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1

Water solubility in trachytic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data on water solubility in trachytic melts at pressures from 20 to 200 MPa and 850 °C are reported. Three trachytes, which differ mainly in Na\\/K ratio, were studied. The glasses obtained from water saturated experiments were analysed using both infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Karl Fischer Titration (KFT). The independent KFT data on total water contents were used to

V. Di Matteo; M. R. Carroll; H. Behrens; F. Vetere; R. A. Brooker

2004-01-01

2

Role of fractional crystallization in the descent: Basalt ? trachyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of fractional crystallization in the descent: basalt ? trachyte is critically examined. For each “simple basalt” magma type — alkaline, critically undersaturated, and oversaturated — there is a possible trachyte derived by way of fractional crystallization. Olivine removal is the main physical control that may interfere with trachytic trends at low pressure. Higher pressures widen the field of

Amalbikash Mukherjee

1967-01-01

3

The viscosity of hydrous phonolites and trachytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1-atm viscosities of hydrated synthetic iron-free phonolite and trachyte melts are reported between 108.4 and 1013.1 Pa s for water contents between 0 and 5 wt.%. These show a very strong reduction with increasing water content, particularly at low contents. Empirical formulae are derived for the dependence of viscosity on temperature and water content. At magmatic temperatures of about

Alan Whittington; Pascal Richet; Yannick Linard; François Holtz

2001-01-01

4

Chronology, chemistry, and origin of trachytes from Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hualalai Volcano is unique among Hawaiian volcanoes in that it possesses a relatively high proportion of evolved, trachytic lavas that were erupted at the beginning of the alkalic, postshield phase of volcanism. These evolved lavas yield insights into magma sources, magma supply rates, and the evolution of the subvolcanic magmatic plumbing system at this time. Trachyte lavas are exposed at

Brian L. Cousens; David A. Clague; Warren D. Sharp

2003-01-01

5

Melt inclusion geochemistry and computer modeling of trachyte petrogenesis at Ponza, Italy  

E-print Network

Melt inclusion geochemistry and computer modeling of trachyte petrogenesis at Ponza, Italy L della Guardia trachytic unit on the island of Ponza, Italy is thought to represent the latest stage of the Ponza trachyte. The trachyte is a weakly porphyritic lava that contains phenocrysts of plagioclase, K

Bodnar, Robert J.

6

The white trachytic tuff of Roccamonfina Volcano (Roman Region, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The White Trachytic Tuff (WTT) is a compositionally-zoned, trachytic, pyroclastic-flow deposit which erupted from Roccamonfina volcano about 300,000 years ago. It was principally emplaced as unwelded, pumice-rich flow units with an estimated volume of 10 km3. These now cover the flanks of the volcano on all sides except the west, behind the highest rim of Roccamonfina's summit caldera; the caldera

Bernardino Giannetti; James F. Luhr

1983-01-01

7

Melt inclusion geochemistry and computer modeling of trachyte petrogenesis at Ponza, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Punta della Guardia trachytic unit on the island of Ponza, Italy is thought to represent the latest stage in the evolution of a parent basaltic melt in a shallow magma chamber undergoing fractional crystallization. To test this hypothesis, melt inclusions (MI) have been analyzed to constrain the crystallization history of the Ponza trachyte. The trachyte is a weakly porphyritic

L Fedele; R. J Bodnar; B DeVivo; R Tracy

2003-01-01

8

Geometry of the Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah: Implications for the emplacement of small melt  

E-print Network

Geometry of the Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah: Implications for the emplacement, Florida 33620, USA [1] The Trachyte Mesa intrusion is one of several small satellite bodies to the larger that Trachyte Mesa is blister shaped and intruded into flat and gently NW dipping strata. In this study we

Wetmore, Paul H.

9

Water diffusion in potassium-rich phonolitic and trachytic melts Sara Fanara a,  

E-print Network

Water diffusion in potassium-rich phonolitic and trachytic melts Sara Fanara a, , Harald Behrens Available online 27 September 2012 Keywords: Water diffusion Phonolite Trachyte IR spectroscopy Water diffusivity was investigated in phonolitic and trachytic melts containing up to 6 wt.% of dissolved water

Zhang, Youxue

10

2007 GSA Annual meeting in Denver, CO GEOMETRY OF THE TRACHYTE MESA INTRUSION, HENRY  

E-print Network

2007 GSA Annual meeting in Denver, CO GEOMETRY OF THE TRACHYTE MESA INTRUSION, HENRY MOUNTAINS of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 89009 The Trachyte Mesa intrusion is one of several small satellite.B. Hunt identified Trachyte Mesa as a laccolith, a lens-shaped intrusion with a domed roof. Recent studies

Wetmore, Paul H.

11

Trace-element partitioning in pantellerites and trachytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the effect of increasing melt peralkalinity on partitioning, partition coefficients have been determined using neutron activation analyses of coexisting phenocrysts and glass of five samples from Pantelleria spanning the range trachyte to pantellerite. Alkali feldspar partition coefficients for Fe, Rb, Ba, Sr, and Eu vary with melt peralkalinity due to changes in melt polymerization and to

Gail A Mahood; James A Stimac

1990-01-01

12

Severe leaching of trachytic glass without devitrification, Terceira, Azores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pumice produced during the subplinian phase of eruption of a peralkaline trachyte lava on the island of Terceira, Azores, has undergone extensive leaching at ambient conditions by groundwater, while remaining in a glassy state. Over 25% of F, Na, K, Si, Fe, Ti, and Mn originally present has been removed, whereas U, Al, Nb, Ca, Y, and Rb show smaller

James E Mungall; Robert F Martin

1994-01-01

13

The geology of the Yellow Trachytic Tuff, Roccamonfina volcano, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 227 ka Yellow Trachytic Tuff (YTT) of the Roccamonfina volcano is a multiunit ash-, pumice-, scoria- and lithic-ignimbrite with a proximal sandwave surge deposit. The YTT has an estimated volume of 0.42 km3. It erupted in the northern, subsided sector of the volcano from Gli Stagli caldera, and was channelled down ravines northward between the limestone range of M.Cesima

Bernardino Giannetti

1996-01-01

14

Trace-element partitioning in pantellerites and trachytes  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the effect of increasing melt peralkalinity on partitioning, partition coefficients have been determined using neutron activation analyses of coexisting phenocrysts and glass of five samples from Pantelleria spanning the range trachyte to pantellerite. Alkali feldspar partition coefficients for Fe, Rb, Ba, Sr, and Eu vary with melt peralkalinity due to changes in melt polymerization and to the systematic increase in X{sub or} and decrease in X{sub an} of the feldspar. In going from trachyte to pantellerite, Fe partition coefficients increase from 0.04 to 0.10, presumably because Fe{sup +3} increasingly substitutes in the feldspar tetrahedral site as melt activity of Al declines and Fe concentrations increase. Partition coefficients for trivalent light REEs (rare earth elements) decrease and the partitioning pattern becomes flatter, the most evolved samples having some of the lowest published values for feldspar. The hundredfold decline in Eu partition coefficients (2.5 to 0.024) and the decrease in the size of the positive partitioning anomaly are attributed to increasing Eu{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 2+} in the melt as it becomes more peralkaline, as well as to concomitant decrease in the Ca content of feldspar. As a result, the behavior of Eu during fractional crystallization of peralkaline suites is fundamentally different from that in metaluminous suites; absolute abundances rise and the size of the negative Eu anomaly changes little with fractionation beyond pantelleritic trachyte.

Mahood, G.A.; Stimac, J.A. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

1990-08-01

15

Rapport de sondages et d'analyses et les carrires anciennes de trachyte  

E-print Network

Rapport de sondages et d'analyses Le Kilian et les carrières anciennes de trachyte dans la Chaîne'hypothèse que les gallo-romains ont exploité, au fond du cratère, un trachyte compact dont on ne trouve aujourd artisans du Moyen �ge ont recherché un trachyte plus tendre dans les pentes hautes du cratère. Le Kilian

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Facies characteristics and magma–water interaction of the White Trachytic Tuffs (Roccamonfina Volcano, southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quaternary White Trachytic Tuffs Formation from Roccamonfina Volcano (southern Italy) comprises four non-welded, trachytic,\\u000a pyroclastic sequences bounded by paleosols, each of which corresponds to small- to intermediate-volume explosive eruptions\\u000a from central vents. From oldest to youngest they are: White Trachytic Tuff (WTT) Cupa, WTT Aulpi, WTT S. Clemente, and WTT\\u000a Galluccio. The WTT Galluccio eruption was the largest and

Guido Giordano

1998-01-01

17

Processes and timescales in the evolution of a chemically zoned trachyte: Fogo A, Sao Miguel, Azores  

Microsoft Academic Search

U-series disequilibria analyses have been combined with chemical and petrographic analyses in order to assess both the timescales and processes involved in the formation of the chemically zoned Fogo A trachytes. Least squares major element modelling demonstrates that the mafic trachytes could have evolved from a parental alkali basalt via trachybasalt with ~70% fractionation of augite (35–36%), plagioclase (23%), magnetite

E. Widom; H.-U. Schmincke; J. B. Gill

1992-01-01

18

Dynamics of magma ascent and fragmentation in trachytic versus rhyolitic eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed a parametric study on the dynamics of trachytic (alkaline) versus rhyolitic (calc-alkaline) eruptions by employing a steady, isothermal, multiphase non-equilibrium model of conduit flow and fragmentation. The employed compositions correspond to a typical rhyolite and to trachytic liquids from Phlegrean Fields eruptions, for which detailed viscosity measurements have been performed. The investigated conditions include conduit diameters in

Margherita Polacci; Paolo Papale; Dario Del Seppia; Daniele Giordano; Claudia Romano

2004-01-01

19

A mineralogical investigation of some trachytic lavas and associated pegmatoids from camel's hump and turritable falls, central Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The texture and mineral chemistry of trachytic lavas from Camel's Hump and Turntable Falls have been studied as an extension to bulk rock geochemical studies by previous workers. Three texturally distinct varieties are recognized: trachyte flows, chilled alkali trachytes, and pegmatoidal veins. Although each assemblage has a distinctive mineralogy, remnant features and similar zoning within minerals show the varieties to

A. K. Ferguson

1978-01-01

20

Influence of the alteration processes on the origin of uranium and europium anomalies in trachyte, central Eastern Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Atshan mining area, central Eastern Desert, represents one of the uranium occurrences related to alkaline volcanic rocks in Egypt. Based on the plot of total alkali elements versus silica, these rocks are classified as trachytes. The U and Eu anomalies appear to be derived from trachyte exposed to a long period of alteration and rock–fluid interaction. The trachyte has

Y. H. Dawood; H. H. Abd El-Naby; A. A. Sharafeldin

2004-01-01

21

TRACHYTE PHASE RELATIONS AND IMPLICATION FOR MAGMA STORAGE CONDITIONS IN THE CHAINE DES PUYS (FRENCH MASSIF CENTRAL)  

E-print Network

1 TRACHYTE PHASE RELATIONS AND IMPLICATION FOR MAGMA STORAGE CONDITIONS IN THE CHAINE DES PUYS;2 ABSTRACT Petrological data have been acquired on the natural trachytes from the Chaîne des Puys, French conditions of the trachytic magmas that lead to explosive eruptions (dome destructions as block-and-ash flows

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Liquid immiscibility between trachyte and carbonate in ash flow tuffs from Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three thin, syn-caldera ash flow tuffs of the Suswa volcano, Kenya, contain pumiceous clasts and globules of trachytic glass, and clasts rich in carbonate globules, in a carbonate ash matrix. Petrographic and textural evidence indicates that the carbonate was magmatic. The trachyte is metaluminous to mildly peralkaline and varies from nepheline- to quartz-normative. The carbonate is calcium-rich, with high REE

R. Macdonald; B. A. Kjarsgaard; I. P. Skilling; G. R. Davies; D. L. Hamilton; S. Black

1993-01-01

23

40Ar39Ar ages of Bombay trachytes: Evidence for a Palaeocene phase of Deccan volcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present 40Ar-39Ar ages of 60.4+\\/-0.6Ma and 61.8+\\/-0.6Ma(2sigma) for Deccan Trap trachytes from Manori and Saki Naka, Bombay, situated in the tectonized Panvel flexure zone along the western Indian rifted continental margin. These ages provide clear evidence that (i) these trachytes are of Palaeocene age and therefore substantially younger than the lower part of the main flood basalt sequence exposed

Hetu C. Sheth; Kanchan Pande; Rajneesh Bhutani

2001-01-01

24

Volcanology of trachytic and associated basaltic pyroclastic deposits at Roccamonfina volcano, Roman Region, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 274 ka “Basalt-Trachytic Tuff of Tuoripunzoli” (TBTT) from Roccamonfina volcano (Roman Region, Italy) consists of a basaltic scoria lapilli fall (Unit A) overlain by a trachytic sequence formed by a surge (Unit B), repetitive pumice lapilli and ash-rich layers both of fallout origin (Unit C) and a pyroclastic flow deposit (Unit D). The TBTT is widespread (40 km2) in

Bernardino Giannetti

1996-01-01

25

Severe leaching of trachytic glass without devitrification, Terceira, Azores  

SciTech Connect

Pumice produced during the subplinian phase of eruption of a peralkaline trachyte lava on the island of Terceira, Azores, has undergone extensive leaching at ambient conditions by groundwater, while remaining in a glassy state. Over 25% of F, Na, K, Si, Fe, Ti, and Mn originally present has been removed, whereas U, Al, Nb, Ca, Y, and Rb show smaller but significant losses. Thorium , Zr, Hf, Ta, and Lu have remained immobile. Water content (measured as LOI) has increased up to tenfold, whereas the Sr content has risen by up to 80%. The absence of devitrification requires that leached elements escaped by diffusing through the glass; a coefficient of chemical diffusion D[sub Na] between 1.8 X 10[sup [minus]19] cm[sup 2] s[sup [minus]1] and 6.1 X 10[sup [minus]19] cm[sup 2] s[sup [minus]1] has been calculated, in excellent agreement with previously published experimentally derived values for comparably low temperatures. Water has not replaced the leached cations on a charge-equivalent basis, a finding that requires an explanation other than simple binary interdiffusion. The authors suggest that a simultaneous influx of molecular water and cation exchange between Na[sup +] in the glass and H[sup +] in the groundwater opens the glass structure and frees cations, which can diffuse outward by hydrolysis of bridging oxygen atoms. Reported mobilities have important implications for such diverse fields as igneous petrology, nuclear waste management, and agriculture.

Mungall, J.E.; Martin, R.F. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1994-01-01

26

Rb\\/Sr-Sr\\/Sr Variations in Bombay Trachytes and Rhyolites (Deccan Traps): Rb-Sr Isochron, or AFC Process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A petrologically diverse suite of Deccan Trap rocks, comprising basalts, trachytes, rhyolites, and various alkaline rocks, was studied in the Bombay area along the western Indian rifted continental margin. A previous petrogenetic study of these trachytes and rhyolites suggested derivation through fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas, or partial melting of basaltic material at depth, without involvement of continental crust. A

Hetu C. Sheth; Jyotiranjan S. Ray

2002-01-01

27

Petrogenesis of rhyolites and trachytes from the Deccan Trap: Sr, Nd and Pb isotope and trace element evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trachytes and rhyolites from Salsette Island, north of Bombay, have distinctive trace element and isotope features which mark them out from typical crustal melts. Their highly incompatible trace element and Sr-, Nd and Pb isotope ratios are similar to those of the associated Deccan flood basalts. Thus the rhyolites and trachytes are closely related to the basalts, and a striking

P. C. Lightfoot; C. J. Hawkesworth; S. F. Sethna

1987-01-01

28

Thermal divide andesites–trachytes, petrologic evidence, and implications from Jurassic north Patagonian massif alkaline volcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Andesitas Alvar Formation is part of the large Jurassic volcanic province of Patagonia (southern South America) that, in Jurassic time, participated in the disassembling of Gondwana in a tensional–transtensional regime with large-scale half-grabens. This large igneous province contains alkaline and calc-alkaline series of andesite–trachyte, trachyte–rhyolite, and andesite–dacite trends. Four-phase experimental diagrams of Qz–Or–Ab–An and Ab–An–Ol–Di correlate with the TAS

Eugenio Aragón; Pablo Gonz?lez; Yolanda E Aguilera; Claudia E Cavarozzi; Eduardo Llambias; Giorgio Rivalenti

2003-01-01

29

Euganean trachytes: discrimination of quarried sites by petrographic and chemical parameters and by magnetic susceptibility and its bearing on the provenance of stones of ancient artefacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports petrographic and chemical data and magnetic susceptibility values for trachytes of quarries recognizable within the Euganean Hills and sets out diagnostic parameters for these rocks. The diagnostic scheme proposed is basic for the definition of provenance of trachytes used in ancient artefacts spread over northern Italy. Trachytes were extensively used by the Romans for paving Via Aemilia,

Silvio Capedri; Gianpiero Venturelli; Riccardo Grandi

2000-01-01

30

A basalt-trachyte-phonolite series from Ua Pu, Marquesas Islands, Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a suite of volcanic and intrusive rocks from Ua Pu, one of the Marquesas Islands, situated in the central Pacific Ocean. The rocks comprise alkali olivine basalts, hawaiites, mugearites, trachytes, and phonolites. Their petrographic characters are briefly described and 24 new chemical analyses presented. The rocks fall into a sodic and a potassic series, since some rocks

Arthur Clive Bishop; Alan Robert Woolley

1973-01-01

31

A Potash-rich trachyte from the PreCambrian of England  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potash trachyte (containing 13% K2O) crops out within the Malvernian (Pre-cambrian) calc-alkaline igneous complex. The chemical composition is similar to that of minor intrusions in areas of alkaline igneous activity. An origin by partial melting of biotite-rich basement rocks is proposed.

R. S. Thorpe

1971-01-01

32

Stratigraphy, chronology, and sedimentology of ignimbrites from the white trachytic tuff, Roccamonfina Volcano, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the stratigraphy, chronology, and grain size characteristics of the white trachytic tuff (WTT) of Roccamonfina Volcano (Italy). The pyroclastic rock was emplaced between 317 and 230 Ma BP during seven major eruptive events (units A to G) and three minor events (units BC, CD, and DE). These units are separated by paleosol layers and compositionally well-differentiated pyroclastic successions.

Bernardino Giannetti; Giancarlo De Casa

2000-01-01

33

Open system evolution of trachyte and phonolite magmas from the East Africa Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quaternary Suswa volcanic system consists of a large shield volcano that developed two nested summit calderas and erupted metaluminous to peralkaline trachyte and phonolite lavas and tuffs. Suswa is adjacent to the Greater Olkaria Volcanic Center, Longonot, Eburru, and Menengai volcanic systems, which erupted trachyte, comendite, and pantellerite. These volcanoes comprise the Central Kenya Peralkaline Province and are the site of active geothermal energy production and exploration. Mafic to intermediate lavas (Elementieta, Ndabibi, and Lolonito-Akira-Tandamara volcanic fields) lie in the rift floor between the shield volcanoes and occur as components of mixed magmas within the complexes. Suswa includes two suites of trachyte-phonolite lavas and tuffs. The first suite (C1) consists of lavas that built the original shield volcano and lavas and tuffs related to the formation of the first caldera; the second suite (C2) consists of lavas and tuffs erupted during and after the formation of the second caldera. Trachyte-carbonate immiscibility has been recorded in C1 ash flow units. The lavas and tuffs of the C2 suite are generally less peralkaline and more silica undersaturated than those of the C1 suite and did not share a common parental magma. Geochemical modeling precludes fractional crystallization as the sole process for Suswa magmas. Instead, assimilation of syenitic material (probably the crystal mush left over from C1 fractional crystallization), resorption, and mixing between the mafic to intermediate lavas satellite to the shield volcanoes have contributed to the composition and eruptive style of these volcanoes.

Anthony, E. Y.; Espejel, V.

2011-12-01

34

REE-fractionated trachytes and dacites from Papua New Guinea and their relationship to andesite petrogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor trachyte and dacite temporally associated with, but spatially separated from, arc-trench type volcanoes in Papua New Guinea have distinctive REE abundances similar to experimentally produced and theoretically predicted partial melts of eclogite. However, modelling based on small amounts of equilibrium partial melting indicates that only fractionation involving a garnet-dominated residuum can account for the observed REE patterns if the

I. E. M. Smith; S. R. Taylor; R. W. Johnson

1979-01-01

35

Origin of xenoliths in the trachyte at Puu Waawaa, Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare dunite and 2-pyroxene gabbro xenoliths occur in banded trachyte at Puu Waawaa on Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii. Mineral compositions suggest that these xenoliths formed as cumulates of tholeiitic basalt at shallow depth in a subcaldera magma reservoir. Subsequently, the minerals in the xenoliths underwent subsolidus reequilibration that particularly affected chromite compositions by decreasing their Mg numbers. In addition, olivine lost

David A. Clague; Wendy A. Bohrson

1991-01-01

36

Emplacement of multiple magma sheets and wall rock deformation: Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed structural and rock magnetic study of the Trachyte Mesa intrusion and deformed sedimentary wall rocks, Henry Mountains, Utah, indicates that the intrusion grew vertically and horizontally by the accumulation of multiple horizontal magma sheets. 2–3cm thick shear zones recognized by intensely cataclasized plagioclase phenocrysts define the contact between sheets. Sheets have bulbous and \\/ or steep frontal terminations

Sven Morgan; Amy Stanik; Eric Horsman; Basil Tikoff; Michel de Saint Blanquat; Guillaume Habert

2008-01-01

37

Application of the QUILF thermobarometer to the peralkaline trachytes and pantellerites of the Eburru volcanic complex, East African Rift, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quaternary Eburru volcanic complex in the south-central Kenya Rift consists of pantelleritic trachytes and pantellerites. The phenocryst assemblage in the trachytes is sanidine+fayalite+ferrohedenbergite+aenigmatite±quartz±ilmenite±magnetite±pyrrhotite±pyrite. In the pantellerites, the assemblage is sanidine+quartz+ferrohedenbergite+fayalite+aenigmatite+ferrorichterite+pyrrhotite±apatite, although fayalite, ferrohedenbergite and ilmenite are absent from more evolved rocks (e.g. with SiO2>71%). QUILF temperature calculations for the trachytes range from 709 to 793 °C and for the pantellerites

Minghua Ren; Peter A. Omenda; Elizabeth Y. Anthony; John C. White; Ray Macdonald; D. K. Bailey

2006-01-01

38

Geology and the origin of trachytes and pantellerites from the Eburru volcanic field, Kenya Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eburru volcanic field is located in the Kenya Rift, where it is part of the very young axial volcanic activity. The Eburru field belongs to the complex of volcanoes -- Menegai, Eburru, Olkaria, Longonot, and Suswa -- that are centered on the Kenya Dome. All of these volcanoes are prime targets for geothermal energy, with Kenya's one geothermal plant at Olkaria.. Correlation with dated volcanism implies that the activity at Eburru is at most approximately 500,000 years. The surfaces preserved on the youngest flows suggest that they erupted within the last 1,000 years. Mapping indicates that the volcanic field is divided into an older western section, composed of pantellerites (Er1) and overlying, faulted trachytes (Et1), and a younger eastern section. The eastern section has a mapable ring structure, and is composed of trachytes (Et2) and pantellerites (Er2). Some of these flows may be contemporaneous, but the final phase of eruption is exclusively pantellerite. We have chemical data for all units except the older pantellerites. The data indicate that the trachytes and rhyolites are both pantelleritic in terms of their alumina and iron contents. This is in contradistinction to the rhyolites immediately adjacent at Olkaria, which are comenditic. Concentrations for all elements are highly elevated, except for Ba, Sr, K, P, and Ti that show deep negative anomalies. The relationship between the trachytes (Et2) and pantellerites (Er2) is one in which the pantellerites consistently have the highest concentrations in all elements, including those with negative anomalies. Correlation coefficients for pairs such as Zr and Rb support the field evidence for the western Et1 trachytes being a separate magmatic event from the Et2 and Er2 units of the eastern field. Sanidine is the principal phenocrystic phase in these rocks, and thus the elevated Sr and Ba in the pantellerites preclude simple crystal fractionation to derive pantellerite from trachyte. Bailey and Macdonald (1975, Min. Mag. 40, 405-414) reached the same conclusion and noted high correlation coefficients among F, Zr, and Rb on one hand and Cl, Nb, and Y as a second group. They argued that a halogen-bearing vapor is important to the genesis of the pantellerites. We have verified the same elemental correlations for our data set. Lowenstern (1994, Amer. Min. 79, 353-369) documented immiscible halide fluids in fluid inclusions from the type locality Pantelleria, Italy. This direct observation of halide lends credence to the importance of fluids in peralkaline rhyolites. We are currently examining fluid inclusions from the Eburru samples for similar evidence of a complex volatile phase.

Velador, J. M.; Omenda, P. A.; Anthony, E. Y.

2002-12-01

39

Open System evolution of peralkaline trachyte and phonolite from the Suswa volcano, Kenya rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suswa is the southernmost volcanic center in the Central Kenya Peralkaline Province (CKPP) and represents the only salic center to have erupted significant volumes of peralkaline silica-undersaturated lavas and tuffs (trachyte, nepheline trachyte and phonolite). The eruptive products of Suswa can be clearly divided into two series, which correspond closely to the volcano's eruptive history. The earlier series (C1) includes lavas and tuffs that built the initial shield volcano (pre-caldera, unit S1) and erupted during the first caldera collapse (syn-caldera, units S2-S5); these rocks are dominated by peralkaline, silica-saturated to mildly under-saturated trachyte. The later series (C2) includes lavas and tuffs that erupted within the caldera structure following the initial collapse (post-caldera, units S6-S7) and during the creation of a second smaller, nested caldera and central "island block" (ring trench group, RTG, unit S8); these rocks are dominated by peralkaline phonolite. In this study, we combine mineralogical evidence with the results of major-element, trace-element, and thermodynamic modelling to propose a complex model for the origin of the Suswa volcano. From these results we conclude that C1 is the result of protracted fractional crystallization of a fairly "dry" alkali basalt (< 1 wt.% H2O) under relatively high pressure (400 MPa) and low oxygen fugacity (FMQ to FMQ-1). Although C1 appears to be primarily the result of closed system processes, a variety of open system processes are responsible for C2. We propose that crystallization of C1 trachyte resulted in the formation of a syenitic residue, which was assimilated (Ma/Mc = 0.1) during a later stage of recharge and differentiation of alkali basalt to produce post-caldera ne-trachyte. Post-caldera (S6-7) phonolites were in turn the result of fractional crystallization of this ne-trachyte. RTG phonolites, however, are the result of feldspar resorption prompted perhaps by magma recharge as evidenced by reverse zoning in alkali feldspar and linear compatible trace element patterns.

White, John Charles; Espejel-García, Vanessa V.; Anthony, Elizabeth Y.; Omenda, Peter

2012-11-01

40

Clinopyroxene\\/liquid trace element partitioning in natural trachyte–trachyphonolite systems: insights from Campi Flegrei (southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace element partition coefficients between clinopyroxenes and associated glassy matrix (Cpx\\/L\\u000a D) have been determined for 13 REE, HFSE4+,5+, U, Th, Sr, Pb, Sc and V from combined LA-ICP-MS\\/EMP analyses in selected trachytes and trachyphonolites from Campi Flegrei.\\u000a Composition of clinopyroxene and glass is pretty homogeneous in the trachyphonolites, pointing to an overall attainment of\\u000a the equilibrium conditions. In trachytes,

Lorenzo Fedele; Alberto Zanetti; Vincenzo Morra; Michele Lustrino; Leone Melluso; Riccardo Vannucci

2009-01-01

41

Experimental solidification of anhydrous latitic and trachytic melts at different cooling rates: The role of nucleation kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of cooling experiments were run at atmospheric conditions for two anhydrous starting latitic and trachytic melts: 1) five cooling rates (25, 12.5, 3, 0.5, and 0.125 °C\\/min) between 1300° and 800 °C, and 2) a 0.5 °C\\/min cooling rate from 1300 °C with quench temperatures at 1200°, 1100°, 1000° and 900 °C. Trachytic run-products are invariably glassy. Nucleation is also suppressed in the

Gianluca Iezzi; Silvio Mollo; Guido Ventura; Andrea Cavallo; Claudia Romano

2008-01-01

42

The quaternary caldera volcano emuruangogolak, kenya rift, and the petrology of a bimodal ferrobasalt-pantelleritic trachyte association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emuruangogolak is a Quaternary basalitrachyte volcano situated in the Suguta graben of the northern Kenva rift, and probably\\u000a erupted last early in this century. Following the construction of an early trachytic shield volcano, two episodes of caldera\\u000a collapse occurred. each preceded by explosive pvroclastic activity. Post-calelera volcanism consisted of alternating phases\\u000a of basalt and trachyte eruption.\\u000a \\u000a The basic lavas are

S. D. Weaver

1977-01-01

43

Geology of proximal, small-volume trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic flows and associated surge deposits, Roccamonfina volcano, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the 232 ka B.P. MTTT trachyte-trachyandesite pyroclastic succession of Roccamonfina volcano. This small-volume, proximal sequence crops out along Mulino di Sotto, Paratone, and Pisciariello ravines in the southwest sector of the central caldera, and covers a minimum extent of 3.5 km2 area. It is made up of seven pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surge units consisting of trachytic

Bernardino Giannetti

1998-01-01

44

Durability of concrete containing siderite-bearing microsyenite and trachyte aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The durability of concrete containing siderite-bearing microsyenite\\/trachyte aggregates has been investigated. The aggregates were from a disused Mt Gibraltar quarry and the Nattai River Cut 5 in the Bowral\\/Mittagong districts, 100km south-west of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Laboratory and field exposures of embedded rock discs in mortar, and concrete and rock samples, conducted under controlled and measured environmental

R. P. Khatri; G. W. Quick; V. Sirivivatnanon

2008-01-01

45

Trace element diffusion and viscous flow in potassium-rich trachytic and phonolitic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace element diffusion was experimentally investigated in nominally dry (0.03–0.10 wt.% H2O) and hydrous (1.13–1.86 wt.% H2O) melts of trachytic and phonolitic composition at temperatures from 1050 to 1250 °C and a pressure of 500 MPa. Experiments with a large set of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Ba, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Yb, Zr, Nb, Hf, and Sn) were

Harald Behrens; Matthias Hahn

2009-01-01

46

Synthesis of 11 Å Al-substituted tobermorite from trachyte rock by hydrothermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkaline hydrothermal activation of trachyte rock led to synthesis of technologically important 11Å tobermorite. Tobermorite synthesis was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and 29Si and 27Al high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. The influence of the reaction conditions such as different temperatures (150–170°C), times (5–20h) as well as different Ca\\/Si ratios of 0.6,

H. Youssef; D. Ibrahim; S. Komarneni; K. J. D. Mackenzie

2010-01-01

47

The color of pumice: case study on a trachytic fall deposit, Meidob volcanic field, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the cause of color variations of trachytic pumices which are essentially uniform in chemical composition\\u000a and proposes a geological model for their formation. A pyroclastic sequence of distinct subunits with brown, buff, and black\\u000a pumices was deposited during the 5000-B.P. eruption of a tuff ring in the central Meidob volcanic field (Sudan). Subunits\\u000a of buff pumices locally

H. Paulick; G. Franz

1997-01-01

48

Structural evolution of the Pleistocene Cimini trachytic volcanic complex (Central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural, geomorphological, geophysical and volcanological data have been processed for the implementation of a dedicated\\u000a GIS through which the structural evolution of the Pleistocene trachytic Cimini volcano (central Italy) has been reconstructed.\\u000a The evolution of the Cimini complex includes three main close-in time phases: (1) intrusion of a shallow laccolith, rising\\u000a along NW and NE trending faults and stagnating at

Corrado Cimarelli; Donatella De Rita

2006-01-01

49

Trachyte shield volcanoes: a new volcanic form from South Turkana, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven Pliocene volcanoes, one of which is described in detail, occur in the northern part of the Kenya Rift. They have low-angle,\\u000a shield like forms, and comprise lavas, pumice tuffs and ash-flow tuffs almost wholly of trachytic composition. Each volcano\\u000a possesses a structurally complex source zone in which plugs, dykes and pumice tuffs are concentrated and in which clearly\\u000a defined

P. K. Webb; S. D. Weaver

1975-01-01

50

Origin of xenoliths in the trachyte at Puu Waawaa, Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rare dunite and 2-pyroxene gabbro xenoliths occur in banded trachyte at Puu Waawaa on Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii. Mineral compositions suggest that these xenoliths formed as cumulates of tholeiitic basalt at shallow depth in a subcaldera magma reservoir. Subsequently, the minerals in the xenoliths underwent subsolidus reequilibration that particularly affected chromite compositions by decreasing their Mg numbers. In addition, olivine lost CaO and plagioclase lost MgO and Fe2O3 during subsolidus reequilibration. The xenoliths also reacted with the host trachyte to form secondary mica, amphibole, and orthopyroxene, and to further modify the compositions of some olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel grains. The reaction products indicate that the host trachyte melt was hydrous. Clinopyroxene in one dunite sample and olivine in most dunite samples have undergone partial melting, apparently in response to addition of water to the xenolith. These xenoliths do not contain CO2 fluid inclusions, so common in xenoliths from other localities on Hualalai, which suggests that CO2 was introduced from alkalic basalt magma between the time CO2-inclusion-free xenoliths erupted at 106??6 ka and the time CO2-inclusion-rich xenoliths erupted within the last 15 ka. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

Clague, D.A.; Bohrson, W.A.

1991-01-01

51

A morphotectonic study of an extensional fault zone in a magma-rich rift: the Baringo Trachyte Fault System, central Kenya Rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baringo Trachyte Fault System is located within the central Kenya Rift and forms part of a N–S-trending linked extensional fault network. This fault system bounds to the west the 8km deep Baringo Basin which itself lies within the axial valley of the central Kenya Rift. It mainly affects a middle Pleistocene trachytic dome (510ka), the so-called Baringo Trachyte (BT).

B Le Gall; J.-J Tiercelin; J.-P Richert; P Gente; N. C Sturchio; D Stead; C Le Turdu

2000-01-01

52

Crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspars in cooling and decompression-induced crystallization experiments in trachytic melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooling and decompression experiments have been carried out on trachytic melts in order to investigate crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspar, the effect of the degree of undercooling ( ?T = T liquidus - T experimental) and time on nucleation and crystal growth process. This experimental work gives us new data about crystallization kinetics of trachytic melts, and it that will be useful to better understand the natural system of Campi Flegrei volcanoes. Experiments have been conducted using cold seal pressure vessel apparatus, at pressure between 30 and 200 MPa, temperature between 750 and 855 °C, time between 7,200 and 57,600 s and redox condition close to the NNO +0.8 buffer. These conditions are ideal to reproducing pre- and syn-eruptive conditions of the Campi Flegrei volcanoes, where the "conditions" pertain to the complete range of pressures, temperatures and time at which the experiments were performed. Alkali feldspar is the main phase present in this trachyte, and its abundance can strongly vary with small changes in pressure, temperature and water content in the melt, implying appreciable variations in the textures and in the crystallization kinetics. The obtained results show that crystallization kinetics are strictly related to ?T, time, final pressure, superheating (- ?T) and water content in the melt. ?T is the driving force of the crystallization, and it has a strong influence on nucleation and growth processes. In fact, the growth process dominates crystallization at small ?T, whereas the nucleation dominates crystallization at large ?T. Time also is an important variable during crystallization process, because long experiment durations involve more nucleation events of alkali feldspar than short experiment durations. This is an important aspect to understand magma evolution in the magma chamber and in the conduit, which in turn has strong effects on magma rheology.

Arzilli, Fabio; Carroll, Michael R.

2013-10-01

53

Dredged trachyte and basalt from kodiak seamount and the adjacent aleutian trench, alaska.  

PubMed

Blocky fragments of aegirine-augite trachyte (with accompanying icerafted gravels.) were recovered from the upper slopes of Kodiak Seamount in several dredge hauls. An alkali basalt pillow segment was also dredged from a moatlike depression, at a depth of 5000 meters, near the west base of the seamount. These retrievals confirm the volcanic origin of Kodiak Seamount and further support the view of Engel, Engel, and Havens that the higher elevations of seamounts are composed of alkali basalts or related variants. PMID:17731907

Forbes, R B; Hoskin, C M

1969-10-24

54

Provenance determination of trachytic lavas, employed as blocks in the Romanesque cathedral of Modena (Northern Italy), using magnetic susceptibility, and petrographic and chemical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trachytic stones were used sporadically as building blocks in the Romanesque cathedral of Modena and probably were recycled from Roman artefacts. They come from the Euganean Hills, a Tertiary volcanic Complex close to Padua, and more specifically from Monte Oliveto, Monte Merlo and Monte Lispida. Whereas the role of Monte Oliveto and Monte Merlo as sources of trachytes for Roman

Silvio Capedri; Giampiero Venturelli

2005-01-01

55

Trachytes employed for funerary artefacts in the Roman Colonies Regium Lepidi (Reggio Emilia) and Mutina (Modena) (Italy): provenance inferred by petrographic and chemical parameters and by magnetic susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roman funerary artefacts belonging to the archaeological collections in Modena and Reggio Emilia, two important Roman colonies (Mutina and Regium Lepidi, respectively) in the Cispadane region (Northern Italy), are made of trachytes from the Euganean Hills, close to Padua. In particular, the petrographic and chemical parameters, besides magnetic susceptibility of archaeological trachytes, suggest Monte Oliveto as their main source; very

S. Capedri; G. Venturelli

2003-01-01

56

The origin of trachyte and pantellerite from Pantelleria, Italy: Insights from major element, trace element, and thermodynamic modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trachyte and peralkaline rhyolite (pantellerite and comendite) frequently comprise the felsic end-member in bimodal suites in continental rift and oceanic island settings. In these settings, the relationship between the mafic (mildly alkaline, or transitional, basalt) and felsic lavas is ambiguous; major- and trace-element models and isotopic data are often consistent with an origin for felsic lavas from either fractional crystallization of transitional basalt or partial melting of alkali gabbro followed by fractional crystallization. In this paper, we present representative mineral analyses and whole-rock analyses from forty samples of a basalt-trachyte-pantellerite suite collected at Pantelleria, Italy, in the Strait of Sicily Rift Zone, and compare the results of major- and trace-element modelling with the results of thermodynamic (MELTS) modelling. From these results we conclude that metaluminous trachyte formed as a result of 70 to 75% low-pressure (0.1 GPa) fractional crystallization of an assemblage of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine, magnetite, and apatite from a hydrous (1.0-1.5 wt.% H 2O) transitional basalt magma at relative oxygen fugacities approximately one log unit below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ-1). The "Daly gap"-a lack of intermediate (~ 49-62 wt.% SiO 2) volcanic rocks-at Pantelleria is concluded to be primarily the result of rapid differentiation through that interval. Relatively rapid crystallization at low pressure may have effected the partial degassing of water-saturated (~ 4 wt.% H 2O) metaluminous trachyte magma. Some metaluminous trachyte lavas have positive Eu anomalies, high K/Rb ratios, high concentrations of Ba, and low concentrations of incompatible trace elements; these are interpreted to be the result of up to 40% accumulation of alkali feldspar. Comenditic trachyte, pantelleritic trachyte, and pantellerite formed after an additional 20 to 80% fractional crystallization of an assemblage dominated by alkali feldspar from metaluminous trachyte magma. The most evolved pantellerite lavas and tuffs are the result of a total of ~ 95% fractional crystallization of transitional basalt, with phenocrysts that equilibrated at low temperatures (< 700 °C), low oxygen fugacities, and high (> 4 wt.%) water contents.

White, John Charles; Parker, Don F.; Ren, Minghua

2009-01-01

57

Polybaric Evolution of Phonolite, Trachyte, and Rhyolite Volcanoes in Eastern Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica: Controls on Peralkalinity and Silica Saturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Marie Byrd Land volcanic province, peralkaline and metaluminous trachytes, phonolites, and rhyolites occur in 18 large shield volcanoes that are closely associated in time and space. They are arrayed radially across an 800 km wide structural dome, with the oldest at the crest and the youngest around the flanks. Several lines of evidence suggest that these rocks evolved

Wesley E. LeMasurier; Kiyoto Futa; Malcolm Hole; Yosuke Kawachi

2003-01-01

58

Trachytic pyroclastics from Agua de Pau volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores: evolution of a magma body over 4,000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Recent stratigraphy of Sao Miguel records large numbers of trachytic pyroclastic deposits produced by sub-plinian to plinian eruptions. Tephrochronological studies by Walker and Croasdale (1971) and Booth et al. (1978) have shown that in the last 5,000 years there have been five such eruptions from the caldera of Agua de Pau, one of the three active stratovolcanoes on Sao

Michael Storey

1982-01-01

59

Der petrogenetische Werdegang der Klinopyroxene in den tertiären Vulkaniten der Hocheifel I. Die Klinopyroxene der Alkaliolivinbasalt-Trachyt-Assoziation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Von über 150 Eraptionspunkten in der Hocheifel werden. 14 Gesteine als Verwtreter der Entwicklungsreihe. Alkaliolivinbasalt-Trachyt nach petrochemischen, optischen und aufbereitungstechnischen Gesichtspunkten ausgewählt und phasen mechanisch in ihre gesteinsbildenden Minerals zerlegt. Neben verschiedenen Klinopyroxenphasen, die sowohl die Klinopyroxeneingprenglinge als each die Grundmasseklinopyroxene enthalten, können fast ells assoziierten Minerals mitgewonnen und chemisch, optisch and röntgenographisch untersucht werden.

Hans Gerhard Huckenholz

1964-01-01

60

The origin of trachyte and pantellerite from Pantelleria, Italy: Insights from major element, trace element, and thermodynamic modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trachyte and peralkaline rhyolite (pantellerite and comendite) frequently comprise the felsic end-member in bimodal suites in continental rift and oceanic island settings. In these settings, the relationship between the mafic (mildly alkaline, or transitional, basalt) and felsic lavas is ambiguous; major- and trace-element models and isotopic data are often consistent with an origin for felsic lavas from either fractional crystallization

John Charles White; Don F. Parker; Minghua Ren

2009-01-01

61

Trace-element data relevant to the origin of trachytic and pantelleritic lavas in the East African Rift system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the trace-elements Ba, Ce, La, Nb, Rb, Sr and Zr have been made on lavas from six trachytic and pantelleritic volcanoes in the Kenyan and Ethiopian Rifts. Consideration of these data shows that Ce, La, Nb and Zr have behaved as truly residual elements. In the peralkaline suites examined, plotting other chemical parameters against a residual-element such as

S. D. Weaver; J. S. C. Sceal; I. L. Gibson

1972-01-01

62

Trachytes Used for Paving Roman Roads in the Po Plain: Characterization by Petrographic and Chemical Parameters and Provenance of Flagstones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main Roman roads (Viae publicae silice stratae) in the Po Plain were paved at segments with flagstones, which in places are still preserved in their original position. More frequently, however, the flagstones were removed and transported to museums, dispersed around the area or, in places, interred after archaeological investigation. Those flagstones are made mainly of trachytes from the Euganean Hills

Silvio Capedri; Riccardo Grandi; Giampiero Venturelli

2003-01-01

63

Mixing and chemical interdiffusion of trachytic and latitic magma in a subvolcanic complex of the Tertiary Westerwald (Germany)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special kind of magma mixing is extraordinarily well exposed in the Bittersberg subvolcanic complex in the Tertiary volcanic field of the German Westerwald: A trachytic melt has been penetrated by a latitic dyke which has been dispersed within the host magma as small spherical enclaves (globules). Whole rock analyses of the globules show a change in composition that cannot

Ulrich Schreiber; Dirk Anders; Joachim Koppen

1999-01-01

64

Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism in the Darfur volcanic province: mantle source, phonolite-trachyte genesis and relation to other volcanic provinces in NE Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of Late Cenozoic to Quaternary small-volume phonolite, trachyte and related mafic rocks from the Darfur volcanic province/NW-Sudan have been investigated. Isotope signatures indicate variable but minor crustal contributions. Some phonolitic and trachytic rocks show the same isotopic composition as their primitive mantle-derived parents, and no crustal contributions are visible in the trace element patterns of these samples. The magmatic evolution of the evolved rocks is dominated by crystal fractionation. The Si-undersaturated strongly alkaline phonolite and the Si-saturated mildly alkaline trachyte can be modelled by fractionation of basanite and basalt, respectively. The suite of basanite-basalt-phonolite-trachyte with characteristic isotope signatures from the Darfur volcanic province fits the compositional features of other Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism scattered in North and Central Africa (e.g., Tibesti, Maghreb, Cameroon line), which evolved on a lithosphere that was reworked or formed during the Neoproterozoic.

Lucassen, Friedrich; Pudlo, Dieter; Franz, Gerhard; Romer, Rolf L.; Dulski, Peter

2013-01-01

65

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of a basalt-benmoreite-trachyte suite from the southern part of the Gregory Rift, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern Gregory Rift valley a series of transitional basalt, ferrobasalt, and benmoreite flows (1.65–1.4 Myr) is overlain by flood trachyte lavas (1.3–0.9 Myr). Mass balance calculations for major element compositions of rocks of this suite and their phenocrysts and microphenocrysts suggest that the ferrobasalts and benmoreites formed from magma resembling the most primitive basalt by closed system fractionation

Brian H. Baker; Gordon G. Goles; William P. Leeman; Marilyn M. Lindstrom

1977-01-01

66

The effect of H 2O on the viscosity of K-trachytic melts at magmatic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscosity of hydrous trachytes from the Agnano Monte Spina eruption (Phlegrean Fields, Italy) has been determined at 1.0 GPa and temperatures between 1200 and 1400 °C using the falling sphere method in a piston cylinder apparatus. The H2O content in the melts ranged from 0.18 to 5.81 wt.%. These high-temperature hydrous viscosities, along with previous ones determined at low-temperature (anhydrous and hydrous) and

Valeria Misiti; Carmela Freda; Jacopo Taddeucci; Claudia Romano; Piergiorgio Scarlato; Antonella Longo; Paolo Papale; Brent T. Poe

2006-01-01

67

Mineralogical constraints on the petrogenesis of trachytic inclusions, Carpenter Ridge Tuff, Central San Juan volcanic field, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although bulk-rock normative analyses of the trachytic inclusions from the Carpenter Ridge Tuff yield abundant quartz and minor corundum, a portion of the phenocryst assemblage is indicative of an alkaline parentage. Sanidine and biotite contain up to 8 and 5 wt% BaO respectively. In addition, both amphibole and clinopyroxene compositions are compatible with having crystallized from a mildly silica-undersaturated magma.

Michael J. Dorais I; James A. Whitney; John C. Stormer Jr

1991-01-01

68

Partial melting and fractionation in the Mesa Chivato alkali basalt-trachyte series, Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesa Chivato comprises a series of alkaline cones, flows, and domes within the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) in northwest New Mexico. Compositions range from alkali basalt to trachyte. Intermediate magmas are less well represented than mafic and felsic rocks, but benmoreites and transitional benmoreite-trachytes provide a window into the differentiation processes. Major element, trace element, and isotopic data suggest that petrogenesis of benmoreite proceeded by fractional crystallization of mafic liquids and magma mixing with partially melted mafic rocks. Major element mass balance models permit the derivation of transitional benmoreite/trachyte from the benmoreite by 20-25% crystallization of microphenocryst phases (olivine, plagioclase, Ti-magnetite, and apatite) and further fractionation to trachyte by 10-15% crystallization of olivine, plagioclase and alkali feldspar, Fe-Ti oxide, and apatite. These models are supported by SiO2-Sr and -Ba systematics. However, the hawaiite to benmoreite gap cannot be crossed by fractional crystallization alone. While major element models permit the mafic lavas to yield the benmoreite, they require extensive fractionation of clinopyroxene and plagioclase - this is unsupported by petrography (clinopyroxene phenocrysts are rare in the mafic rocks and lacking in the intermediate rocks) and cannot explain the benmoreite's very high Sr contents (>1800 ppm), which would have been depleted by plagioclase fractionation. From LA-ICPMS analysis of plagioclase: 87Sr/86Sr of early alkali basalt (0.70285-0.70300) and late hawaiite (0.70406-0.70421) bracket the 87Sr/86Sr of the benmoreite (0.70361-0.70406). Thus, either could represent the fractionated liquid parental to the benmoreite and the other the partially melted source.

Schrader, C. M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Wolff, J. A.

2012-12-01

69

Petrogenesis of trachyte and rhyolite magmas on Ponza Island (Italy) and its relationship to the Campanian magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmatism on Ponza island (Italy) has been reviewed, considering both new and literature data, and compared with the Campanian Volcanic District (CVD) rocks. Different origins have been inferred for the two main rock types (trachyte and rhyolite). The trachytes were formed by fractional crystallization (FC) processes coupled with minor upper crustal contamination from magmas similar to the least evolved magma erupted into CVD. The rhyolites formed by partial melting of a lower crust component. The two lithotypes evolved through intra-suite FC, and they are correlated with the volcanic rocks of the CVD by major element, trace element and isotope data, extending the Campanian compositional spectrum. To explain the FC and the melting processes, a tectonic model is developed in which most of the FC for the CVD occurred in the lower-intermediate crust where magma rises from the upper mantle and is stored in a process of magma accumulation and fractionation. These processes have produced enough heat to melt the crust and cause several rhyolite episodes in Ponza Island. A subduction-related setting must be inferred to explain the origin of the Ponza trachytes and rhyolites and the rest of the CVD volcanism.

Angelo, Paone

2013-11-01

70

Geology of Volcan Las Navajas, a pleistocene trachyte/peralkaline rhyolite volcanic center in Nayarit, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Volcan Las Navajas, located in the northwestern portion of the Mexican Volcanic Belt has produced a sequence of volcanic rocks with compositions in marked contrast to the predominantly calc-alkaline volcanoes which predominate in this part of Mexico. The oldest exposed lavas consist of trachytes with 63% SiO/sub 2/, 6% FeO*, and 500 ppm Zr along with comenditic rhyolites with 68% SiO/sub 2/, 5% FeO*, 800 ppm Zr, and an agpaitic index of 1.0. These lavas were followed by the eruption of a comenditic ash-flow tuff and the formation of a caldera 2.7 km in diameter. This caldera was subsequently filled by eruptions of pantelleritic rhyolite obsidian lava flows with 72% SiO/sub 2/, 8% FeO*, 1100 ppm Zr, and an agpaitic index of 1.5 to 1.9. A second caldera was then formed which is offset to the south of the main eruptive vents for previous eruptions. This younger caldera has a diameter of about 4.8 km and its southern walls have been covered by calc-alkaline andesitic lavas erupted from nearby Sanganguey volcano. Volcanoclastic sediments in the floor of the younger caldera have been tilted and faulted in a manner suggestive of late stage resurgence. Subsequent eruptions within the caldera, however, have been restricted to calc-alkaline andesites. Tectonically, the area in which this volcano occurs appears to have been undergoing a crustal rifting event since the Pliocene. The occurrence of these peralkaline rocks lends further support to such a hypothesis.

Hegre, J.A.; Nelson, S.A.

1985-01-01

71

The Axum-Adwa basalt-trachyte complex: a late magmatic activity at the periphery of the Afar plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Axum-Adwa igneous complex consists of a basalt-trachyte (syenite) suite emplaced at the northern periphery of the Ethiopian plateau, after the paroxysmal eruption of the Oligocene (ca 30 Ma) continental flood basalts (CFB), which is related to the Afar plume activity. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar ages, carried out for the first time on felsic and basaltic rocks, constrain the magmatic age of the greater part of the complex around Axum to 19-15 Ma, whereas trachytic lavas from volcanic centres NE of Adwa are dated ca 27 Ma. The felsic compositions straddle the critical SiO2-saturation boundary, ranging from normative quartz trachyte lavas east of Adwa to normative (and modal) nepheline syenite subvolcanic domes (the obelisks stones of ancient axumites) around Axum. Petrogenetic modelling based on rock chemical data and phase equilibria calculations by PELE (Boudreau 1999) shows that low-pressure fractional crystallization processes, starting from mildly alkaline- and alkaline basalts comparable to those present in the complex, could generate SiO2-saturated trachytes and SiO2-undersaturated syenites, respectively, which correspond to residual liquid fractions of 17 and 10 %. The observed differentiation processes are consistent with the development of rifting events and formation of shallow magma chambers plausibly located between displaced (tilted) crustal blocks that favoured trapping of basaltic parental magmas and their fractionation to felsic differentiates. In syenitic domes, late- to post-magmatic processes are sometimes evidenced by secondary mineral associations (e.g. Bete Giorgis dome) which overprint the magmatic parageneses, and mainly induce additional nepheline and sodic pyroxene neo-crystallization. These metasomatic reactions were promoted by the circulation of Na-Cl-rich deuteric fluids (600-400 °C), as indicated by mineral and bulk rock chemical budgets as well as by ?18O analyses on mineral separates. The occurrence of this magmatism post-dating the CFB event, characterized by comparatively lower volume of more alkaline products, conforms to the progressive vanishing of the Afar plume thermal effects and the parallel decrease of the partial melting degrees of the related mantle sources. This evolution is also concomitant with the variation of the tectono-magmatic regime from regional lithospheric extension (CFB eruption) to localized rifting processes that favoured magmatic differentiation.

Natali, C.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Siena, F.

2013-08-01

72

Remobilization of granitoid rocks through mafic recharge: evidence from basalt-trachyte mingling and hybridization in the Manori-Gorai area, Mumbai, Deccan Traps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Products of contrasting mingled magmas are widespread in volcanoes and intrusions. Subvolcanic trachyte intrusions hosting mafic enclaves crop out in the Manori-Gorai area of Mumbai in the Deccan Traps. The petrogenetic processes that produced these rocks are investigated here with field data, petrography, mineral chemistry, and whole rock major, trace, and Pb isotope chemistry. Local hybridization has occurred and has produced intermediate rocks such as a trachyandesitic dyke. Feldspar crystals have complex textures and an unusually wide range in chemical composition. Crystals from the trachytes cover the alkali feldspar compositional range and include plagioclase crystals with anorthite contents up to An47. Crystals from the mafic enclaves are dominated by plagioclase An72-90, but contain inclusions of orthoclase and other feldspars covering the entire compositional range sampled in the trachytes. Feldspars from the hybridized trachyandesitic dyke yield mineral compositions of An80-86, An47-54, Ab94-99, Or45-60, and Or96-98, all sampled within individual phenocrysts. We show that these compositional features are consistent with partial melting of granitoid rocks by influx of mafic magmas, followed by magma mixing and hybridization of the partial melts with the mafic melts, which broadly explains the observed bulk rock major and trace element variations. However, heterogeneities in Pb isotopic compositions of trachytes are observed on the scale of individual outcrops, likely reflecting initial variations in the isotopic compositions of the involved source rocks. The combined data point to one or more shallow-level trachytic magma chambers disturbed by multiple injections of trachytic, porphyritic alkali basaltic, and variably hybridized magmas.

Zellmer, Georg F.; Sheth, Hetu C.; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Lai, Yi-Jen

2012-01-01

73

Petrology and Geochemistry of the Trachyte Mesa Magma Sheets, Henry Mountains, Utah.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trachyte Mesa (TM) is a satellite laccolithic intrusion peripheral to the Mount Hillers intrusive center in the Henry Mountains of south-central Utah. The TM outcrops are characteristically composed of plagioclase- hornblende porphyry which contain rare mafic crustal xenoliths. On the basis of geophysical evidence, Morgan and others (GSA Annual Meeting Field Guide, 2005) have suggested that the Mount Hillers center fed TM via several "magma fingers" as opposed to dikes. Moreover, on the basis of outcrop relationships, they proposed that the TM developed its laccolithic shape through inflation related to successive emplacement of several magma "sheets." Given the well-exposed nature of the TM sheets, numerous samples were collected and analyzed to evaluate geochemical characteristics and potential compositional variations within and among the sheets. Our preliminary results indicate that the analyzed sheets are compositionally classified as dacite, and fall within the range of values published by other authors for laccolithic rocks of the Henry Mountains (e.g. Nelson and Davidson, 1997). The TM samples are characterized by the following compositional ranges: SiO2=62.5-65.5%; TiO2=.44-.53%; Al2O3 =17.5-19%; Fe2O3=3.4-4.7%; MnO=.05-.15%; MgO=0.4-1.5%; CaO=4.8-7%; Na2O=3.5-4.3%; K2O=2-2.6%; P2O5=.19-.23%; Nb=4-9ppm; Zr=120-160ppm; Y=14-18ppm; Sr=650-950ppm; Rb=25-40ppm; Pb=12-25ppm; V=53-77ppm; and Ba=950-1100ppm. Within individual sheets, the observed compositional variation of major and trace elements is relatively small, with no obvious evidence of systematic geochemical change. Similarly, among various sheets, the compositional variation of most major and trace elements also appears to be small, however, our existing data do not preclude the possibility of real but subtle geochemical variations between individual sheets. At present, however, our data and observations suggest that the TM laccolith was formed from a rather homogeneous magma characterized by a lack of significant geochemical differentiation. Consequently, it may be inferred that the emplacement of the TM was a relatively rapid as opposed to a prolonged and/or episodic event.

Matty, D. J.; Student, J. J.; Morgan, S. S.

2006-12-01

74

Occurrence of fluororichterite and fluorian biotite in the In Tifar trachyte neck (Tazrouk district, Hoggar volcanic province, Sahara, Algeria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unusual occurrence in the In Tifar trachyte neck (Tazrouk district, Hoggar volcanic province, Sahara, Algeria) of the fluorian biotite-fluororichterite association is presented. The two mineral species were previously unknown in the Hoggar and their association is uncommon worldwide. Ti-rich biotite has 28-40% OH sites occupied by fluorine, hence the use of the modifier "fluorian". Sodic-calcic fluororichterite has more than 55% OH sites filled by fluorine, hence the use of the prefix "fluoro". Well-defined F-Mg affinities are documented in both cases, while Cl remains very low. Temperatures are estimated roughly at 775-700 °C at low pressures. The fluorian biotite ? fluororichterite sequence of crystallisation implies increasingly high fH2F2/fH2O ratios in metaluminous H2O-dominated evolving to peralkaline F-enriched fluids.

Azzouni-Sekkal, Abla; Bonin, Bernard; Ben El Khaznadji, Riad

2013-09-01

75

Geochemistry of a transitional ne-trachybasalt — Q-trachyte lava series from Patmos (Dodecanesos), Greece: further evidence for fractionation, mixing and assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace-element and preliminary Sr- and O-isotopic data are reported for a transitional alkaline-sub-alkaline lava series (MVS) from Patmos, Greece. The lava types belonging to this series are ne-trachybasalt, hy-trachybasalt, hy-trachyandesite and Q-trachyte. Rb, Sr and Ba contents, as well as K\\/Rb ratios, of the ne-trachybasalts differ from those of alkali basalts of oceanic islands and those of K-rich alkaline lavas

G. Paul Wyers; Michael Barton

1987-01-01

76

Trachytes, comendites, and pantellerites of the Late Paleozoic bimodal rift association of the Noen and Tost ranges, southern Mongolia: Differentiation and contamination of peralkaline salic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bimodal association of the Noen and Tost ranges is ascribed to the Gobi-Tien Shan rift zone and was formed 318 Ma ago\\u000a at the continental margin of the North Asian paleocontinent. It is made up of volcanic series of alternating basalts and peralkaline\\u000a rhyolites with subordinate trachytes, dike belts, and massifs of peralkaline granites. The association also includes a

A. M. Kozlovsky; V. V. Yarmolyuk; V. I. Kovalenko; V. M. Savatenkov; T. A. Velivetskaya

2007-01-01

77

Concordant thermoluminescence and 238U– 230Th ages for a trachytic dome (Grand Sarcoui) from the Cha??ne des Puys (French Massif Central)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of thermoluminescence (TL) and 238U–230Th datings of a trachytic dome from the Cha??ne des Puys in the French Massif Central, the Grand Sarcoui dome. TL dating was performed on quartz xenocrysts extracted from the phreatomagmatic tephra that initiated the eruptions. Red TL and blue TL give consistent results with an average age of 12.6±3ka (2?).

D. Miallier; M. Condomines; T. Pilleyre; S. Sanzelle; J. Guittet

2004-01-01

78

Mixing of rhyolite, trachyte and basalt magma erupted from a vertically and laterally zoned reservoir, composite flow P1, Gran Canaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 14.1 Ma composite welded ignimbrite P1 (45 km3 DRE) on Gran Canaria is compositionally zoned from a felsic lower part to a basaltic top. It is composed of four component magmas mixed in vertically varying proportions: (1) Na-rhyolite (10 km3) zoned from crystal-poor to highly phyric; (2) a continuously zoned, evolved trachyte to sodic trachyandesite magma group (6 km3);

Armin Freundt; Hans-Ulrich Schmincke

1992-01-01

79

Experimental study of Cl solubility in hydrous alkaline melts: constraints on the theoretical maximum amount of Cl in trachytic and phonolitic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Cl solubility in evolved alkaline melts was investigated at 860-930 °C and pressures of 25 to 250 MPa using natural trachytes and a synthetic phonolite equilibrated with subcritical fluids in the H2O-(Na,K)Cl system (i.e. silicate melt coexisted with water-rich aqueous fluid and a saline brine). Fluid phase characteristics were identified by examination of fluid inclusions present in the run

S. Signorelli; M. Carroll

2002-01-01

80

The partitioning behavior of Cl, S, and H 2O in aqueous vapor- ± saline-liquid saturated phonolitic and trachytic melts at 200 MPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal experiments were conducted with molten Mt. Somma–Vesuvius phonolite and mixed-composition fluids comprised of O–H–Cl–S-cations to determine the solubilities and melt-fluid(s) partitioning behavior of the dominant volatile components at 896–1022 °C, 200 MPa, and fO2 of NNO+0.54 to NNO+1.6. The final melt compositions ranged from phonolitic to trachytic due to component exchange between the melt and fluid(s) and limited crystallization of plagioclase

J. D. Webster; M. F. Sintoni; B. De Vivo

2009-01-01

81

Deformation Structures associated with the emplacement of high level intrusions: A study of Trachyte Mesa Intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most studies of sill and laccolith complexes have focused on the internal architecture and thermal effects of these intrusions, while few have looked in detail at host rock deformation structures associated with their emplacement. Various sill and laccolith emplacement mechanisms have been proposed (e.g. radial growth/ bulldozing, and two-stage growth), each with their own distinct deformation style. Compressional structures likely dominate during radial growth (bulldozing) emplacement, while extensional structures are more likely to form during two-stage growth emplacement. In this study we focus on deformation structures (faults, deformation bands and joints) associated with emplacement of Tertiary sills and laccolith intrusions in the Henry Mountains, Utah. Trachyte Mesa, the most distal satellite intrusion to the Mt. Hilliers intrusive centre, is an elongate (NE-SW) laccolith concordant with the Entrada sandstone it intrudes. The intrusion is comprised of multiple, stacked intrusive sheets. Two structural transects across the northwest lateral margin have identified distinct structural domains within the host rock that reflect both temporal and kinematic variations in deformation. Three deformation phases are identified, interpreted to be pre-, syn- and late-emplacement structures. A background set of deformation bands (phase 1), trending oblique to the intrusion margin, is apparent across the entire area. A second set of deformation bands (phase 2) overprint the early phase. These are characterised by conjugate deformation bands that parallel the intrusion margin, and increase in intensity and spacing towards the intrusion. Within this same zone a series of calcite filled normal faults, striking parallel and perpendicular to the intrusion margin, are apparent. Due to their spatial, kinematic and overprinting relationships we interpret these to be linked to the emplacement of the intrusive body. Overprinting all other structures, are two sets of tensile joints (phase 3), often infilled with calcite crystals. These occur over the top surface and lateral margin of the intrusion. Similar to phase 2 faults, these joints strike both parallel and perpendicular to the margin of the intrusion. Phase 2 and 3 structures both indicate extensional strain normal to the intrusion margin, which is consistent with a two-stage growth mechanism for the overall intrusion. Furthermore, the presence of calcite precipitation indicates that these structures have acted as good conduits for fluids. Deformation structures associated with emplacement of sills, laccoliths and dykes have the potential to affect fluid flow through a porous sandstone reservoir, which may have important implications in fields such as hydrocarbon reservoir deliverability and CO2 sequestration. Assuming deformation structures are intrinsically linked to the emplacement mechanism, predictions about fluid flow around intrusive bodies may be possible, i.e. enhancement (two-stage growth) or suppression (radial growth) of fluid flow.

Wilson, P. I. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Jarvis, I.; Murphy, P.; Davidson, J. P.

