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1

Life History of Roach, Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with aspects of the brain development in the roach, Rutilus rutilus, a common mid-European cyprinid fish. The morphogenesis of selected brain areas from hatching to early juveniles was examined on serial paraffin cross-sections. From early juveniles to large adults, brain growth was quantitatively analyzed by computer-aided planimetry. The hatchlings of roach show a cytologically distinct optic

Roland Brandstätter; Kurt Kotrschal

1989-01-01

2

Interactions between the roach, Rutilus rutilus , and waterfowl populations of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Following the introduction of roach, Rutilus rutilus, to a large eutrophic lake in ca. 1973, a subsequent increase in the abundance of this cyprinid through the 1970s was accompanied by a decline in the numbers of one of the lake&s most abundant overwintering waterfowl, the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula, and an increase in overwintering piscivorous great crested grebes, Podiceps

Ian J. Winfield; Denise K. Winfield; Catherine M. Tobin

1992-01-01

3

Metabolic responses to food deprivation and refeeding in juveniles of Rutilus rutilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of food deprivation and refeeding on metabolic parameters were studied in juvenile Rutilus rutilus, weighing 280–460 mg. Tissue hydration increased with the length of the starvation period, reaching a new steady state after 4–5 weeks. Total protein concentration remained constant at about 60% of dry body mass. The concentration of glycogen decreased during food deprivation, a new steady state

Gabriela Méndez; Wolfgang Wieser

1993-01-01

4

Trichodina pediculus Ehrenberg, 1838 in roach Rutilus rutilus (L.), metric and meristic data.  

PubMed

During the parasitological studies in Dga? Wielki Lake 32 specimens of Trichodina pediculus were collected from roaches (Rutilus rutilus). T. pediculus were subjected to the metric and meristic measurements. High correlation factors significance was obtained between the following data: body diameter and adhesive disc diameter with border membrane, adhesive disc diameter without border membrane, denticulate ring diameter, height of denticle. However no correlation significance between body diameter and number of denticles was found. PMID:16894736

Bielecki, A; Dzika, E

2001-01-01

5

[A report of ectoparasite Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus, 1761) (Hirudinea: Rhynchobdellida) on roach (Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758)) from Uluabat Lake].  

PubMed

An ectoparasite leech Piscicola geometra were found on female roach (Rutilus rutilus) between the anus and lateral line during the biometric measurements for the purpose of monitoring the fish population in Uluabat Lake. P. geometra was previously reported on Carassius gibelio and Tinca tinca from Lake Uluabat. It was understood with this case report that R. rutilus also is a host fish for P. geometra in Uluabat Lake. PMID:22198920

Ceylan, Mustafa; Boyac?, Yunus Ömer; Meke, Turgay; ?nceo?lu, Ha?im; Kara, Alparslan

2011-01-01

6

Diet shifts and food selection of perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus in humic lakes of varying water colour.  

PubMed

The field data from four humic lakes suggested that water colour may have both direct and indirect effects on inter- and intra-specific interactions of perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus. The results agree with suggestions that, compared with R. rutilus, P. fluviatilis may be an inferior forager on zooplankton in highly coloured water. As an indirect effect, water colour decreases the coverage of macrophytes and limits suitable littoral habitats, benefiting R. rutilus over P. fluviatilis. Perca fluviatilis benefiting from complex habitats does not have the advantage in macrophyte-poor highly coloured water. PMID:20646150

Estlander, S; Nurminen, L; Olin, M; Vinni, M; Immonen, S; Rask, M; Ruuhijärvi, J; Horppila, J; Lehtonen, H

2010-07-01

7

Stable isotope analysis of archived roach (Rutilus rutilus) scales for retrospective study of shallow lake responses to nutrient reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. There is increasing interest in the use of stable isotope analysis of archived materials to study the long-term impacts of lake perturbations, including nutrient manipulation or species invasion. We tested the utility of this approach in a shallow productive lake using the zooplanktivorous early life stages of roach (Rutilus rutilus), a fish species that is widespread throughout Eurasian lakes.

J. Grey; C. T. Graham; J. R. Britton; C. Harrod

2009-01-01

8

Interactions between developmental processes, growth, and food selection in the larvae and juveniles of Rutilus rutilus (L.) (Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of developmental events, occurring in fish during the first weeks after hatching, on the quantity and quality of the ingested food and on growth. The investigation was carried out with the larvae and juveniles of Rutilus rutilus, the single cyprinid species occurring in an oligotrophic subalpine lake in Tirol, Austria.

W. Mark; W. Wieser; C. Hohenauer

1989-01-01

9

Interactive effects of season and temperature on enzyme activities, tissue and whole animal respiration in roach, Rutilus rutilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis This paper reviews investigations on the ecophysiology of a population of roach, Rutilus rutilus, from a subalpine oligotrophic lake in the Austrian Tirol. Metabolic responses to season and temperature were studied in whole animals, tissues and selected enzymes. The exponent of the relationship between body mass and three levels of the metabolic rate of acclimated fish was 0.82 ±

Franz Koch; Wolfgang Wieser; Harald Niederstätter

1992-01-01

10

Evidence of altered fertility in female roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Seine (France).  

PubMed

A large variety of anthropogenic chemicals present in the aquatic environment have been shown to be able to alter the endocrine system of exposed organisms, potentially impacting their reproductive function. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of environmental pollution on the reproductive system of wild female roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the Seine River (Normandy, France). A suite of biomarkers of endocrine disruption including gonado-somatic index, plasmatic vitellogenin, gonadal aromatase activity and histological parameters (oocyte diameter and gonad maturation) were studied. Female fish from the polluted sites showed a number of reproductive alterations, including inhibited gonad maturation, reduced oocyte growth, reduced levels of plasmatic vitellogenin and 3-fold lower gonadal aromatase activity than females collected in the reference site. Overall, these results highlight the presence of endocrine disruption in female roach from the Seine River. PMID:24811946

Gerbron, M; Geraudie, P; Fernandes, D; Rotchell, J M; Porte, C; Minier, C

2014-08-01

11

Parasite community and mortality of overwintering young-of-the-year roach (Rutilus rutilus).  

PubMed

The composition and development of the parasite community of overwintering young-of-the-year (YOY) roach (Rutilus rutilus) was studied in outdoor artificial ponds. Cumulative mortality of the roach from November until May was about 20%. The prevalences of the epizoic ciliates Trichodina sp. and Apiosoma sp., and of the monogeneans Dactylogyrus suecicus, Dactylogyrus nanus, and Gyrodactylus sp. in general tended to peak in the beginning of April at a water temperature of about 8 C. However, mean parasite intensity remained constant over this interval. Prevalence of metacercariae of the digeneans Diplostomum cf. spathaceum and Tylodelphys clavata remained constant with values around 60% and 10%, respectively. Larvae of the nematode Philometra obturans and the cestode Ligula intestinalis and females of the copepod Neoergasilus japonicus were found sporadically. A concept of 2 thresholds, a critical condition factor (attained by a temperature-induced energy deficiency), and a condition-dependent critical infection intensity, which determine winter mortality of YOY, is suggested. PMID:18163330

Knopf, Klaus; Krieger, Antje; Hölker, Franz

2007-10-01

12

Intraoligochaete development of Myxobolus intimus (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae), a gill myxosporean of the roach (Rutilus rutilus).  

PubMed

The infection with Myxobolus intimus Zaika, 1965 in the gills of the roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) from Lake Balaton was recorded in 28 out of the 39 fish examined. Developing and mature plasmodia were detected on the gills exclusively in the spring. The Myxobolus intimus infection was found only in 2- to 3-year-old fish. In histological sections, young plasmodia were found in capillaries of the secondary lamellae. More mature, round plasmodia 0.4-0.6 mm in diameter, deformed the respiratory lamellae. The intraoligochaete development of M. intimus was studied in experimentally infected oligochaetes. In two experiments, uninfected Tubifex tubifex Müller and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Claparčde) were exposed to mature myxospores of M. intimus. In both experiments, typical triactinospores developed in T. tubifex specimens but no infection was found in L. hoffmeisteri. In semithin sections, developmental stages, pansporocysts and actinospores, were found within the proliferated gut epithelium of T. tubifex. Triactinospores were first released from oligochaetes 37 and 58 days after initial exposure in the two experiments, respectively. Each triactinospore had three pyriform polar capsules and a cylindrical sporoplasm with 32 secondary cells. The spore body joined the 3 caudal projections with a moderately long style. PMID:15357397

Rácz, Orsolya Z; Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán

2004-06-01

13

The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone ?-subunit (lh?) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit (fsh?) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fsh? in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ?31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

2014-09-01

14

The interactions of abiotic and biotic factors influencing perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus populations in small acidified boreal lakes.  

PubMed

Four small, acidified boreal lakes, all sustaining populations of perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius, were studied in four successive years. Three lakes were moderately acidified (mean pH of 5·61-5·83), while the fourth was more acidic (mean pH of 5·16) and had a sparse population of R. rutilus. Perca fluviatilis density was higher in this lake (1004 ha(-1)) than in the other three (355-717 ha(-1)), where R. rutilus dominated in terms of numbers (981-2185 ha(-1)). Large, potentially predatory, P. fluviatilis were most abundant in the lake with clearest water, and these seemed to have a negative effect on P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mean mass was negatively correlated with R. rutilus biomass and was highest in the most acidic lake with the sparse R. rutilus and the highest P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mass correlated positively with pH in two lakes (with the highest fish biomass), suggesting that low pH affected P. fluviatilis mass negatively. Perca fluviatilis growth correlated positively with summer (July to August) air temperature in the lake with sparse R. rutilus, thus differing from P. fluviatilis and R. rutilus growth in the other three lakes. The mean age of P. fluviatilis was generally lower than that of R. rutilus and was lowest in the two lakes with the highest fish biomass, indicating that adult mortality was affected by density-induced factors. PMID:21781101

Linlřkken, A N; Hesthagen, T

2011-08-01

15

A revision of the Rutilus complex from Mediterranean Europe with description of a new genus, Sarmarutilus, and a new species, Rutilus stoumboudae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

By combining morphology, ecology, biology, and biogeography with the available molecular (sequence variation of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene; cyt-b) and karyology data, the taxonomy of several species of the Rutilus complex inhabiting southern Europe is revised. Rutilus stoumboudae, new species, is described from Lake Volvi, Greece. It differs from Rutilus rutilus in possessing more total GR and less branched rays in both dorsal and anal fins and in its placement in the cyt-b based phylogeny of the genus. The resurrected genus Leucos Heckel, 1843 (type species Leucos aula, Bonaparte, 1841), which according to molecular data diverged from Rutilus more than 5 million years ago, during the Messinian salinity crisis, includes five species of small size, without spinous tubercles on scales and head in reproductive males, pharyngeal teeth formula 5-5, and all show a preference for still waters. Leucos aula is the Italian species endemic in the Padany-Venetian district: L. basak is widespread in Croatia, Albania, Montenegro and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); L. albus, recently described from Lake Skadar, Montenegro, is also found in rivers Moraca and Zeta (Montenegro). L. albus differs from L. basak, its closest relative, in having more scales on the LL and less anal-fin rays; L. panosi is endemic to the western-Greece district, and L. ylikiensis is endemic to lakes Yliki and Paralimni in eastern Greece (introduced in Lake Volvi). Among the nominal species examined, Rutilus karamani, R. ohridanus, R. prespensis and R. prespensis vukovici are all junior synonyms of Leucos basak. Rutilus vegariticus is definitively regarded as junior synonym for R. rutilus. Sarmarutilus n.gen. is a monotypic genus, with Sarmarutilus rubilio as the type species. According to phylogenetic data, Sarmarutilus rubilio is basal to a cluster of species that includes Leucos basak, L. albus, L. aula, L. panosi and L. ylikiensis. Sarmarutilus possibly evolved in pre-Messinian time, in the Lago Mare, entered the Mediterranean area during the Messinian Lago Mare phase of the Mediterranean Sea and survived only in the Tuscany- Latium district. This genus differs from Leucos in having large pearl organs on the central part of head and body scales in mature males and for the habitat preference, being a riverine-adapted species. It differs from Rutilus in pharyngeal teeth formula (5-5 in Sarmarutilus and 6-5 in Rutilus), size (small in Sarmarutilus and large in Rutilus) and for the preferential habitat (riverine vs. still water). Finally, lectotypes for Leucos basak, Leucos aula, and Sarmarutilus rubilio are designated. PMID:25082046

Bianco, Pier Giorgio; Ketmaier, Valerio

2014-01-01

16

Seasonal Fluctuations in Brain Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Soluble Protein Content in Roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.): A Freshwater Fish from Northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal fluctuations in brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and soluble protein (SP) content were studied over a 6-year period in roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from Rybinsk Reservoir in Russia. There was a significant positive linear correlation between AChE activity and SP content in roach brain for all years (r = 0.49–0.95, p < 0.001). No correlations were found, however, between either

G. M Chuiko; Y Zhelnin; V. A Pod'gornaya

1997-01-01

17

Identification of Diplostomum spp. in the retina of perch Perca fluviatilis and the lens of roach Rutilus rutilus from the Baltic Sea — an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metacercariae of the genus Diplostomum dwelling in the retina of perch Perca fluviatilis and the lens of roach Rutilus rutilus were identified on the basis of adults obtained by feeding various piscivorous birds of the families Laridae, Anatidae and\\u000a Phasianidae with metacercariae on an experimental basis. Both morphological studies of the metacercariae and adults obtained\\u000a from the intestine of the

Johan Höglund; Jan Thulin

1982-01-01

18

Environmental factors regulate the effects of roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius on perch Perca fluviatilis populations in small boreal forest lakes.  

PubMed

In this study of 18 small boreal forest lakes, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors (roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius) on various population variables of perch Perca fluviatilis were examined. As a single variable, the gillnet catch per unit effort (CPUE) of R. rutilus was negatively related to the mean mass of small (< 200 mm) and the growth rate of young (1-2 years) P. fluviatilis. The mean mass of large (> or = 200 mm) P. fluviatilis was the highest at intermediate CPUE of R. rutilus. Redundancy analysis including environmental factors and P. fluviatilis population variables suggested that 'predation-productivity-humus' gradient affected P. fluviatilis populations by decreasing the CPUE and mean mass of small individuals but increasing these variables of large individuals. The CPUE of R. rutilus and lake area had a negative effect on small and a positive effect on large P. fluviatilis growth rate. In small boreal forest lakes, P. fluviatilis populations are affected by the partially opposite forces of competition by R. rutilus and predation by E. lucius, and the intensity of these interactions is regulated by several environmental factors. PMID:20537014

Olin, M; Vinni, M; Lehtonen, H; Rask, M; Ruuhijärvi, J; Saulamo, K; Ala-Opas, P

2010-04-01

19

[Analysis of DNA damage/repair level in Rutilus rutilus L. from reservoirs of the Techa River cascade with different levels of radiactive pollution].  

PubMed

The Comet Assay and micronucleus assays have been used to evaluate the condition of the nuclear DNA in erythrocytes of peripheral blood of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from water-storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Rutilus rutilus L. from the Shershny reservoir, Chelyabinsk, was used as a control population. Radionuclide maintenance in water, sediments and roach in those reservoirs and Shershny reservoir was defined. The dose rate for Rutilus rutilus L. was calculated using program complex ERICA Assessment Tool 1.0 May 2009. Our investigation has shown that a chronic radiation of population (dose rate - 5.2 mGy/day and 19.5 mGy/day) leads to a significantly higher level of the DNA damage in erythrocytes of peripheral blood and increases the speed of nuclear DNA reparation after irradiation of erythrocytes in vitro. We suppose that it may be a result of the increased quantity of active form of oxygen in cells of the fish in water-storage of low-level radioactive waste. PMID:22690583

Stiazhkina, E V; Obvintseva, N A; Shaposhnikova, I A; Triapitsyna, G A; Stukalov, P M; Priakhin, E A

2012-01-01

20

Out-of-season production of 17,20?-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one in the roach Rutilus rutilus.  

PubMed

In this study, although the highest production of two physiologically significant progestins in teleosts [17,20?-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20?-P) and 17,20?,21-trihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20?,21-P)] was observed in the period just prior to spawning in both male and female roach Rutilus rutilus, there was also a substantial production (mean levels of 5-10?ng?ml(-1) in blood; and a rate of release of 5-20?ng fish(-1) ?h(-1) into the water) in males and females in the late summer and early autumn (at least 7?months prior to spawning). During this period, the ovaries were increasing rapidly in size and histological sections were dominated by oocytes in the secondary growth phase [i.e. incorporation of vitellogenin (VTG)]. At the same time, the testes were also increasing rapidly in size and histological sections were dominated by cysts containing mainly spermatogonia type B. Measurements were also made of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in males and 17?-oestradiol and VTG in females. The 3?months with the highest production of 11-KT coincided with the period that spermatozoa were present in the testes. In females, the first sign of a rise in 17?-oestradiol concentrations coincided with the time of the first appearance of yolk globules in the oocytes (in August). The role of the progestins during the late summer and autumn has not been established. PMID:23902304

Scott, A P; Hill, T; Beresford, N; Runnalls, T J; Sumpter, J P; Ellis, T

2013-08-01

21

Effects of aluminium and bacterial lipopolysaccharide on oxidative stress and immune parameters in roach, Rutilus rutilus L.  

PubMed

Aluminium is used in diverse anthropogenic processes at the origin of pollution events in aquatic ecosystems. In the Champagne region (France), high concentrations of aluminium (Al) are detected due to vine-growing practices. In fish, little is known about the possible immune-related effects at relevant environmental concentrations. The present study analyzes the simultaneous effects of aluminium and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alone and in combination, on toxicological biomarkers in the freshwater fish species Rutilus rutilus. For this purpose, roach treated or not with LPS were exposed to environmental concentrations of aluminium (100 ?g/L) under laboratory-controlled conditions for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days. After each exposure time, we assessed hepatic lipoperoxidation, catalase activity, glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione content. We also analyzed cellular components related to the LPS-induced inflammatory response in possible target tissues, i.e. head kidney and spleen. Our results revealed a significant prooxidant effect in the liver cells and head kidney leukocytes of roach exposed to 100 ?g of Al/L for 2 days. In liver, we observed more lipoperoxidation products and lower endogenous antioxidant activity levels such as glutathione reductase activity and total glutathione content. These prooxidant effects were associated with a higher oxidative burst in head kidney leukocytes, and they were all the more important in fish stimulated by LPS injection. These findings demonstrate that environmental concentrations of Al induce oxidative and immunotoxic effects in fish and are associated to an immunomodulatory process related to the inflammatory response. PMID:24996940

Jolly, S; Jaffal, A; Delahaut, L; Palluel, O; Porcher, J-M; Geffard, A; Sanchez, W; Betoulle, S

2014-11-01

22

Diversity of Microorganisms Isolated from the Soil Sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing Region  

PubMed Central

Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus. PMID:21448282

Wang, Peng; Liu, Yu; Yin, Yonggang; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Shouxian; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Geng, Xiaoli

2011-01-01

23

Normal axial skeleton structure in common roach Rutilus rutilus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) and malformations due to radiation contamination in the area of the Mayak (Chelyabinsk Province, Russia) nuclear plant.  

PubMed

This study was designed to describe normal axial skeletal structure in common roach Rutilus rutilus from putative unaffected environmental conditions, and the occurrence of skeletal malformations in the fish from an area under radiation contamination. Specimens were collected from water bodies of the Techa Cascade Reservoirs located near the Mayak atomic industry plant in the River Ob' drainage, Chelyabinsk Province, Russia. One sample was collected from Lake Irtyash, a reservoir of drinkable water, supplying the town of Ozersk, and the other one from a technical reservoir which is a storage of liquid radioactive waste from Mayak and characterized by high radioactive contamination (mostly (90)Sr and (137)Cs). A comparison was made with historical material collected from the River Ob' before the middle of the 20th century, i.e. before the environment became affected by radioactive contamination. A high number of abnormalities of the axial skeleton were detected in both Mayak samples, in 94 and 97% of examined specimens, in contrast to about 20% in the historical specimens. The abnormalities were in both the unpaired fins and the vertebral column, including the caudal complex and included supernumerary elements, fusions, deformities and displacement of the elements. Most axial skeleton abnormalities, however, were minor, such as splitting, shortening or deformation of spines. Severe defects, such as extensive scolioses, lordoses and kyphoses, were not found. The causes of the abnormalities were not identified in this study, but the high incidence of malformations may be attributed to genetically determined imbalance during development. The almost equal distribution of abnormalities among the fish from non-contaminated and radioactive contaminated reservoirs may be explained by either recent gene flow within the population of R. rutilus in the River Techa system or the effect of unknown unfavourable environmental factors such as chemical pollution. PMID:21967586

Bogutskaya, N G; Zuykov, M A; Naseka, A M; Anderson, E B

2011-10-01

24

[Assessment of erythrocytes pathology level in peripheral blood in roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from reservoirs with different levels of radioactive contamination].  

PubMed

In summer 2009, the level of pathology of erythrocytes was assessed in the peripheral blood of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from the reservoirs for water-storage of low level radioactive waste of PA "Mayak". Roach from the Shershny reservoir and the Buffer reservoir (Chelyabinsk region) was used as a control. Radionuclide maintenance in water, sediment, and roach was determined and dose rates for the roach were calculated using the software package ERICA Assessment Tool 1.0 May 2009. It is revealed that chronic radiation exposure with the dose rates in the range from 0.8 up to 19 mGy/d leads to a twofold increase in the frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei in peripheral blood, dose-dependent increase in the frequency of red blood cells with the nuclear pyknosis and causes no significant increase in the level oferythrocyte amitosis. It is suggested that the frequency rate of apoptosis in peripheral blood erythrocytes of the fish could be used in the biological monitoring of contaminated aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23516893

Priakhin, E A; Triapitsyna, G A; Stiazhkina, E V; Shaposhnikova, I A; Osipov, D I; Akleev, A V

2012-01-01

25

Home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A field study of home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus, was conducted in semi-arid bushland near Kibwezi, Kenya. Ground squirrels lived alone or in small groups in isolated burrow systems and had broadly overlapping home ranges. They were neither territorial or colonial. Home ranges were estimated by visual observation of marked animals and those of males were considerably larger (mean=7.01 hectares (ha); n=4) than those of females (mean=1.37 ha; n-6). A continuum of agonistic behavior ranging from threat to combat is described, although actual combat was rarely observed. Sexual behavior includes a stereotypical tail display by adult males. Dominance relationships, based on 542 observed encounters between marked individuals, include a consistent male dominance over females and a fairly constant linear hierarchy among all individuals with shared home ranges. Similarities in the behavior of African ground squirrels and tree squirrels (Sciurus) are discussed.

