europe, however hybrids in Ireland occur at an unprecedented frequency, often exceeding that of both parental species. Utilising an integrated approach, which incorporates geometric morphometrics, life history and molecular genetic analyses we identify the levels and processes of hybridisation present, while also determining the direction of hybridisation, through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Results The presence of F2 hybrids was found to be unlikely from the studied populations, although significant levels of backcrossing, involving both parental taxa was observed in some lakes. Hybridisation represents a viable conduit for introgression of genes between roach and bream. The vast majority of hybrids in all populations studied exhibited bream mitochondrial DNA, indicating that bream are maternal in the majority of crosses. Conclusions The success of roach × bream hybrids in Ireland is not due to a successful self reproducing lineage. The potential causes of widespread hybridisation between both species, along with the considerations regarding the role of hybridisation in evolution and conservation, are also discussed. PMID:20529364

  4. [Care of young, aggressiveness, and secretion of testosterone in male rodents: a correlation analysis ].

    PubMed

    Gromov, V S; Voznesenskaia, V V

    2013-01-01

    To test the current hypotheses on the relationship between the mating system, reproductive strategy, aggression, and secretion of testosterone, a comparative study of interactions in pair encounters, the level of parental care, and the gonadal testosterone level in males was performed in six rodent species (Clethrionomys rutilus, Meriones meridianus, Microtus arvalis, Lagurus lagurus, Lasiopodomys Mandarinus, and Meriones unguiculatus) with different types of spatial-and-ethological population structures (SEPSs). It is shown that this. dependence is absent in species with promiscuous mating and dominance hierarchy among males (C. rutilus and M. meridianus, SEPS type II). A trade-off, or negative correlation, was found in M. arvalis-aspecies with weak pair bonds and male competition for receptive females (SEPS type III). In species with persistent pair bonds and structured family groups (L. Mandarinus and M. unguiculatus, SEPS type IV), no inverse relationship between the secretion of testosterone and paternal behavior was found either. Moreover, in male L. Mandarinus androgens appear to stimulate paternal care. PMID:25510112

  5. Use Carum copticum essential oil for controlling the Listeria monocytogenes growth in fish model system.

    PubMed

    Rabiey, Soghra; Hosseini, Hedayat; Rezaei, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Carum copticum essential oil (Ajowan EO) against Listeria monocytogenes in fish model system. Ajowan EO chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis and the highest concentration of Carum copticum essential oil without any significant changes on sensory properties of kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) was assigned. Then the inhibitory effect of Ajowan EO at different concentrations in presence of salt and smoke component was tested on L. monocytogenes growth in fish peptone broth (FPB), kutum broth and cold smoked kutum broth at 4 °C for 12 days. Ajowan EO completely decreased the number of L. monocytogenes in FPB after 12 days of storage, however, antimicrobial effect of EO significantly reduced in kutum and cold smoked kutum broth. Addition of 4% NaCl and smoke component improved the anti-listerial activity of Ajowan EO in all fish model broths. PMID:24948918

  6. Synthetic estrogen directly affects fish biomass and may indirectly disrupt aquatic food webs.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Per; Nicolle, Alice; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer; Nikoleris, Lina; Hyder, Murtaza; Persson, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are known to alter the fitness of individual organisms via changes in growth, behavior, and reproduction. It is largely unknown, however, whether these effects cascade through the food web and indirectly affect other, less sensitive organisms. The authors present results from a mesocosm experiment whereby the effects of the synthetic estrogen 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were quantified in pelagic communities. Treatment with EE2 at a concentration of 28?ng/L had no large effects on the pelagic communities composed only of phytoplankton and zooplankton. In communities where planktivorous roach (Rutilus rutilus) were also present, however, EE2 caused a significant reduction in fish biomass. Moreover, zooplankton biomass was higher in the EE2 treatments, suggesting that zooplankton may have been released from fish predation. Hence, the direct effect of EE2 on roach may have cascaded down the food web to produce positive indirect effects on zooplankton. This result was supported in complementary foraging experiments with roach, showing reduced foraging performance after exposure to EE2. Despite the observed negative effect of EE2 on roach and the positive indirect effect on zooplankton, these effects did not cascade to phytoplankton, possibly because only copepods, but not cladocerans-the major grazers in these systems-were released from fish predation. The authors conclude that the known reproductive impairment in fish by EE2 in combination with the disturbed foraging performance observed in the present study may be a disadvantage to fish that may result in increasing abundance or biomass of prey such as zooplankton. Hence, EE2 may have consequences for both the structure and function of freshwater communities. PMID:24615795

  7. Differences in the Activities of Eight Enzymes from Ten Soil Fungi and Their Possible Influences on the Surface Structure, Functional Groups, and Element Composition of Soil Colloids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjie; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Zu, Yuangang

    2014-01-01

    How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, ?-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase) secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum) secreted 3–4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus) could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C?=?O, COO- decreased by 11–60%, while P?=?O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9–22%), surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials), and elemental compositions (11–49% decreases in C1s) in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus) compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus). Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix), highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance. PMID:25398013

  8. PCB levels and accumulation patterns in waterbird eggs and in their prey at Lake Kerkini, a north-eastern Mediterranean wetland of international importance.