2012-04-01

82

Polybaric evolution of phonolite, trachyte, and rhyolite volcanoes in Eastern Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica: Controls on peralkalinity and silica saturation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Marie Byrd Land volcanic province, peralkaline and metaluminous trachytes, phonolites, and rhyolites occur in 18 large shield volcanoes that are closely associated in time and space. They are arrayed radially across an 800 km wide structural dome, with the oldest at the crest and the youngest around the flanks. Several lines of evidence suggest that these rocks evolved via open-system, polybaric fractionation. We have used mass balance modeling of major elements together with trace-element data and mineral chemistry to help explain the evolution of this diverse suite of felsic rocks, which appear to have been generated coevally in isolated magma chambers, and erupted close to each other in patterns related to tectonic uplift and extension within the West Antarctic rift system. Isotopic and trace-element data indicate that this occurred with only minimal crustal contamination. We focus on volcanoes of the Executive Committee Range and Mount Murphy, where we find good representation of basalts and felsic rocks within a small area. Our results suggest that the felsic rocks were derived from basaltic magmas that differentiated at multiple levels during their passage to the surface: first to ferrogabbroic compositions near the base of the lithosphere, then to intermediate compositions near the base of the crust, and finally to felsic compositions in mid- to upper crustal reservoirs. The high-pressure history has been largely masked by low-pressure processes. The best indications of a high-pressure history are the mineral phases in cumulate nodules and their correlation with modeling results, with REE anomalies, and with the composition of an unusual gabbroic intrusion. Silica saturation characteristics are believed to have originated in magma chambers near the base of the crust, via fractionation of variable proportions of kaersutite and plagioclase. Development of peralkalinity in felsic rocks took place in upper crustal reservoirs by fractionating a high ratio of plagioclase to clinopyroxene under conditions of low pH2O. With increasing pH2O, the ratio plagioclase/clinopyroxene in the fractionated assemblage decreases and metaluminous liquids resulted. Crustal contamination seems to have had a role in suppressing peralkalinity, and was probably a factor in the origin of high-silica metaluminous rhyolite, but metaluminous rocks are uncommon. The volume and diversity of felsic rocks were probably enhanced by the structure of the lithosphere, the persistence of plume activity, and the immobility of the Antarctic plate. Mechanical boundaries at the base of the lithosphere and crust, and within the crust, appear to have acted as filters, trapping magmas at multiple levels, and prolonging the fractionation process. Final volumes would have been further enhanced by repeated refluxing of the same magma chambers, controlled by plume activity and plate immobility.

LeMasurier, W.E.; Futa, K.; Hole, M.; Kawachi, Y.

2003-01-01

83

Which came first: the pumice or the obsidian? Complex degassing transitions during the 114ka trachytic Pu'u Wa'aWa'a eruption (Hawaii)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fragmental obsidian clasts are highly correlated with coeval pumice in eruptions that produce obsidian (e.g., Lipari, Aeolian Islands; Little Glass Mountain, California; Mono-Inyo chain, California; Taupo, New Zealand), implying that at least some magma is able to degas quiescently prior to or during the explosive stage of an eruption. However, gross stratigraphic relationships reveal a consistent pattern of explosive activity transitioning to effusive activity (e.g., obsidian flows), suggesting subsurface stratification of magmatic volatiles. A prevailing conceptual model of obsidian formation reconciles these observations through (1) formation of dense glassy material by collapse of vesicles in bubbly magma, occuring in the shallow conduit or at the surface, (2) subsequent ascent of gas-rich magma and fragmentation/assimilation of the previously-emplaced obsidian clasts, followed by (3) transition to dominantly effusive eruptive activity. The Pu'u Wa'aWa'a trachytic pumice cone is unique feature in the Hawaii island volcanic landscape, otherwise dominated by basaltic lava. Around 114 ka, a pulsating explosive eruption at Hualalai Volcano expelled trachytic pumice, forming a ~150-200 m high cone. This phase was immediately followed by the outpouring of a large trachyte flow (the most voluminous silicic lava flow identified in Hawaii ~5 km3), identical in bulk composition to the pumice. The tephra deposits of the cone contain abundant obsidian clasts, as well as pyroclasts bearing striking gradual textural transitions and discretely banded pumiceous, scoriaceous and aphanitic material. The intricate variations in glass H2O contents (measured by microRaman), microlite and vesicle abundances (textural analysis), along with the chemical traits (EMPA) displayed by glasses from the diverse textural end-members suggest a complex ascent and eruption history. We test three hypotheses: (a) the obsidian clasts formed during ascent, stalling and outgassing of the magma (i.e., similar to the prevailing models mentioned above), (b) the obsidian clasts formed thorough shear-induced degassing-outgassing during the entire ascent stage, and (c) obsidian derives from volatile poor portions of the magma reservoir, which were disrupted and mingled with volatile-rich magma.

Hammer, J. E.; Shea, T.; Hellebrand, E.

2012-12-01

84

Evolution of pantellerite-trachyte-phonolite volcanoes by fractional crystallization of basanite magma in a continental rift setting, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marie Byrd Land province includes 18 large (up to 1,800 km3) central volcanoes distributed across an active volcano-tectonic dome. The typical volcano structure consists of a basal 1,000-5,000 m of basanite surmounted by trachyte and subordinate intermediate rocks, plus phonolite, or pantellerite, or comendite. The volumes of felsic sections are large (~30-700 km3), but these rocks probably make up <10% of volcanic rock in the province. This paper describes pantellerite volcanoes in the Ames and Flood Ranges, which include a large and varied suite of these iron-rich, silica-poor rhyolites. Isotopic and trace element data, maintenance of isotopic equilibrium throughout the basalt-felsic range, and the results of modeling, all exclude significant crustal contamination and point to fractional crystallization as the process that controls magmatic evolution. The most unusual feature of these volcanoes is the apparent need to derive pantellerites from basanite, the long interval of fractionation at the base of the lithosphere and crust, involving kaersutite as the key phase in developing pantellerite, and a plumbing system that permitted coeval eruption of pantellerite and phonolite from the same edifice. Peralkalinity most likely developed in upper crustal reservoirs during the final 4-5% of magmatic history, by fractionating a high proportion of plagioclase under low pH2O. Mantle plume activity appears to drive doming and volcanism. This, a stationary plate, and continental lithospheric structure seem to provide an optimal environment for the evolution of a diverse, large volume suite of felsic rocks by fractional crystallization.

Lemasurier, Wesley E.; Choi, Sung Hi; Kawachi, Y.; Mukasa, Samuel B.; Rogers, N. W.

2011-12-01

85

Multiple explosive rhyolite/trachyte eruptions of alkaline-peralkaline Nemrut and dacite/rhyolite eruptions of neighboring subduction zone-related Süphan volcano over 600 000 years: the East Anatolian tephra province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active Nemrut stratovolcano (2918 m asl) (Eastern Anatolia) is topped by a spectacular caldera and dominates the area west of huge Lake Van that covers its lower flanks. The stratovolcano has been active explosively for at least ca. 600 ka based on drilling evidence (ICDP Paleovan project). We have identified, correlated and compositionally characterized some 40 fallout sheets on land - none previously known - the largest ones probably with magma volumes exceeding 30 km3(DRE). The alkaline to peralkaline tephras are dominated by anorthoclase, Fe-rich clinopyroxene and fayalite with quartz and aenigmatite in some. Large-volume comenditic to pantelleritic rhyolite eruptions occurred in intervals of 20 000 - 40 000 years with smaller volume trachytic tephra deposits in between reflecting overall fairly constant magma transfer rates periodically fractionating to highly evolved rhyolite in larger magma reservoirs. Many of the ca. 10 widespread ignimbrite sheets, nearly all newly recognized, commonly followed on the heels of rhyolitic fallout sheets. They are more mafic than the underlying fallout deposits, magma mixing being common. Widespread spectacular agglutinates represent a late phase of the youngest large-volume fallout/ignimbrite eruption at ca. 30 ka. Active Süphan stratovolcano (4158 m asl), some 50 km NE of Nemrut and bordering Lake Van to the north, is dominated in contrast by subduction-related chemistry and mineralogy, smaller-volume eruptions and more advanced crystallization of magmas prior to eruption. Chief phenocrysts comprise complex disequilibrium assemblages of clinopyroxene, hypersthene, olivine, strongly zoned plagioclase, biotite and/or amphibole and common clots of fractionating phases. Many of the highly viscous and crystal-laden Süphan magmas were emplaced as domes and debris avalanches next to fallout sheets and ignimbrites. The dominant NE direction of fan axes of partial isopach maps of ca. 15 major fallout deposits reflecting prevailing wind directions for more than half a million years suggest that well-dated tephra markers of alkaline/peralkaline Nemrut, and sofar less well-dated "calcalkaline" Süphan and Ararat volcanoes represent a major tephrostratigraphic framework that should provide for excellent tephra markers in neighboring countries (e.g. Iran, Armenia, Aserbeidschan) and the Caspian Sea.

Schmincke, H.-U.; Sumita, M.; Paleovan scientific Team

2012-04-01

86

Petrogenesis of basalt–trachyte lavas from Olmoti Crater, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olmoti Crater is part of the Plio-Pleistocene Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH) in northern Tanzania to the south of Gregory Rift. The Gregory Rift is part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) that stretches some 4000km from the Read Sea and Gulf of Aden in the north to the Zambezi River in Mozambique. Here, we (1)

Godwin F. Mollel; Carl C. Swisher III; Lindsay J. McHenry; Mark D. Feigenson; Michael J. Carr

2009-01-01

87

Soil genesis on trachytic and leucititic lavas of Cimini volcanic complex (Latium, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three distinct soils which are developing on volcanic effusive rocks of Mt. Fogliano, San Martino and Mt. Cimino, and form part of the Cimini volcanic complex, north of Rome, were analysed and their physico-chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characteristics are reported. These soils are believed to have developed in a fairly recent time, beginning around 20,000 years ago, under similar climatic

P. Lorenzoni; A. Mirabella; D. Bidini; L. Lulli

1995-01-01

88

The viscosity of trachytes, and comparison with basalts, phonolites, and rhyolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viscosity of natural liquids representative of the glassy portion of pumice collected from the deposits of the Campanian Ignimbrite (IGC) and Monte Nuovo (MNV) eruption of Phlegrean Fields has been measured in the temperature range from 1770 K down to the glass transition, and for a dissolved water content range from dry to nearly 4 wt.%. Measurements were performed

D. Giordano; C. Romano; P. Papale; D. B. Dingwell

2004-01-01

89

Relationships between pre-eruptive conditions and eruptive styles of phonolite-trachyte magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phonolitic eruptions can erupt either effusively or explosively, and in some cases develop highly energetic events such as caldera-forming eruptions. However, the mechanisms that control the eruptive behaviour of such compositions are not well understood. By combining pre-eruptive data of well studied phonolitic eruptions we show that the explosive-effusive style of the phonolitic magma is controlled by the amount of volatiles, the degree of water-undersaturation and the depth of magma storage, the explosive character generally increasing with pressure depth and water contents. However, external factors, such as ingestion of external water, or latter processes occurring in the conduit, can modify the starting eruptive dynamic acquired at the levels of magma ponding.

Andújar, Joan; Scaillet, Bruno

2012-11-01

90

Petrogenesis of rhyolite-trachyte-basalt composite ignimbrite P1, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 14 Ma caldera-forming composite ignimbrite P1 on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) represents the first voluminous eruption of highly differentiated magmas on top of the basaltic Miocene shield volcano. Compositional zonation of the ignimbrite is the result of vertically changing proportions of four component magmas, which were intensely mixed during eruption. Abundant pyroxenitic to gabbroid cumulates in P1 support crystal

Armin Freundt; Hans-Ulrich Schmincke

1995-01-01

91

Geochemistry of phonolites and trachytes from the summit region of Mt. Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two suites of felsic eruptives and intrusives are represented in a set of samples from the summit region of the Plio-Pleistocene\\u000a volcano, Mt. Kenya. Most of the samples are moderately or strongly undersaturated and have 87Sr\\/86Sr initial ratios in the range 0.70360–0.70368 (mean=0.70362). Members of this phonolitic suite are phonolites, nepheline\\u000a syenites or kenytes and as a group they show

R. C. Price; R. W. Johnson; C. M. Gray; F. A. Frey

1985-01-01

92

Rise and fall of a basalt-trachyte-rhyolite magma system at the Kane Springs Wash Caldera, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magmas erupted at the Kane Springs Wash volcanic center record the buildup and decay of a silicic magma chamber within the upper crust between 14.1 and 13.2 Ma ago. Intrusion of a variety of mantle-derived basaltic magmas into the crust sustained the system thermally, but only alkali basalts appear to be parental. Fractionation of alkali basalt, together with 10–20% contamination

Steven W. Novak; Gail A. Mahood

1986-01-01

93

Geochronology of Mount Morning, Antarctica: two-phase evolution of a long-lived trachyte-basanite-phonolite eruptive center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mount Morning is a Cenozoic, alkaline eruptive center in the south-west Ross Sea, Antarctica. New ages on 17 Mount Morning\\u000a volcanic rocks (combined with 34 existing ages) allows division of Mount Morning volcanism into two phases, erupted between\\u000a at least 18.7 Ma and 11.4 Ma, and 6.13 and 0.02 Ma. The position of Mount Morning on the active West Antarctic Rift System\\u000a within

Adam P. Martin; Alan F. Cooper; W. James Dunlap

2010-01-01

94

Volcán Las Navajas, a Pliocene-Pleistocene trachyte\\/peralkaline rhyolite volcano in the northwestern Mexican volcanic belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcán Las Navajas, a Pliocene-Pleistocene volcano located in the northwestern portion of the Mexican volcanic belt, erupted lavas ranging in composition from alkali basalt through peralkaline rhyolite, and is the only volcano in mainland Mexico known to have erupted pantellerites. Las Navajas is located near the northwestern end of the Tepic-Zacoalco rift and covers a 200-m-thick pile of alkaline basaltic

Stephen A Nelson; Joann Hegre

1990-01-01

95

The distribution of Sr and Ba between the alkali feldspar, plagioclase and groundmass phases of porphyritic trachytes and phonolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data for the distribution of Sr and Ba between the feldspar phenocrysts and groundmasses of porphyritic volcanic rocks are given. It is assumed that the composition of the bulk rock represents an original liquid composition and the composition of the groundmass represents that of a residual liquid. Distribution ratios of the type, element in feldspar\\/element in original liquid, have been

C. M. B. Henderson

1969-01-01

96

LA-UR 93-2587 Eruptive Mechanisms of the NYT (7/25/2001) 1  

E-print Network

that this mainly trachytic deposit, composed of two members, was erupted by (1) a central vent, mostly compositions vary from alkali trachyte through trachyte to latite, which does not fit a simple inversion

97

The central Kenya peralkaline province: Insights into the evolution of peralkaline salic magmas  

E-print Network

province comprises five young (trachytes and rhyolites of peralkalinity in salic magmas are highlighted. The peralkaline trachytes may have formed by fractionation of basaltic magma via metaluminous trachyte and in turn generated pantellerite by the same mechanism

Boyer, Edmond

98

Weaver, P.P.E., Schmincke, H.-U., Firth, J.V., and Duffield, W. (Eds.), 1998 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 157  

E-print Network

change from basaltic to felsic volcanism marked by the rhyolite-trachyte-basalt mixed ignimbrite cooling with oligoclase and aug- ite microphenocrysts, and variably vesicular vitric particles of rhyolitic or trachytic to trachytic Mogán Group

99

Melt segregation by localized shear deformation and fracturing during crystallization of magma in shallow intrusions of the Otoge  

E-print Network

in the Miocene Otoge volcanic complex in central Japan have thin trachyte veins, which exhibit systematic the trachyte veins and surrounding basalt shows that the trachytic melt ®lling the veins was formed by in situ liquid of trachyte composition formed when about two- thirds of the parent basaltic magma

Geshi, Nobuo

100

Lithostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and radiometric dating of the Stanislaus Group, CA, and age of the Little Walker Caldera  

E-print Network

counties, CA), composed of intercalated latite and quartz-latite (trachyandesite and trachyte-latite (trachytes/trachydacites) ignimbrites that erupted from the vicinity of Sonora Pass, CA. These volcanic rocks

Busby, Cathy

101

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 53 (1992) 329-354 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam  

E-print Network

deposits, one is an ash and pumice fallout and another is a surge bed. The tephra have a trachytic (historical) trachytic dome and tuff ring complexes of the island of Ischia, Italy. Correspondence to: G. Orsi

102

GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 62, NO. 5 (SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 1997); P. 14191431, 15 FIGS. Inversion of geophysical data over a copper  

E-print Network

into a volcanic host. Dykes extend out from the stock and cut through the porous trachytic units in the host primarily in the region near the boundaries of the stock and in and around the porous trachytic units

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

103

Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (2003) 3: 615623 European Geosciences Union 2003 Natural Hazards  

E-print Network

that includes three active trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas) em- placed. The easternmost part of the island comprises an inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoac¸~ao) and an old

Boyer, Edmond

104

Des volcans et des hommes depuis le dernier interglaciaire en Basse Auvergne (Massif Central, France)  

E-print Network

, Dômes, Trachyandésite, Trachyte, Tephra, Minéralogie, Pollens, Préhistoire. Abstract : The impact, Chaîne des Puys, Limagne, Volcanism, Maars, Domes, Trachyandesite, Trachyte, Tephra, Mineralogy, Pollen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

The Solitario is a large, combination lac-colith and caldera (herein termed "lacco-  

E-print Network

as abun- dant rhyolitic to trachytic sills and small lacco- liths and extruded as lavas and tuffs during-flow and debris-avalanche de- posits, megabreccia, trachyte lava, and minor ash-flow tuff subsequently filled

Tingley, Joseph V.

106

Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (2002) 2: 5156 c European Geophysical Society 2002 Natural Hazards  

E-print Network

. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoac¸~ao) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste) comprise, with active trachytic stratovolcanoes lo- cated at the intersection of the main faults' systems, whereas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

The volcanic record of the upper 600 m of the ANDRILL AND-1 drill cores: Evidence of ice-free conditions and local volcanic activity over the  

E-print Network

of phonotephrite, trachyte and phonolite are also present in the core. In contrast, some volcanic-rich horizons are heterogeneous and contain glass shards ranging from basanite to trachyte and phonolite suggesting that reworking

Dunbar, Nelia W.

108

Weaver, P.P.E., Schmincke, H.-U., Firth, J.V., and Duffield, W. (Eds.), 1998 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 157  

E-print Network

and Mari Sumita2 ABSTRACT Sixty-eight fallout trachytic to phonolitic ash layers recovered from Sites 953 samples changes from trachytic to phonolitic in the time interval between 2 and 0.4 Ma. The concentration

109

Application of in situ zircon geochronology and accessory phase chemistry to constraining basin development  

E-print Network

of a mantle component in the source of the magmas and a trachytic affiliation. The 295­300 Ma volcanic episode Belt which suggests it was triggered by orogen-wide processes. Contemporaneous eruption of trachytic

Demouchy, Sylvie

110

Li lower crustal component:1 evidence from an alkalic intraplate volcanic series  

E-print Network

petrologic range, from alkali basalts to trachytes. The significant variations of trace elements, basalts, trachytes. 2 insu-00420887,version1-22Oct2009 #12;1. Introduction51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, São Miguel, Azores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six volcanic zones comprise São Miguel, the largest island in the Azores. All are Quaternary in age except the last, which is partly Pliocene. From west to east the zones are (1) the trachyte stratovolcano of Sete Cidades, (2) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte, (3) the trachyte stratovolcano of Agua de Pau, (4)

Richard B Moore

1990-01-01

112

Estimation of pre-eruptive magmatic water fugacity in the Phlegrean Fields, Naples, Italy  

E-print Network

Camerino, Camerino 62032, Italy Abstract We estimated the water fugacity (f H2O) in the trachytic magma experiments were carried out on a representative sample of trachytic Breccia Museo eruption, Naples, Italy experiments, geohygrometer, trachytic magmas, water fugacity. Introduction The magmatic system of Phlegrean

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Influence of composition and thermal history of volcanic glasses on water content as determined by  

E-print Network

and (Fe3+ )IV in calcalkaline (rhyolite to basaltic andesite) and alkaline (trachyte, phonolite to alkali to an external standard is only faintly composition-dependent for Si-rich alkaline glasses (trachytes for water analysis. Repeated cycles of thermal annealing induce microcrystallization of hydrous trachyte

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Leucocratic and Gabbroic Xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano, Hawai`i  

E-print Network

appear to represent melt compositions falling along a liquid line of descent leading to trachyte--a magma between the xenoliths and the trachyte, suggests that the shift from shield to post-shield magmatism crystallization was apparently both extreme--culminating in >5.5 km3 of trachyte--and rapid, at !2.75 · 106 m3

Hammer, Julia Eve

115

Environmental Catastrophes and Recoveries in the Holocene August 29 -September 2, 2002  

E-print Network

phase of trachy-andesitic activity was followed by several trachytic volcanic eruptions. Between by centimetric angular fragments of trachyte noticed in several sections studied to the North-east, East and South of Clermont- Ferrand, resulted from the explosion of a trachytic dome affecting a Sauveterrian

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Eur. J. Mineral. 2007, 19, 849857  

E-print Network

postdates phase I magmatism. Trachytes from the Northern Upper Rhine Graben (Sprendlinger Horst, Wetterau, whereas Sprendlinger Horst and Wetterau trachytes zircons show minor crustal contamination-words: Rhine Graben, rift zones, syenite, trachyte, zircon, U-Pb Isotopes, oxygen isotopes, ion-probe. 1

117

The Mount Manengouba, a complex volcano of the Cameroon Line:1 Volcanic history, petrological and geochemical features2  

E-print Network

-caldera extrusions,37 displaying a complete series from basanites to trachytes (magmatic Group 1). The second38 magma, and between 42 and 44 km for the Group 2 lavas.42 Trachytes were generated in a secondary crustal reservoir, oxides, feldspar, and44 apatite. Significant crustal assimilation is evidenced in trachytes. The magma

Boyer, Edmond

118

DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY Date 28 April , 1978  

E-print Network

;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;- 268 - Trachyte 25/la 31X crossed Nicols Normally and opaques. 25/la is the freshest trachyte; others have varying amounts of intersti- tial palagonitization in the groundmass. Trachyte 25/la 31X plane-pol. light Glomerophenocryst of plag., amphibole/ biotite opaques

Beaumont, Christopher

119

Integrated tephrochronology of the West Antarctic region-Implications for a potential tephra record in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide Ice Core  

E-print Network

the last 500,000 years . Mt. Takahe, a flat-topped stratovolcano, has produced a number of recent trachytic (discussed below). These explosive eruptions are typically of peralkaline trachytic composition, but distinct. Moulton tephra layers are trachytic, and are thought to be derived from Mt. Berlin, located only 30 km

Dunbar, Nelia W.

120

Frictional properties between fine grained limestone, dolomite and sandstone along precut surfaces  

E-print Network

] 0 ' 48 Quartzite, [W; t;n] 0 ' 67 Dolerite, [W. t. g] 0 ' 64 Dolerite, [W; t;a] 0 ' 95 Dolomite, [HS; t; g] 0 ~ 4 Trachyte, [H; 1; p] 0-63 Trachyte, [H;1;g] 0 ' 68 Trachyte, [H;1 g;w] 0 ' 56 Marble, [H;1;p) 0- 75 Marble, [J t;n] 0 ' 62...

Iwasaki, Takeshi

2012-06-07

121

VULCANISM AND PREHISTORY IN THE MASSIF CENTRAL OF FRANCE : FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL HIGHLANDS.  

E-print Network

phase of trachy-andesitic activity was followed by several trachytic volcanic eruptions. Between by centimetric angular fragments of trachyte noticed in several sections studied to the North-east, East and South of Clermont-Ferrand, resulted from the explosion of a trachytic dome affecting a Sauveterrian camp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

volution volcanologique du mont Manengouba (Ligne du Cameroun) ; nouvelles donnes ptrographiques,  

E-print Network

néphéline à des trachytes. Toutes ces laves ont évolué par cristallisation fractionnée dans une chambre activity. The products define an alkaline sodic series, from nepheline- bearing basalts to trachytes. All and trachytic lavas; the last ones extruded at the top of the building. A large volcano-tectonic sinking

Boyer, Edmond

123

GEOLOGY, August 2007 695Geology, August 2007; v. 35; no. 8; p. 695698; doi: 10.1130/G23495A.1; 2 figures; Data Repository item 2007179. 2007 The Geological Society of America. For permission to copy, contact Copyright Permissions, GSA, or editing@geosoci  

E-print Network

, such as trachytes and rhyolites, are typically volumetrically minor relative to basalts at oceanic volcanoes in deep (~20 km depth) res- ervoirs (Clague, 1987; Frey et al., 1990; Wolfe et al., 1997). Trachytes trachytes erupted at ca. 100 ka from its three rift zones during the apparent beginning of the postshield

Hammer, Julia Eve

124

C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris, paratre -p.1 -La Tephra de la Rue Sous-les-Vignes, marqueur en Limagne du volcanisme  

E-print Network

, a marker in Limagne of the Chaîne des Puys trachytic volcanism Gérard VERNET, Jean-Paul RAYNAL, Dominique-clés : Chaîne des Puys, Limagne, trachyte, Cratère Kilian, Boréal. Abstract : The Rue Sous-les-Vignes or CF5 tephra is the first direct distal evidence of trachyte eruptions in the Chaîne des Puys to be recorded

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

125

Volcans de la Chane des Puys (Massif Central, France) : point sur la chronologie Vasset-Kilian-Pariou-Chopine  

E-print Network

Pariou (faciès "Traversin"), les trachytes à amphibole qui avaient été attribués au Kilian, sont vraisemblablement une forme méconnue des trachytes de la phase acide du Pariou lui-même. L'ordre chronologique des Kilian et du puy Chopine dans une seule entité "trachytes" (téphra éponyme de La Taphanel, [10]) sans

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

The problem of rock assimilation by Somma-Vesuvius magma  

Microsoft Academic Search

New chemical and modal analyses are presented of magmatic rocks and pyroxenes nodules from the Somma-Vesuvius volcano and of trachytes from the surrounding area. Geochemical evidence is employed in checking the generally accepted suggestion that magma composition develops from that of trachyte into phonolitic tephrite and finally into tephritic leucitite (vesuvite) by assimilation of dolomite.

Carlo Savelli

1967-01-01

127

Weaver, P.P.E., Schmincke, H.-U., Firth, J.V., and Duffield, W. (Eds.), 1998 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 157  

E-print Network

between 14.04 ± 0.10 Ma and 13.95 ± 0.02 Ma and was followed by a 0.6-m.y. magmatism of trachytic spectrum of igneous rocks, as well as frequent explosive rhyolitic, trachytic, and phonolitic fallout ashes

128

E-mail addresses: chi@gps.caltech.edu, jgresh@udel.edu, grr@gps.caltech.edu, gulmer@astro.ocis.temple.edu, vicenzi@volcano.si.edu  

E-print Network

rainbow obsidian were studied. The first has layers of numerous trachytically oriented rods (0.2­2 by 10, 12.5 Al2O3, 1.7 FeOTOT, 0.01 MgO, 0.16 CaO, 4.4 Na2O and 4.6 K2O. The second type has trachytically

Ma, Chi

129

A framework for a coarse aggregate classification system  

E-print Network

Diorite Gabbro Medium Microgranite Micro syenite Micro diorite Dolerite Fine Rhyolite Trachyte And esite Basalt Sc Sm Sf Sca Coarse Conglomerate Breccia Gravel Scree Medium Sand stone Sand Fine Shale Mudstone Clay Calcareous...

Peapully, Srikrishna

2012-06-07

130

The influence of constitutive relations on the bending of a multilayer  

E-print Network

the effects of the bending resistance of elastic layers on the growth of intrusives. Savage (1974) further developed the theory of stable folding of elastic layers, and aoplied 'nis model to geologic data obtained from Trachyte Mesa, Henry Mountains, Utah...

George, Larry A

2012-06-07

131

Brittle deformation and cataclasis on the southwest flank of the Llano Uplift, Mason County, Texas  

E-print Network

n&perimentally deformed sandstone (effective confining pressures of 0 to 240 MBa, dry, triaxial compression, 10 per sec strain rate) and likened them to defcrmaticn bands formed in the ~ sandstone along Trachyte Mesa in Utah. Tbe expertly...

Schmittle, John Mark

2012-06-07

132

A study of uranium distribution in an upper Jackson lignite-sandstone ore body, South Texas  

E-print Network

upper Eocene sequence. During the Miocene, volcanic activity produced thick sections of tuffaceous sediments throughout the southwest Gulf Coast province; 500-700 ft. (150-210 m) thicknesses with boulders of rhyolite, trachyte, and trachyandesite were...

Chatham, James Randall

2012-06-07

133

The mineralogy of recent sediments from selected cores along the southeast coast of Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

) Iatite and monzonite dikes (5) Daoite and quartz diorite dikes Tuff d Volcanic Brecoias Zn the southwestern portion of the Humacao District bede of consolidated ash alternate with tuff. Voloanio breooias are also occasionally present. A trachytic...

Trivedi, Harshadrai Popatlal

2012-06-07

134

Tchabal Nganha volcano in Adamawa (Cameroon): petrology of a continental alkaline lava series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mio-Pliocene Tchabal Nganha volcano in the Adamawa Plateau (Cameroon) contains a broad range of rock types from ankaramites to phonolites and trachytes. Tchabal Nganha is located on large N70°E strike-slip faults that have been active since the Cretaceous and delimit the Adamawa Plateau horst. Geological mapping revealed a succession of basaltic-hawaiitic lava flow units, mugearite-benmoreite breccias, phonolite and trachyte

A. Nono; B DERUELLE; D DEMAIFFE; R KAMBOU

1994-01-01

135

The petrology and geochemistry of the Azores Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty lavas from the Azores Islands have been analyzed for 87Sr\\/86Sr ratios, major elements, first transition series metals, and LIL elements. The samples belong to the alkali basalt magma series but range from transitional hy-normative basalts from Terceira to basanitoids from Santa Maria. Differentiated lavas include both typical trachytes and comenditic trachytes and comendites. Major and trace element concentrations define

William M. White; Maria D. M. Tapia; Jean-Guy Schilling

1979-01-01

136

The origin of K-feldspar megacrysts hosted in alkaline potassic rocks from central Italy: a track for low-pressure processes in mafic magmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ Sr-isotope and microchemical studies were used to determine the provenance of K-feldspar megacrysts hosted in mafic alkaline potassic, ultrapotassic rocks and in differentiated rocks from two nearby volcanic apparatus in central Italy.At Monte Cimino volcanic complex, mafic leucite-free ultrapotassic megacryst-bearing rocks of olivine latitic composition are associated with evolved latite and trachyte. Here, latites and trachytes straddle the

Giulia Perini; Frank J. Tepley; Jon P. Davidson; Sandro Conticelli

2003-01-01

137

Paleomagnetism of Paisano Volcano, Texas  

E-print Network

tuff member and an overlying lava member (Pigure 2). The older of these eruptive units is called the Morrow (Parker, 1977). The Morrow Tuff Member consists of yellow agglomeritic tuff interlayered with quartz ash flow trachyte. The ash flow sheets... are cliff formers, and punky; they are light brown when fresh and weather to a reddish brown. The uppermost ash flow sheet is an excellent stratigraphic marker (Parker, 1977). The Morrow Lava is a gray aphyric to porphyritic quartz trachyte which...

Ryan, David

2012-06-07

138

Uranium occurrence in igneous rocks of the central Davis Mountains, west Texas  

E-print Network

, trachyte, quartz syenite, and rhyolite. Changes in uranium abundance were related to specific rock char- acteristics. The uranium abundances of 102 specimens were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Fission-track analysis was used to determine... highly-altered quartz trachyte, and (B) its fission-track distribution; (C) a highly-altered, zoned feldspar, encl (D) its fission-track distribution 70 Photomicrographs of (A) a welded tuff with leached bands, and (B) its fission-track distribution...

Schaftenaar, Wendy Elizabeth

2012-06-07

139

Eruption and emplacement of a basaltic welded ignimbrite during caldera formation on Gran Canaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 14.1?Ma old composite ignimbrite cooling unit P1 (45?km 3) on Gran Canaria comprises a lower mixed rhyolite–trachyte tuff, a central rhyolite–basalt mixed tuff, and a slightly rhyolite-contaminated basaltic tuff at the top. The basaltic tuff is compositionally zoned with (a) an upward change in basalt composition to higher MgO content (4.3–5.2 wt.%), (b) variably admixed rhyolite or trachyte (commonly

Armin Freundt; Hans-Ulrich Schmincke

1995-01-01

140

Oligocene volcanism and multiple caldera formation in the Chinati Mountains, Presidio County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Chinati Mountains caldera, which lies in Trans-Pecos Texas in the southern Basin and Range Province, was formed by eruption of the Mitchell Mesa Rhyolite. Volcanism in the Chinati Mountains area began several million years before formation of the Chinati Mountains caldera. Rocks of the Morita Ranch Formation, Infiernito caldera, and Shely Group ring the caldera on the south, east, and north. After its collapse, the caldera was filled by rhyolitic to trachytic lava flows and an ash-flow tuff of the Chinati Mountains Group. These include, from oldest to youngest, the lower trachyte, middle trachyte, lower rhyolite, upper trachyte, and upper rhyolite (ash-flow tuff). The Chinati Mountains Group was then intruded by the West Chinati Stock, the resurgent dome of the caldera. Three cycles of rhyolitic to trachytic magmatism, all derived from a zoned magma chamber, are represented by (1) Mitchell Mesa Rhyolite to lower and middle trachytes, (2) lower rhyolite to upper trachyte, and (3) upper rhyolite to West Chinati Stock. Dominant caldera collapse followed eruption of the Mitchell Mesa Rhyolite, but collapse is also associated with rhyolitic eruptions in the second and third cycles. The entire sequence erupted between 32 and 33 mya. The Chinati Mountains area is the site of one major, inactive silver mine and numerous prospects for silver, lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, uranium, and fluorite. The Shafter silver district produced 31 million ounces of silver from Permian dolomitic limestones just south of the southern boundary of the caldera. Major prospects are associated with a quartz-monzonite porphyry intrusion (copper-molybdenum) just west of Shafter and with the West Chinati Stock (silver, lead, zinc, copper, and fluorite). All mineralization is probably genetically related to the caldera. 74 references, 15 figures, 3 tables.

Cepeda, J.C.; Henry, C.D.

1983-01-01

141

Disequilibrium crystal-liquid processes at Hamblin-Cleopatra volcano, Lake Mead area, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 60 km3 Hamblin-Cleopatra stratovolcano produced shoshonite, latite, and trachyte lavas throughout its Miocene eruptive history. Low-silica rhyolite and silica-undersaturated hawaiite erupted before and after lavas of the Hamblin-Cleopatra volcano. Shoshonite, latite, and trachyte resulted from contamination of felsic (trachyte to low-silica rhyolite) anatectic liquids with crystals from hawaiite. Most of the entrained crystals were not in equilibrium with liquid represented by groundmass, but were mingled with liquid shortly before eruption. Crystal aggregates are common inclusions in the lavas, and are sources of the contaminating minerals. The resulting bulk compositions of these porphyritic lavas form a continuum that resembles a liquid line of descent, as dictated by mass balance.

Barker, Daniel S.; Thompson, Keith G.; Smith, Eugene I.; McDowell, Fred W.

2012-09-01

142

Petrogenesis of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the NW sector of the Gharyan volcanic field, Libya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The north-western sector of the Gharyan volcanic field (northern Libya) consists of trachytic-phonolitic domes emplaced between ~ 41 and 38 Ma, and small-volume mafic alkaline volcanic centres (basanites, tephrites, alkali basalts, hawaiites and rare benmoreites) of Middle Miocene-Pliocene age (~ 12-2 Ma). Two types of trachytes and phonolites have been recognized on the basis of petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry. Type-1 trachytes and phonolites display a smooth spoon-shaped REE pattern without negative Europium anomalies. Type-2 trachytes and phonolites show a remarkable Eu negative anomaly, higher concentration in HFSE (Nbsbnd Tasbnd Zrsbnd Hf), REE and Ti than Type-1 rocks. The origin of Type-1 trachytes and phonolites is compatible with removal of clinopyroxene, plagioclase, alkali feldspar, amphibole, magnetite and titanite starting from benmoreitic magmas, found in the same outcrops. Type-2 trachytes and phonolites could be the result of extensive fractional crystallization starting from mafic alkaline magma, without removal of titanite. In primitive mantle-normalized diagrams, the mafic rocks (Mg# = 62-68, Cr up to 514 ppm, Ni up to 425 ppm) show peaks at Nb and Ta and troughs at K. These characteristics, coupled with low 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.7033-0.7038) and positive ?Nd (from + 4.2 to + 5.3) features typical of the mafic anorogenic magmas of the northern African plate and of HIMU-OIB-like magma in general. The origin of the mafic rocks is compatible from a derivation from low degree partial melting (3-9%) shallow mantle sources in the spinel/garnet facies, placed just below the rigid plate in the uppermost low-velocity zone. The origin of the igneous activity is considered linked to passive lithospheric thinning related to the development of continental rifts like those of Sicily Channel (e.g., Pantelleria and Linosa) and Sardinia (e.g., Campidano Graben) in the Central-Western Mediterranean Sea.

Lustrino, Michele; Cucciniello, Ciro; Melluso, Leone; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; dè Gennaro, Roberto; Serracino, Marcello

2012-12-01

143

The geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Tertiary igneous rocks of the Eagle Mountains, Van Horn, Texas  

E-print Network

Directed by: Dr. T, Tish The four major units of igneous rocks of Eagle Mountains, Texas, are, in order of emplacement? a rhyo- lite, a trachyte, a second rhyolite, and a syenite. This sequence is followed by minor basalt flows. The rocks... from a single alkali- rich magma and that, crystallization of the magma took place in two cycles: one cycle gave rise to the sequence rhyolite-trachyte, the second to rhyolite-syenite. Except for a high content of K and Rb, chemistry of these rocks...

Nelson, Ronald Alan

2012-06-07

144

The dry and hydrous viscosities of alkaline melts from Vesuvius and Phlegrean Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophisticated models of volcanic scenarios are increasingly sensitive to the accuracy of their input parameters and constitutive equations for magma properties. Viscosity is certainly one of the most important magma properties, but only recently systematic investigations on silicate liquids with natural compositions have started. We investigated the Newtonian viscosity of dry and hydrous phonolitic and trachytic melts from Vesuvius and

Claudia Romano; Daniele Giordano; Paolo Papale; Valeria Mincione; Donald B Dingwell; Mauro Rosi

2003-01-01

145

A new felsic cone-sheet swarm in the Central Atlantic Islands: The cone-sheet swarm of Boa Vista (Cape Verde)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Boa Vista is one of the oceanic islands with the largest amount of felsic rocks reported in the world (50% of the total outcropping igneous rocks of Boa Vista). The felsic rocks are trachytes and phonolites generated within the second main stage of the volcanic activity that lasted about four million years.

Ancochea, Eumenio; Huertas, María José; Hernán, Francisco; Brändle, José Luis

2014-03-01

146

Origin of oceanic phonolites by crystal fractionation and the problem of the Daly gap: an example from Rarotonga  

Microsoft Academic Search

Felsic alkalic rocks are a minor component of many ocean island volcanic suites, and include trachyte and phonolite as well as various types of alkaline and peralkaline rhyolite. However, there is considerable debate on the nature of their formation; for example, are they formed by partial melting of anomalous mantle or the final products of fractional crystallization of mafic magmas.

G. Thompson; I. Smith; J. Malpas

2001-01-01

147

Comenditic and pantelleritic ash-flow tuffs from Volcan Las Navajas, Nayarit, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two distinctive ash-flow tuffs occur around the base of Volcan Las Navajas, a Pleistocene trachyte - peralkaline rhyolite center located in the northwestern segment of the Mexican Volcanic belt. The lower ash-flow unit is locally up to 65 m thick, is lithic rich and contains pumice blocks of comenditic rhyolite. The unit is not extensively exposed, and thus its areal

S. A. Nelson; J. A. Hebre

1985-01-01

148

Leg 192 Preliminary Report52 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0  

E-print Network

(wt%) Site 807 (A) Site 807 (C­G) Site 803 Site 289 Picro- basalt Basalt Basaltic andesite Andesite Dacite Rhyolite Trachy- basalt Basaltic trachy- andesite Trachy- andesite Trachyte Trachydacite Basanite Tephrite 1185 (Lower) Site 1186 Site 1187 Picro- basalt Basalt Basaltic andesite Dacite Rhyolite Trachy- basalt

149

Sheet-like emplacement of satellite laccoliths, sills, and bysmaliths of the Henry Mountains, Southern Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small intrusions (<3 km2) on the margins of the Henry Mountains intrusive com- plex of southern Utah are exceptionally well exposed in three dimensions and have a variety of shapes. Our examination of the geometry, structures, and fabric of the Maiden Creek sill, Trachyte Mesa laccolith, and the Black Mesa bysmalith (cylindri- cal intrusion bounded by vertical faults) suggests that

Sven Morgan; Eric Horsman; Basil Tikoff; Michel de Saint-Blanquat; Guillaume Habert

150

Volcans de la chaîne des Puys (Massif central, France) : point sur la chronologie Vasset–Kilian–Pariou–Chopine  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of radiocarbon ages obtained on wood burned by base surges and tephrochronological observations, it has been possible to assess that the Puy Chopine, aged ca 9700 yr is older by a few centuries than both the Vasset and Kilian volcanoes. The last two have nearly the same age, ca 9300–9400 yr. Layers of trachytic tephra, most probably

Didier Miallier; Laurent Michon; Jacques Évin; Thierry Pilleyre; Serge Sanzelle; Gérard Vernet

2004-01-01

151

Sedimentation of tephra by volcanic plumes: I. Theory and its comparison with a study of the Fogo A plinian deposit, Sao Miguel (Azores)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentation of ejecta from volcanic plumes has been studied as a function of distance from the source in the Fogo A plinian deposit, Sao Miguel, Azores. The Fogo A trachytic pumice deposit is reversely graded and can be divided into two parts on the basis of pumice colour, abundance of syenite accessory lithic clasts and distribution. The lower syenite-poor part

M I Bursik; R S J Sparks; J S Gilbert; S N Carey

1992-01-01

152

A Quantitative Study of Five Thousand Years of Volcanism on Sao Miguel, Azores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of the three stratovolcanoes on the island of Sao Miguel is documented by tephrochronology, and during the past 5000 years a total of some 57 volcanic eruptions have taken place, mostly of magnitudes 4-6 on Tsuya's scale. Approximately half were trachytic, and half basaltic. Each stratovolcano has a caldera within which each has had one historic eruption. The

B. Booth; R. Croasdale; G. P. L. Walker

1978-01-01

153

Contrib Mineral Petrol (1995) 119:43-55 ~_?Springer-Verlag 1995 J.E. Mungall. R.F. Martin  

E-print Network

for the origin of ocean-island rhyolites Received: 29 June 1994 / Accepted: 20 October 1994 Abstract Petrogenetic mafic and felsic modes. Rhyolite and trachyte form extensive flows, pumice fall deposits and even oceanic islands presents a petroge- netic puzzle: rhyolite flows account for more than 50% of the total

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

154

The seasonal variation for the discharge and water quality of a stream in volcanic island, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the groundwater resources in a volcanic island is so difficult, because permeable and impermeable layers were formed from lava flows in different times and various lithologies. Jeju island is the largest volcanic island in Korea, and is composed of plateau and shield forming basaltic to trachytic lava flows, numerous tuff rings\\/cones, scoria cones during its long volcanic history

K. Ha; D. Moon

2007-01-01

155

JAMES DALE WEBSTER CURATOR AND PROFESSOR  

E-print Network

, and mineral deposits EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE Ph.D., Arizona State University, 1987 M.S., Colorado School fluid- and saline-liquid saturated phonolitic and trachytic melts at 200 MPa. Chemical Geology, in press. Aiuppa, A., Baker, D.R., Webster, J.D. 2009. Halogens in volcanic systems. Chemical Geology, in press

156

Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, São Miguel, Azores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six volcanic zones comprise São Miguel, the largest island in the Azores. All are Quaternary in age except the last, which is partly Pliocene. From west to east the zones are (1) the trachyte stratovolcano of Sete Cidades, (2) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte, (3) the trachyte stratovolcano of Agua de Pau, (4) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte and tristanite, (5) the trachyte stratovolcano of Furnas, and (6) the Nordeste shield, which includes the Povoação caldera and consists of alkali basalt, tristanite, and trachyte. New radiocarbon and K-Ar ages augment stratigraphic data obtained during recent geologic mapping of the entire island and provide improved data to interpret eruption frequency. Average dormant intervals for the past approximately 3000 years in the areas active during that time are about 400 years for Sete Cidades, 145 for zone 2, 1150 for Agua de Pau, and 370 for Furnas. However, the average dormant interval at Sete Cidades increased from 400 to about 680 years before each of the past two eruptions, and the interval at Furnas decreased from 370 to about 195 years before each of the past four eruptions. Eruptions in zone 4 occurred about once every 1000 years during latest Pleistocene and early Holocene time; none has occurred for about 3000 years. The Povoação caldera truncates part of the Nordeste shield and probably formed during the middle to late Pleistocene. Calderas formed during latest Pleistocene time at the three younger stratovolcanoes in the sequence: outer Agua de Pau (between 46 and 26.5 ka), Sete Cidades (about 22 ka), inner Agua de Pau (15.2 ka), and Furnas (about 12 ka). Normal faults are common, but many are buried by Holocene trachyte pumice. Most faults trend northwest or west-northwest and are related to the Terceira rift, whose most active segment on São Miguel passes through Sete Cidades and zone 2. A major normal fault displaces Nordeste lavas 150 250 m and may mark the location of an ancestral Terceira rift. Recent seismicity (e.g., in the 1980s) generally has been scattered, but some small earthquake swarms have occurred beneath the north-eastern flank of Agua de Pau.

Moore, Richard B.

1990-11-01

157

Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, Sa??o Miguel, Azores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six volcanic zones comprise Sa??o Miguel, the largest island in the Azores. All are Quaternary in age except the last, which is partly Pliocene. From west to east the zones are (1) the trachyte stratovolcano of Sete Cidades, (2) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte, (3) the trachyte stratovolcano of Agua de Pau, (4) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte and tristanite, (5) the trachyte stratovolcano of Furnas, and (6) the Nordeste shield, which includes the Povoac??a??o caldera and consists of alkali basalt, tristanite, and trachyte. New radiocarbon and K-Ar ages augment stratigraphic data obtained during recent geologic mapping of the entire island and provide improved data to interpret eruption frequency. Average dormant intervals for the past approximately 3000 years in the areas active during that time are about 400 years for Sete Cidades, 145 for zone 2, 1150 for Agua de Pau, and 370 for Furnas. However, the average dormant interval at Sete Cidades increased from 400 to about 680 years before each of the past two eruptions, and the interval at Furnas decreased from 370 to about 195 years before each of the past four eruptions. Eruptions in zone 4 occurred about once every 1000 years during latest Pleistocene and early Holocene time; none has occurred for about 3000 years. The Povoac??a??o caldera truncates part of the Nordeste shield and probably formed during the middle to late Pleistocene. Calderas formed during latest Pleistocene time at the three younger stratovolcanoes in the sequence: outer Agua de Pau (between 46 and 26.5 ka), Sete Cidades (about 22 ka), inner Agua de Pau (15.2 ka), and Furnas (about 12 ka). Normal faults are common, but many are buried by Holocene trachyte pumice. Most faults trend northwest or west-northwest and are related to the Terceira rift, whose most active segment on Sa??o Miguel passes through Sete Cidades and zone 2. A major normal fault displaces Nordeste lavas 150-250 m and may mark the location of an ancestral Terceira rift. Recent seismicity (e.g., in the 1980s) generally has been scattered, but some small earthquake swarms have occurred beneath the north-eastern flank of Agua de Pau. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

Moore, R.B.

1990-01-01

158

Crystal fractionation, magma step ascent, and syn-eruptive mingling: the Averno 2 eruption (Phlegraean Fields, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3.7 ka year-old Averno 2 eruption is one of the rare eruptions to have occurred in the northwest sector of the Phlegraean Fields caldera (PFc) over the past 5 ka. We focus here on the fallout deposits of the pyroclastic succession emplaced during this eruption. We present major and trace element data on the bulk pumices, along with major and volatile element data on clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions, in order to assess the conditions of storage, ascent, and eruption of the feeding trachytic magma. Crystal fractionation accounts for the evolution from trachyte to alkali-trachyte magmas; these were intimately mingled (at the micrometer scale) during the climactic phase of the eruption. The Averno 2 alkali trachyte represents one of the most evolved magmas erupted within the Phlegraean Fields area and belongs to the series of differentiated trachytic magmas erupted at different locations 5 ka ago. Melt inclusions record significant variations in H2O (from 0.4 to 5 wt%), S (from 0.01 to 0.06 wt%), Cl (from 0.75 up to 1 wt%), and F (from 0.20 to >0.50 wt%) during both magma crystallization and degassing. Unlike the eruptions occurring in the central part of the PFc, deep-derived input(s) of gas and/or magma are not required to explain the composition of melt inclusions and the mineralogy of Averno 2 pumices. Compositional data on bulk pumices, glassy matrices, and melt inclusions suggest that the Averno 2 eruption mainly resulted from successive extrusions of independent magma batches probably emplaced at depths of 2-4 km along regional fractures bordering the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff caldera.

Fourmentraux, Céline; Métrich, Nicole; Bertagnini, Antonella; Rosi, Mauro

2012-06-01

159

Tectonic controls on the genesis of ignimbrites from the Campanian Volcanic Zone, southern Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Campanian Plain is an 80 x 30 km region of southern Italy, bordered by the Apennine Chain, that has experienced subsidence during the Quaternary. This region, volcanologically active in the last 600 ka, has been identified as the Campanian Volcanic Zone (CVZ). The products of three periods of trachytic ignimbrite volcanism (289-246 ka, 157 ka and 106 ka) have been identified in the Apennine area in the last 300 ka. These deposits probably represent distal ash flow units of ignimbrite eruptions which occurred throughout the CVZ. The resulting deposits are interstratified with marine sediments indicating that periods of repeated volcano-tectonic emergence and subsidence may have occurred in the past. The eruption, defined as the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI), with the largest volume (310 km3), occurred in the CVZ 39 ka ago. The products of the CI eruption consist of two units (unit-1 and unit-2) formed from a single compositionally zoned magma body. Slightly different in composition, three trachytic melts constitute the two units. Unit-1 type A is an acid trachyte, type B is a trachyte and type C of unit-2 is a mafic trachyte. The CI, vented from pre-existing neotectonic faults, formed during the Apennine uplift, Initially the venting of volatile-rich type A magma deposited the products to the N-NE of the CVZ. During the eruption, the Acerra graben already affected by a NE-SW fault system, was transected by E-W faults, forming a cross-graben that extended to the gulf of Naples. E-W faults were then further dislocated by NE-SW transcurrent movements. This additional collapse significantly influenced the deposition of the B-type magma of unit-1, and the C-type magma of unit-2 toward the E-SE and S, in the Bay of Naples. The pumice fall deposit underlying the CI deposits, until now thought to be associated with the CI eruption, is not a strict transition from plinian to CI-forming activity. It is derived instead from an independent source probably located near the Naples area. This initial volcanic activity is assumed to be a precursor to the CI trachytic eruptions, which vented along regional faults.

Rolandi, G.; Bellucci, F.; Heizler, M.T.; Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.

2003-01-01

160

Mid-Tertiary magmatism in western Big Bend National Park, Texas, U.S.A.: Evolution of basaltic source regions and generation of peralkaline rhyolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tertiary magmatism in the Big Bend region of southwestern Texas spanned 47 to 17 Ma and included representatives of all three phases (Early, Main and Late) of the Trans-Pecos magmatic province. Early phase magmatism was manifested in the Alamo Creek Basalt, an alkalic lava series ranging from basalt to benmoreite, and silicic alkalic intrusions of the Christmas Mountains. Main phase magmatism in the late Eocene/early Oligocene produced Bee Mountain Basalt, a lava series ranging from hawaiite and potassic trachybasalt to latite, widespread trachytic lavas of Tule Mountain Trachyte and silicic rocks associated with the Pine Mountain Caldera in the Chisos Mountains. Late main phase magmatism produced trachyte lava and numerous dome complexes of peralkaline Burro Mesa Rhyolite (~ 29 Ma) in western Big Bend National Park. Late stage basaltic magmatism is sparsely represented by a few lavas in the Big Bend Park area, the adjacent Black Gap area and, most notably, in the nearby Bofecillos Mountains, where alkalic basaltic rocks were emplaced as lava and dikes concurrent with active normal faulting. Trace element modeling, Nd isotope ratios and calculated depths of segregation for estimated ancestral basaltic magmas suggest that Alamo Creek basalts (?Ndt ~ 6.15 to 2.33) were derived from depths (~ 120 to 90 km) near the lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary at temperatures of ~ 1600 to1560 °C, whereas primitive Bee Mountain basalts (?Ndt ~ 0.285 to - 1.20) may have been segregated at shallower depths (~ 80 to 50 km) and lower temperatures (~ 1520 to 1430 °C) within the continental lithosphere. Nb/La versus Ba/La plots suggest that all were derived from OIB-modified continental lithosphere. Late stage basaltic rocks from the Bofecillos Mountains may indicate a return to source depths and temperatures similar to those calculated for Alamo Creek Basalt primitive magmas. We suggest that a zone of melting ascended into the continental lithosphere during main-phase activity and then descended as magmatism died out. Variation within Burro Mesa Rhyolite is best explained by fractional crystallization of a mix of alkali feldspar, fayalite and Fe-Ti oxide. Comendite of the Burro Mesa Rhyolite evolved from trachyte as batches in relatively small independent magma systems, as suggested by widespread occurrence of trachytic magma enclaves within Burro Mesa lava and results of fractionation modeling. Trachyte may have been derived by fractional crystallization of intermediate magma similar to that erupted as part of Bee Mountain Basalt. ?Ndt values of trachyte lava (0.745) and two samples of Burro Mesa Rhyolite (- 0.52 and 1.52) are consistent with the above models. In all, ~ 5 wt.% comendite may be produced from 100 parts of parental trachybasalt. Negative Nb anomalies in some Bee Mountain, Tule Mountain Trachyte and Burro Mesa incompatible element plots may have been inherited from lithospheric mantle rather than from a descending plate associated with subduction. Late phase basalts lack such a Nb anomaly, as do all of our Alamo Creek analyses but one. Even if some slab fluids partially metasomatized lithospheric mantle, these igneous rocks are much more typical of continental rifts than continental arcs. We relate Big Bend magmatism to asthenospheric mantle upwelling accompanying foundering of the subducted Farallon slab as the convergence rate between the North American and the Farallon plates decreased beginning about 50 Ma. Upwelling asthenosphere heated the base of the continental lithosphere, producing the Alamo Creek series; magmatism climaxed with main phase magmatism generated within middle continental lithosphere, and then, accompanying regional extension, gradually died out by 18 Ma.

Parker, Don F.; Ren, Minghua; Adams, David T.; Tsai, Heng; Long, Leon E.

2012-07-01

161

Geochemical zoning, mingling, eruptive dynamics and depositional processes — the Campanian Ignimbrite, Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) is a large-volume trachytic tuff erupted at 37 ka from the Campi Flegrei and composed of a fallout deposit overlain by ignimbrite. The ignimbrite was spread over an area of about 30,000 km2 including the Campanian Plain and the Apennine Mountains, with ridges over 1000 m a.s.l. The pumice fragments of the CI range in composition

L. Civetta; G. Orsi; L. Pappalardo; R. V. Fisher; G. Heiken; M. Ort

1997-01-01

162

Geology and Petrology of the Woods Mountains Volcanic Center, southeastern California: Implications for the Genesis of Peralkaline Rhyolite Ash Flow Tuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Woods Mountains Volcanic Center is a middle Miocene silicic caldera complex located at the transition from the northern to the southern Basin and Range provinces of the western United States. It consists of a trachyte-trachydacite-rhyolite-peralkaline rhyolite association of lava flows, domes, plugs, pyroclastic rocks, and epiclastic breccia. Volcanism began at about 16.4 Ma, near the end of a local

Michael McCurry

1988-01-01

163

20. PETROLOGY AND KAr AGE OF VOLCANIC TUFF AND ASH FROM THE WALVIS SEAMOUNT PROVINCE, DSDP SITE 359, LEG 39  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ash-flow tuff of 3.3 meters thickness cored from a seamount at the southwest extremity of the Walvis Ridge (~ 1000 km east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge) has trachytic bulk composition (SiCh 62.5 wt %; total alkalis 12 wt %) and contains abundant alkali feldspar (avg. AmAbsyOns>), clinopyroxene (FsisEn37Wo*j), biotite, and Fe-Ti oxides in a dusty, partly devitrified matrix. Moderately

R. V. Fodor; K. Keil; J. W. Husler; E. H. McKee

164

On the volcanological evolution of Campi Flegrei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Campi Flegrei (Phlegrean Fields) is a Holocene caldera located west of the city of Naples in an area of regional extension [Finetti and Morelli, 1974; Scandone, 1979]. The erupted products range in composition from K basalts to alkali trachyte and phonolite. The complex has been active since at least 47,000 yr B.P. [Capaldi et al., 1985], and it is surrounded by three other quaternary volcanic centers.

Lirer, Lucio; Luongo, Giuseppe; Scandone, Roberto

165

High 18 O igneous rocks from the Tuscan Magmatic Province, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 18O\\/16O ratios were measured for 60 rocks and coexisting minerals from the Plio-Pleistocene, calc-alkaline, Tuscan Magmatic Province, Italy. The d18O values of these magmas were as follows: Elba, Giglio, and Montecristo granodiorites (11.4 to 12.1); M. Cimini rhyolites and trachytes (11.2 to 11.7); Roccastrada, S. Vincenzo, and M. Amiata rhyolites (12.3 to 13.4); and the Tolfa rhyolites and quartz

Hugh P. Taylor; Bruno Turi

1976-01-01

166

The geochemistry of the Dunedin Volcano, East Otago, New Zealand: Rare earth elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of alkaline lavas from the Dunedin Volcano have been analyzed for the rare earth elements (REE) La-Yb. The compositions analyzed were: basalt-hawaiite-mugearite-benmoreite; basanite, nepheline hawaiite, nepheline trachyandesite and nepheline benmoreite; trachyte; phonolite. The series from basalt to mugearite shows continuous enrichment in the REE, consistent with a crystal fractionation model involving removal of olivine and clinopyroxene. From mugearite

R. C. Price; S. R. Taylor

1973-01-01

167

Results of new petrologic and remote sensing studies in the Big Bend region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial section of this manuscript involves the South Rim Formation, a series of 32.2-32 Ma comenditic quartz trachytic-rhyolitic volcanics and associated intrusives, erupted and was emplaced in Big Bend National Park, Texas. Magmatic parameters have only been interpreted for one of the two diverse petrogenetic suites comprising this formation. Here, new mineralogic data for the South Rim Formation rocks

Stevan Christian Benker

2010-01-01

168

The roles of fractional crystallization, magma mixing, crystal mush remobilization and volatile-melt interactions in the genesis of a young basalt-peralkaline rhyolite suite, the greater Olkaria volcanic complex, Kenya Rift valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Greater Olkaria Volcanic Complex is a young (???20 ka) multi-centred lava and dome field dominated by the eruption of peralkaline rhyolites. Basaltic and trachytic magmas have been erupted peripherally to the complex and also form, with mugearites and benmoreites, an extensive suite of magmatic inclusions in the rhyolites. The eruptive rocks commonly represent mixed magmas and the magmatic inclusions are themselves two-, three- or four-component mixes. All rock types may carry xenocrysts of alkali feldspar, and less commonly plagioclase, derived from magma mixing and by remobilization of crystal mushes and/or plutonic rocks. Xenoliths in the range gabbro-syenite are common in the lavas and magmatic inclusions, the more salic varieties sometimes containing silicic glass representing partial melts and ranging in composition from anorthite ?? corundum- to acmite-normative. The peralkaline varieties are broadly similar, in major element terms, to the eruptive peralkaline rhyolites. The basalt-trachyte suite formed by a combination of fractional crystallization, magma mixing and resorption of earlier-formed crystals. Matrix glass in metaluminous trachytes has a peralkaline rhyolitic composition, indicating that the eruptive rhyolites may have formed by fractional crystallization of trachyte. Anomalous trace element enrichments (e.g. ??? 2000 ppm Y in a benmoreite) and negative Ce anomalies may have resulted from various Na- and K-enriched fluids evolving from melts of intermediate composition and either being lost from the system or enriched in other parts of the reservoirs. A small group of nepheline-normative, usually peralkaline, magmatic inclusions was formed by fluid transfer between peralkaline rhyolitic and benmoreitic magmas. The plumbing system of the complex consists of several independent reservoirs and conduits, repeatedly recharged by batches of mafic magma, with ubiquitous magma mixing. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Macdonald, R.; Belkin, H.E.; Fitton, J.G.; Rogers, N.W.; Nejbert, K.; Tindle, A.G.; Marshall, A.S.

2008-01-01

169

Geochemical and isotopic insights into the assembly, evolution and disruption of a magmatic plumbing system before and after a cataclysmic caldera-collapse eruption at Ischia volcano (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New geochemical and isotopic data on volcanic rocks spanning the period ~75-50 ka BP on Ischia volcano, Italy, shed light on the evolution of the magmatic system before and after the catastrophic, caldera-forming Monte Epomeo Green Tuff (MEGT) eruption. Volcanic activity during this period was influenced by a large, composite and differentiating magmatic system, replenished several times with isotopically distinct magmas of deep provenance. Chemical and isotopic variations highlight that the pre-MEGT eruptions were fed by trachytic/phonolitic magmas from an isotopically zoned reservoir that were poorly enriched in radiogenic Sr and became progressively less radiogenic with time. Just prior to the MEGT eruption, the magmatic system was recharged by an isotopically distinct magma, relatively more enriched in radiogenic Sr with respect to the previously erupted magmas. This second magma initially fed several SubPlinian explosive eruptions and later supplied the climactic, phonolitic-to-trachytic MEGT eruption(s). Isotopic data, together with erupted volume estimations obtained for MEGT eruption(s), indicate that >5-10 km3 of this relatively enriched magma had accumulated in the Ischia plumbing system. Geochemical modelling indicates that it accumulated at shallow depths (4-6 km), over a period of ca. 20 ka. After the MEGT eruption, volcanic activity was fed by a new batch of less differentiated (trachyte-latite) magma that was slightly less enriched in radiogenic Sr. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-isotopic variations through time reflect the upward flux of isotopically distinct magma batches, variably contaminated by Hercynian crust at 8-12 km depth. The deep-sourced latitic to trachytic magmas stalled at shallow depths (4-6 km depth), differentiated to phonolite through crystal fractionation and assimilation of a feldspar-rich mush, or ascended directly to the surface and erupted.

Brown, R. J.; Civetta, L.; Arienzo, I.; D'Antonio, M.; Moretti, R.; Orsi, G.; Tomlinson, E. L.; Albert, P. G.; Menzies, M. A.

2014-09-01

170

Tectonic controls on the genesis of ignimbrites from the Campanian Volcanic Zone, southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ¶The Campanian Plain is an 80?×?30?km region of southern Italy, bordered by the Apennine Chain, that has experienced subsidence during the Quaternary. This region, volcanologically active in the last 600?ka, has been identified as the Campanian Volcanic Zone (CVZ). The products of three periods of trachytic ignimbrite volcanism (289–246?ka, 157?ka and 106?ka) have been identified in the Apennine area

G. Rolandi; F. Bellucci; M. T. Heizler; H. E. Belkin; B. De Vivo

2003-01-01

171

Wide dispersal and deposition of distal tephra during the Pleistocene ‘Campanian Ignimbrite\\/Y5’ eruption, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trachytic volcanic ash layer is widely distributed across south-western Russia, where it is found both in well-characterised archaeological contexts close to the Don River (the Paleolithic sites of Kostenki-Borschevo (51.4°N, 39.0°E), and in undisturbed geological contexts. This ash layer has all of the characteristics of a distal tephra fall deposit: it is fine grained and unimodal with a grain

David M. Pyle; Graham D. Ricketts; Vasiliki Margari; Tjeerd H. van Andel; Andrei A. Sinitsyn; Nicolai D. Praslov; Sergei Lisitsyn

2006-01-01

172

Stonewall Mountain Volcanic Center, southern Nevada: Stratigraphic, structural, and facies relations of outflow sheets, near-vent tuffs, and intracaldera units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directly south and southeast of Stonewall Mountain, Nevada, a depression and north facing caldera scarp were formed during and(or) after eruption of the Spearhead Member of the late Miocene Stonewall Flat Tuff. Abundant large lithic and juvenile blocks are present in the Spearhead Member within 0.5 km of this topographic margin but absent elsewhere in the ash-flow sheet, consistent with eruption from vents in the Stonewall Mountain area. Within about 100,000 years, comendite tuff of the overlying Civet Cat Canyon Member of the Stonewall Flat Tuff buried the depression and associated scarp. The Civet Cat Canyon Member is traceable continuously to the north from an outflow sheet capping northwestern Pahute Mesa, into near-vent tuff on the southeastern flank of Stonewall Mountain. Proximal outflow-sheet tuff locally exhibits strong rheomorphic disruption and is overlain without a cooling break by surge, flow, and fall deposits of trachytic composition. Much of Stonewall Mountain is composed of welded tuff and megabreccia interpreted as intracaldera tuff of the Civet Cat Canyon Member, strongly suggesting that the vent area of the member was largely within Stonewall Mountain. Welded tuff of trachytic composition comprises an important part of the intracaldera Civet Cat Canyon Member, which was intruded by dikes and plugs of trachyte and rhyolite. Juvenile inclusions of basalt dispersed in near-vent facies trachyte tuff provide direct evidence for the high-level involvement of basaltic magma in the evolution of the highly potassic Stonewall Mountain center. Complex discordant compaction foliations and the widespread presence of megabreccia within the intracaldera tuff suggest, following Foley (1978), cauldron subsidence by piecemeal collapse during eruption of the Civet Cat Canyon Member. The elevation of intracaldera tuff and intrusions in Stonewall Mountain above the surrounding ashflow sheet suggests a significant amount of magmatic uplift, perhaps involving the emplacement of plugs, dikes, and small stocks within the intracaldera tuff prism.