O'Shea, Thomas J.

1976-01-01

26

Diversity in the Reproductive Modes of Females of the Rutilus alburnoides Complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae): A Way to Avoid the Genetic Constraints of Uniparentalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid minnows collectively known as the Rutilus alburnoides complex are found throughout much of the Iberian Peninsula and include diploid and polyploid forms with female-skewed sex ratios. Previous studies have suggested that diploid and triploid females from the northern Douro Basin reproduce by hybridogenesis. The present study, which is based on experimental crosses and uses allozyme and minisatellite markers, reveals

M. Judite Alves; M. Manuela Coelho; M. Joao Collares-Pereira

27

[Density-dependent regulation in populations of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) in optimal and suboptimal habitats of south-west Siberia].  

PubMed

In a population of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) that live in optimal habitats (mountain taiga of North-Eastern Altai) in the years of peak density we have observed total suppression of sexual maturation of young animals which is known to be the main mechanism of density regulation. Increase of voles' local density is accompanied by the increase of glucocorticoids in blood of mature and immature individuals of both sexes that argues for the important role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in density dependent regulation. Another population of red-backed voles from south-west Siberia that live in suboptimal habitats (Novosibirsk city vicinity), had significantly lower density. Here, the dynamics of demographic traits and endocrine status of the individuals did not correlate with interannual fluctuations of abundance and density. Even though, the possibility that in suboptimal conditions local density occasionally reaches the values sufficient for the induction of self-regulation cannot be excluded. PMID:22567967

Novikov, E A; Panov, V V; Moshkin, M P

2012-01-01

28

Variations of serum and mucus lysozyme activity and total protein content in the male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky 1901) during reproductive period.  

PubMed

Serum and mucus lysozyme were measured in male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) under seasonal temperature, gonadal growth and reproductive migration. Significant difference with almost similar trend in serum and mucus lysozyme of the female Caspian kutum in sampling time and ovarian growth was observed. However, while there was no significant difference in serum lysozyme of the male specimen in sampling time and testicular growth, significant variations was observed in mucus lysozyme. In addition, there was significant difference in mucus total protein both for male and female specimens. The effectiveness ratio of factors on lysozyme variations followed in descending order by seasonal temperature (main factor), reproductive activity and migration with negligible effect and the lysozyme level was not significantly different in male and female Caspian kutum. PMID:24486632

Ghafoori, Zomorod; Heidari, Behrooz; Farzadfar, Fariba; Aghamaali, Mahmoudreza

2014-03-01

29

Extinction risk of exploited wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations due to chemical feminization.  

PubMed

A model that assesses risks posed by feminization to wild populations of roach was developed. A population life table matrix model that considered both sexes and a newly developed fertility kinetic function was applied to calculate the intrinsic population growth rate (lambda) of roach populations where males had been feminized. The maximum sustainable yield (MSY) was used to quantify the effect of various degrees of feminization on sustainability of exploited fisheries. Risk of extinction was calculated for wild roach populations. The results of the simulations suggested that (a) In the absence of fishing pressure lambda would only be decreased 1.5-1.7% even in the presence of a 100% incidence of intersex; (b) in the presence of selective fishing, the occurrence of intersex could significantly increase the extinction risk of local roach populations; (c) the benchmark value for the severity index of intersex and sex ratio required for a sustainable population of roach were estimated to be 1.13 and 0.57, respectively. The approach presented here provides a tool to (1) understand effects of male's feminization on population dynamics; (2) assess extinction risk of wild roach populations from feminization; (3) assist environmental managers in making policy decisions relative to fishery resource conservation. PMID:19921911

An, Wei; Hu, Jianying; Giesy, John P; Yang, Min

2009-10-15

30

Satiation-dependent, intra-cohort variations in prey size selection of young roach ( Rutilus rutilus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding rate and behaviour of juvenile roach in a non-depleting patch consisting of Daphnia magna of two size classes (optimal and much smaller) were studied in 20-min experiments. The medium size group (standard length\\u000a 26–28 mm), large (28–32 mm), and small (24–26 mm) fish differed significantly in the proportion of small prey eaten. During\\u000a a short initial period of burst

Viktor N. Mikheev; Josef Wanzenböck

1999-01-01

31

Determination of phthalates and their by-products in tissues of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the Orge river (France).  

PubMed

Seven phthalate by-products were investigated for the first time, in target tissues of roach from a contaminated river of the Ile-de-France district. All parent phthalates were bioaccumulated in liver and muscle and liver contents were correlated with river concentrations (p?

Valton, A S; Serre-Dargnat, C; Blanchard, M; Alliot, F; Chevreuil, M; Teil, Marie Jeanne

2014-11-01

32

A survey of the spawning of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and roach (Rutilus rutilus), using artificial spawning substrates in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of spawning in perch, pike and roach in Lake Geneva has been studied by means of artificial spawning substrates, laid at different depths, from 1984 to 1993. In Lake Geneva, perch spawned in May. A rise of surface water temperature up to 14 °C stimulated spawning activity while bad weather (surface temperature at 10 °C) induced a spread

C. Gillet; J. P. Dubois

1995-01-01

33

Evidence for Endocrine Disruption in Perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and Roach ( Rutilus rutilus) in a Remote Swedish Lake in the Vicinity of a Public Refuse Dump  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year study on perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Lake Molnbyggen, Sweden, located in a pristine area but with a public refuse dump in the vicinity, has been conducted. The mechanistic approach through a set of biomarkers during the first year included age, condition, somatic growth, liver, gonad, and spleen weights, and a number of other physiological variables, in addition to

Erik Noaksson; Ulla Tjärnlund; Albertus T. C. Bosveld; Lennart Balk

2001-01-01

34

Ranges of Regulation of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium Concentrations in Plasma, Erythrocytes, and Muscle Tissue of Rutilus rutilus under Natural Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of studies for 3 years on the roach Ratilus ratilus under natural conditions, it was shown that the Na, K, Ca, and Mg content in the blood plasma, erythrocytes, and muscle tissue as well as muscle water were maintained year after year within definite ranges characterizing normal values for these parameters. Comparison of variations in the Na,

V. I. Martem'yanov

2001-01-01

35

rutilus) diet among contrasting basins within a lake. Arch. Hy-drobiol. 1456: 239256.  

E-print Network

a. A laboratory study of the urban heat island in a calm and stably stratified environment. Part I: Temperature field. J. Appl. Me- teorol. 36: 1377­1391. , , , AND . 1997b. A laboratory study of the urban heat island in a calm and stably stratified envi- ronment. Part II: Velocity field. J. Appl. Meteorol. 36

McGlathery, Karen

36

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 6158  

E-print Network

roach (Rutilus rutilus L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.). The two methods vegetation. It is likely microhabitat; scuba diving; lake; Rutilus rutilus; Perca fluviatilis; Esox

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Behavioral Ecology Vol. 13 No. 3: 301311 Predation and the evolution of prey behavior  

E-print Network

. Predator-culled lines lost their facultative response of reduced filtering in water that had held a feeding predator and evolved toward more time resting and less time filtering in both water that had held a feeding held a feeding larva of the predator Toxorhynchites rutilus. We subjected experimental A. triseriatus

Juliano, Steven A.

38

Predation and the evolution of prey behavior: an experiment with tree hole mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for facultative changes in behavior of an aquatic insect in response to cues from predation and for evolution of prey behavior in response to experimental predation regimes. Larvae of the tree hole mosquito Aedes triseriatus reduced filtering, browsing, and time below the surface in response to water that had held a feeding larva of the predator Toxorhynchites rutilus.

Steven A. Juliano; Marc E. Gravel

2002-01-01

39

Effect of different cooking methods on minerals, vitamins and nutritional quality indices of kutum roach (Rutilus frisii kutum).  

PubMed

In this study, the influence of four cooking methods (baking, boiling, microwaving and frying) was evaluated on the nutritional value of kutum roach. Proximate, fatty acid composition, vitamin and mineral contents and also nutritional quality indices (NQI) of kutum roach were investigated before and after cooking treatment. All treated samples showed increase in protein, ash and lipid contents and decrease in the content of total omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) in comparison to raw fish fillets (control group). Cooking methods had no significant effect on omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) except for frying that increased it. Nonetheless, all of the cooking methods reduced vitamin B1, A and D contents. Boiling significantly decreased mineral contents including Na, K, P and Zn. Considering the overall nutritional quality indices, vitamin and mineral contents, baking is the best cooking method among other applied methods. PMID:24262530

Hosseini, Hedayat; Mahmoudzadeh, Maryam; Rezaei, Masoud; Mahmoudzadeh, Leila; Khaksar, Ramin; Khosroshahi, Nader Karimian; Babakhani, Aria

2014-04-01

40

J Comp Physiol B (1996) 166: 418--426 Springer-Verlag 1996 ORIGINAL PAPER  

E-print Network

), roach (Rutilus rutilus), rudd (Scardinius erythropthalmus), gudgeon (Gobio gobio) and minnow ( Phoxinus phoxinus). Vitellogenin from cyprinids used widely in ecotoxicology that cross reacted in the carp

Tyler, Charles

41

Divergent and Conserved Elements Comprise the Chemoreceptive Repertoire of the Nonblood-Feeding Mosquito Toxorhynchites amboinensis.  

PubMed

Many mosquito species serve as vectors of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever, wherein pathogen transmission is tightly associated with the reproductive requirement of taking vertebrate blood meals. Toxorhynchites is one of only three known mosquito genera that does not host-seek and initiates egg development in the absence of a blood-derived protein bolus. These remarkable differences make Toxorhynchites an attractive comparative reference for understanding mosquito chemosensation as it pertains to host-seeking. We performed deep transcriptome profiling of adult female Toxorhynchites amboinensis bodies, antennae and maxillary palps, and identified 25,084 protein-coding "genes" in the de novo assembly. Phylogenomic analysis of 4,266 single-copy "genes" from T. amboinensis, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus robustly supported Ae. aegypti as the closest relative of T. amboinensis, with the two species diverged approximately 40 Ma. We identified a large number of T. amboinensis chemosensory "genes," the majority of which have orthologs in other mosquitoes. Finally, cross-species expression analyses indicated that patterns of chemoreceptor transcript abundance were very similar for chemoreceptors that are conserved between T. amboinensis and Ae. aegypti, whereas T. amboinensis appeared deficient in the variety of expressed, lineage-specific chemoreceptors. Our transcriptome assembly of T. amboinensis represents the first comprehensive genomic resource for a nonblood-feeding mosquito and establishes a foundation for future comparative studies of blood-feeding and nonblood-feeding mosquitoes. We hypothesize that chemosensory genes that display discrete patterns of evolution and abundance between T. amboinensis and blood-feeding mosquitoes are likely to play critical roles in host-seeking and hence the vectorial capacity. PMID:25326137

Zhou, Xiaofan; Rinker, David C; Pitts, Ronald Jason; Rokas, Antonis; Zwiebel, Laurence J

2014-01-01

42

Divergent and Conserved Elements Comprise the Chemoreceptive Repertoire of the Nonblood-Feeding Mosquito Toxorhynchites amboinensis  

PubMed Central

Many mosquito species serve as vectors of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever, wherein pathogen transmission is tightly associated with the reproductive requirement of taking vertebrate blood meals. Toxorhynchites is one of only three known mosquito genera that does not host-seek and initiates egg development in the absence of a blood-derived protein bolus. These remarkable differences make Toxorhynchites an attractive comparative reference for understanding mosquito chemosensation as it pertains to host-seeking. We performed deep transcriptome profiling of adult female Toxorhynchites amboinensis bodies, antennae and maxillary palps, and identified 25,084 protein-coding “genes” in the de novo assembly. Phylogenomic analysis of 4,266 single-copy “genes” from T. amboinensis, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus robustly supported Ae. aegypti as the closest relative of T. amboinensis, with the two species diverged approximately 40 Ma. We identified a large number of T. amboinensis chemosensory “genes,” the majority of which have orthologs in other mosquitoes. Finally, cross-species expression analyses indicated that patterns of chemoreceptor transcript abundance were very similar for chemoreceptors that are conserved between T. amboinensis and Ae. aegypti, whereas T. amboinensis appeared deficient in the variety of expressed, lineage-specific chemoreceptors. Our transcriptome assembly of T. amboinensis represents the first comprehensive genomic resource for a nonblood-feeding mosquito and establishes a foundation for future comparative studies of blood-feeding and nonblood-feeding mosquitoes. We hypothesize that chemosensory genes that display discrete patterns of evolution and abundance between T. amboinensis and blood-feeding mosquitoes are likely to play critical roles in host-seeking and hence the vectorial capacity. PMID:25326137

Zhou, Xiaofan; Rinker, David C.; Pitts, Ronald Jason; Rokas, Antonis; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

2014-01-01

43

Behavioral differences of invasive container-dwelling mosquitoes to a native predator.  

PubMed

Aquatic prey show behavioral modifications in the presence of predation-risk cues that alleviate their risk from predation. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes japonicus (Theobald), and Culex pipiens L. are invasive mosquitoes in North America, and their larvae are prey for the native mosquito predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus are recent invaders, whereas Cx. pipiens has been in the United States for >100 yr. In the presence of predation-risk cues from Tx. rutilus larvae, Cx. pipiens larvae increased the time spent resting at the surface (least risky behavior) more than the other prey species. Ae. japonicus larvae increased resting at the surface of the containers more than Ae. albopictus larvae in the presence of predation-risk cues. Cx. pipiens larvae spent more time motionless at the surface even in the absence of predation-risk cues when compared with the other species, indicating that Cx. pipiens larvae are the least vulnerable prey. As compared with the other prey species, Ae. albopictus larvae exhibited more high-risk behaviors both in the presence and absence of predation-risk cues, indicating that they are the most vulnerable prey. Ae. albopictus is the superior competitor; however, predation by Tx. rutilus larvae may prevent competitive exclusion by Ae. albopictus and promote coexistence among the three prey species. PMID:21661312

Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Khan, Daanish F; Gaugler, Randy

2011-05-01

44

PREDATOR IDENTITY AND ADDITIVE EFFECTS IN A TREEHOLE COMMUNITY  

PubMed Central

Multiple predator species can interact as well as strongly affect lower trophic levels, resulting in complex, nonadditive effects on prey populations and community structure. Studies of aquatic systems have shown that interactive effects of predators on prey are not necessarily predictable from the direct effects of each species alone. To test for complex interactions, the individual and combined effects of a top and intermediate predator on larvae of native and invasive mosquito prey were examined in artificial analogues of water-filled treeholes. The combined effects of the two predators were accurately predicted from single predator treatments by a multiplicative risk model, indicating additivity. Overall survivorship of both prey species decreased greatly in the presence of the top predator Toxorhynchites rutilus. By itself, the intermediate predator Corethrella appendiculata increased survivorship of the native prey species Ochlerotatus triseriatus and decreased survivorship of the invasive prey species Aedes albopictus relative to treatments without predators. Intraguild predation did not occur until alternative prey numbers had been reduced by approximately one-half. Owing to changes in size structure accompanying its growth, T. rutilus consumed more prey as time progressed, whereas C. appendiculata consumed less. The intermediate predator, C. appendiculata, changed species composition by preferentially consuming A. albopictus, while the top predator, T. rutilus, reduced prey density, regardless of species. Although species interactions were in most cases predicted from pairwise interactions, risk reduction from predator interference occurred when C. appendiculata densities were increased and when the predators were similarly sized. PMID:16676542

Griswold, Marcus W.; Lounibos, L. Philip

2007-01-01

45

DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS Dis Aquat Org  

E-print Network

in a large number of species, such as different whitefish species Coregonus spp., lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and roach Rutilus rutilus (Porter & Corey 1974, Scott 1975, Ruby & Cairns 1983, Hunter & Macewicz

Richner, Heinz

46

Aquat. Living Resour. 19, 115122 (2006) c EDP Sciences, IFREMER, IRD 2006  

E-print Network

rutilus / Annecy Lake Résumé ­ Caractéristiques tridimensionnelles des bancs de poissons juvéniles­of­year pelagic fish schools in lake Jean Guillard1,a , Patrice Brehmer2 , Michel Colon1 and Yvon Guennégan3 1 fluviatilis and Rutilus rutilus) in a lake environment using high resolution multibeam sonar system operating

Guillard, Jean

47

Oral ingestion of transgenic RIDL Ae. aegypti larvae has no negative effect on two predator Toxorhynchites species.  

PubMed

Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. No specific treatment or vaccine is currently available; traditional vector control methods can rarely achieve adequate control. Recently, the RIDL (Release of Insect carrying Dominant Lethality) approach has been developed, based on the sterile insect technique, in which genetically engineered 'sterile' homozygous RIDL male insects are released to mate wild females; the offspring inherit a copy of the RIDL construct and die. A RIDL strain of the dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti, OX513A, expresses a fluorescent marker gene for identification (DsRed2) and a protein (tTAV) that causes the offspring to die. We examined whether these proteins could adversely affect predators that may feed on the insect. Aedes aegypti is a peri-domestic mosquito that typically breeds in small, rain-water-filled containers and has no specific predators. Toxorhynchites larvae feed on small aquatic organisms and are easily reared in the laboratory where they can be fed exclusively on mosquito larvae. To evaluate the effect of a predator feeding on a diet of RIDL insects, OX513A Ae. aegypti larvae were fed to two different species of Toxorhynchites (Tx. splendens and Tx. amboinensis) and effects on life table parameters of all life stages were compared to being fed on wild type larvae. No significant negative effect was observed on any life table parameter studied; this outcome and the benign nature of the expressed proteins (tTAV and DsRed2) indicate that Ae. aegypti OX513A RIDL strain is unlikely to have any adverse effects on predators in the environment. PMID:23527029

Nordin, Oreenaiza; Donald, Wesley; Ming, Wong Hong; Ney, Teoh Guat; Mohamed, Khairul Asuad; Halim, Nor Azlina Abdul; Winskill, Peter; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Muhammad, Zulkamal Safi'in; Lacroix, Renaud; Scaife, Sarah; McKemey, Andrew Robert; Beech, Camilla; Shahnaz, Murad; Alphey, Luke; Nimmo, Derric David; Nazni, Wasi Ahmed; Lee, Han Lim

2013-01-01

48

Oral Ingestion of Transgenic RIDL Ae. aegypti Larvae Has No Negative Effect on Two Predator Toxorhynchites Species  

PubMed Central

Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. No specific treatment or vaccine is currently available; traditional vector control methods can rarely achieve adequate control. Recently, the RIDL (Release of Insect carrying Dominant Lethality) approach has been developed, based on the sterile insect technique, in which genetically engineered ‘sterile’ homozygous RIDL male insects are released to mate wild females; the offspring inherit a copy of the RIDL construct and die. A RIDL strain of the dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti, OX513A, expresses a fluorescent marker gene for identification (DsRed2) and a protein (tTAV) that causes the offspring to die. We examined whether these proteins could adversely affect predators that may feed on the insect. Aedes aegypti is a peri-domestic mosquito that typically breeds in small, rain-water-filled containers and has no specific predators. Toxorhynchites larvae feed on small aquatic organisms and are easily reared in the laboratory where they can be fed exclusively on mosquito larvae. To evaluate the effect of a predator feeding on a diet of RIDL insects, OX513A Ae. aegypti larvae were fed to two different species of Toxorhynchites (Tx. splendens and Tx. amboinensis) and effects on life table parameters of all life stages were compared to being fed on wild type larvae. No significant negative effect was observed on any life table parameter studied; this outcome and the benign nature of the expressed proteins (tTAV and DsRed2) indicate that Ae. aegypti OX513A RIDL strain is unlikely to have any adverse effects on predators in the environment. PMID:23527029

Nordin, Oreenaiza; Donald, Wesley; Ming, Wong Hong; Ney, Teoh Guat; Mohamed, Khairul Asuad; Halim, Nor Azlina Abdul; Winskill, Peter; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Muhammad, Zulkamal Safi'in; Lacroix, Renaud; Scaife, Sarah; McKemey, Andrew Robert; Beech, Camilla; Shahnaz, Murad; Alphey, Luke; Nimmo, Derric David; Nazni, Wasi Ahmed; Lee, Han Lim

2013-01-01

49

Influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) against dengue vector.  

PubMed

Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia. PMID:24862057

Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F

2014-03-01

50

Larval survey of tire-breeding mosquitoes in Alabama.  