    PubMed

    Antoniadou, V; Konstantinou, I K; Goutner, V; Sakellarides, T M; Albanis, T A; Bintoudi, E

    2007-08-01

    Seven "target" PCB levels were determined and compared in waterbird eggs, in their prey, and in water at Lake Kerkini, northern Greece, to investigate PCB bioaccumulation patterns and to define the best bioindicator of target PCBs for this area. PCBs were analysed from eggs of Phalacrocorax carbo, Podiceps cristatus, Ardea cinerea, Egretta garzetta, and Nycticorax nycticorax and from prey types Alburnus alburnus, Rutilus rutilus, Lepomis gibbosus. Carassius auratus, and Rana sp. PCBs analysed were detected in all bird eggs, prey, and water but contamination patterns differed among these sample types. The lipid-corrected geometric means of the congeners analysed were significantly different among most bird species and among some prey species. PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180 accounted for around 80% of the total PCB contamination in bird egg samples. Percent congener concentrations of high-chlorinated PCBs tended to increase from water through prey to most bird egg samples whereas the low chlorinated PCBs (28 and 52) decreased. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) also exhibited an increasing trend for higher chlorinated PCBs from prey types to bird eggs. The greatest BAFs of six of the congeners were shared between Phalacrocorax carbo and Ardea cinerea. Among prey, the BAFs of four PCBs were highest in Lepomis gibbosus. Biomagnification factors varied between 1.01 and 39.57. In contrast to low chlorinated PCBs, high chlorinated congeners biomagnified considerably through fish prey. The highest biomagnification took place in Phalacrocorax carbo. No relationship was found between the lipid content of samples and BAFs of PCBs probably due to biotransformation differences of the congeners in the biota sampled. Due to the greatest PCB concentrations especially of the higher chlorinated PCBs in the eggs of Phalacrocorax carbo and its considerable bioaccumulation tendencies, it is proposed as the best PCB biomonitor of target PCBs at Lake Kerkini. Lepomis gibbosus had the highest concentrations of most congeners and exhibited the greatest bioaccumulative properties among prey and can be used as an alternative biomonitor. PMID:17549546

  9. Occurrence of UV filters 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and octocrylene in fish from various Swiss rivers with inputs from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Balmer, Marianne E; Schmid, Peter; Kohler, Martin

    2006-03-01

    UV filters are widely used compounds in many personal care products and cosmetics, such as sunscreens. After use, UV filters are washed off from skin and clothes and enter the aquatic environment. Recent studies indicate that some lipophilic UV filters do accumulate in biota and act as endocrine disruptors. In this study, concentrations of 4-MBC (4-methylbenzylidene camphor) and OC (octocrylene), two widely used UV filters, were determined in the muscle tissue of fish (brown trout, Salmo trutta fario) from seven small Swiss rivers, all receiving inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Lipid-weight based concentrations of up to 1800 (4-MBC) and 2400 ng g(-1) (OC) were found. These levels were distinctly higher than those previously observed in white fish (Coregonus sp.) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Swiss lakes with inputs from WWTPs. This suggests a higher availability of these contaminants for fish in rivers than in lakes and identifies WWTPs as a major source for UV filters in the aquatic environment. As compared to lake fish, individual fish from a river showed much greater variation in 4-MBC and OC concentrations, likely as a result of a wider range of exposure in rivers than in lakes. 4-MBC concentrations correlated reasonably well with concentrations of methyl triclosan, a chemical marker for lipophilic WWTP-derived contaminants. The ratio P/Q of population (P) in a watershed to water throughflow (Q) is considered to be a measure of the domestic burden from WWTPs. A correlation of methyl triclosan with P/Q was previously observed with lake fish. However, such a correlation could not be confirmed with river fish. The higher average concentrations of OC as compared to 4-MBC in river fish, and the fact that OC was mostly absent in lake fish, suggests differences in bioaccumulation and availability of these two UV filters. PMID:16568752

  10. Temperature and Resource Availability May Interactively Affect Over-Wintering Success of Juvenile Fish in a Changing Climate

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Jakob; Rodriguez-Gil, José Luis; Jönsson, Mikael; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer; Nilsson, P. Anders; Nicolle, Alice; Berglund, Olof

    2011-01-01

    The predicted global warming may affect freshwater systems at several organizational levels, from organism to ecosystem. Specifically, in temperate regions, the projected increase of winter temperatures may have important effects on the over-winter biology of a range of organisms and especially for fish and other ectothermic animals. However, temperature effects on organisms may be directed strongly by resource availability. Here, we investigated whether over-winter loss of biomass and lipid content of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) was affected by the physiologically relatively small (2-5°C) changes of winter temperatures predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), under both natural and experimental conditions. This was investigated in combination with the effects of food availability. Finally, we explored the potential for a correlation between lake temperature and resource levels for planktivorous fish, i.e., zooplankton biomass, during five consecutive winters in a south Swedish lake. We show that small increases in temperature (+2°C) affected fish biomass loss in both presence and absence of food, but negatively and positively respectively. Temperature alone explained only a minor part of the variation when food availability was not taken into account. In contrast to other studies, lipid analyses of experimental fish suggest that critical somatic condition rather than critical lipid content determined starvation induced mortality. Our results illustrate the importance of considering not only changes in temperature when predicting organism response to climate change but also food-web interactions, such as resource availability and predation. However, as exemplified by our finding that zooplankton over-winter biomass in the lake was not related to over-winter temperature, this may not be a straightforward task. PMID:21998627

  11. Energy allocation in juvenile roach and burbot under different temperature and feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Binner, Maaike; Kloas, Werner; Hardewig, Iris

    2008-06-01

    Cold-active burbot (Lota lota (L.)) display reduced food intake during the summer. The impact of temperature on their energy budget was investigated in starved fish in a laboratory setting, simulating summer (20 degrees C) and winter (4 degrees C) conditions, to elucidate the impact of high temperature on burbot metabolism. Metabolic effects in burbot were compared to roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), which typically fast in winter. During warm acclimation, starvation (four weeks) resulted in a metabolic depression of oxygen consumption in both species. In roach, metabolic rate decreased by 55% after two weeks of starvation. Burbot, in contrast, displayed an immediate depression of metabolic rate by 50%. In both species, no reductions were observed in the cold. The temperature-induced differences between the metabolic rates at 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C showed a lower thermal sensitivity in burbot (Q (10) = 1.9) compared to roach (Q (10) = 2.7). Notably, for each species, energy consumption during starvation was highest under experimental conditions simulating their natural active periods, respectively. Warm acclimated roach relied mainly on muscle reserves, whereas in cold acclimated burbot, liver metabolic stores made a major contribution to the energy turnover. In cold acclimated roach and warm acclimated burbot, however, starvation apparently reduced swimming activity, resulting in considerable savings of energy reserves. These lower energy expenditures in roach and burbot corresponded to their natural inactive periods. Thus, starvation in burbot caused a lower energy turnover when exposed to high temperatures. These season-dependent adaptations of metabolism represent an advantageous strategy in burbot to manage winter temperature and withstand metabolism-activating summer temperatures, whereas roach metabolism correlates with the seasonal temperature cycle. PMID:18649028