Weiss, Steven I.; Noble, Donald C.

1989-05-01

173

The volcano-pluton interface; The Longonot (Kenya) and Kûngnât (Greenland) peralkaline complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important step in studying volcanic processes is to consider the coeval processes in the subjacent magma reservoir(s). The trachytic caldera volcano Longonot (Kenya Rift Valley) and the Kûngnât syenite complex (Gardar province, Greenland) are taken to represent complementary magmatic systems, providing evidence of the volcanic and plutonic stages of evolution, respectively. The systems show many features in common; they have similar sizes, experienced two periods of caldera collapse, and were dominated by trachytic magmas, with smaller volumes of basic magma. Magmatic differentiation was dominantly by fractional crystallization of basaltic parents, with minor episodes of magma mixing and, at Kûngnât, some crustal contamination of parental basalts. A model is presented of a single, hypothetical trachytic centre, showing how evidence from one complex can be used to infer processes at the other. For example, an active convective system, with formation of wall and floor syenitic cumulates, can be inferred to exist in the Longonot magma chamber. At Kûngnât, the intermittent development of compositionally zoned caps to the magma chamber is postulated and the nature of syn-caldera eruptive activity is outlined.

Macdonald, R.; Bagi?ski, B.; Upton, B. G. J.

2014-05-01

174

Deccan volcanism in Rajasthan: 40Ar-39Ar geochronology and geochemistry of the Tavidar volcanic suite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tavidar volcanic suite in western Rajasthan, India, comprises a group of lava flows (and subordinate pyroclastic deposits) of highly diverse compositions ranging from basalt through trachyte to rhyolite. We have dated five samples of the Tavidar volcanic rocks by the 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating technique. One trachyte and two rhyolite samples yield very good plateau, isochron and inverse isochron ages of 67-65 Ma, typical of the Deccan Traps large igneous province. A subalkalic basalt and a basaltic trachyandesite yield saddle-shaped argon release spectra and show evidence for excess argon. Importantly, all five samples have very similar Nd-Sr isotopic ratios, and constitute a broadly cogenetic magmatic suite with the rhyolites possibly derived by closed-system fractional crystallization of trachytic magmas. The Tavidar rocks' isotopic data overlap, or are very close to, those of the Mahabaleshwar and Panhala Formation basalts in the Western Ghats type section 700-800 km to the southeast. We therefore infer that the Tavidar rocks, having initial Nd values of +3.2 to +0.7, have incorporated only small amounts of lower continental crust. The Tavidar volcanic suite attests to the great areal extent of the Deccan Traps, and reaffirms the great compositional diversity evident in the northwestern Deccan Traps.

Sen, Archisman; Pande, Kanchan; Hegner, Ernst; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Dayal, A. M.; Sheth, Hetu C.; Mistry, Harish

2012-10-01

175

A basic radial dike swarm of Boa Vista (Cape Verde Archipelago); its significance in the evolution of the island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A basic radial dike swarm unrelated to other basic units of Boa Vista (Cape Verde Archipelago) has been localized and characterized in the central sector of the island. According to new radiometric data three main stages in the evolution of Boa Vista are distinguished: the earlier (the Old Volcanic Complex: 17-16 Ma) is equivalent to the shield building stage of Hawaii and the later (the Recent Volcanics (8-4 Ma) is in some aspects comparable to the post-erosional stage. An important intermediate essentially felsic stage (the Trachytic-Phonolitic Complex: 14.3-12.8 Ma) followed the basaltic shield stage. This felsic stage has equivalents in some other oceanic islands as the Canary Islands, specially Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and La Gomera. The central sector of Boa Vista is also occupied by the Felsic Subvolcanic Complex, a unit consisting of phonolitic breccias, syenites and monzonites that represent the Trachytic-Phonolitic Complex hypabyssal roots. The felsic rocks as a whole constitute half of the total amount of igneous rocks on the island making up Boa Vista, the island with the highest percentage of felsic rocks in the Central Atlantic Ocean. More than 200 dikes of the basic radial swarm intruding the Felsic Subvolcanic Complex have been measured. The intensity of the multiple dike injection is sometimes rather high, roughly a dike every 5 m. The individual dikes have an observable mean length of about 300 m. The composition of these dikes is always foiditic (nephelinites, melilitites, and limburgites), slightly different in composition (more alkaline and richer in incompatible elements) to the other basic units of the island (the Old Volcanic Complex and the Recent Volcanics). The radial dikes converge in an area located NW of the geometrical center of Boa Vista, a zone where the hypothetical center of the Old Volcanic Complex and the Trachytic-Phonolitic Complex edifices must also have been situated. The ages obtained from the dikes (between 14.8 and 11.5 Ma) indicate that the radial injections are contemporary with the phonolites and the trachytes of the Trachytic-Phonolitic Complex and yet are part of the intermediate evolutionary stage of Boa Vista.

Ancochea, Eumenio; Hernán, Francisco; Huertas, María José; Brändle, José Luis

2012-10-01

176

Ages of zircons from pre-, syn- and post-caldera eruption products of the Changbaishan Volcano, indicating rapid magmatic development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium Eruption of Changbaishan Volcano with its eponymous 1000 CE eruption age represents one of the two largest volcanic eruptions on Earth in the past 2000 years. In addition to this major caldera-producing eruption of comendite magma, the Changbaishan Volcano also erupted smaller-scale comendite at ~5 ka and trachyte at ~0.3 ka. Here we report U-Th disequilibrium ages of zircons from pumice and lava of the pre-caldera (~5 ka), syn-caldera (the 1 ka Millennium eruption), and post-caldera (~0.3 ka) events. The zircon isochron ages are 12.4+/-1.5 ka (2?, n=29, MSWD=0.87) for the 5 ka eruption, and 12.2 +/- 1.7 ka (n=16, MSWD=1.0) for the 1 ka eruption which is in agreement within uncertainty with a previously reported isochron age of 10.6+/-1.6 ka (n=11, MSWD=0.61) for a different 1 ka sample (Zou et al., 2010, Lithos). The zircon storage times in the pre-eruptive magma body are thus 7 ka for the pre-caldera eruption and 11 ka for the syn-caldera eruption. Furthermore, identical zircon ages in pre-caldera and syn-caldera rocks suggest that both comenditic eruptions tapped the same magma body. In contrast to the uniform zircon ages for the 5 ka and 1 ka comenditic eruptions, zircon ages for the post-caldera 0.3 ka trachytic eruption define multimodal age populations. The youngest peak for the 0.3 ka eruption is 2.6+/-1.8 ka (n=11, MSWD=0.90), an older peak is 130+/-10 ka (n=13, MSWD=1.7), and the oldest population is ?230 ka (near U-Th equilibrium). The youngest mode represents zircon microphenocrysts (autocrysts) that crystallized in a trachytic magma chamber in the built-up to the 0.3 ka eruption, whereas the 130 ka and ?230 ka zircons are interpreted as antecrysts derived from earlier episodes of magmatism. If this interpretation is correct, the zircon storage time in the eruptible magma body for the 0.3 ka eruption is extremely short at 2.3+/-1.8 ka. The distinct multimodal zircon age distributions for the 0.3 ka eruption of trachytic magma suggests this post-caldera eruption tapped a separate magma chamber, and argues against any significant mixing between comendite and trachyte magma bodies at Changbaishan Volcano.

Zou, H.; Fan, Q.; Zhang, H.; Schmitt, A. K.

2013-12-01

177

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the late Cretaceous potassic-alkaline volcanic rocks from the Amasya Region (northern Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cretaceous Lokman Formation (Alp, 1972) , is a volcano-sedimantary unit that comprises high- to ultra high-K alkaline volcanic rocks in Amasya Region (40°N, 35°E). The volcanic rocks expose as small outcrops and interfingered with pyroclastic and epiclastic rocks, and are classified as leucitite, tephriphonolite (LT), lamprophyres, trachytes and rarely andesites. LT and lamprophyres occur as dikes cutting each other, and rare lava flows. Trachytes are observed as small domes in the field and lots of pebbles and blocks within the clastic deposits derived from the domes. Samples of LT comprise lct+cpx (diopsite)+plg+mag+ap and classified as leucite-basanite mineralogically and tephri-phonolite geochemically. Ar-Ar age dating from leucites show that the leucite-bearing volcanic activity formed 75.6±3.7 Ma. The mineralogic composition of melanokratic lamprophyre dikes are represented by Kfs+cpx+mica+ap+mag. They defined geochemically as phono-tephrite and phonolite. The Ar-Ar plateau ages from the phlogopites from two different outcrops are 76.78 and 77.48 Ma. The main minerals of trachytic rocks are amp + bt + pl + Kfs + spn + ap +opq. They are classified as alkaline trachyandesite, geochemically. Radiometric age data from Kfs minerals reveal that the trachytic volcanism occurred 75.83±0.09 Ma. Except one andesitic sample, lamprophyres and trachytes of the Lokman Formation are the high- and ultra high-K and alkaline rocks. LT and lamprophyres are characterized by relatively high MgO (3.25-7.04 wt.%), K2O (4.34-6.54 wt.%), Na2O (3.42-5.74 wt.%). Total analcimization of leucite minerals let to decreasing its K2O, and increasing the Na2O contents. Therefore, K2O/Na2O values for LT and the lamprophyres (0.92-2.27) are relatively low. Trachytic suite is also high-K and alkaline in nature. On MORB normalized plots, all of the volcanic rocks from Lokman Formation display enrichment of LIL elements significantly relative to HFSE, and depletions of Nb-Ta and Ti elements. Mg# (44.78 - 62.24), FeO (4.74-7.80 wt.%), Nb (6.3-14.4 ppm) and Ni (20-81 ppm) contents of these rocks imply that these rocks were not originated directly from the primitive melts. The geochemical findings suggest a source that is similar with subduction-related magmas. The evaluation of the geological data and combined with the geochemical findings suggest that the high- to ultrahigh-K alkaline volcanic rocks of the Lokman formation were generated by the partial melting processes of a heterogeneous magma source that was modified by the subduction of the Neo-Tethys ocean during the late Cretaceous period.

Gülmez, Fatma; Genç, Can; Tüysüz, Okan; Karac?k, Zekiye; Roden, Mike; Billor, Zeki; Hames, Willis

2013-04-01

178

Glass and mineral analyses from first deposits of Peach Spring Supereruption (SW USA) illuminate initial tapping of a zoned magma chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peach Spring supereruption (18.78±0.02 Ma) was sourced from Silver Creek caldera in the southern Black Mountains, Arizona (Ferguson et al. in press). The resulting ignimbrite, the Peach Spring Tuff (PST), blanketed >32,000 km2 of Arizona, California, and Nevada (Buesch, 1993). Underlying the ignimbrite is a thin (? 1m thick) basal layered deposit that consists of texturally distinct layers 1a-e (Valentine et al. 1989) and is present up to ~100 km from the source caldera. Basal layered deposits contain the first material erupted during the PST supereruption, preceding the main eruption event. Petrography and geochemistry of minerals and pumice clasts from basal layered deposits collected ~15-100 km from the caldera, combined with a survey of glass and crystal compositions from both outflow and basal deposits, permit (1) comparisons with the overlying ignimbrite, and (2) insights into the initial stages of the supereruption and extraction of magma from the chamber. Pumice clasts from a pumice-rich layer (1a2) of the basal deposit were characterized by LA-ICPMS and SEM. Unaltered glass has a uniform high-Si rhyolite composition (76.7% SiO2, 13.0% Al2O3, 3.6% Na2O, 5.3% K2O, 0.6% FeO, <0.1% MgO, 0.6% CaO, 0.1% TiO2). Mildly altered glass is similar but has lower Na2O and higher K2O. Pumice clasts are relatively crystal poor (<10% phenocrysts) with an assemblage dominated by sanidine (~Or55Ab43An2), with lesser plagioclase (~Ab73An19Or8), minor hornblende and biotite, and accessory magnetite, sphene, zircon, chevkinite, and apatite; no quartz was identified. Initial LA-ICPMS results for glass reveal REE patterns with large negative Gd (0.21: i.e. U-shaped REE pattern) and Eu (0.31) anomalies, very low Ba and Sr (?10 ppm), and high Rb (~250 ppm). These compositions are essentially identical to those of the most common pumice from distal outflow ignimbrite, but very different from crystal-rich (>30%) trachyte pumice that dominates the intracaldera fill and is present at the tops of proximal outflow sections (Pamukcu et al. in press). A broader survey by EMP of minerals and glass shards from basal layered deposits and outflow ignimbrite (Buesch, 1993 and unpublished data, 1992) support the general conclusion that distal outflow is dominated by high-Si rhyolite, but demonstrate that trachyte is present throughout ignimbrite and basal deposits. Although SiO2 concentration is dominantly ~76-78 wt%, a small but persistent population ranges from ~66-72 wt%. Likewise, 6% (in layer 1a2) to 40% of all plagioclase in basal and outflow deposit samples is relatively calcic (An>27), indicating trachyte origin. The above data (1) confirm the existence of two compositions of erupted magma (phenocryst-poor, high-Si rhyolite, crystal-rich trachyte); (2) demonstrate that the initial eruption (basal layer) tapped the same magmas as the ignimbrite; and (3) reveal that, although rhyolite dominates outside the caldera, trachyte like that in intracaldera deposits was also tapped throughout the eruption. These relations are consistent with eruption from a vertically stratified magma chamber with trachyte (cumulate?) beneath rhyolite, but indicate that either chamber stratification was imperfectly developed or some magma from deeper levels was entrained throughout the eruption.

Mccracken, R. G.; Miller, C. F.; Buesch, D.; Gualda, G. A.; Covey, A.

2012-12-01

179

Volcanic history and 40Ar/ 39Ar and 14C geochronology of Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven new 40Ar/ 39Ar and 23 new radiocarbon ages of eruptive units, in support of new geologic mapping, improve the known chronology of Middle to Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanic activity on the island of Terceira, Azores and define an east-to-west progression in stratovolcano growth. The argon ages indicate that Cinco Picos Volcano, the oldest on Terceira, completed its main subaerial cone building activity by about 370-380 ka. Collapse of the upper part of the stratovolcanic edifice to form a 7 × 9 km caldera occurred some time after 370 ka. Postcaldera eruptions of basalt from cinder cones on and near the caldera floor and trachytic pyroclastic flow and pumice fall deposits from younger volcanoes west of Cinco Picos have refilled much of the caldera. The southern portion of Guilherme Moniz Volcano, in the central part of the island, began erupting prior to 270 ka and produced trachyte domes, flows, and minor pyroclastic deposits until at least 111 ka. The northern part of Guilherme Moniz Caldera is less well exposed than the southern part, but reflects a similar age range. The northwest portion of the caldera was formed sometime after 44 ka. Several well-studied ignimbrites that blanket much of the island likely erupted from Guilherme Moniz Volcano. The Pico Alto Volcanic Center, a tightly spaced cluster of trachyte domes and short flows, is a younger part of Guilherme Moniz Volcano. Stratigraphic studies and our new radiocarbon ages suggest that most of the Pico Alto eruptions occurred during the period from about 9000 to 1000 years BP. Santa Barbara Volcano is the youngest stratovolcano on Terceira, began erupting prior to 29 ka, and has been active historically.

Calvert, Andrew T.; Moore, Richard B.; McGeehin, John P.; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio M.

2006-08-01

180

Volcanic history and 40Ar/39Ar and 14C geochronology of Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven new 40Ar/39Ar and 23 new radiocarbon ages of eruptive units, in support of new geologic mapping, improve the known chronology of Middle to Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanic activity on the island of Terceira, Azores and define an east-to-west progression in stratovolcano growth. The argon ages indicate that Cinco Picos Volcano, the oldest on Terceira, completed its main subaerial cone building activity by about 370-380??ka. Collapse of the upper part of the stratovolcanic edifice to form a 7 ?? 9??km caldera occurred some time after 370??ka. Postcaldera eruptions of basalt from cinder cones on and near the caldera floor and trachytic pyroclastic flow and pumice fall deposits from younger volcanoes west of Cinco Picos have refilled much of the caldera. The southern portion of Guilherme Moniz Volcano, in the central part of the island, began erupting prior to 270??ka and produced trachyte domes, flows, and minor pyroclastic deposits until at least 111??ka. The northern part of Guilherme Moniz Caldera is less well exposed than the southern part, but reflects a similar age range. The northwest portion of the caldera was formed sometime after 44??ka. Several well-studied ignimbrites that blanket much of the island likely erupted from Guilherme Moniz Volcano. The Pico Alto Volcanic Center, a tightly spaced cluster of trachyte domes and short flows, is a younger part of Guilherme Moniz Volcano. Stratigraphic studies and our new radiocarbon ages suggest that most of the Pico Alto eruptions occurred during the period from about 9000 to 1000??years BP. Santa Barbara Volcano is the youngest stratovolcano on Terceira, began erupting prior to 29??ka, and has been active historically. ?? 2006.

Calvert, A.T.; Moore, R.B.; McGeehin, J.P.; Rodrigues da Silva, A.M.

2006-01-01

181

The emplacement history of a remarkable heterogeneous, chemically zoned, rheomorphic and locally lava-like ignimbrite: 'TL' on Gran Canaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ignimbrite 'TL' on Gran Canaria is a complex, compositionally zoned rheomorphic tuff, that locally exhibits features previously considered to be diagnostic of lavas. It is made up of two locally overlapping lobes of ignimbrite that were emplaced during a single eruptive episode. The eastern lobe is high-grade, with rheomorphic zones and localised patches that are lava-like. The western lobe is extremely high-grade, more extensively lava-like, and welded to its top surface. Both parts are zoned, with a basal comendite-rich zone grading up, through a mixed zone, into an upper trachyte-rich zone. Lithic contents, and the relative proportions of comendite and trachyte pyroclasts vary with height. Each comendite-rich zone is vitroclastic, whereas each trachyte-rich zone is partly lava-like with local gradations into vitroclastic ignimbrite. Mixed zones are intermediate in character, and locally show compositional banding. Gradational zoning in massive ignimbrite, best seen in lower strain zones, and welding fabrics that are pervasively lineated and oblique to bedding, suggest that deposition was sustained, agglutination was rapid, and rheomorphic deformation began during the sustained deposition. The viscosity and porosity of the agglutinate varied with height because successively deposited pyroclast populations varied in grainsize, composition and temperature. The hot agglutinate continued to compact and shear downslope after the density currents had dissipated, causing further rheomorphic folding, thrusting, attenuation and autobrecciation. The western lobe locally overlies the partly welded top of the eastern lobe, in part because it advanced rheomorphically across it for at least 300 m. Hot-state loading and auto-intrusion occurred due to unstable density layering in the chemically zoned agglutinate. Deformation behaviour changed during cooling and degassing, and because of heat transfer between juxtaposed agglutinates, and localised retention of dissolved volatiles where there was an overlying impermeable cap.

Sumner, Janet M.; Branney, Michael J.

2002-06-01

182

Volatiles in pantellerite magmas: A case study of the Green Tuff Plinian eruption (Island of Pantelleria, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Tuff (GT) Plinian eruption, the largest in magnitude at Pantelleria, erupted 3 to 7 km3 DRE of pantellerite magma and a small volume of trachyte. Fifty-nine anorthoclase-hosted melt inclusions from the two basal pumice members were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy in order to assess the pre-eruptive H2O content in the pantellerite melt. Microanalytical methods were used to determine major element, Cl, F and S contents. Melt inclusions and glassy groundmasses have a nearly homogeneous pantelleritic composition (peralkaline index = 1.9-2.2) and variable water contents ranging from 1.4 to as high as 4.2 wt %, i.e. much higher than the 1.4 wt % of earlier published studies. The chlorine content is constant at about 1 wt %. Combined Cl and H2O data were used to estimate a confining pressure of about 50 MPa (depth around 2-3 km) for the GT magma chamber. The chamber was characterized by a compositional zoning with a dominant pantellerite overlying a trachyte magma. Soon after the GT eruption, intra-caldera volcanism was dominated by the eruption of voluminous trachyte lava flows, while pantellerite melt production resumed after about 20 ka with numerous low-volume, mildly explosive (Strombolian) to effusive eruptions. Comparison with data from the literature reveals that, despite the different explosivity, the post-caldera Strombolian eruptions and the GT Plinian eruption were fed by pantelleritic magmas with similar water contents. Chlorine and CO2 contents suggest that the young magma reservoirs feeding the Strombolian to effusive activity were deeper (h ? 4.5 km) than the much larger (based on erupted volumes) magma chamber which fed the GT eruption.

Lanzo, Giovanni; Landi, Patrizia; Rotolo, Silvio G.

2013-07-01

183

Chemical zoning and crystallization mechanisms in the magma chamber of the Pomici di Base plinian eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products of the Pomici di Base plinian eruption of Somma-Vesuvius consist of pumice and scoria fall deposits overlain by\\u000a lithic-rich phreatomagmatic deposits. The plinian fall, which represents most of the magma volume involved in the eruption,\\u000a ranges in composition from trachyte (SiO2?=?62.5?wt%) to latite (SiO2???58?wt%) in the lower one-third of the deposit, whereas the upper two-thirds of the total thickness

P. Landi; A. Bertagnini; M. Rosi

1999-01-01

184

Yield strengths of flows on the earth, Mars, and moon. [application of Bingham plastic model to lava flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dimensions of flows on the earth, Mars, and moon and their topographic gradients obtained from remote measurements are used to calculate yield strengths with a view to explore the validity of the Bingham plastic model and determine whether there is a relation between yield strengths and silica contents. Other factors are considered such as the vagaries of natural phenomena that might contribute to erroneous interpretations and measurements. Comparison of yield strengths of Martian and lunar flows with terrestrial flows suggests that the Martian and lunar flows are more akin to terrestrial basalts than they are to terrestrial andesites, trachytes, and rhyolites.

Moore, H. J.; Arthur, D. W. G.; Schaber, G. G.

1978-01-01

185

Large-scale silicic alkalic magmatism associated with the Buckhorn Caldera, Trans-Pecos Texas, USA: comparison with Pantelleria, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three major rhyolite systems in the northeastern Davis and adjacent Barrilla Mountains include lava units that bracketed a large pantelleritic ignimbrite (Gomez Tuff) in rapid eruptions spanning 300,000 years. Extensive silicic lavas formed the shields of the Star Mountain Formation (37.2 Ma-K/Ar; 36.84 Ma 39Ar/40Ar), and the Adobe Canyon Formation (37.1 Ma-K/Ar; 36.51-39Ar/40Ar). The Gomez Tuff (36.6 Ma-K/Ar; 36.74-39Ar/40Ar) blanketed a large region around the 18×24 km diameter Buckhorn caldera, within which it ponded, forming sections up to 500 m thick. Gomez eruption was preceded by pantelleritic rhyolite domes (36.87, 36.91 Ma-39Ar/40Ar), some of which blocked movement of Star Mountain lava flows. Following collapse, the Buckhorn caldera was filled by trachyte lava. Adobe Canyon rhyolite lavas then covered much of the region. Star Mountain Formation (~220 km3) is composed of multiple flows ranging from quartz trachyte to mildly peralkalic rhyolite; three major types form a total of at least six major flows in the northeastern Davis Mountains. Adobe Canyon Formation (~125 km3) contains fewer flows, some up to 180 m thick, of chemically homogenous, mildly peralkalic comendite, extending up to 40 km. Gomez Tuff (~220 km3) may represent the largest known pantellerite. It is typically less than 100 m thick in extra-caldera sections, where it shows a pyroclastic base and top, although interiors are commonly rheomorphic, containing flow banding and ramp structures. Most sections contain one cooling unit; two sections contain a smaller, upper cooling unit. Chemically, the tuff is fairly homogeneous, but is more evolved than early pantelleritic domes. Overall, although Davis Mountains silicic units were generated through open system processes, the pantellerites appear to have evolved by processes dominated by extensive fractional crystallization from parental trachytes similar to that erupted in pre- and post-caldera lavas. Comparison with the Pantelleria volcano suggests that the most likely parental magma for the Buckhorn series is transitional basalt, similar to that erupted in minor, younger Basin and Range volcanism after about 24 Ma. Roughly contemporaneous mafic lavas associated with the Buckhorn caldera appear to have assimilated or mixed with crustal melts, and, generally, may not be regarded as mafic precursors of the Buckhorn silicic rocks, They thus form a false Daly Gap as opposed to the true basalt/trachyte Daly gap of Pantelleria.

Parker, Don F.; White, John C.

2008-01-01

186

Calorimetry and viscometry of hydrous volcanic glasses applied to welding processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been recognized that the crossing of the glass transition has a large affect on syn- and post-eruptive processes (e.g. fragmentation and welding). The glass transition is a kinetic boundary between a liquid-like and solid-like mechanical response to stress and strain. The temperature interval across which it occurs depends on composition, thermal history and the timescale of the processes applied to the material under investigation. Welding of glass-bearing volcanic products occurs above the glass transition, in the region of ductile deformation, as a consequence of a relaxation process that induces deformation of the glass under its own weight. After the process is activated the rate at which it continues is controlled by other properties, such as viscosity, eta. In addition, it has been observed that resorption of water can accelerate welding [Sparks et al. (1999) J Geol Soc, 156: 217-225]. In order to examine the affect that water has upon the glass transition and the rheological properties of different compositions of glass, we have measured the viscosity and heat capacities of trachytic (Campi Flegrei, Italy) and basaltic glasses (Mt. Etna, Italy) containing up to 2.5 and 3.26 wt.% water, respectively. The hydrated samples were synthesised in a piston cylinder apparatus. Viscosity measurements were conducted using concentric cylinder and micropenetration techniques. Heat capacities were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for a range of heating and cooling rates between 5 and 20 K/min, from which specific glass transition temperatures (Tg) were defined. Trachytic and basaltic dry glasses have similar Tg of approximately 700oC. As water content increases Tg decreases irrespective of glass composition and thermal history. The addition of 2.5 wt.% water to the trachytic glasses reduces Tg by between 277 and 294oC, depending on thermal history, while the addition of 3.26 wt.% to the basaltic glasses reduces Tg by between 218 and 239oC. Therefore the Tg of trachytic glass is more sensitive to the addition of water than that of basaltic glass. Viscosity determinations will allow us to quantify the rate at which welding occurs. Other hydrous glass compositions are also currently being investigated.

Giordano, D.; Nichols, A.; Dingwell, D.

2003-04-01

187

Natural carbon nanofibers in graphite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural carbon nanofibers have been found in diamond-bearing carbonatites from the Chagatay trachyte-carbonatite complex (Uzbekistan) and described using a series of methods, including SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The carbon nanofibers occur as tight aggregates within the host graphite, forming natural bulk nano-structural intergrowths. This is the first description of such carbon nanofibers either in nature or in the laboratory. The data from this study suggest a new possible means of diamond formation. These carbon intergrowths could potentially be used as a model for the fabrication of new types of carbon nanostructural material.

Shumilova, Tatyana Grygoryevna; Isaenko, Sergey Ivanovich; Divaev, Farid Karibovich; Akai, Junji

2012-03-01

188

Stable isotope analyses of the peralkaline volcanics Gregory Rift Valley, Kenya  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delta O-18 analyses of the Naivasha rhyolites, basalts, Menengai trachytes and the Yatta phonolite are presented together with D/H analyses of the Naivasha rhyolites. Delta O-18 results vary from 5.7 to 8.9 per mill which is within the reported range of delta O-18 analyses for continental volcanics. Closure temperatures calulated from the basalts and rhyolites show equilibration to be at magmatic temperatures. D/H values range from -40 to -148 per mill indicating that the rhyolites have undergone large scale degasssing.

Black, S.; Macdonald, R.; Fallick, A. E.; Kelly, M.

1993-01-01

189

Ignimbrite sequence on Gran Canaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Miocene sequence of felsic extrusive rocks of about 1000 m total thickness on Gran Canaria is divided into three units:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a a) \\u000a \\u000a A lower unit of trachytic rhyolites (lavas, composite flows, ignimbrites) characterized by a phenocryst assemblage of anorthoclase\\u000a (Or15–20, wt%), clinopyroxene, hypersthene (amphibole substituted for both in ignimbrites), and Fe\\/Ti-oxides. The commonest groundmass\\u000a minerals are anorthoclase and alkali-amphibole, with

H. U. Schmincke

1969-01-01

190

Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of the Pea Ridge Fe-P deposit and related rocks, southeast Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Pea ridge is a discordant Middle Proterozoic Fe-P deposit hosted in rhyolite tuffs and flows of the 1.4--1.5 Ga St. Francois terrane. Host rocks and the deposit are cut by basalt and aplite/pegmatite dikes. The deposit overlies a blind pluton which is partially surrounded by a trachytic ring complex. In the deposit, which is mined for Fe, early Qtz+Amph+Mag+Ap rock is cut by Mag+Ap+Qtz rock. Subsequently, portions of the deposit and host rocks were brecciated, oxidized and silicified to produce a complex suite of rocks enriched in Hem+Qtz+Ksp+Mu. Late breccia pipes/dikes cut the complex and were mineralized with Bar+Ksp+Flu+Chl+Cc+REE-phosphates. Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr isotopic systematics have been studied to: (1) constrain source(s) of igneous rocks and deposit components, (2) refine ages of magmatism, mineralization, and later hydrothermal activity, (3) begin regional comparison of isotopic systematics in SE Missouri Fe deposits, and (4) complement ongoing Missouri DGLS/USGS studies. Fourteen combined Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr analyses were done on materials including two host rhyolites, two nearby trachytes, two gneiss samples representing plausible basement, two intramineral dikes, and six samples of mineralization.

Marikos, M.A.; Barton, M.D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Geosciences)

1993-03-01

191

Clinopyroxene-liquid thermometers and barometers specific to alkaline differentiated magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new thermometers and barometers based on clinopyroxene-liquid equilibria specific to alkaline differentiated magmas. The new models were calibrated through the regression analyses of experimental datasets obtained by merging phase equilibria experiments from the literature with new experiments performed by using trachytic and phonolitic starting compositions. The regression strategy was twofold: (1) we have tested previous thermometric and barometric equations and recalibrated these models using the new datasets; (2) we have calibrated a new thermometer and a new barometer including only regression parameters that closely describe the compositional variability of the datasets. The new models yield more precise estimates than previous thermometers and barometers when used to predict temperatures and pressures of alkaline differentiated magmas. We have tested the reliability of the new equations by using clinopyroxene-liquid pairs from trachytes and phonolites erupted during major explosive eruptions at the Phlegrean Fields and Mt. Vesuvius (central Italy). The test yielded crystallization conditions comparable to those determined by means of melt and fluid inclusion analyses and phase equilibria studies; this validates the use of the proposed models for precise estimates of crystallization temperatures and pressures in differentiated alkaline magmas. Because these magmas feed some of the most voluminous, explosive, and threatening volcanic eruptions in the world, a better understanding of the environmental conditions of their reservoirs is mandatory and this is now possible with the new models provided here.

Masotta, M.; Mollo, S.; Freda, C.; Gaeta, M.; Moore, G.

2013-12-01

192

Stratigraphic implications of early to late Pleistocene tephra layers in the three drill cores from the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three cores (UBGH1-4, UBGH1-9, and UBGH-10) were collected from continental slope to basin plain in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea during UBGH-Expedition-01 in 2007. The objective of UBGH-Ex-01 program is an understanding of the overall gas hydrate occurrence in the Ulleung Basin. Although the penetration depth of three drill cores range from 175 to 205 meter below seafloor, but core recoveries were very poor due to the gas hydrate dissociation and the drilling intervals without coring. Only several tephra layers were distinguished from all three drill cores. These were characterized by rhyolite and trachyte eruptions determined by electron probe microanalysis. The rhyolitic tephras consist of glass shards which were derived from volcanic front of the Japanese arc as co-ignimbrite fallout deposits. The trachytic tephras are composed of pumice and scoria which were derived from deep-water submarine volcanoes in the Korea Plateau, East Sea. However, these tephra layers are important chronologic tool with lack of lithologic, paleontologic, and stable isotopic records in three drill core from the Ulleung Basin. Source volcanoes and eruption ages of these tephras provide based on compositional comparison with age-controlled tephra layers of ODP 798 core from the Oki Ridge. This correlation provides to evaluate reconstruction of tephrostratigraphy for three drill cores in the Ulleung Basin.

Chun, J.; Bahk, J.; Ryu, B.

2010-12-01

193

The VORISA Project: An Integrated Approach to Assessing Volcanic Hazard and Risk in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as 'Harrat'. The largest of these, Harrat Rahat, produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 AD with lava flows travelling within 20 km of the Islamic holy city Al-Madinah. With over 900 visible basaltic and trachytic vents and periodic seismic swarms indicating stalled eruptions, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital. To systematically address this need we developed the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia (VORISA) Project, a 3-year, multi-disciplinary international research collaboration that integrates geological, geophysical, hazard and risk studies. Detailed mapping and geochemical studies are being combined with new and existing age determinations to determine the style and sequence of events during past basaltic and trachytic eruptions. Data from gravity and magnetotelluric surveys are being integrated with microearthquake data from an 8-station borehole seismic research array to geophysically characterise the structure and nature of the crust, and thus constrain possible physical controls on magma propagation. All available data are being synthesised in hazard models to determine patterns in eruption frequency, magnitude, and style of past activity, as well as the probable location and style of a future event. Combined with geospatial vulnerability data, these hazard models, which include a reconstruction of the 1256 AD eruption, enable us to calculate and communicate volcanic risk to the city of Al-Madinah.

Lindsay, J. M.; Moufti, R.

2013-12-01

194

Age and petrology of the Tertiary As Sarat volcanic field, southwestern Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Harrat As Sarat forms the second smallest and southernmost of the basalt fields of western Saudi Arabia and is part of a voluminous Red Sea rift-related continental alkali basalt province. The rocks of the As Sarat were emplaced during the first stage of Red Sea rifting and represent the northernmost extension of the Tertiary Trap Series volcanics that occur mainly in the Yemen Arab Republic and Ethiopia. The field consists of up to 580 m of basalt flows, that are intruded by basaltic plugs, necks, minor dikes, and highly evolved peralkaline trachyte intrusions. K-Ar ages indicate that the As Sarat field formed between 31 and 22 Ma and contains an eruption hiatus of one million years that began about 25 Ma ago. Pre-hiatus flows are primarily hypersthene normative intersertal subalkaline basalt, whereas the majority of post-hiatus flows are nepheline normative alkali basalt and hawaiite with trachytic textures. Normative compositions of the basalts are consistent with their genesis by partial melting at varying depths. Trace element abundances in the basalt indicate that varying degrees of partial melting and fractional crystallization (or crystal accumulation) had major and minor roles, respectively, in development of compositional variation in these rocks. Modeling indicates that the pre-hiatus subalkaline basalts represent 8-10 percent mantle melting at depths of about 70 km and the post-hiatus alkali basalts represent 4-9 percent mantle melting at depths greater than 70 km. ?? 1991.

du Bray, E.A.; Stoeser, D.B.; McKee, E.H.

1991-01-01

195

Occurrence of an unknown Atlantic eruption in the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (Massif Central, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A volcanic ash layer, called MF1, was recently identified in Holocene sediments from the Gourgon and Molhiac peat bogs (Monts du Forez, French Massif Central). This ash layer consists of colorless shards with a heterogeneous trachytic to rhyolitic composition. The trace elements analyzed by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) attest to a local origin. Radiocarbon dating of peat samples taken within and below the ash layer indicates the best age at 6339 ± 61 cal yr BP, i.e. an age contemporaneous with the volcanic activity of Montchal, Montcineyre and Pavin volcanoes from the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field. These volcanoes are characterized by basaltic and trachytic products, thus the rhyolitic composition of MF1 tephra suggests that it is likely originated from an unknown eruption. These results again confirm the interest of studying the distal volcanic ash fallouts in order to establish or specify records of past eruptions of volcanic fields. Identification of this new tephra layer also provides an additional tephrochronological marker for Eastern French Massif Central.

Jouannic, G.; Walter-Simonnet, A. V.; Bossuet, G.; Cubizolle, H.; Boivin, P.; Devidal, J. L.; Oberlin, C.

2014-08-01

196

Th-230 - U-238 series disequilibrium of the Olkaria basalts Gregory Rift Valley, Kenya: Petrogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strong mixing trends on a (Th-230/Th-232) versus Th diagram show that the basalts are mixed magmas which have undergone interaction with the crust. Instantaneous Th/U ratios are less than time integrated ones but these exceed the Th/U ratios in the MORB and OIB sources. This indicates that the mantle may have undergone some metasomatic fluxing, crustal contamination of the basalts will also enhance these ratios. Early activity on the Akira plain is represented by early basalts and hawaiites. The early basalt samples are known to predate the earliest comendites. The most recent phase of activity is represented by another cinder cone 40-50 m high being feldspar and clinopyroxene phyric. Inclusions which occur in the comendites vary in size and distribution. The largest and most porphyritic are the trachytes (up to 40 cm) with alkali feldspar phases up to 6 mm and small pyroxenes in the ground mass. The second set of inclusions are smaller (up to 10 cm) and are largely aphyric. The distribution of the inclusions are not uniform, the Broad Acres (C5) lavas contain 2-5 percent. The size of the inclusions decrease from south to north, as does the abundance of the trachytic inclusions. The major element variations in the Naivasha basalts, hawaiites and magmatic inclusions are discussed.

Black, S.; Macdonald, R.; Kelly, M.

1993-01-01

197

Trace element distribution coefficients in alkaline series. [Titanites; bitite  

SciTech Connect

Mineral/groundmass partition coefficients for U, Th, Zr, Hf, Ta, Rb, REE, Co and Sc have been systematically measured in olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, Ti-magnetites, titanite, zircon and feldspars, in basaltic to trachytic lavas from alkaline series (Velay, Chaine des Puys: Massif Central, France and Fayal: Azores). Average partition coefficients are defined within the experimental uncertainty for limited compositional ranges (basalt-hawaiite, mugearites, benmoreite-trachyte), and are useful for trace element modelling. The new results for U, Th, Ta, Zr and Hf partition coefficients show contrasting behaviour. They can thus be used as ''key elements'' for identifying fractionating mineral phases in differentiation processes (e.g. Ta and Th for amphibole and mica). Partition coefficient may be calculated using the two-lattice model suggested by NIELSEN (1985). Such values show a considerably reduced chemical dependence in natural systems, relative to weight per cent D values. The residual variations may be accounted for by temperature or volatile influence. This calculation greatly enhances modelling possibilities using trace elements for comparing differentiation series as well as for predicting the behaviour of elements during magmatic differentiation.

Lemarchand, F.; Villemant, B.; Calas, G.

1987-05-01

198

Xenopumices from the 2011-2012 submarine eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): Constraints on the plumbing system and magma ascent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textures, petrography and geochemical compositions of products emitted during the onset of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption (15 October, 2011) off the coast of El Hierro have been investigated to get information on interaction mechanism between the first rising magma and the crust during the onset of the eruption as well as to get information on magma storage and plumbing systems beneath El Hierro volcano. Studied products consist of 5-50 cm bombs with an outer black to greenish, vesicular crust with bulk basanite composition containing pumiceous xenoliths (xenopumices). Our results show that xenopumices are much more heterogeneous that previously observed, since consist of a macro-scale mingling of a gray trachyte and white rhyolite. We interpreted xenopumices as resulting from the interaction (heating) between the basanitic magma feeding the eruption, a stagnant trachytic magma pocket/s and an associated hydrothermally altered halo with rhyolitic composition. Our findings confirm the importance of the study of the early products of an eruption since they can contain crucial information on the plumbing system geometry and the mechanism of magma ascent.

Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Iribarren, I.; Felpeto, A.; Torres, P. A.; D'Oriano, C.

2012-09-01

199

Mineralogy, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the recent magmatic formations from Mbengwi, a continental sector of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), Central Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mbengwi recent magmatic formations consist of volcanics and syenites belonging to the same magmatic episode. Lavas form a bimodal basanite-rhyolite alkaline series with a gap between 50 and 62 wt.% SiO2. Mafic lavas (basanite-hawaiite) are sodic while felsic rocks (trachyte-rhyolite-syenites) are sodi-potassic, slightly metaluminous to peralkaline. The geochemical and isotopic characteristics (0.7031 < (87Sr/86Sr)initial < 0.7043; 1.03 < ?Ndi < 5.17) of these rocks are similar to those of other rocks from the CVL. The main differentiation process is fractional crystallization with two trends of fractionation. Their Rb/Sr isochron age of 28.2 Ma, almost similar to 27.40 ± 0.6 Ma K/Ar age obtained in a trachyte from neighboring Bamenda Mountains system, precludes any local age migration of an hypothetic hotspot. Mafic lavas have OIB features displaying an isotopic signature similar to that of HIMU mantle source different from FOZO known as source of most parental magmas along the CVL.

Mbassa, Benoît Joseph; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Benoit, Mathieu; Kamgang, Pierre; Grégoire, Michel; Duchene, Stephanie; Brunet, Pierre; Ateba, Bekoa; Tchoua, Félix M.

2012-11-01

200

Heat capacity, configurational heat capacity and fragility of hydrous magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glassy and liquid heat capacities of four series of dry and hydrous natural glasses and magma as a function of temperature and water content (up to 19.9 mol%) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analyzed compositions are basalt, latite, trachyte and pantellerite. The results of this study indicate that the measured heat capacity of glasses (Cpg) is a linear function of composition and is well reproduced by the empirical model of Richet (1987). For the investigated glasses, the partial molar heat capacity of water can be considered as independent of composition, in agreement with Bouhifd et al. (2006). For hydrous liquids, the heat capacity (Cpliq) decreases nonlinearly with increasing water content. Previously published models, combined with the partial molar heat capacity of water from the literature, are not able to reproduce our experimental data in a satisfactory way. We estimated the partial molar heat capacity of water (CpH2O) in hydrous magma over a broad compositional range. The proposed value is 41 ± 3 J mol-1 K-1. Water strongly affects the configurational heat capacity at the glass transition temperature [Cpconf (Tg)]. An increases of Cpconf (Tg) with water content was measured for the polymerized liquids (trachyte and pantellerite), while the opposite behavior was observed for the most depolymerized liquids (basalt and latite). Structural and rheological implications of this behavior are discussed in light of the presented results.

Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Giordano, D.; Alletti, M.

2014-10-01

201

Magma mixing as a mechanism for generating normal mantle ?18Ool in Icelandic off-rift zones.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser fluorination oxygen analyses of mineral separates from the off rift zone of Snæfellsnes indicate that far from being the norm, lavas containing phenocyrsts with normal mantle ?18O are relatively rare. If the low ?18Ool signature within other Snæfellsnes lavas is the product of crustal contamination, it is possible that these normal mantle ?18Ool lavas are uncontaminated. However, these lavas have lower (230Th/238U) than the majority of the other Snæfellsnes lavas, as well as significantly higher incompatible trace element concentrations ruling them out as a suitable parent magma. The normal mantle ?18Ool lavas seem to be confined to the Ljósufjöll central complex. Previous research has highlighted the presence of evolved lavas within the Ljósufjöll volcanic complex [1] and there is strong evidence for mixing with evolved magmas within our suite of lavas. Oxygen isotope fractionation between co-genetic minerals is temperature dependant and thus mineral-melt fractionation factors will increase with decreasing temperature and thus with increasing fractional crystallisation. By combining quantatitive fractional crystallisation models and oxygen fractionation factors, corrected to be consistent with observed values, it is possible to generate a trachyte with ?18OWR~+6.23‰ from a basalt with ?18OWR ~+5.1‰. Models involving mixing of this trachyte into a low ?18Ool basaltic parent show it is possible to generate the normal mantle ?18Ool Ljósufjöll lavas through this mechanism. 1. Flude et al., 2008 JGVR 169

Manning, C. J.; Thirlwall, M. F.; Lowry, D.

2012-04-01

202

Evolution of anorthoclase phonolite, Mt. Erebus, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 1 m.y. Mt. Erebus (3794 m) has erupted mainly anorthoclase phonolite (AP) and lesser trachyte, kaersutite phonolite and intermediate differentiates. An active convecting AP lava lake, identical in composition to the older lavas, existed from 1972 until late 1984. Most of the rocks define a strongly undersaturated continuous sodic differentiation series, composed of basanite, Ne-hawaiite, Ne-mugearite, Ne-benmoreite and AP. The main phenocryst phases and their ranges are: olivine (Fo 81-43), clinopyroxene (Wo 50-44, En 42-24, Fs 11-30), opaque oxides (Usp 52-79) and feldspar. Major, trace and REE analyses exhibit smooth trends on variation diagrams. REE are strongly LREE enriched and increase from La/sub N/=220 in the basanites to 400 in AP. There are no significant Eu anomalies. Published isotopic data show derivation of the basanite parental magmas from a depleted (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr=0.703) heterogeneous mantle source similar to that for oceanic island basalts. Crustal contamination is insignificant except in the trachytes. Evolution of the Erebus lineage by fractional crystallization of the above phases plus apatite is supported by mass balance models. Differentiation probably occurred in larger, hotter and lower P/sub H20/ magma chambers compared to the basanite to kaersutite phonolite DVDP lineage (Kyle, 1981) of the neighboring Hut Point Peninsula. Mt. Erebus may mark the site of a major mantle upwelling.

Moore, J.A.; Kyle, P.R.

1985-01-01

203

Petrology of the Guenfalabo ring-complex: An example of a complete series along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), Cameroon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Guenfalabo ring-complex (GRC), two non-comagmatic rock suites have been identified as a result of two volcanic episodes: Suite 1 (68.8 ± 1.7 Ma by K/Ar on trachyte) of peralkaline trachytes and pantellerites cogenetic with alkaline syenites, granites and rhyolitic flows and tuffs; Suite 2 (62 ± 2 Ma by K/Ar on basalt), a bimodal and complete series of alkali olivine basalts and associated microgabbro dykes, diorites, syenites and granites, cross-cutting the former. Kaersutite in the trachytes of Suite 1 has mantle-derived signatures: TiO2 > 4%, MgO < 15%, FeO > 8%, Ti = 0.63 c.p.f.u. and Al = 2, characteristic of kaersutites of HP and HT origin: 13-23 kbar, 1100-1220 °C. The trachytes are probably products of FC of a basaltic parent that did not attain higher crustal levels. The Suite 1 rocks are enriched in Rb, K, Zr, Nb, LREE, alkalis, and (Ce/Yb)N = 7-15 probably due to some effect of metasomatism during the magma ascension. Fe-Ti enrichment is corroborated by the presence of ferropseudobrookite-ilmenite-ulvospinel in the syenites and ilmenite in the pantellerite. The Rb/Ba > 1 in the trachytes (2.44, 26.7), pantellerite (6.33), alkaline granites (0.63-1.8) and the 87Sr/86Sr in the alkaline granites (=0.74060) depict the role of AFC. The ankaramites of the Suite 2 rocks are olivine-phyric (25%), Fo85-88, have 50-52% clinopyroxene (salite), 5% plagioclase (An55-36) and 7% Fe-Ti oxides. Trace element modeling indicates an origin from a basaltic magma of about 25% PM of spinel lherzolite mixed with a magma from <1% PM of garnet lherzolite (3-4% garnet) in a proportion of 1:4. The cogenetic alkali basalts and the microgabbro-diorite-syenite-granite that constitute the Suite 2 rocks, with a Daly gap of 54% > SiO2 < 58%, result from this Early Cenozoic magmatic event. The basalts have: Zr = 225-253, Nb = 98-111, Y = 33-56, typical of FOZO, a HIMU-type OIB related magmas (Sr/Sri = 0.70202-0.7034; Nd/Nd = 0.51282-0.512545; 206Pb/204Pb = 19.13, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.59 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.64. The (La/Yb)N ratios (9-20) indicate a high REE fractionation and garnet-lherzolite source. Elemental ratios as La/Nb = 0.49-0.81, Nb/Y = 1.00-2.04 suggest crustal contamination of minor importance. The (La/Sm)N ratios (2-3.5) and LREE enrichment corroborate the contribution of a subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). REE spectra and minor element spidergrams are concordant for each rock suite.

Donald Ngonge, E.; Hollanda, Maria Helena B. M.; Nsifa, E. Nkonguin; Tchoua, Felix M.

2014-08-01

204

Geology of the peralkaline volcano at Pantelleria, Strait of Sicily  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Situated in a submerged continental rift, Pantelleria is a volcanic island with a subaerial eruptive history longer than 300 Ka. Its eruptive behavior, edifice morphologies, and complex, multiunit geologic history are representative of strongly peralkaline centers. It is dominated by the 6-km-wide Cinque Denti caldera, which formed ca. 45 Ka ago during eruption of the Green Tuff, a strongly rheomorphic unit zoned from pantellerite to trachyte and consisting of falls, surges, and pyroclastic flows. Soon after collapse, trachyte lava flows from an intracaldera central vent built a broad cone that compensated isostatically for the volume of the caldera and nearly filled it. Progressive chemical evolution of the chamber between 45 and 18 Ka ago is recorded in the increasing peralkalinity of the youngest lava of the intracaldera trachyte cone and the few lavas erupted northwest of the caldera. Beginning about 18 Ka ago, inflation of the chamber opened old ring fractures and new radial fractures, along which recently differentiated pantellerite constructed more than 25 pumice cones and shields. Continued uplift raised the northwest half of the intracaldera trachyte cone 275 m, creating the island's present summit, Montagna Grande, by trapdoor uplift. Pantellerite erupted along the trapdoor faults and their hingeline, forming numerous pumice cones and agglutinate sheets as well as five lava domes. Degassing and drawdown of the upper pantelleritic part of a compositionally and thermally stratified magma chamber during this 18-3-Ka episode led to entrainment of subjacent, crystal-rich, pantelleritic trachyte magma as crenulate inclusions. Progressive mixing between host and inclusions resulted in a secular decrease in the degree of evolution of the 0.82 km3 of magma erupted during the episode. The 45-Ka-old caldera is nested within the La Vecchia caldera, which is thought to have formed around 114 Ka ago. This older caldera was filled by three widespread welded units erupted 106, 94, and 79 Ka ago. Reactivation of the ring fracture ca. 67 Ka ago is indicated by venting of a large pantellerite centero and a chain of small shields along the ring fault. For each of the two nested calderas, the onset of postcaldera ring-fracture volcanism coincides with a low stand of sea level. Rates of chemical regeneration within the chamber are rapid, the 3% crystallization/Ka of the post-Green Tuff period being typical. Highly evolved pantellerites are rare, however, because intervals between major eruptions (averaging 13-6 Ka during the last 190 Ka) are short. Benmoreites and mugearites are entirely lacking. Fe-Ti-rich alkalic basalts have erupted peripherally along NW-trending lineaments parallel to the enclosing rift but not within the nested calderas, suggesting that felsic magma persists beneath them. The most recent basaltic eruption (in 1891) took place 4 km northwest of Pantelleria, manifesting the long-term northwestward migration of the volcanic focus. These strongly differentiated basalts reflect low-pressure fractional crystallization of partial melts of garnet peridotite that coalesce in small magma reservoirs replenished only infrequently in this continental rift environment. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

Mahood, G.A.; Hildreth, W.

1986-01-01

205

The relationship between potassic and calc-alkaline post-orogenic magmatism at Vico volcano, central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-orogenic magmatism in Italy took place during the Plio-Pleistocene. Alkaline ultrapotassic magmas and sub-alkaline magmas were erupted from closely-spaced volcanoes throughout the central part of Italy. Therefore, central Italy is one of the best site to study the relationship between calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatism in complex tectonic regimes. Activity at Vico volcano developed in three periods between 0.419 Ma and 0.095 Ma. Vico products overlie leucite-free volcanic rocks of Monte Cimino volcano that have a variable affinity from high-potassium calc-alkaline to ultrapotassic. Most of the Vico rocks are leucite-bearing Roman-type (ultrapotassic). However, during the first period, leucite-free silicic rocks are interbedded with leucite-bearing products. The early-erupted Vico magmas are isotopically distinct from the youngest magmas. Age-corrected Sr (Sr i=0.71110-0.71149) and Nd (Nd i=0.51210-0.51211) isotope ratios fall within the gap between Roman-type (including younger Vico) and Monte Cimino rocks. Some leucite-free Vico rocks contain orthopyroxene crystals and Al contents in clinopyroxenes are lower than those in clinopyroxenes from Roman-type rocks. These characteristics are, however, also found in Monte Cimino rocks. At the beginning of the first period, leucite-free latites to trachytes and rhyolites with high Sr i (0.71127-0.71149) were erupted. Trachytes and leucite-bearing latites with lower Sr i (0.71110-0.71138) were erupted later. The younger trachytes have higher Rb, and LRE element contents than older leucite-free rocks with similar SiO 2 contents. Furthermore, the onset of leucite crystallization is marked by a change in 87Sr/ 86Sr and SiO 2. Sr-isotope ratios and their time-related variations, as well as the presence of two different trends in some trace element variation diagrams, define two distinct modes of magma differentiation. Magmas evolved along a stratigraphically "lower trend" at the beginning of the activity whereas they evolved differently along a stratigraphically "upper trend" later in the volcanic history. Modelling of geochemical and Sr-isotope variations indicates that, along the lower trend, fractional crystallisation was the main evolutionary process, whereas along the upper trend mixing between a leucite-free magma and a leucite-bearing magma occurred during crystallisation. The Sr-isotope compositions of rocks from the early stage of activity at Vico suggest mixing between magmas having different petrological affinities: a leucite-bearing Roman-type magma and a high-potassium calc-alkaline magma.

Perini, Giulia; Conticelli, Sandro; Francalanci, Lorella; Davidson, Jon P.

2000-01-01

206

An overview of long-lived, peralkaline glacivolcanism within the northern Cordilleran volcanic province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neogene-to-Recent northern Cordilleran volcanic province (NCVP) comprises >50 separate volcanic occurences whose morphologies and deposits record interaction between volcanism and ice. NCVP glacivolcanism includes a broad range of alkaline rock types, from basanite to phonolite, and several different glacial setting (alpine, local ice sheets, regional ice sheets). Although many of the smaller volcanoes erupted beneath the Cordilleran ice sheet, the larger and longer-lived volcanic complexes are high enough in elevation to be associated with local ice caps in addition to valley glaciers. Of the three largest volcanic centers in the NCVP, Mount Edziza#1 and Hoodoo Mountain show a variety of peralkaline glacivolcanic deposits; predominantly trachytic to phonolitic at Hoodoo, but covering a broader compositional spectrum from trachyte to peralkaline rhyolite at Edziza. The third, Level Mountain#2, is probably older and is more heavily dissected than the other two, but also contains trachytic deposits that appear to be glacivolcanic in origin. Taken together these three complexes form a distinct peralkaline magmatic subprovince within the NCVP, referred to as the ``Stikine subprovince'', whose glacivolcanic deposits appear to be unique in the North American Cordillera. Massive and fragmental glacivolcanic deposits at these centers have a variety of distinctive characteristics. Massive deposits include domical shaped lava bodies covered by pervasive, small-diameter cooling joints, and lava flows up to 200m in thickness that have been interpreted as ice-dammed. Fragmental deposits interpreted as having formed beneath thicker ice tend to be non-vesicular, whereas those interpreted as having formed under thinner ice locally have glassy, pumiceous clasts in highly altered, ash-rich matrices. Other distinctive deposits show lobate lava bodies totally enclosed by volcanic breccias with aphanitic clasts. None of the peralkaline deposits described to date contain pillow-like structures. Given the peralkaline characteristics of the Stikine subprovince, it is ideal for geochronology studies aimed at refining the Pleistocene record of glacivolcanism in the North American Cordillera. Hoodoo preserves a detailed chronology of glacivolcanic interaction associated with the ebb and flow of at least local ice over the last 80 k.y., whereas at Edziza and Level Mountain have the potential documenting local and Cordilleran-wide glacivolcanism. Efforts are currently underway to try and provide a more detailed record of glacivolcanism from Edziza. #1Souther, J.G. 1992. The Late Cenozoic Mount Edziza Volcanic Complex, British Columbia, GSC Memoir 420, 320 p. #2Hamilton, T.S. 1981. Late Cenezoic Alkaline Volcanics of the Level Mountain Range, Northwestern British Columbia: Geology, Petrology, and Paleomagnetism [Ph.D. Dissert.], Edmonton, University of Alberta, p. 490.

Edwards, B. R.

2005-12-01

207

Petrologic evolution of divergent peralkaline magmas from the Silent Canyon Caldera Complex, Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Silent Canyon volcanic center consists of a buried Miocene peralkaline caldera complex and outlying peralkaline lava domes. Its location has been corroborated by geophysical data and more than 50 drill holes. Two widespread ash flow sheets, the Tub Spring and overlying Grouse Canyon members of the Miocene Belted Range Tuff, were erupted from the caldera complex and have volumes of 60-100 km3 and 200 km3, respectively. Eruption of the ash flows was preceded by widespread extrusion of precaldera comendite domes and was followed by extrusion of postcollapse peralkaline lavas and tuffs within and outside the caldera complex. Lava flows and tuffs were also deposited between the two major ash flow sheets. Rocks of the Silent Canyon center vary significantly in silica content and peralkalinity. The most mafic rocks are precollapse and postcollapse trachytes (65-69% SiO2). Low-silica comendites (69-73% SiO2) were erupted as the mafic upper part of the chemically zoned Grouse Canyon Member and as postcollapse lavas. The lower part of the Grouse Canyon Member and the underlying rhyolite of Split Ridge are moderately peralkaline comendite (PI is molar ratio Na + K/Al is 1.17-1.26). These comendites have major element characteristics and trace element enrichments approaching those of pantellerites. The Tub Spring Member, by contrast, is a weakly peralkaline chemically unzoned silicic comendite (75-76% SiO2) ash flow tuff. Weakly peralkaline silicic comendites (PI 1.0-1.1) are the most abundant precaldera lavas. Postcollapse lavas range from trachyte to silicic comendite; some have anomalous light rare earth element (LREE) enrichments. Silent Canyon rocks follow a common petrologic evolution from trachyte to low-silica comendite; above 73% SiO2, compositions of the moderately peralkaline comendites diverge from those of the weakly peralkaline silicic comendites. These contrasting differentiation paths are shown in the behavior of Fe and other transition metals, Al, Na, K; the trace elements Ba, Zr, Nb; and probably F and Cl. Weakly peralkaline silicic comendites show a LREE/heavy REE crossover in early erupted/late erupted rocks; moderately peralkaline comendites are enriched in all REE. The development of divergent peralkaline magmas, toward both pantelleritic and weakly peralkaline compositions, is unusual in a single volcanic center.

Sawyer, David A.; Sargent, K. A.

1989-05-01

208

U-series zircon age constraints on the plumbing system and magma residence times of the Changbai volcano, China/North Korea border  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Changbai (or Baitoushan, Paektu) volcano on the China/North Korea border is best known for its climactic caldera-forming eruption of 100 km3 of comendite materials 1000 years (1 ka) ago. The polygenetic Changbai volcano also erupted moderate-volume pre-caldera comendite lava at ~ 4 ka and small-volume post-caldera trachyte ignimbrite at ~ 0.3 ka. Here we report 238U-230Th disequilibrium ages of zircons from lavas and ignimbrites of the pre-caldera (~ 4 ka), syn-caldera (1 ka), and post-caldera (~ 0.3 ka) events. The zircon isochron ages are 12.2 ± 1.1 ka (2?) for the 4-ka comendite lava and 12.2 ± 1.7 ka for the 1-ka comendite ignimbrite. Zircons from the 0.3-ka trachyte ignimbrite exhibit 3 respective peaks at 2.6 ± 1.8 ka, 130 ± 10 ka and > 230 ka. The indistinguishable zircon ages for the 4-ka pre-caldera eruption of comendite lava and the 1-ka caldera-forming eruption of comendite pumice and ignimbrite suggest that the 4-ka lava provides an early sampling of a much larger magma body at depth and thus serves as a kind of petrologic early-warning signal. In addition, the 4-ka lava may represent the lowest-temperature magma in the roof zone of a thermally zoned magma chamber that usually escapes first. The distinctive multi-modal zircon age distributions of the 0.3-ka trachytic eruption, however, reveal that this post-caldera eruption tapped a different magma body and indicate that Changbai's magmatic plumbing system had changed after the 1-ka caldera-forming climactic eruption. Our results suggest very short zircon and magma residence times for the Changbai volcano (8 kyr for the 4-ka eruption, 11-12 kyr for the 1-ka eruption and 2.3 kyr for the 0.3-ka eruption).

Zou, Haibo; Fan, Qicheng; Zhang, Hongfu; Schmitt, Axel K.

2014-07-01

209

The effect of air pollution on the stone decay of the Cologne Cathedral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different building stones of the Cologne Cathedral show a large variation of weathering phenomena. The Drachenfels trachyte, which was the construction material for the medieval part of the cathedral, shows significant surface deterioration, back-weathering coexisting with flaking, crumbling or the massive formation of gypsum crusts. Wolff (1992) first mentioned the negative interferences between the Schlaitdorfer sandstone and the Londorfer basalt lava or the Drachenfels trachyte and the Krensheimer muschelkalk. Crust formation on limestone, sandstone, and volcanic rock from the Cologne Cathedral as well as from the Xanten and Altenberg Cathedral are investigated. These three buildings are located in different areas and exposed to varying industrial, urban, and rural environmental situations. The material investigated range from dark grey to black framboidal crusts. This 3 to 10 mm thick cauliflower-like form of gypsum crust incorporates particles from the pollution fluxes. It covers the stone surface and mainly occurs at sites protected from wind and direct rain. Secondly, thin laminar black crusts trace the stone surface and may cover complete sections of the building's structure not necessarily preferring protected sites. This kind of crust seems to have very strong bonds between the thin black crust and the stone surface. Major and trace element distribution show an enrichment of sulfur, indicating the presence of gypsum, lead and other typical pollutants (arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin etc.), which generally can be linked to traffic and industry. This indicates that even though the SO2 emission has decreased due to i.e. stronger regulations of waste incineration plants and the ban of leaded petrol, the pollutants are still present in the crusts on the building stones. From systematic SEM observations it becomes evident that the total amount of pollution is less pronounced in the Altenberg and Xanten Cathedrals as compared with the Cologne Cathedral. The formation of gypsum occurs at lower amounts in Altenberg, which correlates well with the measured SO2 content. On the other hand, the increasing H2O content in the trachyte and the crusts correlates well with an increasing phyllosilicate formation. Through the combination of different analytical techniques it was possible to clearly distinguish samples from the industrial or rural environment. If the data is compared to actual pollutant emissions, the analyzed samples imply present but also past pollution fluxes. Thus, the soiled zones of the built environment can function as environmental indicators.

Graue, B.; Siegesmund, S.; Licha, T.; Simon, K.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Middendorf, B.

2012-04-01

210

Formation of U-depleted rhyolite from a basanite at El Hierro, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phonolite and trachyte are the felsic magmas of the alkaline magma suites, which characterize the Canary Islands. The October 2011 submarine eruption off El Hierro, the westernmost island, nevertheless, produced a small volume of rhyolitic magma. The rhyolite occurred as highly vesicular, white coloured pumices enveloped in and mingled with darker coloured basanitic pumice. The basanitic pumice is relatively crystal poor with a few euhedral olivines (mostly Fo77-79), clinopyroxenes and Fe-rich spinels, whereas very rare olivine of same composition is found together with equally rare Fe-sulphide and FeTi-rich oxides in the rhyolite. The Fe-Mg exchange equilibrium in the oxides permits to calculate an equilibrium temperature of 970-890 °C for the rhyolite, in agreement with quartz-melt equilibrium at ca. 930 °C. A striking mineralogical feature of the rhyolite is the presence of rounded to contorted grains of milky quartz, which are xenocrysts incorporated and partly dissolved into the magma. Analyses of residual volatile concentrations in the glasses show that the rhyolite melt was highly degassed, whereas the basanitic glass still has important halogen concentrations. Trace element patterns of the mafic glasses and their elevated incompatible element concentrations are typical of the western Canary Island basanites. In contrast, the trace element composition of the rhyolite shows surprisingly low concentrations for all elements except the most incompatible ones (e.g. Rb, Ba, K and Th). All other measured LILE, HFSE and REE have significantly lower concentration than the basanitic counterpart that can be explained by fractionation of accessory phases (1 % apatite, 1 % sphene and 0.1 % zircon). Surprisingly, low U concentration is presumably related to elevated oxygen fugacity in the rhyolite, causing U to be in a hexavalent state, and fluxing of F-rich gas leading to volatilization of UF6, known to emanate at low temperature. The results suggest that a gas-rich basanitic melt remobilized a small volume of stagnant rhyolitic melt formed by incorporation of approximately 10 % quartz-rich sediment into a late differentiate of trachytic composition. Sediments at the interface of an old oceanic crust adjacent to a continental shield and younger volcanic island are likely to act as magma traps were sediment assimilation may alter the mantle-derived magma composition. Quartz assimilation thus explains the production of rhyolite magma in a volcanic island characterized by an alkaline magma series from primitive basanites to trachytes.

Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Laporte, Didier; Carpentier, Marion; Devouard, Bertrand; Devidal, Jean-Luc; Marti, Joan

2013-03-01

211

Accommodating structures and deformation associated with the emplacement of high level magmatic intrusions, Henry Mountains, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-level sill and laccolith complexes form an important part of volcanic plumbing systems in which magma is emplaced as a series of sub-horizontal tabular sheet-like intrusions. Few studies of these intrusion types have looked in detail at the host rock, emplacement-related deformation structures, and how the additional volume of rock is accommodated within the crust, i.e. the 'space problem'. The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the stages of emplacement and the internal textural evolution of Tertiary sills and laccoliths in the Henry Mountains. We have carried out kinematic and geometrical studies of emplacement-related structures in the host rocks. This work is supplemented by micro-scale textural and geochemical studies of plagioclase feldspar and amphibole phenocryst populations within the intrusions. Fabric studies recognise micro-structural fabrics (associated with accommodating structures) from magmatic fabrics (associated with magma flow). Crystal size distribution (CSD) studies help constrain the crystal:molten rock ratio and mechanical properties of the intruding magma, in addition to helping identify individual magma pulses. Fieldwork to date has focused on two satellite intrusions to Mt. Hilliers: Trachyte Mesa (the most distal intrusion; simple geometries); and Maiden Creek (closer to Mt. Hilliers; more complex geometries) both of which are emplaced into the Entrada Formation sandstone. Preliminary results highlight the importance of shear zones in accommodating the extra volume of magma at depth. Trachyte Mesa is an elongate (NE-SW) laccolith comprised of multiple, stacked intrusive sheets. Semi-brittle shear fabrics (Riedel shear fractures) can be identified on the top surface of the intrusion. Furthermore, sub-horizontal shear zone fabrics can also be observed adjacent to the frontal propagating tip of individual intrusive sheets, e.g. at the northwest lateral margin of Trachyte Mesa. A well-developed shear zone was also identified above the Maiden Creek intrusion. Maiden Creek is a sill with a complex elliptical shape and several finger-like lobes. Detailed outcrop studies across two neighbouring lobes have identified a sub-horizontal shear zone which may be traced from the top of each intrusive lobe. This shear zone separates low/ moderately-deformed sandstones above from highly deformed sandstones below and between the two lobes, hence acting as a detachment zone. Fabrics (stretched plagioclase phenocrysts) within the igneous rock, seen on the top surface of the intrusive lobes directly beneath this shear zone, support the timing of the shear zone being contemporaneous with emplacement of the intrusive lobes. The shear zone appears to have played a critical role in accommodating the volumetric changes associated with magma emplacement.

Wilson, P. I. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Davidson, J. P.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Murphy, P.; Jarvis, I.

2012-04-01

212

Tephrochronological study in the quaternary Val d'Agri intermontane basin (Southern Apennines, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the south-eastern depocentre of the Val d'Agri basin (Southern Apennines), a volcanic ash layer crops out interbedded within poorly structured alluvial fan deposits of Late Pleistocene age. Textural, depositional and pedological features of this weathered layer suggest a primary deposition from a pyroclastic fall-out of volcanic ash. Chemical analyses of feldspars show an alkali trachytic composition and accessory minerals association allow to correlate this tephra layer with the regionally dispersed Y-7 marine tephra layer (Tufo Verde Epomeo eruption, Ischia volcano), dated at 56 ± 4 ka. The Val d'Agri tephra here described for the first time was deposited during MIS Stage 3. Its recovery and characterization permit to contribute to regional correlation of the Mediterranean climatic and volcanic events from marine to continental successions and to describe landscape evolution of the Southern Apennines during glacial-interglacial cycles.

Zembo, Irene; Vignola, Pietro; Andò, Sergio; Bersezio, Riccardo; Vezzoli, Luigina

2011-01-01

213

The Breccia Museo formation, Campi Flegrei, southern Italy: Geochronology, chemostratigraphy and relationship with the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Breccia Museo is one of the most debated volcanic formations of the Campi Flegrei volcanic district. The deposit, made up of six distinctive stratigraphic units, has been interpreted by some as the proximal facies of the major caldera-forming Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, and by others as the product of several, more recent, independent and localized events. New geochemical and chemostratigraphical data and Ar - Ar age determinations for several units of the Breccia Museo deposits (???39 ka), correlate well with the Campanian Ignimbrite-forming eruption. The chemical zoning of the Breccia Museo deposits is interpreted here to be a consequence of a three-stage event that tapped a vertically zoned trachytic magma chamber. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

Fedele, L.; Scarpati, C.; Lanphere, M.; Melluso, L.; Morra, V.; Perrotta, A.; Ricci, G.

2008-01-01

214

The Petrochemistry of Jake_M: A Martian Mugearite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Jake_M,” the first rock analyzed by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer instrument on the Curiosity rover, differs substantially in chemical composition from other known martian igneous rocks: It is alkaline (>15% normative nepheline) and relatively fractionated. Jake_M is compositionally similar to terrestrial mugearites, a rock type typically found at ocean islands and continental rifts. By analogy with these comparable terrestrial rocks, Jake_M could have been produced by extensive fractional crystallization of a primary alkaline or transitional magma at elevated pressure, with or without elevated water contents. The discovery of Jake_M suggests that alkaline magmas may be more abundant on Mars than on Earth and that Curiosity could encounter even more fractionated alkaline rocks (for example, phonolites and trachytes).

Stolper, E. M.; Baker, M. B.; Newcombe, M. E.; Schmidt, M. E.; Treiman, A. H.; Cousin, A.; Dyar, M. D.; Fisk, M. R.; Gellert, R.; King, P. L.; Leshin, L.; Maurice, S.; McLennan, S. M.; Minitti, M. E.; Perrett, G.; Rowland, S.; Sautter, V.; Wiens, R. C.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Grotzinger, John; Miller, Hayden; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Teinturier, Samuel; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Williams, Richard B.; Kirkland, Laurel; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary

2013-09-01

215

Isotopic composition of lead and strontium from Ascension and Gough Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Isotopic composition of lead and strontium has been determined in a series of rock samples from two islands on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Both inter-and intra-island variations exist in the abundance of radiogenic isotopes of both elements. Lead from basalt of Ascension Island has a Pb206-Pb 204 ratio of 19.5, while the corresponding ratio at Gough Island is only 18.4. The Pb208-Pb204 ratios from the two islands do not differ. Conversely, strontium from basalt of Ascension Island is less radiogenic than that from Gough Island basalts. The trachytes of both islands have lead and strontium that is more radiogenic than that found in the basalts. The inter-island differences indicate the existence of regional variations in the uranium-lead and rubidium-strontium ratios of the upper mantle source of these rocks and show that isotope compositions are a means for investigating chemical heterogeneities in the mantle.

Gast, P.W.; Tilton, G.R.; Hedge, C.

1964-01-01

216

Geological investigations of volcanic rocks at Mount Discovery, Mount Morning, and Mason Spur, McMurdo Sound  

SciTech Connect

This work includes mapping of volcanic geology, description of geologic sections, and collection of samples for geochemical analysis and potassium-argon dating. Reconnaissance mapping of Mount Discovery shows that this 2681-meter-high composite volcano comprises a core of plagioclase-phyric nepheline-benmoreite flows, lahars, and volcanoclastic fluviatile sediments, which are thought to be the unit dated at 5.44 million years. Reconnaissance mapping of Mount Morning shows that this is a young volcano principally composed of kaersutite-bearing phonolite flows erupted both from the summit crater and from small parasitic domes on the upper northern slopes of the mountain. A sample from one of these parasitic domes has been dated at 1.15 million years. Description of five geologic sections at Mason Spur has provided a more detailed understanding of the older trachytic volcanic complex, which is now dated at 11.5 to 12.8 years and is divided into seven mapped units.

Wright, A.C.; Kyle, P.R.; More, J.A.; Meeker, K.

1986-01-01

217

Radiocarbon dates for lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Sao Miguel, Azores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report 63 new radiocarbon analyses of samples from Sao Miguel, the largest island in the Azores archipelago. The samples are mainly carbonized tree roots and other plant material collected from beneath 20 mafic lava flows and spatter deposits and from within and beneath 42 trachytic pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic surge, mudflow, pumice-fall and lacustrine deposits and lava flows. One calcite date is reported. These dates establish ages for 48 previously undated lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, and revise three ages previously reported. These data are critical to deciphering the Holocene and late Pleistocene eruptive history of Sao Miguel and evaluating its potential volcanic hazards. Average dormant intervals during the past 3000 years are about 400 years for Sete Cidades volcano, 145 years for volcanic Zone 2, 1150 years for Agua de Pau volcano and 320 years for Furnas volcano. No known eruptions have occurred in volcanic Zone 4 during the past 3000 years. -from Authors

Moore, R.B.; Rubin, M.

1991-01-01

218

Generation of compositionally atypical hydrocarbons in CO[sub 2]-rich geologic environments  

SciTech Connect

Bitumen seepages from a trachyte flow on the Suswa volcano (East African Rift) are anomalously enriched in O and N heteroatomic organic compounds and depleted in aliphatics. Compositional and geologic data suggest that the biogenically derived bitumens were extracted and/or transported by liquid or supercritical CO[sub 2] rather than H[sub 2]O, possibly from caldera-lake sediments. Compositionally atypical hydrocarbons and reduced carbon associated with other alkaline-peralkaline igneous complexes, as well as Hg and Au deposits, may also reflect CO[sub 2] fluids. Hydrocarbon extraction and migration in CO[sub 2]-rich fluids are considered realistic mechanisms in certain geologic environments. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Gize, A (Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)); Macdonald, R. (Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom))

1993-02-01

219

Age of Ko??ko Seamount, Emperor Seamount chain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

KAr ages obtained by the conventional isotope-dilution and the 40Ar/39Ar techniques on two sanidine trachytes, four basalts, and a phonolite dredged from the top of Ko??ko Seamount, 300 km north of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, show that the seamount is 46.4 ?? 1.1 my old. These data indicate that the volcanoes in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain continue to increase in age to the west and north beyond Midway Atoll, as predicted by the melting-spot hypothesis for the origin of the chain, and that the rate of volcanic migration along the chain was nonlinear between the time of formation of the island of Hawaii and Ko??ko Seamount. ?? 1973.

Clague, D.A.; Brent, Dalrymple G.

1973-01-01

220

A volcanological and geochemical investigation of Boa Vista, Cape Verde Islands; 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology and field constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boa Vista, the easternmost island in the Cape Verde archipelago, consists of volcanic products, minor intrusions and a thin partial sedimentary cover. The first 15 age results from 40Ar/ 39Ar incremental heating analysis of groundmass separates from volcanic and plutonic rocks from Boa Vista are presented. The combination of age results and field observations demonstrates that the volcanic activity that formed the island occurred in three main stages: (1) > 16 Ma, (2) 15-12.5 Ma and (3) 9.5-4.5 Ma. The first stage, restricted to the north eastern part of the island, is dominated by ankaramitic lavas. The second stage, consisting of evolved lavas of phonolitic-trachytic compositions and nepheline syenites, makes up large central parts of the island. The large volume of evolved rocks and the extended eruption period of several Ma make stage 2 in Boa Vista unique to Cape Verde. Mainly basanites and nephelinites were erupted during the third stage, initially dominated by eruption of subaerial mafic lavas around 9 Ma. Pillow lavas are erupted around 7 Ma whereupon dominantly subaerial mafic lavas were erupted. Stage 3 saw volcanism in many centres distributed mainly along the present coastline and with activity partly overlapping in time. The volcanic evolution of Boa Vista constrains the initiation of volcanic activity in the Cape Verde archipelago to the eastern islands. Major and trace element geochemistry of 160 volcanic and plutonic rocks representing the entire exposed chronological sequence on Boa Vista is presented, revealing an extremely well developed Daly Gap. Only a little was modified from the mafic magmas that rose in small batches from the mantle. Compositional variation distinguishes each volcanic complex and was to a large extent present in the mantle melts. The highly evolved stage 2 phonolites and trachytes are related through the fractional crystallization of three compositionally distinct magmas. Two of these may have been derived by crystal fractionation of primitive Boa Vista melts, whereas the third was not.

Dyhr, Charlotte T.; Holm, Paul M.

2010-01-01

221

Stratigraphy, geochronology and evolution of the Mt. Melbourne volcanic field (North Victoria Land, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Melbourne (2,732 m a.s.l.) is a large quiescent stratovolcano located in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) and is one of a handful of volcanoes on the Antarctic plate with the potential for large-scale explosive eruptions. During the XVIII Italian Expedition in 2002-2003, the Mt. Melbourne volcanic succession was studied in terms of stratigraphy and sampled for 40Ar/39Ar age determinations and geochemistry. The early, Lower Pleistocene, volcanism was largely alkali basaltic to hawaiitic in composition and monogenetic in style, producing tens of small scoria cones and lava flows scattered over a wide area across the Transantarctic Mountains (Random Hills Period). During the Middle Pleistocene, volcanic activity focused to the area of the Mt. Melbourne stratovolcano, where several monogenetic centres show the transition from early sub-glacial/subaqueous conditions to emergent subaerial conditions (Shield Nunatak Period). The oldest exposed deposit associated with the early activity of the Mt. Melbourne stratovolcano (Mt. Melbourne Period) is a trachytic subaerial ignimbrite dated at 123.6 ± 6.0 ka, which reflects the establishment of a crustal magma chamber. Above the ignimbrite a succession of alkali basaltic, hawaiitic, and subordinate benmoreitic lavas and scoria cones is exposed, dated at 90.7 ± 19.0 ka. The Holocene deposits are exposed at the top of Mt. Melbourne, where the crater rim is composed of trachytic to rhyolitic pumice fall deposits, which are also extensively dispersed around the volcano, likely originated from Plinian-scale eruptions. The most recent explosive deposit proved difficult to date accurately because very low quantities of radiogenic 40Ar were released, resulting in imprecise plateau ages of 50 ± 70 and 35 ± 22 ka.

Giordano, Guido; Lucci, Federico; Phillips, David; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Runci, Valentina

2012-11-01

222

Crystallization paths of leucite-bearing lavas: Examples from Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salic phases found in leucite-basanites, -trachytes, and -phonolites may be used to portray crystallization in the system NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4-CaAl2Si2O8-SiO2, the phonolite pentahedron. Only two lavas have been found that contain the assemblage leucite-nepheline-plagioclase-sanidine and liquid, a natural pseudo-invariant assemblage (at 900° C±100) equivalent to the isobaric invariant point of the four component system. The diversity of phases in this group of lavas illustrates the role of halogens in controlling their crystallization paths. Thus the presence of F in the leucite-basanites has stabilized magnesian biotite and suppressed sanidine, as has been found in other basanitic lavas (Brown and Carmichael 1969). The presence of Cl in these same lavas has induced the crystallization of sodalite, which takes the place of nepheline in the groundmass. However in the leucite-trachytes, biotite has suppressed olivine and coexists with sanidine and leucite. The presence of S may produce haüyne at the expense of nepheline, and in general sulphate minerals, which include apatite, have the role in lavas of low silica activity that pyrrhotite plays in liquids of high silica activity. Both pyroxenes and titaniferous magnetites in this suite of lavas are very aluminous. Groundmass crystals of pyroxene may have one-fifth of Si replaced by Al. Other phases which occur occasionally are melanite garnet and a potassium-rich hastingsite, but neither ilmenite nor a sulphide mineral has been found. Phenocryst equilibration temperatures, derived from olivine and Sr-rich plagioclase, are generally in the range from 1,050° C to 1,150° C. The high content of incompatible elements (e.g., K, Ba, Rb, F, Sr, P) in these lavas suggests that they represent a small liquid fraction from a mantle source which possibly contains phlogopite.

Baldridge, W. Scott; Carmichael, I. S. E.; Albee, A. L.

1981-05-01

223

A-type volcanics in Central Eastern Sinai, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline rhyolitic and minor trachytic volcanics were erupted ˜580-530 Ma ago. They occur with their A-type intrusive equivalents in Sinai, southern Negev and southwestern Jordan. At Taba-Nuweiba district, these volcanics outcrop in three areas, namely, Wadi El-Mahash, Wadi Khileifiya and Gebel El-Homra. Mineralogically, they comprise alkali feldspars, iron-rich biotite and arfvedsonite together with rare ferro-eckermannite. Geochemically, the older rhyolitic volcanics are highly evolved, enriched in HFSE including REE and depleted in Ca, Mg, Sr and Eu. The rhyolitic rocks of Wadi El-Mahash and Gebel El-Homra are enriched in K 2O content (5.3-10.1 wt.%) and depleted in Na 2O content (0.08-2.97 wt.%), while the rhyolites of Wadi Khileifiya have normal contents of alkalis. Their REE patterns are uniform, parallel to subparallel, fractionated [(La/Yb) n = 5.4] and show prominent negative Eu-anomalies. They are classified as alkali rhyolites with minor comendites. The younger volcanics are classified as trachyandesite and quartz trachyte (56.6-62.9 wt.% SiO 2). Both older and younger volcanics represent two separate magmatic suites. The overall mineralogical and chemical characteristics of these volcanics are consistent with within plate tectonic setting. It is suggested that partial melting of crustal rocks yielded the source magma. Lithospheric extension and crustal rupture occurred prior to the eruption of these volcanics. The rather thin continental crust (˜35 km) as well as the continental upheaval and extensive erosion that preceded their emplacement favoured pressure release and increasing mantle contribution. The volatiles of the upper mantle were important agents for heat transfer, and sufficient for the anatexis of the crustal rocks. A petrogenetic hypothesis is proposed for the genesis of the recorded potassic and ultrapotassic rhyolitic rocks through the action of dissolved volatiles and their accumulation in the uppermost part of the magma chamber.

Samuel, M. D.; Moussa, H. E.; Azer, M. K.

2007-04-01

224

Characterizing weathering intensity and trends of geological materials in the Gilgel Gibe catchment, southwestern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed geological and geochemical characterization is crucial to support soil studies in such geologically and topographically complex systems as the Gilgel Gibe catchment in southwestern Ethiopia. Field studies, as well as mineralogical, petrological and geochemical analyses on selected rock samples and their weathering products revealed that the catchment is dominantly underlain by rhyolites and trachytes, which occur as both lava flows and pyroclastic associations. Most of the lavas have a trachytic texture, while few others are massive or show spherulitic or perlitic texture. The rocks have a SiO2-content ranging from about 62 to 73 wt% (intermediate to felsic composition, on an anhydrous base) and a relatively high Na2O + K2O content ranging from about 9 to 12 wt% (anhydrous base). The dominant phenocrysts present in the rocks are plagioclase, sanidine and Fe-Ti oxide minerals. Alkali-rich amphiboles and quartz occur in most of them, while hornblende, titanite and clinopyroxene are rare. The amount of phenocrysts varies from less than 1 vol.% to about 30 vol.%. The pyroclastic associations are discontinuously scattered within the study area. They all have a glassy matrix (vitrophyric texture) and are composed of a mixture of lithics, crystals and glass. In comparison with the lava samples, the pyroclastic samples exhibit a more variable chemistry. In contrast, the X-ray diffractograms of the pyroclastic deposits and the lavas show little difference. The Chemical Index of Alteration values for the studied samples vary from 53 to 99 indicating moderate to high intensity of weathering. Samples from lava flows have shown less degree of weathering than samples of the pyroclastic associations.

Regassa, Alemayehu; Van Daele, K.; De Paepe, P.; Dumon, M.; Deckers, J.; Asrat, Asfawossen; Van Ranst, E.

2014-11-01

225

The use of leaves and roots of Laurus novocanariensis as an indicator for soil and rock chemical composition in the environment of a subtropical cloud forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Canary Island of Tenerife exists a sensitive and endangered ecosystem called "laurel forest". Laurel forest is an endemic type of a humid subtropical forest and it still covers a terrain of roughly 60 km2 on Tenerife (nearly 7% of the territory) (FERNANDEZ et al. 2001). The existing Laurel forest soils have been developed on different rocks. Corresponding to different moisture regimes, Vertisols, Alfisols, Ultisols, and Inceptisols are developed on basaltic lava flows. Inceptisols, allophanic Andisols, and vitric Andisols are present on pyroclastic rocks (ARNALDS et al., 2007). Three volcanic rock types of the basanite-phonolite assemblage are recognised (Rothe, 2008): Basic (basanites, ankaramites), intermediate (trachybasanites, plagioclase phonolites), and salic (trachyte, trachyphonolite, phonolite). Trachytes (sensu stricto) are comparatively rare. The present study aims to understand the element cycle and feed back mechanism between volcanic rocks, soils, roots, and leaves. Laurus novocanariensis stands as a key example how leaves and roots in a subtropical cloud forest, such as on Canary Islands, can be used as an indicator for soil and rock geochemistry. To obtain a wide spectrum of inorganic elements, we chose for our samples a combination of ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Our results show clearly that certain elements are enriched or depleted in leaves and roots. Other elements mirror the chemical composition of the soils and the volcanic rocks in great detail. This study indicates that Laurus novocanariensis can be used to trace the element distribution of certain elements from volcanic rocks thru soils to roots and leaves without a large disturbance of a sensitive ecosystem.

Heidak, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Schöler, H. F.; Hernández-Moreno, J. M.

2012-04-01

226

Petrological and geochemical comparition between the upper and lower rhyolite of the Binchuan basaltic profile,Emeishan LIP succession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emeishan basalt is well known worldwide,and it has been well tested from the geochemistry and petrology.However,the eruptional rock sequences is rare reported. Some former work reported that on the top of Emeishan basalt,there is always sit with rhyolite(or felsic-composition,mainly are rhyolite and trachyte ).This work is focusing on newly found rhyolite and trachyte succession at the bottom of Binchuan basalt pofile,and the comparition between the bottom and top felsic-composition of the Binchuan pofile basaltic related succession from petrological and geochemistry points. The bottom rhyolite is lack of phenocryst,and the filling of blowhole is observed quartz only. Otherwise,the phenocryst of the top rhyolite is mainly alkaline-feldspar. The upper layered rhyolite is less sillical rich than the lower part with the content of SiO2 65-70,68-74 respectively. Additionally,the content of TiO2 (0.82-0.87,0.57-0.70),Total Fe2O3(5.15-5.87,2.89-4.88),MgO(2.13-2.64,0.19-0.48),CaO(1.18-1.49,0.13-0.42), P2O5(0.18-0.25,0.02-0.25) of the upper layered rhyolite is more abundant than the lower layer. However,the amount of the Na2O,K2O of both upper and lower rhyolite can not be distinguished clearly as weathering effect suspectively. This may note that the two kinds of rhyolite are formed from different geological process. The upper may due to the crystallization differentiation of the mafic magmas ,while the lower is formed in the result of crust remelting.

Huixin, H.; Yu, W.

2013-12-01

227

Acoustic emissions generated during uniaxial compressive strength tests on Lyttelton volcano rocks, Christchurch, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes comprising the ongoing Canterbury sequence, South Island, New Zealand, have exhibited disproportionately large energy magnitude (Me) to moment magnitude (Mw) ratios (Fry and Gerstenberger, 2011). The 22 February 2011 Mw 6.3 event, for example, had an energy magnitude of 6.7 (USGS). The 22 February event may have ruptured immature faults with high apparent stress formed during the emplacement of Banks Peninsula volcanic rocks (12 Ma-6 Ma); these faults may have been further strengthened by cross-cutting intrusive rocks of the Lyttelton volcano (Fry and Gerstenberger, 2011). We measured P-wave velocity (Vp), S-wave velocity (Vs), density, elastic moduli, and unconfined compressive strength of Lyttelton volcano basalt, trachyte and rhyolite. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on specimens fitted with axial and radial strain gauges using a stress-controlled unconfined compression apparatus following ASTM standard method. UCS values range between 165 and 232 MPa for the trachyte and basalt samples; rhyolite UCS values range between 122 and 126 MPa. During UCS testing, acoustic emissions were recorded using 2 broadband AE sensors (PAC WS? 20kHz-1MHz) mounted in the end platens. AE event waveforms, magnitude-frequency relationships, and spectrograms were analyzed. Deformation of each rock type involved brittle-failure-generated AE events with broadband waveforms; numbers of AE events increased exponentially at failure. The magnitude-frequency plots of AE events display a sharp decrease in relative energy emitted at frequencies greater than 600 kHz. Quantifying absolute energy emitted at high frequencies remains challenging; we present preliminary results from experiments designed to characterize broadband frequency attenuation. Our experiments quantify the unconfined compressive strengths, elastic moduli, and characteristic AE waveforms emitted during failure of intraplate volcanic rocks comprising the Lyttelton volcano. Reference: Fry, B., and M. Gerstenberger (2011). Large apparent stresses from the Canterbury earthquakes of 2010 and 2011. Seismological Research Letters 82, 833-838.

Boulton, C.; Villeneuve, M.; Goodin, C.

2012-04-01

228

Petrogenesis of the Miocene felsic volcanism from the south of Izmir (Western Turkey) and its regional tectono-magmatic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miocene volcanism, mainly intermediate and rarely mafic and felsic in composition, was produced under the effects of the extensional tectonic regime in western Turkey. The Karaburun and Cumaovasi volcanics are the cases for understanding the magma source(s) and petrological processes, producing the extension-related mafic and felsic bimodal volcanism. The Karaburun volcanics (KV) are mainly distributed north to south direction within the Karaburun peninsula and span a wide compositional spectrum from basalt (20 Ma) to rhyolite (16 Ma), and younger trachyte and trachydacites (13 Ma). The products of the subaerial felsic volcanism (the Cumaovasi volcanics, CV; 17 Ma) which are represented by cluster of topaz bearing rhyolite domes, related pyroclastic rocks occur within the NE-SW trending Cubukludag graben. The intermediate and mafic volcanic rocks are lack in the volcanic succession of CV. The lavas of the Cumaovasi volcanics are silicic which are calc alkaline, peralumious and enriched significantly in LILE. Extremely low Sr, Ba values, Eu depletions and very low LaN/YbN ratios are typical for rhyolites. The Karaburun volcanics, with the exception of the minor alkaline basaltic and trachytic lavas, are mainly calc alkaline and metaluminous intermediate lavas. The petrological data revealed that the KV and CV were formed in extensional tectonic setting, but evolved by different petrological processes in different magma chambers. The Cumaovasi lavas have a unique chemical composition, and closely similar to the extension related topaz bearing rhyolites formed from small magma bodies. Our data reveal that extension related mafic injections caused crustal anatectic melting and produced felsic melts that rapidly ascended into the upper crust.

Karacik, Z.; Genç, C.

2013-12-01

229

A-type,'' flood rhyolites of Trans-Pecos Texas: A major crustal melting event at 36. 8 Ma  

SciTech Connect

The Bracks Rhyolite, Star Mountain Formation, and Crossen Trachyte are related, voluminous, high-temperature ([ge]900 C) silicic lavas that constitute an abrupt, major eruptive event in Trans-Pecos Texas. They were emplaced rapidly at 36.8 Ma, at the onset of the main phase of subduction-related volcanism and immediately preceding a major basalt outpouring. Individual flows are as much as 55 km long, cover 1,000 km[sup 2], and have volumes of as much as 75 km[sup 3]. Cumulatively, they cover 10,000[sup 2] km and comprise 1,000 km[sup 3]. Despite areal extents comparable to those of ash-flow tuffs, outcrop and petrographic features clearly demonstrate that these rocks were emplaced as lavas. All the silicic lavas are mildly peralkaline quartz trachytes to low-SiO[sub 2] rhyolites (67%--72% SiO[sub 2]). They have mineralogic and chemical characteristics of A-type'' granites, including Fe-rich pyroxene, fayalite, and sodic amphibole; high Na[sub 2]O + K[sub 2]O, Ga/Al, Zr, Nb, and Y; and low CaO, MgO, and Sr. Most elements do not correlate with SiO[sub 2], indicating that they are not differentiation suites. Individual flows are strikingly homogeneous. Pb isotopic compositions show a narrow range that indicate either a homogeneous source with Th/U [approx] 6 or thorough mixing. These characteristics are consistent with magma generation by high degrees of partial melting of depleted, anhydrous crust. Trace-element models support crustal melting over AFC processes. Heat was supplied by major infusion of basalt that coincided with a regional flare-up in magmatism in the southern Cordillera. Thus, the lavas indicate both introduction of new crust and recycling of old crust.

Henry, C.D.; James, E.W. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology)

1993-04-01

230

Chemically diverse, episodic volcanism offshore southern and peninsular California  

SciTech Connect

Volcanic rocks recovered from eight seamounts offshore southern and peninsular California are chemically diverse. Compositions of lavas from seven small to moderately sized seamounts between 30.5[degree] and 34.0 N latitudes include low-K[sub 2]O tholeiitic, transitional, and mildly to moderately alkalic basalt. Volcanic rocks from the upper part of the much larger and morphologically complex edifice of Rocas Alijos, offshore central Baja California at about 25.0 N latitude, are highly differentiated trachyandesite and trachyte. The low-K[sub 2]O basalts are MORB-like with low abundances of incompatible elements and lower [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr and higher [sup 143]Nd/[sup 144]Nd ratios than MORB from the East Pacific Rise. The alkalic compositions have higher abundances of incompatible elements and isotopic data indicate more variably enriched mantle sources than those of seamounts near the East Pacific Rise, but the compositions of all samples are within the mantle array defined by other ocean-island basalts. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar laser fusion ages for the seamounts span a large range. MORB-like lava from one of the northern edifices is as old as the underlying oceanic crust ([approximately]23 Ma), indicating that it originated at a spreading center. Other seamount lava ages are much younger (16.6--9.1 Ma) than the underlying oceanic crust. The trachytes from Rocas Alijos are less than 300,000 years old, indicating that the last volcanism on this large edifice occurred recently. The region offshore southern and peninsular California is tectonically complex and has many volcanic edifices of varying sizes, shapes, and orientations. The data available for volcanic rocks from this region suggest that the seamounts formed from multiple episodes of chemically diverse volcanism occurring sporadically from early Miocene to Recent.

Davis, A.S.; Gunn, S.H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Bohrson, W.A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. Earth and Space Sciences)

1993-04-01

231

Comenditic and pantelleritic ash-flow tuffs from Volcan Las Navajas, Nayarit, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Two distinctive ash-flow tuffs occur around the base of Volcan Las Navajas, a Pleistocene trachyte - peralkaline rhyolite center located in the northwestern segment of the Mexican Volcanic belt. The lower ash-flow unit is locally up to 65 m thick, is lithic rich and contains pumice blocks of comenditic rhyolite. The unit is not extensively exposed, and thus its areal extent and volume cannot be determined. Its chemical characteristics and stratigraphic relationship to other products erupted from Las Navajas suggest that it is related to the formation of the older of the two calderas which occur on Las Navajas. Unconformably overlying this unwelded ash-flow is a pantelleritic airfall pumice unit which is locally welded. This airfall unit is conformably overlain by a welded as-flow tuff that contains fiamme of pantelleritic composition (72 %SiO/sub 2/, 8% FeO*, 900 ppm Zr, agpaitic index of 1.7) as well as pumice blocks that show evidence of various degrees of mixing between pantellerite and trachyte. This suggests eruption from a chemically zoned magma chamber. This unit is locally up to 20 m thick, although its top has been removed by erosion. It is found on all sides of Las Navajas except on the south where it may be covered by Volcan Sanganguey, a Pleistocene to Recent calc-alkaline volcano. The welded ash-flow has been dated by K - Ar at 0.2+/-0.1 m.y. Stratigraphically and chemically this ash-flow appears to be related to the formation of younger of the two calderas.

Nelson, S.A.; Hebre, J.A.

1985-01-01

232

Volcanic unrest in Kenya: geological history from a satellite perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African Rift (EAR) system is a 5,000 km long series of fault bounded depressions that run from Djibouti to Mozambique. In the Kenyan Rift, fourteen Quaternary volcanoes lie along the central rift axis. These volcanoes are principally composed of trachyte pyroclastics and trachyte and basaltic lavas forming low-angle multi-vent edifices. Between 1997 and 2008, geodetic activity has been observed at five Kenyan volcanoes, all of which have undergone periods of caldera collapse and explosive activity. We present a remote-sensing study to investigate the temporal and spatial development of volcanic activity at Longonot volcano. High-resolution mapping using ArcGIS and an immersive 3D visualisation suite (GeovisionaryTM) has been used with imagery derived from ASTER, SPOT5 and GDEM data to identify boundaries of eruptive units and establish relative age in order to add further detail to Longonot's recent eruptive history. Mapping of the deposits at Longonot is key to understand the recent geological history and forms the basis for future volcanic hazard research to inform risk assessments and mitigation programs in Kenya. Calderas at Kenyan volcanoes are elliptical in plan view and we use high-resolution imagery to investigate the regional stresses and structural control leading to the formation of these elliptical calderas. We find that volcanoes in the central and northern segments of the Kenyan rift are elongated nearly parallel to the direction of least horizontal compressive stress, likely as a reflection of the direction of the plate motion vector at the time of caldera collapse. The southern volcanoes however are elongated at an acute angle to the plate motion vector, most likely as a result of oblique opening of the Kenyan rift in this region.

Robertson, E.; Biggs, J.; Edmonds, M.; Vye-Brown, C.

2013-12-01

233

The Chaîne des Puys: how complicated can monogentic get?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chaîne des Puys (Massif Centrale of France) is part of a prospective volcano-tectonic UNESCO World Heritage site including the Limagne Rift fault (http://www.chainedespuys-failledelimagne.com/). The strategy is to present the monogentic field that is as representative of other such fields, but which itself is uniquely special. Effectively, the Chaîne des Puys would become a sort of ambassador for monogentic volcanism, raising the profile of all other sites. Here, I want to go through some recent work on the chain, looking at morphology, morphometry, structure, lithology and petrology and show some of the intriguing complexities of this classic highly variable monogentic alignment. Also, I want to build on the historical development of ideas that can be traced back to characters such as Montlosier, Humphrey Davey, Faraday, Lyell, and Von Humbolt... and many more. I focus, first, on the central the Puy de Dôme. This classic trachyte dome has been known for some time to be the product of two eruptions, and recently we have found that it is related to a number of cryptodome intrusions that have created flanking bulges, fed at least two major explosive eruptions, and extensively modified the topography of the field. Strangely, Von Humbolt's concept of 'craters of elevation' rises up in a reanalysis of these structures. Secondly, I visit Lemptégy (www.auvergne-volcan.com/), that in 1857, Scrope called 'an insignificant cone grazed by sheep', but now quarried out and showing the internal structure expected for the Puy de Dôme bulges, as well as illustrating that a seemingly simple scoria cone plumbing can be infernally complicated. Thirdly, I consider the Beaunit, a bucolic village in a maar, where the process of crustal ingestion suggests an intimate relationship between eruptive dynamics and assimilation. With these three examples I show some of the complications and interactions of monogentic basaltic to trachytic volcanism typified by the Chaîne des Puys.

Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.; Marquez, A.; Petronis, M. S.; Kervyn, M.; Delcamp, A.; Mossoux, S.; Troll, V. R.

2012-12-01

234

Tectonic significance of Neoproterozoic magmatism of Nakora area, Malani igneous suite, Western Rajasthan, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three magmatic phases are distinguished in the Neoproterozoic Nakora Ring Complex (NRC) of Malani Igneous Suite (MIS), namely (a) Extrusive (b) Intrusive and (c) Dyke phase. Magmatism at NRC initiated with minor amount of (basic) basalt flows and followed by the extensive/voluminous acid (rhyolites-trachytes) flows. The ripple marks are observed at the Dadawari area of NRC in tuffaceous rhyolite flow which suggests the aqueous condition of flows deposition. The emplacement of the magma appears to have been controlled by a well defined NE-SW tectonic lineament and cut by radial pattern of dykes. These NE-SW tectonic lineaments are the linear zones of crustal weakness and high heat flow. The spheroidal and rapakivi structures in the Nakora acid volcanics indicate the relationship between genetic link and magma mixing. Basalt-trachyte-rhyolite association suggests that the large amount of heat is supplied to the crust from the magma chamber before the eruption. The field (elliptical/ring structures), mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of Nakora granites attest an alkaline character in their evolution and consistent with within plate tectonic setting. The emplacement of these granites and associated volcanics is controlled by ring structures, a manifestation of plume activity and cauldron subsidence, an evidence of extensional tectonic environment. NRC granites are the product of partial melting of rocks similar to banded gneiss from Kolar Schist Belt of India. The present investigations suggest that the magmatic suites of NRC rocks are derived from a crustal source and the required heat supplied from a mantle plume.

Kumar, Naresh; Vallinayagam, G.

2014-05-01

235

Shield volcanoes of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctic rift: oceanic island similarities, continental signature, and tectonic controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marie Byrd Land volcanic province is largely defined by 18 large (up to ~1,800 km3) alkaline shield volcanoes, each surmounted by a summit section of varied felsic rocks dominated by trachytic flows. They are distributed over a 500 × 800-km block-faulted dome within the West Antarctic rift. The basement contact of volcanic sections is ~500 masl at one site and 3,000 mbsl at another, 70 km away, which illustrates the scale of block faulting but complicates an understanding of volcanic structure. Furthermore, the continental ice sheet buries 16 volcanoes to progressively greater heights inland. However, five are sufficiently exposed to allow meaningful comparisons with alkaline oceanic island volcanoes; these comparisons are used as a guide to estimate the structure of Marie Byrd Land volcanoes. The type example for this study is Mt. Murphy, the most completely exposed volcano. It consists of a 1,400-m section of alkaline basalt overlain by trachyte and benmoreite flows that make up ~7-13 % of the volcano volume. In gross structure and composition, Mt. Murphy is similar to Gran Canaria volcano, Canary Islands, but the percent of felsic rock may be three times that of Gran Canaria, if the estimate is approximately correct. Departures from the oceanic island example are believed to represent the imprint of the Marie Byrd Land lithosphere and tectonic environment on volcano evolution. These include a lack of order in the sequence of felsic rock types, lack of progression toward more silica undersaturated compositions with time, absence of a highly undersaturated mafic resurgent stage, and perhaps, a relatively large volume of felsic rock.

LeMasurier, Wesley

2013-06-01

236

Incision of the Colorado River in southern Utah - insights from channel profiles, local incision rates, and modeling of lithologic controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado River and its tributaries in southern Utah and northern Arizona provide an opportunity to study the propagation of bedrock incision through a large heterogeneous fluvial network, as the system is continuing to adjust to the baselevel fall responsible for the Grand Canyon. Although the carving of the Grand Canyon was largely complete by ~1 Ma, the canyon ends at Lee's Ferry and the incision history of Colorado River system upstream of the associated large knickpoint has been the subject of debate. In conjunction with existing incision rate estimates based on the dating of strath terraces, we use longitudinal profiles of the Colorado and tributaries between Marble Canyon and Cataract Canyon to investigate the incision history of the Colorado in this region. We find that all but two of the tributaries in this region steepen as they enter the Colorado River. The consistent presence of oversteepened reaches with similar elevation drops in the lower section of these channels, and their coincidence within a corridor of high local relief along the Colorado, suggest that the tributaries are steepening in response to an episode of increased incision rate on the Colorado River. This analysis is supported by available incision rate data, as the spatial distribution of incision rates predicted by the channel profiles is consistent with existing rate estimates. The two analyzed tributaries that show no evidence for this incision pulse, Trachyte Creek and Bullfrog Creek, have smoothly concave profiles and do not contain knickpoints. In order to evaluate the significance of these anomalous channel profiles, we measure in situ 10Be concentrations on four gravel-covered strath surfaces elevated from 1 m to 110 m above Trachyte Creek. The surfaces yield exposure ages that range from approximately 2.5 ka to 267 ka and suggest incision rates that vary between 350 and 600 m/my. These incision rates are similar to other rates determined within the high-relief corridor, and suggest that despite the lack of knickpoints in their long profiles, Trachyte and Bullfrog Creeks are also responding to the increase in incision rate on the Colorado. Sustained high incision rates combined with a smoothly concave profile suggest that these channels are responding in a continuous, transport-limited manner, perhaps driven by the combination of extremely durable diorite sediment and weak, easily abraded bedrock found in the channels of the Henry Mountains. Finally, we use a simple numerical model of detachment-limited bedrock incision to investigate the relationship between the large convexity in the Colorado River at Lee's Ferry and the incision we observe farther upstream. Model results suggest that the pulse of incision we observe may be related to the interaction between the propagation of headward incision through the Grand Canyon and the presence of an upstream-dipping lithologic boundary at Lee's Ferry. This suggests that the large knickpoint at Lee's Ferry is neither the upstream extent of Grand Canyon incision nor solely related to lithology, but instead results from a combination of lithologic and transient effects.

Cook, K.; Whipple, K.; Heimsath, A.

2009-04-01

237

Peralkaline magma evolution and the tephra record in the Ethiopian Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3.119 ± 0.010 Ma Chefe Donsa phreatomagmatic deposits on the shoulder of the Ethiopian Rift mark the northern termination of the Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone, a linear zone of focused extension within the modern Ethiopian Rift. These peralkaline pumice fragments and glass shards span a wide range of glass compositions but have a restricted phenocryst assemblage dominated by unzoned sanidine. Glass shards found within the ash occupy a far more limited compositional range (75-76 wt% SiO2) in comparison with the pumice (64-75 wt% SiO2), which is rarely mingled. Thermodynamic modeling shows that liquids broadly similar to the least evolved glass composition can be achieved with 50-60 % fractionation of moderately crustally contaminated basalt. Inconsistencies between modeled solutions and the observed values of CaO and P2O5 highlight the important role of fluorine in stabilizing fluor-apatite and the limitations of current thermodynamic models largely resulting from the scarce experimental data available for the role of fluorine in igneous phase stability. On the basis of limited feldspar heterogeneity and crystal content of pumice at Chefe Donsa, and the difficulties of extracting small volumes of Si-rich melt in classical fractional crystallization models, we suggest a two-step polybaric process: (1) basaltic magma ponds at mid-upper-crustal depths and fractionates to form a crystal/magma mush. Once this mush has reached 50-60 % crystallinity, the interstitial liquid may be extracted from the rigid crystal framework. The trachytic magma extracted at this step is equivalent to the most primitive pumice analyzed at Chefe Donsa. (2) The extracted trachytic liquid will rise and continue to crystallize, generating a second mush zone from which rhyolite liquids may be extracted. Some of the compositional range observed in the Chefe Donsa deposits may result from the fresh intrusion of trachyte magma, which may also provide an eruption trigger. This model may have wider application in understanding the origin of the Daly Gap in Ethiopian magmas—intermediate liquids may not be extracted from crystal-liquid mushes due to insufficient crystallization to yield a rigid framework. The wide range of glass compositions characteristic of the proximal Chefe Donsa deposits is not recorded in temporally equivalent tephra deposits located in regional depocenters. Our results show that glass shards, which represent the material most likely transported to distal depocenters, occupy a limited compositional range at high SiO2 values and overlap some distal tephra deposits. These results suggest that distal tephra deposits may not faithfully record the potentially wide range in magma compositions present in a magmatic system just prior to eruption and that robust distal-proximal tephra correlations must include a careful analysis of the full range of materials in the proximal deposit.

Rooney, Tyrone O.; Hart, William K.; Hall, Chris M.; Ayalew, Dereje; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Hidalgo, Paulo; Yirgu, Gezahegn

2012-09-01

238

Fast Orogenic to Anorogenic Magmatic Transition in Central Tyrrhenian Basin at Pontine Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The location of the Pontine Archipelago makes it a key area to describe the initial Neogene volcanism in the Tyrrhenian basin. This archipelago is indeed at the connection between the Northern and the Southern Tyrrhenian basin. A new geochronological and geochemical survey of the two northernmost islands of Ponza and Palmarola permits a detailed examination of the complex tectonic and volcanologic evolution of this area. Previous studies suggested that volcanic activity began before 5 Ma on Ponza. Twenty-five new K-Ar ages, obtained by the Cassignol-Gillot technique, constrain the volcanic activity (mainly rhyolites) of Ponza to the last 4.2 Ma, with two episodes of quiescence between 3.7 and 3.2 Ma and between 2.9 to 1.0 Ma. At 1.0 Ma, a trachytic episode ended the volcanic activity in Ponza. A new volcanic episode dated at 3.2-2.9 Ma has been identified on the central and southern portion of the island, with emplacement of pyroclastic units. Palmarola has rhyolitic products with K-Ar ages from 1.6 to 1.5 Ma. Although only 6-8 km apart, the two islands show significantly different geochemical signatures. Trace element ternary diagrams and Y/Nb and Yb/Ta ratios show that Ponza Pliocene rhyolites are representative of magmas emplaced in a syn-collisional orogenic context, while Pleistocene products (Palmarola rhyolites and Ponza trachytes) are characteristic of a late- to post-collisional context. The source of these Pleistocene products is chemically close to OIB. The transition between orogenic to anorogenic magmatism in this portion of the archipelago has been estimated to last less than 1.3 Ma. Such a fast transition could be related either to a process of slab break-off starting during the Pliocene, or to a slab window in the subducted plate. This window could have channeled plume-type magmas from the lower mantle into Italian volcanic provinces. This would explain the progressive magmatic evolution we observe in Pontine Islands, from a calc-alkaline volcanic-arc type to an alkaline within-plate type volcanism

Cadoux, A.; Pinti, D. L.; Gillot, P.

2003-12-01

239

Megacrystic Clinopyroxene Basalts Sample A Deep Crustal Underplate To The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alkaline and compositionally diverse (basanite to high-Si rhyolite) Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico comprises 4 regions that cover ~75 x 40 km2: (1) Mount Taylor, a large composite volcano and a surrounding field of basaltic vents; (2) Grants Ridge, constructed of topaz rhyolitic ignimbrite and coulees; (3) Mesa Chivato, a plateau of alkali basalts and mugearitic to trachytic domes; and (4) the Rio Puero basaltic necks. Distributed throughout its history (~3.6 to 1.26 Ma; Crumpler and Goff, 2012) and area (excepting Rio Puerco Necks) is a texturally distinct family of differentiated basalts (Mg# 43.2-53.4). These basalts contain resorbed and moth-eaten megacrysts (up to 2 cm) of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine ±Ti-magnetite ±ilmenite ±rare orthopyroxene. Some megacrystic lava flows have gabbroic cumulate inclusions with mineral compositions similar to the megacrysts, suggesting a common origin. For instance, gabbroic and megacrystic clinopyroxenes form linear positive arrays in TiO2 (0.2-2.3 wt%) with respect to Al2O3 (0.7-9.3 wt%). The lowest Al clinopyroxenes are found in a gabbroic inclusion and are associated with partially melted intercumulus orthopyroxene. Megacrystic and gabbroic plagioclase (An 41-80) in 4 representative thin sections were analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr by Laser Ablation ICP-MS. 87Sr/86Sr values for the suite range from 0.7036 to 0.7047. The low 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7036 to 0.7037) are associated with high Ti-Al clinopyroxenes. Likewise, the higher 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7043 to 0.7047) are associated with the low-Al clinopyroxenes. Taken together, these megacrysts track the differentiation of an intrusive body (or related bodies) from alkaline to Si-saturated conditions by fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. The intrusive body likely underplates portions of the MTVF that have generated silicic magmas (Mount Taylor, Grants Ridge, Mesa Chivato). Although disequilibrium is implied by resorbed grain boundaries, clinopyroxene-liquid geobarometry calculations (Putirka, 2008) suggest crystallization occurred in the lower crust at ~1200°C and 12.4 kbar. This intrusive body may represent a common deep crustal heat source to link the diverse silicic magmas (mugerites, trachytes, trachy-andesites and dacites, high-Si rhyolites, and topaz rhyolites) of the MTVF.

Schmidt, M. E.; Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Wolff, J. A.

2012-12-01

240

The campi flegrei (Italy) geothermal system: A fluid inclusion study of the mofete and San Vito fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A fluid inclusion study of core from the Mofete 1, Mofete 2, Mofete 5, San Vito 1, and San Vito 3 geothermal wells (Campi Flegrei, Campania, Italy) indicates that the hydrothermal minerals were precipitated from aqueous fluids (??CO2) that were moderately saline (3-4 wt.% NaCl equiv.) to hypersaline (> 26 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and at least in part, boiling. Three types of primary fluid inclusions were found in authigenic K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, and epidote: (A) two-phase [liquid (L) + vapor (V)], liquid-rich inclusions with a range of salinity; (B) two-phase (L + V), vaporrich inclusions with low salinity; and (C) three-phase [L + V + crystals (NaCL)], liquid-rich inclusions with hypersalinity. Results of microthermometric and crushing studies are reported for twenty drill core samples taken from the lower portions of the five vertical wells. Data presented for selected core samples reveal a general decrease in porosity and increase in bulk density with increasing depth and temperature. Hydrothermal minerals commonly fill fractures and pore-spaces and define a zonation pattern, similar in all five wells studied, in response to increasing depth (pressure) and temperature. A greenschist facies assemblage, defined by albite + actinolite, gives way to an amphibolite facies, defined by plagioclase (andesine) + hornblende, in the San Vito 1 well at about 380??C. The fluid inclusion salinity values mimic the saline and hypersaline fluids found by drilling. Fluid inclusion V/L homogenization temperatures increase with depth and generally correspond to the extrapolated down-hole temperatures. However, fluid inclusion data for Mofete 5 and mineral assemblage data for San Vito 3, indicate fossil, higher-temperature regimes. A limited 87Sr/86Sr study of leachate (carbonate) and the leached cores shows that for most samples (except San Vito 3) the carbonate deposition has been from slightly 87Sr-enriched fluids and that Sr isotopic exchange has been incomplete. However, San Vito 3 cores show an approach to fluid/rock Sr equilibrium with a fluid similar to modern ocean water in 87Sr/86Sr ratio. The Campi Flegrei volcanic system has evolved undersaturated products, mostly trachyte, and defines a large (??? 12 km) caldera. The hydrothermal system developed in this location can be used as an analog for fossil systems in similar trachytic environments. The potential for ore mineralization is expressed by the recognition, from fluid inclusion and drilling data, of ore-forming environments such as boiling and brine stratification. ?? 1989.

de, Vivo B.; Belkin, H.E.; Barbieri, M.; Chelini, W.; Lattanzi, P.; Lima, A.; Tolomeo, L.

1989-01-01

241

S-rich apatite-hosted glass inclusions in xenoliths from La Palma: constraints on the volatile partitioning in evolved alkaline magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of S-rich apatite, of volatile-rich glass inclusions in apatite, and of interstitial glasses in alkaline xenoliths from the 1949 basanite eruption in La Palma has been investigated to constrain the partitioning of volatiles between apatite and alkali-rich melts. The xenoliths are interpreted as cumulates from alkaline La Palma magmas. Apatite contains up to 0.89 wt% SO3 (3560 ppm S), 0.31 wt% Cl, and 0.66 wt% Ce2O3. Sulfur is incorporated in apatite via several independent exchange reactions involving (P5+, Ca2+) vs. (S6+, Si4+, Na+, and Ce3+). The concentration of halogens in phonolitic to trachytic glasses ranges from 0.15 to 0.44 wt% for Cl and from <0.07 to 0.65 wt% for F. The sulfur concentration in the glasses ranges from 0.06 to 0.23 wt% SO3 (sulfate-saturated systems). The chlorine partition coefficients (D{Cl/apatite/glass}) range from 0.4 to 1.3 (average D{Cl/apatite/glass} = 0.8), in good agreement with the results of experimental data in mafic and rhyolitic system with low Cl concentrations. With increasing F in glass inclusions D{F/apatite/glass} decreases from 35 to 3. However, most of our data display a high partition coefficient (~30) close to D{F/apatite/glass} determined experimentally in felsic rock. D{S/apatite/glass} decreases from 9.1 to 2.9 with increasing SO3 in glass inclusions. The combination of natural and experimental data reveals that the S partition coefficient tends toward a value of 2 for high S content in the glass (>0.2 wt% SO3). D{S/apatite/glass} is only slightly dependent on the melt composition and can be expressed as: SO3 apatite (wt%) = 0.157 * ln SO3 glass (wt%) + 0.9834. The phonolitic compositions of glass inclusions in amphibole and haüyne are very similar to evolved melts erupted on La Palma. The lower sulfur content and the higher Cl content in the phonolitic melt compared to basaltic magmas erupted in La Palma suggest that during magma evolution the crystallization of haüyne and pyrrhotite probably buffered the sulfur content of the melt, whereas the evolution of Cl concentration reflects an incompatible behavior. Trachytic compositions similar to those of the (water-rich) glass inclusions analyzed in apatite and clinopyroxene are not found as erupted products. These compositions are interpreted to be formed by the reaction between water-rich phonolitic melt and peridotite wall-rock.

Parat, Fleurice; Holtz, François; Klügel, Andreas

2011-09-01

242

The pre-eruptive volatile contents of recent basaltic and pantelleritic magmas at Pantelleria (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pantelleria Island, located in the Sicily Channel Rift Zone (Italy), is the type locality for the peralkaline rhyolitic rocks called pantellerites. In the last 50 ka, after the large Green Tuff caldera-forming eruption, volcanic activity at Pantelleria has consisted of effusive and explosive eruptions mostly vented inside and along the rim of the caldera and producing silicic lava flows, lava domes and poorly dispersed pantelleritic pumice fall deposits. Basaltic cinder cones and lava flows are only present outside the caldera in the NW sector of the island. The most recent basaltic (Cuddie Rosse, ˜ 20 ka) and pantelleritic (Cuddia Randazzo and Cuddia del Gallo, ˜ 6 ka) pyroclastic products were sampled to investigate magmatic volatile contents through the study of melt inclusions. The melt inclusions in pyroxene and olivine phenocrysts of Cuddie Rosse scoriae have an alkali basalt composition. The dissolved volatiles comprise 0.9-1.6 wt.% H 2O, several hundred ppm of CO 2, 1600-2000 ppm of sulphur and 500-900 ppm of chlorine. The water-carbon dioxide couple gives a confining pressure ˜ 2 kbar prior to the eruption. This result indicates that episodes of magma ponding and crystallization occurred in the upper crust prior to eruption. The melt inclusions in feldspar, fayalite and aenigmatite phenocrysts of Cuddia del Gallo and Cuddia Randazzo pumice have a pantelleritic composition (Agpaitic Indices 1.3-2.1), up to 4.4 wt.% H 2O, 8700 ppm Cl, 6000 ppm F, and CO 2 below the detection limit. Sulphur averaging 420 ppm has been measured in Cuddia Randazzo melt inclusions. These data indicate relatively high volatile contents for these low-energy Strombolian-type eruptions. Melt inclusions in Cuddia del Gallo pumice show the most evolved composition (Agpaitic Indices 2-2.1) and the highest volatile content, in agreement with fluid saturation conditions in the magma chamber prior to the eruption. This implies a confining pressure of ˜ 1 kbar for the top of the pantelleritic reservoir. The composition of melt inclusions and mineralogical assemblage of Cuddia Randazzo pumice indicate that it has a lower evolutionary degree (Agpaitic Indices 1.3-1.8) and lower pre-eruptive Cl and H 2O contents than Cuddia del Gallo pumice. An increase in pressure due to the exsolution of volatiles in the upper part of the pantelleritic reservoir may have triggered the Cuddia del Gallo explosive eruption. Evidence of widespread pre-eruptive mingling between trachytes and pantellerites suggests that the intrusion of trachytic magma into the pantelleritic reservoir likely played a major role in destabilizing the magma system just prior to the Cuddia Randazzo event.

Gioncada, A.; Landi, P.

2010-01-01

243

Crystallisation and genesis of peralkaline magmas from Pantelleria Volcano, Italy: an integrated petrological and crystal-chemical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pantelleria, the type locality of pantellerite, is a Late-Pleistocene magmatic system with a bimodal association of alkali basalts and peralkaline rocks showing a large compositional gap at SiO 2=50-67 wt.%. Major and trace element data show a strong change in all element patterns with two distinct liquid lines of descent for the mafic and the felsic end-members for many elements (Al 2O 3, FeO tot, Ba, and Cr). The mineral chemistry data also show compositional gaps for many mineral phases, similar to those observed in the whole-rock data. Trace element models show that a trachytic melt can be generated from a basaltic parental magma either by a two step fractional crystallisation process, or by 30% partial melting of gabbroic cumulate. Pantelleritic magmas are derived by fractional crystallisation of mainly K-feldspar from a trachytic end-member. The crystal-chemical parameters of the clinopyroxene crystals show two clearly distinct patterns for the mafic and felsic rocks, which are unlikely to be generated by continuous crystal fractionation process from basalt to pantellerite. Clinopyroxene crystals in the mafic rocks show trends comparable with patterns observed for some Italian potassic suites (e.g., Sabatini volcano), with an increase of Al in the T site and Ca in M2 with differentiation. On the other hand, crystals in the peralkaline felsic rocks follow the patterns of the African Na-rich products (e.g., Nyambeni, Boseti) with Si increasing in T and Na in M2. Chemical parameters of the host rocks plotted vs. structural data of the clinopyroxene crystals divide mafic and felsic rocks into two well distinguished groups of undersaturated and oversaturated magmas, but do not explain the transition between the two groups. The data suggest that simple fractional crystallisation by itself cannot explain the generation of peralkaline magmas in Pantelleria starting from parental basalts. Other processes such as partial melting of gabbroic cumulates are more viable and have to be considered in the genesis of peralkaline magmas.

Avanzinelli, Riccardo; Bindi, Luca; Menchetti, Silvio; Conticelli, Sandro

2004-03-01

244

The present state of the magmatic system of the Campi Flegrei caldera based on a reconstruction of its behavior in the past 12 ka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New geochemical and Sr-isotope data have been acquired on samples representative of volcanic units erupted inside the resurgent Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) over the past 12 ka. These data, integrated with previous published petrological, and with newly acquired geochronological, volcanological and geothermal data, shed light on the nature and timing of the processes that controlled the evolution of the Phlegraean magmatic system. In the past 12 ka, three isotopically and geochemically distinct magmatic components were erupted at the CFc as either homogeneous or mixed magma batches. One component, Campanian Ignimbrite component (CIc) ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70735-0.70740), is similar to the trachytic magma extruded during the first phase of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption (37 ka). A second component, Neapolitan Yellow Tuff component (NYTc) ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70750-0.70757), is similar to the latitic-alkali-trachytic magma batches extruded during the course of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) eruption (12 ka). A third component, Minopoli component (MIc) ( 87Sr/ 86Sr?0.7086), is similar to the trachybasaltic magma of the Minopoli 2 (MI) eruption (9.7 ka). These components were erupted as either single batches of magma, or mixed CI-NYT or MI-NYT batches of magma, through vents located either along the structural boundary of the NYT caldera or inside the NYT caldera, mainly on portions of the resurgent block under extensional stress. The CI and NYT components represent residual portions of older, large-volume magma reservoirs which have fed eruptions since about 60 and 15 ka, respectively. The least-evolved MI component was erupted only during the 12-9.5 ka and 8.6-8.2 ka epochs of activity, through vents located on a NE-SW regional fault system. This component could represent a deeper reservoir tapped by the NE-SW regional fault system reactivated after the NYT caldera collapse. Deeper MI and shallower CI and NYT magmatic systems interacted by mixing among batches of magma during their rise to surface. Overall, the data suggest that the CFc magmatic system today is characterized by the presence of two larger, independent reservoirs, filled by residual portions of the CI and NYT magmas. These generated many smaller, shallower pockets of evolved magma, that fed most of the eruptions that occurred in the CFc over the past 12 ka. Moreover, a deeper reservoir (MI), tapped by the NE-SW regional fault system, provided batches of less-evolved magma that mixed with magma present in the shallower pockets.

D'Antonio, M.; Civetta, L.; Orsi, G.; Pappalardo, L.; Piochi, M.; Carandente, A.; de Vita, S.; Di Vito, M. A.; Isaia, R.

1999-08-01

245

40Ar/(39)Ar dating of the Kapthurin Formation, Baringo, Kenya.  

PubMed

The(40)Ar/(39)Ar radiometric dating technique has been applied to tuffs and lavas of the Kapthurin Formation in the Tugen Hills, Kenya Rift Valley. Two variants of the(40)Ar/(39)Ar technique, single-crystal total fusion (SCTF) and laser incremental heating (LIH) have been employed to date five marker horizons within the formation: near the base, the Kasurein Basalt at 0.61+/-0.04 Ma; the Pumice Tuff at 0.543+/-0.004 Ma; the Upper Kasurein Basalt at 0.552+/-0.015 Ma; the Grey Tuff at 0.509+/-0.009 Ma; and within the upper part of the formation, the Bedded Tuff at 0.284+/-0.012 Ma. The new, precise radiometric age determination for the Pumice Tuff also provides an age for the widespread Lake Baringo Trachyte, since the Pumice Tuff is the early pyroclastic phase of this voluminous trachyte eruption. These results establish the age of fossil hominids KNM-BK 63-67 and KNM-BK 8518 at approximately 0.510-0.512 Ma, a significant finding given that few Middle Pleistocene hominids are radiometrically dated. The Kapthurin hominids are thus the near contemporaries of those from Bodo, Ethiopia and Tanzania. A flake and core industry from lacustrine sediments in the lower part of the formation is constrained by new dates of 0.55-0.52 Ma, a period during which the Acheulian industry, characterized by handaxes, is known throughout East Africa. Points, typical of the Middle Stone Age (MSA), are found in Kapthurin Formation sediments now shown to date to between 0.509+/-0.009 Ma and 0.284+/-0.012 Ma. This date exceeds previous estimates for the age of the MSA elsewhere in East Africa by 49 ka, and establishes the age of Acheulian to MSA transition for the region. Evidence of the use of the Levallois technique for the manufacture of both small flakes and biface preforms, the systematic production of blades, and the use and processing of red ochre also occurs in this interval. The presence of blades and red ochre at this depth is important as blades signify a high degree of technical competence and red ochre suggests symbolic behavior. PMID:11795974

Deino, Alan L; McBrearty, Sally

2002-01-01

246

Petrochemical features of Miocene volcanism around the Çubukluda? graben and Karaburun peninsula, western Turkey: Implications for crustal melting related silicic volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread Neogene volcanism, mainly intermediate and rarely mafic and felsic in composition, was controlled by the extensional tectonic regime in western Turkey. The Karaburun and Cumaovas? volcanics are the cases for understanding the magma source(s) and petrological processes, producing the extension-related mafic and felsic volcanism. The Karaburun volcanics (KV) are mainly oriented north to south in the Karaburun peninsula and span a wide spectrum from basalt (20 Ma) to rhyolite (16 Ma), and younger trachyte and trachydacites (13 Ma). The products of the subaerial silicic volcanism (the Cumaovas? volcanics, CV; 17 Ma) which are represented by cluster of rhyolite domes, related pyroclastics occur within the NE-SW trending Çubukluda? graben, and intermediate and mafic volcanic rocks are lack in this area. The lavas of the Cumaovas? volcanics are high silica rhyolites and rare dacites which are calc alkaline, peralumious and enriched significantly in LILE. Extremely low Sr, Ba values, extremely Eu depletions and very low LaN/YbN ratios are typical for the rhyolites of CV, similar to the topaz rhyolites. The Karaburun volcanics, with the exception of the minor alkaline basaltic and trachytic lavas, are mainly calc alkaline and metaluminous intermediate lavas. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the KV and dacitic samples of CV are close to each other and range from 0.708 to 0.709; while Sr isotopic ratios of the rhyolites are significantly high and variable (0.724-0.786). 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the CV and KV, except for the alkaline samples, are similar for both sequences vary from 0.51230 to 0.51242. Geological, geochemical, isotopic and radiochronologic data reveal that the KV and CV were formed in extensional tectonic setting, but evolved by different petrological processes in different magma chambers. During the Neogene, underplated mafic magma was injected into the crust and hybridized by mantle and crustal derived materials. Geochemical features and trace element modeling for the mafic members of the KV indicate that they were derived from enriched lithospheric mantle and modified by fractional crystallization from basalt to rhyolite (Helvac? et al., 2009). Unexpectedly, the felsic lavas from Cumaovas? region have a unique chemical composition, and similar to the extension related rhyolites formed from small magma bodies. Our data reveal that extension related mafic inputs caused crustal anatectic melting and formed felsic melts that rapidly ascended into the upper crust. The Cumaovas? felsic rocks were differentiated into the highly evolved silica-rich melts within the magma chambers trapped near the surface.

Karac?k, Z.; Genç, ?. C.; Gülmez, F.