PubMed

A state-wide survey of tire-breeding mosquitoes in Alabama was conducted in 2004 and 2005. Tire sites in all 67 counties in the state of Alabama were sampled for mosquito larvae. A total of 13,022 mosquito larvae, representing 12 species in 7 genera, was collected. The most frequently collected species were Aedes albopictus (70.4%), Culex territans (8.0%), and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (7.1%). The following species were also collected: Cx. restuans (6.0%), Cx. salinarius (2.7%), Orthopodomyia signifera (2.4%), and Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.4%). Ochlerotatus atropalpus, Toxorhynchites rutilus, Anopheles punctipennis, An. quadrimaculatus, and Psorophora columbiae each represented <1.0% of the total larval collections. No Ae. aegypti or Oc. japonicus were collected from tires during this survey. The first known collection of Ps. columbiae breeding in water-filled tires is reported. PMID:17304924

Qualls, Whitney A; Mullen, Gary R

2006-12-01

51

Comparative morphology of the pyloric armature of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The structure of the pyloric armature, hypothesized to aid in blood-meal digestion or parasite resistance, was compared quantitatively among the following 8 species in 5 genera of adult mosquitoes from the southeastern United States: Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes triseriatus, Anopheles punctipennis, Culex pipiens s.l., Culex restuans, Orthopodomyia signifera, and Toxorhynchites rutilus. Females differed significantly among species in the structure of spines composing the armature, with Aedes spp. forming one general group, Culex spp. another, and An. punctipennis and Or. signifera a third. Relationships of species based on structural characters of the armature were consistent with recent culicid phylogenies. Although pyloric armature has been noted in mosquitoes and other insects, this is the first quantitative investigation of the mosquito pyloric armature. PMID:22548826

Tuten, H C; Bridges, W C; Adler, P H

2012-09-01

52

Determinants of habitat use in large roach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study gillnet catches of large roach Rutilus rutilus and their potential predators, large perch Perca fluviatilis, pikeperch Sander lucioperca and pike Esox lucius, in combination with data on food resources and abiotic variables were used to reveal the variables influencing the habitat use of large roach in Lake Großer Vatersee. The occurrence of large roach was negatively coupled

T. Schulze; H. Dörner; F. Hölker; T. Mehner

2006-01-01

53

Possible competitive interactions between overwintering tufted duck (Aythya fuligula (L.)) and fish populations of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland: evidence from diet studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overwintering population of tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) on Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland, has varied over the last three decades, with numbers declining in the early 1980s but then increasing to former levels in the late 1980s. Population fluctuations of recently introduced roach (Rutilus rutilus) mirrored these trends. The present study explores the possibility that competition for benthic food resources

Denise K. Winfield; Ian J. Winfield

1994-01-01

54

Toxic effects of mining effluents on fish gills in a subarctic lake system in NW Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mining company Karelian Pellet in northwestern Russia extracts iron ore and processes it locally into pellets. The production operations affect the environment in the form of air pollution and wastewater emissions to lakes downstream from the factory. The toxic effects of the mining effluents on gills of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) were studied. In lakes close

Victoria Tkatcheva; Heikki Hyvärinen; Jussi Kukkonen; Leonid P. Ryzhkov; Ismo J. Holopainen

2004-01-01

55

Food supply and prey selection in planktivorous cyprinidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In small Bavarian lakes, the gut contents of the Cyprinid fish roach (Rutilus rutilus), rudd (Scardinius erythrophtalamus), bream (Abramis brama) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus), and the actural food supply during the fish's feeding period were examined in relation to the species composition of zooplankton. Accompanied by feeding experiments in the laboratory, the selective effect of fish predation could be attributed

Erik Bohl

1982-01-01

56

Surface charges of the membrane and cell adhesion substances determine the structural integrity of hair bundles from the inner ear of fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “hairs” (stereocilia = stereovilli) of sensory cells from the inner ear of vertebrates are interconnected by several types of connectors, whose role is unknown. They appear to stabilize the hair bundle mechanically, and may be directly involved in mechano-electric transduction. Our transmission electron-microscopical investigation of sensory epithelia from two species of fish (Rutilus rutilus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, both Leuciscidae) has

D. Ch. Neugebauer; U. Thurm

1987-01-01

57

The inf luence of the invasive black bullhead Ameiurus melas on the predatory efficiency of pike Esox lucius L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the invasive black bullhead Ameiurus melas on the predatory efficiency of the pike Esox lucius was investigated using an additive experimental design. Pike predatory success on 0ţ years roach Rutilus rutilus was significantly reduced in the presence of black bullhead. Among the different hypotheses that may explain such a pattern, the hypothesis of direct competition between pike

K. KREUTZENBERGER; F. L EPRIEUR; S. BROSSE

2008-01-01

58

Fish predation and offspring survival in the prosobranch snail Viviparus ater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we identified some of the predators of the freshwater snail Viviparus ater and estimated offspring survival to the end of the first summer in a natural population. Newborn V. ater were eaten by the fish Barbus barbus, Rutilus rutilus, Scardinius erythrophtalmus and Tinca tinca. Out of 137 guts of Abramis brama caught in Lake Zürich 1 contained

G. Keller; G. Ribi

1993-01-01

59

ENDOCRINE (SEXUAL) DISRUPTION IS NOT A PROMINENT FEATURE IN THE PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS), A TOP PREDATOR, LIVING IN ENGLISH WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high incidence of intersex roach ( Rutilus rutilus) in some United Kingdom rivers that has been associated with exposure to sewage treatment works (STWs) effluent led us to hypothesize that top predator fish also may be affected by estrogenic chemicals, because they are likely to bioaccumulate lipophilic compounds through a predator-prey relationship. To investigate this possibility, pike (Esox lucius)

Emma Vine; Jan Shears; Ronny van Aerle; Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

2005-01-01

60

Predicted Exposures to Steroid Estrogens in U.K. Rivers Correlate with Widespread Sexual Disruption in Wild Fish Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroidal estrogens, originating principally from human excretion, are likely to play a major role in causing widespread endocrine disruption in wild populations of the roach (Rutilus rutilus), a com- mon cyprinid fish, in rivers contaminated by treated sewage effluents. Given the extent of this problem, risk assessment models are needed to predict the location and severity of endocrine dis- ruption

Susan Jobling; Richard Williams; Andrew Johnson; Ayesha Taylor; Melanie Gross-Sorokin; Monique Nolan; Charles R. Tyler; Ronny van Aerle; Eduarda Santos; Geoff Brighty

2005-01-01

61

Total Mercury Contamination of Some Fish Species in the Firth of Vistula and the Lower Vistula River, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The muscle tissue samples of smelt (Osmerus epelanus), herring (Clupea harengus), sabrefish (Pelecus cultratus), roach (Rutilus rutilus), bream {Abramis brama), ruff (Acerina cernua), perch (Perca fluviatilis), pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca), flounder (Platichthys flesus), brown trout (Salmo Irutta) and burbot (Lota lota) collected in the Firth of Vistula, the Lower Vistula River at the Btotnik site and the Gulf of Gdansk in

J. Falandysz; A. Chwir; B. Wyrzykowska

62

Inhibition of protein synthesis in vitro by a lectin from Momordica charantia and by other haemagglutinins.  

PubMed

Protein synthesis by a rabbit reticulocyte lysate is inhibited by the haemagglutinating lectins from Momordica charantia and Crotalaria juncea seeds and from the roe of Rutilus rutilus, and by a commercial preparation of the mitogenic lectin from Phytolacca americana. The haemagglutinins from the seeds of Ricinus communis and of Vicia cracca acquired inhibitory activity after their reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. PMID:508306

Barbieri, L; Lorenzoni, E; Stirpe, F

1979-08-15

63

Inhibition of protein synthesis in vitro by a lectin from Momordica charantia and by other haemagglutinins.  

PubMed Central

Protein synthesis by a rabbit reticulocyte lysate is inhibited by the haemagglutinating lectins from Momordica charantia and Crotalaria juncea seeds and from the roe of Rutilus rutilus, and by a commercial preparation of the mitogenic lectin from Phytolacca americana. The haemagglutinins from the seeds of Ricinus communis and of Vicia cracca acquired inhibitory activity after their reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. PMID:508306

Barbieri, L; Lorenzoni, E; Stirpe, F

1979-01-01

64

Feeding efficiency of planktivores under disturbance, the effect of water colour, predation threat and shoal composition.  

PubMed

The consumption of phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans larvae by Perca fluviatilis showed clear response to water colour, predation threat and shoal composition with the most significant negative effect for water colour. In the case of Rutilus rutilus, no similar combined response was observed and the total prey consumption was significantly negatively affected by predation threat of Esox lucius. The results suggest that differences in life-history traits may result in disparity in species-specific responses to disturbance. PMID:24689675

Nurminen, L; Estlander, S; Olin, M; Lehtonen, H

2014-04-01

65

Bioaccumulation and differential partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater, planktonic food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planktonic food chain phytoplankton - zooplankton - young-of-the-year roach (Rutilus rutilus) was stud- ied in 19 lakes in southern Sweden to investigate the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The SPCB concentrations did not steadily increase with increasing trophic level. The SPCB concentrations in zooplankton (400 ng·g lipid-1) were lower than in both phytoplankton (660 ng·g lipid-1) and fish (890

Olof Berglund; Per Larsson; Göran Ewald; Lennart Okla

2000-01-01

66

Target strength of some European fish species and its dependence on fish body parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of maximum, minimum and mean target strength (TS), in both horizontal and vertical planes, on the body length, weight and swimbladder volume of European freshwater fish species (trout-Salmo trutta, perch-Perca fluviatilis, bream-Abramis brama, roach-Rutilus rutilus, carp-Cyprinus carpio and bleak-Alburnus alburnus) was studied. TS was measured with a split-beam echosounder operating at 120kHz. The orientation of the fish towards

Jaroslava Frouzova; Jan Kubecka; Helge Balk; Jan Frouz

2005-01-01

67

Hepatic and branchial glutathione S-transferases of two fish species: Substrate specificity and biotransformation of microcystin-LR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver and gills of roach (Rutilus rutilus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were examined for glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) contents and their substrate specificity and capacity to biotransform microcystin-LR (MC-LR). GSTs and other glutathione (GSH) affine proteins were purified using a GSH-agarose matrix and separated by anionic chromatography (AEC). Substrate specificities were determined photometrical for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), 4-nitrobenzyl chloride

I. Šetlíková; C. Wiegand

2009-01-01

68

Phytoplankton biomass reduction after planktivorous fish reduction in a shallow, eutrophic lake: a combined effect of reduced internal P-loading and increased zooplankton grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

No recovery was recorded in the shallow and eutrophic Lake Vćng, Denmark, after a sewage diversion in 1981, due to an internal\\u000a phosphorus loading and a dominance of planktivorous fish. In order to improve lake water quality by means of biomanipulation,\\u000a a total of 2.5 tons of bream (Abramis brama) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) was removed during 1986 and the

M. Sřndergaard; E. Jeppesen; E. Mortensen; E. Dall; P. Kristensen; O. Sortkjaer

1990-01-01

69

Evaluation of pesticides and metals in fish of the Dniester River, Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dniester River is one of the largest rivers in Eastern Europe and receives input from numerous anthropogenic activities. In October 2001, fish samples (Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus heckeli, Perca fluviatilis, Chondrostoma nasus, Carassius auratus gibelio, and Cyprinus carpio) were collected and analyzed for metals and various pesticides. Maximum total DDT pesticide concentrations were between 27.7 and 34.2ng\\/g wet weight

Yelena Sapozhnikova; Natalia Zubcov; Sarah Hungerford; Luke A. Roy; Nina Boicenco; Elena Zubcov; Daniel Schlenk

2005-01-01

70

Occurrence of tire inhabiting mosquito larvae in different geographic regions of West Virginia.  

PubMed

Eleven species of mosquito larvae were collected in 568 collection visits to 209 abandoned tire pile sites in 33 West Virginia counties from April through October of 2003. Ochlerotatus j. japonicus supplanted the native Oc. triseriatus as the most common tire-colonizing species in the state. In general, the exotic Oc. j. japonicus was a better colonizer of tires than Oc. triseriatus in peridomestic, sunlit conditions throughout the state, whereas both species were equally likely to colonize tires in nonperidomestic, shaded settings. Aedes albopictus competed effectively with Oc. triseriatus from mid-summer through October in low elevation western counties but was not well represented in central counties of the state. Aedes albopictus was seldom collected at higher elevations in eastern counties. Culex pipiens, like Ae. albopictus, was more likely to be in collections from the western portion of West Virginia throughout the study period. Frequency of occurrence of Cx. restuans peaked in early season collections and declined as the season progressed, but Anopheles punctipennis and the medically unimportant Cx. territans gradually increased in frequency each month through September. Typically, species in the genus Culex and An. punctipennis were predisposed to peridomestic, sunlit habitats. Larvae of the predatory Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis were found mostly in nonperidomestic, shaded settings. This species initially appeared in mid-summer, and by August and September it was found in as many as 30% of the collection sites in western and eastern counties. Larvae of An. barberi, Oc. atropalpus, and Orthopodomyia signifera were poorly represented in collections. PMID:16506562

Joy, James E; Sullivan, S Nichelle

2005-12-01

71

Evidence for the co-existence of separate strains or species of Ligula in Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland.  

PubMed

LIGULA (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) infections in gudgeon (Gobio gobio) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) differ markedly in the pathology that is observed in the host, particularly with respect to a tissue response and the extent of inhibition of gonadal development. The entire internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2) and the large subunit domains D1-D3 were sequenced and compared in parasites from these fish from Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland, together with a single specimen from minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) from Wales. Sufficient differences were observed between parasites from R. rutilus and G. gobio to support the suggestion that they may represent different strains/species. In contrast, Ligula from P. phoxinus closely resembled those from R. rutilus. Ligula infections in G. gobio were recorded prior to the introduction of R. rutilus. The co-existence of separate strains or species of Ligula in Lough Neagh probably resulted from the introduction of R. rutilus to these waters, correlated with an increase in the number of great crested grebes (Podiceps cristatus). PMID:12015830

Olson, P D; Littlewood, D T J; Griffiths, D; Kennedy, C R; Arme, C

2002-06-01

72

Historic hybridization and persistence of a novel mito-nuclear combination in red-backed voles (genus Myodes)  

PubMed Central

Background The role of hybridization in generating diversity in animals is an active area of discovery and debate. We assess hybridization across a contact zone of northern (Myodes rutilus) and southern (M. gapperi) red-backed voles using variation in skeletal features and both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This transect extends approximately 550 km along the North Pacific Coast of North America and encompasses 26 populations (n = 485). We establish the history, geographic extent and directionality of hybridization, determine whether hybridization is ongoing, and assess the evolutionary stability of novel genomic combinations. Results Identification of M. rutilus and M. gapperi based on the degree of closure of the post-palatal bridge was concordant with the distribution of diagnostic nuclear MYH6 alleles; however, an 80 km zone of introgressed populations was identified. The introgressant form is characterized by having mitochondrial haplotypes closely related to the northern M. rutilus on a nuclear background and morphological characteristics of southern M. gapperi. Conclusion Introgression appears to have been historic as pure populations of M. rutilus are now isolated to the north from introgressants or pure M. gapperi by the LeConte Glacier. As we do not find pure M. rutilus or M. gapperi individuals throughout the distribution of the introgressant form, it appears that the introgressants are a self-sustaining entity not requiring continued hybridization between pure parental forms to generate this novel combination of characters. PMID:19460158

Runck, Amy M; Matocq, Marjorie D; Cook, Joseph A

2009-01-01

73

A fine structural review on the spermatozoa of Cyprinidae with attention to their phylogenetic implications.  

PubMed

The fine structural organization and dimensions of spermatozoa from species of 4 subfamilies of the Cyprinidae (Barbus barbus, Carassius carassius, Cyprinus carpio carpio, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus, Abramis brama, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Alburnus alburnus, Chalcalburnus chalcoides mento, Chondrostoma nasus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Leuciscus cephalus, Phoxinus phoxinus, Rutilus rutilus, Rutilus meidingerii, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Vimba vimba and Ctenopharyngodon idella) are compared with each other as well as with results from other studies. Based on these descriptions it is investigated whether sperm structure reveals correlations with the existing systematics and if it could be a useful taxonomical parameter. The scatter plots based on the discriminate analysis and the neighbour-joining trees based on a Mahalanobis distance matrix reveal that sperm organization is related with systematics in many aspects. However, in some cases there are also clear differences between relations found on the basis of sperm morphology and between the systematic relations. PMID:19688692

Fürböck, Sonja; Lahnsteiner, Franz; Patzner, Robert A

2009-10-01

74

Tires as habitats for mosquitoes: a review of studies within the eastern United States.  

PubMed

Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for a variety of container mosquito species. I reviewed the literature from the last 50 yr on mosquitoes collected within tires in the eastern United States with four objectives: to examine the historical and contemporary issues of tires as a habitat for mosquitoes, to identify tire-inhabiting species, to summarize findings from studies that focused on biotic and abiotic characteristics of tires, and to offer future directions to aid our understanding of tire-inhabiting mosquitoes. Thirty-two species have been documented, including seven invasives, with the most frequently encountered being Aedes triseriatus, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Anopheles punctipennis, and Toxorhynchites rutilus. The proclivity of these species to occupy small containers is one possible explanation for their occurrence in tires. The native species Ae. triseriatus was abundant and the most often collected, particularly in central and northern regions, whereas the invasive Ae. albopictus was most abundant in the south. One half of the studies investigating aspects of the tire environment compared mosquito populations between sunlit and shaded tires, with the general finding that this factor alone led to dramatic differences in larval species composition and abundance patterns. Less frequently investigated factors, e.g., tire orientation, detritus, and proximity to humans, also were found to affect patterns of occupancy by mosquitoes. For the future, I suggest more surveys are needed in understudied areas, as well as quantitative experiments to determine habitat associations and community dynamics in tires, which are especially necessary to assist in understanding invasions. Discarded tires are important for studies of vector dynamics, because of their abundance near human populations and because they expand the habitat range of mosquitoes that vector pathogens. PMID:18714856

Yee, Donald A

2008-07-01

75

Urban Mosquito Fauna in Mérida City, México: Immatures Collected from Containers and Storm-water Drains/Catch Basins  

PubMed Central

We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Mérida City, México. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Mérida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species.

Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, María; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Víctor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damián; Lorońo-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E.

2014-01-01

76

Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in the fish community in Lake Arungen, Norway.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pollutants in the major fish species (pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis, and roach Rutilus rutilus) of Lake Arungen, Norway, were investigated after an extensive removal of large pike in 2004. The organochlorine pollutants detected in fish liver samples in 2005 were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide (HCE). DDTs were the dominant among all analyzed OCs. Sigma PCB and HCB, detected in fish from two clearly distinct trophic levels (prey and predators), give an indication of biomagnification. All OC concentrations in female pike were significantly lower compared to males, which might be due to the removal of high concentrations of pollutants in roe during spawning. PMID:19329237

Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Rosseland, Bjřrn Olav; Almvik, Marit; Eklo, Ole Martin

2009-01-01

77

Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons in land-uplift succession: The relative importance of local and regional environmental gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assemblages of young-of-the-year fish were studied in coastal lagoons in an archipelago with post-glacial land-uplift, which affects environmental gradients at local and regional scale, i.e. lagoon habitat isolation and archipelago position, respectively. The categorisation of 40 undisturbed lagoons into nine habitat types based on habitat isolation and archipelago position was supported by clear relationships with spring temperature and total fish abundance. Rutilus rutilus, breams ( Abramis/Blicca sp.) and Perca fluviatilis were the most abundant and frequently occurring species. The fish assemblage differed among the nine habitat types. Rutilus rutilus, P. fluviatilis and breams were discriminating species in the majority of habitat types with low physical harshness, whereas Alburnus alburnus and Gasterosteus aculeatus increased their contributions in habitat types with high physical harshness. Rutilus rutilus and breams were thus common in lagoons with high habitat isolation situated in the inner archipelago. These lagoons were characterised by warm water and high vegetation coverage. Gasterosteus aculeatus was restricted to lagoons with low habitat isolation and exposure and low vegetation coverage, situated in the outer archipelago. Perca fluviatilis had the widest distribution of all species. The coverage of two macrophytes, Potamogeton perfoliatus and Zannichellia palustris, and salinity matched best the distance among habitat types. These habitat characteristics, as well as the fish abundances and assemblages differed most across the habitat types in the outer and mid archipelago zones and in the lowest habitat isolation. These patterns suggest that the structuring effect of habitat isolation increases along the archipelago gradient as differences between local and regional conditions increase. In the inner archipelago, overall low physical harshness induces homogeneous conditions and the habitat isolation is less important here than in the other zones. We suggest that this difference in the relative importance of the two gradients depending on the level of respective gradient ultimately forms these heterogeneous coastal habitats in a successional landscape. Rutilus rutilus and P. fluviatilis were responsible for large parts of the assemblage patterns. Although sympatric due to similar habitat requirements, differences in dispersal capability, competitive ability and predation vulnerability may add explanation to detected differences in distribution and abundance in these two species in an open system. Our results also stress the structuring role of vegetation in terms of total coverage and species composition, as these two aspects of macrophyte diversity may act as complementary habitat modifiers across gradients of physical harshness.

Snickars, Martin; Sandström, Alfred; Lappalainen, Antti; Mattila, Johanna; Rosqvist, Kajsa; Urho, Lauri

2009-01-01

78

[Cells with radiating vesicles in different fish species].  

PubMed

A study was made of the ultrastructure of cells with radiating vesicles from the head kidney of different fish species: Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., carp Cyprinus carpio L., roach Rutilus rutilus (L.), bream Abramis brama (L.), high-body pickarel Spicara staris (L.), long-striped wrasse Symphodus tinca (L.), and from spleen of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and the tilapia Sarotherodon mossambicus Peters. A disposition of vesicles around centrioles was characteristics of all the investigated cells. Some differences were marked in the fine structure of vesicles. PMID:17147254

Balabanova, L V

2006-01-01

79

Nestedness in assemblages of gyrodactylids (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidea) parasitising two species of cyprinid--with reference to generalists and specialists.  