  12. Metals in edible fish from Vistula River and Dead Vistula River channel, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Falandysz, Jerzy; Jarzy?ska, Gra?yna

    2012-01-01

    Metals including Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in muscle tissue of 12 fish species by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and cold vapour-atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS). Fish were collected from Vistula River at lower course and Dead Vistula River channel in south of Baltic Sea in Poland. The fish species examined include Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus), Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius), Bull-rout (Myoxocephalus scorpius), Tench (Tinca tinca), Bream (Abramis brama), Burbot (Lota lot), Perch (Perca perca), Roach (Rutilus rutilus), Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Pikeperch (Stizostediun lucioperca), Brown salmon (Salmo trutta m. Trutta) and Eel (Anguilla anguilla). The median values of metal concentrations in fresh muscle tissue of 11 fish species varied as follows: Al < 0.5-60; Ba < 0.05-0.31; Ca 120-1800; Cd < 0.05-0.096; Co < 0.10; Cr < 0.10-0.50; Cu < 0.15-0.77; Fe 1.5-21; Hg 0.0058-0.65; K 1800-4200; Mg 130-560; Mn 0.12-0.59; Na 350-840; Ni < 0.2-0.31; Pb < 0.75; Sr 0.079-2.9; Zn 3.3-23 ?g/g fresh weight. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) values calculated in this study for Cd and Hg from muscles of fish species collected from Vistula River were low in the range of 0.4 for Hg and 0.8 for Cd. PMID:22428891

  13. Changes in some components of the muscle lipids of three freshwater fish species under natural extreme cold and temperate conditions.

    PubMed

    Uysal, K; Bülbül, M; Dönmez, M; Seçkin, A K

    2008-12-01

    Fatty acid composition, conjugated linoleic acid and cholesterol contents in the muscles of three freshwater fish species (Barbus plebejus escherichi, Capoeta capoeta capoeta and Rutilus rutilus) were determined under natural extreme temperate (July) and cold (January) conditions. The aim of the study was to determine whether there were differences in these components of the muscle lipids among these three fish species under extreme natural conditions. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. Palmitic, oleic, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids were the predominant fatty acids in all fish in both months. The percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids, n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids in the muscle of B. plebejus escherichi and C. capoeta capoeta were significantly higher in January (P < 0.05) than in July. The ratio of n - 6 to n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was lower than 0.60 in all fish species, with C. capoeta capoeta showing the lowest ratio in January (0.36). The levels of cholesterol and conjugated linoleic acid ranged from 103.46 to 150.10 mg/100 g oil and from 16.27 to 35.45 mg/100 g oil, respectively, for all samples in both months. There were no statistical differences in cholesterol levels among the three fish species in July and January. Conjugated linoleic acid contents were significantly higher in January in B. plebejus escherichi and C. capoeta capoeta. Of the three species tested, the extreme temperate and cold conditions affected B. plebejus escherichi the most. PMID:18958602

  14. [Selective feeding in fish: Effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural odors].

    PubMed

    Kasumyan, A O; Marusov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural olfactory signals (the food odor, the alarm pheromone) on choice and consumption of food items different in color and taste, and the manifestation of foraging behavior were examined in fish (koi Cyprinus carpio, roach Rutilus rutilus). The agar-agar pellets of red and green color having one of the amino acids (glycine, L-proline, L-alanine; all in concentration of 0.1 M) were simultaneously offered to single fishes in pure water, and in water extract of Chironomidae larvae or in water extract of fish skin. It was found out that odors used have different effects on fish foraging activity and on pellet selection for both pellet choice and consumption. On background of food odor, fish grasped pellets more often than in pure water. The equal choice of red and green pellets in pure water shifted to the preference of red ones in the presence of food odor. Despite the increase in the absolute number of pellets grasped, the relative consumption reduced and was replaced by selective consumption of pellets with glycine regardless of their color. Increasing demand for the food quality, due to the increased feeding motivation in response to food odor, is an important adaptation enhancing selection and consumption of food with more appropriate sensory qualities for fish. Defensive motivation caused by alarm pheromone suppressed predisposition. of fish to feed. Fish grasped pellets several times less often than in pure water and refused most of them. Any changes in the color or taste preferences were absent. Feeding behavior of fish of both species was characterized by repeated intraoral pellet testing, but in koi handling was less typical than in roach. In both species, handling activity was higher in those cases when the pellet was finally rejected. This activity was enhanced also on the background of food odor. PMID:26201217

  15. Epidemiology of fishborne trematodiasis in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Sultanov, A; Abdybekova, A; Abdibaeva, A; Shapiyeva, Z; Yeshmuratov, T; Torgerson, P R