2013-09-01

247

Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the Puesto La Peña undersaturated potassic complex, Mendoza province, Argentina: Geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major and trace element and radiogenic and stable isotope data are reported for the Miocene Puesto La Peña undersaturated potassic complex, located in the Argentine Precordillera. The complex is composed of a pyroxenite core surrounded by a malignite-borolanite association, followed by radial and ring dikes composed of alkaline lamprophyres, tephrite to phonolite and intermediate varieties, porphyritic microledmorite, benmoreite, alkaline trachyte and a swarm of ultrabasic ouachitite dikes. Late trachytic to phonolitic volcanic necks and associated dikes crop out surrounding the malignitic-borolanitic massif. Major and trace element data are consistent with their derivation by partial melting from an enriched, probably lithospheric, metasomatized heterogeneous mantle involving spinel- and garnet-facies mantle sources. The trace element and isotope data indicate that all rock types are derived from a common parental magma and are thus cogenetic. Sr, Nd and Pb variations in the different studied lithologies are restricted, except for the evidence of Sr decoupling in the ouachitite samples. Their Sr-Nd isotope compositions follow the "mantle array" defined by oceanic basalts, within the OIB field, consistent with an intraplate depleted source. The genesis of the ouachitite is interpreted to be related to mixing between asthenospheric magma and melts from the lower lithosphere consisting of K-rich metasomatic layers. The Dupal like Pb isotopes signature suggests a mantle modification by introduction of continental crust material in the upper mantle; this is consistent with the Sr-Nd isotope data from the late silica-undersaturated felsic dikes and volcanic necks. Multistage mantle extraction would have occurred by the end of Neoproterozoic to lower Paleozoic times as indicated by the isotopic data. Partial melting was initiated by mantle upwelling decompression during lithosphere extension. Back-arc extensional conditions during the latest Early Miocene (19 Ma), related to the geometry of the Pacific subducted plate beneath the South American plate, favored the tectonic conditions for magma ascent from a magmatic reservoir located at around 30 km depth in the crust. A fractional crystallization process, primarily of clinopynoxene, plagioclase, alkali feldspar, nepheline and lesser biotite, magnetite, and apatite, first yielded the cumulate clinopyroxenite, followed by the malignite-borolanite association and the late dikes and volcanic necks. The morphology of the complex, as well as the relationship between their different facies, points to a cauldron subsidence model of emplacement.

Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Hernández, Laura B.; Santos, João O.

2013-03-01

248

Petrogenesis of the Sabongari alkaline complex, cameroon line (central Africa): Preliminary petrological and geochemical constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrography, mineral chemistry and geochemical features of the Sabongari alkaline complex are presented and discussed in this paper with the aim of constraining its petrogenesis and comparing it with other alkaline complexes of the Cameroon Line. The complex is mainly made up of felsic rocks: (i) granites predominate and include pyroxene-amphibole (the most abundant), amphibole-biotite, biotite and pyroxene types; (ii) syenites are subordinate and comprise amphibole-pyroxene and amphibole-biotite quartz syenites; (iii) pyroxene-amphibole-biotite trachyte and (iv) relatively abundant rhyolite. The minor basic and intermediate terms associated with felsic rocks consist of basanites, microdiorite and monzodioites. Two groups of pyroxene bearing rocks are distinguished: a basanite-trachyte-granite (Group 1) bimodal series (SiO2 gap: 44 and 63 wt.%) and a basanite-microdiorite-monzodiorite-syenite-granite (Group 2) less pronounced bimodal series (reduced SiO2 gap: 56-67 wt.%). Both are metaluminous to peralkaline whereas felsic rocks bare of pyroxene (Group 3) are metaluminous to peraluminous. The Group 1 basanite is SiO2-undersaturated (modal analcite in the groundmass and 11.04 wt.% normative nepheline); its Ni (240 ppm) and Cr (450 ppm) contents, near mantle values, indicate its most primitive character. The Group 2 basanite is rather slightly SiO2-saturated (1.56 wt.% normative hypersthene), a marker of its high crustal contamination (low Nb/Y-high Rb/Y). The La/Yb and Gd/Yb values of both basanites (1: 19.47 and 2.92; 2: 9.09 and 2.23) suggest their common parental magma composition, and their crystallization through two episodes of partial melting (2% and 3% respectively) of a lherzolite mantle source with <4% residual garnet. The effects of crustal contamination were selectively felt in the values of HFSE/LREE, LREE/LILE and LREE/HFSE ratios, known as indicators. Similar features have been recently obtained in the felsic lavas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line.

Njonfang, Emmanuel; Tchoneng, Gilbert Tchuenté; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Lucci, Federico

2013-07-01

249

Monogenetic volcanic fields and their geoheritage values of western Saudi Arabia and their implication to holistic geoeducation projects locally and globally (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monogeneitc volcanic fields are the most common manifestation of volcanism on Earth and other planets. They composed of small volume and short lived volcanoes each of them with a relatively simple eruption history. In spite of recent researches demonstrated complex, repeated and geochemically distinct eruption histories commonly associated with te formation of small-volume volcanoes, they are still considerred as volcanoes that are in human-scale and therefore ideal to use them as educational tools or part of volcanic geoheritage projects including geopark developments. In the western margin of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia there are at least 9 intracontinental volcanic fields subparalell with the Red Sea Rift ranging from alkaline basaltic to basalt-trachyte bimodal dispersed volcanic systems. Among these volcanic fields the geoheritage value of three fields were recently evaluated and proposed that they are suitable for further development to establish the first volcanic geoparks in the Arabian Peninsula in the area of 1) Al Madinah (AMVF) 2) Kishb (KVF) and 3) Hutaymah Volcanic Fields (HVF). The AMVF offers a natural concept based on specific volcanic precinct ordering of its volcanic geoheritages from the most accessable and most common volcanism that is historically significant (eg. scoria and lava spatter cones with extensive lava fields) toward a more adventure geotourism style approach in remote, less common but more destructive type of volcanism (eg. trachytic explosion craters). In the contrary, the KVF is a perfect site where phreatomagmatic volcanism and their consequences were identified as a major driving force for further geopark developments. The HVF with its rich archaeological and cultural sites and superbly exposed variously eroded tuff rings and maars offer a good location to develop geoeducation programs to highlight short- and long-term climatic and hydrologic changes in an area a volcanic field evolved. The three Saudi projects also demonstrate the need to arrange and coordinate geoeducational projects locally and globally around common geological assets such as monogenetic volcanic fields. We also provide a conceptual model to link various sites of monogenetic volcanic fields along a volcanologically valid holistic geoconservation and geoeducation programs that are scientifically well-established. Well-preserved maar craters such as Harrat Hutaymah (A) and erosionally enlarged maars such as Tabah (B) are internationally significant geotopes of volcanic geoheritage sites of Saudi Arabia

Nemeth, K.; Moufti, R.

2013-12-01

250

Carbonatites and primary carbonates in the Rio Apa and Amambay regions, NE Paraguay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Rio Apa and Amambay regions, north-eastern Paraguay (NPAA), potassic, alkaline-carbonatitic rocks (138-139 Ma) predate the eruption of tholeiitic flood basalts (133 ± 1 Ma). These rocks, mainly outcropping as dykes or ring-like complexes, intrude a Cambro-Ordovician carbonate platform and Precambrian metamorphic rocks along with their Silurian and Permo-Carboniferous sediments. The main rock-types range from basanite to trachyte and trachyphonolite (and intrusive equivalents) to carbonatite, in addition to glimmeritic and pyroxenitic veins. Geological and geophysical evidence indicate that the NPAA magmatism is related to extensional tectonics, like the Early Cretaceous alkaline-carbonatitic complexes from central-eastern Paraguay (127 ± 1 Ma) and the eastern magmatic occurrences of the Paraná Basin. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions (whole rocks and carbonates) vary from values close to the field of continental lithospheric mantle, or that of primary carbonatites, up to values typical of a hydrothermal environment. An isotope exchange model implies that the main isotope variations, ranging from a magmatic (e.g., 1200 °C) to a low temperature (< 400 °C) environment, involved fluids with CO2/H2O ratios between 0.8 and 1.0. In particular, the Osbnd C isotopic variations, in combination with the La vs La/Yb ratios, suggest an increasingly higher level of carbonate in the silicate liquids, with increasing evolution, i.e., basanite ? phonotephrite ? trachyphonolite-phonolite (trachyte) ? carbonatite. Srsbnd Nd isotopes show that the carbonatites are mantle derived without significant crustal contamination and that they can be related to isotopically enriched sources where newly formed veins (enriched component) and peridotite matrix (depleted component) underwent differing isotopic evolution. TDM model ages for NPAA range from 1.2 to 2.3 Ga. Considering that in the whole Paraná Basin isotopically distinct K-alkaline and tholeiitic magmas were generated following the enrichment of the subcontinental mantle mainly between 1.0 and 2.3 Ga (Paleo-Mesoproterozoic events), the mantle sources preserved the isotopic heterogeneities over long time periods, suggesting a non-convective, i.e., lithospheric, mantle source beneath different cratonic or intercratonic areas.

Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; De Min, Angelo; Girardi, Vicente A. V.; Gomes, Celso B.

2014-02-01

251

Spatio-temporal evolution of a dispersed magmatic system and its implications for volcano growth, Jeju Island Volcanic Field, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jeju Island is the emergent portion of a basaltic volcanic field developed over the last c. 1.8 Ma on continental crust. Initial volcanism comprised dispersed, small-volume (< 0.01 km3) alkali basaltic eruptions that incrementally constructed a tuff pile. Lavas and scoria from continuing small-scaled monogenetic volcanism capped this foundation. From c. 0.4 Ma large-volume (> 1 km3) eruptions began, with lavas building a composite shield. Three magma suites can be recognized: Early Pleistocene high-Al alkali (HAA), and Late Pleistocene to Holocene low-Al alkali (LAA) and subalkali (SA). The chemical similarity between small-volume and primitive large-volume eruptions suggests analogous parent magmas and fractionation histories that are independent of erupted volumes. The large-volume magmas evolved to trachyte, which erupted in two distinct episodes: the HAA Sanbangsan suite at c. 750 ka and the LAA Hallasan suite at c. 25 ka. Sr and Nd isotopes indicate that the early trachytes were contaminated by upper crustal material, whereas the later magmas were not. Both suites bear a Nd isotope signature indicative of lower crustal interaction. Sub-suites transitional between HAA and LAA, and between LAA and SA, indicate that melting occurred in discrete, but adjacent, mantle domains. Throughout the evolution of this volcano, each magma batch erupted separately, and a centralized plumbing system was never created. The Island's central peak (Mt. Halla 1950 m a.s.l.) is therefore not a sensu stricto stratovolcano, but marks the point of peak magma output in a distributed magmatic system. Jeju's shape and topography thus represent the spatial variation of fertility of the mantle below it. An increase in melt production in the Late Pleistocene was related to a deepening of the melting zone due to regional tectonic rearrangements. Temporal coincidences between magmatic pulses on Jeju and large-scale caldera eruptive events along the nearest subduction system in Kyushu, Japan, suggest that tectonic extension and changing strain rates may drive volcanism on a regional basis, influencing the intraplate volcanism of Jeju Island.

Brenna, Marco; Cronin, Shane J.; Smith, Ian E. M.; Sohn, Young Kwan; Maas, Roland

2012-09-01

252

Volcanisms and Earthquakes Related to the Pacific Plate Subduction in Northeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very known that an integrated plate system displays in Northeast Asia from the Pacific Plate subduction zone via arc islands and back-arc basin to the continental margin with rifting system. Based on this geological background many huge earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occurred in this area from the Mesozoic to the present such as Fujiyama Volcano in Japan, Cheju Volcano in South Korea, Changbaishan Volcano in China and M 7.3 deep focus earthquake in Wangqing, Northeast China of June 28,2002, M9 earthquake in Northeast Japan of March 11,2011 and so on. Now it is tectonic active phase in the Northeast Asia, even in the globe. The Changbaishan Volcano is huge volcanic group with some 12-103 km2 area and hundreds volcanic cones crossed the boundary between China and Korea covered 41° -42.5° latitude north and 127° -129° longitude east. It is among largest active and dangerous volcanoes on the Globe and composed of three main volcanoes (eruptive centers): Tianchi(2755 m a.s.l.), Wangtian'e (2438m a.s.l.) and South Paotaishan (2434m a.s.l.), which distribution assumes as tripod. These three eruptive centers have similar magma system and different ages. They were built from the Early Miocene to the Recent by basaltic flow as lava plateau, trachyte composing of volcanic cones and pyroclastic deposits covering the tops of the mountains and other places. Tianchi volcano is younger than others. According to historic documents the largest eruption of Tianchi volcano occurred in 1014-1019 AD., after that there were still several eruptions until 1903 AD. The frequencies of Changbaishan volcanic eruptions corresponded to those of the Pacific, especially Japan. There is systematic magma evolution from basic basalt, intermediate trachyte to acid pantellerite with 87Sr/86Sr 0.704771-0.710096, 143Nd/144Nd 0.512487-0.512602, which indicated that the magma derived from rich mantle. Geophysical data reveal a buried magmatic reservoir is lying below the volcanoes. Recently, the west Pacific fire ring is very active accompanied with frequent volcanic eruptions and earthquakes; the earthquake frequency and intensity and geochemical anomaly also obviously strengthen in the surrounding of Changbaishan volcanoes. It reveals that volcanic activity and possibility of re-eruption is going to strengthen. Therefore we must put attention to volcanic action.

Liu, J.; Chen, X.

2012-04-01

253

Early Miocene Kirka-Phrigian caldera, western Anatolia - an example of large volume silicic magma generation in extensional setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large rhyolitic ignimbrite occurrences are close connected to the Early Miocene initiation of extensional processes in the central-west Anatolia along Ta?vanl?-Afyon zones. Field correlations, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data lead to a substantial reinterpretation of the ignimbrite surrounding K?rka area, known from its world-class borate deposits, as representing the climatic event of a caldera collapse, unknown up to now and newly named "K?rka-Phrigian caldera". The caldera, which is roughly oval (24 km x 15km) in shape, one of the largest in Turkey, is supposed to have been formed in a single stage collapse event, at ~19 Ma that generated huge volume extracaldera outflow ignimbrites. Transtensive/distensive tectonic stresses since 25 Ma ago resulted in the NNW-SSE elongation of the magma chamber and influenced the roughly elliptical shape of the subsided block (caldera floor) belonging to the apex of Eski?ehir-Afyon-Isparta volcanic area. Intracaldera post-collapse sedimentation and volcanism (at ~ 18 Ma) was controlled through subsidence-related faults with generation of a series of volcanic structures (mainly domes) showing a large compositional range from saturated silicic rhyolites and crystal-rich trachytes to undersaturated lamproites. Such volcanic rock association is typical for lithospheric extension. In this scenario, enriched mantle components within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle will begin to melt via decompression melting during the initiation of extension. Interaction of these melts with crustal rocks, fractionation processes and crustal anatexis driven by the heat contained in the ascending mantle melts produced the silicic compositions in a large crustal reservoir. Such silicic melts generated the initial eruptions of K?rka-Phrigian caldera ignimbrites. The rock volume and geochemical evidence suggests that silicic volcanic rocks come from a long-lived magma chamber that evolved episodically; after caldera generation there is a shift to small volume episodic rhyolitic, trachytic and lamproitic volcanism, the last ones indicating a more primitive magma input with evident origin in an enriched mantle lithosphere. The volcanic rock succession provides a direct picture of the state of the magmatic system at the time of eruptions that generated caldera and post-caldera structures and offer an excellent example for silicic magma generation and associated potassic and ultrapotassic intermediate-mafic rocks in post-collisional extensional setting.

Seghedi, Ioan; Helvac?, Cahit

2014-05-01

254

Topographic Attributes of Three Hawaiian Lava Flows: Implications for Evaluation of Lava Flow Emplacement on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential Global Positioning System surveys were carried out recently across portions of three lava flows on the Big Island of Hawaii. Transects crossed an entire flow in several cases, and in other cases provided detailed information about selected flow margins. The 1907 basalt (a'a) flow from the southwestern rift zone of Mauna Loa has easy access at several points via the Ocean View Estates road system; flow thickness ranges from about 1 m near the middle of the eastern flow lobe to more than 10 m toward the distal end of this flow. Several components of a benmoreite (alkali-rich basaltic andesite) flow complex from Mauna Kea were examined near the small community of Mana (with permission of the Parker Ranch management), on the western flank of the volcano. The flows are more than 14,000 years old and completely covered with soil more than a meter thick, but flow morphology at the decameter scale remains very evident in aerial photographs; some benmoreite flows have up to 30 m of relief along their middle reaches. A trachyte flow more than 100,000 years old extends down slope from Puu Waawaa, on the northern flank of Hualalai; Puu Anahulu represents a very advanced stage of magmatic differentiation that resulted in a flow complex with more than 120 m of relief at its southern margin. Width/thickness represents a good discriminator between these three Hawaiian lava flows. Unfortunately, width is often the most difficult parameter to measure remotely for flows on other planets. Recent imaging data from the Thermal Emission Imaging System on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft reveal important new details of lava flows in the Tharsis region of Mars, some of which can be combined with elevation information from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. The precise topographic characteristics of diverse Hawaiian lava flows provide a new tool for evaluating the potential emplacement conditions for some Martian lava flows, which appear to be more consistent with the basalt to basaltic andesite lava flows than with the highly evolved trachyte flows. Future work, supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, will obtain additional precise topographic information for several Hawaiian flows to expand the topographic data set for comparison with the Martian flows, as well as lava flows on other planetary bodies.

Zimbelman, J. R.

2004-12-01

255

Gels composed of sodium-aluminum silicate, Lake Magadi, Kenya  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sodium-aluminum silicate gels are found in surftcial deposits as thick as 5 centimeters in the Magadi area of Kenya. Chemical data indicate they are formed by the interaction of hot alkaline springwaters (67?? to 82??C; pH, about 9) with alkali trachyte flows and their detritus, rather than by direct precipitation. In the process, Na2O is added from and silica is released to the saline waters of the springs. Algal mats protect the gels from erosion and act as thermal insulators. The gels are probably yearly accumulates that are washed into the lakes during floods. Crystallization of these gels in the laboratory yields analcite; this fact suggests that some analcite beds in lacustrine deposits may have formed from gels. Textural evidence indicates that cherts of rocks of the Pleistocene chert series in the Magadi area may have formed from soft sodium silicate gels. Similar gels may have acted as substrates for the accumulation and preservation of prebiological organic matter during the Precambrian.

Eugster, H.P.; Jones, B.F.

1968-01-01

256

A numerically calibrated reference level (MP28) for the terrestrial mammal-based biozonation of the European Upper Oligocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fauna of the Enspel (Westerwald) and the neighbouring Kärlich (Neuwied basin) fossil deposits correspond to the Upper Oligocene Mammal Paleogene (MP) reference level 28 and 28 30, respectively. Basaltic flows and a trachyte tuff terminating and predating the fossil deposit sedimentation allow to numerically calibrate the MP reference levels by radioisotope dating. Laser fusion 40Ar/39Ar step heating on volcanic feldspars yield a time interval of 24.9 24.5 Ma for reference level MP28 at Enspel and a maximum age of 25.5 Ma for the time interval MP28 MP30 at Kärlich. Interpolation between the time intervals determined for the Enspel reference level MP28 and the age of the global Oligocene/Miocene boundary of 24.0 ± 0.1 Ma taken from literature results in time intervals of 24.5 24.2 Ma and 24.2 23.9 Ma for the younger reference levels MP29 and MP30, respectively. These intervals of ? 0.4 m.y. for MP reference levels of the latest Oligocene are short relative to older Oligocene MP reference levels 21 27 between 34 and 25 Ma. Since subdivision into MP reference levels essentially is based on assemblages of mammal taxa and on evolutionary changes in tooth morphology of mammals short MP time intervals during the latest Oligocene indicate a rapid evolutionary change relative to the early Oligocene.

Mertz, Dieter F.; Renne, Paul R.; Wuttke, Michael; Mödden, Clemens

2007-04-01

257

Vent distribution in the Quaternary Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, western Argentina: Its relation to tectonics and crustal structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field consists of two polygenetic and mostly trachytic volcanoes (Payún Matrú with a summit caldera and Payún Liso) along with around 220 scoria cones and basaltic lava flows. This volcanic field belongs to the Payenia Basaltic Province (33° 30?-38° S), a Quaternary Andean back-arc basaltic province of the Southern Volcanic Zone, in western Argentina. The vent density distribution of the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field is different from the other volcanic fields within Payenia. The Payún Matrú volcano and the scoria cones are distributed in an E-W oriented fringe about 15 km wide and 70 km long, with the Payún Matrú caldera in the middle of this fringe. The structural framework in which the volcanic field is located allows to infer that this vent density distribution is strongly conditioned by pre-existing crustal anisotropies. The volcanic field is located in a transfer zone related to Jurassic extensional structures of the Neuquén Basin, which were inverted also as a transfer zone during the Miocene compressive deformation that formed the Malargüe fold and thrust belt, and, in addition, it is located in the southern margin of a Neogene syn-orogenic basin. The analysis of vent center location and vent morphology is helpful to determine basaltic vent alignments within the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field and to infer the syn-eruptive stress field. This analysis shows that vent alignments are compatible with the present-day maximum horizontal stress, as measured by break-out of oil wells.

Hernando, I. R.; Franzese, J. R.; Llambías, E. J.; Petrinovic, I. A.

2014-05-01

258

Petrological evidence regarding the evolution of the Kenya Rift Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compositions of mafic volcanic rocks of the Kenya Rift Valley indicate either generation, or final equilibration, of magmas within the lithosphere. The dominant lithologies in the mantle sources are spinel- and garnet-lherzolites and melt generation spanned the spinel-garnet transition. Modally metasomatised sources have been less important, at least in Quaternary times. The sources are depleted relative to the sources of oceanic island basalts and heterogeneous as regards minor and trace element distribution. Variable degrees of partial melting (always < 3%) and retention of minor phases diversify magma compositions. Primary magmas are rare in the rift zone. All major sequences show evidence of extensive polybaric fractionation within the upper mantle and lower crust. Inter-crustal fractionation has commonly been accompanied by assimilation and the development of silica-(over)saturated liquids. Fractionation at high crustal levels has generated a wide range of mugearitic, trachytic and phonolitic magmas. Crustal anatexis has locally resulted in the formation of peralkaline rhyolites. Generation of the enormous volumes of rift volcanics must also have generated huge volumes of mafic and ultramafic cumulates, especially at or near the Moho. It is possible that, in the most magmatically active areas, more than 20% of the thickness of the crust is due to magmatic underplating and crustal intrusion.

Macdonald, Ray

1994-09-01

259

Geochemistry of the Cretaceous shales and its implication on regional tectonics and correlation: Wyoming and Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Cretaceous strata of north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana consist of shale, mudstone, and sandstone with minor conglomerate, coal, and bentonite. The primary objective in this paper is to utilize the mineralogical and geochemical data of the critical and dominant lithofacies group comprised of shale and mudstone to reevaluate regional tectonics, provenance aspects, and correlation of the Cretaceous foreland basin sediments. Relative abundances of nickel, zinc, lanthanum, and cerium in the marine samples can be attributed largely to the organic-rich nature and presence of mineral phase apatite in the marine group. The abundance of these trace elements is presumably related to the proximity of local bedrock source region and distinctive clay mineral suite in the marine sediments. Low concentrations of zirconium, titanium, and chromium in nonmarine Cloverly mudrock indicate an alkaline to peralkaline original sediment (ash) composition as opposed to trachytic to dacitic component for the marine group. Furthermore, the marine sequences in the Cretaceous foreland basin are related to thrust load-induced flexure. Overall geochemical behavior of the analyzed samples seems to be related more to confidently to tectonism rather than different provenance. This geochemical classification can be utilized for stratigraphic correlation of the several lenticular sandstone members encased within the various Cretaceous units and offers an excellent opportunity for future oil and gas exploration in this region.

Khandker, N.I. (Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States)); Vondra, C.F. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

1991-03-01

260

Active synchronous counterclockwise rotation and northwards translation of Africa toward Eurasia during the Late Cretaceous: A paleomagnetic study on the Alkaline volcanic field of Wadi Natash (ca. 100-86Ma), South Eastern Desert, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to shed light on the paleo-tectonic movement of Africa during the Late Cretaceous, the two end members of the alkaline volcanic field of Wadi Natash (ca. 100-86Ma) in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt were studied paleomagnetically. The Wadi Natash volcanic field (24.5°N-34.25°E) is made up of a succession of differentiated flows grading from alkali olivine basalt [AOB] to trachyte-phonolite [Tr/Ph]. The oldest flows of the AOB (104±7 Ma) and the youngest Tr/Ph plugs and ring dykes (86Ma) as well as the interflows sandstones [ previously know as Nubian sandstone were sampled allover the field > 400km2. The isothermal remanent magnetization [IRM] study revealed that the remanence in Wadi Natash volcanics reside mainly in magnetite with some subsidiary goethite/hematite sites. On the other hand, goethite/hematite are the sole remanence carriers in the Nubian-type interflow sandstone. After the progressive stepwise thermal demagnetization of all samples, the visual isolation and subsequent calculation of the best-fit line of the characteristic remanence [ChRM] direction of each sample, followed by the calculation of the site and rock-unit means revealed that: 1- In the tilt-corrected coordinates, the mean ChRM of the oldest AOB flows [N=12 sites

Lotfy, H.

2009-04-01

261

Age discrimination among eruptives of Menengai Caldera, Kenya, using vegetation parameters from satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of an investigation to determine the degree to which digitally processed Landsat TM imagery can be used to discriminate among vegetated lava flows of different ages in the Menengai Caldera, Kenya. A selective series of five images, consisting of a color-coded Landsat 5 classification and four color composites, are compared with geologic maps. The most recent of more than 70 postcaldera flows within the caldera are trachytes, which are variably covered by shrubs and subsidiary grasses. Soil development evolves as a function of time, and as such supports a changing plant community. Progressively older flows exhibit the increasing dominance of grasses over bushes. The Landsat images correlated well with geologic maps, but the two mapped age classes could be further subdivided on the basis of different vegetation communities. It is concluded that field maps can be modified, and in some cases corrected by use of such imagery, and that digitally enhanced Landsat imagery can be a useful aid to field mapping in similar terrains.

Blodget, Herbert W.; Heirtzler, James R.

1993-01-01

262

40Ar/39Ar Dating of the Pleistocene Peninj Group, Lake Natron, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

40Ar/39Ar incremental-heating experiments on basaltic lavas and single-crystal total-fusion analyses of trachytic tuffs provide for the first time accurate resolution of the chronostratigraphy of the Pleistocene Peninj Group west of Lake Natron, northern Tanzania. These new data force a major revision of the chronology of the entire sequence: the base of the group is now ~1.75 Ma, the Wa Mbugu basalt within the Main Tuff is 1.19 ± 0.03 Ma (Cobb Mountain paleomagnetic event), and the top of the Peninj Group is 1.01 ± 0.03 Ma. Thus the Achulean and Olduwan artifact assemblages found in the Upper Sands and Clays of the upper Humbu Formation above the Wa Mbugu basalt are about ~1.2 to 1.1 Ma, half a million years younger than previously believed. The revised chronology also clarifies the age of the major lake expansion recorded within the upper part of the Peninj Group. This lacustrine phase is now constrained to ~1.1 to 1.0 Ma, corresponding to a previously identified episode of lake expansion in East Africa between 1.1 and 0.9 Ma (Trauth et al., 2005).

Deino, A. L.; Dominguez-Rodrigo, M.; Luque, L.

2006-12-01

263

The Sagatu Ridge dike swarm, Ethiopian rift margin. [tectonic evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A swarm of dikes forms the core of the Sagatu Ridge, a 70-km-long topographic feature elevated to more than 4000 m above sea level and 1500 m above the level of the Eastern (Somalian) plateau. The ridge trends NNE and lies about 50 km east of the northeasterly trending rift-valley margin. Intrusion of the dikes and buildup of the flood-lava pile, largely hawaiitic but with trachyte preponderant in the final stages, occurred during the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene and may have been contemporaneous with downwarping of the protorift trough to the west. The ensuing faulting that formed the present rift margin, however, bypassed the ridge. The peculiar situation and orientation of the Sagatu Ridge, and its temporary existence as a line of crustal extension and voluminous magmatism, are considered related to a powerful structural control by a major line of Precambrian crustal weakness, well exposed further south. Transverse rift structures of unknown type appear to have limited the development of the ridge to the north and south.

Mohr, P. A.; Potter, E. C.

1976-01-01

264

Experimentally observed iron redox kinetics in silicic liquids: Implications for Fe/sup 3 +//Fe/sup 2 +/ variations in rhyolite lava  

SciTech Connect

Iron redox kinetics in silicate liquids were investigated by melting 100 mg pellets of compacted rhyolite, pantellerite, pantelleritic trachyte, and andesite rock powders at 1243 and 1343/degree/C in a moderately reducing furnace atmosphere (log fO/sub 2/ = /minus/7.83) for periods of 1 to 4320 minutes. The redox state of glasses produced by quenching these liquids was determined by colorimetric analysis of the ferrous iron and total iron content. Redox equilibrium, indicated by the attainment of a constant FeO/FeO/sub tot/ ratio, was observed for all temperature-composition conditions studied, except for 1243/degree/C experiments with USGS rhyolite standard RGM-1. This is consistent with the low diffusivity of reacting components in high viscosity rhyolite liquids. In the 1243/degree/C experiments with RGM-1, no change in the FeO/FeO/sub tot/ ratio was observed after 4320 minutes. This implies that redox equilibrium is not maintained in natural rhyolite lavas which erupt as significantly lower temperatures (720--850/degree/C). We conclude that sluggish redox kinetics precludes major changes in the oxidation state of a rhyolite magma during the eruption process. If this is true, then the quenched magma, represented by glassy rhyolites, preserves the pre-eruption redox signature of the magma. 2 refs.

Naney, M.T.; Swanson, S.E.

1989-01-01

265

Calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission was calibrated for routine analysis of: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Y. The following elements were also calibrated, but may be too low to be measured (10s-100s ppm) for their usual abundance on Mars: V, Cu, Ga, As, Se and W. An extensive suite of geological reference materials, supplemented by pure chemical elements and compounds was used. Special attention was paid to include phyllosilicates, sulfates and a broad selection of basalts as these are predicted minerals and rocks at the Gale Crater landing site. The calibration approach is from first principles, using fundamental physics parameters and an assumed homogeneous sample matrix to calculate expected elemental signals for a given instrument setup and sample composition. Resulting concentrations for most elements accord with expected values. Deviations in elements of lower atomic number (Na, Mg, Al) indicate significant influences of mineral phases, especially in basalts, ultramafic rocks and trachytes. The systematics of these deviations help us to derive empirical, iterative corrections for different rock groups, based on a preliminary APXS analysis which assumes a homogeneous sample. These corrections have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of APXS analyses, especially when other MSL instrument results, such as the X-ray diffraction data from CheMin, are included in the overall analysis process.

Campbell, John L.; Perrett, Glynis M.; Gellert, Ralf; Andrushenko, Stefan M.; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Maxwell, John A.; King, Penelope L.; Schofield, Céleste D. M.

2012-09-01

266

Paleomagnetism of Pleistocene volcanic rocks from Pantelleria Island (Sicily Channel), Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A paleomagnetic investigation has been carried out on Pleistocene volcanic rocks from Pantelleria, in the Sicily Channel. This island is characterised by a bimodal volcanism of peralkaline rhyolite to trachyte and basalt composition. The radiometric data indicate that volcanic activity started around 324 ka BP. Samples have been collected from 30 sites in 16 volcanic units spanning activity during the last 150 ka. Magnetic properties vary systematically with lithotype and indicate high-Ti titanomagnetite to magnetite as the main carriers of magnetisation. Stable characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) directions isolated by alternating fields (Af) demagnetisation show normal polarity consistent with emplacement during the Brunhes chron and vary within the paleosecular variation (PSV) range. However, the inclinations are low as compared with the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination at Pantelleria, especially for volcanic units younger than 50 ka. The mean ChRM direction computed from 27 sites is D=358.8°, I=46.9° ( k=30, ?95=5.2°), and the inclination anomaly is ? I=-8.1°. Both tectonic movements and the presence of large magnetic anomalies around the island of Pantelleria fail to explain this low inclination, which may therefore be related to a significant long-lived, non-dipolar field contribution in the area over the past 150 kyr.

Zanella, Elena

1998-08-01

267

A 90,000 200,000 yrs marine tephra record of Italian volcanic activity in the Central Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed tephrochronological study was undertaken in three deep-sea cores collected in the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas. The age and the origin of the marine tephra were inferred from oxygen isotope records of foraminifera and from major element compositions of glass-shards. Seventy-one eruptions were detected in the time interval 90,000-200,000 yrs during which the volcanoes of the Roman and Campanian regions and of the southern Italy were in activity. This is attested by the consistency of the geochemical compositions of both marine and terrestrial deposits. Most of the marine tephra consisted in trachytes and phonolites characterizing a Roman and Campanian origin. Several tephra were proposed as key-horizons for proximal and distal sediments. Among them, one tephra originating from Mount Etna (149,300 yrs) and five tephra from Pantelleria island (130,000 yrs, 163,600 yrs, 192,500 yrs, 197,400 yrs and 198,400 yrs) were northerly dispersed. Several other key horizons originated from the Campanian or Roman provinces were detected as far as 1000 km from the vents.

Paterne, M.; Guichard, F.; Duplessy, J. C.; Siani, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Labeyrie, J.

2008-10-01

268

Magmatism and tectonic settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual relationships of mobile lithospheric plates define two distinct tectonic environments each characterized by diagnostic magmatism. A compressional environment occurs at loci of plate convergence; quartz- and hypersthene-normative intermediate, acid and basic members of the calc-alkaline orogenic suite are emplaced above a dipping seismic zone. A tensional environment occurs mainly at loci of plate divergence, areas characterized by networks of deep fractures, offset by transform faults. Products of nonorogenic magmatism typically consist of abundant tholeiitic or alkali olivine basalt, possibly accompanied by rhyolite, trachyte, or phonolite (or plutonic equivalents); intermediate compositions are volumetrically insignificant. On a differentiation index versus frequency plot, orogenic suites define one maximum, nonorogenic suites two maximums. Orogenic rocks show no iron enrichment; nonorogenic suites do. Recognition of older igneous associations as orogenic or nonorogenic by employing chemical and mineralogical criteria can lead to inferences about tectonic environments during emplacement. Such criteria may provide a unique insight into regional tectonic evolution very difficult to deduce from structural investigations alone.

Martin, R. F.; Piwinskii, A. J.

1972-09-01

269

The volcanic-subvolcanic rocks of the fernando de noronha archipelago, southern atlantic ocean: Mineral chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fernando de Noronha archipelago presents an older Remédios Formation with subvolcanic intrusions, belonging to two different alkaline series, the sodic (undersaturated: basanites, tephrites, essexites, tephriphonolites, phonolites), and potassic ones (mildly undersaturated to silicic, with alkali basalts, basaltic trachyandesites, trachyandesites, trachytes), and lamprophyres. The upper Quixaba Formation presents nephelinite flows and basanites. A third minor unit, São José, is constituted by basanites carrying mantle xenoliths. Magnesian olivines occur in the Remédios basanites and alkali basalts, and in nephelinites. Melilites are present as groundmass grains in melilite melanephelinites (MEM). Clinopyroxenes (cpx) are mostly salites to titaniferous salites (Remédios sodic series), grading into aegirines in the differentiated aphyric phonolites. Cpx in the lamprophyres show disequilibrium textures. In the Quixaba flows, cpx are salites, enriched in Mg (especially in MEM). Amphiboles, remarkably, are common in tephriphonolites and phonolites and in basaltic trachyandesites, sometimes with disequilibrum zoning textures, and a conspicuous phase in lamprophyres. Dark micas are present as groundmass plates in MEM, OLM and PYM (olivine and pyroxene melanephelinites), with compositional variety (enriched in Ti, Ba, Sr) depending on the composition of the parent rock; BaO can be as high as 16-19%. Feldspars crystallize as calcic plagioclases, sanidines and anorthoclases, depending on the rock types, as phenocrysts and in groundmass, both in Quixaba and Remédios rocks; they are absent in nephelinites. Nephelines are found in Remédios sodic series types and Quixaba rocks. Haüyne and noseane are rarely observed in Remédios rocks.

Lopes, Rosana Peporine; Ulbrich, Mabel N. Costas; Ulbrich, Horstpeter

2014-12-01

270

High-resolution sedimentary record of the last deglaciation from a high-altitude lake in Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentological and geochemical studies conducted on a 15.82-m long core collected from Lake Garba Guracha (Ethiopia) associated with a precise AMS- 14C time-scale document a unique record of the sedimentary processes linked to the progressive retreat of a high-altitude glacier in the Bale Mountains since 17,000 yr cal BP. Lake sedimentation is interpreted as the result of discharges of meltwater and glaciogenic sediment which progressively filled the accommodation space generated by glacier retreat within the basin. Monogenic sediment originated from glacial erosion of the trachytic tuff forming the cirque floor. Ice melting ended progressively between 12,600 and 11,800 cal BP, as suggested by the decrease in sedimentation energy followed by a sharp change in sedimentary facies. From 11,800 cal BP, the lake reached its maximum development and clastic input was replaced by organic-rich sedimentation. This relates to a major increase of lake productivity, which lasted up to 4500 cal BP. From this period, a lowering in productivity reflects the widespread dryness which occurred throughout the East African tropics.

Tiercelin, J.-J.; Gibert, E.; Umer, M.; Bonnefille, R.; Disnar, J.-R.; Lézine, A.-M.; Hureau-Mazaudier, D.; Travi, Y.; Keravis, D.; Lamb, H. F.

2008-03-01

271

Italian zeolitized rocks of technological interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large areas of Italian territory are covered by thick and widespread deposits of zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic products. The main zeolites are phillipsite and chabazite spread over the whole peninsula, and clinoptilolite recorded only in Sardinia. A trachytic to phonolitic glassy precursor accounts for the formation of the former zeolites characterized by low Si/Al ratios (?3.00), while clinoptilolite is related to more acidic volcanism. The genesis of most of these zeolitized deposits is linked to pyroclastic flow emplacement mechanisms characterized by quite high temperatures and by the presence of abundant fluids. The main utilization of these materials has been and still is as dimension stones in the building industry. Currently, limited amounts are also employed in animal farming (dietary supplement, pet litter and manure deodorizer) and in agriculture as soil improvement and slow-release fertilizers. New fields of application have been proposed for these products on account of their easy availability, very low cost, their high-grade zeolites (50 70%), and good technological features such as high cation exchange capacities and adsorption properties.

de'Gennaro, M.; Langella, A.

1996-09-01

272

Distribution, geochemistry and age of the Millennium eruptives of Changbaishan volcano, Northeast China — A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large explosive volcanic eruptions generate extensive regional tephra deposits that provide favorable conditions for identifying the source of volcanoes, comparing the sedimentary strata of a region and determining their ages. The tephra layer, referred to as B-Tm, generated by the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano, is widely distributed in Northeast China, Japan, D.P.R. Korea, and the nearby coastal area of Russia. It forms part of the widespread northeast Asian strata and is significant for establishing an isochronal stratigraphic framework. However, research on the temporal characterization and stratigraphic correlation of associated strata using this tephra layer is mainly concentrated in and near Japan. In northeastern China, this tephra layer is seldom seen and its application in stratigraphic correlations is even rarer. More importantly, the determination of accurate ages for both distal and proximal tephras has been debated, leading to controversy in discussions of its environmental impacts. Stratigraphic records from both distal and proximal Changbaishan ash show that this eruption generally occurred between 1,012 and 1,004 cal yr BP. Geochemical comparison between Changbaishan ash and the Quaternary widespread ash around Japan illustrates that Changbaishan ash is a continuous composition from rhyolitic to trachytic and its ratio of FeOT to CaO is usually greater than 4, which can be used as a distinguishing identifier among worldwide contemporary eruptions.

Sun, Chunqing; You, Haitao; Liu, Jiaqi; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinliang; Chen, Shuangshuang

2014-06-01

273

Geological and 40Ar/39Ar age constraints on late-stage Deccan rhyolitic volcanism, inter-volcanic sedimentation, and the Panvel flexure from the Dongri area, Mumbai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-K-Pg Boundary Deccan magmatism is well known from the Mumbai area in the Panvel flexure zone. Represented by the Salsette Subgroup, it shows characters atypical of much of the Deccan Traps, including rhyolite lavas and tuffs, mafic tuffs and breccias, spilitic pillow basalts, and "intertrappean" sedimentary or volcanosedimentary deposits, with mafic intrusions as well as trachyte intrusions containing basaltic enclaves. The intertrappean deposits have been interpreted as formed in shallow marine or lagoonal environments in small fault-bounded basins due to syn-volcanic subsidence. We report a previously unknown sedimentary deposit underlying the Dongri rhyolite flow from the upper part of the Salsette Subgroup, with a westerly tectonic dip due to the Panvel flexure. We have obtained concordant 40Ar/39Ar ages of 62.6 ± 0.6 Ma (2?) and 62.9 ± 0.2 Ma (2?) for samples taken from two separate outcrops of this rhyolite. The results are significant in showing that (i) Danian inter-volcanic sedimentary deposits formed throughout Mumbai, (ii) the rock units are consistent with the stratigraphy postulated earlier for Mumbai, (iii) shale fragments known in some Dongri tuffs were likely derived from the sedimentary deposit under the Dongri rhyolite, (iv) the total duration of extrusive and intrusive Deccan magmatism was at least 8-9 million years, and (v) Panvel flexure formed, or continued to form, after 63 Ma, possibly even 62 Ma, and could not have formed by 65-64 Ma as concluded in a recent study.

Sheth, Hetu C.; Pande, Kanchan

2014-04-01

274

40Ar/(39)Ar geochronology and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of the Lukeino and lower Chemeron Formations at Tabarin and Kapcheberek, Tugen Hills, Kenya.  

PubMed

(40)Ar/(39)Ar single-crystal laser-fusion dating, K-Ar dating, and paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy have been used to determine the chronostratigraphy of the Kabarnet Trachyte, Lukeino Formation, Kaparaina Basalt Formation, and Chemeron Formation at the sites of Kapcheberek (BPRP#77) and Tabarin (BPRP#77) in the Tugen Hills, Kenya. The succession ranges in age from 6.56-3.8 Ma. The upper Lukeino Formation at Kapcherberek, including the fauna from the site BPRP#76, was deposited during chron C3r and can be constrained to the interval 5.88-5.72 Ma. The Chemeron Formation at Tabarin includes at the base an ignimbrite and associated basal air-fall tuff with a combined age of 5.31+/-0.03 Ma. Sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks of the Chemeron Formation which unconformably overlie the ignimbrite record chrons C3n.2n through C2Ar. The combined(40)Ar/(39)Ar and paleomagnetic data constrain the age of this sequence to 4.63-3.837 Ma. The age of the Tabarin mandible fragment (KNM-TH 13150) and associated fauna at site BPRP#77 in the Chemeron Formation is 4.48-4.41 Ma, marginally older than similar early hominids from Aramis, Ethiopia. Basin subsidence appears to be defining an overall accumulation rate of about 17 cm/ka over the 2.7 Ma represented at Tabarin and Kapcheberek, despite episodes of rapid accumulation and hiatuses. PMID:11795971

Deino, Alan L; Tauxe, Lisa; Monaghan, Marc; Hill, Andrew

2002-01-01

275

Effects of crystallization and bubble nucleation on the elastic properties of magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic tomography of potentially hazardous volcanoes is a prime tool to assess the physical state of magma reservoirs. Processes occurring in the conduit or in the chamber, such as crystallization and bubble exsolution, control the magma rheology, hence the style of volcanic eruption. Elastic parameters of vapor-saturated, partially molten systems are thus providing fundamental information for the identification of such reservoirs under active and seemingly dormant volcanoes. This knowledge will potentially serve to assess their risk. We present preliminary data on compression and shear wave propagation velocities of a chemically simplified melt analogous to andesite and trachyte, in the system CaO-Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-CO2. These ultrasonic velocities are measured simultaneously in a Paterson-type internally-heated gas pressure apparatus at confining pressures up to 300 MPa and temperatures up to 1000°C. Using the pulse transmission technique, the experiments are performed at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 3 MHz. Variations in the elastic parameters induced by the presence of bubbles or dissolved water in glassy samples are discussed for various pressures and temperatures. As the investigated melt undergoes plagioclase crystallization, a thermal plateau is maintained over specific time duration in order to measure the changes in seismic properties of in-situ crystallizing magmas. This maintained temperature varies between 800° and 1000°C depending on the amount of dissolved water in the system.

Tripoli, B. A.; Ulmer, P.; Eric, R.; Cordonnier, B.; Burg, J.

2012-12-01

276

Geochemistry of high-potassium rocks from the mid-Tertiary Guffey volcanic center, Thirtynine Mile volcanic field, central Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Guffey volcanic center is the largest within the 2000 km{sup 2} mid-Tertiary Thirtynine Mile volcanic field of central Colorado. This study is the first to provide extensive chemical data for these alkalic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, which present the eroded remnants of a large stratovolcano of Oligocene age. Formation of early domes and flows of latite and trachyte within the Guffey center was followed by extrusion of a thick series of basalt, trachybasalt, and shoshonite flows and lahars. Plugs, dikes, and vents ranging from basalt to rhyolite cut the thick mafic deposits, and felsic tuffs breccias chemically identical to the small rhyolitic plutons are locally preserved. Whole-rack major and trace element analyses of 80 samples, ranging almost continuously from 47% to 78% SiO{sub 2}, indicate that the rocks of the Guffey center are among the most highly enriched in K{sub 2}O (up to 6%) and rare earth elements (typically 200-300 ppm) of any volcanic rocks in Colorado. These observations, along with the relatively high concentrations of Ba and Rb and the depletion of Cr and Ni, suggest an appreciable contribution of lower crustal material to the magmas that produced the Thirtynine Mile volcanic rocks.

Wobus, R.A.; Mochel, D.W. (Williams College, Williamstown, MA (USA)); Mertzman, S.A.; Eide, E.A.; Rothwarf, M.T. (Franklin Marshall College, Lancaster, PA (USA)); Loeffler, B.M.; Johnson, D.A. (Colorado College, Colorado Springs (USA)); Keating, G.N.; Sultz, K. (Carleton College, Northfield, MN (USA)); Benjamin, A.E. (Smith College, Northampton, MA (USA)); Venzke, E.A. (Beloit College, WI (USA)); Filson, T. (Whitman College, Walla Walla, WA (USA))

1990-07-01

277

Ash generation and distribution from the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland  

PubMed Central

The 39-day long eruption at the summit of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April–May 2010 was of modest size but ash was widely dispersed. By combining data from ground surveys and remote sensing we show that the erupted material was 4.8±1.2·1011?kg (benmoreite and trachyte, dense rock equivalent volume 0.18±0.05?km3). About 20% was lava and water-transported tephra, 80% was airborne tephra (bulk volume 0.27?km3) transported by 3–10?km high plumes. The airborne tephra was mostly fine ash (diameter <1000 µm). At least 7·1010?kg (70?Tg) was very fine ash (<28 µm), several times more than previously estimated via satellite retrievals. About 50% of the tephra fell in Iceland with the remainder carried towards south and east, detected over ~7 million km2 in Europe and the North Atlantic. Of order 1010?kg (2%) are considered to have been transported longer than 600–700?km with <108?kg (<0.02%) reaching mainland Europe. PMID:22893851

Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Prata, Fred J.; Oddsson, Björn; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Hayward, Chris L.; Stevenson, John A.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg

2012-01-01

278

Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology.

Posin, Seth B.; Greeley, Ronald

1988-01-01

279

Rheology and textures of experimental 3-phase magma mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid rocks, enclaves, crystal dispersion and zonation (…) are common natural features caused by magma mixing. Such a process has been suggested to trigger volcanic eruptions, during or soon after the replenishment of a differentiated magma chamber by a hotter mafic magma. However, so far little experimental work on magma mixing has been performed under realistic strain rate and P-T conditions. In particular, because of the technical difficulties associated to the implementation of deformation experiments at high pressures, most work has been performed at atmospheric pressures. We have thus performed high pressure torsion experiments with a Paterson Press using two contrasted magma compositions: a synthetic haplotonalitic composition (SiO2?69, close to trachyte-rhyolite compositions), and a natural basalt from Santorini Volcano (Greece). The first series of experiments was done between 900-1200°C at 300 MPa, with viscosity contrasts between both magmas varying from 0 to ~ 4 Log units. Results reveal that the transition from unmixed to mixed magmas occurs over a short temperature interval (<10°C) and that mixing and mingling both occur at a very low viscosity contrast only. SEM images show natural-like mixing textures whereas microprobe analyses reveal concomitant basalt melting and mixing producing andesitic melts. Further experiments including hydrous magmas are in progress; to consider water is essential because water has a profound influence on magma properties. These experiments will be a clue in the understanding of such a common process which possibly leads to eruptions.

Laumonier, M.; Arbaret, L.; Scaillet, B.

2012-04-01

280

Gels composed of sodium-aluminium silicate, lake magadi, kenya.  

PubMed

Sodium-aluminum silicate gels are found in surficial deposits as thick as 5 centimeters in the Magadi area of Kenya. Chemical data indicate they are formed by the interaction of hot alkaline springwaters (67 degrees to 82 degrees C; pH, about 9) with alkali trachyte flows and their detritus, rather than by direct precipitation. In the process, Na(2)O is added from and silica is released to the saline waters of the springs. Algal mats protect the gels from erosion and act as thermal insulators. The gels are probably yearly accumulates that are washed into the lakes during floods. Crystallization of these gels in the laboratory yields analcite; this fact suggests that some analcite beds in lacustrine deposits may have formed from gels. Textural evidence indicates that cherts of rocks of the Pleistocene chert series in the Magadi area may have formed from soft sodium silicate gels. Similar gels may have acted as substrates for the accumulation and preservation of prebiological organic matter during the Precambrian. PMID:17770594

Eugster, H P; Jones, B F

1968-07-12

281

Magma mixing in a zoned alkalic intrusion  

SciTech Connect

The Marble Canyon stock is unique among the alkalic intrusions of the Trans-Pecos magmatic province in being zoned from a critically silica-undersaturated rim of alkali gabbro (AG) to a silica-oversaturated core of quartz syenite (QS). Hybrid rocks of intermediate chemical and mineralogical compositions occur between the rim and core. Nepheline-syenite dikes occur only within the AG. Silica-rich dikes of quartz trachyte, pegmatite, and aplite cut the AG, QS, and hybrid rocks. Thermodynamic calculations of silica activity in the magmas illustrate the presence of two trends with decreasing temperature: a silica-poor trend from AG to nepheline syenite and a silica-rich trend from hybrid rocks to QS. Least-square modeling of rock and mineral compositions suggests 1) the nepheline syenites were derived by crystal-liquid fractionation from nearly solidified AG at the rim of the stock, 2) AG magma farther from the rim mixed with a small proportion of granitic magma, and 3) the mixture then differentiated to produce the hybrid rocks and QS. Zirconium dioxide inclusions in plagioclase crystals of the hybrid rocks and QS indicate that the AG magma contained some crystals before it mixed with the granitic magma. Two origins for the granitic magma are possible: 1) a late-stage differentiate of a mantle-derived hypersthene-normative magma and 2) melting of crustal material by the AG magma. Recognition of magma mixing might not have been possible if the AG had been hypersthene-normative.

Price, J.G.; Henry, C.D.; Barker, D.S.; Rubin, J.N.

1985-01-01

282

Enhanced crystal fabric analysis of a lava flow sample by neutron texture diffraction: A case study from the Castello d'Ischia dome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal fabric of a lava has been analyzed for the first time by neutron texture diffraction. In this study we quantitatively investigate the crystallographic preferred orientation of feldspars in the Castello d'Ischia (Ischia Island, Italy) trachytic exogenous dome. The crystallographic preferred orientation was measured with the monochromatic neutron texture diffractometer SV7 at the Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany and a Rietveld refinement was applied to the sum diffraction pattern. The complementary thin section analysis showed that the three-dimensional crystal shape and the corresponding shape preferred orientation are in agreement with the quantitative orientation distributions of the neutron texture data. The (0k0) crystallographic planes of the feldspars are roughly parallel to the local flow bands, whereas the other corresponding pole figures show that a pivotal rotation of the anorthoclase and sanidine crystals was active during the emplacement of this lava dome. In combination with scanning electron microscopy investigations, electron probe microanalysis, XRF, and X-ray diffraction, the Rietveld refinement of the neutron diffraction data indicates a slow cooling dynamic on the order of several months during their crystallization under subaerial conditions. Results attained here demonstrate that neutron texture diffraction is a powerful tool that can be applied to lava flows.

Walter, Jens M.; Iezzi, Gianluca; Albertini, Gianni; Gunter, Mickey E.; Piochi, Monica; Ventura, Guido; Jansen, Ekkehard; Fiori, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

283

Ash generation and distribution from the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland.  

PubMed

The 39-day long eruption at the summit of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April-May 2010 was of modest size but ash was widely dispersed. By combining data from ground surveys and remote sensing we show that the erupted material was 4.8±1.2·10¹¹?kg (benmoreite and trachyte, dense rock equivalent volume 0.18±0.05?km³). About 20% was lava and water-transported tephra, 80% was airborne tephra (bulk volume 0.27?km³) transported by 3-10?km high plumes. The airborne tephra was mostly fine ash (diameter <1000 µm). At least 7·10¹??kg (70?Tg) was very fine ash (<28 µm), several times more than previously estimated via satellite retrievals. About 50% of the tephra fell in Iceland with the remainder carried towards south and east, detected over ~7 million km² in Europe and the North Atlantic. Of order 10¹??kg (2%) are considered to have been transported longer than 600-700?km with <10??kg (<0.02%) reaching mainland Europe. PMID:22893851

Gudmundsson, Magnús T; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Höskuldsson, Armann; Larsen, Gudrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Prata, Fred J; Oddsson, Björn; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Hayward, Chris L; Stevenson, John A; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg

2012-01-01

284

Silurian magmatism in eastern Senegal and its significance for the Paleozoic evolution of NW-Gondwana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine basalt and trachyte of the Nandoumba group occur in eastern Senegal within the Bassarides branch of the Mauritanides orogen. The unit forms part of the parautochthonous domain which is stacked between underlying Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic foreland and overlying Variscan nappes. The crystallisation age of the volcanic to subvolcanic rocks has been determined by U-Pb single zircon SHRIMP method at 428 ± 5.2 Ma whereas zircon xenocryst ages vary from 500 to 2200 Ma. The shape of the xenocryst grains document proximal Neo- and Paleoproterozoic and distal Mesoproterozoic provenance areas for assimilated sediments. This is compatible with the Paleoproterozoic Birimian basement and Neoproterozoic cover rocks nearby whereas an origin from the Amazonian craton could be assumed for distal Mesoproterozoic zircons. Geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope whole rock analysis show that basalts of the Nandoumba group are similar to modern transitional to alkaline volcanic lavas in intraplate settings. Those basalts have a deep mantle source with a great contribution of a recycled mantle component such as EM1 and/or EM2. The basalts resemble in their composition those from the Meguma terrane of Nova Scotia which are of similar age suggesting a common source and therefore connection of Meguma with Gondwana during this period. Review of circum-Atlantic Silurian magmatism indicates ongoing fragmentation of NW-Gondwana that started in Cambro/Ordovician times.

Fullgraf, Thomas; Ndiaye, Papa Moussa; Blein, Olivier; Buscail, François; Lahondère, Didier; Le Métour, Joël; Sergeev, Sergey; Tegyey, Monique

2013-02-01

285

Dyella jiangningensis sp. nov., a ?-proteobacterium isolated from the surface of potassium-bearing rock.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile with one polar flagellum ?-proteobacterium, designated strain SBZ3-12(T), was isolated from surfaces of weathered potassic trachyte. Phylogenetic analysis of this strain based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that it was most closely related to Dyella japonica XD53(T) (97.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Dyella terrae JS14-6(T) (97.7%), Dyella soli JS12-10(T) (97.5%) and Dyella koreensis BB4(T) (97.0%). The DNA G+C content of strain SBZ3-12(T) was 64.0 mol%. In addition, iso-C(17:1)?9c, iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(16:0) were the major cellular fatty acids and ubiquinone Q-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone. The low DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain SBZ3-12(T) and recognized species of the genus Dyella and the many phenotypic properties supported the classification of strain SBZ3-12(T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Dyella, for which the name Dyella jiangningensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SBZ3-12(T) (?=CCTCC AB 2012160(T)?=KACC 16539(T)?=DSM 26119(T)). PMID:23435246

Zhao, Fei; Guo, Xin-qi; Wang, Peng; He, Lin-yan; Huang, Zhi; Sheng, Xia-fang

2013-09-01

286

Nature of basalt-deep crust interaction in the petrogenesis of a potassium-rich, silicic-dominated eruptive system, Davis Mountain volcanic field, west Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Davis Mountain volcanic field (DMVF) is one of several silicic-dominated eruptive centers that constitute the bulk of the Trans Pecos volcanic province (TPVP). New major-, trace element, and Pb-O isotope data on local granulite-facies xenoliths and the DMVF are used in evaluating the extent of basalt-deep crust interaction to produce voluminous silicic lavas and -ignimbrites. The DMVF (39.3--35.4 Ma) is a high-K, alkali basalt-potassic trachybasalt-shoshonite-latite-trachyte-rhyolite volcanoplutonic series with the evolved members being silica-saturated. DMF silicic rocks are characterized by high concentrations of Rb, Th, U, and K, low-[sup 18]O and have a broad range in Pb isotopes. These characteristics are inconsistent with an origin by partial melting of a Rb-Th-U depleted, unradiogenic Pb granulitic deep crust. However, distinctly different Pb isotope compositions between mafic and silicic rocks preclude an origin by fractional crystallization alone. Multistage-AFC involving a mantle-source, various proportions of OL-CPX-PLAG-KSPAR-MAG-AP-BIO-QTZ-aenigmatite-ZR differentiation, limited (<10%) amounts of deep and upper crustal contamination, and mixing between mafic and silicic magmas can satisfactorily account for the observed chemical and isotopic variation in the DMVF.

Ward, R.L.; Walker, J.A. (Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

287

The petrogenesis of sodic island arc magmas at Savo volcano, Solomon Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Savo, Solomon Islands, is a historically active volcano dominated by sodic, alkaline lavas, and pyroclastic rocks with up to 7.5 wt% Na2O, and high Sr, arc-like trace element chemistry. The suite is dominated by mugearites (plagioclase-clinopyroxene-magnetite ± amphibole ± olivine) and trachytes (plagioclase-amphibole-magnetite ± biotite). The presence of hydrous minerals (amphibole, biotite) indicates relatively wet magmas. In such melts, plagioclase is relatively unstable relative to iron oxides and ferromagnesian silicates; it is the latter minerals (particularly hornblende) that dominate cumulate nodules at Savo and drive the chemical differentiation of the suite, with a limited role for plagioclase. This is potentially occurring in a crustal “hot zone”, with major chemical differentiation occurring at depth. Batches of magma ascend periodically, where they are subject to decompression, water saturation and further cooling, resulting in closed-system crystallisation of plagioclase, and ultimately the production of sodic, crystal and feldspar-rich, high-Sr rocks. The sodic and hydrous nature of the parental magmas is interpreted to be the result of partial melting of metasomatised mantle, but radiogenic isotope data (Pb, Sr, Nd) cannot uniquely identify the source of the metasomatic agent.

Smith, D. J.; Petterson, M. G.; Saunders, A. D.; Millar, I. L.; Jenkin, G. R. T.; Toba, T.; Naden, J.; Cook, J. M.

2009-12-01

288

New chronological and geochemical constraints on the genesis and geological evolution of Ponza and Palmarola Volcanic Islands (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new geochronological and geochemical study of the volcanic rocks of the Ponza and Palmarola Islands, Pontine Archipelago, has been carried out. This archipelago is located along the boundary between the Italian continental shelf and the opening Tyrrhenian basin. It is a key area to study volcanism related to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Ponza is the oldest felsic magmatic manifestation in the central Tyrrhenian area. Previous studies suggested that Ponza volcanic activity began before 5 Ma. Twenty-five new K-Ar ages constrain the volcanic activity (rhyolitic hyaloclastites and dykes) to the last 4.2 Ma, with two episodes of quiescence between 3.7 and 3.2 Ma and between 2.9 and 1.0 Ma. A new volcanic episode dated at 3.2-2.9 Ma has been identified on the central and southern Ponza, with emplacement of pyroclastic units. At 1.0 Ma, a trachytic episode ended the volcanic activity. The near island of Palmarola exhibits rhyolitic hyaloclastites and domes dated between 1.6 and 1.5 Ma, indicating that the island was entirely built during the Early Pleistocene in a short span of time of ca. 120 ka. Although only 6-8 km apart, the two islands display significantly different geochemical signatures. Ponza rhyolites show major and trace element compositions representative of orogenic magmas of subduction/collision zones: high-K calc-alkaline and metaluminous rhyolites (Agpaitic Index [AI] and Alumina Saturation Index [ASI] <1), high LILE/HFSE (Th/Ta=16-21) and LREE/HFSE ratios (La/Nb>3), and Nb-Ta negative anomalies. In Palmarola, the orogenic character is also present, but much less marked than in Ponza: rhyolites have a peralkaline character (AI>1), lower LILE/HFSE (Th/Ta=11-15), low LREE/HFSE ratios (La/Nb=1-2) close to those of anorogenic lavas, and the Nb-Ta negative anomalies are almost absent. Y/Nb ratios indicate different magmatic sources, one similar to island-arc or active continental margin basalts for Ponza rhyolites, and the others probably involving an OIB type component for Palmarola rhyolites and Ponza trachytes. Palmarola volcanics represent a transitional magmatism: although a preserved collisional geochemical imprint, they show geochemical features approaching those of anorogenic lavas erupted in a within-plate context. The change of magmatism evidenced in this study can be related to the tectonic evolution of the area. Indeed, Hf, Ta and Rb contents suggest that the oldest Pliocene rhyolites of Ponza would emplace in a syn- to late-collisional setting, while the younger Pleistocene rhyolites of Palmarola would be emplaced in a post-collisional setting in which the orogenic character (Th/Ta) decreases and mantle influence (Nb/Ta) increases. Geochemical modeling strongly suggests that the Palmarola rhyolites represent the waning stages of a subduction-related magmatism. The K-Ar datings allow us to estimate precisely the transition of magmatism to last less than 1.3 Ma. The transitional magmas may be the result of the upwelling of asthenospheric mantle inducing melting of a metasomatized lithospheric mantle and the mixing between these two sources. This upwelling could occur during the extension of the Tyrrhenian basin, caused by the slab retreat and steepening, or during a process of slab break-off starting in the Pliocene.

Cadoux, Anita; Pinti, Daniele L.; Aznar, Cyril; Chiesa, Sergio; Gillot, Pierre-Yves

2005-04-01

289

Edaphics, active tectonics and animal movements in the Kenyan Rift - implications for early human evolution and dispersal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of soils (edaphics) and the associated vegetation strongly controls the health of grazing animals. Until now, this has hardly been appreciated by paleo-anthropologists who only take into account the availability of water and vegetation in landscape reconstruction attempts. A lack of understanding the importance of the edaphics of a region greatly limits interpretations of the relation between our ancestors and animals over the last few million years. If a region lacks vital trace elements then wild grazing and browsing animals will avoid it and go to considerable length and take major risks to seek out better pasture. As a consequence animals must move around the landscape at different times of the year. In complex landscapes, such as tectonically active rifts, hominins can use advanced group behaviour to gain strategic advantage for hunting. Our study in the southern Kenya rift in the Lake Magadi region shows that the edaphics and active rift structures play a key role in present day animal movements as well as the for the location of an early hominin site at Mt. Olorgesailie. We carried out field analysis based on studying the relationship between the geology and soil development as well as the tectonic geomorphology to identify 'good' and 'bad' regions both in terms of edaphics and accessibility for grazing animals. We further sampled different soils that developed on the volcanic bedrock and sediment sources of the region and interviewed the local Maasai shepherds to learn about present-day good and bad grazing sites. At the Olorgesailie site the rift valley floor is covered with flood trachytes; basalts only occur at Mt. Olorgesailie and farther east up the rift flank. The hominin site is located in lacustrine sediments at the southern edge of a playa that extends north and northwest of Mt. Olorgesailie. The lakebeds are now tilted and eroded by motion on two north-south striking faults. The lake was trapped by basalt flows from Mt. Olorgesailie and was released by the fault motion leading to deep river incision and exposure of the site. To the west and the north steep fault scarps bound the playa forming a natural barrier for animals. Field observations and information from local shepherds suggest that the trachytes at the valley floor produce rather poor soils whereas the soils developed on lacustrine and alluvial sediments close to the hominin site are much more attractive grazing sites for present-day animals. This is supported by first results from soil analysis. With a lake in the past the Olorgesailie site represents an key example of how early hominins may have used strategic advance of the landscape. While steep fault scarps blocked the northern pathway, the southern lakeshore represented one of the few accessible places for animals to be suffiently provided with nutrients and thus, was an excellent location for hominins to stalemate and hunt down prey. Future studies will include additional sites in the central and northern Kenya rift.

Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Rucina, Stephen; King, Geoffrey C. P.