PubMed

The structure of gyrodactylid assemblages in individual fishes of two species of cyprinid was determined. A total of 100 specimens of minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus, and 137 specimens of roach, Rutilus rutilus, were investigated for presence of gyrodactylids. Host specificity, specialists vs. generalists, was noted in each host fish. A nested pattern was recorded in parasite assemblages of minnow, the host with a dominant number of specialist gyrodactylids. A non-nested pattern was observed in parasite assemblages of roach, the host with a dominant number of generalist gyrodactylids. The host specificity appears to be a meaningful factor that determines the pattern of gyrodactylid assemblages of both fish hosts. PMID:11027780

Mat?jusová, I; Morand, S; Gelnar, M

2000-10-01

80

Comparison of Mercury Distribution Between Liver and Musc - A Biomonitoring of Fish from Lightly and Heavily Contaminated Localities  

PubMed Central

Tissue samples from 1,117 fish of 25 species were collected from 1991 through 1996 at 13 locations along the River Elbe. The principal indicator species were perch (Perca fluviatilis) (n=118), chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) (n=113) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) (n=138). Mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscle and liver were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The liver/muscle index in three indicator species from heavily contaminated and lightly contaminated localities were significantly different. In fish from heavily contaminated localities, Hg was deposited preferentially in the liver (the depository for inorganic and organic forms of Hg), while in lightly contaminated areas, it was deposited preferentially in muscle.

Havelkova, Marcela; Dusek, Ladislav; Nemethova, Danka; Poleszczuk, Gorzyslaw; Svobodova, Zdenka

2008-01-01

81

Response of animal and vegetative cells to the effect of a typical magnetic storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimentally reproduced fluctuations of a low-frequency magnetic field in a nanotesla range (magnetic storm) affect the mitosis of animals and vegetative cells. Action of this factor during twenty four hours leads to a significant increase in the proliferative activity of embryo cells in roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.) and meristem cells of onion rootlets ( Allium cepa). The clastogenic effect statistically confirmed only in the Allium test seems to reflect the species specificity of the response and higher sensitivity of the cell association of the onion meristem to magnetic storm.

Talikina, M. G.; Izyumov, Yu. G.; Krylov, V. V.

2013-12-01

82

Myrsidea Waterston (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from wrens (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae), with descriptions of three new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new species of Myrsidea parasitic on members of the avian family Troglodytidae are described herein. They and their type hosts are M. whitemani ex the Rufous-naped Wren, Campylorhynchus rufinucha (Lesson, 1838), M. bessae ex the Riverside Wren, Thryothorus semibadius Salvin, 1870, and M. vincesmithi ex the Rufous-breasted Wren, Thryotho- rus rutilus Vieillot, 1819. Myrsidea troglodyti (Denny, 1842) is redescribed

ROGER D. PRICE; KEVIN P. JOHNSON; ROBERT C. DALGLEISH

83

Historic hybridization and persistence of a novel mito-nuclear combination in red-backed voles (genus Myodes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The role of hybridization in generating diversity in animals is an active area of discovery and debate. We assess hybridization across a contact zone of northern (Myodes rutilus) and southern (M. gapperi) red-backed voles using variation in skeletal features and both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This transect extends approximately 550 km along the North Pacific Coast of North America

Amy M Runck; Marjorie D Matocq; Joseph A Cook

2009-01-01

84

The chromosomes of 11 species of cyprinidae and one cobitidae from Italy, with some remarks on the problem of polyploidy in the cypriniformes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper gives a detailed description of the morphology of the karyotype of 11 Cyprinidae and 1 Cobitidae indigenous to Italian inland waters. The data relating to Chondrostoma toxostoma, C. soetta, Phoxinus phoxinus, Rutilus rubilio, Barbus meridionalis and Cobitis taenia are new from a karyological point of view; as regards Leuciscus cephalus, L. souffia, Alburnus alburnus, Scardinius erythrophtalmus, Tinca

Stefano Cataudella; Luciana Sola; Rosanna Accame Muratori; Ernesto Capanna

1977-01-01

85

Threat-Sensitive Behavioral Responses to Concentrations of Water-Borne Cues from Predation  

E-print Network

organisms often detect predators via water-borne chemical cues, and respond by showing reduced activity alone (control) or a T. rutilus larva feeding on O. triseriatus (predation). We also tested whether associated effects on time spent feeding are threat sensitive by determining whether frequencies of filtering

Juliano, Steven A.

86

Aqua Licentiate Theses 2013:2 Licentiate Thesis  

E-print Network

in aquaria, I studied foraging efficiencies and swimming performances of roach and vendace eating zooplankton lake ecosystems, I have studied the habitat selection of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), roach (Rutilus at larger sizes. Vendace is a pelagic species specialized in eating zooplankton. Vendace was expected

87

Do changes in berry crops drive population fluctuations in small rodents in the southwestern Yukon?  

E-print Network

] rutilus), the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), and field voles (Microtus oeconomus and M. pennsylvanicus combined) over 13 years (1997­2009) in the Kluane Lake region of the southwestern Yukon, Canada. M limitation. DOI: 10.1644/ 09-MAMM-A-005.1. Key words: berry production, bottom-up control, Microtus

Krebs, Charles J.

88

REDESCRIPTIONS OF FIVE SPECIES OF THE FEATHER MITE GENUS Ptero- dectes ROBIN, 1877 (ACARI: PROCTOPHYLLODIDAE: PTERODECTINAE), WITH THE PROPOSAL OF A NEW GENUS AND A NEW SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of the feather mite genus Pterodectes Robin, 1877 are redescribed (type hosts are given in paren- thesis): Pterodectes rutilus Robin, 1868 (the Northern House-Martin, Delichon urbicum), P. crassus Trouessart, 1885 (the Plush- crested Jay, Cyanocorax chrysops), P. gracilis Trouessart, 1885 (the Crested Oropendola, Psarocolius decumanus), P. sialiarum (Stoll, 1893) (the Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis) and P. muticus Banks,

M. P. Valim; F. A. Hernandes; Rua Cristóvăo Colombo; Jardim Nazareth

2008-01-01

89

Liver glutathione content and glutathione?dependent enzymes of two species of freshwater fish as bioindicators of chemical pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione content and glutahione?dependent enzymes were measured in the liver of two fish species, gudgeon (Gobio gobio) and roach (Rutilus arcasii), from the river Bernesga (Spain) caught downstream and upstream of the waste site of several chemical industries. Animals from contaminated sites display a reduced glutathione concentration and a tendency to the decrease of glutathione S?transferase activity. Glutathione peroxidase activity

M. Almar; L. Otero; C. Santos; J. Gonzalez Gallego

1998-01-01

90

Growth and development of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on salmonid and cyprinid hosts.  

PubMed

The obligate fish ectoparasite Argulus coregoni is strictly specific to salmonids and is very rarely found on other fish species. The ability of the parasite to grow and complete its life cycle on a cyprinid host, Rutilus rutilus, was compared with that on a typical salmonid host, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rearing experiments were run for 42 d with newly hatched metanauplii in flow-through tanks. Body length and sex of the parasites were recorded every 5 d. Growth rates on O. mykiss exceeded those on R. rutilus from the age of 2 wk, at which time the parasites reached a length of about 3.5 mm. Males grew faster than females at the beginning of the experiment up to a length of 2.5 to 3.0 mm; thereafter, a faster growth rate was observed in females. In another experiment, association of parasites with the hosts was monitored and residence time defined as the period between attachment and first detachment from the host. Longer residence time was observed on O. mykiss than on R. rutilus; female parasites stayed on both fish species longer than did males. Faster growth of parasites could be associated with longer uninterrupted periods of attachment to hosts, since frequent detachment means higher energy losses and less time available for feeding. Despite its slower growth on R. rutilus, A. coregoni matured and laid egg clutches, but took 5 d longer than on O. mykiss. The potential of A. coregoni to complete its life cycle on cyprinids could have important ecological consequences, creating an infection reservoir when the main salmonid hosts are rare or temporarily missing. PMID:15109143

Pasternak, A; Mikheev, V; Valtonen, E T

2004-03-10

91

[Effect of temperature on proteinase activities of enteral microbiota and intestinal mucosa of fish of different ecological group].  

PubMed

Effect of temperature on proteinases activities of enteral microbiota and of intestinal mucosa was studied in five fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus, crucian carp Carassius carassius, common perch Perca fluviatilis, pike-perch Zander lucioperca, and pike Esox lucius) belonging by the nutrition type to different ecological groups. Essential differences of temperature characteristics of proteinases of intestinal mucosa and of enteral microbiota are revealed in fish belonging by the nutrition type to different ecologic groups. The character of the t0-function of proteinases of intestinal mucosa and enteral microbiota by casein and hemoglobin as a rule is different. The highest values of relative proteinases activities for casein in the zone of low temperatures (38 and 45.3 % of the maximal activity) are found at study of proteinases of enteral microbiota in common perch and crucian carp. The latter indicates a significant adaptability of the enteral microbiota proteinases of common perch and crucial carp to functioning at low temperatures. PMID:22645973

Kuz'mina, V V; Shalygin, M V; Skvortsova, E G

2012-01-01

92

Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.  

PubMed

Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers. PMID:20582437

Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

2010-09-01

93

[Leeches (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae and Glossiphonidae) infecting lake fish in the Ukiel, Warniak and Wulpi?skie. Preliminary study].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine leeches found on the lake fishes. From the lake Ukiel, 213 roaches (R. rutilus) and from the lake Wulpi?skie 202 were examined between Nov. 1988 and Dec. 1999. From the Warniak 258 roaches and 9 tenches (Tinca tinca) were examined between May 1998 and Nov. 1999. Warniak on roach (R. rutilus) 4 Piscicola geometra and Hemiclepis marginata on the fish body were found, tench (Tinca tinca) P. geometra were found on gills. Ukiel on roach Piscicola pojmanskae on gills were found. Wulpi?skie on roach P. pojmanskae and Piscicola sp. as well as 2 Caspiobdella fadejewi on gills were found. Prevalence and intensity of fish infection with leeches was low in all lakes. C. fadejewi and P. pojmanskae are the first recorded on the lake fishes. Further investigations are necessary since they can result in informations concerning inhabitation of new microhabitants with P. geometra gills. PMID:16886362

Bielecki, A; Dzika, E

2000-01-01

94

Host associations of the tick, Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae), on Alaskan mammals.  

PubMed

Infestation parameters are presented for 227 ticks, all Ixodes angustus Neumann, collected from individual mammals (n = 531) in southeastern and south-central Alaska from 1996 to 1999. This tick was recovered from 12 of the 19 mammal species examined, with four species of shrews (Sorex spp.), two species of voles [Clethrionomys gapperi (Vigors) and Clethrionomys rutilus (Pallas)], one species of mouse [Peromyscus keeni (Rhoads)], and the red squirrel [Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Erxleben)] being the most frequently parasitized hosts. Larvae (n = 146) of I. angustus were collected most often, followed by nymphs (n = 50), females (n = 30), and a single male. The leptinid mammal-nest beetle Leptinus occidentamericanus Peck (1 male, 5 females) was also recovered from five individual small mammals; three of these were C. rutilus. PMID:14596283

Murrell, Brian P; Durden, Lance A; Cook, Joseph A

2003-09-01

95

Challenges in assessing biological recovery from acidification in Swedish lakes.  

PubMed

Since the 1980s, Swedish lakes have in general become less acidified. Assessment of biological recovery is, however, hampered by poor pre-acidification data, confounding effects of climate change, and few lakes with annual sampling of fish and other organisms. Only three critically acidified, but non-limed, lakes had two decades of fish monitoring. The lakes had not yet recovered to pre-industrial chemical targets. Fish had low species richness compared to other organism groups. Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and/or European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were the dominant fish species, and the acid-sensitive roach had been lost from one of the lakes. Calcium decreased, possibly approaching pre-acidification concentrations, but exceeded minimum levels needed to sustain some Daphnia species. High or increasing levels of total organic carbon, likely due to reduced acidification and climate change, might influence the biological communities in unexpected ways, for example, facilitating more frequent occurrence of the invasive algae Gonyostomum semen. PMID:25403967

Holmgren, Kerstin

2014-12-01

96

[Infection with opistorchis larvae in the fish family cyprinidae in the Ob-Irtysh River basin in the Tyumen region].  

PubMed

Fishes, such as ide (Leuciscus idus), dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), carpbream (Abramis brama), roach (Rutilus rutilus), and muvarica (Alburnus alburnus), with different frequency and rate of invasion and abundance index were infested with larvae of O. felineus, M. bilis, and P. truncatum. There were the highest rates of fish infection with P. truncatum larvae in the subtaiga zone (the south of the region) and with O. felineus metacercariae in the northern subtaiga and taiga zones. In research, experimental, and clinical studies, the nosological entity opisthorchiasis is a parasitic cenosis consisting of 2-3 co-members requiring their specific identification, which allows therapeutic measures to be more effectively implemented among the population of a hyperendemic focus. PMID:23437717

2012-01-01

97

Population limitation of the northern red-backed vole in the boreal forests of northern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Across the vast boreal forests of North America, no population cycles in Clethrion- omys species occur. In Eurasia, by contrast, some Clethrionomys populations of the same species undergo regular 3-5-year cycles. We examined the effects of nutrients, food, competitors, predators and climate on population limitation in the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus Pallas) in the south-western Yukon to

RUDY BOONSTRA

2006-01-01

98

The systematic status of Philometra abdominalis Nybelin, 1928 (Nematoda: Philometridae) [= a junior synonym of P. ovata (Zeder, 1803)].  

PubMed

Examination of the original literature concerning species of Philometra (Philometridae, Dracunculoidea) parasitic in the abdominal cavity of European cyprinids revealed that P. abdominalis Nybelin, 1928 is a junior synonym of P. ovata (Zeder, 1803), a parasite of cyprinids of the genera Gobio, Phoxinus and Leuciscus. The valid name of the species parasitizing cyprinids of the genera Abramis, Rutilus and Vimba, mostly reported erroneously as P. ovata, is P. cyprinirutili (Creplin, 1825) comb. n. PMID:15139382

Moravec, Frantisek

2004-03-01

99

Historical biogeography at the crossroads of the northern continents: molecular phylogenetics of red-backed voles (Rodentia: Arvicolinae).  

PubMed

Evolutionary relationships of red-backed voles and their relatives were examined and used to test biogeographic hypotheses. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were obtained for 25 individuals representing Alticola macrotis, Clethrionomys californicus, C. gapperi, C. glareolus, C. rutilus, and C. rufocanus. These were combined with 21 partial sequences from GenBank for C. regulus, C. rex, C. rufocanus, C. rutilus, Eothenomys imaizumii, E. melanogaster, Phaulomys andersoni, and P. smithii. Complete sequences of three species of Microtus (M. montanus, M. oeconomus, and M. pennsylvanicus), representative species of other arvicoline genera (Myopus, Synaptomys, Arvicola, Ellobius, Ondatra, Lemmus, Dicrostonyx, and Phenacomys), and a sigmodontine representative (Peromyscus) were included as outgroups. We used maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, distance, and Bayesian based methods and conducted statistical tests on proposed hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic histories. A close relationship of species representing the genera Alticola, Clethrionomys, and Eothenomys was supported (Clethrionomyini); however, the genus Clethrionomys was paraphyletic with respect to both Alticola and Eothenomys. Three major clades were identified as Asian (Eothenomys andersoni, E. smithii, C. rex, C. regulus, and C. rufocanus), Trans-beringian (Alticola macrotis, C. californicus, C. gapperi, C. glarelolus, and C. rutilus), and Taiwanese (E. melanogaster). These results are consistent with the fossil record which indicates an initial diversification in Asia followed by colonization of the Nearctic on at least two occasions. The holarctic species, C. rutilus, appears to have either reinvaded Asia from North America or colonized North America more recently (late Pleistocene) than the two species of Clethrionomys (C. gapperi and C. californicus) that are endemic to North America (early to mid-Pleistocene). Finally, C. gapperi, appears to be comprised of an eastern and a western species, the former with affinities to the Asian C. glareolus and the latter more closely related to C. californicus. PMID:15012954

Cook, Joseph A; Runck, Amy M; Conroy, Chris J

2004-03-01

100

Special Publication No. 6, Subject: Nematoda and Nematode Diseases, Part 2: Supergenera, Genera, Species, and Subspecies: C-E.  

E-print Network

, M. C., 1929 b, 36, 59, 62 Perca fluviatilis Lucioperca Sandra Acerina cemua Aspro zingel Camallanus lacustris.? Continued. Hall, M. ?., 1929 b, 36, 59, 62 Leuciscus rutilus Aspius rapax Barbus fluviatilis Tinea vulgaris Esox lucius Lota... vulgaris Salmo salar Trutta trutta Salvelinus fontinalis Coregonus oxyrrhynchus Osmerus eperlanus Silurus gianis Anguillula vulgaris Cyclops sp. Agri?n sp. Camallanus lacustris Harant, H.j and Verni?res, P., 1933 ?, 263 Camallanus lacustris...

Doss, Mildred A.; Hanfman, Deborah T.

101

Contamination Levels and Specific Accumulation of Persistent Organochlorines in Caspian Seal ( Phoca caspica ) from the Caspian Sea, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes\\u000a (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean\\u000a values of 19 and 1.3 ?g\\/g on wet-weight

M. Watanabe; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; M. Amano; N. Miyazaki; E. A. Petrov; S. L. Khuraskin

1999-01-01

102

Chromosome studies of European cyprinid fishes: interspecific homology of leuciscine cytotaxonomic marker-the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair as revealed by cross-species painting.  

PubMed

Leuciscine cyprinids possess a nearly invariant diploid number (2n = 50) with an extremely uniform karyotype comprising of 8 pairs of metacentric, 13-15 pairs of submetacentric and 2-4 pairs of subtelocentric (st) to acrocentric (a) chromosomes. The largest pair is characteristically an st/a element-the 'leuciscine' cytotaxonomic marker. Previously, the interspecific homology of this chromosome pair could not be assessed owing to the inability to produce euchromatic or serial banding patterns. In the present study, we used laser-microdissection (15-20 copies of the marker chromosome) to construct a whole chromosome probe (WCP) from the marker chromosome of the roach Rutilus rutilus to ascertain the interspecific homology of marker chromosomes by cross-species in-situ hybridization. WCP was hybridized to chromosomes of widely distributed (Abramis brama, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Alburnus alburnus, Aspius aspius, Ballerus ballerus, B. sapa, Blicca bjoerkna, Chondrostoma nasus, Leucaspius delineatus, Leuciscus leuciscus, L. idus, R. rutilus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Squalius cephalus, and Vimba vimba) and Iberian endemic species (Achondrostoma oligolepis, Iberochondrostoma almacai, I. lusitanicum, Pseudochondrostoma duriense, S. alburnoides and S. pyrenaicus). Cross-species in-situ hybridization to chromosomes of Phoxinus phoxinus, a representative of leuciscine sister lineage, showed the same pattern as in all of the leuciscins. The probe consistently hybridized to the distal part of the short arm of the marker chromosome, indicating sequence homology. PMID:18709543

Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Pereira, Carla Sofia; Collares-Pereira, Maria Joăo; Pelikánová, Sárka

2008-01-01

103

Molecular and ecological signs of mitochondrial adaptation: consequences for introgression?  

PubMed

The evolution of the mitochondrial genome and its potential adaptive impact still generates vital debates. Even if mitochondria have a crucial functional role, as they are the main cellular energy suppliers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression is common in nature, introducing variation in populations upon which selection may act. Here we evaluated whether the evolution of mtDNA in a rodent species affected by mtDNA introgression is explained by neutral expectations alone. Variation in one mitochondrial and six nuclear markers in Myodes glareolus voles was examined, including populations that show mtDNA introgression from its close relative, Myodes rutilus. In addition, we modelled protein structures of the mtDNA marker (cytochrome b) and estimated the environmental envelopes of mitotypes. We found that massive mtDNA introgression occurred without any trace of introgression in the analysed nuclear genes. The results show that the native glareolus mtDNA evolved under past positive selection, suggesting that mtDNA in this system has selective relevance. The environmental models indicate that the rutilus mitotype inhabits colder and drier habitats than the glareolus one that can result from local adaptation or from the geographic context of introgression. Finally, homology models of the cytochrome b protein revealed a substitution in rutilus mtDNA in the vicinity of the catalytic fraction, suggesting that differences between mitotypes may result in functional changes. These results suggest that the evolution of mtDNA in Myodes may have functional, ecological and adaptive significance. This work opens perspective onto future experimental tests of the role of natural selection in mtDNA introgression in this system. PMID:24690754

Boraty?ski, Z; Melo-Ferreira, J; Alves, P C; Berto, S; Koskela, E; Pentikäinen, O T; Tarroso, P; Ylilauri, M; Mappes, T

2014-10-01

104

[Analysis of parasitic communities in fishes from Lake Baikal].  

PubMed

Analysis of infracommunities and component communities of fish parasites in Lake Baikal has been conducted for the first time. It has been revealed that parasite infracommunities for the majority of Baikal fishes are weakly balanced and impoverished (the Berger-Parker Index is > 0.5; Evension is < 0.5; the Brillouin Index is < 1). The highest diversity and balance of the communities are characteristic for carnivorous fishes (Brachymystax lenok, Hucho taimen, Thymallus arcticus, Esox lucius, and Percafluviatilis). The component parasitic communities of Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Rutilus rutilus, and Leocottus kesslerii are the most diverse in Lake Baikal since the Shennon index for L. leuciscus baicalensis, R. rutilus, and L. kesslerii is 2.4, for Paracotlus knerii--2.2, Limnocoitus godlewskii--2.3, Phoxinus phoxinus--2.1, Lota lota and Limnocuttus pallidus--1.9, P. fluviatilis--1.8, Leuciscus idus--1.8. The component parasitic communities of other fishes in Lake Baikal have low indices of biological diversity (H = 0.5-1.05, Smp is close to 1). A classification of mature and immature components of parasitic communities based on the ratio of specialist species and generalist species has been proposed. It is established that the component parasitic communities in sublitoral, profundal, and pseudoabyssal zones are mature, while in the littoral zone they are immature (impoverished and weakly balanced). The component parasitic communities in benthophagous fishes and predators are mature, in planktivorous fishes they are immature. The component parasitic communities are mature in the family Cyprinidae and immature in the families Coregonidae and Cottidae. The component parasitic communities of the Boreal Plain and Boreal Submountain faunal complexes are mature, but they are immature in Lake Baikal and Arctic freshwater complexes. PMID:16755724

Rusinek, O T

2006-01-01

105

New method for visualization of C-heterochromatin in synaptonemal complex spreads  

PubMed Central

Abstract DAPI staining of the metaphase chromosomes pretreated with barium hydroxide generates a C-like banding pattern. In this work a protocol for visualizing similar pattern at the synaptonemal complex (SC) spreads after immunostaining is suggested. This method was used to visualize centromeric and sex heterochromatin at the SC spreads of guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). The efficiency of this method was further confirmed at SC spreads of the northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus (Pallas, 1779)), the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758)), and the pigmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus, 1766). PMID:24260695

Lisachov, Artem P.