    2014-10-01

    Fish borne trematodes are an important cause of morbidity in Kazakhstan. The number of human cases of opisthorchiidosis (infection with parasites of the family opisthorchiidae) reached a peak of 2521 recorded cases (17 cases per 100,000) in 2002 with a gradual decline to 1225 cases (7.4 cases per 100,000) in 2011. Most human cases are found in the north and north east part of Kazakhstan in areas drained by the Irtysh River and it tributaries. A further focus is found in the north west in the Ural river basin in the European part of Kazakhstan. The most common occupations of patients with opisthorchiidosis included the manual laborers, those employed in the home or unemployed. Necropsy investigations of village dogs in an endemic region revealed 37 of 51 (72%) village dogs infected with either Opisthorchis felineus or Methorchis bilis. Likewise an investigation of 242 cats consisting of strays, village, suburban and city cats revealed 79 (33%) animals infected with O. felineus. Higher prevalences were seen in strays and village cats compared to suburban cats. No urban cats, which lived in apartments, were found to be infected. Other important zoonoses included Echinococcus granulosus, detected in 2 of the 51 necropsied village dogs and E. multilocularis was found in 2 out of 124 necropsied stray cats. Investigations of locally caught fish revealed 10 of 107 (9%) roach (Rutilus rutilus), 49 of 68(72%) ide (Leuciscus idus) and 2 of 79 (2.5%) bream (Abramis brama) infested with trematode metacercariae. No metacercariae were found in 609 crucian carp (Carassius carassius), 35 tench (Tinca tinca), 79 carp (Cyprinus carpio), 46 perch (Perca fluviatilis) or 20 zander (Sander lucioperca). PMID:24943190

  16. Piscivore-prey fish interactions: mechanisms behind diurnal patterns in prey selectivity in brown and clear water.

    PubMed

    Ranĺker, Lynn; Persson, Jens; Jönsson, Mikael; Nilsson, P Anders; Brönmark, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Environmental change may affect predator-prey interactions in lakes through deterioration of visual conditions affecting foraging success of visually oriented predators. Environmental change in lakes includes an increase in humic matter causing browner water and reduced visibility, affecting the behavioural performance of both piscivores and prey. We studied diurnal patterns of prey selection in piscivorous pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in both field and laboratory investigations. In the field we estimated prey selectivity and prey availability during day and night in a clear and a brown water lake. Further, prey selectivity during day and night conditions was studied in the laboratory where we manipulated optical conditions (humic matter content) of the water. Here, we also studied the behaviours of piscivores and prey, focusing on foraging-cycle stages such as number of interests and attacks by the pikeperch as well as the escape distance of the prey fish species. Analyses of gut contents from the field study showed that pikeperch selected perch (Perca fluviatilis) over roach (Rutilus rutilus) prey in both lakes during the day, but changed selectivity towards roach in both lakes at night. These results were corroborated in the selectivity experiments along a brown-water gradient in day and night light conditions. However, a change in selectivity from perch to roach was observed when the optical condition was heavily degraded, from either brown-stained water or light intensity. At longer visual ranges, roach initiated escape at distances greater than pikeperch attack distances, whereas perch stayed inactive making pikeperch approach and attack at the closest range possible. Roach anti-predatory behaviour decreased in deteriorated visual conditions, altering selectivity patterns. Our results highlight the importance of investigating both predator and prey responses to visibility conditions in order to understand the effects of degrading optical conditions on piscivore-prey interaction strength and thereby ecosystem responses to brownification of waters. PMID:25379665

  17. Strategies of zooplanktivory shape the dynamics and diversity of littoral plankton communities: a mesocosm approach

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, Laura K; Aymŕ Padrós, Anna; Leskinen, Elina; Lehtonen, Hannu; Nurminen, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Planktivorous fish can exert strong top-down control on zooplankton communities. By incorporating different feeding strategies, from selective particulate feeding to cruising filter feeding, fish species target distinct prey. In this study, we investigated the effects of two species with different feeding strategies, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.)) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), on a low-diversity brackish water zooplankton community using a 16-day mesocosm experiment. The experiment was conducted on a small-bodied spring zooplankton community in high-nutrient conditions, as well as a large-bodied summer community in low-nutrient conditions. Effects were highly dependent on the initial zooplankton community structure and hence seasonal variation. In a small-bodied community with high predation pressure and no dispersal or migration, the selective particulate-feeding stickleback depleted the zooplankton community and decreased its diversity more radically than the cruising filter-feeding roach. Cladocerans rather than copepods were efficiently removed by predation, and their removal caused altered patterns in rotifer abundance. In a large-bodied summer community with initial high taxonomic and functional diversity, predation pressure was lower and resource availability was high for omnivorous crustaceans preying on other zooplankton. In this community, predation maintained diversity, regardless of predator species. During both experimental periods, predation influenced the competitive relationship between the dominant calanoid copepods, and altered species composition and size structure of the zooplankton community. Changes also occurred to an extent at the level of nontarget prey, such as microzooplankton and rotifers, emphasizing the importance of subtle predation effects. We discuss our results in the context of the adaptive foraging mechanism and relate them to the natural littoral community. PMID:26045953

  18. Strategies of zooplanktivory shape the dynamics and diversity of littoral plankton communities: a mesocosm approach.

    PubMed

    Helenius, Laura K; Aymŕ Padrós, Anna; Leskinen, Elina; Lehtonen, Hannu; Nurminen, Leena

    2015-05-01

    Planktivorous fish can exert strong top-down control on zooplankton communities. By incorporating different feeding strategies, from selective particulate feeding to cruising filter feeding, fish species target distinct prey. In this study, we investigated the effects of two species with different feeding strategies, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.)) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), on a low-diversity brackish water zooplankton community using a 16-day mesocosm experiment. The experiment was conducted on a small-bodied spring zooplankton community in high-nutrient conditions, as well as a large-bodied summer community in low-nutrient conditions. Effects were highly dependent on the initial zooplankton community structure and hence seasonal variation. In a small-bodied community with high predation pressure and no dispersal or migration, the selective particulate-feeding stickleback depleted the zooplankton community and decreased its diversity more radically than the cruising filter-feeding roach. Cladocerans rather than copepods were efficiently removed by predation, and their removal caused altered patterns in rotifer abundance. In a large-bodied summer community with initial high taxonomic and functional diversity, predation pressure was lower and resource availability was high for omnivorous crustaceans preying on other zooplankton. In this community, predation maintained diversity, regardless of predator species. During both experimental periods, predation influenced the competitive relationship between the dominant calanoid copepods, and altered species composition and size structure of the zooplankton community. Changes also occurred to an extent at the level of nontarget prey, such as microzooplankton and rotifers, emphasizing the importance of subtle predation effects. We discuss our results in the context of the adaptive foraging mechanism and relate them to the natural littoral community. PMID:26045953