2014-05-01

290

Eocene potassic and ultrapotassic volcanism in south Tibet: New constraints on mantle source characteristics and geodynamic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Yangbajing area, southern Tibet, several monogenic volcanoes were conformably superimposed on the Linzizong calc-alkaline volcanic successions. According to their petrologic and geochemical characteristics, these monogenic volcanoes are composed of three rock varieties: tephritic phonolitic plugs and shoshonitic and trachytic lavas. Their geochemical systematics reveals that low-pressure evolutionary processes in the large voluminous Linzizong calc-alkaline magmas were not responsible for the generation of these potassic-ultrapotassic rocks, but the significant change in petrologic and geochemical characteristics from the Linzizong calc-alkaline to potassic-ultrapotassic magma is likely accounted for the change of metasomatic agents in the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle source during the Paleocene to Eocene. The tephritic phonolites containing both leucite and plagioclase show primary ultrapotassic character similar to that of Mediterranean plagioleucititic magmas. Radiogenic Sr increases with SiO 2 in the xenolith-bearing trachytes strongly suggesting significant crustal assimilation in the shoshonitic magmas. The Yangbajing ultrapotassic rocks have high K 2O and Al 2O 3, and show depletion of high field strength elements (HFSEs) with respect to large ion lithophile elements. In primitive mantle-normalized element diagrams, all samples are characterized by positive spikes at Th (U) and Pb with negative anomalies at Ba, Nb-Ta and Ti, reflecting the orogenic nature of the ultrapotassic rocks. They are characterized by highly radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr (i) ratios (0.7061-0.7063) and unradiogenic 143Nd/ 144Nd (i) (0.5125), and Pb isotopic compositions ( 206Pb/ 204Pb = 18.688-18.733, 207Pb/ 204Pb = 15.613-15.637, and 208Pb/ 204Pb = 38.861-38.930) similar to the global subducting sediment. Strong enrichment of incompatible trace elements and high Th fractionation from the other HFSEs (such as Nb and U) clearly indicate that the Th-enriched sedimentary component in a network veined mantle source was mainly introduced by sediment-derived melts. In addition, the ultrapotassic rocks have significant Ce (Ce/Ce* = 0.77-0.84) and Eu (Eu/Eu* = 0.72-0.75) anomalies, suggesting a subduction sediment input into the southern Tibetan lithospheric mantle source. In contrast, high U/Th (> 0.20) and Ba/Th (> 32) and low Th/La (< 0.3) in the shoshonites indicate that the Eocene potassic magma originated from partial melting of the surrounding peridotite mantle pervasively affected by slab-related fluid addition from the dehydration of either the subducting oceanic crust or the sediment. Thus, at least two different subduction-related metasomatic agents re-fertilized the upper mantle. According to the radiometric ages and spatial distribution, the Gangdese magmatic association shows a temporal succession from the Linzizong calc-alkaline to ultrapotassic magmas. This indicates a late arrival of recycled sediments within the Tibetan lithospheric mantle wedge. The most diagnostic signatures for the involvement of continent-derived materials are the super-chondritic Zr/Hf (45.5-49.2) and elevated Hf/Sm values (0.81-0.91) in the ultrapotassic rocks. Therefore, the occurrence of orogenic magmatism in the Gangdese belt likely represents the volcanic expression of the onset of the India-Asia collision, preceding the 10 Ma Neo-Tethyan slab break-off process at 42-40 Ma. The absence of residual garnet in the mantle source for the ultrapotassic volcanism seems to imply that the southern Tibetan lithosphere was not been remarkably thickened until the Eocene (˜ 50 Ma).

Gao, Yongfeng; Yang, Zhusen; Hou, Zengqian; Wei, Ruihua; Meng, Xiangjin; Tian, Shihong

2010-06-01

291

Understanding the Peach Spring supereruption through its basal layer deposits (Southwestern USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peach Spring Tuff (PST) supereruption occurred 18.8 Mya, depositing a thick ignimbrite over 32,000 km^2 of the NW Arizona, SE California, and S Nevada. At the base of the ignimbrite is a thin (?1 m thick) layered unit that has been identified as a surge deposit (Valentine et al 1989, 1990; Wilson & Self 1989 offer a contrary interpretation) that extends 100 km east and 65 km west from its source, the Silver Creek caldera in the southern Black Mountains, AZ (Ferguson 2008). These deposits record the first material ejected from the PST magma body immediately before the main ignimbrite-forming event, and provide (1) samples of the first magma to be tapped and (2) evidence for the initial eruptive process and potentially eruption triggers. We are investigating textures and petrology of pumice clasts taken from an internally structureless layer within the basal unit. We have determined roundness of pumice clasts from six exposures located 22 to 96 km from the source caldera, using the approach of Manga et al (2011) (the first application of their metric to a putative surge deposit). Roundness (R) is defined as 4?A/P^2, where A is the cross-sectional area of a clast and P is its perimeter. Mean R values range from 0.76 to 0.80, showing no systematic change with distance from the caldera. Generally, the R values for samples show negatively skewed distributions, with the majority of the pumice clasts having values between 0.75 and 0.85 but with values as low as 0.60 and as high as 0.90; standard deviations also vary little from sample to sample. This relative uniformity suggests that pumice clasts may have reached a saturation roundness (beyond which they would round little) in the high-energy environment near the vent and early in the transport processes of the surge. The pumice clasts are relatively crystal-poor, with a phenocryst assemblage comprising abundant sanidine, lesser plagioclase, minor hornblende and biotite, and accessory magnetite, sphene, zircon, chevkinite, apatite, and fluorite; quartz is minimal or absent. Phenocrysts in the pumice are mostly fragments, suggesting syn-eruption fragmentation within magma chamber and/or conduit. Preliminary SEM analysis of the glass indicates dominantly high-silica rhyolite compositions (?77% wt SiO_2) consistent with previous electron microprobe values. The siliceous glass composition and low phenocryst abundance are similar to typical pumice clasts in the outflow sheet. These pumice clasts are much more evolved than crystal-rich, trachytic pumice clasts that form a minor component in the basal layer unit, are more common in the overlying ignimbrite, and dominate the intracaldera fill. Trachytic magma is interpreted as a mush from the base of the chamber that was heated and remobilized by a recharging episode prior to the climactic eruption. Basal layer pumice compositions suggest the initial magma was drawn primarily from the chamber's top with minor contribution from near the bottom and that extent of entrainment of deep-level magma increased over the course of the eruption.

McCracken, R. G.; Miller, C. F.; Dufek, J.; Gualda, G. A.; Buesch, D.; Brooks, C. E.

2011-12-01

292

Genesis and evolution of mafic and felsic magmas at Quaternary volcanoes within the Main Ethiopian Rift: Insights from Gedemsa and Fanta 'Ale complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of an investigation carried out on young volcanic rocks from the Gedemsa and Fanta 'Ale complexes, located in the Main Ethiopian Rift, the site of an intense magmatism since Eocene-Oligocene. The earlier NW-SE direction of extension of the Rift, which generated NE-SW trending faults, rotated around E-W in Quaternary times, and produced the still active N to N-NE Wonji Fault System. The Gedemsa volcano is located in the central part of the Ethiopian Rift, about 100 km SE of Addis Ababa. It is characterized by a wide central caldera, about 8 km in diameter. The general stratigraphic sequence in the area includes, from base upwards, rift-floor ignimbrites, pantelleritic and subordinate trachytic pyroclastic deposits and lava flows and domes, and widespread basaltic deposits. The Fanta 'Ale volcanic complex is located in the northern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift, where the Afar depression begins. It is characterized by a summit caldera of which the diameter is about 4 km. This volcano erupted trachytic and rhyolitic lavas, whereas the most diffuse unit is an ignimbrite related to the caldera collapse. Explosive activity has occurred inside and outside the caldera, forming tuff cones and thick pumice-fallout deposits. The only mafic unit is represented by a basaltic eruption that occurred in 1870 AD. Historical eruptions and intense fumarolic activity are evidence for the persistence activity of the Fanta 'Ale in this part of the Main Ethiopian Rift. New geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data on representative samples from Gedemsa and Fanta 'Ale volcanoes are presented and discussed in order to shed light on the genesis of mafic and felsic magmas, the genetic link between them, and their possible interaction with the local crust. Volcanic rocks show a typical mafic-felsic bi-modal distribution with few intermediate terms (Daly Gap), as observed at regional scale along the Main Ethiopian Rift as well as on the plateau. Geochemical data and modeling suggest that magmas evolved mainly through fractional crystallization processes, accounting for the entire mafic-felsic compositional variation. However, Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data reveal also open-system evolution processes. The most differentiated, Sr-poor rhyolites suffered important low temperature contamination by shallow fluids of hydrothermal and/or meteoric origin. This affected mostly the Sr isotopic composition of whole-rocks, and much less that of separated feldspars that provide more reliable 87Sr/86Sr values. Mafic rocks, as well as the least contaminated felsic rocks, provide evidence for two components involved in the genesis and evolution of mafic magmas: a mantle component, carrying the isotopic composition of the Afar plume, and a crustal component, likely Pan-African sialic lower crust, that might have been added in small amounts, about 2%, to mafic magmas. The origin of the primary magmas is inferred to have occurred by 7% partial melting of a mixed source region including both depleted and enriched mantle components.

Giordano, F.; D'Antonio, M.; Civetta, L.; Tonarini, S.; Orsi, G.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.; Dell'Erba, F.; Di Vito, M. A.; Isaia, R.

2014-02-01

293

Recent explosive eruptions in the Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental base of volcanic hazard assessment on any volcano is the study of its most recent eruptive history. Although the presence of extensive surficial pumice deposits was long known in the Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP, SW Tanzania, East African Rift), the recent eruptive history was never studied in detail and is presented here for the first time. The RVP had several Plinian-style explosive eruptions in its Holocene history, originating from the two main volcanoes, Rungwe and Ngozi. Field observations are combined with whole-rock major (ICP-OES) and trace (ICP-MS) element analyses as well as major element analyses (EMPA) on glass. 14C ages of paleosols constrain all recognized deposits to <10 ka. Trace element data, e.g. Zr/Y ratios, allow discriminating between Ngozi and Rungwe as deposit source. All studied samples are trachyte to phonolitic trachyte. A ~30 m long sediment core in the Masoko maar lake (26 and 42 km SSE of Rungwe and Ngozi resp.) reveals >60 tephra layers deposited during the last 50 ky. Its Holocene record shows 7 tephra layers of which 2 (10.2 and 4.35 ka calBP) contain abundant pumice lapilli. Based on chemical constraints, the oldest of these pumice layers is believed to correspond to the Kitulo Pumice, the oldest on-land deposit found, originating from Ngozi. This eruption likely formed the 3 x 3 km Ngozi caldera. The 4.35 ka calBP pumice layer in the Masoko core was correlated with a Plinian pumice fallout deposit from Rungwe, the Rungwe Pumice, based on its appearance and paleosol 14C dating. It was traced over an area of ~1,500 km2 and probably extends even further. The Rungwe Pumice postdates a debris avalanche that was generated by a flank collapse of the volcano. This collapse left an amphitheatre-shaped depression on the summit that is now filled with domes, cones and explosion craters produced by effusive and explosive eruptions. A second large explosive eruption from Rungwe, the Isongole Pumice, is underlain by a 2.0 ± 0.1 ka calBP old paleosol. This deposit can easily be traced in the field due to its characteristic lithic content, being very lithic-rich at the base and lithic-poor at the top. It is believed to result from a blast through a Rungwe summit lava dome. The deposit morphology is cone-like rather than sheet-like and thus likely results from a moderate-size event. Two smaller explosive eruptions are <1 ka old. The oldest one is called Aphyric Pumice because of its characteristic aphyric nature, and is underlain by a 600 ± 35 a calBP old paleosol. Its Zr/Y ratios suggest it belongs to Ngozi rather than to Rungwe. The younger deposit is the Kizungu Tephra, originating from Rungwe. At the time of writing, no dating for this deposit exists yet. The youngest recognized deposit is made up of pyroclastic flow deposits from Ngozi, extending at least 10 km S of the volcano. A paleosol underneath the deposits was dated at 505 ± 44 a calBP. The stratigraphic record shows that both Ngozi and Rungwe experienced several large explosive eruptions, including eruptions forming pyroclastic flows, in their recent past. The late Holocene record is characterized by ca. 1 Rungwe eruption every 1 ky and calls for a thorough volcanic hazard assessment in this densely populated area.

Fontijn, K.; Ernst, G. G.; Elburg, M. A.; Williamson, D.; Jacobs, P.

2009-12-01

294

Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van II: Temporal evolution of explosive volcanism of Nemrut Volcano (eastern Anatolia) during the past ca. 0.4 Ma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-two new single crystal ages document 400 000 years of widespread explosive volcanism of historically active Nemrut Volcano towering over huge alkaline Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia). The dated deposits were selected to monitor the volcanic and compositional evolution of Nemrut Volcano through time and thus to provide a rigorous temporal framework for the tephra record of the PaleoVan Drilling Project. Tephra samples were taken from large-volume deposits or those that occur in medial to distal localities, well-exposed stratigraphic sections or from the initial phase of an eruptive sequence. Mainly fallout deposits were chosen because most ignimbrites show more complex and corroded feldspar populations owing to compositional zoning and magma mixing. Moreover, fallout deposits held the promise to be more clearly identifiable with—and correlatable to—> 300 tephra layers in the PaleoVan drill cores, even though commonly in amounts marginal or insufficient in thickness to allow well-supported single crystal dating. The crystals dated are dominantly anorthoclase, the main phenocryst phase in the trachytic to rhyolitic, slightly to strongly peralkaline Nemrut magmas. Ages obtained so far range from ca. 400 ka to ca. 30 ka for Nemrut Volcano. The causes of significant changes in the frequency, volume and composition of tephra layers per unit time are discussed in terms of external (erosion, climate changes, geodynamic factors) and internal forcing (changes in magma supply and composition and incubation periods preceding large volume rhyolitic eruptions). For example, the low frequency of tephra layers deposited prior to ca. 200 ka may be due to low explosive activity, severe erosion between MIS 9 and MIS 11, or both. Nevertheless, the overall frequency of explosive eruptions appears to have increased during the past ca. 200 ka. We also recognize a slight peak in explosive eruptions during warm periods (e.g. MIS 5 and MIS 7) and speculate on lithospheric unloading triggering increased partial melting or magma reservoir unloading following massive glacier melting. The ages of 5 dated ignimbrites span ca. 250 000 years suggesting that Nemrut Volcano went through a polycyclic evolution with multiple caldera collapses and major pyroclastic flow eruptions, the oldest dated so far as 265 ka. The widely held view of the impressive Nemrut Caldera now dated to have formed at ca. 30 ka, as the main paroxysmal event during the evolution of the volcano is no longer tenable. Distinct and coherent compositional characteristics, especially in trace element concentrations, characterize several groups of trachytic tephras. We speculate that the growth of Nemrut Volcano caused the isolation of the Lake Van basin. On account of their mineralogical (anorthoclase, hedenbergite, fayalite, aenigmatite) and alkalic chemical compositions and large volume, dated Nemrut fallout tephras are likely to represent excellent markers in lakes and other sites of paleoclimatological or archeological interest in neighboring countries to the northeast of Lake Van as far as the Caspian Sea in what may be called the East Anatolian Tephra Province.

Sumita, Mari; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

2013-03-01

295

A new look at the collision-related volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey: Volcanic history of the Northern-Van neovolcanic province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region including the Eastern Anatolian - Northern Iranian High Plateau and Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountain ranges is one of the best examples of an active continental collision zone in the world, which is thought to have been formed by the closure of the northern branch of the Neotethyan Ocean. It comprises one of the high plateaus of the Alpine-Himalaya mountain belt (i.e. the Eastern Anatolia High Plateau) with an average elevation of ~2 km above the sea level. The volcanic activity initiated immediately after the block uplift of the region (at around 15 Ma as our new isotope-geochronological database indicates) and produced great volumes of volcanic material in a number of countries including Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Iran. At present, the volcanic province extends from Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) into Caucasus of Southern Russia, spanning a distance of some 1000 km. Perhaps the most striking aspect of the Eastern Anatolian - N Iranian High Plateau and Caucasus is the volume and compositional variability of collision-related volcanic products erupted in a time interval from Neogene to Quaternary. Only in E Turkey, the collision-related volcanic units cover over half of the region (i.e.˜43,000 km2). In order to better understand the spatial and temporal compositional variations in volcanic rocks and their implications on magma genesis and geodynamic evolution of the region, we conducted joint research on this spectacular volcanic province. One of the largest Cenozoic volcanic areas on the EAHP is located in the north of Lake Van as we named "the Northern-Van neovolcanic province". It covers an area of about 6000 km2 starting from the northern cost of Lake Van. It is composed of a series of volcanic edifices (e.g. Girekol, Meydandag and Etrusk volcanoes). Remarkably, these volcanoes sit almost on the culmination of a regional domal structure called "Lake Van dome" in the vertex of the eastern Turkish high plateau. We intentionally started working from the southern part of the Turkish side because little is known about the initiation dates of volcanism there, as good dates on these rocks are quite limited. Collision-related volcanism in the Northern-Van neovolcanic province lasted around 15 My and followed four stages of intense activity, each lasted 1-2 My but divided by long pose periods. (1) During the Middle Miocene (15.0-13.5 Ma) period, andesitic lavas and pyroclastics with a distinct subduction signature erupted along a zone extending from S of the Tendurek volcano to Zilan Valley and Deliçay in the N and NE of the town of Ercis, basically around Mt Aladag. These are the oldest lavas in the E Anatolian volcanic province. (2) During Late Miocene (10-9 Ma) volcanism restarted along the same belt, producing lavas ranging in composition from basalts, trachybasalts to dacites. These lavas overly the volcanic units of the Middle Miocene period. (3) After a 3.2 My time break, volcanism restarted in the region during Pliocene (5.8-3.9 Ma) with the eruption of basalts, trachydacites and trachytes in the NW, N and NE of the town of Ercis. Early-Pliocene basaltic flows formed a vast plateau in the north from Etrusk volcano. The final phase of the Pliocene magmatic activity was marked by the eruptions of trachytic, trachyandesitic, rtrachydaitic and rhyolitic lavas from the Etrusk volcano (4.3 to 3.9 Ma), whose final stage was marked by a caldera collapse at around 3.7 Ma. (4) Volcanism restarted in Quaternary (1.0-0.4 Ma) with the eruption of basalts and trachybasalts. The diverse character of the volcanism in the region can be explained by variations in magma genesis, magma chamber processes and geodynamic reasons, e.g. detachment by means of slab breakoff and/or delamination.

Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir; Sharkov, Evgenii; Oyan, Vural; Ünal, Esin

2010-05-01

296

REE variation in alkaline mafic lavas across the North Tanzanian Divergence zone, a possible indicator of varying lithospheric thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magmatic evolution of the North Tanzanian Divergence zone (NTD), the southern termination of the eastern branch of the East African Rift (EAR), is of interest as a currently active magmatic-rich continental rift. In fact, the role of magmatism in continental rift initiation and evolution is of much debate and contrasts are currently drawn between amagmatic and magmatic-rich rift systems. The NTD possesses a wide array of pre-rift Miocene volcanoes to currently active volcanoes broadly distributed across the valley floor to the adjacent rift margins and characterized by having very heterogeneous chemical compositions. A highly diverse array of magmas from basalt to rhyolite, trachyte, phonolite and carbonatite occur at various volcanic centers, some of which have erupted more then one magma type. We analyzed 11 samples from Ketumbeine volcano for whole rock major and trace element abundances, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures and Ar/Ar ages. Two alkaline rock series are distinguished: a basanite to tephra-phonolite magma series and an alkali basalt to basaltic trachy-andesite magma series. Interestingly, the two magma series represent distinct ages of volcanism: the alkali basalt series is older with ages ranging between 2.2 and 1.9 Ma, while the basanite series erupted at about 1.2 Ma. The temporal separation of the two magma series occurs on a regional scale as well with the basanite to phonolite lavas erupted during the entire period of the NTD volcanism (5.8 Ma to Present), whereas the basalt to trachyte magma series is restricted to two brief intervals: the first between 2.4 and 1.6 Ma, immediately before the major rifting event dated by MacIntyre et al. (1974) at 1.2 Ma, and the second at about 0.5 Ma at Kibo and Mawenzi (Kilimanjaro). We model the source of the NTD as being derived from a metasomatized lithospheric mantle including variable amounts of garnet, amphibole and phlogopite. The most mafic and presumably less contaminated NTD volcanics have systematic REE variations (Sm/Yb versus La/Sm) that are consistent with different degrees of partial melting (La/Sm), and varying amounts of garnet and amphibole in the source (Sm/Yb). Many of the more evolved samples have greater radiogenic isotopic ratios and evolve via assimilation and fractional crystallization to lower Sm/Yb and higher La/Sm. Different degree of partial melting may reflect heat flow variations, while heterogeneity in the source is consistent with pressure conditions that imply changes in the depth of melting. In fact, REE abundances of key NTD volcanics (e.g. Essimingor) indicate melting in the garnet and phlogopite stability zone indicating the presence of a relatively thick lithosphere, while the absence of garnet indicate areas characterized by thinning of the lithosphere. MacIntyre, R.M., Mitchell, J.G., Dawson, J.B., 1974. Age of fault movements in Tanzanian sector of East African Rift System. Nature 247, 354-356.

Mana, S.; Carr, M. J.; Feigenson, M.; Furman, T.; Swisher, C. C.

2012-12-01

297

Geochemistry of Natural Components in the Near-Field Environment, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The natural near-field environment in and around the emplacement drifts of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, includes the host rock, dust, seepage water, and pore water. The chemical compositions of these components have been analyzed to provide a basis for assessing possible chemical and mineralogical reactions that may occur in and around the emplacement drifts during the heating and cooling cycle. The crystal-poor rhyolite of the Topopah Spring Tuff of Miocene age with an average silica (SiO{sub 2}) content of 76 percent will host the proposed repository. Samples of the rhyolite are relatively uniform in chemical composition as shown by an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 8.6 percent for major elements. The major component of underground dust is comminuted tuff generated during construction of the tunnel. Average CVs for major elements of dust samples collected from the main tunnel (Exploratory Studies Facility, ESF) and a cross drift (Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block, ECRB) are 25 and 28 percent, respectively. This increased variability is due to a variable amount of dust derived from trachyte with SiO{sub 2} contents as low as 66 percent (from overlying crystal-rich members) and from surface dust with an even lower average SiO{sub 2} content of 60 percent (from the abundance of trachyte in outcrop and carbonate dust derived from nearby ranges). The composition of the water-soluble fraction of dust is of interest with regard to possible salt deliquescence on waste canisters. The nitrate-to-chloride (NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -}) ratio (weight) is used to assess the potential corrosive nature of the salts because an excess of NO{sub 3}{sup -} over Cl{sup -} may inhibit the formation of the more corrosive calcium chloride brines in deliquescing salts. The soluble fractions of dust samples typically have NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratios between 1 and 10. About 30 samples of seepage into the south ramp of the ECRB have an average NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} of 0.62. Pore water extracted from core samples of the repository host rock has lower NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -}-ratios with an average value of 0.28 and a range over two orders of magnitude. Of all the components of the natural system, pore water has the largest compositional variability with an average CV of 62 percent, and thus, is the most difficult to characterize. Because pore water is extracted from dry-drilled core, its solute content may have been increased by evaporation during drilling, handling, storage, and extraction by ultracentrifugation. Further, microbial activity in the core during storage may reduce the concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup -} thus decreasing the NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratio. Therefore, the more dilute pore water samples might be considered the most representative of native pore water with NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratios close to unity or greater.

Z.E. Peterman; T.A. Oliver

2006-06-19

298

U-Pb geochronology of the Kap Washington Volcanic Province, North Greenland: Constraints on the timing of continental rifting and implications for the development of the Arctic Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kap Washington volcanic sequence at the north coast of Greenland is bimodal with alkaline basalts, trachytic to rhyolitic lavas, tuffs and ignimbrites predominating. In terms of geochemistry and distribution of rock types, the sequence bears resemblance to presently active continental rift systems, e.g. the Main Ethiopian Rift. Associated with the volcanics is a swarm of coast-normal alkaline basaltic dykes which intensifies towards the outer coast. The volcanics are believed to be linked to rifting in the Arctic Basin and have featured prominently in geotectonic reconstructions of the Arctic region (e.g. Batten et al. 1981). Here we report the first U-Pb zircon ages from silicic lavas and intrusions of the Kap Washington sequence. A total of ten samples have been dated and the duration of magmatism is constrained at present to ca. 10 million years - from 71 to 61 Ma (based on 206Pb/238U ages of concordant analyses). Three age ‘groups’ have been identified: 71-69 Ma (n = 6); 68-65 Ma (n = 2); and 64-61 Ma (n = 2). The oldest group comprises trachytic and rhyolitic lava flows from Kap Kane and a rhyolitic sill from the Kap Washington peninsula. These ages agree well with new 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on amphiboles from benmoreitic tuffs exposed on Kap Kane (Holm et al., this session) and suggest that most of the ~1.5 km thick Kap Kane sequence was extruded within a period of 1-2 million years. The two younger groups comprise silicic lavas exposed on Lockwood Island. The exposed sequence on Lockwood Island is estimated to be 3-4 km thick and was previously thought to be the oldest part of the succession (Brown et al. 1987). The large scatter in ages on Lockwood Island indicates that magmatism was episodic rather than continuous. The new age data from the Kap Washington volcanics together with 40Ar/39Ar ages for the associated dyke swarm (Kontak et al. 2001) suggest that continental extension and magmatism occurred in the area between ca. 82 and 61 Ma. This age bracket seems to preclude any relation to initial spreading on the Nansen-Gakkel Ridge (52 Ma-present) and an association with spreading in the Labrador Sea-Baffin Bay-Makarov Basin system seems the most probable. We propose that the Kap Washington magmatism ceased with the onset of seafloor spreading in the Northeast Atlantic-Eurasia Basin system, which shifted the tectonic regime in North Greenland from extensional to compressional, culminating with the Eurekan deformation in early Eocene (Holm et al., this session). References: Batten et al. (1981): Nature 294: 150-152. Brown et al. (1987): J Geol. Soc. Lond. 144: 707-715. Kontak et al. (2001): Can. Mineral. 39: 997-1020

Thorarinsson, S. B.; Holm, P. M.; Tappe, S.; Heaman, L.; Tegner, C.

2009-12-01

299

238U- and 232Th-decay series constraints on the timescales of crystal fractionation to produce the phonolite erupted in 2004 near Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phonolite pumice found floating offshore of Tristan da Cunha following intense seismic activity southeast of the island July 29-30, 2004 was analyzed for 238U- and 232Th-series nuclides to determine initial 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 228Ra, and 228Th activities. The initial ( 210Po/ 210Pb) value of 0.15 for the phonolite shows that, like most subaerial lavas, this subaqueous tephra degassed most of its 210Po upon eruption. The ( 230Th/ 232Th) and ( 238U/ 232Th) values for the phonolite are similar to those of the trachyandesites erupted in 1961 from Tristan da Cunha. However, the relative activities of 210Pb, 226Ra, and 230Th in the phonolite contrast with those of the trachyandesites, in that 210Pb and 230Th are both strongly enriched with respect to 226Ra. In addition, the phonolite had a small deficit in 228Ra with respect to 232Th. The Ra deficits likely resulted from partitioning into feldspars and hornblende in a time frame that extended over several decades to a century. These disequilibria can be explained by crystal fractionation at a decreasing rate through time at an average of 3-5 × 10 -3 year -1. The calculated crystallization rate is about an order of magnitude faster than has been calculated for most other phonolites and trachytes, and about half that calculated for crystallization of the Makaopuhi lava lake. These data imply that the 2004 magma was not the differentiated cap of a much larger body that remained at depth. Instead, it was likely the residue of a relatively small body of more mafic magma that was injected into the crust southeast Tristan and underwent extensive and rapid crystal fractionation before it erupted.

Reagan, Mark K.; Turner, Simon; Legg, Matthew; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Hards, Victoria L.

2008-09-01

300

Late quaternary tephra layers along the Cilento coastline (southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of stratigraphic and tephrostratigraphic analyses of several pyroclastic levels, collected along the coastal sector of the Cilento region (southern Italy), are presented. Some of these levels are here described for the fist time, others, already known in literature, were reconsidered in order to better understand their stratigraphic position and to point out the possible volcanic sources. The main outcrops are located along the southern coast of the Campania region (Cilento coast). All pyroclastic layers are interbedded within coastal or continental successions younger than the substage 5e of the Last Interglacial (< 130 ka) or cover erosional coastal morphologies belonging to the same period. Only in one site the sampled tephra can be considered older. As a consequence, the age range for their emplacement is constrained to the last 200 ka. The results of SEM-EDS analyses on well preserved glass fragments indicate a composition falling between the trachyte and phonolite fields of the TAS plot, as typical of Phlaegrean Fields products. By comparing their composition with those of the main tephra marker layers recorded in southern Italy, the correlation of the Cilento pyroclastic layers with well known eruptive episodes was hypothesised. In summary, four different eruptions were recognised. The first one is testified by a pyroclastic layer, not correlated with a terrestrial counterpart, covered by a Middle Pleistocene alluvial fan, the second one is the eruptive event emplacing the X-6 marker tephra layer, and dates around 107 ka, the third is the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (39 ka), and the last one is testified by the layers correlated with the Y-3 tephra (about 30 ka). These pyroclastic layers can be useful tools for stratigraphic correlations of Late Quaternary successions in southern Italy.

Marciano, Roberta; Munno, Rosalba; Petrosino, Paola; Santangelo, Nicoletta; Santo, Antonio; Villa, Igor

2008-10-01

301

New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ???150 km3 (DRE) trachytic Campanian Ignimbrite, which is situated north-west of Naples, Italy, is one of the largest eruptions in the Mediterranean region in the last 200 ky. Despite centuries of investigation, the age and eruptive history of the Campanian Ignimbrite is still debated, as is the chronology of other significant volcanic events of the Campanian Plain within the last 200-300 ky. New 40Ar/39Ar geochronology defines the age of the Campanian Ignimbrite at 39.28 ?? 0.11 ka, about 2 ky older than the previous best estimate. Based on the distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite and associated uppermost proximal lithic and polyclastic breccias, we suggest that the Campanian Ignimbrite magma was emitted from fissures activated along neotectonic Apennine faults rather than from ring fractures defining a Campi Flegrei caldera. Significantly, new volcanological, geochronological, and geochemical data distinguish previously unrecognized ignimbrite deposits in the Campanian Plain, accurately dated between 157 and 205 ka. These ages, coupled with a xenocrystic sanidine component >315 ka, extend the volcanic history of this region by over 200 ky. Recent work also identifies a pyroclastic deposit, dated at 18.0 ka, outside of the topographic Campi Flegrei basin, expanding the spatial distribution of post-Campanian Ignimbrite deposits. These new discoveries emphasize the importance of continued investigation of the ages, distribution, volumes, and eruption dynamics of volcanic events associated with the Campanian Plain. Such information is critical for accurate assessment of the volcanic hazards associated with potentially large-volume explosive eruptions in close proximity to the densely populated Neapolitan region.

de Vivo, B.; Rolandi, G.; Gans, P.B.; Calvert, A.; Bohrson, W.A.; Spera, F.J.; Belkin, H.E.

2001-01-01

302

Two mantle sources, two plumbing systems: Tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism of the Maymecha River basin, Siberian flood volcanic province  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rocks of two distinctly different magma series are found in a ???4000-m-thick sequence of lavas and tuffs in the Maymecha River basin which is part of the Siberian flood-volcanic province. The tholeiites are typical low-Ti continental flood basalts with remarkably restricted, petrologically evolved compositions. They have basaltic MgO contents, moderate concentrations of incompatible trace elements, moderate fractionation of incompatible from compatible elements, distinct negative Ta(Nb) anomalies, and ??Nd values of 0 to + 2. The primary magmas were derived from a relatively shallow mantle source, and evolved in large crustal magma chambers where they acquired their relatively uniform compositions and became contaminated with continental crust. An alkaline series, in contrast, contains a wide range of rock types, from meymechite and picrite to trachytes, with a wide range of compositions (MgO from 0.7 to 38 wt%, SiO2 from 40 to 69 wt%, Ce from 14 to 320 ppm), high concentrations of incompatible elements and extreme fractionation of incompatible from compatible elements (Al2O3/TiO2 ??? 1; Sm/Yb up to 11). These rocks lack Ta(Nb) anomalies and have a broad range of ??Nd values, from -2 to +5. The parental magmas are believed to have formed by low-degree melting at extreme mantle depths (>200 km). They bypassed the large crustal magma chambers and ascended rapidly to the surface, a consequence, perhaps, of high volatile contents in the primary magmas. The tholeiitic series dominates the lower part of the sequence and the alkaline series the upper part; at the interface, the two types are interlayered. The succession thus provides evidence of a radical change in the site of mantle melting, and the simultaneous operation of two very different crustal plumbing systems, during the evolution of this flood-volcanic province. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

Arndt, N.; Chauvel, C.; Czamanske, G.; Fedorenko, V.

1998-01-01

303

Mineralogy, geochemistry and petrology of the phonolitic to nephelinitic Sadiman volcano, Crater Highlands, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sadiman volcano is located in the Crater Highlands area of northern Tanzania, which lies next to the western escarpment of the Gregory rift—a part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift system. It consists of interlayered phonolitic tuffs, tuff breccias (with blocks of nephelinites) and nephelinitic lava flows. Rare xenoliths of phonolite lava and ijolite were observed within the nephelinite lavas with ijolite blocks occurring in phonolitic tuffs. No evidence for the presence of melilite-bearing and/or carbonatitic rocks was found during this study. On the basis of petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry the nephelinites are divided into highly porphyritic nephelinite, wollastonite nephelinite and phonolitic nephelinite, the latter of which is the dominant variety at Sadiman. Nepheline + clinopyroxene + titanite ± perovskite ± andradite-schorlomite ± wollastonite ± sanidine ± sodalite are the principle pheno- and microphenocryst phases. The nephelinites are highly evolved (Mg# = 0.17-0.26) alkaline to peralkaline (AI = 0.88-1.21) rocks enriched in incompatible elements such as Rb, Ba, Th, U, Nb, Pb, Ta, Sr and light REEs, and strongly depleted in P and Ti. This suggests derivation from an enriched mantle source and fractionation of apatite and Ti-rich mineral(s). Primary melt inclusions in nepheline phenocrysts (Thomogenization = 860-1100 °C) indicate enrichment of volatile components in the melts, particularly of fluorine (up to 1.8 wt.% in silicate glass) resulting in the formation of daughter fluorite in partly and complete crystallized inclusions. The Sadiman nephelinites crystallized under relatively oxidizing conditions (above the FMQ buffer), which differ from the reducing conditions reported for trachytic and pantelleritic rocks from other parts of the Gregory rift. Similar rock types and relatively oxidizing conditions are known from Oldoinyo Lengai and other localities, all of which are closely associated with carbonatites. By analogy, we conclude that andradite-schorlomite-rich nephelinites may indicate a pre-stage on the evolutionary path towards carbonatitic magmatism.

Zaitsev, A. N.; Marks, M. A. W.; Wenzel, T.; Spratt, J.; Sharygin, V. V.; Strekopytov, S.; Markl, G.

2012-11-01

304

Late Ordovician volcanism in Korea constrains the timing for breakup of Sino-Korean Craton from Gondwana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early Paleozoic the Sino-Korean Craton (SKC) and South China Craton (SCC) were situated along the margin of east Gondwana. The SKC was connected to core Gondwana by an epeiric sea which was the site for deposition of lower Paleozoic sequences of SKC. The SKC and SCC may have drifted away from core Gondwana sometime during the mid-Paleozoic and would have been outboard microcontinents in the late Paleozoic, until they collided to form the East Asian continent in the Triassic. The breakup of SCC from Gondwana was suggested to have taken place at ?380 Ma, while no reliable suggestions have hitherto been made for breakup of SKC from Gondwana. This study presents a convincing evidence for breakup of SKC from Gondwana, based on the recognition of Late Ordovician volcanism in Korea. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages, 445.0 ± 3.7 Ma and 452.5 ± 3.2 Ma, are obtained from trachytic rocks of the Ongnyeobong Formation of Taebaeksan Basin in Korea which occupied the marginal part of the SKC in the early Paleozoic. This Late Ordovician volcanism along with previous records of Ordovician volcanic activities along the western margin of the SKC is interpreted indicating the development of an incipient oceanic ridge. The oceanic ridge uplifted the SKC including the epeiric sea, which subsequently resulted in terminating the early Paleozoic sedimentation of the epeiric sea. The paucity of lower Paleozoic volcanic rocks across much of the SKC however suggests that the oceanic ridge did not extend into the epeiric sea. Instead, spreading of oceanic ridge entailed dextral movement of associated transform faults, which may have played a major role in breakup of SKC from mainland Gondwana by the end of Ordovician.

Cho, Deung-Lyong; Lee, Seung Ryeol; Koh, Hee Jae; Park, Jun-Beom; Armstrong, Richard; Choi, Duck K.

2014-12-01

305

Magmatic (silicates/saline/sulfur-rich/CO2) immiscibility and zirconium and rare-earth element enrichment from alkaline magma chamber margins : Evidence from Ponza Island, Pontine Archipelago, Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid inclusions were measured from a feldspathoid-bearing syenite xenolith entrained in trachyte from Ponza, one of the islands of the Pontine Archipelago, located in the Gulf of Gaeta, Italy. The feldspathoid-bearing syenite consists mainly of potassium feldspar, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, titanite, manganoan magnetite, apatite with minor nosean, Na-rich feldspar, pyrrhotite, and rare cheralite. Baddeleyite and zirkelite occur associated with manganoan magnetite. Detailed electron-microprobe analysis reveals enrichments in REE, Y, Nb, U, Th as well as Cl and F in appropriate phases. Fluid inclusions observed in potassium feldspar are either silicate-melt or aqueous inclusions. The aqueous inclusions can be further classified as. (1) one-phase vapor, (2) two-phase (V + L) inclusions, vapor-rich inclusions with a small amount of CO2 in most cases; homogenization of the inclusions always occurred in the vapor phase between 359 and 424??C, salinities vary from 2.9 to 8.5 wt. % NaCl equivalent; and. (3) three-phase and multiphase inclusions (hypersaline/sulfur-rich aqueous inclusions sometimes with up to 8 or more solid phases). Daughter minerals dissolve on heating before vapor/liquid homogenization. Standardless quantitative scanning electron microscope X-ray fluorescence analysis has tentatively identified the following chloride and sulfate daughter crystals; halite, sylvite, glauberite. arcanite, anhydrite, and thenardite. Melting of the daughter crystals occurs between 459 and 536??C (54 to 65 wt. % NaCI equivalent) whereas total homogenization is between 640 and 755??C. The occurrence of silicate-melt inclusions and high-temperature, solute-rich aqueous inclusions suggests that the druse or miarolitic texture of the xenolith is late-stage magmatic. The xenolith from Ponza represents a portion of the peripheral magma chamber wall that has recorded the magmatic/hydrothermal transition and the passage of high solute fluids enriched in chlorides, sulfur, and incompatible elements.

Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Torok, K.

1996-01-01

306

Rapid incision of the Colorado River in Glen Canyon - insights from channel profiles, local incision rates, and modeling of lithologic controls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Colorado River system in southern Utah and northern Arizona is continuing to adjust to the baselevel fall responsible for the carving of the Grand Canyon. Estimates of bedrock incision rates in this area vary widely, hinting at the transient state of the Colorado and its tributaries. In conjunction with these data, we use longitudinal profiles of the Colorado and tributaries between Marble Canyon and Cataract Canyon to investigate the incision history of the Colorado in this region. We find that almost all of the tributaries in this region steepen as they enter the Colorado River. The consistent presence of oversteepened reaches with similar elevation drops in the lower section of these channels, and their coincidence within a corridor of high local relief along the Colorado, suggest that the tributaries are steepening in response to an episode of increased incision rate on the mainstem. This analysis makes testable predictions about spatial variations in incision rates; these predictions are consistent with existing rate estimates and can be used to guide further studies. We also present cosmogenic nuclide data from the Henry Mountains of southern Utah. We measured in situ 10Be concentrations on four gravel-covered strath surfaces elevated from 1 m to 110 m above Trachyte Creek. The surfaces yield exposure ages that range from approximately 2??5 ka to 267 ka and suggest incision rates that vary between 350 and 600 m/my. These incision rates are similar to other rates determined within the high-relief corridor. Available data thus support the interpretation that tributaries of the Colorado River upstream of the Grand Canyon are responding to a recent pulse of rapid incision on the Colorado. Numerical modeling of detachment-limited bedrock incision suggests that this incision pulse is likely related to the upstream-dipping lithologic boundary at the northern edge of the Kaibab upwarp. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Cook, K.L.; Whipple, K.X.; Heimsath, A.M.; Hanks, T.C.

2009-01-01

307

Experimental melting of phlogopite-bearing mantle at 1 GPa: Implications for potassic magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have experimentally investigated the fluid-absent melting of a phlogopite peridotite at 1.0 GPa (1000-1300 °C) to understand the source of K2O- and SiO2-rich magmas that occur in continental, post-collisional and island arc settings. Using a new extraction technique specially developed for hydrous conditions combined with iterative sandwich experiments, we have determined the composition of low- to high-degree melts (?=1.4 to 24.2 wt.%) of metasomatized lherzolite and harzburgite sources. Due to small amounts of adsorbed water in the starting material, amphibole crystallized at the lowest investigated temperatures. Amphibole breaks down at 1050-1075 °C, while phlogopite-breakdown occurs at 1150-1200 °C. This last temperature is higher than the previously determined in a mantle assemblage, due to the presence of stabilizing F and Ti. Phlogopite-lherzolite melts incongruently according to the continuous reaction: 0.49 phlogopite + 0.56 orthopyroxene + 0.47 clinopyroxene + 0.05 spinel = 0.58 olivine + 1.00 melt. In the phlogopite-harzburgite, the reaction is: 0.70 phlogopite + 1.24 orthopyroxene + 0.05 spinel = 0.99 olivine + 1.00 melt. The K2O content of water-undersaturated melts in equilibrium with residual phlogopite is buffered, depending on the source fertility: from ?3.9 wt.% in lherzolite to ?6.7 wt.% in harzburgite. Primary melts are silica-saturated and evolve from trachyte to basaltic andesite (63.5-52.1 wt.% SiO2) with increasing temperature. Calculations indicate that such silica-rich melts can readily be extracted from their mantle source, due to their low viscosity. Our results confirm that potassic, silica-rich magmas described worldwide in post-collisional settings are generated by melting of a metasomatized phlogopite-bearing mantle in the spinel stability field.

Condamine, Pierre; Médard, Etienne

2014-07-01

308

Igneous Rocks of the East Pacific Rise: The alkali volcanic suite appear to be differentiated from a tholeiitic basalt extruded from the mantle.  

PubMed

The apical parts of large volcanoes along the East Pacific Rise (islands and seamounts) are encrusted with rocks of the alkali volcanic suite (alkali basalt, andesine- and oligoclase-andesite, and trachyte). In contrast, the more submerged parts of the Rise are largely composed of a tholeiitic basalt which has low concentrations of K, P, U, Th, Pb, and Ti. This tholeiitic basalt is either the predominant or the only magma generated in the earth's mantle under oceanic ridges and rises. It is at least 1000-fold more abundant than the alkali suite, which is probably derived from tholeiitic basalt by magmatic differentiation in and immediately below the larger volcanoes. Distinction of oceanic tholeiites from almost all continental tholeiites is possible on the simple basis of total potassium content, with the discontinuity at 0.3 to 0.5 percent K(2)O by weight. Oceanic tholeiites also are readily distinguished from some 19 out of 20 basalts of oceanic islands and seamount cappings by having less than 0.3 percent K(2)O by weight and more than 48 percent SiO(2). Deep drilling into oceanic volcanoes should, however, core basalts transitional between the oceanic tholeiites and the presumed derivative alkali basalts. The composition of the oceanic tholeiites suggests that the mantle under the East Pacific Rise contains less than 0.10 percent potassium oxide by weight; 0.1 part per million of uranium and 0.4 part of thorium; a potassium:rubidium ratio of about 1200 and a potassium: uranium ratio of about 10(4). PMID:17806796

Engel, A E; Engel, C G

1964-10-23

309

On the anatomy of magma chamber and caldera collapse: The example of trachy-phonolitic explosive eruptions of the Roman Province (central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textural and compositional features of pyroclastic products erupted during caldera-forming events often reveal the tapping of different portions of variably zoned magma chambers due to changing geometries of the conduit/vent systems. Here we report on ultrapotassic trachytic-phonolitic explosive eruptions of the Roman Province (central Italy), which show remarkable changes of textural features and glass compositions in the juvenile material, even if the bulk chemical composition is essentially constant. In each example, the lower eruption sequence contains whitish, crystal-poor (leucite-free), highly vesicular pumice, emplaced by early Plinian fallout and/or pyroclastic currents; upsection, the eruption sequence contains black, low porphyritic (sanidine + leucite-bearing), moderately vesicular, scoria or spatter, emplaced by major pyroclastic flows (red tuff with black scoria) and associated co-ignimbrite, coarse lithic-rich breccias. This suggests a shift from a central feeder conduit, tapping the central part of the magma chamber, to a ring fracture vent system, tapping the peripheral portions of the magma chamber, during caldera collapse. Key features of these evacuating magma chambers are the thermal and volatile concentration (Xvol) gradients that produce the observed textural and compositional spectrum of trachy-phonolitic rock types. In particular, the degrees of freedom during the crystallization of these ultrapotassic magmas are increased by the variation of the leucite stability field at different PH2O conditions. Both leucite-free and leucite-bearing differentiated ultrapotassic rock types can be produced in the course of individual eruptions, as a result of pre-eruptive conditions in the feeder magma, with no need to invoke different differentiation suites related to mantle source heterogeneities of parental magmas.

Palladino, Danilo M.; Gaeta, Mario; Giaccio, Biagio; Sottili, Gianluca

2014-06-01

310

Igneous rocks of the East Pacific Rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The apical parts of large volcanoes along the East Pacific Rise (islands and seamounts) are encrusted with rocks of the alkali volcanic suite (alkali basalt, andesine- and oligoclase-andesite, and trachyte). In contrast, the more submerged parts of the Rise are largely composed of a tholeiitic basalt which has low concentrations of K, P, U, Th, Pb, and Ti. This tholeiitic basalt is either the predominant or the only magma generated in the earth's mantle under oceanic ridges and rises. It is at least 1000-fold more abundant than the alkali suite, which is probably derived from tholeiitic basalt by magmatic differentiation in and immediately below the larger volcanoes. Distinction of oceanic tholeiites from almost all continental tholeiites is possible on the simple basis of total potassium content, with the discontinuity at 0.3 to 0.5 percent K2O by weight. Oceanic tholeiites also are readily distinguished from some 19 out of 20 basalts of oceanic islands and seamount cappings by having less than 0.3 percent K2O by weight and more than 48 percent SiO2. Deep drilling into oceanic volcanoes should, however, core basalts transitional between the oceanic tholeiites and the presumed derivative alkali basalts.The composition of the oceanic tholeiites suggests that the mantle under the East Pacific Rise contains less than 0.10 percent potassium oxide by weight; 0.1 part per million of uranium and 0.4 part of thorium; a potassium:rubidium ratio of about 1200 and a potassium: uranium ratio of about 104.

Engel, A.E.J.; Engel, C.G.

1964-01-01

311

Geology and mineral deposits of the Hekimhan-Hasancelebi iron district, Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An area of 210 sq km was investigated in the Hekimhan-Hasancelebi district. of central Turkey as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Institusu(MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey(USGS) mineral exploration and training project to explore for iron deposits and to provide on-.the-job training for MTA geologists. The rocks of the area are Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks intruded by syenite and a serpentinized mafic and ultramafic complex and overlain unconformably by late .Tertiary basalt. The base of the section is a thick mafic volcanic-sedimentary sequence with diverse rocks that include conglomerate, sandstone, shale, tuff, limestone, and basalt. The upper part of the sequence is metasomatized near syenite contacts. The sequence is conformably overlain by trachyte and unconformably overlain by massive limestone. Overlying the limestone is a Tertiary sedimentary sequence which is dominantly conglomerate and sandstone with local limestone and volcanic rocks. This series is in turn overlain by olivine basalt. Mineral deposits are associated with the two types of intrusive rocks. Hematite-magnetite in the Karakuz mine area and in the Bahcedami-Hasancelebi area is related to the syenite, and siderite in the Deveci mine area is possibly related to the mafic-ultramafic rocks. Significant iron resources are found, only in the Karakuz and Deveci areas. In the Karakuz area disseminations, veins, and replacements consisting of hematite and magnetite are present. Most of the material is low grade. In the Deveci mine area a large deposit of siderite apparently is a replacement of carbonate beds adjacent to serpentinized igneous rock. The upper part of the siderite deposit is weathered and enriched to a mixture of iron and manganese oxides of direct shipping ore grade. Additional investigation of both the Karakuz and .Deveci mine areas is recommended including: 1. A detailed gravity and magnetic survey of part of the Karakuz area. 2. Diamond drilling at both the Karakuz and Deveci areas.

Jacobson, Herbert S.; Kendiro'glu, Zeki; Ozdemir; Celil, Bogaz; Resat; Onder, Osman; Gurel, Nafis

1972-01-01

312

Late Pleistocene zircon ages for intracaldera domes at Gölcük (Isparta, Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pleistocene to Quaternary volcanism in the Isparta region (SW Anatolia, Turkey) comprises potassic lavas and pyroclastic deposits, which are largely centered around Gölcük caldera. Trachytic intracaldera lava domes represent the latest eruptive event at Gölcük, and their eruption age is crucial for defining a minimum age for the preceding caldera-forming explosive eruption. Here, we present combined U-Th and (U-Th)/He zircon geochronological data for two intracaldera lava domes constraining their crystallization and eruption ages, respectively. U-Th zircon crystallization ages peak between ca. 15 and 25 ka. In rare instances U-Th zircon crystallization ages date back to ca. 59 and 136 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages also permit (U-Th)/He eruption ages from the same crystals to be individually corrected for uranium series decay chain disequilibrium, which is mainly due to the deficit of the intermediate daughter 230Th in zircon. Average disequilibrium-corrected (U-Th)/He zircon ages are 14.1 ± 0.5 and 12.9 ± 0.4 ka (1?). These ages are indistinguishable within analytical uncertainties suggesting that both lavas erupted quasi simultaneously. This contradicts published K-Ar ages that suggest an extended hiatus from ca. 52 to 24 ka between intracaldera dome eruptions. Evidence for protracted zircon crystallization over several thousands of years prior to eruption indicates the presence of a long-lived magma reservoir underneath Gölcük caldera. Implications of the revised eruptive geochronology presented here include younger ages for the latest effusive eruptions at Gölcük, and potentially also a more recent explosive eruption than previously assumed.

Schmitt, Axel K.; Danišík, Martin; Siebel, Wolfgang; Elitok, Ömer; Chang, Yu-Wei; Shen, Chuan-Chou

2014-10-01

313

Geology and geochemistry of the Mount Riley-Mount Cox pluton, Dona Ana County, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Mount Riley-Mount Cox area is comprised of a relatively homogeneous pluton of rhyodacite rising some 1600 feet above the La Mesa surface. The pluton, of apparent Tertiary age, intrudes Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and Tertiary ( ) latite and tuff. The rhyodacite is holocrystalline, light gray to pinkish gray, porphyritic to microporphyritic, and locally banded. Phenocrysts include hornblende, quartz, biotite, and calcite. The phenocrysts range in size from 0.2 to 2 mm and make up one to fifteen percent of the rock. The phenocrysts often display a glomerophyric texture within a trachytic groundmass. The groundmass ranges from cryptocrystalline to very fine grained and is composed of plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar, hornblende/biotite, and iron-oxide material. Locally, the rhyodacite displays millimeter-scale banding and a poikilitic texture consisting of quartz oikiocrysts and plagioclase chadocrysts. The rhyodacite averages 68.74%, SiO/sub 2/, 0.39% TiO/sub 2/, 16.40% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 2.87% Fe/sub t/, 0.10% MnO, 1.21% MgO, 2.56% CaO, 3.79% Na/sub 2/O, and 3.96% K/sub 2/O. The rhyodacite is cut by veins and veinlets of brown to white calcite. The veins attain a maximum thickness of one meter, are locally bordered by calcite-cemented breccia zones, and locally include pyrite. The veins trend north or northwest, consistent with regional trends for the Rio Grande rift and the Texas Lineament, respectively. Sixty-five samples of rhyodacite, breccia, and vein were analyzed for 31 elements by emission-spectrographic methods. Trace-element data suggestive of hydrothermal mineralization was not recognized.

Zimbelman, D.R.; Siems, D.F.; Kilburn, J.E.; Hubert, A.E.

1985-01-01

314

Zircon evidence for a ~200 k.y. supereruption-related thermal flare-up in the Miocene southern Black Mountains, western Arizona, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Silver Creek caldera (southern Black Mountains, western Arizona) is the source of the 18.8 Ma, >700 km3 Peach Spring Tuff (PST) supereruption, the largest eruption generated in the Colorado River Extensional Corridor (CREC) of the southwestern United States. Within and immediately surrounding the caldera is a sequence of volcanics and intrusions ranging in age from ~19 to 17 Ma. These units offer a record of magmatic processes prior to, during, and immediately following the PST eruption. To investigate the thermal evolution of the magmatic center that produced the PST, we applied a combination of Ti-in-zircon thermometry, zircon saturation thermometry, and high-precision U-Pb CA-TIMS zircon dating to representative pre- and post-supereruption volcanic and intrusive units from the caldera and its environs. Similar to intracaldera PST zircons, zircons from a pre-PST trachytic lava (19 Ma) and a post-PST caldera intrusion (18.8 Ma) yield exceptionally high-Ti concentrations (most >20 ppm, some up to nearly 60 ppm), corresponding to calculated temperatures that exceed 900 °C. In these units, Ti-in-zircon temperatures typically surpass zircon saturation temperatures (ZSTs), suggesting the entrainment of zircon that had grown in hotter environments within the magmatic system. Titanium concentrations in younger volcanic and intrusive units (~18.7-17.5 Ma) decline through time, corresponding to an average cooling rate of 10-3.5 °C/year. The ~200 k.y. thermal peak evident at Silver Creek caldera is spatially limited: elsewhere in the Miocene record of the northern CREC, Ti-in-zircon concentrations and ZSTs are much lower, suggesting that felsic magmas were generally substantially cooler.

McDowell, Susanne M.; Miller, Calvin F.; Mundil, Roland; Ferguson, Charles A.; Wooden, Joseph L.

2014-07-01

315

Fluvial geochemistry in São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal): source and fluxes of inorganic solutes in an active volcanic environment.  

PubMed

River water chemistry in two of the major rivers in São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago, Portugal) has been characterized monthly between June 2010 and October 2011 in order to estimate the main geochemical processes that explain water composition and to estimate solute fluxes and the thermal water input to rivers. Both rivers (Ribeira Grande - RRG, and Ribeira Quente - RRQ) drain active trachytic central volcanoes. The number of sampling stations is seven in RRG and six in RRQ. Rivers are mainly slightly acid to basic in nature (pH in the range 5.41-8.70 in RRG and 5.90-8.10 in RRQ) and from the Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl water types. In both cases water temperature increases towards the river mouth and median values are slightly higher in Ribeira Quente (15.5-22.4°C) comparing to Ribeira Grande river (15.2-19.7°C). Electrical conductivity suggests poorly mineralized waters (139-456 ?S/cm in RRG and 209-402 ?S/cm in RRQ, and values increase downstream. Higher solute fluxes are associated to HCO3 and Na, and the total CO2 flux is equal to 3647 t/yr in RRQ and 7546 t/yr in RRG. Mixture with thermal water discharges also influences river water chemistry and in RRQ the contribution to the annual average discharge rate was estimated in 2.96×10(6)m(3)/yr (12.8% of overall discharge rate in the watershed). In RRG thermal water discharges were estimated in 2.4×10(6)m(3)/yr (14.9% of the discharge rate). The minimum total CO2-consumption associated with low-temperature weathering is equal to 0.58×10(6)mol/km(2)/yr in Ribeira Quente river and equal to 0.78×10(6)mol/km(2)/yr in Ribeira Grande river. PMID:23542489

Freire, P; Andrade, C; Coutinho, R; Cruz, J V

2013-06-01

316

Fluoride content in drinking water supply in São Miguel volcanic island (Azores, Portugal).  

PubMed

High fluoride contents in the water supply of the city of Ponta Delgada, located in the volcanic island of São Miguel (Azores, Portugal) have been reported. Dental fluorosis in São Miguel has been identified and described in several medical surveys. The water supply in Ponta Delgada consists entirely of groundwater. A study was carried out in order to characterize the natural F-pollution of a group of springs (30) and wells (3), that are associated to active central volcanoes of a trachytic nature. Two springs known for their high content in fluoride were sampled, both located in the central volcano of Furnas. The sampled waters are cold, ranging from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (pH range 6.53-7.60), exhibiting a low electrical conductivity (springs range 87-502 ?S/cm; wells range 237-1761 ?S/cm), and are mainly from the Na-HCO(3), Na-HCO(3)-Cl and Na-Cl-HCO(3) water types. Results suggest two main trends of geochemical evolution: silicate weathering, enhanced by CO(2) dilution, and seawater spraying. Fluoride contents range between 0.17 mg/L and 2 mg/L, and no seasonal variations were detected. Results in the sources of the water supply system are lower than those of the Furnas volcano, which reach 5.09 mgF/L, demonstrating the effect of F-rich gaseous emanations in this area. Instead, the higher fluoride contents in the water supply are mainly due to silicate weathering in aquifers made of more evolved volcanic rocks. PMID:22705903

Cordeiro, S; Coutinho, R; Cruz, J V

2012-08-15

317

The crystallization of shoshonitic to peralkaline trachyphonolitic magmas in a H2O-Cl-F-rich environment at Ischia (Italy), with implications for the feeder system of the Campania Plain volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk-rock and mineralogical characterization of massive samples (lava flows, lava domes, scoria, spatter), chosen to be representative of different activity periods and of the whole known compositional range of Ischia island (Roman Magmatic Province, Campanian district) is reported in this paper. The rocks vary in composition from shoshonites to peralkaline trachyphonolites. Crystallization started with Al-rich chromite inclusions and their host magnesian olivine in shoshonites and latites, and ended with låvenite, rinkite, kochite, hiortdahlite, hainite, Mn-aenigmatite, britholite and Ti-Zr-rich aegirine in the groundmass of the peralkaline trachyphonolites. Removal of feldspar-bearing assemblages (with calcic-to-sodic plagioclase in shoshonites and latites, sodic sanidine and anorthoclase in trachytes and trachyphonolites) is established throughout the compositional range, and is accompanied by interaction between variably evolved magmas (with their differing phenocryst assemblage), mostly in mafic and intermediate compositions. This led to enrichment in Mn, alkalis, Zr, Nb, REE, Rb, Th, U, Cl and F, and depletion in Mg, Fe, V, Ca, Ba, Sr and Eu in the most evolved magmas. The Ischian rocks have a tendency to sodic affinity and by peculiar mineral compositions and compositional trends, which do not indicate extremely oxidizing conditions. The Ischian rocks thus differ from the Phlegrean Fields analogues and the ultrapotassic, more silica undersaturated rocks of Somma-Vesuvius. Overall, variations in the chemical compositions of the rocks and their trends imply unrelated feeding systems and thus are inconsistent with the hypothesis of a common magma reservoir beneath the main volcanic areas of the Campanian Plain.

Melluso, L.; Morra, V.; Guarino, V.; de'Gennaro, R.; Franciosi, L.; Grifa, C.

2014-12-01

318

Duration of gas accumulation before the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption constrained by 210Po-210Pb-226Ra disequilibria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excess gas phase in magmas erupting explosively is well known world-wide. However, the origin of this gas phase, in excess of what can be dissolved in the erupting magma at depth, and the duration of gas accumulation, is less well defined. The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreiitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt (MgO > 8 %) was emitted during the preceding flank eruption. The silicic tephra of the first explosive phase is composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreiite, and evolved basalt (MgO < 5 %). The rhyolitic glass is indistinguishable from tephra glass composition emitted during the penultimate eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 1821-23 AD (Sigmarsson et al., 2011). Tephra from the first explosive phase, emitted on 15 and 17 April, had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb ((210Po/210Pb)0 as high as 2!) and a small, but significant, 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra ((210Pb/226Ra)0= 1.05 and 1.04, respectively). These excesses suggest rapid accumulation of Po and Rn together with the major gas species in the residual rhyolitic magma from the 1821-23 eruption. The gas most likely originates from the basalt recharge that eventually provoked the eruption. Basalts emitted a month earlier during the flank eruption at Fimmvörðuháls lost all their Po upon eruption and had (210Po/210Pb)0 equal to 0). From a simple model of radon and polonium degassing and accumulation, the mass of basalt magma degassing over the mass of silicic magma accumulating the excess gas can be calculated. Moreover, the duration of gas accumulation can be shown to be close to 300 days. This duration suggests that gas was liberated from the basaltic magma since June 2009, a month that corresponds to the initial seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull preceding the explosive eruption of 14 April 2010.

Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Gauthier, Pierre-Jean; Condomines, Michel

2014-05-01

319

Post 19 ka B.P. eruptive history of Ulleung Island, Korea, inferred from an intra-caldera pyroclastic sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ulleung Island is a Quaternary volcanic island located in the mid-western part of the East Sea (Sea of Japan) back-arc basin, which has erupted from the Pliocene until the late Holocene. This study focuses on reconstructing the latest eruptive history of the island by describing the sedimentological and stratigraphic characteristics of the most recent, trachytic/phonolitic pyroclastic sequence, named the Nari Tephra Formation. This formation is preserved as a succession of unwelded pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits within an embayed margin of the Nari Caldera. The embayment acted as a topographic trap for proximal pyroclastic deposits, and contains a complete record of the past 19,000 years of eruption history. The formation includes evidence for five separate eruptive episodes (Member N-1 to N-5), with intervening weathered and/or soil horizons indicating hundreds to thousands of years of repose between each eruption. Eruption styles and depositional mechanisms varied between and during individual episodes, reflecting changing dynamics of the magma plumbing system, magmatic gas coupling, and a variable role of external water. Extra-caldera sequences show that only a few of these eruptions generated sustained eruption columns or pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) large enough to overtop the caldera wall. Thus tephra sequences outside the caldera provide an underestimate of eruption frequency, and care needs to be taken in the interpretation and correlation to distal tephra sequences recognized in marine and terrestrial records. In addition, topographic effects of caldera structures should be considered for the assessment of PDC-related hazards in such moderately sized pyroclastic eruptions.

Kim, G. B.; Cronin, S. J.; Yoon, W. S.; Sohn, Y. K.

2014-04-01

320

Variable Sources and Differentiation of Lavas from the Copahue-Caviahue Eruptive Complex, Neuquen Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caldera collapse (?180 km2) associated with a large Pliocene pyroclastic eruption and subsequent glacial erosion exposed an extensive and complex cross-section of pre-caldera volcanic history (at least 5 My) at the Copahue-Caviahue Eruptive Center (CCEC) in the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of Argentina. Lava flows in wall exposures range from olivine-rich basaltic andesite to trachyte, are typically horizontal, vary in abundance and thickness at different wall exposures, and rarely correlate with flows in adjacent sections, although some lava and pyroclastic deposits from adjacent sections are similar in petrography, mineral assemblage, and geochemistry. Bulk-rock geochemical and isotopic data indicate at least two distinct primary melt types contributed to pre-caldera CCEC volcanism, and their differentiates produced a high-K and a low-K series. Incompatible element and isotope systematics suggest they are not related by differentiation of a common parental melt, and less-evolved examples of both types occur throughout the pre-caldera stratigraphic section, suggesting long-lived recharge of the local system by variably-sourced magmas. Petrographic and mineral chemistry evidence indicates that mixing of dissimilar magma types produced compositionally intermediate magmas. The location of the CCEC, rear of the volcanic front (VF), yet trenchward of regional backarc basin (BAB) volcanism, is reflected by the composition of CCEC lavas, which are transitional between local VF and BAB types. Thus, contrasting low- and high-K CCEC magmas in the SVZ rear-arc may reflect local focusing of VF-like (low-K) and BAB-like (high-K) melts.

Todd, E.; Ort, M. H.

2012-12-01

321

Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.  

PubMed

Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition. PMID:25223718

Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

2014-11-01

322

Chitinophaga longshanensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, Z29T, was isolated from the surface of weathered rock (potassic trachyte) from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that strain Z29T belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. The similarities of the 16S rRNA gene sequence between strain Z29T and other type strains of established species in the genus Chitinophaga ranged from 92.7 to 98.2%. The main fatty acids of strain Z29T were iso-C15:0, C16:0, iso-C13:0 and iso-C17:0. It also contained menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the major respiratory quinone and homospermidine as the main polyamine. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, unknown phospholipids, and unknown glycolipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain Z29T was 51.3 mol%. Phenotypic properties and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain Z29T with the genus Chitinophaga. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 14.6% to 29.8%) to other species of the genus Chitinophaga and the many phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain Z29T should represent a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga longshanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Z29T (= CCTCC AB 2014066 T= LMG 28237 T). PMID:25376849

Gao, Shan; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sheng, Xia-Fang; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi

2014-11-01

323

The Deccan tholeiite lavas and dykes of Ghatkopar-Powai area, Mumbai, Panvel flexure zone: Geochemistry, stratigraphic status, and tectonic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mumbai City, situated on the western Indian coast, is well known for exposures of late-stage Deccan pillow basalts and spilites, pyroclastic rocks, rhyolite lavas, and trachyte intrusions. These rock units, and a little-studied sequence of tholeiitic flows and dykes in the eastern part of Mumbai City, constitute the west-dipping limb of a regional tectonic structure called the Panvel flexure. Here we present field, petrographic, major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data on these tholeiitic flows and dykes, best exposed in the Ghatkopar-Powai area. The flows closely resemble the Mahabaleshwar Formation of the thick Western Ghats sequence to the east, in Sr-Nd isotopic ratios and multielement patterns, but have other geochemical characteristics (e.g., incompatible trace element ratios) unlike the Mahabaleshwar or any other Formation. The flows may have originated from a nearby eruptive center, possibly offshore of Mumbai. Two dykes resemble the Ambenali Formation of the Western Ghats in all geochemical characteristics, though they may not represent feeders of the Ambenali Formation lavas. Most dykes are distinct from any of the Western Ghats stratigraphic units. Some show partial (e.g., Sr-Nd isotopic) similarities to the Mahabaleshwar Formation, and these include several dykes with unusual, concave-downward REE patterns suggesting residual amphibole and thus a lithospheric source. The flows and dykes are inferred to have undergone little or no contamination, by lower continental crust. Most dykes are almost vertical, suggesting emplacement after the formation of the Panvel flexure, and indicate considerable east-west lithospheric extension during this late but magmatically vigorous stage of Deccan volcanism.