2013-01-01

106

A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory behaviour. A key emerging model to explain migration in many systems posits that migration is driven by seasonal changes to a predation/growth potential (p/g) trade-off that a wide range of animals face. In this study we assess a key assumption of this model for a common cyprinid partial migrant, the roach Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had fuller stomachs containing more high quality prey items than migrant fish. Hence, we document a feeding cost to migration in roach, which adds additional support for the validity of the p/g model of migration in freshwater systems. PMID:23723967

Chapman, Ben B.; Eriksen, Anders; Baktoft, Henrik; Brodersen, Jakob; Nilsson, P. Anders; Hulthen, Kaj; Bronmark, Christer; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Gr?nkjaer, Peter; Skov, Christian

2013-01-01

107

Migration confers survival benefits against avian predators for partially migratory freshwater fish.  

PubMed

The importance of predation risk in shaping patterns of animal migration is not well studied, mostly owing to difficulties in accurately quantifying predation risk for migratory versus resident individuals. Here, we present data from an extensive field study, which shows that migration in a freshwater fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus) that commonly migrates from lakes to streams during winter confers a significant survival benefit with respect to bird (cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo spp.) predation. We tagged over 2000 individual fish in two Scandinavian lakes over 4 years and monitored migratory behaviour using passive telemetry. Next, we calculated the predation vulnerability of fish with differing migration strategies, by recovering data from passive integrated transponder tags of fish eaten by cormorants at communal roosts close to the lakes. We show that fish can reduce their predation risk from cormorants by migrating into streams, and that probability of being preyed upon by cormorants is positively related to the time individuals spend in the lake during winter. Our data add to the growing body of evidence that highlights the importance of predation for migratory dynamics, and, to our knowledge, is one of the first studies to directly quantify a predator avoidance benefit to migrants in the field. PMID:23445943

Skov, Christian; Chapman, Ben B; Baktoft, Henrik; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Hulthén, Kaj; Nilsson, P Anders

2013-04-23

108

Biology of Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Delta of the Selenga River, Buryatia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined the fecundity, growth, diet, and density of the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Selenga River Delta on Lake Baikal during 1986-1991 to better understand how this invading exotic will affect Baikal's endemic fishes. We also compared the Amur sleeper's diet with that of other fishes living in the delta. The largest Amur sleepers were about 200 mm long and weighed 200 g; the oldest were age 7. All females were mature at age 2. Fecundity ranged from 884 eggs at age 1 to 37,056 eggs at age 7. Highest densities of Amur sleepers were found in oxbow lakes where densities sometimes exceeded 4,000 fish per ha. The bulk of the diet of Amur sleeper age 2 and older was chironomids, fish, and fish eggs. Chironomids were also important in the diet of the commercially valuable Siberian roach (Rutilus rutilus lacustris) and Siberian dace (Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis). Thus the Amur sleeper may cause population declines of these important endemic fishes through resource competition and predation on their juvenile life stages. However, Amur sleepers were the species of fish most frequently eaten by Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). So, maintaining vigorous populations of these two predators may well be an effective strategy for limiting the size of Amur sleeper populations.

Litvinov, Alexander G.; O'Gorman, Robert

1996-01-01

109

Feeding habits and ontogenic changes in digestive enzyme patterns in five freshwater teleosts.  

PubMed

Feeding habits and the activity of digestive enzymes (total alkaline proteases, ?-amylase and lipase) from dace Leuciscus leuciscus, roach Rutilus rutilus, Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio, perch Perca fluviatilis and pikeperch Sander lucioperca fry were studied in the Malye Chany Lake-Kargat Estuary (western Siberia, Russia). The diet of fry from all studied species was mainly composed of chironomid larvae and zooplanktonic organisms (i.e. cladocera and copepoda), whereas carnivorous species such as P. fluviatilis and S. lucioperca also preyed on fry from other fishes while detritus and microalgae were also important in the diet of ommivorous species. When comparing diet similarity (Sřrensen-Dice index, QS ) among fry at different stages of development, both omnivorous and carnivorous species showed a high level of similarity (0·67?

Solovyev, M M; Kashinskaya, E N; Izvekova, G I; Gisbert, E; Glupov, V V

2014-11-01

110

Roach, Sex, and Gender-Bending Chemicals: The Feminization of Wild Fish in English Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Feminization of the male roach, Rutilus rutilus, a freshwater, group-spawning fish, is widespread in English rivers; among the causative agents are natural and synthetic steroidal estrogens and chemicals that mimic estrogens. In feminized male roach, concentrations of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin are elevated, sex steroid hormone dynamics are altered, and gonad development is disrupted (most notably, a female reproductive duct or developing eggs [oocytes] are present in the testis). In some English rivers containing high levels of estrogens, all male roach sampled have been feminized to varying degrees. In the more severely affected males, individuals produce low-quality sperm with a reduced capability for fertilization. Laboratory studies have shown that the environmental estrogens responsible for inducing gonadal feminization in roach can also alter reproductive behavior, disrupting normal breeding dynamics (parentage) in the zebrafish, another group-spawning fish. Together these findings indicate that feminization of wild roach may result in adverse population-level effects, but this hypothesis has yet to be fully addressed.

Charles Tyler, R. (University of Exeter - UK;); Susan Jobling (Brunel University - UK;)

2008-12-01

111

Shoreline development and degradation of coastal fish reproduction habitats.  

PubMed

Coastal development has severely affected habitats and biodiversity during the last century, but quantitative estimates of the impacts are usually lacking. We utilize predictive habitat modeling and mapping of human pressures to estimate the cumulative long-term effects of coastal development in relation to fish habitats. Based on aerial photographs since the 1960s, shoreline development rates were estimated in the Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea. By combining shoreline development rates with spatial predictions of fish reproduction habitats, we estimated annual habitat degradation rates for three of the most common coastal fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). The results showed that shoreline constructions were concentrated to the reproduction habitats of these species. The estimated degradation rates, where a degraded habitat was defined as having ?3 constructions per 100 m shoreline, were on average 0.5 % of available habitats per year and about 1 % in areas close to larger population centers. Approximately 40 % of available habitats were already degraded in 2005. These results provide an example of how many small construction projects over time may have a vast impact on coastal fish populations. PMID:24943864

Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

2014-12-01

112

Toxicity of acid aluminium-rich water to seven freshwater fish species: a comparative laboratory study.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the relative sensitivity among freshwater fish species to aqueous aluminium. Seven common Scandinavian fish species were exposed to acidic Al-rich water, acidic Al-poor water, and approximately neutral water as a control. The relative sensitivity among the species to an acute aluminium challenge was documented, and was in the following order: Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as the most sensitive; then roach, Rutilus rutilus; minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus; perch, Perca fluviatilis; grayling, Thymallus thymallus; brown trout, Salmo trutta; and Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus. Substantial mortality was observed in all species when exposed to the Al-rich medium. Some mortality was also observed in minnow, roach, and brown trout exposed to the acidic Al-poor medium and the control medium. A high resistance to aluminium was observed in Arctic char, while perch was found to be more sensitive to aluminium than expected and, for the first time, a toxic response to aqueous aluminium in grayling was documented. Through controlled experimental studies, the results confirm that aluminium is an important factor in the toxicity of acidified waters to freshwater fish species. PMID:15093412

Poléo, A B; ŘStbye, K; Řxnevad, S A; Andersen, R A; Heibo, E; Vřllestad, L A

1997-01-01

113

Monogenean assemblages and the apparent transmission capability of monogeneans between related fish species: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Gyrodactylid monogeneans are considered to be the most invasive fish parasites. They are omnipresent on teleost fishes and host change might play a crucial role in their biology. In the present study, related fish species were kept in single- or mixed-species groups to test the ability of Gyrodactylus species to change their host fish under experimental conditions. The first group included two percid fish species, perch Perca fluviatilis L. and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.), and the second group two cyprinid species, roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) and minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.). A total of 4,182 specimens of 19 monogenean species belonging to five genera were observed, and eight species of Gyrodactylus were identified. There were three species of Gyrodactylus found on roach and six species on minnow. Gyrodactylus vimbi parasitized both cyprinid fish species and was the only species that increased in intensity during the experiments and also assumed to transmit from minnow to roach, while the other recorded host change case, Gyrodactylus macronychus, was represented by a single individual that transmitted from minnow to roach. Gyrodactylus rutilensis and Gyrodactylus pannonicus remained on their original hosts (roach and minnow, respectively). Gyrodactylus cernuae was the only species observed on both ruffe and perch, but ruffe appeared more susceptible to this parasite. Most of the gyrodactylids observed on roach and minnow were situated on the fins, while gyrodactylids of perch and ruffe parasitized mainly the gill chamber and head. PMID:18288490

Blazek, R D; Bagge, A; Valtonen, E T

2008-05-01

114

The Consequences of Feminization in Breeding Groups of Wild Fish  

PubMed Central

Background The feminization of nature by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a key environmental issue affecting both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. A crucial and as yet unanswered question is whether EDCs have adverse impacts on the sustainability of wildlife populations. There is widespread concern that intersex fish are reproductively compromised, with potential population-level consequences. However, to date, only in vitro sperm quality data are available in support of this hypothesis. Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether wild endocrine-disrupted fish can compete successfully in a realistic breeding scenario. Methods In two competitive breeding experiments using wild roach (Rutilus rutilus), we used DNA microsatellites to assign parentage and thus determine reproductive success of the adults. Results In both studies, the majority of intersex fish were able to breed, albeit with varying degrees of success. In the first study, where most intersex fish were only mildly feminized, body length was the only factor correlated with reproductive success. In the second study, which included a higher number of more severely intersex fish, reproductive performance was negatively correlated with severity of intersex. The intersex condition reduced reproductive performance by up to 76% for the most feminized individuals in this study, demonstrating a significant adverse effect of intersex on reproductive performance. Conclusion Feminization of male fish is likely to be an important determinant of reproductive performance in rivers where there is a high prevalence of moderately to severely feminized males. PMID:21362587

Harris, Catherine A.; Hamilton, Patrick B.; Runnalls, Tamsin J.; Vinciotti, Veronica; Henshaw, Alan; Hodgson, Dave; Coe, Tobias S.; Jobling, Susan; Tyler, Charles R.; Sumpter, John P.

2011-01-01

115

Migration confers survival benefits against avian predators for partially migratory freshwater fish  

PubMed Central

The importance of predation risk in shaping patterns of animal migration is not well studied, mostly owing to difficulties in accurately quantifying predation risk for migratory versus resident individuals. Here, we present data from an extensive field study, which shows that migration in a freshwater fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus) that commonly migrates from lakes to streams during winter confers a significant survival benefit with respect to bird (cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo spp.) predation. We tagged over 2000 individual fish in two Scandinavian lakes over 4 years and monitored migratory behaviour using passive telemetry. Next, we calculated the predation vulnerability of fish with differing migration strategies, by recovering data from passive integrated transponder tags of fish eaten by cormorants at communal roosts close to the lakes. We show that fish can reduce their predation risk from cormorants by migrating into streams, and that probability of being preyed upon by cormorants is positively related to the time individuals spend in the lake during winter. Our data add to the growing body of evidence that highlights the importance of predation for migratory dynamics, and, to our knowledge, is one of the first studies to directly quantify a predator avoidance benefit to migrants in the field. PMID:23445943

Skov, Christian; Chapman, Ben B.; Baktoft, Henrik; Brodersen, Jakob; Bronmark, Christer; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Hulthen, Kaj; Nilsson, P. Anders

2013-01-01

116

The dependence on temperature and pH of the effects of zinc and copper on proteolytic activities of the digestive tract mucosa in piscivorous fish and their potential preys.  

PubMed

The dependence of the effects of zinc and copper on the activities of proteinases of the stomach and intestinal mucosa on temperature and pH in four species of boreal piscivorous fish (pike Esox lucius, zander Zander lucioperca, perch Perca fluviatilis and burbot Lota lota) as well as in some of their potential preys (kilka Clupeonella cultriventris, ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus, perch and roach Rutilus rutilus) was investigated. Species-specific differences of the effects of these heavy metals upon the activities of proteinases depending on temperature and pH were demonstrated. It was revealed that the stomach mucosa proteinases were more tolerant to the effects of the studied factors than the intestinal mucosa proteinases, especially true for pike. The effects of the heavy metals on the whole body proteinases of the fishes' potential preys were mostly dependent on temperature than on pH. At pH 3.0, the negative action of zinc and copper on the fish digestive tract mucosa proteolytic activity to a considerable degree was compensated by the high activity of the hemoglobinlytic proteinases, probably, cathepsine D. PMID:19731060

Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V

2010-09-01

117

First evidence of fish genotoxicity induced by heavy metals from landfill leachates: the advantage of using the RAPD-PCR technique.  

PubMed

Municipal leachates are loaded with heavy metals that can contaminate surface water before discharge into a receiving body of water. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic effects of heavy metals generated by domestic waste on the common roach Rutilus rutilus in the last of the four interconnected ponds at the Etueffont landfill. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) since it has been shown to be a powerful means of detecting a broad range of DNA damage due to environmental contaminants. Our results show the ability of RAPD analysis to detect significant genetic alterations in roach DNA, after contamination with a set of metals contained in the landfill leachates in comparison to a roach from a non-polluted reference pond. Analysis of electrophoresis profiles indicates apparent changes such as the appearance of new bands or disappearance of bands as compared to the control. In fact, mixed smearing and laddering of DNA fragments in muscle samples support the genotoxic effects of metal deposits in the roach. This study is the first evidence found via the RAPD-PCR technique in the detection of pollutant impacts on fish exposed to landfill leachates. PMID:24507132

Ben Salem, Zohra; Capelli, Nicolas; Grisey, Elise; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

2014-03-01

118

Feeding guilds and food resource partitioning in a lake fish assemblage: an ontogenetic approach.  

PubMed

Ontogenetic diet patterns and trophic guild structure of a 15 species temperate lake fish assemblage were analysed over wide size intervals (up to seven orders of magnitude in body mass), representing practically the whole life span in most species. A two-step objective clustering technique supplemented with other multivariate statistical tools proved that size-related diet changes clearly played an important role in structuring trophic organization of fishes inhabiting Lake Balaton. As many as 13 out of the 15 fish species showed marked size-related dietary changes with two to four ontogenetic feeding stages. At the assemblage level, 11 trophic guilds were separated. Guild membership was size-dependent in 11 fish species that participated in two to four trophic guilds during their life span. The most complex trophic ontogeny was observed in roach Rutilus rutilus and asp Aspius aspius with four guild memberships. This study showed that trophic status of fishes may be very size-sensitive and thus a universal classification of fish species to general trophic guilds, such as 'planktivore', 'benthivore', 'piscivore' or 'herbivore', should be applied very carefully even in environmental monitoring and fisheries management applications, unless it is supported by relevant results of life span diet analyses. PMID:20738494

Specziár, A; Rezsu, E T

2009-07-01

119

Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies  

PubMed Central

Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus) for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids) from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies. PMID:20478030

2010-01-01

120

Temporal and spatial distribution of glochidial larval stages of European unionid mussels (Mollusca: Unionidae) on host fishes.  

PubMed

Glochidia are the larval stage of freshwater unionid mussels that parasitize the fins and gill apparatus of fish. A total of 22 fish species were examined for the presence of glochidia whose distribution on individual hosts was studied on three common fish species, the roach Rutilus rutilus (L.), perch Percafluviatilis L. and bitterling Rhodeus sericeus (Pallas). Between 1997 and 1999, the fish were obtained from the rivers Morava and Kyjovka and surrounding water pools in the Czech Republic. The glochidia of two genera, Unio and Anodonta, were found. Anodonta glochidia were observed on 10 fish species, Unio glochidia on 17 fish species. There was a difference in spatial distribution of glochidia on the body of the host fish. Unio glochidia were predominantly located on the gills, whereas most Anodonta glochidia were found on the fins, with the highest numbers of glochidia were observed on the margin of the pectoral fins. For the gill apparatus, Unio glochidia were found predominantly on the second and third arch. Anodonta glochidia were predominantly found during winter and spring (November-May), whereas Unio glochidia were more abundant during May and June. The number of glochidia was positively correlated with fish length in perch highly infected by Anodonta glochidia and perch infected by Unio glochidia. Of the three fish species, the highest occurrence of parasites was found on perch with fewer observed on roach. In spite of the close relationship between bitterling and unionid mussels, glochidiosis was rare on this fish species. PMID:16898123

Blazek, Radim; Gelnar, Milan

2006-06-01

121

Host searching in Argulus foliaceus L. (Crustacea: Branchiura): the role of vision and selectivity.  

PubMed

In laboratory experiments the swimming behaviour of the ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus and its infection rates on juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) were examined. The highest infection rate and a preference for perch juveniles were obtained in darkness, the lowest infection rate and a lack of preference in the light, when aquaria with glass walls (high reflectivity) were used. In the light, when aquaria were lined with black plastic (low reflectivity) an intermediate level of infection for perch and the highest for roach was recorded. Under such conditions roach were significantly more heavily infected than perch; an attack rate 4 times greater was recorded for brighter (more reflective) roach juveniles than for perch. Within the aquaria with a low reflective interior parasites swam 4.4 times slower and were observed predominantly in the central area, while in the highly reflective aquaria fast swimming A. foliaceus were recorded mainly near the walls. The primary role of visual stimuli for the host search behavior of A. foliaceus in the light is suggested. Parasites can effectively use such stimuli only in the low reflective surroundings. Highly reflective glass aquarium walls produce numerous secondary local light sources, which cause fast, erratic parasite movements and prevent the efficient location of potential hosts. PMID:9614325

Mikheev, V N; Valtonen, E T; Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P

1998-05-01

122

Tuning host specificity during the ontogeny of a fish ectoparasite: behavioural responses to host-induced cues.  

PubMed

The choice between two alternative hosts, brown trout (Salmo trutta) and roach (Rutilus rutilus), and the response to visual and olfactory cues were studied in the ontogeny of Argulus coregoni. The initial preference of the smallest parasites for brighter roach changed at the age of 2 weeks, at the size of about 2 mm, for trout, a typical salmonid host. Younger argulids were attracted by a non-specific visual stimulus (white disc over dark background), and they did not respond to olfactory stimulation (fish-conditioned water). Later, the response to visual stimuli was modulated by trout-conditioned water, but not by that conditioned by roach. The primary role of vision, particularly in early ontogeny, is emphasized as an adaptation of A. coregoni to habitats in boreal latitudes, clear and running water with a sparse fish population. In sub-adult and adult parasites, vision is complimented by olfaction that enables them to choose hosts more precisely. The nature and adaptive significance of the ontogenetic shift in host choice by A. coregoni is discussed. PMID:14712391

Mikheev, Victor N; Pasternak, Anna F; Valtonen, E Tellervo

2004-02-01

123

Selective exploitation of large pike Esox lucius--effects on mercury concentrations in fish populations.  

PubMed

The present study outlines two main trends of mercury transfer patterns through the fish community: 1) the Hg concentrations increase with increase in the trophic level, with top predators having the highest concentrations, and 2) a fast growth rate may dilute the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle tissue (growth biodilution). In 2004, an extensive reduction in number of large pike (Esox lucius L.), was initiated by selective gillnet fishing in Lake Arungen, Norway, in order to increase the pike recruitment due to an expected reduction in cannibalism. In this connection, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the fish community were studied both before (2003) and after (2005) the removal of large pike. The delta(15)N signatures and stomach content analyses indicated that pike and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occupied the highest trophic position, while roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) was at the lower level, and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) at the lowest. The piscivores, pike and perch, had the highest concentrations of THg. The biomagnification rate of THg through the food web in the fish community was 0.163 (per thousand delta(15)N), with the highest uptake rate (0.232) in perch. A significant decrease in THg concentrations was found in all fish species in 2005 compared to 2003. Removal of the top predators in an Hg contaminated lake might thus be an important management tool for reducing Hg levels in fish, thereby reducing health risk to humans. PMID:18485450

Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Borgstrřm, Reidar; Huitfeldt, Jřrgen Sinkaberg; Rosseland, Bjřrn Olav

2008-07-25

124

Differential Hepatic Metal and Metallothionein Levels in Three Feral Fish Species along a Metal Pollution Gradient  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc and the induction of metallothioneins (MT) in liver of three freshwater fish species was studied. Gudgeon (Gobio gobio), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were captured at 6 sampling sites along a cadmium and zinc gradient and one reference site in a tributary of the Scheldt River in Flanders (Belgium). At each site up to 10 individuals per species were collected and analyzed on their general condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). From each individual fish the liver was dissected and analyzed on Cd, Cu and Zn and MT-content. Although not all species were present at each site, hepatic Cd and Zn levels generally followed the pollution gradient and highest levels were measured in perch, followed by roach and gudgeon. Nevertheless also an effect of site was observed on this order. MT-levels appeared to be the highest in gudgeon although differences with the other species were not very pronounced and depended on the site. Significant relationships were found between hepatic zinc accumulation and MT levels. For each species the ratio MTtheoretical/ MTmeasured was calculated, which gives an indication of the relative capacity to induce MTs and thus immobilize the metals. Perch had the lowest capacity in inducing MTs (highest ratio). Relationships between hepatic metal levels and fish condition indices were absent or very weak. PMID:23556004

Bervoets, Lieven; Knapen, Dries; De Jonge, Maarten; Van Campenhout, Karen; Blust, Ronny

2013-01-01

125

Survey of the paratenic hosts of Anguillicola crassus in Lake Velence, Hungary.  