  19. An evaluation of LSU rDNA D1-D2 sequences for their use in species identification

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, Rainer; Nolte, Arne W; Tautz, Diethard

    2007-01-01

    Background Identification of species via DNA sequences is the basis for DNA taxonomy and DNA barcoding. Currently there is a strong focus on using a mitochondrial marker for this purpose, in particular a fragment from the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). While there is ample evidence that this marker is indeed suitable across a broad taxonomic range to delineate species, it has also become clear that a complementation by a nuclear marker system could be advantageous. Ribosomal RNA genes could be suitable for this purpose, because of their global occurrence and the possibility to design universal primers. However, it has so far been assumed that these genes are too highly conserved to allow resolution at, or even beyond the species level. On the other hand, it is known that ribosomal gene regions harbour also highly divergent parts. We explore here the information content of two adjacent divergence regions of the large subunit ribosomal gene, the D1-D2 region. Results Universal primers were designed to amplify the D1-D2 region from all metazoa. We show that amplification products in the size between 800–1300 bp can be obtained across a broad range of animal taxa, provided some optimizations of the PCR procedure are implemented. Although the ribosomal genes occur in multiple copies in the genomes, we find generally very little intra-individual polymorphism (<< 0.1% on average) indicating that concerted evolution is very effective in most cases. Studies in two fish taxa (genus Cottus and genus Aphyosemion) show that the D1-D2 LSU sequence can resolve even very closely related species with the same fidelity as COI sequences. In one case we can even show that a mitochondrial transfer must have occurred, since the nuclear sequence confirms the taxonomic assignment, while the mitochondrial sequence would have led to the wrong classification. We have further explored whether hybrids between species can be detected with the nuclear sequence and we show for a test case of natural hybrids among cyprinid fish species (Alburnus alburnus and Rutilus rutilus) that this is indeed possible. Conclusion The D1-D2 LSU region is a suitable marker region for applications in DNA based species identification and should be considered to be routinely used as a marker complementing broad scale studies based on mitochondrial markers. PMID:17306026

  20. Occurrence of methyl triclosan, a transformation product of the bactericide triclosan, in fish from various lakes in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Marianne E; Poiger, Thomas; Droz, Christian; Romanin, Kathrin; Bergqvist, Per-Anders; Müller, Markus D; Buser, Hans-Rudolf

    2004-01-15

    The bactericide triclosan and methyl triclosan, an environmental transformation product thereof, have been previously detected in lakes and a river in Switzerland. Both compounds are emitted via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with methyl triclosan probably being formed by biological methylation. Passive sampling with semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) showed the presence of methyl triclosan in some lakes, suggesting some potential for bioaccumulation of the compound. In this study, we report the presence of methyl triclosan in fish (white fish, Coregonus sp.; roach, Rutilus rutilus) from various lakes in Switzerland receiving inputs from WWTPs. Identification of the compound was based on mass spectral (MS) evidence including MS/MS data. The concentrations of methyl triclosan in the fish were up to 35 ng g(-1) on a wet weight basis and up to 365 ng g(-1) on a lipid basis with concentrations in a relatively narrow range for fish from the same lake (Thunersee, 4-6 ng g(-1); Zürichsee, 32-62 ng g(-1); Pfäffikersee, 43-56 ng g(-1); Greifensee, 165-365 ng g(-1), lipid basis). No methyl triclosan (<1 ng g(-1), lipid basis) was detected in fish (lake trout, Salmo trutta) from a remote lake in Sweden (Häbberstjärnen) and in fish (roach) from a small lake in Switzerland with no input from WWTPs (Hüttnersee, <2-<5 ng g(-1), lipid basis). The concentrations of methyl triclosan in fish correlated (r2 = 0.85) with the ratio of population in the watershed to water throughflow of the lakes (P/Q ratio), which is considered to be a measure for the domestic burden from WWTPs to a lake. Passive sampling with SPMDs confirmed the presence of methyltriclosan in lakes and a river (Zürichsee and Greifensee; Limmat) but not in a remote mountain lake (Jörisee) and in Hüttnersee. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of methyl triclosan estimated from the fish data and SPMD-derived water concentrations was in the order of 1-2.6 x 10(5) (lipid basis) and thus in the range of other persistent organic pollutants. SPMDs were found to be reliable for monitoring low concentrations of methyl triclosan in surface water. Methyl triclosan appears to be a suitable marker for WWTP-derived lipophilic contaminants in the aquatic environment and fish. PMID:14750712

  1. Comparing two fish sampling standards over time: largely congruent results but with caveats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cachera, Sébastien; Colon, Michel; Guillard, Jean