Sheth, Hetu C.; Zellmer, Georg F.; Demonterova, Elena I.; Ivanov, Alexei V.; Kumar, Rohit; Patel, Rakesh Kumar

2014-04-01

324

Magmatic processes inferred from chemical composition, texture and crystal size distribution of the Heikongshan lavas in the Tengchong volcanic field, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The products of volcanic eruption contain abundant information about the magmatic processes in a magma chamber. In this paper, we study the magmatic processes associated with the Heikongshan volcano in the Tengchong volcanic field (TVF), Yunnan Province of southwestern China, through chemical composition, texture and crystal size distribution (CSD) analysis of volcanic lavas. The Heikongshan lavas comprise five flow units associated with three different episodes of volcanic eruption since the middle Pleistocene. Bulk rock chemical analyses indicate that unit I is a basaltic trachyandesite, units II-IV are of trachyandesite, and unit V is composed of trachyte. The textures of these lavas can be further classified into three main groups accordingly, each represented by different phenocryst and groundmass assemblages, reflecting the changes of physical environment in the magma chamber. CSD analysis of plagioclase phenocrysts yields a mixture of CSD curves, some of which are nearly straight lines, while others are weakly concave-up. These concave-up CSD curves are consistent with magma mixing between host magma and early residual dacitic magma. In specifics, the CSD curve of large plagioclase phenocrysts (>1.6 mm) in unit I reflects the characteristic of early dacitic magma. Whereas, the CSD curves of small plagioclase phenocrysts (<1.6 mm) in units II-IV yield straight lines, indicating a relatively steady open system in which they formed. In contrast, influenced by the plagioclase crystals in early dacitic magma, the CSD curves of large plagioclase phenocrysts (>1.6 mm) in units II-IV deviated from their original trend and formed in concave-up shape. Finally, in the last episode when unit V formed, the magma temperature decreased, resulting in the formation of relatively large amount of small-sized plagioclase crystals. Such process is reflected in the CSD diagram by a relatively higher value of intercept and the steeper slope.

Yu, Hongmei; Xu, Jiandong; Lin, Chuanyong; Shi, Lanbin; Chen, Xiaode

2012-09-01

325

Chitinophaga jiangningensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, JN53(T), was isolated from the surfaces of weathered rock (potassic trachyte) from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Strain JN53(T) grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JN53(T) belonged to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. It was most closely related to Chitinophaga terrae KP01(T) (97.3?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga eiseniae YC6729(T) (96.3?%). Strain JN53(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polyamine. The main fatty acids of strain JN53(T) were iso-C15?:?0, C16?:?1?5c, C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c (summed feature 3), iso-C17?:?0 3-OH, C16?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 3-OH and C16?:?0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain JN53(T) was 49.7 mol%. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness to other species of the genus Chitinophaga and the many phenotypic properties that distinguished strain JN53(T) from recognized species of this genus demonstrated that isolate JN53(T) should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga jiangningensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN53(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2013166(T)?=?JCM 19354(T)). PMID:24052630

Wang, Qi; Cheng, Cheng; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

2014-01-01

326

Overview of Geothermal Development at Olkaria in Kenya  

SciTech Connect

The Olkaria geothermal field has been under continuous development since 1970. A feasibility study, completed in 1976, after six wells had been drilled and tested, indicated that development of the Olkaria field was feasible. The feasibility study was followed by production drilling and the construction of three 15 MW generating units. The first unit was brought on stream in July 1981, the second in December, 1982, and the third is scheduled to be completed in early 1985. The current output of 19 productive wells is equivalent to 46 MWe. Distribution of fumaroles and resistivity surveys indicate an areal extent of some 80 km{sup 2} for the Olkaria geothermal field. Gas chemistry of fumaroles indicates comparable underground temperatures over the whole field, 200-250{degrees}C. The capacity of the resource has been estimated to be 500-1000 MW electric for a production period of 25 years. Most of the drilling has been confined to a small part of the geothermal field. Here maximum recorded downhole temperature is 339{degrees}C and temperatures follow the boiling point curve with depth. A thin steam zone at 240{degrees}C is observed in the top of the reservoir at approximately 600-700 m depth. The reservoir fluid is dilute, of the sodium chloride type, contains chloride in the range of 200-700 ppm. The reservoir rocks consist of a sequence of near horizontal lavas and tuffs of trachytic composition, but basaltic andesites have also beenidentified. The drilled rocks at Olkaria are of relatively low permeability, the average yield of wells being equivalent to about 2.5 MWe. Exploratory drilling is presently in porgress in the Olkaria field, the aim being to locate new production areas withing the field. Three holes have been completed and the forth and last hole under the present plan is being drilled.

Svanbjornsson, Andres; Matthiasson, Jonas; Frimannsson, Hreinn; Arnorsson, Stefan; Rjornsson, Sveinbjorn; Stefansson, Valqarour; Samundsson, Kristjan

1983-12-15

327

Stratigraphy, age and environments of the late Miocene Mpesida Beds, Tugen Hills, Kenya.  

PubMed

Interpretations of faunal assemblages from the late Miocene Mpesida Beds in the Tugen Hills of the Central Kenyan Rift Valley have figured prominently in discussions of faunal turnover and establishment of the modern East African communities. These faunal changes have important implications for the divergence of the human lineage from the African apes ca. 8-5 Ma. While fossil material recovered from the Mpesida Beds has traditionally been analyzed collectively, accumulating evidence indicates that Mpesida facies span the 7-6 Ma interval and are scattered more than 25 km along the eastern flanks of the Tugen Hills. Stratigraphic distinctions between Mpesida facies and younger sediments in the sequence, such as the Lukeino Formation, are not yet fully resolved, further complicating temporal assessments and stratigraphic context of Mpesida facies. These issues are discussed with specific reference to exposures of Mpesida facies at Rurmoch, where large fossil tree fragments were swept up in an ancient ash flow. Preserved anatomical features of the fossil wood as well as estimated tree heights suggest a wet, lowland rainforest in this portion of the rift valley. Stable isotopic analyses of fossil enamel and paleosol components indicate the presence of more open habitats locally. Overlying air-fall tuffs and epiclastic debris, possibly associated with the ash flow, have yielded an assemblage of vertebrate fossils including two teeth belonging to one of the earliest colombines of typical body size known from Africa, after the rather small Microcolobus. Single-crystal, laser-fusion,(40)Ar/(39)Ar dates from a capping trachyte flow as well as tuffs just below the lava contact indicate an age of greater than 6.37 Ma for the fossil material. PMID:11795970

Kingston, John D; Fine Jacobs, Bonnie; Hill, Andrew; Deino, Alan

2002-01-01

328

Kizilcaören ore-bearing complex with carbonatites (northwestern Anatolia, Turkey): Formation time and mineralogy of rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of isotope-geochronological and mineralogical studies of the rocks making up the Kizilcaören fluorite-barite-REE deposit, northwestern Anatolia, Turkey are discussed in the paper. The ore is a constituent of the subvolcanic complex localized in a large fault zone. The complex combines (from earlier to later rocks): (1) phonolite and trachyte stocks, (2) carbonatite and carbonate-silicate dikelike bodies; and (3) fluorite-barite-bastnaesite ore in the form of thick homogeneous veins and cement in breccia. The K-Ar dating of silicate igneous rocks and carbonatites shows that they were formed in the Chattian Age of the Oligocene 25-24 Ma ago. Mineralogical observations show that the ore is the youngest constituent in the rock complex. Supergene alteration deeply transformed ore-bearing rocks, in particular, resulting in leaching of primary minerals, presumably Ca-Mn-Fe carbonates, and in cementation of the residual bastnaesitefluorite framework by Fe and Mn hydroxides. Most of the studied rocks contain pyrochlore, LREE fluorocarbonates, Nb-bearing rutile, Fe-Mg micas, and K-feldspar. The genetic features of the deposit have been considered. In general, the ore-bearing rock complex is compared in the set of rocks and their mineralogy and geochemistry with deposits of the Gallinas Mountains in the United States, the Arshan and Khalyuta deposits in the western Transbaikalia region, and Mushugai-Khuduk deposit in Mongolia. The Kizilcaören deposit represents a variant of postmagmatic mineralization closely related to carbonatite magmatism associated with alkaline and subalkaline intermediate rocks.

Nikiforov, A. V.; Öztürk, H.; Altuncu, S.; Lebedev, V. A.

2014-02-01

329

Phonolites and peralkaline rhyolites from a single magma source in the mantle : A new look at some Black Hills rocks  

SciTech Connect

A re-evaluation of existing data from the Deer Mountain-Terry Peak-Sugarloaf Mountain area of the Black Hills, plus some new data, suggests the real possibility that both silica-undersaturated and silica-oversaturated alkaline-peralkaline rocks evolved from the same mantle-derived parent magma. Mineralogically, aegirine rhyolites, phonolites, a minette and the mantle are linked by an association of Mg-rich olivine-phlogopite structures, zenocrystic phlogopite and diopside-cored pyroxene phenocrysts. Trends of silica vs. major elements, trace elements (V,Sc,Ni) and MgO/FeOt are continuous and preclude being fortuitous. Peralkalinity also increases with silica in a well-defined trend. Increasing ferric oxide to total iron oxide indicates increasing oxygen fugacity with silica saturation. A mantle origin for the phonolites is supported by Sr-isotope data of Beintema (1986) and Beintema and Montgomery (1986). Higher Sr-isotope ratios for the aegirine rhyolites, suggesting a lower crustal origin, actually may result from magmatic processes, as shown by others for ocean island basalt-phonolite-comendite associations. Early fractionation of mafic phases drives trends away from the Ne-minimum on the residua diagram, indicating that magma evolution took place above residua temperatures, thus avoiding the thermal divide. Later fractionation of alkali feldspars accounts for variation in the aegirine rhyolites. Rising alkalies and oxygen explain variations in peralkalinity and ferric iron content. Pressure-dependent immiscibility possibly may be the cause of a silica gap in rock types, as rocks with low quartz contents are not found, except as phaneritic inclusions. A model is suggested in which either a fractionating minette or trachyte magma could yield the series of rocks under study.

Kirchner, J.G. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Geography-Geology)

1993-03-01

330

Digital mapping of accommodating structures and deformation associated with the emplacement of high level magmatic intrusions, Henry Mountains, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-level sill and laccolith complexes form an important part of volcanic plumbing systems in which magma is emplaced as a series of sub-horizontal tabular sheet-like intrusions. Few studies of these intrusion types have looked in detail at the host rock, emplacement-related deformation structures, and how the additional volume of rock is accommodated within the crust, i.e. the 'space problem'. The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the stages of emplacement (style of emplacement versus style of host rock deformation) and the internal textural evolution of Tertiary sills and laccoliths in the Henry Mountains, whilst also attempting to resolve the 'space problem'. Conventional field mapping, outcrop studies and detailed data collection of deformation structures has been combined with digital mapping using FieldMove™ and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in order to enable 3D modelling of the intrusive bodies and emplacement-related host rock deformation. Kinematic and geometrical studies of emplacement-related structures in the host rocks are supplemented by micro-scale textural and geochemical studies of deformed host rocks, plagioclase feldspar and amphibole phenocryst populations within the intrusions, and the intrusion-host rock contact zone. Fabric studies recognise micro-structural fabrics (associated with accommodating structures) from magmatic fabrics (associated with magma flow). Crystal size distribution (CSD) studies help constrain the crystal:molten rock ratio and mechanical properties of the intruding magma, in addition to helping identify individual magma pulses. Fieldwork to date has focused on two satellite intrusions to Mt. Hilliers: Trachyte Mesa (the most distal intrusion; simple geometries); and Maiden Creek (closer to Mt. Hilliers; more complex geometries) both of which are emplaced into the Jurassic Entrada Formation sandstone. Preliminary results highlight the importance of faults, fractures, deformation bands and newly identified shear zones in accommodating the extra volume of magma at depth.

Wilson, P. I.; McCaffrey, K. J.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Davidson, J. P.; Murphy, P. J.; Jarvis, I.

2012-12-01

331

An Initial Report of Research Into the Identification of Lava Flows at the Broken Top and North Crater Cinder Cones in the Craters of the Moon Lava Field by Their Chemical and Petrographic Composition (the Great Rift of Idaho, Snake River Plain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Craters of the Moon lava field was formed during the Great Rift of Idaho volcanic activity for more than 15 Ka. There are still unsolved questions about chemical and petrographic compositions of lava flows inside the Craters of the Moon lava field, their relative and absolute ages, and depths of their magma generation chambers. The research undertaken by the author is based on results of field work, petrographic and microprobe analysis of lava samples, and published materials on the Great Rift and adjacent territories. The chemical and petrographic composition of North Crater and Broken Top cinder cones and lava flows, and the South Highway and Blue Dragon lava flows was analyzed. The North Crater lava flow and cinder cone mainly consist of trachybasalts and basaltic trachyandesite. The South Highway lava flow can be divided into three groups of flow and cinder, which are 1) dacite-trachydacite-trachyte; 2) basalt-trachybasalt, and 3) andesite-trachyandesite. The main lava flow of Broken Top is composed of trachybasalt and basaltic trachyandesite. The cinder cone of Broken Top consists of basaltic andesite and basaltic trachyandesite. It is shown that the chemical composition of glass, olivine and the spinel group minerals is unique in each lava flow or cinder cone, which serves as a tool to identify each lava flow. Depths of magma generation were estimated for North Crater, South Highway, Broken Top and Blue Dragon lava flows. It was determined that during the evolution of volcanic activity of the Great Rift the depth of magma generation has decreased. This is explained by the decompression which took place as the Great Rift stretched, allowing the magma chamber to rise closer to the surface. This can be observed in the eruptive and non-eruptive fissures that run parallel to the rift.

Lendyel, P.; Koronovsky, N.

2013-12-01

332

Chitinophaga qingshengii sp. nov., isolated from weathered rock surface.  

PubMed

A novel type of mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from weathered rock (potassic trachyte) surfaces collected from Nanjing (Jiangsu, China). Cells of strain JN246T were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, and non-motile. Strain JN246T was aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 28 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain JN246T belonged to the genus Chitinophaga and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Chitinophaga eiseniae YC6729T (98.5 %), Chitinophaga terrae KP01T (96.8 %), and Chitinophaga jiangningensis JN53T (96.3 %). The major respiratory quinine was MK-7 and the major polyamine was homospermidine. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C16:1?5c, C16:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:0 3-OH, C14:O, C16:0 3-OH, C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c (summed feature 3), and C13:1. The polar lipid profile of strain JN246T consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain JN246T was 48.8 mol%. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 22.6 % to 42.4 %) to these type strains of species of the genus Chitinophaga and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain JN246T represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga qingshengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN246T (= CCTCC AB 2014201 T= JCM 30026 T). PMID:25342110

Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Qi; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

2014-10-23

333

Volcanic stratigraphy of the Barrel Springs--Wild Cherry Formations, Davis Mountains, Trans-Pecos Texas  

SciTech Connect

Detailed mapping, stratigraphy, [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar ages, and geochemistry allow, for the first time, a coherent volcanic history of the Barrel Springs--Wild Cherry (BS-WC) units, the most widespread of the Davis Mountains volcanic field (DMVF). These units erupted dominantly from the [approximately] 20 km-diameter Paradise Mountain caldera (PMC), in the west-central DMVF, where thick, locally silicified and kaolinized intracaldera tuffs and interbedded lavas were resurgently domed by an 8 x 5-km-diameter syenitic intrusion. BS-WC units, all rhyolites, consist dominantly of a lower, moderately porphyritic ash-flow tuff; a petrographically similar, middle ash-flow tuff; and an upper group of voluminous, abundantly porphyritic lavas. The lower ash-flow tuff is strongly rheomorphic throughout its occurrence. The middle ash-flow is also rheomorphic in thick outcrops near the PMC but not in thin ([<=]10m), distal outcrops. These three units are interbedded with lavas lithologically similar to the tuffs near the PMC and with volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks in more distal area. The two ash-flow tuffs are separated by strongly porphyritic trachyte lavas of the Mount Locke Formation in the vicinity of the PMC. Sources and extents of individual flows of the upper lavas have not been positively identified. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar ages of alkali feldspar phenocrysts from thirteen samples constrain most BS-WC to a 300 ka span. The lower tuff erupted about 35.6 Ma. The middle tuff and part of the voluminous lava package erupted at 35.3 Ma. Ages of two lavas are 35.1 Ma, which suggests prolonged eruption. Correlations based on lithology and age relations are supplemented by trace element and mineral studies that confirm close geochemical affinities.

Parker, D.F. (Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States). Dept. Geology); Henry, C.D. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology); Kunk, M.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

1993-02-01

334

Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.

2011-12-01

335

Rb-Sr and oxygen isotopic study of alkalic rocks from the Trans-Pecos magmatic province, Texas: Implications for the petrogenesis and hydrothermal alteration of continental alkalic rocks  

SciTech Connect

Rb-Sr and O isotopic data for mid-Tertiary alkalic rocks from the Trans-Pecos magmatic province of west Texas demonstrate that hydrothermal alteration and fluid/rock (cation exchange) interactions have affected the isotope geochemistry of these rocks. Strontium and O isotopic data for late-stage minerals in an alkali basalt (hawaiite) still record two episodes of fluid/rock interactions. These data suggest that later meteoric fluids introduced Sr with a Cretaceous marine {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio into minerals with significant cation exchange capacity. Dilute HCl leaching experiments demonstrate the removal of this labile or exchangeable Sr from the alkali basalt. Rb-Sr isotopic data for the leached alkali basalt and handpicked calcite record a crystallization age of 42 Ma, consistent with K-Ar data for an unaltered alkali basalt (hawaiite) dike from the same area (42.6 {plus minus} 1.3 Ma). Leaching experiments on one phonolite suggest the Sr isotopic variability in unleached phonolite and nepheline trachyte samples may be attributed to Sr in secondary calcite and zeolites, which have an upper Cretaceous marine {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio. Rb-Sr isotopic data for leached phonolite and sanidine separate yield an age of 36.5 {plus minus} 0.8 Ma, within analytical uncertainty of a K-Ar biotite age (36.0 {plus minus} 1.1 Ma) of another phonolite. These leaching experiments demonstrate that the Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of hydrothermally-altered continental alkalic rocks may be significantly improved, providing more reliable geochronologic and isotopic tracer information necessary in constructing precise models of mantle sources.

Lambert, D.D.; Malek, D.J.; Dahl, D.A. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (USA))

1988-10-01

336

Cutting Costs by Locating High Production Wells: A Test of the Volcano seismic Approach to Finding ''Blind'' Resources  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 2000, Duke University and the Kenyan power generation company, KenGen, conducted a microearthquake monitoring experiment at Longonot volcano in Kenya. Longonot is one of several major late Quaternary trachyte volcanoes in the Kenya Rift. They study was aimed at developing seismic methods for locating buried hydrothermal areas in the Rift on the basis of their microearthquake activity and wave propagation effects. A comparison of microearthquake records from 4.5 Hz, 2 Hz, and broadband seismometers revealed strong high-frequency site and wave-propagation effects. The lower frequency seismometers were needed to detect and record individual phases. Two-dozen 3-component 2- Hz L22 seismographs and PASSCAL loggers were then distributed around Longonot. Recordings from this network located one seismically active area on Longonot's southwest flank. The events from this area were emergent, shallow (<3 km), small (M<1), and spatially restricted. Evidently, the hydrothermal system in this area is not currently very extensive or active. To establish the nature of the site effects, the data were analyzed using three spectral techniques that reduce source effects. The data were also compared to a simple forward model. The results show that, in certain frequency ranges, the technique of dividing the horizontal motion by the vertical motion (H/V) to remove the source fails because of non-uniform vertical amplification. Outside these frequencies, the three methods resolve the same, dominant, harmonic frequencies at a given site. In a few cases, the spectra can be fit with forward models containing low velocity surface layers. The analysis suggests that the emergent, low frequency character of the microearthquake signals is due to attenuation and scattering in the near surface ash deposits.

Eylon Shalev; Peter E. Malin; Wendy McCausland

2002-06-06

337

The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland and its relationships to volcanic deposits at Olduvai Gorge and East African Rift volcanism.  

PubMed

The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH), situated adjacent and to the east of Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, is the source of the immense quantities of lava, ignimbrite, air fall ash, and volcaniclastic debris that occur interbedded in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the Laetoli and Olduvai areas. These volcanics have proven crucial to unraveling stratigraphic correlations, the age of these successions, the archaeological and paleontological remains, as well as the source materials from which the bulk of the stone tools were manufactured. The NVH towers some 2,000 m above the Olduvai and Laetoli landscapes, affecting local climate, run-off, and providing varying elevation - climate controlled ecosystem, habitats, and riparian corridors extending into the Olduvai and Laetoli lowlands. The NVH also plays a crucial role in addressing the genesis and history of East African Rift (EAR) magmatism in northern Tanzania. In this contribution, we provide age and petrochemical compositions of the major NVH centers: Lemagurut, basalt to benmorite, 2.4-2.2 Ma; Satiman, tephrite to phonolite, 4.6-3.5 Ma; Oldeani, basalt to trachyandesite, 1.6-1.5 Ma; Ngorongoro, basalt to rhyolite, 2.3-2.0 Ma; Olmoti, basalt to trachyte, 2.0-1.8 Ma; Embagai, nephelinite to phonolite, 1.2-0.6 Ma; and Engelosin, phonolite, 3-2.7 Ma. We then discuss how these correlate in time and composition with volcanics preserved at Olduvai Gorge. Finally, we place this into context with our current understanding as to the eruptive history of the NVH and relationship to East African Rift volcanism. PMID:22404967

Mollel, Godwin F; Swisher, Carl C

2012-08-01

338

Middle Miocene nepheline-bearing mafic and evolved alkaline igneous rocks at House Mountain, Arizona Transition Zone, north-central Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Miocene House Mountain shield volcano is located on the northern margin of the Arizona Transition Zone, about 7 km SW of Sedona, AZ. Deep erosion has exposed internal structural and stratigraphic relationships of the volcano. Mapping documents two igneous suites: (1) alkali basalt to trachyte and alkali-feldspar syenite, and (2) olivine melanephelinite, nepheline monzodiorite, nepheline monzosyenite and nepheline syenite. The rocks of the first suite occur as dikes and flows, which, with a thick pyroclastic section, are the principal units of the volcano. The melanephelinite is nonvesicular and intruded as a large irregular dike and several smaller dikes. The nepheline-bearing syenitic rocks, which are phaneritic with nepheline and clinopyroxene crystals up to 1 cm in diameter, occur as pods and sheets within the melanephelinite. Also within the melanephelinite are wispy leucocratic segregations, syenitic fracture-fillings, and ocelli. The largest phaneritic sheet is [approx]18 m thick; it displays crude subhorizontal compositional banding and vuggy surfaces. The latter indicate that the magmas were fluid-rich. Compositions intermediate between the melanephelinite and syenitic rocks have not been found. Although the syenitic rocks are coarse-grained, mapping indicates the they are near the summit of the volcano and were probably emplaced at a depth of less than 1 km, possibly of only a few hundred meters. The field relationships of the phaneritic rocks can be explained by ascent and coalescence of immiscible syenitic liquids within the melanephelinite dike. Calculated density contrasts between melanephelinite and syenitic liquids exceed 0.2 g/cm[sup 3].

Wittke, J.; Holm, R.F.; Ranney, W.D.R. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-04-01

339

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of late Ediacaran (605-580 Ma) post-collisional alkaline rocks from the Katherina ring complex, south Sinai, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Katherina ring complex (KRC) in the central part of south Sinai, Egypt, is a typical ring complex of late Neoproterozoic age (605-580 Ma). It was developed during the final tectono-magmatic stage of the north Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) during evolution of the Pan-African crust. The KRC includes Katherina volcanics, subvolcanic bodies, ring dykes and Katherina granitic pluton. The Katherina volcanics represent the earliest stage of the KRC, which was subsequently followed by emplacement of the subvolcanic bodies and ring dykes. The Katherina granitic pluton depicts as the latest evolution stage of the KRC that intruded all the early formed rock units in the concerned area. The Katherina volcanics are essentially composed of rhyolites, ignimbrite, volcanic breccia and tuffs. Mineralogically, the peralkaline rhyolites contain sodic amphiboles and aegirine. The rhyolite whole rock chemistry has acmite-normative character. The subvolcanic bodies of the KRC are represented by peralkaline microgranite and porphyritic quartz syenite. The ring dykes are semicircular in shape and consist mainly of quartz syenite, quartz trachyte and trachybasalt rock types. The Katherina subvolcanic rocks, volcanic rocks as well as the ring dykes are alkaline or/and peralkaline in nature. The alkaline granitic pluton forms the inner core of the KRC, including the high mountainous areas of G. Abbas Pasha, G. Bab, G. Katherina and G. Musa. These mountains are made up of alkaline syenogranite and alkali feldspar granite. The mantle signature recorded in the KRC indicates a juvenile ANS crust partial melting process for the generation of this system. The evolution of the KRC rocks is mainly dominated by crystal fractionation and crustal contamination. Mineral geothermometry points to the high temperature character of the KRC, up to 700-1100 °C.

Azer, M. K.; Obeid, M. A.; Ren, M.

2014-10-01

340

Origin of Tertiary to Recent EM- and subduction-like chemical and isotopic signatures in Auca Mahuida region (37°-38°S) and other Patagonian plateau lavas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alkaline volcanic rocks of the 1.8-0.9 Ma Auca Mahuida and post-mid-Pliocene Rio Colorado backarc volcanic fields east of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone at ~37°-38°S have pronounced intraplate-like chemical signatures with some striking similarities to oceanic DM-EM1-like lavas of the south Atlantic Tristan da Cunha type. These backarc lavas are considered to have formed as a series of mantle batches typified by 4-7 % melting, with decompression melting initiating in a garnet-bearing mantle above a steepening subduction zone, and final equilibration occurring near the base of a ~65- to 70-km-thick lithosphere at temperatures of ~1,350-1,380 °C. Evolved Auca Mahuida mugearite to trachytic samples are best explained by crystal fractionation with limited mixing of partial melts of recently underplated basalts, in line with isotopic signatures that preclude significant radiogenic contamination in a preexisting refractory crust. Higher Ba/La and subtly higher La/Ta ratios than in nearby ~24-20 Ma primitive basalts or oceanic (OIB) lavas are attributed to the residual effects of slab fluids introduced during a shallow subduction episode recorded in the arc-like chemistry of the adjacent 7-4 Ma Chachahuén volcanic complex. Positive Sr, K and Ba spikes on mantle-normalized patterns of both primitive Auca Mahuida and ~24-20 Ma basalts, like those in EM-like OIB basalts, are attributed to mixing of continental lithosphere into the asthenosphere. In Patagonia, this mixing is suggested to have peaked as the South America continent accommodated to major late Oligocene plate convergence changes, as similar Sr, K and Ba spikes and DM-EM1 signatures are absent in ~50-30 Ma backarc lavas north of 51°S, and all of those south of 51°S. Introduction of an EM1-like component associated with lateral mantle flow of a Tristan da Cunha source is largely precluded by its Cretaceous age and distance to Patagonia.

Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg; Jones, Helen A.; Kay, Robert W.

2013-07-01

341

Pliocene to Quaternary Central American tephrostratigraphy based on marine Tephras from ODP and DSDP sites - first comprehensive study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) is, and has been, one of the most active volcanic regions and generated numerous Plinian eruptions along his 1200 km extension. The best preserved archive of this volcanism can be found as ash layers in the marine sediments downwind from the volcanic sources on the Pacific floor. Numerous ash layers up to 8 Mio old, which occur in ODP and DSDP cores of Legs 66, 67, and 202, originated in Central America and southern Mexico. The cores lie across the ash distribution areas expected from dominant wind directions as identified by mapped fallout deposits. We have chosen 145 ash layers of all three Legs for first detailed analysis of these sites to built up a data base for upcoming IODP cruise 334: Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project. The ash layers commonly have sharp contacts at the bottom and diffuse transitions to terrigenous and pelagic sediments at the top. Ash layer thickness ranges from 0.5 to 60 cm with typical grain sizes from medium silt to coarse sand. The mineral assemblages are typical for arc volcanism (plagioclase, pyroxene, hornblende, and olivine). The most evolved tephras also contain biotite. Electron microprobe analyses of 1300 glass shards yield compositions ranging from basaltic andesite to rhyolite and trachyte. Felsic ashes can be divided into seven compositional groups by means of silica and potassium contents. Correlations between marine ashes and on-land tephras are constrained by petrographical and stratigraphical criteria, major element geochemistry of glasses and minerals, and trace element data from LA-ICP-MS analyses. Due to limited exposure on land, such correlations with individual tephras are only possible for deposits of late Pleistocene to Holocene age. Older ash layers, however, can be correlated with regional arc segments making use of systematic along-arc variations of trace-element characteristics (Zr/Nb, Ba/La, Ce/Yb, La/Yb and Ba/Zr) of the arc rocks. Results show that source areas of the ash layers are distributed along the entire CAVA, as well as at the Southern Mexican Arc. The marine tephra record provides important data for ongoing studies of CAVA volcanism: (a) dating of undated land tephra by correlation with marine ashes and the ages derived by sedimentation rates; (b) stratigraphic correlations along the entire arc can be traced much more completely in the marine sediment cores than by limited onshore outcrops alone; (c) long-term changes in magmatic evolution of volcanic complexes can be reconstructed by using the marine archive of ash layers.

Strehlow, K.; Kutterolf, S.; Freundt, A.; Kwasnitschka, T.

2010-12-01

342

Geochemistry of Miocene glass in sediments from the AND-2A Core, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: magma petrogenesis and response to glacial unloading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic glass recovered from the AND-2A core between ~354 and 765 mbsf (~15.9-18.4 Ma) occurs as accumulations (2-50 vol.%) within sediments. Glass-rich sediments consist of muddy to fine sandstone and stratified diamictite. Glass varies in color, size, vesicularity, crystal content, angularity, and from fresh to moderately altered. The common occurrence of delicate cuspate forms and fresh glass suggest that they were introduced directly into the water as ashfall with minimal reworking. Therefore, key samples currently being dated using the 40Ar/39Ar method will likely provide important time horizons for the core. Pristine basaltic glass (MgO 3-8 wt.%) is ne-normative (5-30 wt.%) and has a restricted average SiO2 content (ca. 45.2 ± 0.8 wt.%). Variations in CaO and TiO2, positively correlated with MgO content, indicate differentiation controlled by fractionation of plagioclase, olivine, clinopyroxene and magnetite. Trace element concentrations, determined on glasses by LA-ICP-MS, are typical for alkaline volcanism of the Erebus Volcanic Province (EVP). Specifically, our data extends the known compositional range of Mt. Morning, the only known Early-Middle Miocene source in the EVP, to more mafic compositions, revealing the roots of both high alkaline (basanite to phonolite) and lower alkaline (alkali basalt to trachyte) differentiation series. Glass-rich sediments in glacimarine sequences from the AND-2A core record numerous cycles of glacial advance and retreat [1, 2]. Increases in rate, explosivity and volume of volcanism have been related to crustal loading and unloading by ice-sheets in Iceland and elsewhere. AND-2A sediments with high glass contents correspond with ice minimums and, geochemically, Ba/La and Ba/Hf ratios are correlated to intervals of ice expansion (decreasing values) and contraction (increasing values) at multiple depths. Within a single cycle, glass angularity, vesicularity, and composition also vary systematically. Results provide new information from which to evaluate the potential impact of glacial cyclicity on EVP volcanism during the Early-Middle Miocene. [1] Fielding et al. (2011) PALEO3, 305, 337-351. [2] Passchier et al. (2011) GSA Bull.

Nyland, R.; Rocchi, S.; Di Vincenzo, G.; Del Carlo, P.; Tiepolo, M.; Field, B.

2011-12-01

343

Volcanic activity and its link to glaciation cycles: Single-grain age and geochemistry of Early to Middle Miocene volcanic glass from ANDRILL AND-2A core, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the ANtarctic DRILLing Program, volcanic glass fragments were collected from the AND-2A core between ~ 354 and 765 m below sea floor (mbsf) as accumulations (5-70 vol.%) within sediments. Here, we present the physical characteristics, age and geochemistry of the glass, which enable us to reconstruct Early to Middle Miocene volcanic activity in southern McMurdo Sound and, for the first time, document the response of volcanism to climate change in Antarctica. Glass-rich sediments include muddy-to-fine sandstone and stratified diamictite. Glass varies in color, size, vesicularity, crystal content, angularity, and degree of alteration. The mostly fresh glass exhibits delicate cuspate forms indicating deposition as primary ash fall. 40Ar-39Ar age determinations on individual glass grains are in good agreement with the depositional age model of the sediments (ca. 15.6 to 18.6 Ma), supporting for most of them a primary origin, however, some samples do contain older fragments that indicate glass recycling during times of enhanced glacial erosion. Most glasses are mafic (MgO = 3 to 9 wt.%) and vary from hypersthene to nepheline normative with a restricted range in SiO2 (45.2 ± 0.8 wt.%, 1?) and trace element concentrations typical of the rift-related alkaline rocks in the Erebus Volcanic Province. The glass extends known composition of early phase Mount Morning activity (ca. 11-19 Ma), the only known Early to Middle Miocene source, to a more mafic end, revealing a previously unknown explosive, strongly alkaline, basaltic phase and the most primitive forms of both strongly alkaline (basanite to phonolite) and moderately alkaline (alkali basalt to trachyte) magma associations. The glass-rich sediments occur in glacimarine sequences that record 56 cycles of glacial advance and retreat. Volcanic response to glacial cyclicity is observed both physically and geochemically in AND-2A glass. Higher glass volumes in sediments correlate with ice minimum conditions between 300 and 800 mbsf. Ratios of Ba to Hf, Nb, La and Zr in mafic glasses (? 5 wt.% MgO) show a systematic increase in mean values during intervals of ice retreat and decreasing values with ice expansion, suggesting tapping of magmas with variable incompatible to compatible trace element ratios. This may be related to changes in the stress state of the crust in response to rapid ice volume fluctuations over the volcano, which may influence magma chemistry by varying the duration and depth of magma storage.

Nyland, R. E.; Panter, K. S.; Rocchi, S.; Di Vincenzo, G.; Del Carlo, P.; Tiepolo, M.; Field, B.; Gorsevski, P.

2013-01-01

344

Geology and hydrothermal resources in the northern Lake Abaya area (Ethiopia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern Lake Abaya area located in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) evidently contains an advective hydrothermal system. Regional extensional tectonics and subsidence that began in Late Miocene was followed by rift margin rhyolitic volcanism which produced extensive ignimbrite succession and rift shoulder trachytic volcanism in Pliocene. The extensional axis of the MER became the locus of volcanic activity in the Quaternary with bimodal basalt - rhyolitic volcanic products in the rift floor. Shallow crustal magma chambers feeding the axial volcanic complexes provide heat for the hydrothermal system which reside in Tertiary volcanic succession and is capped by lacustrine and volcanoclastic graben infill sediments. Duguna Fango rhyolitic volcanic complex which has extruded as much volume of volcanic products as all the other felsic centers put together is the most important heat source for the hydrothermal system and related manifestations. The closed drainage basin centered at Lake Abaya with adjacent plateau receiving over 1500 mm annual precipitation maintains a stable recharge for the prevailing hydrothermal system. Regional ground water flow direction is to the southwest following Bilate River which is the major river draining into the lake flowing parallel to the major NNE-SSW structural pattern of MER. Analyses of remote sensing data provided some insight into how the structural fabric had a control on the distribution of the groups of hydrothermal manifestations identified as hydrothermal fields. Thermal infrared image showed distinct thermal signature over the rift floor where hydrothermal fields are situated as compared to the plateau and areas covered by the cap-rock. A hydrothermal field around Duguna Fango volcanic complex has volcanological favorable setting despite lower inferred reservoir equilibrium geothermometer temperatures on the thermal springs. About 30 km to the south two other hydrothermal fields are located at a latitudinal distance of less than 15 km between each other. The near boiling point spring #6 of Northwest Abaya discharge mature water with highest geothermal fluid - host rock equilibrium geothermometer temperatures which together with a nearby fumarolic activity may be explained as an outflow. Across Chewkare graben the Bolcho and northeast Abaya hydrothermal fields located between Bilate and Gidabo rivers geochemically appear to be from a different high-enthalpy geothermal reservoir probably related to the cluster of felsic volcanic centers such as Chericho, Kilisa, Donga and Werencha. The high temperature springs indicate the existence of at least two geochemically distinct hydrothermal reservoirs in the study area. It remains to be proven weather an up-flow of an advective hydrothermal system centered to the north around Duguna Fango have long distance concealed out flows to the south on the northern shores of Lake Abaya which is the hydrologic depocenter.

Chernet, Tadiwos

2011-09-01

345

The Ischia Debris Avalanche: The Result of A Catastrophic Collapse of The Island Southern Flank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first occurrence of a volcano-related debris avalanche in a non-oceanic setting, arises from the Ischia Island southern flank, where an EC-funded survey using CNR R/V Urania was ruled out using TOBI deep-tow, long-range side scan sonar in 1998. Above the span of coast running from Capo Grosso headland to S.Angelo, a large amphiteatre is present (Serrara Fontana basin) smaller in size but resembling in shape to the similar features overtopping debris avalanche deposits in Canary and Reunion Islands. At sea the continental shelf is missing and a very steep (up to 45) slope scoured by canyons and gullies develops, from 20/35m down to a depth of about 800m. Below this depth the slope is more gentle and the seafloor is completely cov- ered by a chaotic melange of blocks ranging in size from a few hundreds to a several thousands of cubic meters (a maximum dimension of 100x150 m for a single block has been measured). The blocky facies extends down to more than 1000m, form- ing a tongue of debris long at least 40 km (and this is just the downslope limit of the larger blocks). The debris avalanche deposit seems to completely fill-up the 250 m deep Magnaghi canyon. Seafloor sampling collected a quite heterogeneous spec- trum of lithotypes ranging from coarse debris reworked deposits to finer compacted tuffites to more juvenile rocks (trachytic lava, scoriae and pumice) On gravity cores an hemipelagic interval as thick as several decimetres, overlyies poorly sorted volcan- oclastic debris. Such data fit with the absence of blocks smaller than about 1 m in seafloor sonographs, witnessing a certain amount of burial of the deposits, i.e. a cer- tain time span since its emplacement. Dating of the material is in progress an will give age constrain on the occurrence of the failure event that, on the basis of geomorpho- logic/volcanologic considerations would have occurred within the last eustatic cycle (i.e. last 20-30 ky) as a single event, or an event whose products covered all the pre- vious ones. Blocks alignment within the tongue define flow paths, that are off course gravity driven; similarly to other literature example, the high-energy flow seems to have been able to move in uphill direction in certain conditions.

Chiocci, F. L.; de Alteriis, G.; Bosman, A.; Budillon, F.; Martorelli, E.; Violante, C.

346

Temporal evolution of a long-lived syenitic centre: The Kangerlussuaq Alkaline Complex, East Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new mineral and whole-rock compositions and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb-O-H isotope data on samples from the Kangerlussuaq Alkaline Complex (˜ 1000 km 2) in central East Greenland, part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. This complex mainly consists of the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion but includes at least 13 separate satellite intrusions emplaced in the uppermost crust close to the unconformity between Archaean gneisses and overlying Palaeogene flood basalts. The complex is divided into (i) older satellite intrusions (˜ 55-53 Ma) composed of multiple syenites and granites and minor gabbros and peridotites, (ii) the voluminous Kangerlussuaq Intrusion (˜ 50 Ma), which displays a gradual transition from quartz syenites (nordmarkites) at the margin to nepheline syenites (foyaites) in the centre, and (iii) younger satellite intrusions (˜ 47-45 Ma) of minor syenites, granites and diorites concentrated southeast of the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion. The complex displays a temporal evolution in which SiO 2 decreases (74-56 wt.%) and total alkalis (6-16 wt.%), amphibole Na + K content, 206Pb/ 204Pb meas, ?Ndi and ?Hfi (+ 3 to + 11) increase from the older intrusions through the nepheline syenites. This is followed by a reversal to higher silica (62-73 wt.%) and lower total alkalis (9-12 wt.%), amphibole Na + K content, 206Pb/ 204Pb meas, ?Ndi and ?Hfi (- 13 to + 2) in the younger satellite intrusions. Temporal changes in the location of magma plumbing systems and in magma production rates played a profound role in controlling silica content, alkalinity and degree of crustal contamination during development of the complex. Phonolitic magma was only generated after prolonged magmatism had shielded the conduits from interaction with country rock. The parental magmas were probably basanitic to alkali olivine basaltic in composition. The older satellite intrusions and the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion have low ? 18O magma values (- 1 to + 6‰) compared to the younger, more crustally contaminated, satellite intrusions (+ 4.5 to + 7‰). It appears that the magmas only had sufficient over-pressure to intrude the basalt cover when larger volumes of less contaminated trachyte magma were produced, resulting in the generation of low-? 18O magmas due to dehydration of hydrothermally altered basalt xenoliths.

Riishuus, Morten S.; Peate, David W.; Tegner, Christian; Wilson, J. Richard; Brooks, C. Kent; Harris, Chris

2006-11-01

347

Increasing Interaction of Alkaline Magmas with Lower Crustal Gabbroic Cumulates over the Evolution of Mt. Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field at the southeastern edge of the Colorado Plateau, New Mexico erupted diverse alkaline magmas from ~3.8 to 1.5 Ma (Crumpler, 1980; Perry et al., 1990). The earliest eruptions include high silica topaz rhyolites of Grants Ridge (plagioclase, quartz, biotite) and Si-under saturated basanites and trachytes at Mt Taylor stratovolcano. Mt. Taylor was later constructed of stacks of thick, trachyandesitic to rhyolitic lava flows that were subsequently eroded into a ~4-km across amphitheatre opening toward the southeast. Early Mt. Taylor rhyolitic lavas exposed within the amphitheatre contain quartz, plagioclase, hornblende, and biotite (± sanidine) phenocrysts. Later cone-building trachydacite to trachyandesite lavas are crystal-rich with plagioclase and augite megacrysts (± hornblende, ± quartz) and record an overall trend of decreasing SiO2 with time. The last eruptions ~1.5 Ma from the stratovolcano (Perry et al. 1990) produced thick (>70 m), viscous lava flows that contain up to 50% zoned plagioclase phenocrysts. While SiO2 decreased among the silicic magmas, the degree of silica saturation increased among peripheral basaltic magmas from basanite to ne-normative hawaiite to hy-normative basalts. Evidence of increasing crustal contamination within the basalts includes zoned plagioclase megacrysts, augite and plagioclase cumulate texture xenoliths with accompanying xenocrysts. These textures within the basalts combined with abundant, complex plagioclase among the cone-building silicic magmas imply interaction and mixing with gabbroic cumulate mush in the lower crust beneath Mt. Taylor Volcano. Contemporaneous basanitic to trachytitc volcanism in the northern part of the volcanic field at Mesa Chivato (Crumpler, 1980) was more widely distributed, smaller volume, and produced mainly aphyric magmas. The lower crustal gabbroic cumulates either do not extend northward beneath Mesa Chivato, or they were not accessed by lower magma flux rate in that part of the volcanic field. Future work will include quantifying the magma volumes combined with new 40Ar/39Ar dates to understand heat and mass flux rates for the entire volcanic field. In addition, we hope to investigate if early F-rich fluids of Grants Ridge topaz rhyolite are sourced in the mantle, and whether F is an important volatile component over the history of the magma system.

Schmidt, M. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Schrader, C.

2010-12-01

348

Geochronology, geochemistry and isotope tracing of the Oligocene magmatism of the Buchim-Damjan-Borov Dol ore district: Implications for timing, duration and source of the magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timing, source and magmatic evolution of the intrusions in the Buchim-Damjan-Borov Dol ore district of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (F.Y.R.O.M.) have been studied. They intrude the Circum Rhodope Unit close to the contact with the Vardar Zone and are a part of the Late Eocene-Oligocene Macedonian Rhodope-North Aegean belt. The magmatism at Buchim-Damjan-Borov Dol occurred between 24.04 ± 0.77 and 24.51 ± 0.89 Ma, as indicated by chemical-annealing (CA)-LA ICP-MS zircon dating. Major element, trace and rare earth element analyses have been performed on the various intrusive rocks. All ore bearing magmas were classified as trachyandesitic, except the youngest intrusion which is not associated with mineralization; the Black Hill locality (24.04 ± 0.77 Ma) shows a trachytic composition. The distribution of the trace elements, enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE), indicates subduction-related magmatism; most of the magmas follow a calc-alkaline fractionation trend with shoshonitic affinities; additionally, Sr/Y (10 to 90) and La/Yb values show some similarities to adakite-like magmas. Sr and Nd isotope ratios (Sri = 0.70658 to 0.70740 and Ndi = 0.512425-0.512497) show that the magmatic products were slightly contaminated by continental crust material, e.g., the Variscan/Cadomian basement. In the Late Eocene-Oligocene belt the magmatism between 29 and 35 Ma is dominated by crustal melting with an increase in the mantle contribution between 20 and 27 Ma. We suggest the following scenario for the magmatic history of the Buchim-Damjan-Borov Dol ore district: a slab rollback of an oceanic slab located further to the SW which led to extensional and compressional features in upper levels of the continental crust. In the middle to upper crust three consecutive crystallization stages occurred at variable depths as indicated by amphibole zonation. Mixing of newly formed crust with mantle-like affinities and continental crust material in variable degrees during the ascent of the magma can explain all geochemical characteristics. The magma crystallized as dykes or stocks near the Earth's surface (> 1 km) after its final emplacement and contemporaneous hydrothermal activity led to different mineralization styles depending on the lithology of the host rocks.

Lehmann, St.; Barcikowski, J.; von Quadt, A.; Gallhofer, D.; Peytcheva, I.; Heinrich, C. A.; Serafimovski, T.

2013-11-01

349

Dyke Swarms in Southeastern British Columbia: Mineralogical and Geochemical Evidence for Emplacement of Multiple Magma Types During Orogenic Collapse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eocene dyke swarms in southeastern British Columbia provide an important record of the tectonic and magmatic history of the Cordillera following orogenic collapse. New field mapping, petrographic, and geochemical data is presented for a swarm of more than thirty dykes located near the mining town of Trail, B.C. Detailed field mapping revealed that individual dykes are highly diverse, both in composition and morphology. As a group, the dykes trend northwest (average strike of 338 degrees) and dip steeply to the southwest. Their average thickness is approximately 1.5m, with a range from 4.5m to less than 1cm. Three sub-parallel dykes were mapped for a length of 2km, and exhibit irregularities in their form such as branching and offshoots that follow fractures in the country rock. Thin-section analysis shows a wide variety of rock types within the swarm, including: micro-quartz syenite, micro-syenite, micro-monzonite, latite, basalt, basaltic andesite, and lamprophyre. Texturally, these samples are consistently porphyritic and partially altered to chlorite and sericite. This alteration commonly occurs in concentric rims around phenocrysts. The samples are typically intergranular, although some display trachytic texture. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the dykes have a wide range in composition, with SiO2 between 76.45 wt.% and 45.15 wt.% and MgO between 0.13 wt.% and 13.16 wt.%. The results also revealed that one dyke has very high values of Ni (430 ppm), Cr (1420 ppm), and Co (50 ppm), giving it a fairly primitive composition. Harker diagrams and trace element plots show three distinct groups: mafic calc-alkaline dykes, felsic calc- alkaline dykes, and minette lamprophyres. The felsic dykes are characterized by negative Eu and Sr anomalies suggesting fractionation of plagioclase feldspar, as well as pronounced negative P and Ti anomalies. The minettes are enriched in LILE and depleted in HSFE relative to the mafic dykes. The three groups do not appear to be related through magma differentiation processes, and it is suggested that they originate from separate magma sources. This has important implications for magma generation and heat flow in an extensional stress regime in an orogenic belt, and the potential interaction of different reservoirs in the crust. The findings from this study suggest extension in an ENE-WSW oriented pull-apart direction during Eocene time in southeastern B.C., and the concurrent emplacement of several different magma types perpendicular to extension.

Freeman, M.; Owen, J. P.; Hoskin, P. W.

2009-05-01

350

Geologic Mapping in Nogal Peak Quadrangle: Geochemistry, Intrusive Relations and Mineralization in the Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nogal Peak quadrangle is located in the northern Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex (SBIC) and contains most of the White Mountain Wilderness (geologic map is available at http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/publications/maps/geologic/ofgm/details.cfml?Volume=134). The geology of the quad consists of a late Eocene to Oligocene volcanic pile (Sierra Blanca Volcanics, mostly alkali basalt to trachyte) intruded by a multitude of dikes, plugs and three stocks: Rialto, 31.4 Ma (mostly syenite), Three Rivers, ca. 29 to 27 Ma (quartz syenite intruded by subordinate alkali granite), and Bonito Lake, 26.6 Ma (mostly monzonite). Three Rivers stock is partially surrounded by alkali rhyolites that geochemically resemble the alkali granites. The circular shape of the stock and surrounding rhyolites suggests they form the root of a probable caldera. SBIC rocks have compositions typical of those found within the Rocky Mountain alkaline belt and those associated with continental rift zone magmatism. Because the volcanic host rocks are deeply eroded, intrusive relations with the stocks are well exposed. Most contacts at stock margins are near vertical. Roof pendants are common near some contacts and stoped blocks up to 700 m long are found within the Three Rivers stock. Contacts, pendants and stoped blocks generally display some combination of hornfelsing, brecciation, fracturing, faulting and mineralization. Sierra Blanca Volcanics display hydrothermal alteration increasing from argillic in the NW sector of the quad to high-temperature porpylitic near stock margins. Retrograde phyllic alteration occurs within breccia pipes and portions of the stocks. Mineral deposits consist of four types: Placer Au, fissure veins (mostly Ag-Pb-Zn±Au), breccia pipes (Au-Mo-Cu), and porphyry Mo-Cu. A singular pipe on the SW margin of Bonito Lake stock contains sapphire-lazulite-alunite. Although Au has been intermittently mined in the quad since 1865, best production of Au originated around the turn of the last century from the Parsons Mine, a breccia pipe in the southern Rialto stock. The Great Western Mine deposit, located within three breccia pipes on the north margin of Three Rivers stock, apparently contains 150,000 troy ounces of low-grade, disseminated Au. Three Rivers syenites and alkali granites are slightly enriched in REE compared to typical intrusive rock standards but are not high enough to be exploitable. One alkali granite sample contains 2850 ppm Zr, about 5 to 10 times the values of typical rock standards.

Goff, F.; Kelley, S. A.; Lawrence, J. R.; Cikowski, C. T.; Krier, D. J.; Goff, C. J.; McLemore, V. T.

2011-12-01

351

Crustal recycling beneath continental arcs: silica-rich glass inclusions in ultramafic xenoliths from the Sierra Nevada, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe silica-rich (up to ˜69.5% SiO 2) glass inclusions trapped as grain boundary films and within-grain pockets in ultramafic xenoliths hosted by Pliocene basalts from the Sierra Nevada, California. The ultramafic xenoliths are lherzolites which equilibrated in the Sierra Nevada upper mantle at 1150-1180°C and ˜1.4-1.8 GPa. The glass inclusions have trachytic compositions, similar to previously described silicic melts from mantle xenoliths [1-9]. We have determined the Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the grain boundary films using a leaching technique, and calculated the glass isotopic compositions. The glass 87Sr 86Sr (0.7077-0.7085) and 143Nd 144Nd (?0.51244) ratios are higher than in the ultramafic xenoliths and distinct from the host basalt ratios. Glasses are characterized by Nb depletions ( N/b nNb n*˜0.15 ), enrichment of light rare earth elements ( L/a nYb n? 50 ), and the presence of negative Eu anomalies ( E/u nEu n*? 0.7-0.86 ), indicating a crustal origin for the melt source. The Nd isotope ratios ( ? Nd? -4 ) are inconsistent with an oceanic crust as the source for these former melts. The source rocks must have been continental materials recycled in the mantle, either foundered lower crust or subducted sediment. Low Rb/Sr (0.036-0.077) and high Sr/Nd (>35) ratios observed in the glasse are suggesting a lower crustal source. The Sierra Nevada lowermost crust (amphibole-bearing garnet pyroxenites and other dense Mesozoic cumulate mafic-ultramafic rocks), as defined by studies of older, Miocene xenolith-bearing volcanic rocks from the same area [M.N. Ducea, J. Saleeby, J. Geophys. Res. 101 (1996) 8229-8244], has isotopic compositions similar to the glass inclusions. Geologic [M.N. Ducea, J. Saleeby, J. Geophys. Res. 101 (1996) 8229-8244] and geophysical [G. Zandt, S. Ruppert, EOS Trans. AGU 77 (1996) 831] evidence indicate that the Sierra Nevada has lost its eclogitic arc root, probably by foundering in the mantle. We propose here that the silica-rich glasses were formed by low percent partial melting of the dense, cold Sierran batholithic lowermost crust during root delamination. Further tests need to be aimed at addressing the viability of the main alternative to our interpretation, i.e. derivation of glasses from melting subducted sediments.

Ducea, Mihai; Saleeby, Jason

1998-03-01

352

The tectonic evolution of Cenozoic extensional basins, northeast Brazil: Geochronological constraints from continental basalt 40Ar/39Ar ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boa Vista and Cubati Basins, Paraíba, Brazil, are NW-SE extension-related intracratonic basins that resulted from tectonic stresses after the opening of the South Atlantic. These basins contain lacustrine fossiliferous sediments, bentonite beds, and basalt flows that preserve Cenozoic continental records. 40Ar/39Ar ages for six whole-rocks from two distinct basaltic flows underlying the sediments in the Boa Vista basin are 27.3 ± 0.8 and 25.4 ± 1.3 Ma, while three grains from a basaltic flow overlying the sediments yield 22.0 ± 0.2 Ma. The sediments at the nearby Cubati Basin are overlain by a basalt flow with ages of ˜25.4 Ma. Three whole-rocks from an NE-SW-trending trachytic dyke cross cutting the sediments at the Boa Vista Basin yield 40Ar/39Ar ages of ˜12.45 ± 0.06, 12.59 ± 0.07, and 12.58 ± 0.07 Ma. Three whole-rocks from a nearby volcanic plug (Chupador) yield an age of 23.4 ± 0.1 Ma. The geochronological results combined with stratigraphic correlations between the two basins allow bracketing the age of the main sedimentary and bentonic units within the Boa Vista and Cubati Basins between 25.5 ± 1.3 and 24.9 ± 0.1 Ma. The ages, combined with field observations reveal that the formation of the Boa Vista and Cubati basins is associated with mantle-derived magmas channelled through reactivated Precambrian shear zones. Our geochronological results suggest that a temporal link with the Fernando de Noronha and Saint Helena hot spots can be excluded as possible sources of the Boa Vista and Cubati magmas. Rather, the extensional tectonics in the 30-20 Ma interval, long after Gondwana break-up, may be associated with the re-activation of continental-scale shear zones that channelled small batches of mantle-derived magmas.

de Souza, Zorano Sérgio; Vasconcelos, Paulo Marcos; Knesel, Kurt Michael; da Silveira Dias, Luiz Gustavo; Roesner, Eduardo Henrique; Cordeiro de Farias, Paulo Roberto; de Morais Neto, João Marinho

2013-12-01

353

Felsic volcanism in a basic shield (El Hierro, Canary Islands). Implications in terms of volcanic hazards.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Hierro, the southwesternmost and smallest island of the Canary Archipelago, is a complex basaltic shield volcano characterized by mainly effusive volcanism with both Strombolian and Hawaiian activity. Explosive felsic volcanism is not a common feature of the archipelago and, so far, it has only been reported on the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, where it has been responsible for the formation of large central volcanic complexes. The presence of felsic rocks on the other islands of the archipelago and specifically on El Hierro is mostly restricted to subvolcanic intrusions and a few lava flows, generally associated with the oldest parts of the islands. We hereby report the presence of a trachytic pumice deposit on the island of El Hierro, referred to here as the Malpaso Member. A detailed stratigraphic, lithological, and sedimentological study was carried out on the deposits of this explosive episode of felsic composition, which is the only one found on the Canary Islands apart from those of Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Four different subunits were identified on the basis of their lithological and granulometrical characteristics. The products of the eruption correspond to a single eruptive event and cover an area of about 13 km2. This deposit originated from a base-surge-type explosive eruption with a subsequent radial emplacement of dilute PDC currents, was emplaced from the vent that would have been located in a similar position to the volcano of Tanganasoga. The low vesicularity of juvenile fragments and the morphological characteristics of the fine particles, as well as the high proportion of lithic fragments and the ash-rich nature of the deposit, suggest that magma/water interaction controlled the dynamics of the eruption. This study demonstrates that magmas from El Hierro could have the potential for producing an explosive eruption, in an environment in which the majority of the eruptions are basaltic and effusive in nature. Bearing in mind the style and the spatial extent of the studied eruption, a future event with similar characteristics would have a serious impact on the population, infrastructures, and economy of the island of El Hierro. For this reason it is clearly of great importance to assess the potential volcanic hazard on the island. This research was partially funded by the MINECO grant CGL2011-16144-E and the European Commission (FT7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO").

Pedrazzi, Dario; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Meletlidis, Stavros; Galindo Jiménez, Inés

2014-05-01

354

Tephra record from the Sea of Marmara for the last 70 ka and its paleoceanographic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea of Marmara (SoM) is a gateway between the Mediterraean and Black seas, and a tectonically active basin located on a transform plate boundary. Tephra record in the SoM is therefore very important for dating palaeoceanographic, paleoclimatic and tectonic events. We report three tephra units in cores from the SoM extending back to ca 70 ka BP and including an upper marine and a lower lacustrine units separated by a 12 ka (uncalib.) boundary. The uppermost tephra unit is up to 8 mm thick layer in the marine unit. It is heterogenous phonolitic with high total alkali content of 12.4-15.7 wt % and K2O/Na2O of 0.9 to 1.2. The middle and lower tephra layers occur in the lacustrine unit in ca 29 m-long Core MD-01-2430. The middle tephra (MT-1) is a 70 mm-thick homogeneously rhyolitic layer. The lower tephra (MT-2) is 140 mm thick and has a phonolitic-trachytic composition with CaO content of 1.7-1.9 wt % and bimodal K2O/Na2O of 1.0-1.4. Using their geochemical composition and stratigraphic analysis, we assign the tephra units, from top to bottom, to Vesuvius AP2 Pumice, Santorini Cape Riva and Campanian Ignimbrite, which have been previously dated at 3.5 ka BP, 21.95 ka BP, and 39.3 ka BP (all calender ka). The continuous sedimentary record in the Core MD-01-2430 covering the last ca 70 ka indicates that the SoM was lacustrine, disconnected from the Mediterraean Sea during MIS4, MIS3 and most of MIS2. This implies that the sill depth of the Çanakkale Strait (Dardanelles) was shallower than the present-day -65 m sill depth during MIS3 and MIS4. Figure 1: Morphotectonic map of the Sea of Marmara showing location of the studied cores (red stars). Figure 2: Geochemical biplots of tephra glass composition. a) Total alkali silica diagram b) FeO versus total alkalies for allocating cryptotephras from core MNTKS34 and ML01 to the AP2 tephra from Vesuvius. c) FeO versus CaO for correlating tephra MT1 with the Y-2 tephra from Santorini. d) SiO2 versus CaO for discriminating the MT2 tephra (Campanian Ignimbrite).

Cagatay, M.; Wulf, S.; Guichard, F.; Ozmaral, A.; Sancar; Akçer-Ön, S.; Henry, P.; Gasperini, L.

2013-12-01

355

The Early Jurassic Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex (southeastern Alaska): geochemistry, petrogenesis and rare-metal mineralization  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Early Jurassic (ca. 177 Ma) Bokan Mountain granitic complex, located on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, cross-cuts Paleozoic igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane of the North American Cordillera and was emplaced during a rifting event. The complex is a circular body (~3 km in diameter) of peralkaline granitic composition that has a core of arfvedsonite granite surrounded by aegirine granite. All the rock-forming minerals typically record a two-stage growth history and aegirine and arfvedsonite were the last major phases to crystalize from the magma. The Bokan granites and related dikes have SiO2 from 72 to 78 wt. %, high iron (FeO (tot) ~3-4.5 wt. %) and alkali (8-10 wt.%) concentrations with high FeO(tot)/(FeO(tot)+MgO) ratios (typically >0.95) and the molar Al2O3/(Na2O+K2O) ratio Nd values which are indicative of a mantle signature. The parent magma is inferred to be derived from an earlier metasomatized lithospheric mantle by low degrees of partial melting and generated the Bokan granitic melt through extensive fractional crystallization. The Bokan complex hosts significant rare-metal (REE, Y, U, Th, Nb) mineralization that is related to the late-stage crystallization history of the complex which involved the overlap of emplacement of felsic dikes, including pegmatite bodies, and generation of orthomagmatic fluids. The abundances of REE, HFSE, U and Th as well as Pb and Nd isotopic values of the pluton and dikes were modified by orthomagmatic hydrothermal fluids highly enriched in the strongly incompatible trace elements, which also escaped along zones of structural weakness to generate rare-metal mineralization. The latter was deposited in two stages: the first relates to the latest stage of magma emplacement and is associated with felsic dikes that intruded along the faults and shear deformations, whereas the second stage involved ingress of hydrothermal fluids that both remobilized and enriched the initial magmatic mineralization. Mineralization is mostly composed of new minerals. Fluorine complexing played a role during the transportation of REE and HFSE in hydrothermal fluids and oxygen isotopes in the granites and quartz veins negate the significant incursion of an external fluid and support a dominantly orthomagmatic hydrothermal system. Many other REE-HFSE deposits hosted by peralkaline felsic rocks (nepheline syenites, peralkaline granites and peralkaline trachytes) were formed by a similar two stage process.

Dostal, Jaroslav; Kontak, Daniel J.; Karl, Susan M.

2014-01-01

356

Explosive volcanism from the Galapgos Hotspot: Evidence from Miocene marine tephras on top of the Cocos Ridge (IODP Exp. 334)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) has generated numerous Plinian eruptions along its 1200 km extension. The best-preserved archive of this volcanism is found as tephra layers in marine sediments downwind from the eruption centers on the floor of the Pacific. Up to now no such deposits are known to exist from the Galapagos Hot Spot. During IODP expedition 334 "CRISP" offshore Costa Rica a total of 31 tephra layers have been recovered at Site U1381 on top of the Cocos Ridge near the Costa Rican Trench. In the first 45 mbsf five of these tephra layers are intercalated with hemiplegic Pleistocene sediments associated with a near trench depositional environment. In contrast, the 26 tephra layers recovered from the deeper parts of Site U1381 (>45 mbsf) are embedded in a succession of Miocene silicic and calcareous ooze dominated sediments. Plate reconstruction shows that these sediments have been deposited in proximity to the Galapagos Islands. Individual tephra layers range in thickness from 1 to 33 cm. Macroscopically the tephra layers are either pinkish/white to gray/brown (20 layers) or pinkish/greenish black (11 layers). Dark tephra beds account for ~36% of the total tephra-bed assemblage at Site U1381. The felsic tephra layers consist of fresh, transparent glass shards, rare plagioclase and traces of pyroxene. Grain size ranges from medium to coarse ash (up to mm size). Mafic ash layers consist predominantly of very coarse, dark to light brown sideromelane glass shards, rare tachylitic particles, and minor plagioclase and trace pyroxene. Most of the sideromelane glass shards have blocky shapes some show a tubular appearance and are medium to poorly vesicular. Glass shards are well preserved without obvious alteration features. Generally, tephras from the older Miocene sequence have a lower crystal content than the tephras of the younger one. First results of electron microprobe analysis show that the tephras have a highly variable composition, ranging from relatively primitive basalts to trachytes and rhyolites. A first provenance analysis conducted based on major elements suggests that some of the tephra layers within the Pleistocene unit of Site U1381 might be derived from the two largest Central American eruptions in the last 200ka, the 191 ka old L-Fall and the 84ka old Los Chocoyos eruption. Within the Miocene unit we can identify both, an evolved tephra with low Ti/K ratios (<2) comparable to Central American Arc tephras as well as a series of evolved and primitive tephras with high Ti/K ratios (>2.5) probably associated with the Galapagos hot spot volcanism. In future, trace element analyses will better constrain the possible source areas and the preliminary correlations shown above.