PubMed

Anguillicola crassus infection of paratenic hosts was investigated in Lake Velence, Hungary, in October 1992. A total of 155 specimens of 8 species (Gymnocephalus cernuus, Lepomis gibbosus, Stizostedion lucioperca, Abramis brama, Alburnus alburnus, Cyprinus carpio, Pseudorasbora parva and Rutilus rutilus) were examined: all species proved to be infected. There were large differences in the prevalence of infection among fishes, but the prevalence was generally higher in Perciform fishes and it was the highest in G. cernuus (100%). The occurrence and physical stage of larvae did not depend on the size of the fish. In S. lucioperca the size of third stage larvae was bigger than in other fishes, and only live larvae were found. The comparison of Lake Velence and Lake Balaton indicates that the rate of larval infection in paratenic hosts of A. crassus is higher in Lake Velence. This might be explained by the significant ecological differences between the two lakes (population of intermediate hosts, water depth, salinity, pH). PMID:7810405

Pazooki, J; Székely, C

1994-01-01

126

Accumulation and effects of metals in caged carp and resident roach along a metal pollution gradient.  

PubMed

Metal accumulation and effects on plasma Ca(2+), alanine transaminase (ALT) and fish condition factor were examined in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio) and resident roach (Rutilus rutilus) at four locations along the Grote Nete River system (Belgium). Cadmium and zinc accumulation were found in carp and roach, with highest concentrations at the most contaminated site (dissolved Cd: 1.82 microg/l, Zn: 967 microg/l). On the tissue level, highest cadmium concentrations were measured in kidneys of carp and roach, followed by gills, intestine and liver, while low concentrations were observed in carcass and muscle. For zinc, a similar pattern was observed (intestine>kidney>gills>liver>carcass>muscle). Comparison between species showed higher cadmium concentrations in feral roach, while zinc levels were lower, owing to the high zinc concentrations in control carp. Furthermore, comparison of metal concentrations between two sampling periods (2005 and 2000-2001) revealed a drastic decrease in cadmium concentration in gills, liver and muscle of roach, similar to the reduction in waterborne cadmium concentrations, while differences for zinc were much less pronounced. In addition to metal accumulation, increased metallothionein concentrations (approximately 2x) were found in carp and roach, while no metal-related effects were found on ALT, Ca(2+)or condition factor. However, negative effects on fish community structure, as assessed by the index of biotic integrity (IBI), were found along the pollution gradient and indicated long-term adverse effects of metal pollution. PMID:18061244

Reynders, H; Bervoets, L; Gelders, M; De Coen, W M; Blust, R

2008-02-25

127

Distribution and Diet of 0+ Fish within a Canyon-Shaped European Reservoir in Late Summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and diet of age 0+ fish were studied in the deep canyon-shaped ímov Reservoir (Czech Republic), which is characterized by a longitudinal trophic gradient. During late summer of two years, 0+ fish were sampled from inshore and offshore habitats along the longitudinal reservoir axis. Offshore catches of 0+ fish from the surface layer were dominated by roach (Rutilus rutilus ), bream (Abramis brama ) and perch (Perca fluviatilis ), whereas in the deeper open water perch predominated. Inshore catches of 0+ fish were constituted mainly by perch and roach. The proportions of roach in the inshore catches were highest at the upper and most eutrophic part of the reservoir, whereas the proportions of perch in the inshore catches were higher at the downstream areas. Total catches of both inshore and offshore 0+ fish increased upstream in the reservoir. Offshore 0+ perch were of consistently smaller size than inshore 0+ perch. Inshore 0+ perch had significantly smaller size at the upstream reservoir part than at the downstream, more lacustrine regions. The diet of both inshore and offshore 0+ fish consisted predominantly of crustacean zooplankton. Perch diet was generally dominated both by cladocerans and copepods, whereas roach diet consisted chiefly of cladocerans.

Vaek, Mojmír; Kubeka, Jan; Matna, Josef; Sea, Jaromír

2006-05-01

128

Multiresidue method to quantify pesticides in fish muscle by QuEChERS-based extraction and LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Pesticide residues in fish muscle are an environmental and a health safety concern which requires analytical methods presenting high sensitivity and low limits of quantification. In this study, adapted QuEChERS method, coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Scheduled MRM-5500 QTRAP), was developed to quantify 13 pesticides (azoxystrobin, clomazone, diflufenican, dimethachlor, carbendazim, iprodion, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, metazachlor, napropamid, quizalofop and thifensulfuron-methyl) in muscle of fish. Quantification limits were below 1 ng g(-1) except for clomazone (1.8 ng g(-1)) and quizalofop (7.4 ng g(-1)). Best recoveries were observed for perch (>80%) and roach (>68%), except for thifensulfuron-methyl. Lower recoveries had been observed for carp (6% to 86%). Relative standard deviation was lower than 28% for intra-day and 29% for inter-day analysis, respectively. This method was successfully tested on three fish species, naturally or orally exposed: roach (Rutilus rutilus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and carp (Cyprinus carpio). Few levels were observed in fish naturally exposed, but carp and perch orally contaminated showed measurable levels in their muscles. PMID:21484246

Lazartigues, Angélique; Wiest, Laure; Baudot, Robert; Thomas, Marielle; Feidt, Cyril; Cren-Olivé, Cécile

2011-06-01

129

Use Carum copticum essential oil for controlling the Listeria monocytogenes growth in fish model system  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Carum copticum essential oil (Ajowan EO) against Listeria monocytogenes in fish model system. Ajowan EO chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis and the highest concentration of Carum copticum essential oil without any significant changes on sensory properties of kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) was assigned. Then the inhibitory effect of Ajowan EO at different concentrations in presence of salt and smoke component was tested on L. monocytogenes growth in fish peptone broth (FPB), kutum broth and cold smoked kutum broth at 4 °C for 12 days. Ajowan EO completely decreased the number of L. monocytogenes in FPB after 12 days of storage, however, antimicrobial effect of EO significantly reduced in kutum and cold smoked kutum broth. Addition of 4% NaCl and smoke component improved the anti-listerial activity of Ajowan EO in all fish model broths. PMID:24948918

Rabiey, Soghra; Hosseini, Hedayat; Rezaei, Masoud

2014-01-01

130

Transferability of predictive fish distribution models in two coastal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species distribution modelling has emerged as a tool both for exploring niche theory and for producing distribution maps for management. To understand and predict potential effects of large scale habitat change there is a need for proper model validation and applicability also in unstudied areas. However, knowledge about factors influencing the transferability of distribution models, i.e. the accuracy of the models when applying them in a new geographical area, is limited. We have successfully modelled the larval distribution of two fish species, northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.), on a regional scale in the Baltic Sea using a few and easily measured environmental variables. When models were transferred from the training area to the testing area the models showed reasonable to very good discrimination (ROC 0.75 and 0.93) based on external validation using independent data separated also in time (1-2 years). The predicted larval distribution also overlapped with the distribution of young-of-the-year fish later in the season. Performance when reversing the transfer, by constructing the models in the testing area and predicting back to the original training area, was less successful. This discrepancy was species-specific and could be explained by differences in the species presence ranges along the predictor variables in the testing area compared to the training area. Our results illustrate how transferability success can be influenced by area-specific differences in the range of the predictor variables and show the necessity of validating model predictions properly.

Sundblad, Göran; Härmä, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Urho, Lauri; Bergström, Ulf

2009-06-01

131

Mercury content in the trophic chain of the Tanew River, Poland, ecosystem.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal posing a hazard to water ecosystems. This investigation was aimed at determining Hg content in the Tanew River, Poland, and subsequent transfer to fish inhabiting this lake. The area studied included approximately a 50-km distance of the river, with 5 sampling locations selected. Samples of water and bottom sediments were collected from 10 sites along the river-bank zone for each location. At the same location, fish were caught and samples of coastal water plants were collected. Fish that were caught included the following species: chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), ide (Leuciscus idus), and roach (Rutilus rutilus). Dominanting species of water plants included reed-mace (Typha angustifolia), rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum), and water knotweed (Polygonum amphibium). Mercury content in samples of water, bottom sediments, water plants, and fish tissues (muscles and gills) were determined by using a Mercury/MA-2000 system (NIC, Japan). The average Hg content in the waters of Tanew ranged between 1 and 5 microg/L, and in the bottom sediments ranged between 17 and 214 microg/kg dry weight, which are characteristic values for typical unpolluted areas. The highest Hg contamination of waters and bottom sediments was found where the Tanew estuary enters the San River. Mercury levels in fish from the Tanew delta appeared to be higher compared to other sampling sites. Data indicated that even if water environment is contaminated with Hg to a limited extent, fish accumulate this metal at higher levels, probably due to a bioaccumulation or bioconcentration factor. PMID:20706942

Wa?kuska, Grazyna; Cha?abis-Mazurek, Agnieszka; Szkoda, Józef

2010-01-01

132

Temperature and Resource Availability May Interactively Affect Over-Wintering Success of Juvenile Fish in a Changing Climate  

PubMed Central

The predicted global warming may affect freshwater systems at several organizational levels, from organism to ecosystem. Specifically, in temperate regions, the projected increase of winter temperatures may have important effects on the over-winter biology of a range of organisms and especially for fish and other ectothermic animals. However, temperature effects on organisms may be directed strongly by resource availability. Here, we investigated whether over-winter loss of biomass and lipid content of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) was affected by the physiologically relatively small (2-5°C) changes of winter temperatures predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), under both natural and experimental conditions. This was investigated in combination with the effects of food availability. Finally, we explored the potential for a correlation between lake temperature and resource levels for planktivorous fish, i.e., zooplankton biomass, during five consecutive winters in a south Swedish lake. We show that small increases in temperature (+2°C) affected fish biomass loss in both presence and absence of food, but negatively and positively respectively. Temperature alone explained only a minor part of the variation when food availability was not taken into account. In contrast to other studies, lipid analyses of experimental fish suggest that critical somatic condition rather than critical lipid content determined starvation induced mortality. Our results illustrate the importance of considering not only changes in temperature when predicting organism response to climate change but also food-web interactions, such as resource availability and predation. However, as exemplified by our finding that zooplankton over-winter biomass in the lake was not related to over-winter temperature, this may not be a straightforward task. PMID:21998627

Brodersen, Jakob; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose Luis; Jonsson, Mikael; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Bronmark, Christer; Nilsson, P. Anders; Nicolle, Alice; Berglund, Olof

2011-01-01

133

Karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative FISH mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA and telomeric (TTAGG) n repeat in eight species of true bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using DAPI/CMA3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric (TTAGG)n and 18S rDNA probes. Standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for Deraeocoris rutilus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838) (2n=30+2m+XY) and Deraeocoris ruber(Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=30+2m+XY) from the family Miridae. Using FISH, the location of a 18S rDNA cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: Megaloceroea recticornis (Geoffroy, 1785) (2n=30+XY) from the Miridae; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) (2n=14+2m+XY) from the Lygaeidae s.l.; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=22+X) from the Pyrrhocoridae; Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=12+XY) and Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=12+XY) from the Pentatomidae. The species were found to differ with respect to location of a 18S rRNA gene cluster which resides on autosomes in Oxycarenus lavaterae and Pyrrhocoris apterus, whereas it locates on sex chromosomes in other five species. The 18S rDNA location provides the ?rst physical landmark of the genomes of the species studied. The insect consensus telomeric pentanucleotide (TTAGG)n was demonstrated to be absent in all the species studied in this respect, Deraeocoris rutilus, Megaloceroea recticornis, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Cimicidae), Eurydema oleracea, and Graphosoma lineatum, supporting the hypothesis that this motif was lost in early evolution of the Heteroptera and secondarily replaced with another motif (yet unknown) or the alternative telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Dot-blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA from Cimex lectularius, Nabis sp. and Oxycarenus lavaterae with (TTAGG)n and six other telomeric probes likewise provided a negative result. PMID:24260641

Grozeva, S.; Kuznetsova, V.G.; Anokhin, B.A.

2011-01-01

134

Epidemiology of fishborne trematodiasis in Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

Fish borne trematodes are an important cause of morbidity in Kazakhstan. The number of human cases of opisthorchiidosis (infection with parasites of the family opisthorchiidae) reached a peak of 2521 recorded cases (17 cases per 100,000) in 2002 with a gradual decline to 1225 cases (7.4 cases per 100,000) in 2011. Most human cases are found in the north and north east part of Kazakhstan in areas drained by the Irtysh River and it tributaries. A further focus is found in the north west in the Ural river basin in the European part of Kazakhstan. The most common occupations of patients with opisthorchiidosis included the manual laborers, those employed in the home or unemployed. Necropsy investigations of village dogs in an endemic region revealed 37 of 51 (72%) village dogs infected with either Opisthorchis felineus or Methorchis bilis. Likewise an investigation of 242 cats consisting of strays, village, suburban and city cats revealed 79 (33%) animals infected with O. felineus. Higher prevalences were seen in strays and village cats compared to suburban cats. No urban cats, which lived in apartments, were found to be infected. Other important zoonoses included Echinococcus granulosus, detected in 2 of the 51 necropsied village dogs and E. multilocularis was found in 2 out of 124 necropsied stray cats. Investigations of locally caught fish revealed 10 of 107 (9%) roach (Rutilus rutilus), 49 of 68(72%) ide (Leuciscus idus) and 2 of 79 (2.5%) bream (Abramis brama) infested with trematode metacercariae. No metacercariae were found in 609 crucian carp (Carassius carassius), 35 tench (Tinca tinca), 79 carp (Cyprinus carpio), 46 perch (Perca fluviatilis) or 20 zander (Sander lucioperca). PMID:24943190

Sultanov, A; Abdybekova, A; Abdibaeva, A; Shapiyeva, Z; Yeshmuratov, T; Torgerson, P R

2014-10-01

135

Synthetic estrogen directly affects fish biomass and may indirectly disrupt aquatic food webs.  

PubMed

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are known to alter the fitness of individual organisms via changes in growth, behavior, and reproduction. It is largely unknown, however, whether these effects cascade through the food web and indirectly affect other, less sensitive organisms. The authors present results from a mesocosm experiment whereby the effects of the synthetic estrogen 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were quantified in pelagic communities. Treatment with EE2 at a concentration of 28?ng/L had no large effects on the pelagic communities composed only of phytoplankton and zooplankton. In communities where planktivorous roach (Rutilus rutilus) were also present, however, EE2 caused a significant reduction in fish biomass. Moreover, zooplankton biomass was higher in the EE2 treatments, suggesting that zooplankton may have been released from fish predation. Hence, the direct effect of EE2 on roach may have cascaded down the food web to produce positive indirect effects on zooplankton. This result was supported in complementary foraging experiments with roach, showing reduced foraging performance after exposure to EE2. Despite the observed negative effect of EE2 on roach and the positive indirect effect on zooplankton, these effects did not cascade to phytoplankton, possibly because only copepods, but not cladocerans-the major grazers in these systems-were released from fish predation. The authors conclude that the known reproductive impairment in fish by EE2 in combination with the disturbed foraging performance observed in the present study may be a disadvantage to fish that may result in increasing abundance or biomass of prey such as zooplankton. Hence, EE2 may have consequences for both the structure and function of freshwater communities. PMID:24615795

Hallgren, Per; Nicolle, Alice; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer; Nikoleris, Lina; Hyder, Murtaza; Persson, Anders

2014-04-01

136

Populations of a cyprinid fish are self-sustaining despite widespread feminization of males  

PubMed Central

Background Treated effluents from wastewater treatment works can comprise a large proportion of the flow of rivers in the developed world. Exposure to these effluents, or the steroidal estrogens they contain, feminizes wild male fish and can reduce their reproductive fitness. Long-term experimental exposures have resulted in skewed sex ratios, reproductive failures in breeding colonies, and population collapse. This suggests that environmental estrogens could threaten the sustainability of wild fish populations. Results Here we tested this hypothesis by examining population genetic structures and effective population sizes (Ne) of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) living in English rivers contaminated with estrogenic effluents. Ne was estimated from DNA microsatellite genotypes using approximate Bayesian computation and sibling assignment methods. We found no significant negative correlation between Ne and the predicted estrogen exposure at 28 sample sites. Furthermore, examination of the population genetic structure of roach in the region showed that some populations have been confined to stretches of river with a high proportion of estrogenic effluent for multiple generations and have survived, apparently without reliance on immigration of fish from less polluted sites. Conclusions These results demonstrate that roach populations living in some effluent-contaminated river stretches, where feminization is widespread, are self-sustaining. Although we found no evidence to suggest that exposure to estrogenic effluents is a significant driving factor in determining the size of roach breeding populations, a reduction in Ne of up to 65% is still possible for the most contaminated sites because of the wide confidence intervals associated with the statistical model. PMID:24417977

2014-01-01

137

Differences in the Activities of Eight Enzymes from Ten Soil Fungi and Their Possible Influences on the Surface Structure, Functional Groups, and Element Composition of Soil Colloids  

PubMed Central

How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, ?-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase) secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum) secreted 3–4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus) could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C?=?O, COO- decreased by 11–60%, while P?=?O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9–22%), surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials), and elemental compositions (11–49% decreases in C1s) in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus) compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus). Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix), highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance. PMID:25398013

Wang, Wenjie; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Zu, Yuangang

2014-01-01

138

Fish status survey of Nordic lakes: effects of acidification, eutrophication and stocking activity on present fish species composition.  

PubMed

The status of fish populations in 3821 lakes in Norway, Sweden and Finland was assessed in 1995-1997. The survey lakes were chosen by stratified random sampling from all (126 482) Fennoscandian lakes > or = 0.04 km2. The water chemistry of the lakes was analyzed and information on fish status was obtained by a postal inquiry. Fish population losses were most frequent in the most highly acidified region of southern Norway and least common in eastern Fennoscandia. According to the inquiry results, the number of lost stocks of brown trout (Salmo trutta), roach (Rutilus rutilus), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) was estimated to exceed 10000. The number of stocks of these species potentially affected by the low alkalinity of lake water was estimated to exceed 11000. About 3300 lakes showed high total phosphorus (> 25 microg L(-1)) and cyprinid dominance in eastern Fennoscandia, notably southwestern Finland. This survey did not reveal any extinction of fish species due to eutrophication. One-third of the lakes had been artificially stocked with at least one new species, most often brown trout, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus s.l.), Arctic char, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), pike-perch (Stizostedion lucioperca), grayling (Thymallus thymallus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), tench (Tinca tinca) and European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). The number of artificially manipulated stocks of these species in Fennoscandian lakes was estimated to exceed 52000. Hence, the number of fish species occurring in Nordic lakes has recently been changed more by stockings than by losses of fish species through environmental changes such as acidification. PMID:12733793

Tammi, Jouni; Appelberg, Magnus; Beier, Ulrika; Hesthagen, Trygve; Lappalainen, Antti; Rask, Martti

2003-03-01

139

How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Literature on mollusk-eating fishes was reviewed to determine the potential for different species of fish to control zebra mussels in eastern North America. At least six species are potential predators of zebra mussels because they possess (1) both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth or (2) lower pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads located on the dorsal roof for crushing mollusk shells. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and two centrarchids, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), possess both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth and are likely to consume more zebra mussels than fishes with only lower pharyngeal teeth. Only two catostomid species, copper and river redhorses (Moxostoma hubbsi and M. carinatum), have chewing pads that enable them to crush mollusks. The exotic omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio), possessing lower teeth and a chewing pad, may prey on zebra mussels when aquatic insect larvae, its preferred food, become rare. Managing populations or drum, sunfishes, and redhorses to reduce exploitation of large individuals and improve their habitats are suggested as means to intensify biological control of zebra mussels in eastern North America. Other Eurasian molluscivores, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) should not be introduced into North America because research has shown repeatedly that an introduced biological controller usually does not forage for unwanted pests or reside only in preferred habitats of pests. Drum, sunfishes and redhorses should be preferred over these exotics as biological controllers of zebra mussels in North America because these native fishes will likely occupy newly established habitats of zebra mussels.

French, John R. P., III

1993-01-01

140

Piscivore-Prey Fish Interactions: Mechanisms behind Diurnal Patterns in Prey Selectivity in Brown and Clear Water  

PubMed Central

Environmental change may affect predator-prey interactions in lakes through deterioration of visual conditions affecting foraging success of visually oriented predators. Environmental change in lakes includes an increase in humic matter causing browner water and reduced visibility, affecting the behavioural performance of both piscivores and prey. We studied diurnal patterns of prey selection in piscivorous pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in both field and laboratory investigations. In the field we estimated prey selectivity and prey availability during day and night in a clear and a brown water lake. Further, prey selectivity during day and night conditions was studied in the laboratory where we manipulated optical conditions (humic matter content) of the water. Here, we also studied the behaviours of piscivores and prey, focusing on foraging-cycle stages such as number of interests and attacks by the pikeperch as well as the escape distance of the prey fish species. Analyses of gut contents from the field study showed that pikeperch selected perch (Perca fluviatilis) over roach (Rutilus rutilus) prey in both lakes during the day, but changed selectivity towards roach in both lakes at night. These results were corroborated in the selectivity experiments along a brown-water gradient in day and night light conditions. However, a change in selectivity from perch to roach was observed when the optical condition was heavily degraded, from either brown-stained water or light intensity. At longer visual ranges, roach initiated escape at distances greater than pikeperch attack distances, whereas perch stayed inactive making pikeperch approach and attack at the closest range possible. Roach anti-predatory behaviour decreased in deteriorated visual conditions, altering selectivity patterns. Our results highlight the importance of investigating both predator and prey responses to visibility conditions in order to understand the effects of degrading optical conditions on piscivore-prey interaction strength and thereby ecosystem responses to brownification of waters. PMID:25379665

Ranĺker, Lynn; Persson, Jens; Jönsson, Mikael; Nilsson, P. Anders; Brönmark, Christer

2014-01-01

141

Assessing anthropogenic impact on boreal lakes with historical fish species distribution data and hydrogeochemical modeling.  