    2013-01-01

    1. We sampled Lake Bourget (surface area = 44 km2) using CEN standard gillnet and provisional standard acoustic survey methods over 3 years (2005, 2010 and 2011) as the fish community responded to re-oligotrophication. A total of 16 species were caught in benthic gillnets and three species in pelagic gillnets. 2. Lake Bourget results were consistent with a recent study (Emmrich et al., Freshwater Biology, 57, 2012, 2436) showing strong correspondence between average biomass-per-unit-effort (BPUE) in standard benthic gillnets and average acoustic volume backscattering when smaller lakes (0.25–5.45 km2) were treated as sample units. 3. The BPUE of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) measured by benthic gillnets all declined significantly with increasing bathymetric depth; 93% of nets set at depths >50 m caught zero fish. 4. Pelagic gillnetting indicated that small (20 m) increased significantly after 2005. 5. Both surveys showed whitefish biomass increased significantly during the study, but whitefish ?25 cm were poorly represented in benthic gillnet catches. Contrary to the acoustic findings, the BPUE of perch and roach in benthic gillnets did not vary significantly over time. This metric is insensitive to changes in size structure in that a high catch of small fish and a low catch of large fish in different years can provide similar average BPUE estimates. 6. We examined correlations between BPUE in benthic gillnets and acoustic methods at fine spatial scales by averaging acoustic backscattering measurements encompassed by buffers of varying size (250–2000 m) around individual gillnets and by averaging samples collected from lake quadrants. Correlations at fines scales were generally poor, and only in 1 year was the quadrant correlation significant. The lack of correlation can be explained, in part, by the two gears sampling different components of the fish community. Conversely, in pelagic habitat, where the fish community was simpler, we found BPUE in pelagic nets to be strongly correlated with acoustic backscattering. 7. With respect to large lakes like Lake Bourget, we hypothesise that the congruence in average biomass measurements provided by these two survey methods occurs because these different community components are responding similarly to a common driver like lake trophic status (or possibly multiple drivers operating in synergy).

  2. Predicted Exposures to Steroid Estrogens in U.K. Rivers Correlate with Widespread Sexual Disruption in Wild Fish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, Susan; Williams, Richard; Johnson, Andrew; Taylor, Ayesha; Gross-Sorokin, Melanie; Nolan, Monique; Tyler, Charles R.; van Aerle, Ronny; Santos, Eduarda; Brighty, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Steroidal estrogens, originating principally from human excretion, are likely to play a major role in causing widespread endocrine disruption in wild populations of the roach (Rutilus rutilus), a common cyprinid fish, in rivers contaminated by treated sewage effluents. Given the extent of this problem, risk assessment models are needed to predict the location and severity of endocrine disruption in river catchments and to identify areas where regulation of sewage discharges to remove these contaminants is necessary. In this study we attempted to correlate the extent of endocrine disruption in roach in British rivers, with their predicted exposure to steroid estrogens derived from the human population. The predictions of steroid estrogen exposure at each river site were determined by combining the modeled concentrations of the individual steroid estrogens [17? -estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and 17? -ethinylestradiol (EE2)] in each sewage effluent with their predicted dilution in the immediate receiving water. This model was applied to 45 sites on 39 rivers throughout the United Kingdom. Each site studied was then categorized as either high, medium, or low “risk” on the basis of the assumed additive potency of the three steroid estrogens calculated from data derived from published studies in various cyprinid fish species. We sampled 1,438 wild roach from the predicted high-, medium-, and low-risk river sites and examined them for evidence and severity of endocrine disruption. Both the incidence and the severity of intersex in wild roach were significantly correlated with the predicted concentrations of the natural estrogens (E1 and E2) and the synthetic contraceptive pill estrogen (EE2) present. Predicted steroid estrogen exposure was, however, less well correlated with the plasma vitellogenin concentration measured in the same fish. Moreover, we found no correlation between any of the end points measured in the roach and the proportion of industrial effluents entering the rivers we studied. Overall, our results provide further and substantive evidence to support the hypothesis that steroidal estrogens play a major role in causing intersex in wild freshwater fish in rivers in the United Kingdom and clearly show that the location and severity of these endocrine-disrupting effects can be predicted. PMID:16818244

  3. Description of Myxobolus gayerae sp. n. and re-description of M. leuciscini infecting European chub from the Hungarian stretch of the river Danube.

    PubMed

    Molnár, K; Marton, S; Eszterbauer, E; Székely, C

    2007-12-13

    Myxobolus gayerae sp. n. and M. leuciscini González-Lanza & Alvarez-Pellitero, 1985 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) have been described and re-described from European chub Leuciscus cephalus L. from the Hungarian stretch of the river Danube. The ellipsoidal plasmodia of M. gayerae sp. n. were found in the mucosa of the intestinal wall, whereas the large, elongated plasmodia of M. leuciscini infected the afferent arteries of the gill filaments. The spores of M. gayerae sp. n. are relatively large, slightly oval and almost rectangular in shape. On the basis of spore morphology and 18S rDNA sequences, the most similar species was M. cycloides Gurley, 1893, but the 2 species differed in host and tissue tropism as well as in the size of the spores. The spores of M. leuciscini from L. cephalus, having no intercapsular appendix or occasionally a very small one, showed a high morphological similarity to spores collected from L. cephalus cabeda, Chondrostoma polylepis and Rutilus arcasi in Spain and described as M. leuciscini González-Lanza & Alvarez-Pellitero, 1985. PMID:18286811

  4. Vacuolating encephalopathy and retinopathy associated with a nodavirus-like agent: a probable cause of mass mortality of wild Golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and Sharpnose grey mullet (Liza saliens) in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Zorriehzahra, Mohammad Jalil; Nazari, Alireza; Ghasemi, Mohaddes; Ghiasi, Maryam; Karsidani, Somayeh Haghighi; Bovo, Giuseppe; Daud, Hassan Hj Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Mullets are dominant fishes in the catch composition in the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea and after (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamensky, 1901) have a worthy role in production of marine proteins and incomings of north provinces of Iran. Mullets stocks decreased dramatically in recent decades in the Caspian Sea and catch amount reached from 6446 MT on 2002 to 2151 MT in 2012. Mysterious mortalities occurred in wild mullet (Liza auratu) and (Liza saliens) in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea in recent years. Regarding to investigation of causative agent of mentioned outbreak about 322 suspected samples were collected from coastal capture sites of Iranian north provinces in 2008 till 2011. Moribund fish revealed skin darkening, erratic swimming, belly-up at rest and high distension of swim bladder. Target tissues such as brain and eye were removed and then fixed for histopathology and TEM assay. Widespread and massive vacuolation were observed in brain, spinal cord, retina and optical nerve and intracytoplasmic vacuoles and virus particles in retina. So concerning to clinical signs, histopathological and TEM findings, it could be concluded that nodavirus-like agent could be probable cause of mass mortality of wild mullet in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea. PMID:25674618