Strehlow, K.; Kutterolf, S.; Stroncik, N.; Vannucchi, P.; Ujiie, K.; IODP expedition 334 science party

2011-12-01

357

The relationship between carbonate facies, volcanic rocks and plant remains in a late Palaeozoic lacustrine system (San Ignacio Fm, Frontal Cordillera, San Juan province, Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Ignacio Fm, a late Palaeozoic foreland basin succession that crops out in the Frontal Cordillera (Argentinean Andes), contains lacustrine microbial carbonates and volcanic rocks. Modification by extensive pedogenic processes contributed to the massive aspect of the calcareous beds. Most of the volcanic deposits in the San Ignacio Fm consist of pyroclastic rocks and resedimented volcaniclastic deposits. Less frequent lava flows produced during effusive eruptions led to the generation of tabular layers of fine-grained, greenish or grey andesites, trachytes and dacites. Pyroclastic flow deposits correspond mainly to welded ignimbrites made up of former glassy pyroclasts devitrified to microcrystalline groundmass, scarce crystals of euhedral plagioclase, quartz and K-feldspar, opaque minerals, aggregates of fine-grained phyllosilicates and fiammes defining a bedding-parallel foliation generated by welding or diagenetic compaction. Widespread silicified and silica-permineralized plant remains and carbonate mud clasts are found, usually embedded within the ignimbrites. The carbonate sequences are underlain and overlain by volcanic rocks. The carbonate sequence bottoms are mostly gradational, while their tops are usually sharp. The lower part of the carbonate sequences is made up of mud which appear progressively, filling interstices in the top of the underlying volcanic rocks. They gradually become more abundant until they form the whole of the rock fabric. Carbonate on volcanic sandstones and pyroclastic deposits occur, with the nucleation of micritic carbonate and associated production of pyrite. Cyanobacteria, which formed the locus of mineral precipitation, were related with this nucleation. The growth of some of the algal mounds was halted by the progressive accumulation of volcanic ash particles, but in most cases the upper boundary is sharp and suddenly truncated by pyroclastic flows or volcanic avalanches. These pyroclastic flows partially destroyed the carbonate beds and palaeosols. Microbial carbonate clasts, silicified and silica-permineralized tree trunks, log stumps and other plant remains such as small branches and small roots inside pieces of wood (interpreted as fragments of nurse logs) are commonly found embedded within the ignimbrites. The study of the carbonate and volcanic rocks of the San Ignacio Fm allows the authors to propose a facies model that increases our understanding of lacustrine environments that developed in volcanic settings.

Busquets, P.; Méndez-Bedia, I.; Gallastegui, G.; Colombo, F.; Cardó, R.; Limarino, O.; Heredia, N.; Césari, S. N.

2013-07-01

358

Geologic map of the Tetilla Peak Quadrangle, Santa Fe and Sandoval counties, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital geologic map summarizes all available geologic information for the Tetilla Peak quadrangle located immediately southwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico. The geologic map consists of new polygon (geologic map units) and line (contact, fault, fold axis, dike, flow contact, hachure) data, as well as point data (locations for structural measurements, geochemical and geochronologic data, geophysical soundings, and water wells). The map database has been generated at 1:24,000 scale, and provides significant new geologic information for an area of the southern Cerros del Rio volcanic field, which sits astride the boundary of the Espanola and Santo Domingo basins of the Rio Grande rift. The quadrangle includes the west part of the village of La Cienega along its eastern border and includes the southeasternmost part of the Cochiti Pueblo reservation along its northwest side. The central part of the quadrangle consists of Santa Fe National Forest and Bureau of Land Management lands, and parts of several Spanish-era land grants. Interstate 25 cuts through the southern half of the quadrangle between Santa Fe and Santo Domingo Pueblo. Canada de Santa Fe, a major river tributary to the Rio Grande, cuts through the quadrangle, but there is no dirt or paved road along the canyon bottom. A small abandoned uranium mine (the La Bajada mine) is found in the bottom of the Canada de Santa Fe about 3 km east of the La Bajada fault zone; it has been partially reclaimed. The surface geology of the Tetilla Peak quadrangle consists predominantly of a thin (1-2 m generally, locally as thick as 10? m) layer of windblown surficial deposits that has been reworked colluvially. Locally, landslide, fluvial, and pediment deposits are also important. These colluvial deposits mantle the principal bedrocks units, which are (from most to least common): (1) basalts, basanites, andesite, and trachyte of the Pliocene (2.7-2.2 Ma) Cerros del Rio volcanic field; (2) unconsolidated deposits of the Santa Fe Group, mainly along the western border, in the hanging wall of the La Bajada fault zone, but locally extending 2-3 km east under the Cerros del Rio volcanic field; (3) older Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks (Abiquiu?, Espinaso, and Galisteo Formations); (4) intrusive rocks of the Cerrillos intrusive center that are roughly coeval with the Espinaso volcanic rocks; and (5) Mesozoic sedimentary rocks ranging in age from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation to the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale.

Sawyer, D.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Minor, S.A.; Thompson, R.A.

2002-01-01

359

Paleomagnetism, Geochronology, and Geochemistry of the Type Section of the Stanislaus Group: Reference Parameters from the Stable Sierra Nevada Microplate, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Miocene Stanislaus Group, of California and Nevada is composed of Table Mountain Formation, Eureka Valley Tuff, and Dardanelles Formation. This ~9.0-~10.2 million year old unit interrupted Miocene andesitic arc volcanism in the Sierra Nevada, providing a regional lithostratigraphic marker that has been used extensively to reconstruct tilt and uplift of the range, Neogene tectonics of the Walker Lane Belt, magmagenetic processes beneath the Sierra Nevada, and lithospheric evolution of the Sierra Nevada and Eastern California. A recent study (Koerner et al, 2009) produced a measured section and geologic map of the Stanislaus Group type section, but until now this locality has never seen comprehensive multidisciplinary study of the geochronology, geochemistry, and magnetostratigraphy of the site and to integrate this into the overall understanding of the Stanislaus Group. Stratigraphy, geochemistry, and paleomagnetism from the type section suggest addition of a basal trachyte lava flow member to the Eureka Valley tuff and adds an additional intermediate-polarity lava flow to Table Mountain Formation magnetostratigraphy. This study dates the youngest member of the Stanislaus Group, the Dardanelles Formation, by 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic dating for the first time, yielding an age of 9.048 ± 0.017 Ma. Paleomagnetic results verify the previous paleomagnetic reference direction from the Sierra Nevada microplate for the Tollhouse Flat Member of the Eureka Valley Tuff (King et al., 2007). However, our work revises the By-Day Member reference direction to D = 349.6°, I = 51.9° n = 8, ?95 = 3.0°, k = 346. This difference is because the prior work analyzed By-Day localities within the tectonically-active Walker Lane Belt. The revised reference direction is critical for measurements of relative vertical-axis rotation studies in the Walker Lane. Our study also demonstrates that little to no vertical-axis rotation of the Sierra Nevada microplate has occurred since Stanislaus Group emplacement. Geochemistry suggests that a distinct set of magma chambers and vents sourced the Table Mountain Formation lavas at the type section, which were different from magma sources emplacing lavas at Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadow. Type section Table Mountain lavas underwent a distinct magmatic evolutionary history, perhaps involving fractionation at shallower depths compared to the Sonora Pass and Grouse Meadows flows.

Farner, M. J.; Pluhar, C. J.; Asami, R.; Putirka, K. D.; Busby, C.; Renne, P. R.

2012-12-01

360

Urban Mapping Validation at Venice With Satelllite and Aircraft Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a validation project for EO-1 satellite data, a large number of data sets were analyzed to map the urban environment of the city of Venice. Satellite data included 30-m EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) data with 9 broad bands in the 0.43-2.35 micron region; 30-m EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral scanner data with 192 bands in the 0.45-2.35 micron region; 30-m Landsat Thematic Mapper data; 15 and 30-m ASTER data with 9 bands in the 0.52 to 2.4 micron region; 8-m MIVIS hyperspectral aircraft scanner data with 102 bands in the 0.4 to 12 micron region; and 4-m Ikonos data with 4 bands in the VNIR. The data were analyzed to isolate different instrument factors: spatial resolution and spectral bands. The materials looked for were: old tile roofs, new tile roofs, zinc roofs, asphalt pavement, trachyte pavement, limestone pavement, grass and trees. In the 30-m data, all pixels were spectrally mixed, so materials that were identifiable were not pure classes. New roofs, old roofs, grass, and trees form large enough areas to be separable, though materials were mixed with shadows and other materials. Increased spatial resolution improved classification accuracy, and allowed more different materials to be identified. Similarly, more spectral bands improved classification accuracy. The best results were obtained with MIVIS 102-channel, 8-m data, that allowed all types of materials to be mapped both spatially and spectrally. EO-1 ALI data were better than Landsat TM due to the improved signal-to-noise, and the additional spectral bands. Hyperion data suffered from low signal-to-noise, and so the full advantage of hyperspectral data was not available for this site. Operational multispectral satellites generally do not have sufficient spatial resolution to be extremely effective for mapping urban areas. The data are good for separating general classes of materials, useful for runoff models. Higher spatial resolution (<10 m) is necessary to spatially separate urban materials. Most classes can be separated with Ikonos, for example, with 4-m pixels. But the limited number of spectral bands prevents separation of subtle differences, such as the presence of limestone.

Abrams, M.; Pignatti, S.; Alberotanza, L.

2002-12-01

361

Spring geochemistry in an active volcanic environment (São Miguel, Azores): source and fluxes of inorganic solutes.  

PubMed

Mineral waters were monthly sampled in selected springs from Furnas and Fogo trachytic central volcanoes (São Miguel, Azores, Portugal). Water temperatures between 15.1 °C and 90.2 °C, characterize poorly mineralized waters of Na-HCO? and Na-HCO?-Cl types. According to the spring location, two watersheds were selected in each volcano to evaluate solute fluxes and chemical weathering rates (Fogo volcano: Ribeira Grande river - RRG; Furnas volcano: Ribeira Quente river - RRQ). Na, Mg, K and Ca fluxes in groundwater represented 43%, 60%, 46% and 57% of the total (subsurface plus surface fluxes) in RRG, and respectively 43%, 53%, 46% and 49% in RRQ. Average HCO? flux is ten times higher in RRQ (130.1 × 10(6) mol/yr) compared to RRG (13.8 × 10(6) mol/yr), reflecting the volcano degassing and the lower ratio between groundwater and river water fluxes. Based on these values, total CO?-consumption by weathering ranged from 1.5 × 10(6)mol/km(2)/yr (RRG) to 4 × 10(6)mol/km(2)/yr (RRQ). TDS load varied between 3772 t/yr (RRG) and 15388 t/yr (RRQ), and the ratio between values in groundwater and in surface water is respectively equal to 0.72 and 2.04. The associated chemical weathering rates in groundwater were 206 t/km(2)/yr (RRG) and 399 t/km(2)/yr (RRQ). Coupled to river water, these values indicate that total chemical weathering rates are respectively equal to 493 t/km(2)/yr and 594 t/km(2)/yr. A similar approach developed for the entire archipelago showed that the chemical weathering rates due to groundwater are in the range from 33 to 321 t/km(2)/yr, being partially controlled by the age of the islands. Results of the present study point out to the need to consider groundwater solute fluxes due to weathering when establishing geochemical budgets. PMID:23933431

Freire, P; Andrade, C; Coutinho, R; Cruz, J V

2014-01-01

362

Fragmentation Of Magma: Is It For Free?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive volcanism is characterized by the production of (fine) ash, predominantly by brittle-type fragmentation processes. Experiments have been carried out to study the fragmentation mechanisms, to measure the critical material parameters, and to quantify the mechanical energy release. The relevance of these experiments was verified by comparative studies of the experimentally produced ash and their natural analogues. In several case studies, the kinetic energy release of selected eruptions and the proportional importance of the energy consumed by the fragmentation of magma could be reconstructed. From isothermal deformation experiments using subliquidus melts from volcanic rocks, we learn that deformation changes its character from ductile to elastic mode once the critical strain rates are exceeded. Then, the spall-strength of the material governs the onset of fragmentation and the conversion ratio of deformation energy into fragmentation energy. Porous trachytic material, for example, was found to be more than 2 orders of magnitude "weaker" than compact basaltic melt. A thermodynamic description of stress induced brittle fragmentation was developed, that allows the calculation of the strain rates that led to explosive fragmentation of a magma from grain-size data of brittle-type ash particles. For phreatomagmatic and magmatic explosive volcanism, the fragmentation energy represents a major amount of kinetic energy that needs to be generated before and/or during an explosive eruption. In many models, however, fragmentation either just "happens" at certain conditions, or is treated as a black box with no numbers on it. Models assigning the kinetic energy needed for fragmentation, in-vent transport, and eruption during explosive volcanic events mainly to the work of compression of magmatic gases may run into problems, because of thermodynamic restrictions to gas overpressure and because of the short time character of volcanic processes, that prevents the system to approach equilibrium values. Models of phreatomagmatic explosion assign the source of mechanical (deformation) energy to the thermal energy converted during magma/water interaction. Magmatic explosions may be explained by a "volcano-seismic" model, where a volume of magma is exposed to supercritical strain rates and the energy of ongoing deformation now is stored mechanically. Depending on the "strength" of the material (and probably triggered by external mechanisms) onset of magma fragmentation leads into an explosive eruption.

Zimanowski, B.

2006-12-01

363

Emplacement of energetic density currents over topographic barriers: constraints from a chemically-zoned, topography-draping, low aspect-ratio ignimbrite on Pantelleria, Italy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low aspect-ratio ignimbrites are thought to be emplaced by particularly hazardous, radial, high-velocity pyroclastic density currents from caldera-forming eruptions. Their circular distribution has been inferred to record simultaneous flow in all directions from source, overtopping hills, rather than passively flowing down valleys. As part of a study into how such currents behave and evolve with time, we have been testing the inference of simultaneous, radial (i.e. rather than sectoral) flow by mapping out the internal chemical-architecture of a zoned, low-aspect ratio ignimbrite sheet on the island of Pantelleria, Italy. This pristine, welded ignimbrite (aspect ratio ? 1:5,000) was deposited during a phase of the most recent (~45,000 ka) caldera-forming explosive eruption on the island. One extensive flow-unit is zoned from pantellerite to trachyte, and records that the composition of the erupting magma changed with time. Detailed logging with very close-spaced sampling for chemical and petrographic analysis has distinguished an internal chemical stratigraphy. The chemical variations allow us to divide the brief history of the sustained current into successive time-periods. The compositional zones have been mapped internally through the deposit, both (1) regionally (longitudinally from source and laterally around the broadly circular sheet), and (2) around topographic barriers draped by the ignimbrite. The study takes advantage of superlative exposure and topographic control. We have reconstructed how the footprint of the sustained current shifted as the current waxed then waned, and as it encountered and then overtopped barriers. Our data reveal that even this sheet-like low-aspect ratio ignimbrite was not emplaced entirely radially: rather, it flowed into certain sectors before others. Deposition was diachronous, and previously proposed lithofacies correlations within the ignimbrite are demonstrated to be incorrect. We are now investigating how the current interacted with individual topographic barriers of different sizes and shapes. Both cone-shaped hills and transverse barriers, entirely draped by thin ignimbrite have been mapped in the field, and the chemical variations within the draping ignimbrite have been analysed up and around the topography. Data currently being processed should reveal whether the current's leading edge advanced over topographic barriers initially, as is commonly assumed, or that some barriers temporarily blocked or deflected the current until the mass-flux waxed (or until deposition modified the topography) sufficiently for the current to advance further. The well-constrained case studies will test the validity of concepts such as deflection and flow-stripping developed principally from analogue experiments. Initial results are changing our understanding of how these unusually devastating pyroclastic density currents behave.

Williams, Rebecca; Branney, Michael; Barry, Tiffany; Norry, Mike

2010-05-01

364

Isotope geochemistry of Pantelleria volcanic fluids, Sicily Channel rift: a mantle volatile end-member for volcanism in southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical and isotopic ratio (He, C, H and O) analysis of hydrothermal manifestations on Pantelleria island, the southernmost active volcano in Italy, provides us with the first data upon mantle degassing through the Sicily Channel rift zone, south of the African-European collision plate boundary. We find that Pantelleria fluids contain a CO 2-He-rich gas component of mantle magmatic derivation which, at shallow depth, variably interacts with a main thermal (˜100°C) aquifer of mixed marine-meteoric water. The measured 3He/ 4He ratios and ? 13C of both the free gases (4.5-7.3 Ra and -5.8 to -4.2‰, respectively) and dissolved helium and carbon in waters (1.0-6.3 Ra and -7.1 to -0.9‰), together with their covariation with the He/CO 2 ratio, constrain a 3He/ 4He ratio of 7.3±0.1 Ra and a ? 13C of ca. -4‰ for the magmatic end-member. These latter are best preserved in fluids emanating inside the active caldera of Pantelleria, in agreement with a higher heat flow across this structure and other indications of an underlying crustal magma reservoir. Outside the caldera, the magmatic component is more affected by air dilution and, at a few sites, by mixing with either organic carbon and/or radiogenic 4He leached from the U-Th-rich trachytic host rocks of the aquifer. Pantelleria magmatic end-member is richer in 3He and has a lower (closer to MORB) ? 13C than all fluids yet analyzed in volcanic regions of Italy and southern Europe, including Mt. Etna in Sicily (6.9±0.2 Ra, ? 13C=-3±1‰). This observation is consistent with a south to north increasing imprint of subducted crustal material in the products of Italian volcanoes, whose He and C (but also O and Sr) isotopic ratios gradually evolve towards crustal values northward of the African-Eurasian plate collision boundary. Our results for Pantelleria extend this regional isotopic pattern further south and suggest the presence of a slightly most pristine or 'less contaminated', 3He-richer mantle source beneath the Sicily Channel rift zone. The lower than MORB 3He/ 4He ratio but higher than MORB CO 2/ 3He ratio of Pantelleria volatile end-member are compatible with petro-geochemical evidence that this mantle source includes an upwelling HIMU-EM1-type asthenospheric plume component whose origin, according to recent seismic data, may be in the lower mantle.

Parello, F.; Allard, P.; D'Alessandro, W.; Federico, C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Catani, O.

2000-08-01

365

Numerical Modeling of Thermal-Geochemical Processes in the Hydrothermal System of Pantelleria Island, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Pantelleria, located in the Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean, (about 100 km from Sicily and 70 km from Tunisia), represents the emergent part of a quiescent Quaternary volcano. It has been affected by an intense recent volcano-tectonic activity. The rocks outcropping on the island are mainly lavas and pyroclastic deposits, mostly represented by pantellerites and trachytes. Surface geothermal manifestations are diffused in Pantelleria, with fumaroles, mofettes and hot springs with temperatures up to 98 °C. Since the 60s’, a number of pre-feasibility studies was carried out on the island, which underwent an extensive geothermal exploration during the early 90s’. The results of the exploration revealed a very promising zone in the southern part of the island, where the main geothermal manifestations are concentrated. Temperatures above 250°C were measured in exploratory drillings down to 1100 m b.g.l. (well PPT1). The intrusion of pure seawater likely occurs throughout the island, and deep geothermal reservoir recharge appears to be predominantly of marine origin, though contributions from meteoric water are also possible. A conceptual model of the system has been set up on the basis of a wide set of geological, geophysical and geochemical data obtained during the surveys. The TOUGHREACT simulator was used for the water-rock reaction simulations. A plug-flow model has been used to perform non-isothermal calculations. Boundary thermal conditions have been calibrated according to heat flow measurements and well temperature data. Water-rock interactions have been evaluated in successive steps. First, the saturation states of minerals of sampled geothermal fluids were computed at reservoir temperatures to determine the mineral phases which would likely be dissolving or precipitating. The composition of “synthetic”, nearly-equilibrated waters likely occurring at depth within the reservoir has been then numerically reconstructed. Next, the evolution of fluid and rock compositions with time has been monitored and compared with “real-world” data. Numerical simulations were able to reproduce the mineralogical assemblage found in the reservoir and to highlight the role of CO2 degassing in controlling the geochemical evolution of the system. Fluid geochemistry can be likely ascribed to a mixing among seawater, freshwater and volcanic gas.

Bellani, S.; Gherardi, F.

2009-12-01

366

The Peralkaline Rhyolite Spectrum in Marie Byrd Land Volcanoes, West Antarctic Rift, and the Case for Polybaric Fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marie Byrd Land (MBL) volcanic province is associated with the rise of a large tectonomagmatic dome, over the past 25-30 m.y. Since 14-15 Ma, five volcanoes have produced pantellerites and three others have produced comendites. Together they display a range in SiO2, Al2O3, FeOt, and peralkalinity that is comparable with the full range of compositions in Pantelleria and the Kenyan and Ethiopian dome provinces. The comendite volcanoes occur on the east flank of the MBL dome, adjacent to volcanoes characterized by highly undersaturated phonolites (20-30% ne). The pantellerite volcanoes, with one exception, occur on the west flank, associated with less undersaturated phonolites (6-11% ne). These seem to represent two fairly distinct sub-provinces with perhaps slightly different plumbing systems. Isotopic and trace element data, maintenance of isotopic equilibrium throughout the basalt-felsic spectrum, and the results of major and trace element modeling, all exclude crustal contamination and point to fractional crystallization as the controlling process in the origins of the felsic rocks. The availability of basalts in several stages of evolution, plus a variety of mugearites, benmoreites, and trachytes, have allowed us to model the evolution of felsic rocks in several stages. The best results, together with trace element and petrographic data, and supported by experimental work, suggest that polybaric fractionation in a multi-tiered plumbing system provides the most reasonable explanation of field, petrographic and geochemical characteristics. A plumbing system that favors prolonged kaersutite fractionation at the base of the crust for comendites (east flank) vs. one that favors comparatively short residency and little kaersutite fractionation at the base of the crust for pantellerites (west flank), seems to provide the best explanation for the differences in SiO2 and FeOt, and the wide spatial separation of these two rhyolite species. The models suggest further that, as a final step, peralkalinity evolved by fractionating a high proportion of plagioclase/clinopyroxene in shallow crustal magma chambers under very low PH2O.

Lemasurier, W. E.; Choi, S.; Mukasa, S. B.; Rogers, N. W.

2009-12-01

367

The Pomici di Base plinian eruption of Somma-Vesuvius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pomici di Base eruption represents the first of a series of plinian eruptions which occurred at Somma-Vesuvius in the period 20,000 yr B.P.-79 A.D. These eruptions led to substantial demolition of the Mt. Somma stratovolcano and the formation of the 4.9×3.4 km E-W-elongated summit caldera. New 14C datings and previous radiometric data constrain the age of the Pomici di Base eruption to between 18,000 and 19,000 yr B.P. Deposits of the Pomici di Base eruption comprise from base to top: (1) plinian fallout with minor surge deposits and (2) a succession of volcanic landslide and lithic-rich fallout, surge and flow deposits. Ballistic block distribution and thickness of tephra deposits indicate that the vent was located in a 50° wide western sector within a distance of 1-2.5 km from the present Vesuvius crater, in a fairly eccentric position with respect to the ancestral Somma cone. The plinian fallout likely blanketed an eastwards elliptical area of 2600 km 2 within the 20-cm isopach. Reconstruction of isopachs yields an approximate volume calculation of 4.4 km 3. Comparison of maximum thickness of the fallout deposit with other plinian deposits of Somma-Vesuvius suggests that the PB eruption was the largest explosive event of the volcano. The mass discharge rate deduced from clast dispersal models is estimated in the range of 2-2.5×10 7 kg/s, corresponding to a column height of 16-17 km. Part of the plinian phase was characterized by pulsatory behaviour with repeated partial column collapses (surge emplacement) and concurrent oscillation of the height of the plume (stratified fallout). The plinian phase was followed by a limited slope failure of the Somma cone and by several explosive episodes with a prominent phreatomagmatic nature. We proposed that this activity occurred in connection with a phase of substantial demolition of the Somma edifice due to caldera collapse. The plinian fallout is dominated by strong compositional zoning from white trachytic pumice (SiO 2 63.0 wt.%) to black latitic scoriae (SiO 2 53.7 wt.%), coupled with a marked decrease of vesicularity of juvenile clasts from 70-80% to 45-55%. The compositional variation reflects strong pre-eruptive zoning of the magma chamber probably associated with volatile zonation.

Bertagnini, Antonella; Landi, Patrizia; Rosi, Mauro; Vigliargio, Annalisa

1998-08-01

368

Subduction-related High- to Ultrahigh-Potassic Rocks of the Ankara-Erzincan Suture Belt of Turkey: a geochemical and isotopic approach to source and petrogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Late Cretaceous Volcano-sedimantary Succession (LCVS) trends parallel to Neo-Tethyan Suture in North Central Anatolia. Volcanic members of the LCVS consist mainy of coeval leucite phonolite/tephrites, trachytes, lamprophyres and andesitic rocks. Obtained Ar-Ar ages reveal that the volcanic activity occurred between 73.6±0.18 and 76.78±0.19 Ma, contemporaneous with the subduction of the Neo-Tethyan ocean beneath the Pontides. The volcanic rocks of LCVS are classified as alkaline, High- to ultrahigh-K, and silica-saturated and silica-unsaturated, geochemically. Rare calc-alkaline andesitic lavas are also occur within the volcanic sucession. Except the calc-alkaline samples, magmatic members of LCVS have similar major and trace element concentrations similar to the plagioleucitites or ultrapotassic rocks of the active orogenic zones (i.e. the Roman Province ultrapotassic series, Peccerillo, 2005). The multi element patterns on N-MORB- and Chondrite-normalized spider diagrams are characterized by significant LILE and LREE enrichments relative to HFSE and HREE, and display apparent Nb and Ta depletions, implying the subduction-related magmas. 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.704493-0.706090) and 143Nd/144Nd(i) (0.512523-0.512680) isotope ratios are close to the mantle array, and are also in between the Aeolian Islands CA-Potassic rocks (Peccerillo, 2005), BSE and the circum-Mediterranean anorogenic Cenozoic igneous province (CiMACI, Lustrino&Wilson, 2007). Variable Mg# (33-60) evidences that these rocks are the products of evolved melts. The lead isotope values display a trend between EMI and DM, suggesting that the crustal involvement is more effective process during the generation of some lamprophyres relative to the other ultrapotassic rocks of LCVS. The results of clinopyroxene thermobarometry calculations reveal significant differences in depth of crystallization for the rock suites. Some trace element abundances and inter elemental ratios together with their co-variations show that the magmatic rock suites of LCVS had different crystallization history. REE melting modelings suggest a common mantle source, which contains variable amount of spinel lerzolite and garnet lerzolitic proportions. Considering the presence of some phlogopite-bearing clinopyroxenite xenolits in the lamprophyre and the leucite-bearing rocks, we propose that the LCVS ultrapotassic rocks were possibly derived from the low degree partial melting of veined SCLM. Keywords: High- to Ultrahigh-K, Isotope, Ar-Ar, Cretaceous, Turkey, Veined SCLM Lustrino, M., Wilson, M., 2007. ESR 81, 1-65. Peccerillo, A., 1995. Springer-Verlag. 365pp.

Genc, S. Can; Gulmez, Fatma; Karacik, Zekiye; Tuysuz, Okan; Prelevic, Dejan; Roden, Michael F.; Hames, Willis E.; Zeki Billor, M.

2014-05-01

369

Rheological and Thermodynamic Properties of Volatile-bearing Magmas from Pantelleria, Etna and Phlegrean Fields Magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rheological and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts control fluid-dynamics of transport, eruption style and rates of physico-chemical processes (degassing and crystallization) in natural magmas. In this study we investigated the effect of H2O and CO2 on the liquid viscosity and heat capacity on several multicomponent systems. Measurements were conducted on four series of melts, obtained by remelting and homogenization of natural pantelleritic (Khaggiar dome, Pantelleria), trachytic (Agnano Monte Spina eruption, Phlegrean Fields), latitic (Fondo Riccio eruption, Phlegrean Fields) and trachybasaltic (Etna 1992 eruption) magmas. CO2 or H2O synthesis experiments were conducted in piston cylinder apparatus. The volatile -bearing samples were measured with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a vertical dilatometer (micropenetration technique). Water and CO2 content were measured by Karl Fisher Titration and FTIR spectroscopy. Compositions were analyzed over a range of water contents up to 5.3 wt% and CO2 content up to 4000 ppm. Viscosity ranged from 108 to 1013 Pa s with decreasing temperature from 630 to 1100 K. Viscosity is strongly affected by H2O and CO2. The effect of CO2 on viscosity appears to be a function of speciation and chemical composition. The heat capacity of glasses and liquids and the glass transition interval were also investigated. Base chemical composition have a strong influences on Tg: high alkali contents can lower Tg of low NBO/T liquids. This behavior is demonstrated by Pantellerite samples. Glass transition temperatures are also strongly affected by H2O and CO2. The CO2 effect, such as water, is to decrease Tg and it appears to be a function of chemical composition. We present data for partial molar CpH2Omol and CpOH- and derive a simple expression to evaluate the relative contributions of different H-bearing species to the total heat capacity of hydrous melts. Experimental viscosity and calorimetric data were fitted according to the Adam and Gibbs theory in which configurational entropy (Sconf) is the main factor controlling the viscosity of melts. From calorimetric measurements, and assuming that the vibrational contribution to the liquid Cp remains constant above Tg, we determined the configurational contribution to Cpliq and thus calculated the variation of the Sconf as a function of T, H2O and CO2 content in the liquid state. Combining viscosity measurements with the configurational entropies for our liquids, we parameterized the variation of viscosity as a function of temperature and volatiles content within the framework of the Adam and Gibbs theory of structural relaxation.

Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Alletti, M.; Behrens, H.; Scaillet, B.

2011-12-01

370

Heterogeneous refertilization of the upper mantle beneath the Azorean volcanoes. Evidence from mantle xenoliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several mantle xenoliths from the island of Sao Miguel (Azores, Portugal) have been studied to investigate the nature of the mantle beneath the Azorean archipelago. Ultramafic xenoliths are porphyroclastic spinel harzburgite and subordinate clinopyroxene-poor lherzolite, range between 3 and 10 cm in size and show clear signs of plastic deformation. In harzburgites, olivine porphyroclasts have Fo89-91, while in neoblasts it ranges between 80 and 87. Mg# in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene spans between 85-91 and 84-92 respectively, while spinel is characterized by Cr# between 64 and 78. Two harzburgites show phlogopite. In lherzolite, olivine porphyroclasts show Fo89-91, orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes have Mg# 91-92 and 90-92 respectively, and spinel has Cr# 76-84. Abundant silica- and alkali-rich glass is present as intergranular micro-veins, and as primary melt inclusions in both porphyroclasts and neoblasts. Orthopyroxene porphyroclasts (1 - 6 mm) have exsolution-free rims, strong ondulatory extinction, and clinopyroxene exsolution at the core as well as abundant primary Silicate Melt Inclusions (SMIs). SMIs are quartz-hyperstene normative trachydacitic silicate glass (SiO2 = 62.3-67.9 wt%), containing CO2 bubbles. Trachydacitic glass is particularly rich in alkali, LILE (e.g., Rb, Ba, and Sr), LREE-enriched, and strongly depleted in HFSE, MREE and HREE, compatible with a melt containing a large component of deep eclogitic source (e.g. residual garnet and rutile). Olivine, clinopyroxene and rare orthopyroxene polygonal neoblasts (< 0.5 mm) also contain primary SMIs. However, these last SMIs are trachyte-phonolite, mostly nepheline normative and are REE- and HFSE-enriched, have low LREE/MREE ratios and selective LILE enrichment, consistent with small fractions of metasomatic melts generated from an upper mantle source. Some xenoliths contain melt inclusions of both kinds, but some record just one of the two metasomatic events that have refertilized the refractory mantle. We interpret the high local mantle fertility beneath the Azores to be derived by the recycling of buoyant oceanic crust material that refertilizes the refractory mantle by percolation of eclogite partial melts, such as those hosted in orthopyroxene porphyroclasts. Our data provide evidence for storage of mafic oceanic slab enclaves in a heterogeneous upper mantle in a region of ocean island basalt volcanism.

Cannatelli, C.; Frezzotti, M.; Zanon, V.; Petrelli, M.; Neumann, E.; Peccerillo, A.

2011-12-01

371

A new chronostratigraphical and evolutionary model for La Gomera: Implications for the overall evolution of the Canarian Archipelago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the general volcano-stratigraphy and geochronology of La Gomera, one of the lesser known Canary Islands, has led to the establishment of a new evolutionary model. The oldest edifice corresponds to the submarine stage built up between 20 and 15 Ma. The construction of the Submarine Edifice was followed by an important break in the activity (about 4 Ma) and deep erosion of the edifice. About 10.5 Ma ago, the main present-day edifice (the Old Edifice 10.5-6.4 Ma) emerged, which was also submarine in its initial phases. Two different main stages are distinguishable. The first stage was represented by a large, some 22 km wide basaltic shield volcano (the Lower Old Edifice). Several lateral collapse events (Tazo and San Marcos avalanches) occurred during this time and were responsible for the removal of an important part of its northern flank. In the second growth stage (the Upper Old Edifice), the activity migrated southwards. A 25-km wide composite volcano arose covering part of the remaining earlier shield volcano. The felsic (trachytic to phonolitic) activity occurring in two separate episodes formed a significant component of this composite volcano. Finally, one more recent large edifice (the Young Edifice) built up from 5.7 to 4 Ma. The lava flows of this younger edifice covered completely the centre and the south of the island and filled deep ravines in the north. More evolved magmas, including significant felsic magmas (the third and last felsic episode), occurred in this phase of activity. The growth of La Gomera was long-lasting, separated by an important gap in the activity in the Middle Miocene, with no Quaternary activity at all. At the same time on Tenerife (the nearest island east of La Gomera), three large edifices grew separately: Roque del Conde, Anaga and Teno (initially three separated islands). From the available data, it is inferred that the subaerial activity started earlier in the Roque del Conde Edifice, then on La Gomera and later in Teno in the NW and Anaga in NE of Tenerife, which is the youngest of all these edifices. These facts, together with the irregular general progress of the volcanic activity, support more complex views of the genesis for the Canary Islands than the simple hotspot model.

Ancochea, E.; Hernán, F.; Huertas, M. J.; Brändle, J. L.; Herrera, R.

2006-10-01

372

Seismic Tomography of Central Sao Miguel, Azores Islands (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Azores Archipelago consists of nine volcanic islands, located at about 38° N and 28°W, in the triple junction of the American, Eurasian and African plates. The largest island is Sao Miguel. It has rift zones mainly trending NW-SE and E-W; calderas, as Fogo and Furnas, at the intersection of these tectonic lineaments; and thermal springs and fumaroles distributed along these fault systems. Furnas, Sete Cidades and Fogo are the most active volcanic complexes: central volcanoes with a dominantly trachytic production. Furnas is the youngest and consists of a steep-sided caldera structure formed during several collapses. The most important thermal features lie on an E-W lineament which cuts the Furnas caldera complex. The Fogo volcanic edifice is built over an older submarine lava basement and composed by lava flows, domes and pyroclastic flows deposits, with the summit truncated by a caldera.Thermal manifestations are associated with a NW-SE fault system and consist mainly of fumarolic activity. São Miguel was selected as a site for a seismic experiment in a European Union-sponsored project with the aim of quantifying the seismicity of various quiescent volcanoes in inhabited areas.The 3D distribution of P- and S-wave velocities is derived for central São Miguel, by traveltime tomography. We use P- and S-wave arrival times of 289 local earthquakes by a network of 23 seismometers. The model has good resolution in the shallowest 5 km. There are several Vp anomalies, referred to a composite picture of geologic deposits, volcanic structures and tectonic features. Furnas caldera has a shallow, low Vp value probably marking volcaniclastic sediments. A negative Vp anomaly is associated with the geothermal field of Ribeira Grande. Another low Vp area is related to the highly fractured NW-SE tectonic lineament connecting two geothermal areas in central São Miguel. Conversely, high velocity zones mark a central seismogenetic zone at 4-5 km of depth and the Altiprado region. The Sao Bras high Vp is instead interpreted in terms of high-density deposits. These interpretations are supported by distribution of Vp/Vs in the area.

Almendros, J.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Saccorotti, G.; Barclay, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.

2005-12-01

373

Ascension Island, South Atlantic: Deep Plume or Shallow Melting Anomaly?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ascension Island (7° 56' S, 14° 22' W) is the sub-aerial manifestation of a broad region of anomalous volcanism on, and adjacent to, the South Atlantic MAR between the Ascension Fracture Zone (AFZ; approx. 7° S) and the Bode Verde Fracture Zone (BVFC; approx. 11.5° S). Zero age MORB from the MAR in this region have Pb isotope compositions more radiogenic than N-MORB and which plot significantly above (positive ? 8/4) the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL), and have LaN/SmN higher and Zr/Nb lower than N-MORB. The enriched character of the MORB volcanism has been suggested to be the product of a plume located near Circe Seamount, at approx. 9° S, 11.7° W, or of a plume located beneath two large on-axis seamounts at 9° 50' S on the MAR. The volcanic rocks of Ascension Island comprise a diverse basalt - hawaiite - mugearite - benmoreite - trachyte suite. There is significant chemical heterogeneity in the mafic lavas, with high Zr/Nb, intermediate Zr/Nb, low Zr/Nb, and Dark Slope Crater lava types reflecting significant source heterogeneity, as indicated by trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics. Data for samples from shallow boreholes and one deep borehole suggest that high Zr/Nb lavas dominate in the subsurface and that there has been a temporal trend toward eruption of increasingly enriched, and more diverse, lava compositions with growth of the volcanic edifice. Ascension Island volcanic rocks have Pb isotope compositions which plot significantly below (negative ? 8/4) the NHRL and trend toward St. Helena HIMU compositions. In addition to Ascension Island, there are numerous seamounts (Circe, Grattan, Stvor, etc.) both on and off the MAR axis between the AFZ and the BVFZ. The locations of the seamounts are closely associated with fracture zones and do not reflect the directions of absolute motion of the South American and African plates (for example, the two large seamounts to the west of Ascension Island are on a flow line parallel to the AFZ). The nature of the distribution of Ascension Island and seamounts between the AFZ and BVFZ does not conform to the classic deep plume model. The geochemistry of Ascension Island and MORB lavas is best explained as the result of melting of shallow chemically heterogeneous mantle, with bursts of excess magmatism when "pods" of enriched (HIMU-type component) mantle pass into the sub-axial MAR melting zone, and with focussing of magma supply being controlled by fracture zone distribution.

Weaver, B.

2004-12-01

374

Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van (eastern Anatolia) III: Periodic (Nemrut) vs. episodic (Süphan) explosive eruptions and climate forcing reflected in a tephra gap between ca. 14 ka and ca. 30 ka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen Lateglacial to Holocene rhyolitic, dominantly primary tephra layers piston-cored and drilled (ICDP Paleovan drilling project) in western Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) were precisely correlated to either of the two adjacent and active large volcanoes Nemrut and Süphan based on shard textures, mineralogy and mineral and glass compositions. The young peralkaline (comenditic to pantelleritic) primary rhyolitic Nemrut tephras are characterized by anorthoclase, hedenbergitic to augitic clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, minor quartz, and rare accessory chevkinite and zircon. Phenocrysts in subalkaline primary rhyolitic Süphan tephras are chiefly oligoclase-labradorite, with minor K-rich sanidine in some, biotite, amphibole, hypersthene, rare augitic clinopyroxene, relatively common allanite and rare zircon. Two contrasting explosive eruptive modes are distinguished from each other: episodic (Süphan) and periodic (Nemrut). The Lateglacial Süphan tephra swarm covers a short time interval of ca. 338 years between ca. 13,078 vy BP and 12,740 vy BP, eruptions having occurred statistically every ca. 42 years with especially short intervals between V-11 (reworked) and V-14. Causes for the strongly episodic Süphan explosive behavior might include seismic triggering of a volcano-magma system unable to erupt explosively without the benefit of external triggering, as reflected in pervasive faulting preceding the Süphan tephra swarm. Seismic triggering may have caused the rise of more mafic ("trachyandesitic") parent magma, heating near-surface pockets of highly evolved magma - that might have formed silicic domes during this stage of volcano evolution - resulting in ascent and finally explosive fragmentation of magma essentially by external factors, probably significantly enhanced by magma-water/ice interaction. Explosive eruptions of the Nemrut volcano system, interpreted to be underlain by a large fractionating magma reservoir, follow a more periodic mode of (a) long-term relatively constant supply of parent magma, (b) evolution by low pressure crystal fractionation resulting in sporadic relatively low-volume eruption of trachytic and minor rhyolitic magmas, (c) evolution of a large magma reservoir to the point of highly explosive large-volume peralkaline rhyolitic Plinian eruptions at temporal intervals of ca. 20-40 ky, some accompanied by ignimbrites and inferred caldera collapse. A striking tephra gap between ca. 14 ka and ca. 30 ka, i.e. during glacial climate conditions, is postulated to be due to climate-forcing via lithosphere unloading following deglaciation.

Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari

2014-09-01

375

The Early Jurassic Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex (southeastern Alaska): Geochemistry, petrogenesis and rare-metal mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Early Jurassic (ca. 177 Ma) Bokan Mountain granitic complex, located on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, cross-cuts Paleozoic igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane of the North American Cordillera and was emplaced during a rifting event. The complex is a circular body (~ 3 km in diameter) of peralkaline granitic composition that has a core of arfvedsonite granite surrounded by aegirine granite. All the rock-forming minerals typically record a two-stage growth history and aegirine and arfvedsonite were the last major phases to crystallize from the magma. The Bokan granites and related dikes have SiO2 from 72 to 78 wt.%, high iron (FeO (tot) ~ 3-4.5 wt.%) and alkali (8-10 wt.%) concentrations with high FeO(tot)/(FeO(tot) + MgO) ratios (typically > 0.95) and the molar Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O) ratio < 1. The granitic rocks are characterized by elevated contents of rare earth elements (REE), Th, U and high field strength elements (HFSE) and low contents of Ca, Sr, Ba and Eu, typical of peralkaline granites. The granites have high positive ?Nd values which are indicative of a mantle signature. The parent magma is inferred to be derived from an earlier metasomatized lithospheric mantle by low degrees of partial melting and generated the Bokan granitic melt through extensive fractional crystallization. The Bokan complex hosts significant rare-metal (REE, Y, U, Th, Nb) mineralization that is related to the late-stage crystallization history of the complex which involved the overlap of emplacement of felsic dikes, including pegmatite bodies, and generation of orthomagmatic fluids. The abundances of REE, HFSE, U and Th as well as Pb and Nd isotopic values of the pluton and dikes were modified by orthomagmatic hydrothermal fluids highly enriched in the strongly incompatible trace elements, which also escaped along zones of structural weakness to generate rare-metal mineralization. The latter was deposited in two stages: the first relates to the latest stage of magma emplacement and is associated with felsic dikes that intruded along the faults and shear deformations, whereas the second stage involved ingress of hydrothermal fluids that both remobilized and enriched the initial magmatic mineralization. Mineralization is mostly composed of “new” minerals. Fluorine complexing played a role during the transportation of REE and HFSE in hydrothermal fluids and oxygen isotopes in the granites and quartz veins negate the significant incursion of an external fluid and support a dominantly orthomagmatic hydrothermal system. Many other REE-HFSE deposits hosted by peralkaline felsic rocks (nepheline syenites, peralkaline granites and peralkaline trachytes) were formed by a similar two stage process.

Dostal, Jaroslav; Kontak, Daniel J.; Karl, Susan M.

2014-08-01

376

Seismic properties of magmatic processes at laboratory scale: Effects of crystallization and bubble nucleation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic tomography of potentially hazardous volcanoes is a prime tool to assess the dimensions of magmatic reservoirs and possible magmatic ascent. Magma rheology and volcanic eruptive style are to a first order controlled by processes occurring in the conduit or in the chamber, such as crystallization and bubble exsolution. Seismic velocities are strongly affected by these processes (Carrichi et al, 2009) but the only few constrained measurements don't allow yet to establish a link between seismic tomography and the textural state of the volcanic system. Elastic parameters of vapor-saturated, partially molten systems are thus providing fundamental information for the identification of such reservoirs under active and seemingly dormant volcanoes. We investigated a chemically simplified melt analogous to andesite and trachyte, in the system CaO-Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-CO2 (Picard et al, 2011), which undergoes plagioclase crystallization and bubble exsolution. Using a Paterson-type internally-heated gas pressure apparatus, we measured the ultrasonic velocities at a constant pressure of 250 MPa and at a frequency of 0.1 MHz. Samples have been first heated at 850 °C for 30 minutes. Subsequently, the temperature has been decreased to 650 °C at a rate of 0.5 or 0.1 °C/min and velocities were recorded every 45 minutes. In order to characterize the microstructure evolution, series of cold-seal experiments at identical pressure conditions but with rapid-quenching at each of the recorded temperatures have been undertaken. We will present new experimental results that clarify the dependence of the seismic velocities on the evolution of microstructures (bubble and crystal-size distribution) as well as the evolution of composition (melt and crystals). REFERENCES Caricchi, L., Burlini, L., and Ulmer, P. (2009) Propagation of P and S-waves in magmas with different crystal contents: insights into the crystallinity of magmatic reservoirs. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 178, 740-750. Picard D., Arbaret L., Pichavant M., Champallier R. and Launeau P. (2011). Rheology and microstructure of experimentally deformed plagioclase suspensions, Geology, 39, 747-750.

Tripoli, Barbara; Cordonnier, Benoit; Ulmer, Peter

2014-05-01

377

Age of Magmatism and Eurekan Deformation in North Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpine mountains of Northernmost Greenland are composed of Phanerozoic sediments and volcanic rocks that make up a broadly East-West striking orogenic belt. The major components include: 1) Cambrian-Devonian sediments deposited in the Franklinian Basin; 2) Ellesmerian (365-345 Ma) deformation of these sediments into a fold belt; 3) renewed extension and deposition of Carboniferous-Cretaceous sediments and Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic rocks of the Kap Washington Group; and 4) Eurekan deformation of sediments and volcanic rocks. We present results of 40Ar-39Ar, U-Pb and Rb-Sr dating of volcanic rocks of the Kap Washington Group. This volcanic succesion is part of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province, exceeds 5 km in thickness, and is composed of bimodal alkaline flows, agglomerates and ignimbrites including peralkaline compositions typical of continental rifts such as the East African Rift. Based on zircon U-Pb and amphibole 40Ar-39Ar ages most volcanics were emplaced at 71-68 Ma, but activity continued down to 61 Ma. A thermal resetting age of 49-47 Ma is also identified in 40Ar-39Ar whole-rock data for trachyte flows. Patch perthite feldspars and coeval resetting of Rb-Sr isotopes by hydrothermal fluids provide further support for thermal overprinting, interpreted as a result of Eurekan compressional tectonism. It is striking that North Greenland volcanism terminated at about the same time (c. 61 Ma) as magmatism in the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province began. We suggest that this was a corollary of a change from extensional to compressional tectonism in the High Arctic. In the period when Greenland moved together with Eurasia (>60 Ma), the separation from North America resulted in rift-related alkaline magmatism in the High Arctic. When Greenland subsequently moved as a separate plate (60-35 Ma), overlapping spreading on both sides pushed it northwards and volcanism in the High Arctic stopped due to compression. Evaluation of plate kinematic models shows that the relative northwards movement of Greenland culminated in the Eocene, coinciding with thermal resetting. We conclude that compression in North Greenland peaked at 49-47 Ma and coincided with the Eurekan Orogeny in a belt across the Canadian Arctic Islands and western Svalbard.

Tegner, Christian; Storey, Michael; Holm, Paul M.; Thorarinsson, Sigurjon; Knudsen, Mads F.

2014-05-01

378

The occurrence of a complete continental rift type of volcanic rocks suite along the Yerer-Tullu Wellel Volcano Tectonic Lineament, Central Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yerer-Tullu Wellel Volcano-tectonic Lineament (YTVL) is an E-W trending fault system or aborted rift that intercepts the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) at Debre Zeyt (Bishoftu)/Yerer, in the eastern periphery of Addis Ababa. The structure is in correspondence with the westward extension of the southern margin of the Gulf of Aden rift. The YTVL extends for more than 500 km with a very clear northern fault margin, between Addis Ababa and Ambo known as the “Ambo Fault”. The southern margin is indicated by an E-W trending segmented lineaments at the latitude of about N 8°30?, the Bedele-Metu being the most clear segment. In between these limits there are several evolved central volcanoes and cinder cones. The central volcanoes range in age from 12 to 7 Ma in the western most (Tullu Wellel) and gradually the upper limit get younger towards East to less than 1 Ma in the Wenchi and Debre Zeyt (Bishoftu) areas. These volcanic products cover the whole spectrum of a continental rift volcanic rocks suite: (1) in the eastern zone (Yerer-Bishoftu) the suite is silica over-saturated, ranging in composition from transitional basalt to peralkaline rhyolite, (2) moving westwards, between Wechacha and Wenchi, the rocks suite is silica saturated ranging in composition from alkali basalt to trachyte, (3) further West between Ijaji-Konchi and Nekemt the rocks suite is silica under-saturated ranging in composition from basanite to phonolite. Crossing the Dedessa lineament, the Tullu Wellel rocks appear to be silica saturated. Within a single suite fractional crystallization is the predominant evolutional process even in the silica over-saturated suite. The westwards progressive silica under-saturation and increase in alkalinity (except for the Tullu Wellel volcanic centers) is interpreted by the gradual deepening of an anomalous mantle where partial fusion took place. Therefore, as distance increases from the MER junction to the West, the amount of melt on the upper mantle was gradually reduced and became more alkaline but poorer in silica.

Abebe Adhana, Tsegaye

2014-11-01

379

Multiple Magmatic Events Over 40 Ma in the Fish Creek Mountains, North-central Great Basin, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fish Creek Mountains, located in north-central Nevada south of Battle Mountain, is a site of multiple igneous events ranging from ca. 35 Ma to 1 Ma, covering most of the igneous history of the Great Basin of the western United States. Such extended volcanic activity allows for documentation of mantle sources and petrogenetic processes over time. Beginning approximately 50 Ma, the Great Basin experienced a magmatic front that began migrating southwestward across southern Idaho, central Oregon and into northern Nevada and Utah. Intermediate, "arc-like" andesite and dacite dominated volcanic activity in northeastern Nevada between about 45 and 36 Ma. By 34 Ma, a northwest-trending belt of rhyolitic ash-flow calderas began to develop through central Nevada, the "ignimbrite flare-up". Volcanism then migrated westwards towards the Sierra Nevada. In north-central Nevada, the oldest lavas are ca. 35 Ma basaltic andesites through rhyolites that are exposed in the western Shoshone Range, the eastern Tobin Range, and the northern and eastern Fish Creek Mountains. Plagioclase-rich andesites, dacite intrusions, and volcanic breccias occur in a belt along the western side of the Fish Creek Mountains. The bulk of the Fish Creek Mountains is composed of the 24.7 Ma Fish Creek Mountains rhyolitic tuff that is largely confined to an undeformed caldera structure. The caldera and tuff are anomalously young compared to nearby felsic centers such as the Caetano caldera (33.8Ma) and Shoshone Range (39-35 Ma) and relative to the southwest to west magmatic migration. The basal tuff is unwelded, with abundant pumice and lithic (primarily volcanic) fragments but only rare crystals. Sanidine and smoky quartz phenocrysts become more abundant upsection and glassy fiamme (hydrated to devitrified) are common, but the abundance of lithic fragments diminishes. 16-15 Ma volcanic rocks of the Northern Nevada Rift are exposed in the Battle Mountain area, ranging in composition from subalkaine basalt to rhyolite and rare trachyte. These rocks are linked to the Columbia River flood basalt event. Along the northwestern margin of the Fish Creek Mountains and in the center of the caldera complex are exposed late Pliocene to Quaternary lava flows and cinder cones of the Buffalo Valley volcanic field. The Buffalo Valley volcanic rocks are alkalic basalts that are locally vesicular, with rare plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts as well as plagioclase megacrysts up to several centimeters in size. Trace element and isotopic characteristics are similar to those of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Lunar Craters volcanic field in central Nevada. Ongoing geochemical analyses will outline variations in mantle sources and post-melting processes in the multiple volcanic systems of north-central Nevada.

Cousens, B.; Henry, C. D.; Stevens, C.; Varve, S.

2011-12-01

380

The Mantle and Basalt-Crust Interaction Below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans approximately 3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-basalt and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in basalt-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and basalts in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor. Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most basalts are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of conebuilding. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative, on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF basalts show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor basalts higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other basalts peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the basaltic suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental basalts (Si-saturated vs. undersaturated) represented and, if so, what changes in the mantle or in the tectonic regime allowed their coexistence or caused the transition?

Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Schmidt, Marick E.

2010-01-01

381

Improving the sensitivity of an interferometric fiber optic sensor for acoustic detection in rockfalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being intrinsically EMI free and offering superior hostile environment operation, fiber optic sensor technology represents a valuable alternative to standard sensors technology in landslides monitoring. Here an improved design for a fiber optic sensor to be used for ultrasonic acoustic detection in rockfall monitoring is proposed. Basically, the original sensor consists of a fiber coil tightly wound on an aluminum flanged hollow mandrel that acts as the sensing arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer [1]. To further improve sensor sensitivity, the use of a special fiber, with polyimide coating and very large numerical aperture, has been proposed and tested. The polyimide coating, harder and thinner than standard coating, makes the fiber more sensitive to acoustic waves and increase the coupling efficiency between fiber and mandrel. At the same time, a fiber with very large numerical aperture allows for a much smaller bending radius and thus enables the design of a sensor with reduced size, or with the same external size but housing a longer fiber. Part of the research activity has been then focused toward the optimization of the shape and dimensions of the mandrel: to this aim, a large set of numerical simulations has been performed and they are here presented and discussed. The performance assessment gained with new sensors has been carried in a controlled scenario by using a block of trachyte in which the sensors have been screwed in internally threaded chemical anchors housed in holes drilled on one face of the block. Ultrasonic signals have been generated in a repeatable way by dropping a 5-mm-diameter steel ball along a steep slide. Experimental tests, carried out by firstly comparing the performance of a sensor made with special fiber with respect to the original one, have shown an increased sensitivity of almost 35 % in the detected acoustic energy. Further tests, carried out on a sensor with optimized dimensions and made with special fiber, have shown an increased sensitivity of an impressive 400% with respect to the sensor with special fiber, but original dimensions. These results further confirm the viability of fiber optic acoustic sensors for acoustic detection in rockfall monitoring. Moreover, it is shown how an optimized design can be allowed only by choosing the adequate fiber. References: [1] L. Schenato, L. Palmieri, G. Gruca, D. Iannuzzi, G. Marcato, A. Pasuto, A. Galtarossa, "Fiber optic sensors for precursory acoustic signals detection in rockfall events", J. Eur. Opt. Soc, Rapid Publ. 7, 2012.

Schenato, L.; Palmieri, L.; Autizi, E.; Galtarossa, A.; Pasuto, A.

2013-12-01

382

Magmatism and Eurekan deformation in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province: Age and geological constraints from North Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age, compositional and geological data show the High Arctic Large Igneous Province is unusual on two counts: first, magmatism was prolonged and include an initial tholeiitic phase (130-80 Ma) and a second alkaline phase (85-60 Ma); second, it was subsequently deformed during the Eurekan orogeny. New 40Ar-39Ar and U-Pb dating provides emplacement ages of 71-68 Ma for most of the Kap Washington alkaline volcanics of North Greenland, but with activity continuing down to 61 Ma. A thermal resetting age of 49-47 Ma is also identified in 40Ar-39Ar whole-rock data for trachyte flows. Patch perthite feldspars and coeval resetting of Rb-Sr isotopes by hydrothermal fluids provide further support for thermal overprinting, interpreted as a result of Eurekan compressional tectonism. The formation of the tholeiitic suite (130-80 Ma) appears to be associated with the opening of the Canada Basin and may have involved mantle plume action. Formation of the alkaline suite (85-60 Ma) is attributed to continental rifting in the Lincoln Sea area linked to seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea and the Baffin Bay. The alkaline and tholeiitic suites of the High Arctic may therefore be unrelated. It is striking that High Arctic volcanism terminates at about the same time (c. 60 Ma) as magmatism in the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province begins. We suggest this is a corollary of a change from extensional to compressional tectonism in the High Arctic. In the period when Greenland moved together with Eurasia (>60 Ma), the separation from North America resulted in rift-related alkaline magmatism in the High Arctic. When Greenland subsequently moved as a separate plate (60-35 Ma), overlapping spreading on both sides pushed it northwards and volcanism in the High Arctic stopped due to compression. Evaluation of plate kinematic models shows that the relative northwards movement of Greenland culminated in the Eocene, coinciding with thermal resetting. We conclude that compression in North Greenland peaked at 49-47 Ma and coincided with the Eurekan Orogeny in a belt across the Canadian Arctic Islands and western Svalbard.

Tegner, C.; Storey, M.; Holm, P. M.; Thorarinsson, S. B.; Zhao, X.; Tappe, S.; Heaman, L.; Knudsen, M. F.

2013-12-01

383

Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment-covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of "restingolites" indicates that crustal recycling is a relevant process in ocean islands, too, but does not herald the arrival of potentially explosive high-silica magma in the active plumbing system beneath El Hierro.

Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F. C.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Pedroza, K.

2012-03-01

384

Unusual evolution of silica-under- and -oversaturated alkaline rocks in the Cenozoic Ambohimirahavavy Complex (Madagascar): Mineralogical and geochemical evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The almost unknown Ambohimirahavavy ring complex in the Cenozoic alkaline province of northwestern Madagascar has recently attracted considerable interest because of the discovery of important rare-metal mineralization. The complex consists of arc-shaped bodies made up of silica-under- and -oversaturated syenites and extremely evolved peralkaline granitic dykes, as well as several mafic to felsic volcanic units, including basalt, phonolite and trachyte, all of which have an alkaline affinity. Uranium-lead zircon ages of 24.2 ± 0.6 Ma and 23.5 ± 6.8 Ma have been obtained for nepheline syenites and peralkaline granitic dykes, respectively, which, together with field data and ages of neighboring complexes, support emplacement controlled by regional lithospheric structures, rather than an evolving hot spot. Whole-rock major and trace-element and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the mafic suite suggest that the parental melt of this complex was generated by low degrees of melting of a metasomatized mantle source with residual amphibole. Fractional crystallization of this alkali basaltic melt likely produced the silica-undersaturated suite. We propose that the silica-oversaturated suite evolved from the undersaturated melt after contamination of the latter by crustal material. Further evolution to peralkaline compositions in both suites is attributed mainly to plagioclase and alkali feldspar segregation. Nepheline and feldspar compositions, as well as considerations of mineral equilibria among mafic silicates and Fe-Ti oxide minerals indicate crystallization temperatures of 1000 to 700 °C and an oxygen fugacity of 0.4 to 0.8 log units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer at 1 kbar for the silica-undersaturated melt, and temperatures of 860 to 570 °C and an oxygen fugacity of 1.5 to 3.8 log units below FMQ for the oversaturated syenitic melt. The undersaturated melt evolved towards a more peralkaline composition. Crystallization of arfvedsonite plus aegirine further reduced the melt the evolution of which ended with fluid exsolution. At late stages of crystallization, the oversaturated melt departed from the reducing trend of the undersaturated melt, evolving towards high oxygen fugacity. Very late exsolution of the fluid permitted concentration of the HFSE in the last stages of magmatic evolution with local production of low-temperature pegmatitic phases extremely enriched in these elements.

Estrade, Guillaume; Béziat, Didier; Salvi, Stefano; Tiepolo, Massimo; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Rakotovao, Soatsitohaina

2014-10-01

385

Reconciling the Shadow of a Subduction Signature with Rift Geochemistry and Tectonic Environment in Eastern Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basalt-trachyte volcanoes in the Marie Byrd Land (MBL) Cenozoic province lie along the Amundsen Sea coast on the north flank of the West Antarctic rift. In the province as a whole, the basalts are characterized by OIB-like geochemistry, restricted ranges of 87Sr/86Sr (0.70254 - 0.70368) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.51286 - 0.51368) and a wide range of 206Pb/204Pb (19.50 - 20.69). Basalts at three volcanoes in central and eastern MBL, of Miocene and Quaternary age, display a variety of geochemical anomalies compared with the above. These include low 143Nd/144Nd (0.51276 - 0.51281), very high Ba (e.g. 1398ppm) associated with low K and low Th, slightly depressed Nb and Ta, and elevated EM2 signatures. These are only erratically displayed, from one volcano to another, and even from one sample locality to another in the same volcano. In some cases, anomalous sample localities lie above or below sample localities with relatively 'normal' characteristics. Furthermore, the whole complement of anomalies is rarely displayed in a single sample. These characteristics suggest a subduction influence, but one that seems to have been filtered, or partly masked. Major episodes of subduction and granite plutonism in MBL took place in the late Devonian, Permian, and late Cretaceous. The last of these ended ~90 Ma, and was followed by continental break-up, rifting and lithospheric attenuation that produced the West Antarctic rift as we know it today. Thus, the enigmatic geochemical signatures in these three volcanoes may have been acquired 80-90 m.y. after subduction ended, and following the subsequent tectonic reorganization to a rift environment. We suspect that the sublithospheric source was heterogeneously and incompletely metasomatized by fluids that originated with slab dewatering during the subduction episodes. Interestingly, pelagic rocks, probably similar to those that were subducted, have geochemical characteristics that seem to be reflected in the geochemical anomalies of the basalts, and thus, could have been somehow involved in the metasomatizing process.

LeMasurier, W. E.; Choi, S.

2013-12-01

386

Regional Variation in the Timing of Cessation of Laramide Folding, Uplift, and Post Flat-Slab Ignimbrite Flare Ups in West Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tertiary volcanism in the Trans-Pecos region of West Texas is thought to be related to: 1) a major Farallon buoyant object-related slab flattening period resulting in early arc volcanic activity progressively shifting eastward to New Mexico and West Texas, 2) a subsequent slab-steepening/roll back or slab break away period resulting in renewed and extensive volcanism and ignimbrite flare ups across the region, and 3) final minor volcanism related to Basin and Range extension. Evidence for these tectonic induced volcanic periods can be observed in volcanic compositional variation and the timing and style of volcanism and deformation. This includes highly varied pre-folding mafic alkaline and calc-alkane volcanic and intrusive rocks from ~46Ma (Eocene) to ~32Ma (Oligocene). This is followed by broadly distributed, post-folding calc-alkaline volcanism with subsidiary alkaline mafic volcanism during subsequent regionally varying slab steepening or break away periods (38Ma to 28Ma). Later, smaller-scale, almost exclusively mafic volcanism is associated with Basin and Range extension that occurred between 25 to 2Ma (Barker, 1987). This study attempts to refine regional differences in the cessation of Laramide folding and episodic slab-asthenosphere influenced volcanism in West Texas by utilizing LA-ICP-MS U/Pb zircon geochronology. Ages have been measured for volcanic rock samples that occur both above and below the angular unconformity, including: the Eagle Mountain Lower Rhyolite, an unnamed tuff and trachyte unit from the Garren Group in the Indio Mountains, the Davis Mountains Huelster Fm. and Petan Basalts, the Chinati Mountains Morita Ranch Fm., the Tascotal Fm. From the Alamito Creek and Green Valley area, the Vieja Group from the Rio Grande River area, and the Big Bend National Park South Rim Fm. and Chisos Fm.. In addition, ages for detrital zircons have been obtained in silicilastics below the unconformity within Tertiary Black Peaks, Hannold Hill, and Canoe Formations to constrain the youngest zircon ages in each, as well as to constrain the range of igneous rock ages sampled from proximal fluvial source regions. Samples have been dated in an attempt to more precisely constrain the ages of the cessation of Laramide shortening and ignimbrite flare ups after flat-slab subduction across West Texas. Based on our preliminary results, we suggest cessation of shortening associated with Laramide-style deformation and uplift in the northern Trans-Pecos region ceased by ~38 Ma (Eocene) and persisted in the south e.g., in the Big Bend region until ~31 Ma (Oligocene). These differences may be explained by fundamental changes in the North American plate basal lithospheric structure from north to south in the region.

Davidson, M. E.; Casey, J.; Lapen, T. J.

2013-12-01

387

40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Neogene-Quaternary Harrat Al-Madinah intercontinental volcanic field, Saudi Arabia: Implications for duration and migration of volcanic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New 40Ar/39Ar ages, based on incremental heating techniques for groundmass separates of 25 samples, are presented for the Harrat Al-Madinah volcanic field, part of Harrat Rahat in the north western part of the Arabian plate. This area is an active volcanic field characterized by the occurrence of two historical eruptions approximately in 641 and 1256 AD. Field investigations of the main volcanic landforms indicate dominantly monogenetic strombolian eruptions, in addition to local more explosive eruptions. The lavas consist mainly of olivine basalt and hawaiite flows with minor evolved rocks of mugearite, benmoreite, and trachyte that occur mainly as domes, tuff cones and occasionally as lava flows. Previous K/Ar dating shows that the Harrat Al-Madinah lava flows and associated domes comprise seven units spanning an age range of ca. 1.7 Ma-Recent. The new 40Ar/39Ar age determinations confirm, to a great extent