PubMed

Quantifying the effects of human activity on the natural environment is dependent on credible estimates of reference conditions to define the state of the environment before the onset of adverse human impacts. In Europe, emission controls that aimed at restoring ecological status were based on hindcasts from process-based models or paleolimnological reconstructions. For instance, 1860 is used in Europe as the target for restoration from acidification concerning biological and chemical parameters. A more practical problem is that the historical states of ecosystems and their function cannot be observed directly. Therefore, we (i) compare estimates of acidification based on long-term observations of roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations with hindcast pH from the hydrogeochemical model MAGIC; (ii) discuss policy implications and possible scope for use of long-term archival data for assessing human impacts on the natural environment and (iii) present a novel conceptual model for interpreting the importance of physico-chemical and ecological deviations from reference conditions. Of the 85 lakes studied, 78 were coherently classified by both methods. In 1980, 28 lakes were classified as acidified with the MAGIC model, however, roach was present in 14 of these. In 2010, MAGIC predicted chemical recovery in 50% of the lakes, however roach only recolonized in five lakes after 1990, showing a lag between chemical and biological recovery. Our study is the first study of its kind to use long-term archival biological data in concert with hydrogeochemical modeling for regional assessments of anthropogenic acidification. Based on our results, we show how the conceptual model can be used to understand and prioritize management of physico-chemical and ecological effects of anthropogenic stressors on surface water quality. PMID:24535943

Valinia, Salar; Englund, Göran; Moldan, Filip; Futter, Martyn N; Köhler, Stephan J; Bishop, Kevin; Fölster, Jens

2014-09-01

142

Energy allocation in juvenile roach and burbot under different temperature and feeding regimes.  

PubMed

Cold-active burbot (Lota lota (L.)) display reduced food intake during the summer. The impact of temperature on their energy budget was investigated in starved fish in a laboratory setting, simulating summer (20 degrees C) and winter (4 degrees C) conditions, to elucidate the impact of high temperature on burbot metabolism. Metabolic effects in burbot were compared to roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), which typically fast in winter. During warm acclimation, starvation (four weeks) resulted in a metabolic depression of oxygen consumption in both species. In roach, metabolic rate decreased by 55% after two weeks of starvation. Burbot, in contrast, displayed an immediate depression of metabolic rate by 50%. In both species, no reductions were observed in the cold. The temperature-induced differences between the metabolic rates at 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C showed a lower thermal sensitivity in burbot (Q (10) = 1.9) compared to roach (Q (10) = 2.7). Notably, for each species, energy consumption during starvation was highest under experimental conditions simulating their natural active periods, respectively. Warm acclimated roach relied mainly on muscle reserves, whereas in cold acclimated burbot, liver metabolic stores made a major contribution to the energy turnover. In cold acclimated roach and warm acclimated burbot, however, starvation apparently reduced swimming activity, resulting in considerable savings of energy reserves. These lower energy expenditures in roach and burbot corresponded to their natural inactive periods. Thus, starvation in burbot caused a lower energy turnover when exposed to high temperatures. These season-dependent adaptations of metabolism represent an advantageous strategy in burbot to manage winter temperature and withstand metabolism-activating summer temperatures, whereas roach metabolism correlates with the seasonal temperature cycle. PMID:18649028

Binner, Maaike; Kloas, Werner; Hardewig, Iris

2008-06-01

143

Metals in edible fish from Vistula River and Dead Vistula River channel, Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Metals including Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in muscle tissue of 12 fish species by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and cold vapour-atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS). Fish were collected from Vistula River at lower course and Dead Vistula River channel in south of Baltic Sea in Poland. The fish species examined include Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus), Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius), Bull-rout (Myoxocephalus scorpius), Tench (Tinca tinca), Bream (Abramis brama), Burbot (Lota lot), Perch (Perca perca), Roach (Rutilus rutilus), Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Pikeperch (Stizostediun lucioperca), Brown salmon (Salmo trutta m. Trutta) and Eel (Anguilla anguilla). The median values of metal concentrations in fresh muscle tissue of 11 fish species varied as follows: Al < 0.5-60; Ba < 0.05-0.31; Ca 120-1800; Cd < 0.05-0.096; Co < 0.10; Cr < 0.10-0.50; Cu < 0.15-0.77; Fe 1.5-21; Hg 0.0058-0.65; K 1800-4200; Mg 130-560; Mn 0.12-0.59; Na 350-840; Ni < 0.2-0.31; Pb < 0.75; Sr 0.079-2.9; Zn 3.3-23 ?g/g fresh weight. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) values calculated in this study for Cd and Hg from muscles of fish species collected from Vistula River were low in the range of 0.4 for Hg and 0.8 for Cd. PMID:22428891

Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Falandysz, Jerzy; Jarzy?ska, Gra?yna

2012-01-01

144

Differences in the activities of eight enzymes from ten soil fungi and their possible influences on the surface structure, functional groups, and element composition of soil colloids.  

PubMed

How soil fungi function in soil carbon and nutrient cycling is not well understood by using fungal enzymatic differences and their interactions with soil colloids. Eight extracellular enzymes, EEAs (chitinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, ?-glucosidase, protease, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase, laccase, and guaiacol oxidase) secreted by ten fungi were compared, and then the fungi that showed low and high enzymatic activity were co-cultured with soil colloids for the purpose of finding fungi-soil interactions. Some fungi (Gomphidius rutilus, Russula integra, Pholiota adiposa, and Geastrum mammosum) secreted 3-4 enzymes with weak activities, while others (Cyathus striatus, Suillus granulate, Phallus impudicus, Collybia dryophila, Agaricus sylvicola, and Lactarius deliciosus) could secret over 5 enzymes with high activities. The differences in these fungi contributed to the alterations of functional groups (stretching bands of O-H, N-H, C-H, C?=?O, COO- decreased by 11-60%, while P?=?O, C-O stretching, O-H bending and Si-O-Si stretching increased 9-22%), surface appearance (disappearance of adhesive organic materials), and elemental compositions (11-49% decreases in C1s) in soil colloids. Moreover, more evident changes were generally in high enzymatic fungi (C. striatus) compared with low enzymatic fungi (G. rutilus). Our findings indicate that inter-fungi differences in EEA types and activities might be responsible for physical and chemical changes in soil colloids (the most active component of soil matrix), highlighting the important roles of soil fungi in soil nutrient cycling and functional maintenance. PMID:25398013

Wang, Wenjie; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Zu, Yuangang

2014-01-01

145

Parasite communities of freshwater fish under flood conditions.  

PubMed

The parasite communities of the freshwater fish species roach ( Rutilus rutilus), bitterling ( Rhodeus sericeus amarus) and perch ( Perca fluviatilis) were investigated during a major flood. Differences in parasite community structure due to changes in the host environment were expected. We therefore tested for differences in parasite species abundance and diversity as a consequence of the flood. Potential changes in parasite community structure due to seasonal influences were also considered. We found differences in the composition of parasite species and the proportion of ecto- and endoparasites in the three host species. The parasite community of roach was richer in species than those of perch and bitterling. Roach harboured more ectoparasite than endoparasite species. Parasite communities of both perch and bitterling were richer in endoparasite species and had a lower number of ectoparasite species. Parasite communities of the three different host species responded in different ways to environmental change. Considering all parasite species, no effect of either season or flood was found on the species diversity in either perch or bitterling. The flood caused an increase in the parasite species diversity in roach. For roach and perch, higher parasite abundance were found before the flood compared to after flood. However, no difference was found between the different seasons after the flood. By contrast, bitterling had the highest parasite abundance in the season after the flood. When analysing ecto- and endoparasites separately, a decrease in ectoparasite abundance was found in roach and perch, probably related to the flood, and due mainly to a decrease in monogenean species. A significant increase in the abundance of endoparasites was found in perch. In bitterling, the post-flood increase in ectoparasites was due to a high abundance of Gyrodactylus spp. We conclude that the parasite communities of the three fish species responded in different ways to the flood. This may be due to changes in the host life history strategy or in the immune response in conditions of stress. PMID:12632164

Kadlec, Dusan; Simková, Andrea; Jarkovský, Jirí; Gelnar, Milan

2003-03-01

146

Light-mediated host searching strategies in a fish ectoparasite, Argulus foliaceus L. (crustacea: branchiura).  

PubMed

Argulus foliaceus, an obligate fish ectoparasite, can search for its hosts in both light and dark conditions and uses vision in the light. We have examined what searching mode is used at night, when the infection rate was at its highest, and which stimuli produced by the fish are most important. A change of illumination produced a clear difference in the searching behaviour of adult Argulus females. The mean swimming speed and the area explored were 3-4 times higher in the dark, when the parasite employed a cruising search strategy. This changed to an ambush (hover-and-wait) strategy in the light. The swimming activity is accompanied by changes in metabolic costs; the activity of the electron transport system being approximately 25 % lower in the light. The most pronounced light-induced differences in host-searching behaviour took place in moderately hungry parasites (starved for 24-96 h). Less motivated (just having left a fish) or exhausted animals did not exhibit any clear differences in swimming speed. Among the external signals tested, fish smell, from both perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus), induced an elevated swimming speed of the parasite. Periodic water movements caused similar but weaker effects. The effects of these stimuli were observed under both light and dark conditions. We conclude that host-searching behaviour of A. foliaceus is under internal (state of hunger) and external (illumination and host-induced signals) control and involves all its sensory equipment (vision, olfaction and mechano-reception). Perch (but not roach) reduced their swimming speed in the dark, which make them more susceptible to cruising Argulus. Thus the behavioural interplay between hosts and parasites can also influence the infection rate of A. foliaceus found on perch and roach in Finnish lakes. PMID:10811282

Mikheev, V N; Mikheev, A V; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T

2000-04-01

147

PCB levels and accumulation patterns in waterbird eggs and in their prey at Lake Kerkini, a north-eastern Mediterranean wetland of international importance.  

PubMed

Seven "target" PCB levels were determined and compared in waterbird eggs, in their prey, and in water at Lake Kerkini, northern Greece, to investigate PCB bioaccumulation patterns and to define the best bioindicator of target PCBs for this area. PCBs were analysed from eggs of Phalacrocorax carbo, Podiceps cristatus, Ardea cinerea, Egretta garzetta, and Nycticorax nycticorax and from prey types Alburnus alburnus, Rutilus rutilus, Lepomis gibbosus. Carassius auratus, and Rana sp. PCBs analysed were detected in all bird eggs, prey, and water but contamination patterns differed among these sample types. The lipid-corrected geometric means of the congeners analysed were significantly different among most bird species and among some prey species. PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180 accounted for around 80% of the total PCB contamination in bird egg samples. Percent congener concentrations of high-chlorinated PCBs tended to increase from water through prey to most bird egg samples whereas the low chlorinated PCBs (28 and 52) decreased. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) also exhibited an increasing trend for higher chlorinated PCBs from prey types to bird eggs. The greatest BAFs of six of the congeners were shared between Phalacrocorax carbo and Ardea cinerea. Among prey, the BAFs of four PCBs were highest in Lepomis gibbosus. Biomagnification factors varied between 1.01 and 39.57. In contrast to low chlorinated PCBs, high chlorinated congeners biomagnified considerably through fish prey. The highest biomagnification took place in Phalacrocorax carbo. No relationship was found between the lipid content of samples and BAFs of PCBs probably due to biotransformation differences of the congeners in the biota sampled. Due to the greatest PCB concentrations especially of the higher chlorinated PCBs in the eggs of Phalacrocorax carbo and its considerable bioaccumulation tendencies, it is proposed as the best PCB biomonitor of target PCBs at Lake Kerkini. Lepomis gibbosus had the highest concentrations of most congeners and exhibited the greatest bioaccumulative properties among prey and can be used as an alternative biomonitor. PMID:17549546

Antoniadou, V; Konstantinou, I K; Goutner, V; Sakellarides, T M; Albanis, T A; Bintoudi, E

2007-08-01

148

Oil shale processing as a source of aquatic pollution: monitoring of the biologic effects in caged and feral freshwater fish.  

PubMed Central

The biologic effects of the oil shale industry on caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as well as on feral perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) were studied in the River Narva in northeast Estonia. The River Narva passes the oil shale mining and processing area and thus receives elevated amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and sulfates. The effects of the chemical load were monitored by measuring cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-dependent monooxygenase (MO) activities [7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)] as well as conjugation enzyme activities [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase] in the liver of fish. CYP1A induction was further studied by detecting the amount and occurrence of the CYP1A protein. Histopathology of tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, and intestine) and the percentage of micronuclei in fish erythrocytes were also determined. Selected PAHs and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb) were measured from fish muscle and liver. In spite of the significant accumulation of PAHs, there was no induction of MO activities in any studied fish species. When compared to reference samples, AHH activities were even decreased in feral fish at some of the exposed sites. Detection of CYP1A protein content and the distribution of the CYP1A enzyme by immunohistochemistry also did not show extensive CYP1A induction. Instead, GST activities were significantly increased at exposed sites. Detection of histopathology did not reveal major changes in the morphology of tissues. The micronucleus test also did not show any evidence of genotoxicity. Thus, from the parameters studied, GST activity was most affected. The lack of catalytic CYP1A induction in spite of the heavy loading of PAHs was not studied but has been attributed to the elevated content of other compounds such as heavy metals, some of which can act as inhibitors for MOs. Another possible explanation of this lack of induction is that through adaptation processes the fish could have lost some of their sensitivity to PAHs. Either complex pollution caused by oil shale processing masked part of the harmful effects measured in this study, or oil shale industry did not have any severe effects on fish in the River Narva. Our study illustrates the difficulties in estimating risk in cases where there are numerous various contaminants affecting the biota. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10464075

Tuvikene, A; Huuskonen, S; Koponen, K; Ritola, O; Mauer, U; Lindström-Seppä, P

1999-01-01

149

Oil shale processing as a source of aquatic pollution: monitoring of the biologic effects in caged and feral freshwater fish.  

PubMed

The biologic effects of the oil shale industry on caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as well as on feral perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) were studied in the River Narva in northeast Estonia. The River Narva passes the oil shale mining and processing area and thus receives elevated amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and sulfates. The effects of the chemical load were monitored by measuring cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-dependent monooxygenase (MO) activities [7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)] as well as conjugation enzyme activities [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase] in the liver of fish. CYP1A induction was further studied by detecting the amount and occurrence of the CYP1A protein. Histopathology of tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, and intestine) and the percentage of micronuclei in fish erythrocytes were also determined. Selected PAHs and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb) were measured from fish muscle and liver. In spite of the significant accumulation of PAHs, there was no induction of MO activities in any studied fish species. When compared to reference samples, AHH activities were even decreased in feral fish at some of the exposed sites. Detection of CYP1A protein content and the distribution of the CYP1A enzyme by immunohistochemistry also did not show extensive CYP1A induction. Instead, GST activities were significantly increased at exposed sites. Detection of histopathology did not reveal major changes in the morphology of tissues. The micronucleus test also did not show any evidence of genotoxicity. Thus, from the parameters studied, GST activity was most affected. The lack of catalytic CYP1A induction in spite of the heavy loading of PAHs was not studied but has been attributed to the elevated content of other compounds such as heavy metals, some of which can act as inhibitors for MOs. Another possible explanation of this lack of induction is that through adaptation processes the fish could have lost some of their sensitivity to PAHs. Either complex pollution caused by oil shale processing masked part of the harmful effects measured in this study, or oil shale industry did not have any severe effects on fish in the River Narva. Our study illustrates the difficulties in estimating risk in cases where there are numerous various contaminants affecting the biota. PMID:10464075

Tuvikene, A; Huuskonen, S; Koponen, K; Ritola, O; Mauer, U; Lindström-Seppä, P

1999-09-01

150

Isolation of estrogen receptor subtypes and vitellogenin genes: expression in female Chalcalburnus tarichi.  

PubMed

Reproductively arrested gonadal development has been previously described in the teleost pearl mullet (Chalcalburnus tarichi, Cyprinidae) from Van Edremit Gulf of Lake Van, Turkey. Oocyte development in some females was arrested at the previtellogenic stage, while gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma 17?-estradiol (E2) level were low. A subset of the females was found to have normal ovaries and relatively higher plasma E2 and GSI. These two groups were termed reproductively arrested (RA) and reproductively non-arrested (RN) females. In this study, we cloned estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms (ER?, ER?1 and ER?2) and vitellogenin (Vtg), and their mRNA levels were measured in RA and RN fish tissues. C. tarichi ERs fell in the same clade with other fish ERs and ER? and ER?1 had 97% and 98% identity with the roach (Rutilus rutilus) ERs, respectively. Both Vtg and ER isoforms' mRNA abundance were higher in the liver than in the ovary and hypothalamus (liver>ovary>hypothalamus). The level of ER? mRNA was significantly lower in the liver, ovary and brain of RA fish than in the RN fish tissues. ER?1 mRNA levels were not different in the liver and ovary from RA and RN fish while ER?2 expression significantly increased in the liver and ovary from RA fish. All ER subtype expression was found to be lower in the brain from RA fish than RN fish. The level of Vtg mRNA was significantly lower in the liver and ovary from RA fish than RN fish tissue. These results suggest that ER subtypes are differentially regulated by E2, and their functions are also different in vitellogenesis. Analysis of organic contaminants in sediments revealed that C. tarichi living in Van Edremit Gulf of Lake Van are exposed to the contaminants bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and 4,4(') DDT. We suggest that the RA fish represent a segment of the population that is more sensitive to exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. PMID:24747933

Unal, Guler; Marquez, Emily C; Feld, Mara; Stavropoulos, Pericles; Callard, Ian P

2014-01-01

151

An evaluation of LSU rDNA D1-D2 sequences for their use in species identification  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of species via DNA sequences is the basis for DNA taxonomy and DNA barcoding. Currently there is a strong focus on using a mitochondrial marker for this purpose, in particular a fragment from the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). While there is ample evidence that this marker is indeed suitable across a broad taxonomic range to delineate species, it has also become clear that a complementation by a nuclear marker system could be advantageous. Ribosomal RNA genes could be suitable for this purpose, because of their global occurrence and the possibility to design universal primers. However, it has so far been assumed that these genes are too highly conserved to allow resolution at, or even beyond the species level. On the other hand, it is known that ribosomal gene regions harbour also highly divergent parts. We explore here the information content of two adjacent divergence regions of the large subunit ribosomal gene, the D1-D2 region. Results Universal primers were designed to amplify the D1-D2 region from all metazoa. We show that amplification products in the size between 800–1300 bp can be obtained across a broad range of animal taxa, provided some optimizations of the PCR procedure are implemented. Although the ribosomal genes occur in multiple copies in the genomes, we find generally very little intra-individual polymorphism (<< 0.1% on average) indicating that concerted evolution is very effective in most cases. Studies in two fish taxa (genus Cottus and genus Aphyosemion) show that the D1-D2 LSU sequence can resolve even very closely related species with the same fidelity as COI sequences. In one case we can even show that a mitochondrial transfer must have occurred, since the nuclear sequence confirms the taxonomic assignment, while the mitochondrial sequence would have led to the wrong classification. We have further explored whether hybrids between species can be detected with the nuclear sequence and we show for a test case of natural hybrids among cyprinid fish species (Alburnus alburnus and Rutilus rutilus) that this is indeed possible. Conclusion The D1-D2 LSU region is a suitable marker region for applications in DNA based species identification and should be considered to be routinely used as a marker complementing broad scale studies based on mitochondrial markers. PMID:17306026

Sonnenberg, Rainer; Nolte, Arne W; Tautz, Diethard

2007-01-01

152

Effects of predation pressure and resource use on morphological divergence in omnivorous prey fish  

PubMed Central

Background Body shape is one of the most variable traits of organisms and responds to a broad array of local selective forces. In freshwater fish, divergent body shapes within single species have been repeatedly observed along the littoral-pelagic axes of lakes, where the structural complexity of near shore habitats provides a more diverse set of resources compared to the open-water zones. It remains poorly understood whether similar resource-driven polymorphism occurs among lakes that vary in structural complexity and predation pressure, and whether this variation is heritable. Here, we analyzed body shape in four populations of omnivorous roach (Rutilus rutilus) inhabiting shallow lakes. We tested the relationship between body shape, gradients of resources, predation pressure, and, in a subset of two lakes, diet composition. We used genome scans of 331 polymorphic AFLP markers to test whether there was a heritable component to the observed morphological diversification. Results Body shape differed among lakes and was significantly correlated to differences in predation pressure. Roach from the lake with highest predation pressure were most divergent from the average body shape of all populations, characterized by a more streamlined body and caudally inserted dorsal fins; features that facilitate predator escape. Surprisingly, diet composition was not associated with morphology. AFLP analysis revealed weak genetic differentiation among lakes and no isolation by distance (IBD). Outlier analysis detected three loci under positive selection with differing frequencies in the four populations. General linear models did not support an association of lake-specific genotypes with morphological variation. Conclusion Body shape was divergent among lakes, suggesting that processes previously reported from within single lakes may also be operating at the scale of whole lakes. We found no evidence for body shape being heritable, although sample size was small in these natural populations. Rather than habitat structure and diet, we conclude that predation had a stronger effect on the prevalence of local morphotypes. A variable morphotype facilitating the efficient uptake of a variety of spatially and temporarily scattered resources seems to be favored in these small aquatic systems. PMID:23802571

2013-01-01

153

Refugia in glacial ages led to the current discontinuous distribution patterns of the dark red-backed vole Myodes rex on Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

The terrestrial mammalian fauna of the North Japanese island, Hokkaido, is more similar to that of Southern Siberia than to the main island of Japan, Honshu. Three species of the genus Myodes (Muridae, Rodentia) are found on Hokkaido, but not on Honshu. While Myodes rufocanus and M. rutilus are widely distributed across Hokkaido as well as the Eurasian continent, M. rex, which is endemic to Hokkaido and its adjacent islands, shows a discontinuous distribution pattern. We analyzed the phylogeographic history of M. rex using the mitochondrial DNA control region in order to interpret their discontinuous distribution pattern. Phylogenetic relationships among 54 distinct haplotypes showed that M. rex can be divided into four clades that occur on the northern, central, and southern regions of the Hokkaido mainland and on Rishiri Island, respectively. The phylogroups in the northern and central regions were largely separated in space, although several areas of sympatry were found. The phylogroup in the southern region, which was clearly separated from other phylogroups, showed markedly low genetic variability. All analyzed individuals from the population on Rishiri belonged to a separate lineage. Across a range of divergence rate estimates, we dated the basal divergence of all phylogroups to the mid to late Pleistocene, with subsequent signals of population expansion within lineages. We conclude that current phylogeographic structure in M. rex likely reflects Pleistocene survival in several separate refugia in situ. Past glacial ages have thus played an important role in shaping the current distribution patterns of mammalian species on Hokkaido. PMID:23915157

Kawai, Kuniko; Hailer, Frank; de Guia, Anna Pauline; Ichikawa, Hideo; Saitoh, Takashi

2013-08-01

154

The trace element analysis in freshwater fish species, water and sediment in Iyidere stream (Rize-Turkey).  