  5. Evaluation of metal pollution in fish and water collected from Gorgan coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, S S; Karami, B; Karami, S; Shokrzadeh, M

    2012-08-01

    In this study, concentrations of zinc, chromium, cadmium and lead were determined in water and three species of fish sampled from 10 selected stations along Gorgan coast using atomic absorption spectrophotometery, summer 2009. Mean lead levels in water and fish samples (119.50 ± 22.24 ?g/L and 113.80 ± 33.11 ?g/kg) were significantly higher than that of cadmium and chromium (p < 0.05). Cyprinus carpio had highest metals content than Mugila auratus and Rutilus frisikutum. The evaluated metals values in water collected from Gomishan wetland (Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn values are 145.31 ± 35.32, 120.46 ± 11.44, 96.47 ± 6.05 and 82.02 ± 34.37 ?g/L, respectively) were higher than the other sampling sites. The result is consistent with the findings accessed by evaluation of the metals in fish specimens. The metals concentrations in the fish and water samples were below the recommended limits. But, elevating levels of metals in water and fish made a serious concern about ecosystem and food chain contamination. PMID:22664555

  6. Arsenic speciation patterns in freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Slejkovec, Zdenka; Bajc, Zlatka; Doganoc, Darinka Z

    2004-04-19

    Muscle of 16 freshwater fish (9 different species belonging to 4 different families) was analysed for arsenic species using HPLC separation (anion and cation exchange) followed by on-line UV-decomposition, hydride generation and AFS detection. The main arsenic compounds found in the extracts were arsenobetaine (AsB), which accounted for 92-100% of extractable arsenic in species of salmonids (Salmo marmoratus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta m. fario), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), which accounted for 75% of extractable arsenic in burbot (Lota lota). AsB was also found in lower concentrations in almost all other fish species analysed (Silurus glanis, L. lota, Barbus barbus, Rutilus pigus virgo, Chondrostoma nasus). Arsenite (As(III)) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were detected in low concentrations in some representatives of Cyprinidae only (R. pigus virgo, C. nasus). Except in salmonids, an unknown cationic compound was present in most of the samples in relatively low concentrations. Cluster analysis of the generated data seems to indicate that there is a correlation between fish family and the arsenic speciation pattern. This is especially clear for the salmonids which show a completely separate cluster and thus a very distinct arsenic speciation pattern. PMID:18969382

  7. Testing Species Delimitations in Four Italian Sympatric Leuciscine Fishes in the Tiber River: A Combined Morphological and Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Russo, Tommaso; Cataudella, Stefano; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Corsi, Elisa; Rossi, Anna Rita

    2013-01-01

    Leuciscine fishes represent an important component of freshwater ichthyofauna endemic to northern Mediterranean areas. This lineage shows high intra-specific morphological variability and exhibits high levels of hybridization, two characteristics that contribute to systematic uncertainties, misclassification of taxa and, potentially, the mismanagement of biodiversity. This study focused on brook chub, Squalius lucumonis, an endemic taxon of Central Italy. The taxonomic status of this species has long been questioned, and a hybrid origin from sympatric leusciscines (S. squalus x Rutilus rubilio, or S. squalus x Telestes muticellus) has been hypothesised. A phenotypic (evaluating shape and meristic counts) and genetic (using mitochondrial and nuclear markers) investigation of these four taxa was conducted to test species delimitation in sympatric areas and to evaluate the taxonomic status of S. lucumonis. One hundred and forty-five individuals of all four taxa were collected within streams of the lowest portion of the Tiber River basin and analysed; this region encompasses a large portion of the S. lucumonis distribution. The different morphological and genetic approaches were individually examined, compared, and then combined in a quantitative model to both investigate the limits of each approach and to identify cases of misclassification. The results obtained confirm the cladogenetic non-hybrid origin of S. lucumonis, highlight the need for immediate conservation actions and emphasise the value of an integrated approach in the study of leuciscines evolution. PMID:23565240

  8. Attracted to the enemy: Aedes aegypti prefers oviposition sites with predator-killed conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Albeny-Simoes, Daniel; Murrell, Ebony G.; Elliot, Simon L.; Andrade, Mateus R.; Lima, Eraldo; Juliano, Steven A.; Vilela, Evaldo F.

    2014-01-01

    Oviposition habitat choices of species with aquatic larvae is expected to be influenced by both offspring risk of mortality due to predation, and offspring growth potential. Aquatic predators may indirectly influence growth potential for prey by reducing prey density and, for filter feeding prey, by increasing bacterial food for prey via added organic matter (feces, partially eaten victims), creating the potential for interactive effects on oviposition choices. We tested the hypothesis that the mosquito Aedes aegypti preferentially oviposit in habitats with predatory Toxorhynchites larvae because of indirect effects of predation on chemical cues indicating bacterial abundance. We predicted that A. aegypti would avoid oviposition in sites with Toxorhynchites, but prefer to oviposit where bacterial food for larvae is abundant, and that predation by Toxorhynchites would increase bacterial abundances. Gravid A. aegypti were offered paired oviposition sites representing choices among: predator presence; the act of predation; conspecific density; dead conspecific larvae; and bacterial activity. Aedes aegypti preferentially oviposited in sites with T. theobaldi predation, and with killed conspecific larvae, but failed to detect preferences for other treatments. The antibiotic Tetracycline eliminated the strongest oviposition preference. Both predation by Toxorhynchites and killed larvae increased bacterial abundances, suggesting that oviposition attraction is cued by bacteria. Our results show the potential for indirect effects, like trophic cascades, to influence oviposition choices and community composition in aquatic systems. Our results suggest that predators like Toxorhynchites may be doubly beneficial as biocontrol agents because of the attraction of ovipositing mosquitoes to bacterial by-products of Toxorhynchites feeding. PMID:24590205

  9. Effect of temperature, prey density, vegetation, and BTI on development and predation by Psorophora ciliata (Fabricius) 

    E-print Network

    Atwood, Donald Wayne

    1985-01-01

    times as larger prey are depleted. Cannibalism may also serve as a source of nutrients for P. ciliata. According to Steffan and Evenhuis (1981), cannibalism may be viewed as a survival strategy which allows at least one predator to complete... development in the absence of a suitable prey source. Trpis (1979) reported that cannibalism in Toxorhynchites may occur even when prey are abundant, indicating that the predatory nature of mosquito larvae may be indiscriminate. Steffan and Evenhui s ( 1981...

  10. Fundamental differences in the optical structure of the eyes of nocturnal and diurnal mosquitoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Land; G. Gibson; J. Horwood; J. Zeil

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the anatomy and optics of the eyes of a range of mosquito species from the wholly dark-active blood-feeding\\u000a Anopheles gambiae to the diurnal plant-feeder Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. Consistent with studies by Satô in the 1950s, we find that dark-active and crepuscular species have short fused rhabdoms\\u000a with a conical construction. This maximises the amount of light the rhabdoms

  11. Pathogenicity Tests on Nine Mosquito Species and Several Non-target Organisms with Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nemata Mermithidae).

    PubMed

    Becnel, J J; Johnson, M A

    1998-12-01

    Nine species of mosquitoes and several species of non-target aquatic organisms were tested for susceptibility to the mernaithid nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus. All species of Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, and Toxorhynchites exposed to S. spiculatus were susceptible. Of the nine mosquito species tested, C. pipiens quinquefasciatus had the greatest tolerance to initial invasion and the highest percent infection of those that survived. High levels of infection were also achieved with Aedes taeniorhynchus and A. albopictus, but these mosquitoes were significantly less tolerant to parasitism than C. pipiens quinquefasciatus. Strelkovimermis spiculatus did not infect or develop in any of the non-target hosts tested. PMID:19274233

  12. Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

    2007-01-01

    The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

  13. Mathematical modelling of the active hearing process in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Avitabile, D.; Homer, M.; Champneys, A. R.; Jackson, J. C.; Robert, D.

    2010-01-01

    Insects have evolved diverse and delicate morphological structures in order to capture the inherently low energy of a propagating sound wave. In mosquitoes, the capture of acoustic energy and its transduction into neuronal signals are assisted by the active mechanical participation of the scolopidia. We propose a simple microscopic mechanistic model of the active amplification in the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments: spontaneous oscillations, nonlinear amplification, hysteresis, 2 : 1 resonances, frequency response and gain loss owing to hypoxia. The numerical simulations presented here also generate new hypotheses. In particular, the model seems to indicate that scolopidia located towards the tip of Johnston's organ are responsible for the entrainment of the other scolopidia and that they give the largest contribution to the mechanical amplification. PMID:19447819

  14. Humming in Tune: Sex and Species Recognition by Mosquitoes on the Wing

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gabriella; Warren, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Mosquitoes are more sensitive to sound than any other insect due to the remarkable properties of their antennae and Johnston’s organ at the base of each antenna. Male mosquitoes detect and locate female mosquitoes by hearing the female’s flight tone, but until recently we had no idea that females also respond to male flight tones. Our investigation of a novel mechanism of sex recognition in Toxorhynchites brevipalpis revealed that male and female mosquitoes actively respond to the flight tones of other flying mosquitoes by altering their own wing-beat frequencies. Male–female pairs converge on a shared harmonic of their respective fundamental flight tones, whereas same sex pairs diverge. Most frequency matching occurs at frequencies beyond the detection range of the Johnston’s organ but within the range of mechanical responsiveness of the antennae. We have shown that this is possible because the Johnston’s organ is tuned to, and able to detect difference tones in, the harmonics of antennal vibrations which are generated by the combined input of flight tones from both mosquitoes. Acoustic distortion in hearing organs exists usually as an interesting epiphenomenon. Mosquitoes, however, appear to use it as a sensory cue that enables male–female pairs to communicate through a signal that depends on auditory interactions between them. Frequency matching may also provide a means of species recognition. Morphologically identical but reproductively isolated molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae fly in the same mating swarms, but rarely hybridize. Extended frequency matching occurs almost exclusively between males and females of the same molecular form, suggesting that this behavior is associated with observed assortative mating. PMID:20976515

  15. Mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activity of synthesized nano-crystalline silver particles using leaves and green berry extract of Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae: Solanales).

    PubMed

    Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that are synthesized by using aqueous extracts of Solanum nigrum L., is a simple, non-toxic and ecofriendly green material. The present study is based on assessments of the larvicidal and antimicrobial activities of the synthesized AgNPs from fresh leaves, dry leaves and green berries of S. nigrum against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi and four human pathogenic and five fish pathogenic bacteria respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The nanoparticles are spherical to polyhedral in shape with size of 50-100nm (average size of 56.6nm). In larvicidal bioassay with synthesized AgNPs, highest mortality are observed at 10ppm against An. stephensi with LC50 values of 1.33, 1.59, 1.56ppm and LC90 values of 3.97, 7.31, 4.76ppm for dry leaves, fresh leaves and berries respectively. Antibacterial activity test reveals better results against fish pathogenic bacteria than human pathogenic bacteria. Non target organism like Toxorhynchites larvae (mosquito predator), Diplonychus annulatum (predatory water-bug) and Chironomus circumdatus larvae (chironomid) are also exposed to respective lethal concentrations (to mosquito larvae) of dry nanoparticles and no abnormality in the non target organisms are recorded. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs of S. nigrum have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly compound for the control of the mosquito larvae and harmful bacteria. PMID:24055718