PubMed

Many environmental problems like dam construction, agricultural debris, flooding and industrial establishments threaten Iyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea (Turkey). The trace element concentrations in water, fish and sediments in lyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) were investigated in this study. The concentration of six different elements in ten freshwater fish species and sediment was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard addition is applied for the elemental analysis of fish and sediments. Water samples for trace metals were analyzed using standard spectrophotometry methods. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that ten different freshwater fish samples (Chondrostoma colchicum, Chalcalburnus chalcoides, Salmo trutta labrax, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus taurus escherichia, Capoeta tinca, Neogobius kessleri, Rutilus frisii, Lampetra lanceolata) and sediment contained phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and titanium (Ti). Heavy metals as toxic elements for biota (Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn and Mn etc.) were not detected in fish, water and sediments. Thus, It can be declared that freshwater fish of Iyidere does not contains health risks for consumers in terms of metal pollution. PMID:24171246

Verep, Bulent; Mutlu, Cengiz; Apaydin, Gokhan; Cevik, Ugur

2012-07-15

155

Insight into the origin of endemic Mediterranean ichthyofauna: phylogeography of Chondrostoma genus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

The Chondrostoma genus is widespread in Europe, with numerous endemic species in northern Mediterranean rivers. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of this genus, using the whole cytochrome b sequence and compared the two freshwater fish dispersion hypotheses: (1) dispersion around the Mediterranean Sea during the Lago Mare phase of the Messinian salinity crisis (Bianco's hypothesis) and (2) an older and more gradual colonization of the Mediterranean rivers (Banarescu's hypothesis). All phylogenetic analyses identified two levels of divergences, implying two radiation events in the Chondrostoma genus. The first radiation mainly concerned Mediterranean species, whereas the second one includes Danubian and Mesopotamian species. This phylogeographic pattern was already observed for the genus Squalius, which exhibits a similar geographic range distribution in Europe and probably is shared with several other Mediterranean genera, such as Scardinius, Rutilus, and TELESTES: Furthermore, assuming a molecular clock of 1% per million years, the first radiation appears consistent with a Messinian dispersion during the Lago Mare, 5.3 million years ago, whereas the second one may correspond to a Mesopotamian dispersion through the Black Sea to the Danube system. According to our results, the Lago Mare theory is strengthened, and a more recent and pre-Pleistocene colonization of the Danube from Mesopotamian freshwater fishes is suggested. PMID:12920103

Durand, J-D; Bianco, P G; Laroche, J; Gilles, A

2003-01-01

156

Testing Species Delimitations in Four Italian Sympatric Leuciscine Fishes in the Tiber River: A Combined Morphological and Molecular Approach  

PubMed Central

Leuciscine fishes represent an important component of freshwater ichthyofauna endemic to northern Mediterranean areas. This lineage shows high intra-specific morphological variability and exhibits high levels of hybridization, two characteristics that contribute to systematic uncertainties, misclassification of taxa and, potentially, the mismanagement of biodiversity. This study focused on brook chub, Squalius lucumonis, an endemic taxon of Central Italy. The taxonomic status of this species has long been questioned, and a hybrid origin from sympatric leusciscines (S. squalus x Rutilus rubilio, or S. squalus x Telestes muticellus) has been hypothesised. A phenotypic (evaluating shape and meristic counts) and genetic (using mitochondrial and nuclear markers) investigation of these four taxa was conducted to test species delimitation in sympatric areas and to evaluate the taxonomic status of S. lucumonis. One hundred and forty-five individuals of all four taxa were collected within streams of the lowest portion of the Tiber River basin and analysed; this region encompasses a large portion of the S. lucumonis distribution. The different morphological and genetic approaches were individually examined, compared, and then combined in a quantitative model to both investigate the limits of each approach and to identify cases of misclassification. The results obtained confirm the cladogenetic non-hybrid origin of S. lucumonis, highlight the need for immediate conservation actions and emphasise the value of an integrated approach in the study of leuciscines evolution. PMID:23565240

Tancioni, Lorenzo; Russo, Tommaso; Cataudella, Stefano; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Corsi, Elisa; Rossi, Anna Rita

2013-01-01

157

A new intermediate host for Echinococcus multilocularis: the southern red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi) in urban landscape in Calgary, Canada.  

PubMed

Human Alveolar Echinococcosis (HAE) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode characterized by a sylvatic life-cycle involving several species of rodents and lagomorphs as intermediate hosts and canids as definitive hosts. Despite the wide distribution of the parasite in North America, the number of competent intermediate host species identified to date is still relatively small, and mainly includes the northern vole (Microtus oeconomus), brown lemming (Lemmus sibiricus), northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus). By monitoring the infections in rodents in the city of Calgary (Alberta, Canada), we have detected a case of severe alveolar echinococcosis in a southern red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi), a species never reported before as an intermediate host for this parasite. Observation of protoscolices in the intra-abdominal multilocular cysts indicates that M. gapperi could act as a competent intermediate host for the transmission of E. multilocularis. Since M. gapperi can be found in close proximity to, and within metropolitan areas, this species could play a role in the establishment and maintenance of the sylvatic life-cycle of E. multilocularis in urban landscapes, where the potential for zoonotic transmission is higher. The new intermediate host reported needs to be taken into account in future surveys and transmission models for this parasite. PMID:23608104

Liccioli, Stefano; Duignan, Pádraig J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Deunk, Joanna; Majid, Sultana; Massolo, Alessandro

2013-08-01

158

Arsenic speciation patterns in freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Muscle of 16 freshwater fish (9 different species belonging to 4 different families) was analysed for arsenic species using HPLC separation (anion and cation exchange) followed by on-line UV-decomposition, hydride generation and AFS detection. The main arsenic compounds found in the extracts were arsenobetaine (AsB), which accounted for 92-100% of extractable arsenic in species of salmonids (Salmo marmoratus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta m. fario), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), which accounted for 75% of extractable arsenic in burbot (Lota lota). AsB was also found in lower concentrations in almost all other fish species analysed (Silurus glanis, L. lota, Barbus barbus, Rutilus pigus virgo, Chondrostoma nasus). Arsenite (As(III)) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were detected in low concentrations in some representatives of Cyprinidae only (R. pigus virgo, C. nasus). Except in salmonids, an unknown cationic compound was present in most of the samples in relatively low concentrations. Cluster analysis of the generated data seems to indicate that there is a correlation between fish family and the arsenic speciation pattern. This is especially clear for the salmonids which show a completely separate cluster and thus a very distinct arsenic speciation pattern. PMID:18969382

Slejkovec, Zdenka; Bajc, Zlatka; Doganoc, Darinka Z

2004-04-19

159

Testing species delimitations in four Italian sympatric leuciscine fishes in the Tiber River: a combined morphological and molecular approach.  

PubMed

Leuciscine fishes represent an important component of freshwater ichthyofauna endemic to northern Mediterranean areas. This lineage shows high intra-specific morphological variability and exhibits high levels of hybridization, two characteristics that contribute to systematic uncertainties, misclassification of taxa and, potentially, the mismanagement of biodiversity. This study focused on brook chub, Squalius lucumonis, an endemic taxon of Central Italy. The taxonomic status of this species has long been questioned, and a hybrid origin from sympatric leusciscines (S. squalus x Rutilus rubilio, or S. squalus x Telestes muticellus) has been hypothesised. A phenotypic (evaluating shape and meristic counts) and genetic (using mitochondrial and nuclear markers) investigation of these four taxa was conducted to test species delimitation in sympatric areas and to evaluate the taxonomic status of S. lucumonis. One hundred and forty-five individuals of all four taxa were collected within streams of the lowest portion of the Tiber River basin and analysed; this region encompasses a large portion of the S. lucumonis distribution. The different morphological and genetic approaches were individually examined, compared, and then combined in a quantitative model to both investigate the limits of each approach and to identify cases of misclassification. The results obtained confirm the cladogenetic non-hybrid origin of S. lucumonis, highlight the need for immediate conservation actions and emphasise the value of an integrated approach in the study of leuciscines evolution. PMID:23565240

Tancioni, Lorenzo; Russo, Tommaso; Cataudella, Stefano; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Corsi, Elisa; Rossi, Anna Rita

2013-01-01

160

[Mercury in edible mushrooms from the area of Ko?ciersk forests and from the Vistula peninsula].  

PubMed

The total mercury concentrations were determined in caps and stalks or a whole fruiting bodies of 13 species of edible mushrooms collected at the area of Ko?cierzyna forests (District of Gda?sk) and the Vistula Peninsula (District of Elblag) in 1993/94. The method of measurement was cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) after wet digestion of the samples with concentrated nitric acid. Macrolepiota procera showed highest mercury concentration among species investigated and contained, respectively, 1100 micrograms/kg dry wt in caps and 580 micrograms/kg in stalks, while Lycoperdon perlatum showed 1100 micrograms/kg in a whole fruiting body. Suillus granulatus, Xerocomus subtomentosus, Leccinum scabrum, Oudemansiella platyphylla and Lactarius delicious contained mercury in concentration from 150 to 370 micrograms/kg dry wt in caps and from 70 to 180 micrograms/kg in stalks. Suillus bovinus, Chroogomphus rutilus and Armillariella mellea showed smallest concentrations of mercury between species examined, i.e. in caps from 29 to 65 micrograms/kg and in stalks from 23 to 49 micrograms/kg, on a average. Leccinum scabrum and Xerocomus badius were collected from the both distant in space sampling sites. In the case of L. scabrum the concentrations of mercury were very similar for the both sites investigated, i.e. between 290 +/- 100 and 370 +/- 330 in caps, and 180 +/- 60 and 220 +/- 160 micrograms/kg dry wt in stalks, while for X. badius differed and were between 73 +/- 20 and 220 +/- 60 in caps, and 49 +/- 13 and 130 +/- 40 in stalks (p < 0.001). PMID:9064742

Falandysz, J; Marcinowicz, A; Chwir, A

1996-01-01

161

Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.  

PubMed

Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected with lower contribution of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the contamination of inland water fish. PMID:23336927

Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

2013-04-01

162

Tracing the colonization history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls (Strigiformes: Otus) with further insight into the spatio-temporal origin of the Malagasy avifauna  

PubMed Central

Background The island of Madagascar and surrounding volcanic and coralline islands are considered to form a biodiversity hotspot with large numbers of unique taxa. The origin of this endemic fauna can be explained by two different factors: vicariance or over-water-dispersal. Deciphering which factor explains the current distributional pattern of a given taxonomic group requires robust phylogenies as well as estimates of divergence times. The lineage of Indian Ocean scops-owls (Otus: Strigidae) includes six or seven species that are endemic to Madagascar and portions of the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos; little is known about the species limits, biogeographic affinities and relationships to each other. In the present study, using DNA sequence data gathered from six loci, we examine the biogeographic history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls. We also compare the pattern and timing of colonization of the Indian Ocean islands by scops-owls with divergence times already proposed for other bird taxa. Results Our analyses revealed that Indian Ocean islands scops-owls do not form a monophyletic assemblage: the Seychelles Otus insularis is genetically closer to the South-East Asian endemic O. sunia than to species from the Comoros and Madagascar. The Pemba Scops-owls O. pembaensis, often considered closely related to, if not conspecific with O. rutilus of Madagascar, is instead closely related to the African mainland O. senegalensis. Relationships among the Indian Ocean taxa from the Comoros and Madagascar are unresolved, despite the analysis of over 4000 bp, suggesting a diversification burst after the initial colonization event. We also highlight one case of putative back-colonization to the Asian mainland from an island ancestor (O. sunia). Our divergence date estimates, using a Bayesian relaxed clock method, suggest that all these events occurred during the last 3.6 myr; albeit colonization of the Indian Ocean islands were not synchronous, O. pembaensis diverged from O. senegalensis about 1.7 mya while species from Madagascar and the Comoro diverged from their continental sister-group about 3.6 mya. We highlight that our estimates coincide with estimates of diversification from other bird lineages. Conclusion Our analyses revealed the occurrence of multiple synchronous colonization events of the Indian Ocean islands by scops-owls, at a time when faunistic exchanges involving Madagascar was common as a result of lowered sea-level that would have allowed the formation of stepping-stone islands. Patterns of diversification that emerged from the scops-owls data are: 1) a star-like pattern concerning the order of colonization of the Indian Ocean islands and 2) the high genetic distinctiveness among all Indian Ocean taxa, reinforcing their recognition as distinct species. PMID:18611281

2008-01-01

163

Population limitation of the northern red-backed vole in the boreal forests of northern Canada.  

PubMed

1. Across the vast boreal forests of North America, no population cycles in Clethrionomys species occur. In Eurasia, by contrast, some Clethrionomys populations of the same species undergo regular 3-5-year cycles. We examined the effects of nutrients, food, competitors, predators and climate on population limitation in the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus Pallas) in the south-western Yukon to determine why this difference occurs. 2. From 1986 to 1996 we added food, reduced large mammal predators and excluded snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) from large plots and found that none of these manipulations affected red-backed vole abundance. Adding nutrients as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizer had a slight negative effect, probably acting through a reduction in dwarf shrub productivity caused by competition from grasses. 3. We monitored weasel populations directly through trapping and indirectly through snow tracking. Predation by these vole specialists was irrelevant as a limiting factor most of the time because voles in this area do not reach the densities needed to sustain weasel populations. Other boreal forest mammal and bird predators did not focus on red-backed voles. However, when red-backed vole populations increased in the forest and Microtus voles also increased in the meadows, weasel populations increased and may have temporarily depressed red-backed voles in winter. 4. We monitored one major potential food, white spruce seeds, but seed fall was not related to population changes in red-backed voles, even after mast years. 5. We assessed the impact of weather variables, and the average depth of the snow pack during winter (October-March) was correlated directly with vole demography, having both direct effects in that year and delayed effects in the following year. 6. Our long-term trapping data (1973-96) indicate that Clethrionomys populations fluctuated, with peaks following hare peaks by 2-3 years. 7. We propose that the key variable limiting these vole populations is overwinter survival, and this is a function of overwinter food from berries produced during the previous summer by dwarf shrubs. These shrubs may be stimulated by abundant moisture from winter snows or by periodic fertilization from large quantities of pellets produced at snowshoe hare peaks. PMID:17032359

Boonstra, Rudy; Krebs, Charles J

2006-11-01

164

Effectiveness of spinosad and temephos for the control of mosquito larvae at a tire dump in Allende, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of spinosad and temephos for the control of mosquito larvae was evaluated in a tire dump in Allende, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Three groups of 12 to 17 tires located in tree shade were utilized for this study. After the larvicides were applied, samples were collected weekly from 7 randomly chosen tires. The data showed a significant difference between the larvicides and control. Under the conditions of the present study, the effectiveness of spinosad against mosquito larvae was similar to that of temephos, both being effective for up to 91 days postapplication. In addition, spinosad allowed the establishment of the mosquito predator Toxorhynchites sp. PMID:22329273

Garza-Robledo, Argentina A; Martínez-Perales, Juan F; Rodríguez-Castro, Violeta A; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto

2011-12-01

165

Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

2007-01-01

166

Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

2011-11-01

167

Impacts of Wolbachia infection on predator prey relationships: evaluating survival and horizontal transfer between wMelPop infected Aedes aegypti and its predators.  

PubMed

The wMelPop strain of Wolbachia is currently being investigated for its potential use as a biological control agent to reduce the ability of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes to transmit dengue viruses. The survival of a potential wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti strain for field release is important as a higher susceptibility to predation in the wMelPop strain could result in difficulties in achieving fixation. We investigated immature and adult survival as a function of susceptibility to predation by six naturally occurring predator species; cyclopoid copepods, fish, predatory Toxorhynchites mosquito larvae and a salticid jumping spider. The trials indicated that wMelPop infected and uninfected Ae. aegypti larvae and adults were equally susceptible to predation to all six tested predators. In addition to evaluating any potential fitness costs to the infected host, we were unable to demonstrate horizontal transfer of wMelPop via consumption of infected Ae. aegypti larvae to the above predators. That susceptibility to predation was consistent across mosquito life stage, predator species and experimental venue is strong evidence that despite the neurotrophic and extensive nature of wMelPop infection, behavioral changes are not occurring, or at least not a determining factor in survival when exposed to a predator. Based on our results and the ecology of Wolbachia and mosquito predators, horizontal transfer of wMelPop from Ae. aegypti into naturally occurring predators is not cause for concern. PMID:22679870

Hurst, Timothy P; Pittman, Geoff; O'Neill, Scott L; Ryan, Peter A; Nguyen, Hoang Le; Kay, Brian H

2012-05-01

168

Mosquito community structure in phytotelmata from a South American temperate wetland.  

PubMed

Phytotelmata, or plant-held waters, are considered to be good model systems for the study of community ecology. The fauna of these natural container habitats, particularly the mosquitoes, have been extensively investigated in tropical regions, but there is little known about them in temperate South America. We assessed the structure of immature mosquito communities in leaf axils, tree holes, and bamboo stumps from a temperate wetland of Argentina. A total of 4,330 immature mosquitoes were collected among the 2,606 phytotelmata inspected. Leaf axils of eight plant species and tree holes were larval habitats for nine mosquito species belonging to the genus Culex, Wyeomyia, Isostomyia, and Toxorhynchites. The mosquito communities showed richness ranging from one to four species. Marked differences were detected in the plant specificity for the species collected. Some of them were exclusively found in one plant species (Isostomyia paranensis in Scirpus giganteus), whereas others were collected in up to five plant species but belonging to the same phytotelm class, the leaf axils. Those from tree holes are well-known dwellers of artificial containers and ground water habitats, such as Culex pipiens. Our results support the idea of low mosquito richness in phytotelmata from temperate regions in comparison with tropical areas, but the observed specificity patterns echo the findings of tropical forests. PMID:22129416

Albicócco, Andrea Paola; Carbajo, Aníbal Eduardo; Vezzani, Darío

2011-12-01

169

Mosquito larvicidal and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa plants extract against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

Mosquito control by phytochemicals is an alternative method to synthetic insecticides, as it is biodegradable and non resistant to vector mosquito. Polianthes tuberosa is a perennial plant distributed in many parts of India. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the larvicide and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. Crude and solvent extract [ethyl acetate, chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v), acetone] of fresh, mature, bud of P. tuberosa was tested against (ex. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi. The repellent activity tested by chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract against both mosquito species. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was also studied on non target organisms such as Toxorhynchites larvae, Diplonychus annulatum and Chironomus circumdatus. In a 72 hour bioassay experiment, 0.5% crude extract showed the highest mortality and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract showed the highest mortality, the maximum (p < 0.05) mortality was recorded at a concentration of 60 ppm. The chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract provide 4h protection against Cx. quinquefasciatus and 5h against An. stephensi from biting. Both crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract showed good result against Cx. quinquefasciatus, so it could be used as a mosquito larvicide agent. There is no changes in the activity non-target organism so, it is safe to use. PMID:25151752

Anjali, Rawani; Atanu, Banerjee; Goutam, Chandra

2012-06-01

170

Mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activity of synthesized nano-crystalline silver particles using leaves and green berry extract of Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae: Solanales).  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that are synthesized by using aqueous extracts of Solanum nigrum L., is a simple, non-toxic and ecofriendly green material. The present study is based on assessments of the larvicidal and antimicrobial activities of the synthesized AgNPs from fresh leaves, dry leaves and green berries of S. nigrum against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi and four human pathogenic and five fish pathogenic bacteria respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The nanoparticles are spherical to polyhedral in shape with size of 50-100nm (average size of 56.6nm). In larvicidal bioassay with synthesized AgNPs, highest mortality are observed at 10ppm against An. stephensi with LC50 values of 1.33, 1.59, 1.56ppm and LC90 values of 3.97, 7.31, 4.76ppm for dry leaves, fresh leaves and berries respectively. Antibacterial activity test reveals better results against fish pathogenic bacteria than human pathogenic bacteria. Non target organism like Toxorhynchites larvae (mosquito predator), Diplonychus annulatum (predatory water-bug) and Chironomus circumdatus larvae (chironomid) are also exposed to respective lethal concentrations (to mosquito larvae) of dry nanoparticles and no abnormality in the non target organisms are recorded. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs of S. nigrum have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly compound for the control of the mosquito larvae and harmful bacteria. PMID:24055718

Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

2013-12-01

171

Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5?ppm (mg a.i./liter) provided 6–8?weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes. PMID:22608138

2012-01-01